Science.gov

Sample records for 3-6 times higher

  1. 43 CFR 3.6 - Time limit of permits granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Time limit of permits granted. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.6 Time limit of permits granted. No permit will be granted for a period of more than 3...

  2. 43 CFR 3.6 - Time limit of permits granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time limit of permits granted. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.6 Time limit of permits granted. No permit will be granted for a period of more than 3...

  3. 43 CFR 3.6 - Time limit of permits granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time limit of permits granted. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.6 Time limit of permits granted. No permit will be granted for a period of more than 3...

  4. 43 CFR 3.6 - Time limit of permits granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time limit of permits granted. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.6 Time limit of permits granted. No permit will be granted for a period of more than 3...

  5. 43 CFR 3.6 - Time limit of permits granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time limit of permits granted. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.6 Time limit of permits granted. No permit will be granted for a period of more than 3...

  6. Quiet time magnetospheric field depression at 2.3-3.6 earth radii.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.

    1973-01-01

    Flux gate magnetometer data from OGO 5 are presented that establish the existence of large field depressions under conditions of varying degree of disturbance at distances ranging from 2.3 to 3.6 earth radii at all local times. For this study, flux gate data obtained near perigee during the period of approximately one year from Jan. 21, 1969, to Feb. 23, 1970, were used.

  7. The Renaissance Culture and the Arts. Grades 3-6, The Time Traveler Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pofahl, Jane

    This resource guide encourages grade 3-6 students to explore the social structure, government, culture and art forms, scientific discoveries, and historic personalities of the European Renaissance. The work is organized into 10 topics: (1) The Renaissance; (2) Art; (3) Leonardo da Vinci; (4) The Medicis; (5) Michelangelo; (6) Printing; (7) Music;…

  8. Quiet-time magnetospheric field depression at 2.3 to 3.6 R sub E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.

    1972-01-01

    Fluxgate magnetometer data obtained by OGO-5 near perigee were used to establish the existence of large field depressions in the magnetosphere under conditions of varying degree of disturbance at distances ranging from 2.3 to 3.6 R sub E at all local times. The results also provide the average delta B at these distances when Dst, as being derived at present, is zero.

  9. Higher Education for Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Dana D.; Collins, Natalia D.

    2010-01-01

    Public higher education is currently experiencing a decline in financial support from state governments, an acceleration of enrollment growth, and a shift from a transformational to a transactional student relationship. Private institutions are also struggling with increasing operational costs, and decreases in revenue from endowments and…

  10. Part Time Study in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Colin

    This document, which is intended for adults considering enrolling in part-time study in higher education, examines the objectives and experiences of adults who have pursued part-time study in higher education in the United Kingdom. The following reasons why adults return to higher education are discussed: personal development; self-fulfillment;…

  11. Sleep Disorders 6 Times Higher Among Veterans

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159985.html Sleep Disorders 6 Times Higher Among Veterans Post-traumatic stress disorder increases ... 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sleep disorders are six times more likely among American military veterans than in ...

  12. Strategies for Hard Times in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desfosses, Louis R.

    1996-01-01

    Planning and management strategies used in the private sector have practical applications for higher education in a period of systemic and organizational stress. Promising strategies include organizational delayering; employee empowerment; boundless thinking, problem-solving teams; accelerated processes; quality management and improvement; and…

  13. Higher Education: A Time for Triage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-10-01

    Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again be as it was before. Further, many believe that tinkering around the margins is no longer an adequate response to the new demands. Fundamental change is deemed necessary to meet the challenge of this melange of pressures. A number of commentators have observed that political and corporate America have responded to their challenges by instituting a fundamental restructuring of those institutions. The medical community is also in the midst of a similar basic restructuring of the health care delivery system in this country. Now its education's turn. People are questioning the historically expressed mission of higher education. They make the claim that we cost too much, spend carelessly, teach poorly, plan myopically, and when questioned, act defensively. Educational administrators, from department chairs up, are confronted with the task of simultaneously reforming and cutting back. They have no choice. They must establish politically sophisticated priority settings and effect a hard-nosed reallocation of resources in a social environment where competing public needs have equivalent--or stronger--emotional pulls. Triage in a medical context involves confronting an emergency in which the demand for attention far outstrips available assistance by establishing a sequence of care in which one key individual orchestrates the application of harsh priorities which have been designed to maximize the number of survivors. In recent years, the decisions that have been made in some centers of higher education bear a striking similarity. The literature

  14. Higher Education: A Time for Triage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-10-01

    Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again be as it was before. Further, many believe that tinkering around the margins is no longer an adequate response to the new demands. Fundamental change is deemed necessary to meet the challenge of this melange of pressures. A number of commentators have observed that political and corporate America have responded to their challenges by instituting a fundamental restructuring of those institutions. The medical community is also in the midst of a similar basic restructuring of the health care delivery system in this country. Now its education's turn. People are questioning the historically expressed mission of higher education. They make the claim that we cost too much, spend carelessly, teach poorly, plan myopically, and when questioned, act defensively. Educational administrators, from department chairs up, are confronted with the task of simultaneously reforming and cutting back. They have no choice. They must establish politically sophisticated priority settings and effect a hard-nosed reallocation of resources in a social environment where competing public needs have equivalent--or stronger--emotional pulls. Triage in a medical context involves confronting an emergency in which the demand for attention far outstrips available assistance by establishing a sequence of care in which one key individual orchestrates the application of harsh priorities which have been designed to maximize the number of survivors. In recent years, the decisions that have been made in some centers of higher education bear a striking similarity. The literature

  15. Just in Time Research: Data Breaches in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grama, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This "Just in Time" research is in response to recent discussions on the EDUCAUSE Higher Education Information Security Council (HEISC) discussion list about data breaches in higher education. Using data from the Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, this research analyzes data breaches attributed to higher education. The results from this…

  16. Part-Time Higher Education: Employer Engagement under Threat?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    Employer support for employees who are studying part-time for higher education qualifications constitutes a form of indirect employer engagement with higher education institutions that has contributed strongly to the development of work-related skills and knowledge over the years. However, this form of employer engagement with higher education…

  17. Higher Education in Recessionary Times: A UK Colloquium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article talks about a meeting on "Higher Education in Recessionary Times" on March 24, 2010, which was hosted by the Society for Higher Education Research Policy Network. Although the meeting did take place in the context of an expected General Election, and on budget day, there was a general sense on the day that whoever won the Election (or…

  18. The Times Higher Education Ranking Product: Visualising Excellence through Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will examine the Times Higher Education's (THE) World University Rankings as a corporate media product. A number of empirical studies have critiqued the methodology of the THE, yet individuals, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and governments continue to use them for decision-making. This paper analyses the influence of…

  19. Adopting Consumer Time: Potential Issues for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Time and temporality have received little attention in the consumerism, marketing or, until recently, higher education literature. This paper attempts to compare the notions of timing implicit in education as "paideia" (transitional personal growth) with that implicit in consumerism and the marketing practices which foster it. This investigation…

  20. Coupled Nd-142, Nd-143 and Hf-176 Isotopic Data from 3.6-3.9 Ga Rocks: New Constraints on the Timing of Early Terrestrial Chemical Reservoirs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Vickie C.; Brandon, alan D.; Hiess, Joe; Nutman, Allen P.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly precise data from a range of isotopic decay schemes, including now extinct parent isotopes, from samples of the Earth, Mars, Moon and meteorites are rapidly revising our views of early planetary differentiation. Recognising Nd-142 isotopic variations in terrestrial rocks (which can only arise from events occurring during the lifetime of now extinct Sm-146 [t(sub 1/2)=103 myr]) has been an on-going quest starting with Harper and Jacobsen. The significance of Nd-142 variations is that they unequivocally reflect early silicate differentiation processes operating in the first 500 myr of Earth history, the key time period between accretion and the beginning of the rock record. The recent establishment of the existence of Nd-142 variations in ancient Earth materials has opened a new range of questions including, how widespread is the evidence of early differentiation, how do Nd-142 compositions vary with time, rock type and geographic setting, and, combined with other types of isotopic and geochemical data, what can Nd-142 isotopic variations reveal about the timing and mechanisms of early terrestrial differentiation? To explore these questions we are determining high precision Nd-142, Nd-143 and Hf-176 isotopic compositions from the oldest well preserved (3.63- 3.87 Ga), rock suites from the extensive early Archean terranes of southwest Greenland and western Australia.

  1. Does the Timing of Tracking Affect Higher Education Completion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Elk, Roel; van der Steeg, Marc; Webbink, Dinand

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the timing of tracking on completion of higher education by exploiting unique variation from the Dutch education system. At the age of 12 Dutch students can enrol in tracked schools or in comprehensive schools. The comprehensive schools postpone enrolment into tracked classes by one or two years. OLS- and…

  2. Naked singularities in higher dimensional Vaidya space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S. G.; Dadhich, Naresh

    2001-08-15

    We investigate the end state of the gravitational collapse of a null fluid in higher-dimensional space-times. Both naked singularities and black holes are shown to be developing as the final outcome of the collapse. The naked singularity spectrum in a collapsing Vaidya region (4D) gets covered with the increase in dimensions and hence higher dimensions favor a black hole in comparison to a naked singularity. The cosmic censorship conjecture will be fully respected for a space of infinite dimension.

  3. Programming real-time executives in higher order language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.

  4. Real-time operating systems at higher control

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Although virtually all development of real-time operating systems focuses on the lowest of the three traditional control levels, sheet economics demands higher level real-time OSs. Meeting this demand requires a major change in the mindset of the people who have been focusing on the lowest level of control. {open_quotes}These people are trying to deal with an elephant`s tail, but they don`t realize that there is an elephant attached to it.{close_quotes} For more than three decades, the historical real-time mindset, concepts and techniques have been driven by a particular pair of contexts. First is the application context, which can be characterized as {open_quotes}small, simple, centralized, static subsystems for low-level, sampled data, monitoring and first-order control.{close_quotes} Second is the hardware context, characterized by a scarcity of hardware resources due to size, weight, power and cost considerations. Both of these contexts are changing dramatically in ways that {open_quotes}have a significant impact on the concepts and techniques of real-time computing.{close_quotes} Hardware now offers much higher performance and the real-time domain is expanding upward in the application control hierarchy.

  5. A higher-order Robert-Asselin type time filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Trenchea, Catalin

    2014-02-01

    The Robert-Asselin (RA) time filter combined with leapfrog scheme is widely used in numerical models of weather and climate. It successfully suppresses the spurious computational mode associated with the leapfrog method, but it also weakly dampens the physical mode and degrades the numerical accuracy. The Robert-Asselin-Williams (RAW) time filter is a modification of the RA filter that reduces the undesired numerical damping of RA filter and increases the accuracy. We propose a higher-order Robert-Asselin (hoRA) type time filter which effectively suppresses the computational modes and achieves third-order accuracy with the same storage requirement as RAW filter. Like RA and RAW filters, the hoRA filter is non-intrusive, and so it would be easily implementable. The leapfrog scheme with hoRA filter is almost as accurate, stable and efficient as the intrusive third-order Adams-Bashforth (AB3) method.

  6. Late-time acceleration in higher dimensional cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Pahwa, Isha; Choudhury, Debajyoti; Seshadri, T.R. E-mail: debajyoti.choudhury@gmail.com

    2011-09-01

    We investigate late time acceleration of the universe in higher dimensional cosmology. The content in the universe is assumed to exert pressure which is different in the normal and extra dimensions. Cosmologically viable solutions are found to exist for simple forms of the equation of state. The parameters of the model are fixed by comparing the predictions with supernovae data. While observations stipulate that the matter exerts almost vanishing pressure in the normal dimensions, we assume that, in the extra dimensions, the equation of state is of the form P∝ρ{sup 1−γ}. For appropriate choice of parameters, a late time acceleration in the universe occurs with q{sub 0} and z{sub tr} being approximately -0.46 and 0.76 respectively.

  7. Improved Continuous-Time Higher Harmonic Control Using Hinfinity Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Frank H.

    The helicopter is a versatile aircraft that can take-off and land vertically, hover efficiently, and maneuver in confined space. This versatility is enabled by the main rotor, which also causes undesired harmonic vibration during operation. This unwanted vibration has a negative impact on the practicality of the helicopter and also increases its operational cost. Passive control techniques have been applied to helicopter vibration suppression, but these methods are generally heavy and are not robust to changes in operating conditions. Feedback control offers the advantages of robustness and potentially higher performance over passive control techniques, and amongst the various feedback schemes, Shaw's higher harmonic control algorithm has been shown to be an effective method for attenuating harmonic disturbance in helicopters. In this thesis, the higher harmonic disturbance algorithm is further developed to achieve improved performance. One goal in this thesis is to determine the importance of periodicity in the helicopter rotor dynamics for control synthesis. Based on the analysis of wind tunnel data and simulation results, we conclude the helicopter rotor can be modeled reasonably well as linear and time-invariant for control design purposes. Modeling the helicopter rotor as linear time-invariant allows us to apply linear control theory concepts to the higher harmonic control problem. Another goal in this thesis is to find the limits of performance in harmonic disturbance rejection. To achieve this goal, we first define the metrics to measure the performance of the controller in terms of response speed and robustness to changes in the plant dynamics. The performance metrics are incorporated into an Hinfinity control problem. For a given plant, the resulting Hinfinity controller achieves the maximum performance, thus allowing us to identify the performance limitation in harmonic disturbance rejection. However, the Hinfinity controllers are of high order, and may

  8. 5'-Azido-[3,6-3H2]-1-napthylphthalamic acid, a photoactivatable probe for naphthylphthalamic acid receptor proteins from higher plants: identification of a 23-kDa protein from maize coleoptile plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Zettl, R; Feldwisch, J; Boland, W; Schell, J; Palme, K

    1992-01-01

    1-Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) is a specific inhibitor of polar auxin transport that blocks carrier-mediated auxin efflux from plant cells. To allow identification of the NPA receptor thought to be part of the auxin efflux carrier, we have synthesized a tritiated, photolabile NPA analogue, 5'-azido-[3,6-3H2]NPA ([3H2]N3NPA). This analogue was used to identify NPA-binding proteins in fractions highly enriched for plasma membrane vesicles isolated from maize coleoptiles (Zea mays L.). Competition studies showed that binding of [3H2]N3NPA to maize plasma membrane vesicles was blocked by nonradioactive NPA but not by benzoic acid. After incubation of plasma membrane vesicles with [3H2]N3NPA and exposure to UV light, we observed specific photoaffinity labeling of a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 23 kDa. Pretreatment of the plasma membrane vesicles with indole-3-acetic acid or with the auxin-transport inhibitors NPA and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid strongly reduced specific labeling of this protein. This 23-kDa protein was also labeled by addition of 5-azido-[7-3H]indole-3-acetic acid to plasma membranes prior to exposure to UV light. The 23-kDa protein was solubilized from plasma membranes by 1% Triton X-100. The possibility that this 23-kDa polypeptide is part of the auxin efflux carrier system is discussed. Images PMID:11607252

  9. Polymer quantization, stability and higher-order time derivative terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumsille, Patricio; Reyes, Carlos M.; Ossandon, Sebastian; Reyes, Camilo

    2016-03-01

    The possibility that fundamental discreteness implicit in a quantum gravity theory may act as a natural regulator for ultraviolet singularities arising in quantum field theory has been intensively studied. Here, along the same expectations, we investigate whether a nonstandard representation called polymer representation can smooth away the large amount of negative energy that afflicts the Hamiltonians of higher-order time derivative theories, rendering the theory unstable when interactions come into play. We focus on the fourth-order Pais-Uhlenbeck model which can be reexpressed as the sum of two decoupled harmonic oscillators one producing positive energy and the other negative energy. As expected, the Schrödinger quantization of such model leads to the stability problem or to negative norm states called ghosts. Within the framework of polymer quantization we show the existence of new regions where the Hamiltonian can be defined well bounded from below.

  10. Pulse transmission transmitter including a higher order time derivate filter

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-23

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission transmitter includes: a clock; a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to the clock, the pseudorandom polynomial generator having a polynomial load input; an exclusive-OR gate coupled to the pseudorandom polynomial generator, the exclusive-OR gate having a serial data input; a programmable delay circuit coupled to both the clock and the exclusive-OR gate; a pulse generator coupled to the programmable delay circuit; and a higher order time derivative filter coupled to the pulse generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  11. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence—however measured—also varied throughout the Phanerozoic

  12. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence-however measured-also varied throughout the Phanerozoic, reflecting

  13. 5 prime -Azido-(3,6- sup 3 H sub 2 )-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, a photoactivatable probe for naphthylphthalamic acid receptor proteins from higher plants: Identification of a 23-kDa protein from maize coleoptile plasma membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Zettl, R.; Feldwisch, J.; Schell, J.; Palme, K. ); Boland, W. )

    1992-01-15

    1-Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) is a specific inhibitor of polar auxin transport that blocks carrier mediated auxin efflux from plant cells. To allow identification of the NPA receptor thought to be part of the auxin efflux carrier, the authors have synthesized a tritiated, photolabile NPA analogue, 5{prime}-azido-(3,6-{sup 3}H{sub 2})NPA (({sup 3}H{sub 2})N{sub 3}NPA). This analogue was used to identify NPA-binding proteins in fractions highly enriched for plasma membrane vesicles isolated from maize coleoptiles (Zea mays L.). Competition studies showed that binding of ({sup 3}H{sub 2})N{sub 3}NPA to maize plasma membrane vesicles was blocked by nonradioactive NPA but not by benzoic acid. After incubation of plasma membrane vesicles with ({sup 3}H{sub 2})N{sub 3}NPA and exposure to UV light, they observed specific photoaffinity labeling of a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 23 kDa. Pretreatment of the plasma membrane vesicles with indole-3-acetic acid or with the auxin-transport inhibitors NPA and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid strongly reduced specific labeling of this protein. This 23-kDa protein was also labeled by addition of 5-azido-(7-{sup 3}H)indole-3-acetic acid to plasma membranes prior to exposure to UV light. The 23-kDa protein was solubilized from plasma membranes by 1% Triton X-100. The possibility that this 23-kDa polypeptide is part of the auxin efflux carrier system is discussed.

  14. Time-resolved spectral imaging: better photon economy, higher accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fereidouni, Farzad; Reitsma, Keimpe; Blab, Gerhard A.; Gerritsen, Hans C.

    2015-03-01

    Lifetime and spectral imaging are complementary techniques that offer a non-invasive solution for monitoring metabolic processes, identifying biochemical compounds, and characterizing their interactions in biological tissues, among other tasks. Newly developed instruments that perform time-resolved spectral imaging can provide even more information and reach higher sensitivity than either modality alone. Here we report a multispectral lifetime imaging system based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), capable of operating at high photon count rates (12 MHz) per spectral detection channel, and with time resolution of 200 ps. We performed error analyses to investigate the effect of gate width and spectral-channel width on the accuracy of estimated lifetimes and spectral widths. Temporal and spectral phasors were used for analysis of recorded data, and we demonstrated blind un-mixing of the fluorescent components using information from both modalities. Fractional intensities, spectra, and decay curves of components were extracted without need for prior information. We further tested this approach with fluorescently doubly-labeled DNA, and demonstrated its suitability for accurately estimating FRET efficiency in the presence of either non-interacting or interacting donor molecules.

  15. Advancing Knowledge in Higher Education: Universities in Turbulent Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last three decades, higher education institutions have experienced massive changes. In particular, institutions of higher education have been positioned as a means to contribute to the knowledge economy and gain a level of competitive advantage in the global marketplace. "Advancing Knowledge in Higher Education: Universities in…

  16. Freedom and Control in Higher Education. Research and Development in Higher Education, Volume 3. Papers presented at the Annual Conference of the Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia (6th, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, May 3-6, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Allen H., Ed.

    Proceedings of a 1980 conference on freedom and control in Australian higher education are presented in seven parts: (1) government "control" of higher education; (2) freedom to learn; (3) accreditation, certification and the control of learning; (4) institutional constraints on freedom; (5) professional development of academic staff; (6)…

  17. California's "Gold Standard" for Higher Education Falls Upon Hard Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Josh

    2009-01-01

    Few documents in higher education have enjoyed the influence or longevity of the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the 1960 law that transformed the state's public colleges and served as a blueprint for public systems across the country. Even today, almost 50 years after it was written, the master plan retains a mythic status in…

  18. Time Management and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyril, A. Vences

    2015-01-01

    The only thing, which can't be changed by man, is time. One cannot get back time lost or gone Nothing can be substituted for time. Time management is actually self management. The skills that people need to manage others are the same skills that are required to manage themselves. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relation between…

  19. Part-Time Students and Their Experience of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourner, Tom; And Others

    A questionnaire survey sought to determine the characteristics of part-time university students in Great Britain, the reasons why they choose part-time study, the difficulties they encounter, the extent and incidence of non-completion, and to identify examples of "good practice" in the provision and management of part-time degree courses.…

  20. Restyling the Humanities Curriculum of Higher Education for Posthuman Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqui, Jamila R.

    2016-01-01

    The future viability of the humanities in higher education has been broadly debated. Yet, most of these debates are missing an important consideration. The humanities' object of study is the human, an object that some would argue has been replaced in our onto-epistemological systems by the posthuman. In her 2013 book, "The Posthuman,"…

  1. Higher Education in Times of Financial Distress: The Minnesota Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severns, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Like many states, Minnesota has incurred large budget deficits during the past two years. Those deficits have, in turn, led to changes in a number of areas of state government, particularly higher education. Faculty have incurred pay freezes and layoffs, programs have closed, and tuition increased. Campuses within the MnSCU system have been…

  2. Rebooting Irish Higher Education: Policy Challenges for Challenging Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The 2008 global financial crisis cast a long shadow over Ireland's higher education and research system. The IMF said Ireland experienced an "unprecedented economic correction", while Ireland's National Economic and Social Development Office said Ireland was beset by five different crises: a banking crisis, a fiscal crisis, an…

  3. Time for Action to Bolster Future of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellings, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Higher education in America had its origins in New England more than 350 years ago. Since then, America's colleges and universities have been the incubators of great ideas, birthplaces of great inventions, and testing grounds of great individuals. For generations of New Englanders, a college education has provided the opportunity to fully embrace…

  4. Time Management in Higher Education Administration: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrell R.; Dahl, Tor

    How do departmental chairpersons and deans in a major university setting manage their time? What are the major administrative activities and functions associated with such responsibilities? What relationships do these have with an ability to delegate, to control one's time for planning and self-initiated activities, or personal sense of…

  5. 45 CFR 3.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.6 Nondiscrimination. A person may not discriminate...

  6. 45 CFR 3.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.6 Nondiscrimination. A person may not discriminate...

  7. 45 CFR 3.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.6 Nondiscrimination. A person may not discriminate...

  8. 45 CFR 3.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.6 Nondiscrimination. A person may not discriminate...

  9. 45 CFR 3.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.6 Nondiscrimination. A person may not discriminate...

  10. Time Management in Higher Education Administration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrell R.; Dahl, Tor

    1976-01-01

    Drawing on data from a staff development project for administrators in a college at a major American university, it was determined that there is considerable commonality across individuals and that it is possible to deal with such issues as time management, job stress, and enjoyment on an organizational level. (Editor/JT)

  11. Numerical Relativity in Higher-Dimensional Space-Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witek, Helvi

    2013-09-01

    Black holes are among the most exciting phenomena predicted by General Relativity and play a key role in fundamental physics. Many interesting phenomena involve dynamical black hole configurations in the high curvature regime of gravity. In these lecture notes I will summarize the main numerical relativity techniques to explore highly dynamical phenomena, such as black hole collisions, in generic D-dimensional space-times. The present notes are based on my lectures given at the NR/HEP2 spring school at IST/Lisbon (Portugal) from March 11-14, 2013.

  12. GRB hosts through cosmic time. VLT/X-Shooter emission-line spectroscopy of 96 γ-ray-burst-selected galaxies at 0.1 3.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krühler, T.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Hartoog, O. E.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Perley, D. A.; Rossi, A.; Schady, P.; Schulze, S.; Tanvir, N. R.; Vergani, S. D.; Wiersema, K.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Bolmer, J.; Cano, Z.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Filgas, R.; Friis, M.; Graham, J. F.; Greiner, J.; Goldoni, P.; Gomboc, A.; Hammer, F.; Japelj, J.; Kann, D. A.; Kaper, L.; Klose, S.; Levan, A. J.; Leloudas, G.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Palazzi, E.; Pian, E.; Piranomonte, S.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Savaglio, S.; Selsing, J.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Watson, D. J.; Xu, D.

    2015-09-01

    We present data and initial results from VLT/X-Shooter emission-line spectroscopy of 96 galaxies selected by long γ-ray bursts (GRBs) at 0.1 3.6, the largest sample of GRB host spectra available to date. Most of our GRBs were detected by Swift and 76% are at 0.5 higher ratio of [O iii]/[O ii] at higher redshifts leads to an increasing distance of GRB-selected galaxies to the locus of local galaxies in the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram. There is weak evidence for a redshift evolution in AV and σ, with the highest values seen at z ~ 1.5 (AV) or z ~ 2 (σ). Oxygen abundances of the galaxies are distributed between 12 + log (O/H) = 7.9 and 12 + log (O/H) = 9.0 with a median 12 + log (O/H)med ~ 8.5. The fraction of GRB-selected galaxies with super-solar metallicities is ~20% at z< 1 in the adopted metallicity scale. This is significantly less than the fraction of total star formation in similar galaxies, illustrating that GRBs are scarce in high metallicity environments. At z ~ 3, sensitivity limits us to probing only the most luminous GRB hosts for which we derive metallicities of Z ≲ 0.5 Z⊙. Together with a high incidence of Z ~ 0.5 Z⊙ galaxies at z ~ 1.5, this indicates that a metallicity dependence at low redshift will not be dominant at z ~ 3. Significant correlations exist between the hosts' physical properties. Oxygen abundance, for example, relates to AV (12 + log (O/H) ∝ 0.17·AV), line width (12 + log (O/H) ∝ σ0.6), and SFR (12 + log (O/H) ∝ SFR0.2). In the

  13. Near-barrier neutron transfer in reactions 3,6He + 45Sc and 3,6He + 197Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarin, V. V.; Naumenko, M. A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu E.; Skobelev, N. K.; Kroha, V.; Mrazek, J.

    2016-06-01

    Experimental cross sections for formation of 196,198Au isotopes in reactions 3,6He + 197Au and cross sections for formation of 44,46Sc isotopes in reactions 3,6He + 45Sc have been analyzed. To calculate neutron transfer probabilities and cross sections the time- dependent Schrödinger equation for external neutrons of 3He, 6He, 45Sc and 197Au nuclei has been solved numerically. It is shown that the contribution of fusion and subsequent evaporation is significant in the case of reactions 3,6He + 45Sc, whereas in the case of reactions 3,6He + 197Au, it is negligible. Fusion-evaporation was taken into account using NRV evaporation code. Results of calculations demonstrate overall satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  14. Part-Time Higher Education in English Colleges: Adult Identities in Diminishing Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esmond, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Adult participation in higher education has frequently entailed mature students studying part time in lower-ranked institutions. In England, higher education policies have increasingly emphasised higher education provision in vocational further education colleges, settings which have extensive adult traditions but which mainly teach…

  15. State Spending on Higher Education: Testing the Balance Wheel over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Jennifer A.; Doyle, William R.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the role of higher education in state budgets. It empirically models and tests the balance wheel hypothesis in a robust framework. The balance wheel model posits that in good economic times, higher education is an attractive area for states to fund and tends to be funded at a higher rate than other state budget categories.…

  16. Time Work by Overworked Professionals: Strategies in Response to the Stress of Higher Status.

    PubMed

    Moen, Phyllis; Lam, Jack; Ammons, Samantha; Kelly, Erin L

    2013-05-01

    How are professionals responding to the time strains brought on by the stress of their higher status jobs? Qualitative data from professionals reveal (a) general acceptance of the emerging temporal organization of professional work, including rising time demands and blurred boundaries around work/ nonwork times and places, and (b) time work as strategic responses to work intensification, overloads, and boundarylessness. We detected four time-work strategies: prioritizing time, scaling back obligations, blocking out time, and time shifting of obligations. These strategies are often more work-friendly than family-friendly, but "blocking out time" and "time shifting" suggest promising avenues for work-time policy and practice. PMID:24039337

  17. Changing Times of Feminism and Higher Education: From Community to Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Dorothy; Richter, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the creation of space and time for feminist approaches in higher education in the context of shifting community and employment relations and the restructuring of higher education space-time. It draws on the reflections of three feminist academics concerning aspects of their work biographies in two very different higher…

  18. The Benefits of Part-Time Undergraduate Study and UK Higher Education Policy: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennion, Alice; Scesa, Anna; Williams, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Part-time study in the UK is significant: nearly 40 per cent of higher education students study part-time. This article reports on a literature review that sought to understand the economic and social benefits of part-time study in the UK. It concludes that there are substantial and wide-ranging benefits from studying part-time. The article also…

  19. Time as the Fourth Dimension in the Globalization of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This paper calls for an analysis of time to be integrated into the theories on the globalization of higher education. Specifically, the author argues that academic capitalism, fuelled by globalization, has led to changes in the university visible in time/space compression, time acceleration, the reification of time and our internalization of the…

  20. The Legal Rights of Tenured and Part-Time Faculty Members in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Sherie P.

    A review of faculty-related court decisions in the areas of status, compensation, and unit determination points out legal rights of part-time and full-time faculty in higher education. These rights have been tested and defined by many court cases. Litigation has occurred about the difference between part-time and full-time faculty. In regard to…

  1. 9 CFR 3.6 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.6 Primary enclosures. Primary enclosures for dogs and... they: (i) Have no sharp points or edges that could injure the dogs and cats; (ii) Protect the dogs...

  2. 9 CFR 3.6 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.6 Primary enclosures. Primary enclosures for dogs and... they: (i) Have no sharp points or edges that could injure the dogs and cats; (ii) Protect the dogs...

  3. 9 CFR 3.6 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.6 Primary enclosures. Primary enclosures for dogs and... they: (i) Have no sharp points or edges that could injure the dogs and cats; (ii) Protect the dogs...

  4. 9 CFR 3.6 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.6 Primary enclosures. Primary enclosures for dogs and... they: (i) Have no sharp points or edges that could injure the dogs and cats; (ii) Protect the dogs...

  5. 9 CFR 3.6 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.6 Primary enclosures. Primary enclosures for dogs and... they: (i) Have no sharp points or edges that could injure the dogs and cats; (ii) Protect the dogs...

  6. Pulse transmission receiver with higher-order time derivative pulse correlator

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-16

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission receiver includes: a higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a demodulation decoder coupled to the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a clock coupled to the demodulation decoder; and a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to both the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator and the clock. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  7. EQ3/6: status and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wolery, T.J.; Isherwood, D.J.; Jackson, K.J.; Delany, J.M.; Puigdomenech, I.

    1984-12-01

    EQ3/6 is a set of related computer codes and data files for use in geochemical modeling of aqueous systems. The EQ3/6 package centers around two large computer codes, EQ3NR and EQ6, which are supported by a common thermodynamic data base. EQ3NR is a speciation-solubility code, whose function is to compute a model of the state of an aqueous solution. This code is very flexible in terms of the input that it will accept. EQ6 is a reaction-path code, which calculates models of changes in aqueous systems as they proceed toward a state of overall chemical equilibrium. EQ3/6 prior to FY83 had no capability for modeling brines, because the approximations for calculating the thermodynamic activity of water and the activity coefficients of the solute species were restricted to low ionic strengths ({le} 1.0 molal). An option has been added to use Pitzer`s equations for such calculations. At present, EQ3/6 contains two alternate Pitzer coefficient data bases. Several improvements have been made to the EQ6 code. Prior to FY83, the code could run models of mineral dissolution kinetics, but could not calculate models of precipitation kinetics. This problem has been overcome by additional code development. The speed of non-kinetic EQ6 calculations has recently been enhanced by the creation of two new calculational modes, economy mode and super economy mode. A calculational mode to simulate systems open to large gas reservoirs has also been developed. 34 references.

  8. Higher Education Students in Part-Time Work in a Chinese City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses students taking part-time work whilst studying higher education (HE). It suggests that cross-national trends can be observed in the purposes, types, benefits, negative aspects and outcomes of part-time work by HE students. The paper reviews literature on HE students working part-time in the UK and the US, and UNESCO studies…

  9. Creating Space for Learning: Conceptualizing Women and Higher Education through Space and Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Dot

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights the strengths of giving visibility to the concepts of space and time in research related to women's lives and higher education. It is based on research that explores the everyday practice and experience of women higher education students at a community college in the north of England. It focuses on the ways in which space and…

  10. "The Balancing Act"--Irish Part-Time Undergraduate Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darmody, Merike; Fleming, Bairbre

    2009-01-01

    While the numbers of part-time students has increased in higher education in Ireland, little is known about these students or about how they balance their study and other commitments. Drawing on a larger study on Irish students' experiences in higher education, this article attempts to address this gap in research and reports on Irish part-time…

  11. Time Evolution and Asymmetries of OMEGA Direct-Drive D^3He Capsule Implosions Inferred from 3.0- and 14.7-MeV Protons and 3.6-MeV Alphas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Rygg, J. R.; Stoeckl, C.; Radha, P. B.; Delettrez, J. A.; Glebov, V. N.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Soures, J. M.

    2002-11-01

    Fusion of D and ^3He in direct-drive, spherical-capsule implosions results in the copious production of several charged fusion products that lose energy as they pass out through the hot fuel plasma and the cool (<=1 keV) shell plasma. Energy losses reflect the areal density (ρ L) of the plasma transited at the instant of burn. In experiments on OMEGA, up to 11 spectrometers were used to simultaneously measure spectra of D^3He protons from different directions for information about the symmetry and time evolution of ρL. There are often significant differences in the individual spectra from one implosion, both in mean energy loss and in maximum energy loss, which largely reflect nonuniformities in the shell. D^3He protons are also produced at first shock coalescence when the capsule is far less compressed, and they escape with energy losses indicating lower areal densities at that time. We examine whether asymmetries are detectable at first shock coalesence, and whether they are then amplified by bang time. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion (Grant number DE-FG03-99DP00300 and Cooperative Agreement number DE-FC03-92SF19460), LLE (subcontract P0410025G), LLNL (subcontract B313975). (Petrasso: Visiting Senior Scientist at LLE.)

  12. The Supply of Part-Time Higher Education in the UK. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire; Birkbeck, Anne Jamieson; Mason, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the supply of part-time higher education in the UK, with particular consideration to the study of part-time undergraduate provision in England. It is the final publication in the series of reports on individual student markets that were commissioned by Universities UK following the publication of the reports on the Future size…

  13. Part-time Faculty Job Satisfaction in Higher Education: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Scott L.; Hoyt, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to inform researchers of those predictive factors of job satisfaction previously identified for part-time faculty in higher education. They used the information gathered to help develop a survey instrument that was administered to 700 part-time faculty at their own institution. The results of the study,…

  14. Preparation and Support for Part-Time Teachers in Higher Education: Case Studies of Departmental Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Fred, Comp.; Thompson, Sheila, Comp.

    This publication presents 14 departmental case studies of the preparation and support provided to part-time teachers in Scottish institutions of higher education. The case studies are grouped in four sections according to the category of part-time staff involved: practicing professionals (professional teaching assistants, lawyers, artists, and…

  15. Time Work by Overworked Professionals: Strategies in Response to the Stress of Higher Status

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Lam, Jack; Ammons, Samantha; Kelly, Erin L.

    2013-01-01

    How are professionals responding to the time strains brought on by the stress of their higher status jobs? Qualitative data from professionals reveal (a) general acceptance of the emerging temporal organization of professional work, including rising time demands and blurred boundaries around work/ nonwork times and places, and (b) time work as strategic responses to work intensification, overloads, and boundarylessness. We detected four time-work strategies: prioritizing time, scaling back obligations, blocking out time, and time shifting of obligations. These strategies are often more work-friendly than family-friendly, but “blocking out time” and “time shifting” suggest promising avenues for work-time policy and practice. PMID:24039337

  16. Predicting Hyper-Chaotic Time Series Using Adaptive Higher-Order Nonlinear Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia-Shu; Xiao, Xian-Ci

    2001-03-01

    A newly proposed method, i.e. the adaptive higher-order nonlinear finite impulse response (HONFIR) filter based on higher-order sparse Volterra series expansions, is introduced to predict hyper-chaotic time series. The effectiveness of using the adaptive HONFIR filter for making one-step and multi-step predictions is tested based on very few data points by computer-generated hyper-chaotic time series including the Mackey-Glass equation and four-dimensional nonlinear dynamical system. A comparison is made with some neural networks for predicting the Mackey-Glass hyper-chaotic time series. Numerical simulation results show that the adaptive HONFIR filter proposed here is a very powerful tool for making prediction of hyper-chaotic time series.

  17. Finite time control for MIMO nonlinear system based on higher-order sliding mode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangjie; Han, Yaozhen

    2014-11-01

    Considering a class of MIMO uncertain nonlinear system, a novel finite time stable control algorithm is proposed based on higher-order sliding mode concept. The higher-order sliding mode control problem of MIMO nonlinear system is firstly transformed into finite time stability problem of multivariable system. Then continuous control law, which can guarantee finite time stabilization of nominal integral chain system, is employed. The second-order sliding mode is used to overcome the system uncertainties. High frequency chattering phenomenon of sliding mode is greatly weakened, and the arbitrarily fast convergence is reached. The finite time stability is proved based on the quadratic form Lyapunov function. Examples concerning the triple integral chain system with uncertainty and the hovercraft trajectory tracking are simulated respectively to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25277626

  18. An efficient higher-order PML in WLP-FDTD method for time reversed wave simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiao-Kun; Shao, Wei; Ou, Haiyan; Wang, Bing-Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Derived from a stretched coordinate formulation, a higher-order complex frequency shifted (CFS) perfectly matched layer (PML) is proposed for the unconditionally stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method based on weighted Laguerre polynomials (WLPs). The higher-order PML is implemented with an auxiliary differential equation (ADE) approach. In order to further improve absorbing performance, the parameter values of stretching functions in the higher-order PML are optimized by the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). The optimal solutions can be chosen from the Pareto front for trading-off between two independent objectives. It is shown in a numerical test that the higher-order PML is efficient in terms of attenuating propagating waves and reducing late time reflections. Moreover, the higher-order PML can be placed very close to the wall when analyzing the channel characteristics of time reversal (TR) waves in a multipath indoor environment. Numerical examples of TR wave propagation demonstrate the availability of the proposed method.

  19. Higher-Order, Space-Time Adaptive Finite Volume Methods: Algorithms, Analysis and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Minion, Michael

    2014-04-29

    The four main goals outlined in the proposal for this project were: 1. Investigate the use of higher-order (in space and time) finite-volume methods for fluid flow problems. 2. Explore the embedding of iterative temporal methods within traditional block-structured AMR algorithms. 3. Develop parallel in time methods for ODEs and PDEs. 4. Work collaboratively with the Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE) at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab towards incorporating new algorithms within existing DOE application codes.

  20. "Times Higher Education" 100 under 50 Ranking: Old Wine in a New Bottle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2013-01-01

    "Times Higher Education" 100 under 50 ranking is a new twist to the university ranking. It focuses on universities that have a history of 50 years or less with the purpose of offsetting the advantage of prestige of the older ones. This article re-analysed the data publicly available and looked into relevant conceptual and statistical issues. The…

  1. Curriculum Characteristics of Time-Compressed Course in a U.S. Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyun, Eunsook; Kretovics, Mark; Crowe, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    The study explored characteristics of the curriculum practice of higher education faculty in the context of time-compressed (e.g., 5-6 weeks) courses as compared with regular term (15-16 weeks) courses. The researchers used open-ended questions on a web-based survey at a large doctoral-extensive university in a Midwestern state in the United…

  2. Analyzing the Anglo-American Hegemony in the "Times Higher Education" Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaba, Amadu Jacky

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the 2009 "Times Higher Education"-QS top 200 universities in the world. Based on this analysis the study claims that the THS reflects the phenomenon of Anglo American hegemony. The United States with 54 universities and the United Kingdom with 29 dominated the THS. In addition, six out of every ten universities on the top 200…

  3. What Determines Employment of Part-Time Faculty in Higher Education Institutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiangmin; Zhang, Liang

    2007-01-01

    This study uses a cross-section national sample of four-year colleges and universities in the United States to examine the variation of part-time faculty employment. Results of this study suggest that higher educational institutions actively design and adopt contingent work arrangements to save on labor costs and to manage their resource…

  4. MultiFacTV: module detection from higher-order time series biological data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying modules from time series biological data helps us understand biological functionalities of a group of proteins/genes interacting together and how responses of these proteins/genes dynamically change with respect to time. With rapid acquisition of time series biological data from different laboratories or databases, new challenges are posed for the identification task and powerful methods which are able to detect modules with integrative analysis are urgently called for. To accomplish such integrative analysis, we assemble multiple time series biological data into a higher-order form, e.g., a gene × condition × time tensor. It is interesting and useful to develop methods to identify modules from this tensor. Results In this paper, we present MultiFacTV, a new method to find modules from higher-order time series biological data. This method employs a tensor factorization objective function where a time-related total variation regularization term is incorporated. According to factorization results, MultiFacTV extracts modules that are composed of some genes, conditions and time-points. We have performed MultiFacTV on synthetic datasets and the results have shown that MultiFacTV outperforms existing methods EDISA and Metafac. Moreover, we have applied MultiFacTV to Arabidopsis thaliana root(shoot) tissue dataset represented as a gene×condition×time tensor of size 2395 × 9 × 6(3454 × 8 × 6), to Yeast dataset and Homo sapiens dataset represented as tensors of sizes 4425 × 6 × 6 and 2920×14×9 respectively. The results have shown that MultiFacTV indeed identifies some interesting modules in these datasets, which have been validated and explained by Gene Ontology analysis with DAVID or other analysis. Conclusion Experimental results on both synthetic datasets and real datasets show that the proposed MultiFacTV is effective in identifying modules for higher-order time series biological data. It provides, compared to traditional non

  5. American Higher Education in 1975 and 1976: The Academy's Response to Continuing Kondratieff Recession as Reported in "The Times Higher Education Supplement" (London).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, John B.; And Others

    Articles on American higher education that appeared in 1975 and 1976 in "The Times Higher Education Supplement" (London) are analyzed in connection with two statements about American society and its economy. These statements are Joseph A. Schumpeter's 1939 analysis of business cycles, and James B. Shuman's and Davis Rosenau's 1972 description of…

  6. Higher-order brick-tetrahedron hybrid method for Maxwell's equations in time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winges, Johan; Rylander, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We present a higher-order brick-tetrahedron hybrid method for Maxwell's equations in time domain. Brick-shaped elements are used for large homogeneous parts of the computational domain, where we exploit mass-lumping and explicit time-stepping. In regions with complex geometry, we use an unstructured mesh of tetrahedrons that share an interface with the brick-shaped elements and, at the interface, tangential continuity of the electric field is imposed in the weak sense by means of Nitsche's method. Implicit time-stepping is used for the tetrahedrons together with the interface. For cavity resonators, the hybrid method reproduces the lowest non-zero eigenvalues with correct multiplicity and, for geometries without field singularities from sharp corners or edges, the numerical eigenvalues converge towards the analytical result with an error that is approximately proportional to h2p, where h is the cell size and p is the polynomial order of the elements. For a rectangular waveguide, a layer of tetrahedrons embedded in a grid of brick-shaped elements yields a low reflection coefficient that scales approximately as h2p. Finally, we demonstrate hybrid time-stepping for a lossless closed cavity resonator, where the time-domain response is computed for 300,000 time steps without any signs of instabilities.

  7. Wavelet Transform Based Higher Order Statistical Analysis of Wind and Wave Time Histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib Huseni, Gulamhusenwala; Balaji, Ramakrishnan

    2016-06-01

    Wind, blowing on the surface of the ocean, imparts the energy to generate the waves. Understanding the wind-wave interactions is essential for an oceanographer. This study involves higher order spectral analyses of wind speeds and significant wave height time histories, extracted from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast database at an offshore location off Mumbai coast, through continuous wavelet transform. The time histories were divided by the seasons; pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter and the analysis were carried out to the individual data sets, to assess the effect of various seasons on the wind-wave interactions. The analysis revealed that the frequency coupling of wind speeds and wave heights of various seasons. The details of data, analysing technique and results are presented in this paper.

  8. Near-Barrier Neutron Transfer in Reactions 3,6He+197Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarin, V. V.; Naumenko, M. A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Skobelev, N. K.; Kroha, V.; Mrazek, J.

    2015-06-01

    Experimental excitation functions for near-barrier neutron transfer in 3,6He+197Au reactions have been measured and analyzed. Time-dependent Schrödinger equation and coupled channel equations for external neutrons of 3,6He and 197Au nuclei have been solved numerically taking into account spin-orbit interaction and Pauli exclusion principle.

  9. Higher Order Time Integration Schemes for the Unsteady Navier-Stokes Equations on Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency gains obtained using higher-order implicit Runge-Kutta schemes as compared with the second-order accurate backward difference schemes for the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are investigated. Three different algorithms for solving the nonlinear system of equations arising at each timestep are presented. The first algorithm (NMG) is a pseudo-time-stepping scheme which employs a non-linear full approximation storage (FAS) agglomeration multigrid method to accelerate convergence. The other two algorithms are based on Inexact Newton's methods. The linear system arising at each Newton step is solved using iterative/Krylov techniques and left preconditioning is used to accelerate convergence of the linear solvers. One of the methods (LMG) uses Richardson's iterative scheme for solving the linear system at each Newton step while the other (PGMRES) uses the Generalized Minimal Residual method. Results demonstrating the relative superiority of these Newton's methods based schemes are presented. Efficiency gains as high as 10 are obtained by combining the higher-order time integration schemes with the more efficient nonlinear solvers.

  10. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.6 Minimum capital ratios. (a) Risk-based capital ratio....

  11. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.6 Minimum capital ratios. (a) Risk-based capital ratio....

  12. 43 CFR 2310.3-6 - Transfer of jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transfer of jurisdiction. 2310.3-6 Section 2310.3-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: Procedure § 2310.3-6 Transfer of jurisdiction. A public land order that reserves lands for a...

  13. 43 CFR 2310.3-6 - Transfer of jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transfer of jurisdiction. 2310.3-6 Section 2310.3-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: Procedure § 2310.3-6 Transfer of jurisdiction. A public land order that reserves lands for a...

  14. 43 CFR 2310.3-6 - Transfer of jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transfer of jurisdiction. 2310.3-6 Section 2310.3-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: Procedure § 2310.3-6 Transfer of jurisdiction. A public land order that reserves lands for a...

  15. 43 CFR 2310.3-6 - Transfer of jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transfer of jurisdiction. 2310.3-6 Section 2310.3-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: Procedure § 2310.3-6 Transfer of jurisdiction. A public land order that reserves lands for a...

  16. 45 CFR 1210.3-6 - Appeal of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appeal of termination. 1210.3-6 Section 1210.3-6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-6 Appeal of termination....

  17. Higher Order Time Integration Schemes for the Unsteady Navier-Stokes Equations on Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The rapid increase in available computational power over the last decade has enabled higher resolution flow simulations and more widespread use of unstructured grid methods for complex geometries. While much of this effort has been focused on steady-state calculations in the aerodynamics community, the need to accurately predict off-design conditions, which may involve substantial amounts of flow separation, points to the need to efficiently simulate unsteady flow fields. Accurate unsteady flow simulations can easily require several orders of magnitude more computational effort than a corresponding steady-state simulation. For this reason, techniques for improving the efficiency of unsteady flow simulations are required in order to make such calculations feasible in the foreseeable future. The purpose of this work is to investigate possible reductions in computer time due to the choice of an efficient time-integration scheme from a series of schemes differing in the order of time-accuracy, and by the use of more efficient techniques to solve the nonlinear equations which arise while using implicit time-integration schemes. This investigation is carried out in the context of a two-dimensional unstructured mesh laminar Navier-Stokes solver.

  18. Higher levels of CO2 during late incubation alter the hatch time of chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Tong, Q; McGonnell, I M; Roulston, N; Bergoug, H; Romanini, C E B; Garain, P; Eterradossi, N; Exadaktylos, V; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Demmers, T G M

    2015-01-01

    1. It has been reported that the increasing CO2 tension triggers the embryo to pip the air cell and emerge from the egg. However, the mechanism by which higher CO2 concentrations during the last few days of incubation affect chick physiology and the hatching process is unclear. This study investigated the effect of CO2 concentrations up to 1% during pipping, on the onset and length of the hatch window (HW) and chick quality. 2. Four batches of Ross 308 broiler eggs (600 eggs per batch) were incubated in two small-scale custom-built incubators (Petersime NV). During the final 3 d of incubation, control eggs were exposed to a lower CO2 concentration (0.3%), while the test eggs experienced a higher CO2 concentration programme (peak of 1%). 3. There were no significant differences in blood values, organ weight and body weight. There was also no difference in hatchability between control and test groups. However, a small increase in the chick weight and the percentage of first class chicks was found in the test groups. Furthermore, plasma corticosterone profiles during hatching were altered in embryos exposed to higher CO2; however, they dropped to normal levels at d 21 of incubation. Importantly, the hatching process was delayed and synchronised in the test group, resulting in a narrowed HW which was 2.7 h shorter and 5.3 h later than the control group. 4. These results showed that exposing chicks to 1% CO2 concentration during pipping did not have negative impacts on physiological status of newly hatched chicks. In addition, it may have a significant impact on the physiological mechanisms controlling hatching and have benefits for the health and welfare of chickens by reducing the waiting time after hatching. PMID:25900009

  19. Pulse transmission receiver with higher-order time derivative pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-08-12

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission receiver includes: a front-end amplification/processing circuit; a synchronization circuit coupled to the front-end amplification/processing circuit; a clock coupled to the synchronization circuit; a trigger signal generator coupled to the clock; and at least one higher-order time derivative pulse generator coupled to the trigger signal generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  20. A novel fast gas chromatography method for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in ambient air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C9-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a 14.5 min analysis time. Moreover, in-situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an 11.7 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to 19.7 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). These analysis times potentially allow for a twofold to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in-situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC (OBVOC) linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest

  1. Automated Determination of P-Wave Arrival Times Using Higher Order Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueperkoch, L.; Meier, T.; Friederich, W.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the continuously increasing amount of digital, seismological data, automatic localication of seismic events becomes more and more important. The main difficulty is the automatic identification and precise determination of P- and S-wave arrival times. Here we present an algorithm based on higher order statistics for the automated determination of P-onsets of local and regional seismic events. Using the 4th central moment, a characteristic function is calculated, on which the "picker" is applied. Important is the automatic estimation of the quality of the P-onset. In order to get rid off false P-readings, several algorithms are applied to single station as well as to the finishing multy station processing. The robustness and reliability of the automatic has been tested on a very heterogeneous data set of the temporary, regional seismological network EGELADOS, using manual P-readings, which serve as reference picks, as well as by a comparison with the Allen- and the Baer- & Kradolfer-picker. The accuracy and the speed of the presented automatic makes this processing scheme to an option for the implementation into a near-real time processing, e.g. for earthquake early-warning systems.

  2. Higher-order time integration of Coulomb collisions in a plasma using Langevin equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dimits, A. M.; Cohen, B. I.; Caflisch, R. E.; Rosin, M. S.; Ricketson, L. F.

    2013-02-08

    The extension of Langevin-equation Monte-Carlo algorithms for Coulomb collisions from the conventional Euler-Maruyama time integration to the next higher order of accuracy, the Milstein scheme, has been developed, implemented, and tested. This extension proceeds via a formulation of the angular scattering directly as stochastic differential equations in the two fixed-frame spherical-coordinate velocity variables. Results from the numerical implementation show the expected improvement [O(Δt) vs. O(Δt1/2)] in the strong convergence rate both for the speed |v| and angular components of the scattering. An important result is that this improved convergence is achieved for the angular component of the scattering if and only if the “area-integral” terms in the Milstein scheme are included. The resulting Milstein scheme is of value as a step towards algorithms with both improved accuracy and efficiency. These include both algorithms with improved convergence in the averages (weak convergence) and multi-time-level schemes. The latter have been shown to give a greatly reduced cost for a given overall error level when compared with conventional Monte-Carlo schemes, and their performance is improved considerably when the Milstein algorithm is used for the underlying time advance versus the Euler-Maruyama algorithm. A new method for sampling the area integrals is given which is a simplification of an earlier direct method and which retains high accuracy. Lastly, this method, while being useful in its own right because of its relative simplicity, is also expected to considerably reduce the computational requirements for the direct conditional sampling of the area integrals that is needed for adaptive strong integration.

  3. Renewing Quality Assurance at a Time of Turbulence: An Attempt to Reenergise Quality in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid

    2011-01-01

    The renewal of quality assurance in Australian higher education comes at a time when the higher education sectors in Australia and around the world are experiencing a number of key challenges. These include: ongoing decline in public funding of universities; the massification of higher education and demand for it during global recession;…

  4. Bouncebacks in Higher Education Funding: Patterns in Length of Time to Recovery following Cuts in State Appropriations. WISCAPE Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.; Delaney, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    State appropriations for higher education are highly cyclical, with downturns in funding during difficult financial times followed by increases in funding when state finances improve. This policy brief shares recent research about whether the duration of recoveries from cuts in appropriations for higher education has changed over time and which…

  5. Part-Time Students and Part-Time Study in Higher Education in the UK: Strand 2--A Survey of the Issues Facing Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Susan; Brown, Nigel; Payne, Philip; Ramsden, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This is the report on part-time study in UK higher education institutions (HEIs) for Universities UK and GuildHE (previously SCOP) from Nigel Brown Associates. It forms Strand 2 of the wider research into part-time higher education commissioned by Universities UK and GuildHE using quantitative data not available from published sources and…

  6. The Changing Faces of Corruption in Georgian Higher Education: Access through Times and Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comparative-historical analysis of access to higher education in Georgia. It describes the workings of corrupt channels during the Soviet and early post-Soviet periods and the role of standardized tests in fighting corruption in higher education admission processes after introduction of the Unified National Entrance…

  7. Ecuador's Higher Education System in Times of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Estrella, Mateo; Eljuri, Marie-Isabel; León, Leonardo Torres

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador's higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador's universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment…

  8. Troubled Times for American Higher Education: The 1990s and Beyond. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Clark; And Others

    This volume looks at the future of American higher education in 13 essays most of which were originally speeches to gatherings around the United States and the globe. The first series of essays in Part I looks at possible "contours" of the future and what choices should be made by higher education to advance the quality of future performance. One…

  9. Department Chairs' Perceptions of Part-Time Faculty Status in Maryland Public and Private Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorehead, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    The growing use of part-time, non-tenure track faculty in higher education has become a nationwide phenomenon. The college-teaching part-time instructor is one who is working for low pay, has little job security, and has few benefits. College part-time instructors' employment is in a contingent state. They do not have the job protection provided…

  10. Higher Education Enrollments and Student Success in Times of Budget Scarcity: Examining System-Level Impacts in Recessionary Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetstein, Matthew; Hays, Brianna; Nguyen, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to extend the literature on higher education enrollment patterns during times of recession by examining patterns of enrollment and successful course completion in one of the world's largest higher education systems--the California Community College system. The data are drawn from publicly available data sources on the web. CCC…

  11. Use of Part-Time Faculty in Higher Education: Numbers and Impact. Briefing Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ross

    Colleges and universities of all kinds rely on part-time faculty to teach students from the freshman year through graduate studies, although they are more likely to teach lower division students. Overall, 43% of postsecondary instructional faculty work part-time, while full-time tenure track positions are held by about 18% of faculty members.…

  12. Classical and quantum-mechanical axioms with the higher time derivative formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalov, Timur

    2013-06-01

    A Newtonian mechanics model is essentially the model of a point body in an inertial reference frame. How to describe extended bodies in non-inertial (vibration) reference frames with the random initial conditions? One of the most generalized ways of descriptions (known as the higher derivatives formalism) consists in taking into account the infinite number of the higher temporal derivatives of the coordinates in the Lagrange function. Such formalism describing physical objects in the infinite dimensions space does not contradict to the quantum mechanics and infinite dimensions Hilbert space.

  13. Examining a Higher Education Funding Formula in a Time of Shifting Currents: Kentucky's Benchmark Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Andrew; Frost, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Keeling, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Although datasets such as the Integrated Postsecondary Data System are available as inputs to higher education funding formulas, these datasets can be unreliable, incomplete, or unresponsive to criteria identified by state education officials. State formulas do not always match the state's economic and human capital goals. This article analyzes…

  14. Retention and Attrition of Students in Higher Education: Challenges in Modern Times to What Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Marguerite; Macallister, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Retention and attrition rates in higher education have long been a focus of research. This paper presents findings of a single case study, undertaken in a School of Education, which identify important strategies that have led to attrition of five to eight per cent, compared with 18 per cent cross the education sector in Australia (Department of…

  15. Integrating Health and Sustainability: The Higher Education Sector as a Timely Catalyst

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orme, J.; Dooris, M.

    2010-01-01

    Higher education is an influential sector with enormous potential to impact positively on health and sustainability. The purpose of this paper was to explore its emergent role as a key setting for promoting health and sustainability and for addressing their challenges in an integrated and coherent way. Acknowledging both the relative narrowness of…

  16. Building a Strong Future for Higher Education: Strategies for Tough Economic Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higdon, Leo I., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This is no ordinary recession. And, for leaders in higher education, its impact will resonate long after it has passed. In the years ahead, the author believes that the past thirty years will be viewed as a kind of golden age of academic prosperity that was brought to a crashing end by this recession. Yet, the end of the golden age has also…

  17. Time to Look Anew: Critical Pedagogy and Disciplines within Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the attitudes of writers within the tradition of critical pedagogy towards disciplines in higher education. With particular focus on Henry Giroux's work, it contrasts his portrayal of disciplines as closed, limiting and elitist with an alternative one of disciplines as complex, permeable and contested spaces. Critical…

  18. The Challenge and Promise of Catholic Higher Education for Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, John I.

    2015-01-01

    Catholic colleges and universities face significant challenges in the present context of American higher education. Yet, there are opportunities to be found in the midst of this crisis when one carefully examines the intersections between the Catholic mission and objectives of an institution and current culture and academia. A return to the…

  19. Rural Education: A Field of Study Whose Time Has Come in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Richard W., Jr.; Kale, Karen E.

    Although professional educators and public school decision makers have attempted to respond to increased educational demands and a broader spectrum of students, the education of rural youth is a neglected area both in higher education and in educational legislation. The record indicates that policy decisions and the resulting legislation have…

  20. Challenges to Christian Higher Education at a Time of Increasing Emphasis on Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Hill, Doug

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, both Christian and non-Christian higher education institutions (HEIs) have experienced a rapidly changing external environment that is becoming more performance-driven, particularly in relation to faculty research. Academics working in Australian Christian HEIs often feel pressure to keep pace with their counterparts in non-Christian…

  1. Breadth vs. Depth: The Timing of Specialization in Higher Education. NBER Working Paper No. 15943

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamud, Ofer

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the tradeoff between early and late specialization in the context of higher education. While some educational systems require students to specialize early by choosing a major field of study prior to entering university, others allow students to postpone this choice. I develop a model in which individuals, by taking courses in…

  2. Do Diligent Students Perform Better? Complex Relations between Student and Course Characteristics, Study Time, and Academic Performance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masui, Chris; Broeckmans, Jan; Doumen, Sarah; Groenen, Anne; Molenberghs, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Research has reported equivocal results regarding the relationship between study time investment and academic performance in higher education. In the setting of the active, assignment-based teaching approach at Hasselt University (Belgium), the present study aimed (a) to further clarify the role of study time in academic performance, while taking…

  3. Integrating health and sustainability: the higher education sector as a timely catalyst.

    PubMed

    Orme, J; Dooris, M

    2010-06-01

    Higher education is an influential sector with enormous potential to impact positively on health and sustainability. The purpose of this paper was to explore its emergent role as a key setting for promoting health and sustainability and for addressing their challenges in an integrated and coherent way. Acknowledging both the relative narrowness of the environmental focus that has to date characterized and driven universities' work in relation to sustainability and the demonstrable value of adopting a whole-system approach, this paper will explore the concept of 'Healthy Universities' as a means of furthering debate and facilitating synergy between public health, sustainable development and climate change. Higher education represents one large-scale sector with a unique combination of roles that can be harnessed to focus and mobilize its education, knowledge exchange, research, corporate responsibility and future shaping agendas to achieve significant impacts in this area. It is the growing commitment to embedding health and well-being within the mainstream business of higher education coupled with the expectation that universities will act sustainably in all that they do that provides the perfect springboard to influence a process of 'co-ordinated action' to address climate change and impact positively on the integrated health and sustainability agenda. PMID:20382673

  4. Prices Paid by Colleges Rise 3.6 Percent, Trailing Consumer Price Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that the Higher Education Price Index (HEPI), a widely used measure of colleges' costs, rose by 3.6 percent for the 2008 fiscal year, which ended on June 30. But even as they reported the good news of that moderate increase, experts at the Commonfund Institute who maintain the index noted that broader economic trends could…

  5. DNA replication timing and higher-order nuclear organization determine single nucleotide substitution patterns in cancer genomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin; De, Subhajyoti; Michor, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide substitutions (SNS) are a defining characteristic of cancer genomes. Many SNS in cancer genomes arise due to errors in DNA replication, which is spatio-temporally stratified. Here we propose that DNA replication patterns help shape the mutational landscapes of normal and cancer genomes. Using data on five fully sequenced cancer types and two personal genomes, we determined that the frequency of intergenic SNS is significantly higher in late DNA replication timing regions, even after controlling for a number of genomic features. Furthermore, some substitution signatures are more frequent in certain DNA replication timing zones. Finally, integrating data on higher-order nuclear organization, we found that genomic regions in close spatial proximity to late replicating domains display similar mutation spectra as the late replicating regions themselves. These data suggest that DNA replication timing together with higher-order genomic organization contribute to the patterns of SNS in normal and cancer genomes. PMID:23422670

  6. Spanish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory Construction and Validity among Higher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usart, Mireia; Romero, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The study of "Time Orientation" (TO) has been focused on how to measure this construct and its effects on human behavior. Defined as a fundamental psychological variable, TO is multidimensional, sensible to cultural differences and age. Although its relation to learning, it deserves further study in the different Higher…

  7. Transformation or Decline? Using Tough Times to Create Higher-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Karen Hawley

    2011-01-01

    Instead of doing less with less during these fiscally challenging times, school districts can seize the moment to usher in school transformation that will leave the schools, families, and communities better off. They could follow the lead of districts such as Baltimore City, Syracuse, and Charlotte-Mecklenburg to think outside traditional cost…

  8. Widening Participation, Social Justice and Injustice: Part-Time Students in Higher Education in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This article critically assesses the nature and scope of current financial support for part-time undergraduates in England, highlighting its importance for widening participation. It considers the limitations of these financial arrangements, why they are in need of reform, and some of the consequences of their inadequacies. The paper argues that…

  9. Using higher organisms in biological early warning systems for real-time toxicity detection.

    PubMed

    van der Schalie, W H; Shedd, T R; Knechtges, P L; Widder, M W

    2001-09-01

    Many biological early warning systems (BEWS) have been developed in recent years that evaluate the physiological and behavioral responses of whole organisms to water quality. Using a fish ventilatory monitoring system developed at the US Army Centre for Environmental Health Research as an example, we illustrate the operation of a BEWS at a groundwater treatment facility. During a recent 12-month period, the fish ventilatory system was operational for 99% of the time that the treatment facility was on-line. Effluent-exposed fish responded as a group about 2.8% of the time. While some events were due to equipment problems or non-toxic water quality variations, the fish system did indicate effluent anomalies that were subsequently identified and corrected. The fish monitoring BEWS increased treatment facility engineers' awareness of effluent quality and provided an extra measure of assurance to regulators and the public. Many operational and practical considerations for whole organism BEWS are similar to those for cell- or tissue-based biosensors. An effective biomonitoring system may need to integrate the responses of several biological and chemical sensors to achieve desired operational goals. Future development of an 'electronic canary', analogous to the original canary in the coal mine, could draw upon advances in signal processing and communication to establish a network of sensors in a watershed and to provide useful real-time information on water quality. PMID:11544040

  10. Identification of Impact Location in a Plate Based on Elastodynamics and Higher Order Time Frequency Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. K.; Kim, S. J.

    In a nuclear power plant, impact force due to loose part is related to the structural damage in the plant. In general, the steam generator of the nuclear power plant is structured by thick plate. The paper presents a novel approach to locate an impact load in a thick plate. The approach is based on the analysis of the acoustic waveforms measured by a sensor array located on the plate surface. For accurate estimation of the location of the impact source, the time differences in the arrival times of the waves at the sensors and their propagation velocities are determined. The dispersion curves for multi modes of Lamb wave are calculated by using exact plate theory and SDPT. It is difficult to measure directly the group velocity for Lamb mode of acoustic waveform in the thick plate because they are dispersive wave. However, most of the energy in the wave is carried by the flexural waves (A0 mode), the group velocity of this mode is extracted using the CHOTF technique for estimating the impact source location. The estimates are shown to be in excellent agreement with the actual locations and it is applied to the damage analysis due to the loose part in a nuclear power plant.

  11. The Transition from Higher Education to Employment in Europe: The Analysis of the Time to Obtain the First Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas-Velasco, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the transition from higher education to work across Europe using various specifications of duration models and a one-time multi-country survey of university graduates from nine European countries. Results point to differences between the North and South of Europe in the difficulty of getting a first job.…

  12. Utilizing Social Networks in Times of Crisis: Understanding, Exploring and Analyzing Critical Incident Management at Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asselin, Martha Jo

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of major crises on college campuses today (Security on Campus Inc., 2009), institutions of higher education can benefit from understanding of how social networks may be used in times of emergency. What is currently known about the usage of social networks is not integral to the current practices of crisis management that are…

  13. Impact of the Headscarf Ban Policy on the Identity Development of Part-Time Unveilers in Turkish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seggie, Fatma Nevra; Austin, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the impact of the Turkish higher education headscarf ban policy on the plural self-identities (i.e., as Turkish citizens, as Muslims, and as females) of part-time unveilers, female students who cover their hair in their private life but who remove the headscarf (or conceal it to appear unveiled) while at a Turkish…

  14. Cooperative Weblog Learning in Higher Education: Its Facilitating Effects on Social Interaction, Time Lag, and Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tien-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Yu, Fu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of using weblog technologies to support cooperative learning in higher education. The study focused on the effects of features embedded in weblogs on social interactions, time lags, and cognitive loads. A quasi-experimental control-group research design was adopted. The participants were 115 undergraduates who were…

  15. Connections: A Transition Curriculum for Grades 3-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspinall, Art; Roberts, Lynn; Robinson, Ruth; Tomlan, Patricia S., Ed.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide students (with and without disabilities) in grades 3-6 with career awareness instruction integrated with instruction in personal and social skills, reading, writing, and mathematics. Introductory materials present the program's philosophy, including instructional goals, student performance goals, and…

  16. Developing Career Education; Grades 3-6 Instructional Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    The guide presents instructional units aimed at developing career education for grades 3-6. Each unit provides detailed objectives, activities, resources, and evaluations, and in some units the objectives are further detailed in relationship to the following subjects: mathematics, language arts, social studies, guidance, music, physical education,…

  17. Getting the Most from Literature Groups. Grades 3-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strube, Penny

    Intended as a guide for teachers of grades 3-6, this book presents ideas for the use of literature groups in the classroom. In chapter 1, the author talks about her own reading background and her discovery of teaching methods for literature, and presents ideas for forming literature groups. Chapter 2 offers advice on selecting and collecting good…

  18. Classroom Museums: Touchable Tables for Kids Grades 3-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Pamela

    This book provides ideas for table exhibits for grades 3-6 in nine different subject areas. These areas are: marine life; nature in the backyard; the history and uses of flags; impressionist painters and art; winter festivals around the world; fibers and fabrics; Native Americans in touch with the land; sugar and chocolate; and keeping the earth,…

  19. 32 CFR 3.6 - Limitations on cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION TRANSACTIONS OTHER THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.6 Limitations on cost... prototype project and cost-sharing is the reason for using OT authority, then the non-Federal...

  20. 32 CFR 3.6 - Limitations on cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION TRANSACTIONS OTHER THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.6 Limitations on cost... prototype project and cost-sharing is the reason for using OT authority, then the non-Federal...

  1. RTI Strategies That Work in the 3-6 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eli; Karns, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This is a must-have resource for educators committed to meeting the needs of their struggling students in Grades 3-6. Teachers get a whole toolbox filled with research-based, easy to implement RTI interventions that really work! Get strategies in five core areas--plus correlations to the Common Core State Standards and effective scaffolding tips…

  2. Modern U-Pb chronometry of meteorites: advancing to higher time resolution reveals new problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amelin, Y.; Connelly, J.; Zartman, R.E.; Chen, J.-H.; Gopel, C.; Neymark, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the factors that influence the accuracy of lead (Pb)-isotopic ages of meteorites, and may possibly be responsible for inconsistencies between Pb-isotopic and extinct nuclide timescales of the early Solar System: instrumental mass fractionation and other possible analytical sources of error, presence of more than one component of non-radiogenic Pb, migration of ancient radiogenic Pb by diffusion and other mechanisms, possible heterogeneity of the isotopic composition of uranium (U), uncertainties in the decay constants of uranium isotopes, possible presence of "freshly synthesized" actinides with short half-life (e.g. 234U) in the early Solar System, possible initial disequilibrium in the uranium decay chains, and potential fractionation of radiogenic Pb isotopes and U isotopes caused by alpha-recoil and subsequent laboratory treatment. We review the use of 232Th/238U values to assist in making accurate interpretations of the U-Pb ages of meteorite components. We discuss recently published U-Pb dates of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), and their apparent disagreement with the extinct nuclide dates, in the context of capability and common pitfalls in modern meteorite chronology. Finally, we discuss the requirements of meteorites that are intended to be used as the reference points in building a consistent time scale of the early Solar System, based on the combined use of the U-Pb system and extinct nuclide chronometers.

  3. A generative spike train model with time-structured higher order correlations

    PubMed Central

    Trousdale, James; Hu, Yu; Shea-Brown, Eric; Josić, Krešimir

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technologies are revealing the spiking activity in ever larger neural ensembles. Frequently, this spiking is far from independent, with correlations in the spike times of different cells. Understanding how such correlations impact the dynamics and function of neural ensembles remains an important open problem. Here we describe a new, generative model for correlated spike trains that can exhibit many of the features observed in data. Extending prior work in mathematical finance, this generalized thinning and shift (GTaS) model creates marginally Poisson spike trains with diverse temporal correlation structures. We give several examples which highlight the model's flexibility and utility. For instance, we use it to examine how a neural network responds to highly structured patterns of inputs. We then show that the GTaS model is analytically tractable, and derive cumulant densities of all orders in terms of model parameters. The GTaS framework can therefore be an important tool in the experimental and theoretical exploration of neural dynamics. PMID:23908626

  4. Phase transitions between lower and higher level management learning in times of crisis: an experimental study based on synergetics.

    PubMed

    Liening, Andreas; Strunk, Guido; Mittelstadt, Ewald

    2013-10-01

    Much has been written about the differences between single- and double-loop learning, or more general between lower level and higher level learning. Especially in times of a fundamental crisis, a transition between lower and higher level learning would be an appropriate reaction to a challenge coming entirely out of the dark. However, so far there is no quantitative method to monitor such a transition. Therefore we introduce theory and methods of synergetics and present results from an experimental study based on the simulation of a crisis within a business simulation game. Hypothesized critical fluctuations - as a marker for so-called phase transitions - have been assessed with permutation entropy. Results show evidence for a phase transition during the crisis, which can be interpreted as a transition between lower and higher level learning. PMID:24011119

  5. Americium thermodynamic data for the EQ3/6 database

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-07-01

    Existing thermodynamic data for aqueous and solid species of americium have been reviewed and collected in a form that can be used with the EQ3/6 database. Data that are important in solubility calculations for americium at a proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository were emphasized. Conflicting data exist for americium complexes with carbonates. Essentially no data are available for americium solids or complexes at temperatures greater than 25{sup 0}C. 17 references, 4 figures.

  6. Modeling cation exchange using EQ3/6

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, B.; Bruton, C.; Bourcier, B.

    1992-08-01

    Geochemical modeling codes must be able to predict solid-solution and ion-exchange behavior of zeolites and smectites in order to design and assess strategies for containing and cleaning up toxic and/or radioactive wastes. Cation-exchange and solid-solution models have been implemented in the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling package and used to predict the composition of clinoptilolite under a variety of conditions. Published free energies of cation exchange on clinoptilolite at 25{degrees}C were combined with the calorimetric data for clinoptilolite to derive free energies of formation of the component end members of a solid solution in which mixing is allowed only on the exchange site. The solid-solution model and component end-member data were incorporated into EQ3/6 and its data base. An option to treat cation exchange independently of the solid-solution model was also developed and implemented in EQ3/6. This option allows the user to model mixed-phase exchangers, multisite exchangers, and systems in which the exchanger is not in overall equilibrium with the solution. Two {open_quotes}ideal{close_quotes} cation-exchange conventions [Vanselow (mole fraction) and Gapon (equivalent fraction)] are currently implemented in the code. A description of the cation-exchange models and their implementation into EQ3/6 is presented, and the relationship between the exchange formalisms and the solid-solution models is discussed. The advantages and limitations of the models and currently available thermodynamic data are addressed by comparing cation-exchange compositions of clinoptilolites with (1) published binary exchange data; (2) compositions of coexisting clinoptilolites and formation waters at Yucca Mountain; and (3) experimental sorption isotherms of Cs and Sr on zeolitized tuff.

  7. Continuous higher-order sliding mode control with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Yaozhen; Liu, Xiangjie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a continuous higher-order sliding mode (HOSM) control scheme with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is derived from the concept of geometric homogeneity and super-twisting algorithm, and includes two parts, the first part of which achieves smooth finite time stabilization of pure integrator chains. The second part conquers the twice differentiable uncertainty and realizes system robustness by employing super-twisting algorithm. Particularly, time-varying switching control gain is constructed to reduce the switching control action magnitude to the minimum possible value while keeping the property of finite time convergence. Examples concerning the perturbed triple integrator chains and excitation control for single-machine infinite bus power system are simulated respectively to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach. PMID:26920085

  8. EQ3/6 A Software Package for Geochemical Modeling

    2010-12-13

    EQ3/6 is a software package for modeling geochemical interactions between aqueous solution, solids, and gases, following principles of chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. It is useful for interpreting aqueiou solution chemical compositions and for calculating the consequences of reaction of such solutions with minerals, other solids, and gases. It is designed to run in a command line environment. EQPT is a thermodynamic data file preprocessor. EQ3NR is a speciation-solubility code. EQ6 is a reaction pathmore » code.« less

  9. A High-Order, Linear Time-Invariant Model for Application to Higher Harmonic Control and Flight Control System Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Rendy P.; Tischler, Mark B.; Celi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    This research describes a new methodology for the extraction of a high-order, linear time invariant model, which allows the periodicity of the helicopter response to be accurately captured. This model provides the needed level of dynamic fidelity to permit an analysis and optimization of the AFCS and HHC algorithms. The key results of this study indicate that the closed-loop HHC system has little influence on the AFCS or on the vehicle handling qualities, which indicates that the AFCS does not need modification to work with the HHC system. However, the results show that the vibration response to maneuvers must be considered during the HHC design process, and this leads to much higher required HHC loop crossover frequencies. This research also demonstrates that the transient vibration responses during maneuvers can be reduced by optimizing the closed-loop higher harmonic control algorithm using conventional control system analyses.

  10. State-Space Analysis of Time-Varying Higher-Order Spike Correlation for Multiple Neural Spike Train Data

    PubMed Central

    Shimazaki, Hideaki; Amari, Shun-ichi; Brown, Emery N.; Grün, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Precise spike coordination between the spiking activities of multiple neurons is suggested as an indication of coordinated network activity in active cell assemblies. Spike correlation analysis aims to identify such cooperative network activity by detecting excess spike synchrony in simultaneously recorded multiple neural spike sequences. Cooperative activity is expected to organize dynamically during behavior and cognition; therefore currently available analysis techniques must be extended to enable the estimation of multiple time-varying spike interactions between neurons simultaneously. In particular, new methods must take advantage of the simultaneous observations of multiple neurons by addressing their higher-order dependencies, which cannot be revealed by pairwise analyses alone. In this paper, we develop a method for estimating time-varying spike interactions by means of a state-space analysis. Discretized parallel spike sequences are modeled as multi-variate binary processes using a log-linear model that provides a well-defined measure of higher-order spike correlation in an information geometry framework. We construct a recursive Bayesian filter/smoother for the extraction of spike interaction parameters. This method can simultaneously estimate the dynamic pairwise spike interactions of multiple single neurons, thereby extending the Ising/spin-glass model analysis of multiple neural spike train data to a nonstationary analysis. Furthermore, the method can estimate dynamic higher-order spike interactions. To validate the inclusion of the higher-order terms in the model, we construct an approximation method to assess the goodness-of-fit to spike data. In addition, we formulate a test method for the presence of higher-order spike correlation even in nonstationary spike data, e.g., data from awake behaving animals. The utility of the proposed methods is tested using simulated spike data with known underlying correlation dynamics. Finally, we apply the methods

  11. State-space analysis of time-varying higher-order spike correlation for multiple neural spike train data.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Hideaki; Amari, Shun-Ichi; Brown, Emery N; Grün, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Precise spike coordination between the spiking activities of multiple neurons is suggested as an indication of coordinated network activity in active cell assemblies. Spike correlation analysis aims to identify such cooperative network activity by detecting excess spike synchrony in simultaneously recorded multiple neural spike sequences. Cooperative activity is expected to organize dynamically during behavior and cognition; therefore currently available analysis techniques must be extended to enable the estimation of multiple time-varying spike interactions between neurons simultaneously. In particular, new methods must take advantage of the simultaneous observations of multiple neurons by addressing their higher-order dependencies, which cannot be revealed by pairwise analyses alone. In this paper, we develop a method for estimating time-varying spike interactions by means of a state-space analysis. Discretized parallel spike sequences are modeled as multi-variate binary processes using a log-linear model that provides a well-defined measure of higher-order spike correlation in an information geometry framework. We construct a recursive Bayesian filter/smoother for the extraction of spike interaction parameters. This method can simultaneously estimate the dynamic pairwise spike interactions of multiple single neurons, thereby extending the Ising/spin-glass model analysis of multiple neural spike train data to a nonstationary analysis. Furthermore, the method can estimate dynamic higher-order spike interactions. To validate the inclusion of the higher-order terms in the model, we construct an approximation method to assess the goodness-of-fit to spike data. In addition, we formulate a test method for the presence of higher-order spike correlation even in nonstationary spike data, e.g., data from awake behaving animals. The utility of the proposed methods is tested using simulated spike data with known underlying correlation dynamics. Finally, we apply the methods

  12. Less Time to Study, Less Well Prepared for Work, yet Satisfied with Higher Education: A UK Perspective on Links between Higher Education and the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Brenda; Arthur, Lore

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores graduates' views on the relationship between higher education and employment. It draws on a major European study involving graduates five years after graduation and highlights similarities and differences between UK graduates' experiences and their European counterparts. Specifically, we address questions raised in the study…

  13. Higher-order time-symmetry-breaking phase transition due to meeting of an exceptional point and a Fano resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Garmon, Savannah; Kanki, Kazuki; Petrosky, Tomio

    2016-08-01

    We have theoretically investigated the time-symmetry-breaking phase-transition process for two discrete states coupled with a one-dimensional continuum by solving the nonlinear eigenvalue problem for the effective Hamiltonian associated with the discrete spectrum. We obtain the effective Hamiltonian with use of the Feshbach-Brillouin-Wigner projection method. Strong energy dependence of the self-energy appearing in the effective Hamiltonian plays a key role in the time-symmetry-breaking phase transition: As a result of competition in the decay process between the Van Hove singularity and the Fano resonance, the phase transition becomes a higher-order transition when both the two discrete states are located near the continuum threshold.

  14. Higher Level Phylogeny and the First Divergence Time Estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) Based on Multiple Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Bu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA). Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively) with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic. PMID:22384163

  15. Higher level phylogeny and the first divergence time estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) based on multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Tian, Ying; Zhao, Ying; Bu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA). Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively) with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic. PMID:22384163

  16. The Relationship of Higher Education to Substance Use Trajectories: Variations as a Function of Timing of Enrollment

    PubMed Central

    THOMPSON, KARA; HOMEL, JACQUELINE; LEADBEATER, BONNIE

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined the association between time to enrollment into postsecondary education and trajectories of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and marijuana use using a prospective longitudinal study. Method Participants included 391 postsecondary students (55% female) drawn from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, a five-wave, multi-cohort sample interviewed biennially between 2003 and 2011. Using piecewise latent growth modeling, we compared changes in the trajectories of HED and marijuana use before and after postsecondary enrollment across three groups of young adults: (a) direct entrants (enrolled directly out of high school), (b) gap entrants (took a year off), and (c) delayed entrants (took longer than a year off). Results Heavy drinking increased after enrollment for direct entrants and gap entrants and decreased for delayed entrants. Marijuana use increased after enrollment for direct entrants, and decreased for gap entrants and delayed entrants. Yet, overall levels of marijuana use were significantly higher among the gap and delay entrants over time compared with direct entrants. Group differences in heavy drinking appeared to reflect age-related changes in drinking patterns. However, differences in marijuana use may reflect pre-existing inequities in access to higher education across groups. Conclusions The association between postsecondary education and increased substance use may be limited to students who enroll at a postsecondary institution directly out of high school. However, students who delay enrollment have higher levels of substance use before enrollment, as well as lower high school grades and socioeconomic status compared with direct entrants, and may be particularly vulnerable to long-term substance use problems and degree noncompletion. PMID:25486398

  17. Lower theta inter-trial phase coherence during performance monitoring is related to higher reaction time variability: a lifespan study.

    PubMed

    Papenberg, Goran; Hämmerer, Dorothea; Müller, Viktor; Lindenberger, Ulman; Li, Shu-Chen

    2013-12-01

    Trial-to-trial reaction time (RT) variability is consistently higher in children and older adults than in younger adults. Converging evidence also indicates that higher RT variability is (a) associated with lower behavioral performance on complex cognitive tasks, (b) distinguishes patients with neurological deficits from healthy individuals, and also (c) predicts longitudinal cognitive decline in older adults. However, so far the processes underlying increased RT variability are poorly understood. Previous evidence suggests that control signals in the medial frontal cortex (MFC) are reflected in theta band activity and may implicate the coordination of distinct brain areas during performance monitoring. We hypothesized that greater trial-to-trial variability in theta power during performance monitoring may be associated with greater behavioral variability in response latencies. We analyzed event-related theta oscillations assessed during a cued-Go/NoGo task in a lifespan sample covering the age range from middle childhood to old age. Our results show that theta inter-trial coherence during NoGo trials increases from childhood to early adulthood, and decreases from early adulthood to old age. Moreover, in all age groups, individuals with higher variability in medial frontal stimulus-locked theta oscillations showed higher trial-to-trial RT variability behaviorally. Importantly, this effect was strongest at high performance monitoring demands and independent of motor response execution as well as theta power. Taken together, our findings reveal that lower theta inter-trial coherence is related to greater behavioral variability within and across age groups. These results hint at the possibility that more variable MFC control may be associated with greater performance fluctuations. PMID:23876249

  18. 1,3,6,8-Tetraethynylpyrene and 1,3,6,8-tetrakis (trimethylsilylethynyl) pyrene: Photophysical properties in homogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyamala, T.; Sankararaman, S.; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2006-11-01

    The photophysical properties of two new tetra substituted derivatives of pyrene: 1,3,6,8-tetraethynylpyrene (TEP) and 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(trimethylsilylethynyl)pyrene (TEP-TMS) have been studied. Studies were done with respect to mirror image symmetry in the absorption and emission spectra and permissive or forbidden nature of S 0-S 1 transition, solvent sensitivity of the first and third vibronic bands and fluorescence anisotropy. Both the derivatives exhibited a strongly allowed S 0-S 1 transition, high fluorescence quantum yield, shorter fluorescence lifetime compared to pyrene and invariance of the vibronic band intensity ratio to solvent polarity. The behavior of the two pyrene derivatives validates the hypothesis "solvent polarity mediates vibronic coupling and therefore the emission band intensities, for forbidden S 0-S 1 transitions". The trimethylsilyl derivative (TEP-TMS) was characterized by a strong fluorescence in solid state. The tetraethynyl derivative (TEP) showed high fluorescence anisotropy comparable to the well-known anisotropy probe DPH in glycerol at 0 °C. The fluorescence intensities of TEP and TEP-TMS did not show any significant change in the temperature ranger 0-40 °C for a low viscous solvent like ethanol and in the range 0-60 °C in glycerol. Unlike pyrene, no excimer emission was observed even up to 10 -3 M for TEP and TEP-TMS.

  19. Introducing conjoint analysis method into delayed lotteries studies: its validity and time stability are higher than in adjusting

    PubMed Central

    Białek, Michał; Markiewicz, Łukasz; Sawicki, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The delayed lotteries are much more common in everyday life than are pure lotteries. Usually, we need to wait to find out the outcome of the risky decision (e.g., investing in a stock market, engaging in a relationship). However, most research has studied the time discounting and probability discounting in isolation using the methodologies designed specifically to track changes in one parameter. Most commonly used method is adjusting, but its reported validity and time stability in research on discounting are suboptimal. The goal of this study was to introduce the novel method for analyzing delayed lotteries—conjoint analysis—which hypothetically is more suitable for analyzing individual preferences in this area. A set of two studies compared the conjoint analysis with adjusting. The results suggest that individual parameters of discounting strength estimated with conjoint have higher predictive value (Study 1 and 2), and they are more stable over time (Study 2) compared to adjusting. We discuss these findings, despite the exploratory character of reported studies, by suggesting that future research on delayed lotteries should be cross-validated using both methods. PMID:25674069

  20. Introducing conjoint analysis method into delayed lotteries studies: its validity and time stability are higher than in adjusting.

    PubMed

    Białek, Michał; Markiewicz, Łukasz; Sawicki, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The delayed lotteries are much more common in everyday life than are pure lotteries. Usually, we need to wait to find out the outcome of the risky decision (e.g., investing in a stock market, engaging in a relationship). However, most research has studied the time discounting and probability discounting in isolation using the methodologies designed specifically to track changes in one parameter. Most commonly used method is adjusting, but its reported validity and time stability in research on discounting are suboptimal. The goal of this study was to introduce the novel method for analyzing delayed lotteries-conjoint analysis-which hypothetically is more suitable for analyzing individual preferences in this area. A set of two studies compared the conjoint analysis with adjusting. The results suggest that individual parameters of discounting strength estimated with conjoint have higher predictive value (Study 1 and 2), and they are more stable over time (Study 2) compared to adjusting. We discuss these findings, despite the exploratory character of reported studies, by suggesting that future research on delayed lotteries should be cross-validated using both methods. PMID:25674069

  1. Quantum reaction rate from higher derivatives of the thermal flux-flux autocorrelation function at time zero.

    PubMed

    Ceotto, Michele; Yang, Sandy; Miller, William H

    2005-01-22

    A quantum theory of thermal reaction rates is presented which may be viewed as an extension of the recently developed "quantum instanton" (QI) model [W. H. Miller, Y. Zhao, M. Ceotto, and S. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1329 (2003)]. It is based on using higher derivatives of the flux-flux autocorrelation function C(t) (as given by Miller, Schwartz, and Tromp) at t=0 to construct a short time approximation for C(t). Tests of this theory on 1d and collinear reactions, both symmetric and asymmetric, show it to be more accurate than the original QI model, giving rate constants to approximately 5% for a wide range of temperature. PMID:15740237

  2. Quantum reaction rate from higher derivatives of the thermal flux-flux autocorrelation function at time zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceotto, Michele; Yang, Sandy; Miller, William H.

    2005-01-01

    A quantum theory of thermal reaction rates is presented which may be viewed as an extension of the recently developed "quantum instanton" (QI) model [W. H. Miller, Y. Zhao, M. Ceotto, and S. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1329 (2003)]. It is based on using higher derivatives of the flux-flux autocorrelation function C(t) (as given by Miller, Schwartz, and Tromp) at t=0 to construct a short time approximation for C(t). Tests of this theory on 1d and collinear reactions, both symmetric and asymmetric, show it to be more accurate than the original QI model, giving rate constants to ˜5% for a wide range of temperature.

  3. HBAR-based 3.6 GHz oscillator with low power consumption and low phase noise.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongyu; Lee, Chuang-yuan; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Hao; Brannon, Alan; Kitching, John; Kim, Eun Sok

    2009-02-01

    We have designed and built 2 oscillators at 1.2 and 3.6 GHz based on high-overtone bulk acoustic resonators (HBARs) for application in chip-scale atomic clocks (CSACs). The measured phase noise of the 3.6 GHz oscillator is -67 dBc/Hz at 300 Hz offset and -100 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset. The Allan deviation of the free-running oscillator is 1.5 x 10(-9) at one second integration time and the power consumption is 3.2 mW. The low phase noise allows the oscillator to be locked to a CSAC physics package without significantly degrading the clock performance. PMID:19251528

  4. Energy-momentum conserving higher-order time integration of nonlinear dynamics of finite elastic fiber-reinforced continua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Norbert; Groß, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Since many years the relevance of fibre-reinforced polymers is steadily increasing in fields of engineering, especially in aircraft and automotive industry. Due to the high strength in fibre direction, but the possibility of lightweight construction, these composites replace more and more traditional materials as metals. Fibre-reinforced polymers are often manufactured from glass or carbon fibres as attachment parts or from steel or nylon cord as force transmission parts. Attachment parts are mostly subjected to small strains, but force transmission parts usually suffer large deformations in at least one direction. Here, a geometrically nonlinear formulation is necessary. Typical examples are helicopter rotor blades, where the fibres have the function to stabilize the structure in order to counteract large centrifugal forces. For long-run analyses of rotor blade deformations, we have to apply numerically stable time integrators for anisotropic materials. This paper presents higher-order accurate and numerically stable time stepping schemes for nonlinear elastic fibre-reinforced continua with anisotropic stress behaviour.

  5. Pattern formations in miscellaneous mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates and the higher-dimensional time-gated Manakov system

    SciTech Connect

    Kuetche, Victor K.; Bouetou, Thomas B.; Kofane, Timoleon C.; Moubissi, Alain B.; Porsezian, K.

    2010-11-15

    In this article, we investigate the structure and dynamics of miscellaneous mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates confined within a time-independent anisotropic parabolic trap potential. In the zero-temperature mean-field approximation leading to coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations for the macroscopic wave functions of the condensates, we show that these equations can be mapped onto the higher-dimensional time-gated Manakov system up to a first-order of accuracy. Paying particular attention to two-species mixtures and looking forward deriving a panel of miscellaneous excitations to the above equations, we analyze the singularity structure of the system by means of Weiss et al.'s [J. Weiss, M. Tabor, and G. Carnevale, J. Math. Phys. 24, 522 (1983); 25, 13 (1984).] methodology and provide its general Lax representation. As a result, we unearth a typical spectrum of localized and periodic coherent patterns while depicting elastic and nonelastic interactions among such structures alongside the splitting and resonance phenomena occurring during their motion.

  6. Real-time evaluation of individual cow milk for higher cheese-milk quality with increased cheese yield.

    PubMed

    Katz, G; Merin, U; Bezman, D; Lavie, S; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Leitner, G

    2016-06-01

    Cheese was produced in a series of experiments from milk separated in real time during milking by using the Afilab MCS milk classification service (Afikim, Israel), which is installed on the milk line in every stall and sorts milk in real time into 2 target tanks: the A tank for cheese production (CM) and the B tank for fluid milk products (FM). The cheese milk was prepared in varying ratios ranging from ~10:90 to ~90:10 CM:FM by using this system. Cheese was made with corrected protein-to-fat ratio and without it, as well as from milk stored at 4°C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8d before production. Cheese weight at 24h increased along the separation cutoff level with no difference in moisture, and dry matter increased. The data compiled allowed a theoretical calculation of cheese yield and comparing it to the original van Slyke equation. Whenever the value of Afi-Cf, which is the optical measure of curd firmness obtained by the Afilab instrument, was used, a better predicted level of cheese yield was obtained. In addition, 27 bulk milk tanks with milk separated at a 50:50 CM:FM ratio resulted in cheese with a significantly higher fat and protein, dry matter, and weight at 24h. Moreover, solids incorporated from the milk into the cheese were significantly higher in cheeses made of milk from A tanks. The influence of storage of milk up to 8d before cheese making was tested. Gross milk composition did not change and no differences were found in cheese moisture, but dry matter and protein incorporated in the cheese dropped significantly along the storage time. These findings confirm that milk stored for several days before processing is prone to physico-chemical deterioration processes, which result in loss of milk constituents to the whey and therefore reduced product yield. The study demonstrates that introducing the unknown parameters for calculating the predicted cheese yield, such as the empiric measured Afi-Cf properties, are more accurate and the increase in cheese

  7. A novel Fast Gas Chromatography based technique for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C10-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a ~ 14 min analysis time. Moreover, in situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an ~ 11 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to ~ 19 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). This corresponds to a two- to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest ~ 30 km west of central Tokyo, Japan, the

  8. Automated determination of P-phase arrival times at regional and local distances using higher order statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küperkoch, L.; Meier, T.; Lee, J.; Friederich, W.; Working Group, EGELADOS

    2010-05-01

    We present an algorithm for automatic P-phase arrival time determination for local and regional seismic events based on higher order statistics (HOS). Using skewness or kurtosis a characteristic function is determined to which a new iterative picking algorithm is applied. For P-phase identification we apply the Akaike Information Criterion to the characteristic function, while for a precise determination of the P-phase arrival time a pragmatic picking algorithm is applied to a recalculated characteristic function. In addition, an automatic quality estimate is obtained, based on the slope and the signal-to-noise ratio, both calculated from the characteristic function. To get rid of erroneous picks, a Jackknife procedure and an envelope function analysis is used. The algorithm is applied to a large data set with very heterogeneous qualities of P-onsets acquired by a temporary, regional seismic network of the EGELADOS-project in the southern Aegean. The reliability and robustness of the proposed algorithm is tested by comparing more than 3000 manually derived P readings, serving as reference picks, with the corresponding automatically estimated P-wave arrival times. We find an average deviation from the reference picks of 0.26 +/- 0.64s when using kurtosis and 0.38 +/- 0.75s when using skewness. If automatically as excellent classified picks are considered only, the average difference from the reference picks is 0.07 +/- 0.31s and 0.07 +/- 0.41s, respectively. However, substantially more P-arrival times are determined when using kurtosis, indicating that the characteristic function derived from kurtosis estimation is to be preferred. Since the characteristic function is calculated recursively, the algorithm is very fast and hence suited for earthquake early warning purposes. Furthermore, a comparative study with automatically derived P-readings using Allen's and Baer & Kradolfer's picking algorithms applied to the same data set demonstrates better quantitative and

  9. CROSSFLOW FILTRATION: EM-31, WP-2.3.6

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-02-01

    tests to evaluate methods to improve filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions and filter enhancers, filter flow rates can be increased over rates currently realized today. Experiments that use non-radioactive simulants for actual waste always carry the inherent risk of not eliciting prototypic results; however, they will assist in focusing the scope needed to minimize radioactive testing and thus maximize safety. To that end this investigation has determined: (1) Waste simulant SB6 was found to be more challenging to filtration than a SRS Tank 8F simulant; (2) Higher solids concentration presents a greater challenge to filtration; (3) Filter cake is something that should be properly developed in initial filter operation; (4) Backpulsing is not necessary to maintain a good filter flux with salt wastes; (5) Scouring a filter without cleaning will lead to improved filter performance; (6) The presence of a filter cake can improve the solids separation by an order of magnitude as determined by turbidity; (7) A well developed cake with periodic scouring may allow a good filter flux to be maintained for long periods of time; and (8) Filtrate flux decline is reversible when the concentration of the filtering slurry drops and the filter is scoured.

  10. Study of Interpolated Timing Recovery Phase-Locked Loop with Linearly Constrained Adaptive Prefilter for Higher-Density Optical Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, Yoshiyuki; Shiraishi, Junya; Kobayashi, Shoei; Yamagami, Tamotsu

    2009-03-01

    A digital phase-locked loop (PLL) with a linearly constrained adaptive filter (LCAF) has been studied for higher-linear-density optical discs. LCAF has been implemented before an interpolated timing recovery (ITR) PLL unit in order to improve the quality of phase error calculation by using an adaptively equalized partial response (PR) signal. Coefficient update of an asynchronous sampled adaptive FIR filter with a least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm has been constrained by a projection matrix in order to suppress the phase shift of the tap coefficients of the adaptive filter. We have developed projection matrices that are suitable for Blu-ray disc (BD) drive systems by numerical simulation. Results have shown the properties of the projection matrices. Then, we have designed the read channel system of the ITR PLL with an LCAF model on the FPGA board for experiments. Results have shown that the LCAF improves the tilt margins of 30 gigabytes (GB) recordable BD (BD-R) and 33 GB BD read-only memory (BD-ROM) with a sufficient LMS adaptation stability.

  11. The Henry reaction of (1R)-(1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-mannitol-2-yl)-1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-fructose 5,5'-dinitrate. Different reactive features of nitromethane to nitroethane.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng-Wu; Wang, Zhen-Ji; Song, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Sai-Yang; Liu, Hong-Min

    2009-12-14

    Henry reactions of a novel higher sugar derivative, (1R)-(1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-mannitol-2-yl)-1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-fructose 5,5'-dinitrate (Alternate nomenclature: (1R)-(isomannid-2-yl)-1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-fructose 5,5'-dinitrate), with nitromethane and nitroethane were studied. The kinetic and thermodynamic reactions with nitromethane under different conditions were carried out to afford (2S)- and (2R)-beta-nitroalcohols, respectively. But when using nitroethane the reaction gave a (2S)-beta-nitroalcohol with an inverted configuration at vicinal carbon C-1. Two stereogenic centers were generated, and one was altered in the reaction. PMID:19880098

  12. The Campus in Hard Times. New York's Higher Education Crisis. How It Happened. How It Can Be Resolved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paley, Henry D.

    How did the New York State system of colleges and universities arrive at the brink of fiscal disaster? What is a possible new perception of higher education financing for New York? The radical shift in enrollment from independent to government-sponsored campuses, and the steep escalation in tax-levy burden for higher education resulted in the New…

  13. Higher Education in Russia: Traditions and Modern Times (Report at the Seventh Congress of the Russian Union of Rectors)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadovnichii, V.

    2004-01-01

    This article represents a speech delivered by the author at the Seventh Congress of the Russian Union of Rectors. In his address, the author describes the current higher educational trend in Russia. He explains how higher education's orientation toward the state, its openness to all social classes, and its fundamental character are the principles…

  14. 36 CFR 3.6 - What are the requirements to operate a power driven vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements to operate a power driven vessel? 3.6 Section 3.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.6 What are the requirements to operate...

  15. 36 CFR 3.6 - What are the requirements to operate a power driven vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the requirements to operate a power driven vessel? 3.6 Section 3.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.6 What are the requirements to operate...

  16. Universities' Autonomy in Times of Changing Higher Education Governance: A Study of the Swiss Academic Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baschung, Lukas; Goastellec, Gaele; Leresche, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Although eternally debated, the issue of autonomy in higher education is rarely analysed in its complexity. To address this issue, this article uses an analytical matrix which combines the distinction between substantive and procedural autonomy and the distinction between HEI governing bodies, academic professions and individual academics. This…

  17. Quality after the Cuts? Higher Education Practitioners' Accounts of Systemic Challenges to Teaching Quality in Times of "Austerity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenbaum, Anna; Iqani, Mehita

    2015-01-01

    What are the ramifications of current changes in the higher education landscape in the UK for the ways in which teaching staff perceive their teaching practices? What impact are funding cuts, increases in student fees and the concomitant increased workloads having on faculty morale? How might this influence "quality cultures" in teaching…

  18. Funding System of Full-Time Higher Education and Technical Efficiency: Case of the University of Ljubljana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajnikar, Maks; Debevec, Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    The present paper tackles the issue of the higher education funding system in Slovenia. Its main attribute is that institutions are classified into study groups according to their fields of education, and funds granted by the state are based on their weights or study group factors (SGF). Analysis conducted using data envelopment analysis tested…

  19. Breaking the Mold: New Approaches for Higher Education in Tough Economic Times. Complete to Compete Briefing Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Human capital is the key to economic development. Without highly-skilled workers, states and territories cannot attract the productive businesses they need. That makes higher education a key element of any governor's growth strategy. But many public colleges and universities are struggling to produce more graduates. Overall graduation rates often…

  20. Applying the Modality Principle to Real-Time Feedback and the Acquisition of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorella, Logan; Vogel-Walcutt, Jennifer J.; Schatz, Sae

    2012-01-01

    Effectively presenting complex material is a crucial component of instructional design within simulation-based training (SBT) environments. One approach to facilitate the acquisition of higher-order knowledge is to embed instructional strategies within the systems themselves. Currently, however, there are few established guidelines to inform…

  1. Unprecedented Times in the Professionalisation and State Regulation of Counselling and Psychotherapy: The Role of the Higher Education Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    This article considers a number of issues facing those involved in counselling and psychotherapy training within United Kingdom Higher Education Institutes. It is proposed that the increasing professionalisation of counselling and psychotherapy has significant implications for lecturers and trainers. The article will explore the tension between…

  2. Just-in-Time Research: A Call to Arms for Research into Mobile Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Dexter, Hilary; Hart, Jo; Cappelli, Tim; Byrne, Ged; Sampson, Ian; Mooney, Jane; Lumsden, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies are becoming commonplace in society and in education. In higher education, it is crucial to understand the impact of constant access to information on the development of the knowledge and competence of the learner. This study reports on a series of four surveys completed by UK-based medical students (n = 443) who received…

  3. A Lesson of Lost Political Capital in Public Higher Education: Leadership Challenges in a Time of Needed Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Mark; Jacobson, Rod

    2012-01-01

    All higher education institutions are struggling with a rapidly changing market and financial landscape. Here is a management-centered analysis of what happened when a college president, recognizing the need to make a radical adaptation to those changes, tried moving a campus community to a new organizational model, without collegial consensus,…

  4. Australian Higher Education Leaders in Times of Change: The Role of Pro Vice-Chancellor and Deputy Vice-Chancellor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Geoff; Bell, Sharon; Coates, Hamish; Grebennikov, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses responses provided by 31 Pro Vice-Chancellors (PVCs) and Deputy Vice-Chancellors (DVCs) who were part of a larger study of more than 500 higher education leaders in roles ranging from DVC to head of programme in 20 Australian universities. Using both quantitative and qualitative data the paper gives an insider's perspective on…

  5. A Call to Action on New England's Innovation Economy: Will Business and Higher Education Answer This Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, William

    2003-01-01

    Mass Insight Corp, a public policy and communications firm that organizes public-private initiatives to support economic growth in Massachusetts, recently issued a new report, titled "An Economy at Risk," making the case for a Massachusetts economic development strategy organized around higher education and science and technology. Massachusetts,…

  6. 22 CFR 3.6 - Procedure to be followed by employees in depositing gifts of more than minimal value and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... depositing gifts of more than minimal value and reporting acceptance of travel or travel expenses. 3.6... reporting acceptance of travel or travel expenses. (a) An employee who has accepted a tangible gift of more... the time that an employee deposits gifts of more than minimal value for disposal or for official...

  7. 22 CFR 3.6 - Procedure to be followed by employees in depositing gifts of more than minimal value and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... depositing gifts of more than minimal value and reporting acceptance of travel or travel expenses. 3.6... reporting acceptance of travel or travel expenses. (a) An employee who has accepted a tangible gift of more... the time that an employee deposits gifts of more than minimal value for disposal or for official...

  8. 22 CFR 3.6 - Procedure to be followed by employees in depositing gifts of more than minimal value and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... depositing gifts of more than minimal value and reporting acceptance of travel or travel expenses. 3.6... reporting acceptance of travel or travel expenses. (a) An employee who has accepted a tangible gift of more... the time that an employee deposits gifts of more than minimal value for disposal or for official...

  9. 22 CFR 3.6 - Procedure to be followed by employees in depositing gifts of more than minimal value and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... depositing gifts of more than minimal value and reporting acceptance of travel or travel expenses. 3.6... reporting acceptance of travel or travel expenses. (a) An employee who has accepted a tangible gift of more... the time that an employee deposits gifts of more than minimal value for disposal or for official...

  10. The Hidden Benefits of Part-Time Higher Education Study to Working Practices: Is There a Case for Making Them More Visible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire; Little, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Within the UK, part-time study is now seen as important in meeting wider government objectives for higher education (HE) and for sustainable economic growth through skills development. Yet, measures to capture the impact of HE may not be wholly appropriate to part-time study. In particular, the continuing focus on tangible, economic measures may…

  11. Maintaining Quality in Troubled Times. Pacific Rim Association for Higher Education Annual Conference (2nd, Seattle, Washington, October 13-14, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Rim Association for Higher Education.

    Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Association for Higher Education 1981 conference are summarized. Authors and the summarized papers are as follows: "Maintaining Quality in Troubled Times: The University Perspective" (George M. Beckmann); "Maintaining Quality in Troubled Times: The Community College Perspective" (Don A. Morgan); "Report from China"…

  12. Examining the Potential Impact of Full Tuition Fees on Mature Part-Time Students in English Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines current part-time mature learners' views on the potential impact upon future students as full fees are introduced from 2012. It investigates the problems which part-time mature learners may face with the advent of student loans and subsequent debt, given that they are usually combining complex lives with their studies,…

  13. Full-Time Employed Students as University Consumers--Consequences and Triggers of Marketisation of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mägi, Eve; Jaakson, Krista; Aidla, Anne; Kirss, Laura; Reino, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on a qualitative study of student employment patterns among students who both study and work full-time. In the study, 17 employed bachelor students at state-commissioned study places in three Estonian universities, 12 lecturers from the same universities, and 13 employers supervising those full-time students, were interviewed.…

  14. Higher rank Wilson loops in the {N}=2{SU}(N)\\times {SU}(N) conformal quiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Benjo

    2016-01-01

    In this note we compute the expectation value of a circular supersymmetric Wilson loop in the ‘higher rank’ totally symmetric and antisymmetric representations of {SU}(N) in the {\\hat{A}}1 quiver {N}=2 conformal field theory, using a matrix model. We discuss the connection with a recent conjecture stating that expectation values of observables in this sector are obtained from {N}=4 super Yang-Mills theory by a universal renormalization of the ’t Hooft coupling.

  15. Factors Associated with Higher Sitting Time in General, Chronic Disease, and Psychologically-Distressed, Adult Populations: Findings from the 45 & Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Costigan, Sarah A.; Short, Camille; Grunseit, Anne; James, Erica; Johnson, Natalie; Bauman, Adrian; D’Este, Catherine; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Rhodes, Ryan E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with higher sitting time in general, chronic disease, and psychologically-distressed, adult populations (aged ≥45 years). A series of logistic regression models examined potential socio-demographic and health factors associated with higher sitting (≥6hrs/day) in adults from the 45 and Up Study (n = 227,187), including four separate subsamples for analysis comprising those who had ever had heart disease (n = 26,599), cancer (n = 36,381), diabetes (n = 19,550) or psychological distress (n = 48,334). Odds of higher sitting were significantly (p<.01) associated with a number of factors across these groups, with an effect size of ORs≥1.5 observed for the high-income ≥$70,000AUD, employed full-time and severe physical limitations demographics. Identification of key factors associated with higher sitting time in this population-based sample will assist development of broad-based, public health and targeted strategies to reduce sitting-time. In particular, those categorized as being high-income earners, full-time workers, as well as those with severe physical limitations need to be of priority, as higher sitting appears to be substantial across these groups. PMID:26039739

  16. A television in the bedroom is associated with higher weekday screen time among youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Charmaine B.; Waring, Molly E.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A TV in the bedroom has been associated with screen time in youth. Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) have higher rates of screen time, but associations with bedroom TVs are unknown in this population. We examined the association of having a bedroom TV with screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. Methods Data were from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Youth 6–17 years whose parent/guardian reported a physician's diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (n = 7024) were included in the analysis. Parents/guardians reported the presence of a bedroom TV and average weekday TV screen time. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models assessed the effects of a bedroom on screen time. Results Youth with ADD/ADHD engaged in screen time with an average of 149.1 min/weekday and 59% had a TV in their bedroom. Adjusting for child and family characteristics, having a TV in the bedroom was associated with 25 minute higher daily screen time (95% CI: 12.8–37.4 min/day). A bedroom TV was associated with 32% higher odds of engaging in screen time for over 2 h/day (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0–1.7). Conclusion Future research should explore whether removing TVs from bedrooms reduces screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. PMID:25599016

  17. Characterization of galactic bars from 3.6 μm S4G imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-García, S.; Salo, H.; Laurikainen, E.; Herrera-Endoqui, M.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Stellar bars play an essential role in the secular evolution of disk galaxies because they are responsible for the redistribution of matter and angular momentum. Dynamical models predict that bars become stronger and longer in time, while their rotation speed slows down. Aims: We use the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) 3.6 μm imaging to study the properties (length and strength) and fraction of bars at z = 0 over a wide range of galaxy masses (M∗ ≈ 108-1011 M⊙) and Hubble types (-3 ≤ T ≤ 10). Methods: We calculated gravitational forces from the 3.6 μm images for galaxies with a disk inclination lower than 65°. We used the maximum of the tangential-to-radial force ratio in the bar region (Qb) as a measure of the bar-induced perturbation strength for a sample of ~600 barred galaxies. We also used the maximum of the normalized m = 2 Fourier density amplitude (A2max) to characterize the bar. Bar sizes were estimated i) visually; ii) from ellipse fitting; iii) from the radii of the strongest torque; and iv) from the radii of the largest m = 2 Fourier amplitude in the bar region. By combining our force calculations with the H i kinematics from the literature, we estimated the ratio of the halo-to-stellar mass (Mh/M∗) within the optical disk and by further using the universal rotation curve models, we obtained a first-order model of the rotation curve decomposition of 1128 disk galaxies. Results: We probe possible sources of uncertainty in our Qb measurements: the assumed scale height and its radial variation, the influence of the spiral arms torques, the effect of non-stellar emission in the bar region, and the dilution of the bar forces by the dark matter halo (our models imply that only ~10% of the disks in our sample are maximal). We find that for early- and intermediate-type disks (-3 ≤ T< 5), the relatively modest influence of the dark matter halo leads to a systematic reduction of the mean Qb by about 10-15%, which is

  18. Pulling Structured Inequality into Higher Education: The Impact of Part-Time Working on English University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Robin

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the social and academic effects of term-time working on undergraduate students at an English university. Data initially collected via a survey of student social relationships were enhanced by the inclusion of end-of-year academic performance. Various inferential statistical techniques were used to identify these effects. Path…

  19. Does a Higher Incidence of Break Times in Primary Schools Result in Children Being More Physically Active?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Erkelenz, Nanette; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity (PA) has multiple benefits to health; however, the majority of schoolchildren do not reach PA guidelines of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) daily. During the school day, break times are often the only opportunity for children to be physically active. This study investigated PA levels during school…

  20. Recruitment and Retention of Full-Time Engineering Faculty, Fall 1980. Higher Education Panel Report Number 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atelsek, Frank J.; Gomberg, Irene L.

    The extent of faculty vacancies in colleges of engineering, the effects of such vacancies upon research and instructional programs, and the nature of the competition between academia and industry in hiring engineering faculty were surveyed. The focus is on permanent full-time faculty positions in the following major engineering fields:…

  1. Part-Time Faculty Personnel Management Policies. American Council on Education/Macmillan Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biles, George E.; Tuckman, Howard P.

    A framework for integrating part-time college faculty into an existing institutional structure is presented. Suggestions are offered on ways that department and division heads can make personnel policies that meet both the part-timer's need for fairness, certainty, and structure, and the college's need for flexibility and order. Policies are…

  2. Flexible Pedagogies: Part-Time Learners and Learning in Higher Education. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLinden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on national and international policy initiatives to develop a better understanding of part-time learners and the types of flexibility that may enhance their study especially pedagogically. As part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future" it: (1) highlights the challenges…

  3. The Economic Domino Effect: A Phenomenological Study Exploring Community College Faculty's Lived Experiences during Financial Hard Times in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tridai A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of eight full-time community college faculty members who taught during the economic crisis of 2008. The study was guided by the central research question, "How do community college faculty members describe their lived experiences regarding the recent economic crisis of 2008 and its impact…

  4. Time-variant fMRI activity in the brainstem and higher structures in response to acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Napadow, Vitaly; Dhond, Rupali; Park, Kyungmo; Kim, Jieun; Makris, Nikos; Kwong, Kenneth K; Harris, Richard E; Purdon, Patrick L; Kettner, Norman; Hui, Kathleen K S

    2009-08-01

    Acupuncture modulation of activity in the human brainstem is not well known. This structure is plagued by physiological artifact in neuroimaging experiments. In addition, most studies have used short (<15 min) block designs, which miss delayed responses following longer duration stimulation. We used brainstem-focused cardiac-gated fMRI and evaluated time-variant brain response to longer duration (>30 min) stimulation with verum (VA, electro-stimulation at acupoint ST-36) or sham point (SPA, non-acupoint electro-stimulation) acupuncture. Our results provide evidence that acupuncture modulates brainstem nuclei important to endogenous monoaminergic and opioidergic systems. Specifically, VA modulated activity in the substantia nigra (SN), nucleus raphe magnus, locus ceruleus, nucleus cuneiformis, and periaqueductal gray (PAG). Activation in the ventrolateral PAG was greater for VA compared to SPA. Linearly decreasing time-variant activation, suggesting classical habituation, was found in response to both VA and SPA in sensorimotor (SII, posterior insula, premotor cortex) brain regions. However, VA also produced linearly time-variant activity in limbic regions (amygdala, hippocampus, and SN), which was bimodal and not likely habituation--consisting of activation in early blocks, and deactivation by the end of the run. Thus, acupuncture induces different brain response early, compared to 20-30 min after stimulation. We attribute the fMRI differences between VA and SPA to more varied and stronger psychophysical response induced by VA. Our study demonstrates that acupuncture modulation of brainstem structures can be studied non-invasively in humans, allowing for comparison to animal studies. Our protocol also demonstrates a fMRI approach to study habituation and other time-variant phenomena over longer time durations. PMID:19345268

  5. A Sequential Linear Quadratic Approach for Constrained Nonlinear Optimal Control with Adaptive Time Discretization and Application to Higher Elevation Mars Landing Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Amit

    A sequential quadratic programming method is proposed for solving nonlinear optimal control problems subject to general path constraints including mixed state-control and state only constraints. The proposed algorithm further develops on the approach proposed in [1] with objective to eliminate the use of a high number of time intervals for arriving at an optimal solution. This is done by introducing an adaptive time discretization to allow formation of a desirable control profile without utilizing a lot of intervals. The use of fewer time intervals reduces the computation time considerably. This algorithm is further used in this thesis to solve a trajectory planning problem for higher elevation Mars landing.

  6. Simulation of electrical discharge in a 3.6 Joule miniature plasma focus device using SIMULINK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Hossein; Habibi, Morteza

    2014-08-01

    A novel technique has been developed and studied in this paper to simulate the electrical discharge circuit of a 3.6 J miniature plasma focus device (PFD) and investigate the effect of inductance variation on voltage spike and current dip. The technique is based on a correlation between the electrical discharge circuit and plasma dynamics in a very small PFD that operates at the energy of 3.6 J. The simulation inputs include the charging voltage, capacitor bank capacitance, current limiter resistance, by-pass resistance as well as the time-dependent inductance and resistance of the plasma sheath which are calculated by assuming the plasma dynamics as transit times in going from one phase to the next. The variations of the most important elements in the circuit (i.e. the constant and breakdown inductances) and their effects on the current dip are studied in PFDs with low and high constant inductance. The model demonstrated for achieving a good pinch in the PFD, although the total inductance of the system should be low; however there is always an optimum inductance which causes an appropriate pinch. Furthermore, the electrical power produced by the pulsed power supply, the mechanical energy as well as the magnetic energy which are transferred into the plasma tube were obtained from simulation. The graph of electrical power demonstrated a high instantaneous increment in the power transferred into the plasma as one of the greatest advantages of the pulsed power supply. The simulation was performed using software tools within the MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation environment.

  7. Progress integrating ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology with accessory mineral geochemistry: towards better accuracy and higher precision time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoene, B.; Samperton, K. M.; Crowley, J. L.; Cottle, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    It is increasingly common that hand samples of plutonic and volcanic rocks contain zircon with dates that span between zero and >100 ka. This recognition comes from the increased application of U-series geochronology on young volcanic rocks and the increased precision to better than 0.1% on single zircons by the U-Pb ID-TIMS method. It has thus become more difficult to interpret such complicated datasets in terms of ashbed eruption or magma emplacement, which are critical constraints for geochronologic applications ranging from biotic evolution and the stratigraphic record to magmatic and metamorphic processes in orogenic belts. It is important, therefore, to develop methods that aid in interpreting which minerals, if any, date the targeted process. One promising tactic is to better integrate accessory mineral geochemistry with high-precision ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology. These dual constraints can 1) identify cogenetic populations of minerals, and 2) record magmatic or metamorphic fluid evolution through time. Goal (1) has been widely sought with in situ geochronology and geochemical analysis but is limited by low-precision dates. Recent work has attempted to bridge this gap by retrieving the typically discarded elution from ion exchange chemistry that precedes ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology and analyzing it by ICP-MS (U-Pb TIMS-TEA). The result integrates geochemistry and high-precision geochronology from the exact same volume of material. The limitation of this method is the relatively coarse spatial resolution compared to in situ techniques, and thus averages potentially complicated trace element profiles through single minerals or mineral fragments. In continued work, we test the effect of this on zircon by beginning with CL imaging to reveal internal zonation and growth histories. This is followed by in situ LA-ICPMS trace element transects of imaged grains to reveal internal geochemical zonation. The same grains are then removed from grain-mount, fragmented, and

  8. Prevalence of Bloodstream Pathogens Is Higher in Neonatal Encephalopathy Cases vs. Controls Using a Novel Panel of Real-Time PCR Assays

    PubMed Central

    Tann, Cally J.; Nkurunziza, Peter; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Oweka, James; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.; Were, Jackson; Nyombi, Natasha; Hughes, Peter; Willey, Barbara A.; Elliott, Alison M.; Robertson, Nicola J.; Klein, Nigel; Harris, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In neonatal encephalopathy (NE), infectious co-morbidity is difficult to diagnose accurately, but may increase the vulnerability of the developing brain to hypoxia-ischemia. We developed a novel panel of species-specific real-time PCR assays to identify bloodstream pathogens amongst newborns with and without NE in Uganda. Methodology Multiplex real-time PCR assays for important neonatal bloodstream pathogens (gram positive and gram negative bacteria, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus(HSV) and P. falciparum) were performed on whole blood taken from 202 encephalopathic and 101 control infants. Automated blood culture (BACTEC) was performed for all cases and unwell controls. Principal Findings Prevalence of pathogenic bacterial species amongst infants with NE was 3.6%, 6.9% and 8.9%, with culture, PCR and both tests in combination, respectively. More encephalopathic infants than controls had pathogenic bacterial species detected (8.9%vs2.0%, p = 0.028) using culture and PCR in combination. PCR detected bacteremia in 11 culture negative encephalopathic infants (3 Group B Streptococcus, 1 Group A Streptococcus, 1 Staphylococcus aureus and 6 Enterobacteriacae). Coagulase negative staphylococcus, frequently detected by PCR amongst case and control infants, was considered a contaminant. Prevalence of CMV, HSV and malaria amongst cases was low (1.5%, 0.5% and 0.5%, respectively). Conclusion/Significance This real-time PCR panel detected more bacteremia than culture alone and provides a novel tool for detection of neonatal bloodstream pathogens that may be applied across a range of clinical situations and settings. Significantly more encephalopathic infants than controls had pathogenic bacterial species detected suggesting that infection may be an important risk factor for NE in this setting. PMID:24836781

  9. Comparison of Oral and Intranasal Midazolam/Ketamine Sedation in 3-6-year-old Uncooperative Dental Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fallahinejad Ghajari, Masoud; Ansari, Ghassem; Soleymani, Ali Asghar; Shayeghi, Shahnaz; Fotuhi Ardakani, Faezeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. There are several known sedative drugs, with midazolam and ketamine being the most commonly used drugs in children. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of intranasal and oral midazolam plus ketamine in children with high levels of dental anxiety. Materials and methods.A crossover double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 23 uncooperative children aged 3-6 (negative or definitely negative by Frankel scale), who required at least two similar dental treatment visits. Cases were randomly given ketamine (10 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) through oral or intranasal routes in each visit. The sedative efficacy of the agents was assessed by an overall success rate judged by two independent pediatric dentists based on Houpt’s scale for sedation. Data analysis was carried out using Wilcoxon test and paired t-test. Results. Intranasal administration was more effective in reduction of crying and movement during dental procedures compared to oral sedation (P<0.05). Overall behavior control was scored higher in nasal compared to oral routes at the time of LA injection and after 15 minutes (P<0.05). The difference was found to be statistically significant at the start and during treatment. However, the difference was no longer significant after 30 minutes, with the vital signs remaining within physiological limits. Recovery time was longer in the intranasal group (P<0.001) with a more sleepy face (P=0.004). Conclusion.. Intranasal midazolam/ketamine combination was more satisfactory and effective than the oral route when sedating uncooperative children. PMID:26236429

  10. Late time acceleration of the 3-space in a higher dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin

    2013-02-01

    We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an arbitrary dilaton coupling constant w and exponential dilaton self-interaction potentials in the string frame. We focus particularly on the class in which the 3-space expands with a time varying deceleration parameter. We discuss the number of the internal dimensions and the value of the dilaton coupling constant to determine the cases that are consistent with the observed universe and the primordial nucleosynthesis. The 3-space starts with a decelerated expansion rate and evolves into accelerated expansion phase subject to the values of w and n, but ends with a Big Rip in all cases. We discuss the cosmological evolution in further detail for the cases w = 1 and w = ½ that permit exact solutions. We also comment on how the universe would be conceived by an observer in four dimensions who is unaware of the internal dimensions and thinks that the conventional general relativity is valid at cosmological scales.

  11. 39 CFR 3.6 - Information furnished to Board-financial and operating reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Balance sheet information; (4) service quality measurements; (5) productivity measurements (reflecting... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information furnished to Board-financial and operating reports. 3.6 Section 3.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF...

  12. 41 CFR 51-3.6 - Reports to central nonprofit agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reports to central nonprofit agencies. 51-3.6 Section 51-3.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED...

  13. 29 CFR 3.6 - Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.6 Section 3.6 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS ON....6 Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor. Any contractor...

  14. Development and Evaluation of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) Model v3.6

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed new canopy emission algorithms and land use data for BEIS v3.6. Simulations with BEIS v3.4 and BEIS v3.6 in CMAQ v5.0.2 are compared these changes to the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and evaluated the simulations against observati...

  15. Lactation and appetite-regulating hormones: increased maternal plasma peptide YY concentrations 3-6 months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Vila, Greisa; Hopfgartner, Judith; Grimm, Gabriele; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Clodi, Martin; Luger, Anton

    2015-10-28

    Breast-feeding is associated with maternal hormonal and metabolic changes ensuring adequate milk production. In this study, we investigate the impact of breast-feeding on the profile of changes in maternal appetite-regulating hormones 3-6 months postpartum. Study participants were age- and BMI-matched lactating mothers (n 10), non-lactating mothers (n 9) and women without any history of pregnancy or breast-feeding in the previous 12 months (control group, n 10). During study sessions, young mothers breast-fed or bottle-fed their babies, and maternal blood samples were collected at five time points during 90 min: before, during and after feeding the babies. Outcome parameters were plasma concentrations of ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), leptin, adiponectin, prolactin, cortisol, insulin, glucose and lipid values. At baseline, circulating PYY concentrations were significantly increased in lactating mothers (100·3 (se 6·7) pg/ml) v. non-lactating mothers (73·6 (se 4·9) pg/ml, P=0·008) and v. the control group (70·2 (se 9) pg/ml, P=0·021). We found no differences in ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin values. Baseline prolactin concentrations were over 4-fold higher in lactating mothers (P<0·001). Lactating women had reduced TAG levels and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, but increased waist circumference, when compared with non-lactating women. Breast-feeding sessions further elevated circulating prolactin (P<0·001), but induced no acute effects on appetite-regulating hormones. In summary, one single breast-feeding session did not acutely modulate circulating appetite-regulating hormones, but increased baseline PYY concentrations are associated with prolonged lactation. PYY might play a role in the coordination of energy balance during lactation, increasing fat mobilisation from maternal depots and ensuring adequate milk production for the demands of the growing infant. PMID:26299586

  16. Widespread Plains Volcanism on Mercury Ended by 3.6 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, P. K.; Ostrach, L. R.; Fassett, C.; Chapman, C. R.; Evans, A. J.; Klimczak, C.; Banks, M. E.; Head, J. W., III; Solomon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The largest volcanic plains deposits on Mercury are situated in its northern hemisphere and include the extensive northern smooth plains and the Caloris interior plains. Crater size-frequency analyses have shown that both deposits were emplaced around 3.8 Ga, for any of the published model production function (MPF) chronologies for impact crater formation on Mercury. The largest volcanic deposit in the southern hemisphere, the Rembrandt interior plains, has a model age of ~3.7 Ga. To test the hypothesis that all major volcanic smooth plains on Mercury were emplaced at about the same time, we determined crater size-frequency distributions for nine additional deposits (see Table 1). The diameters of craters that superpose the smooth plains at each site were measured with CraterTools, yielding crater areal densities in terms of N(10), the number of craters ≥10 km in diameter per 106 km2 area (Table 1). Our crater density measurements span N(10) values of 29-146, a range that encompasses corresponding values for the larger areas of smooth plains. With CraterStats, we fit our data (for craters ≥4 km in diameter) to the MPF chronologies of Le Feuvre and Wieczorek. For porous scaling, the model ages of all nine sites span a narrow window (Table 1). Non-porous scaling fails to match the crater size-frequency distributions. We show that widespread plains volcanism, likely the primary process by which Mercury's crust developed, had ended by 3.6 Ga. Younger volcanic deposits have been identified on the planet, but only within impact structures and at volumes much less than the smallest deposit considered here. Superposition relations between shortening landforms and craters on Mercury indicate that global contraction in response to interior cooling was underway by ~3.6 Ga. The cessation of widespread plains volcanism on Mercury may therefore reflect the onset of a stress state within the planet's lithosphere that inhibited magma ascent. Conversely, mantle thermochemical

  17. 39 CFR 3.6 - Information furnished to Board-financial and operating reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... U.S. POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF GOVERNORS (ARTICLE III) § 3.6 Information furnished to Board—financial... the most recent accounting periods for which data are available, postal management shall furnish...

  18. Early diet affects the development of 3-6 Hz EEG activity in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This longitudinal study investigated whether diet affects brain physiological functions during infancy. Power spectra (3-6 Hz) of electroencephalographic signals (high density recordings) in the bilateral prefrontal, frontal, central, parietal, occipital, anterior temporal, mid-temporal, and posteri...

  19. Higher-order in time "quasi-unconditionally stable" ADI solvers for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in 2D and 3D curvilinear domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Oscar P.; Cubillos, Max

    2016-02-01

    This paper introduces alternating-direction implicit (ADI) solvers of higher order of time-accuracy (orders two to six) for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in two- and three-dimensional curvilinear domains. The higher-order accuracy in time results from 1) An application of the backward differentiation formulae time-stepping algorithm (BDF) in conjunction with 2) A BDF-like extrapolation technique for certain components of the nonlinear terms (which makes use of nonlinear solves unnecessary), as well as 3) A novel application of the Douglas-Gunn splitting (which greatly facilitates handling of boundary conditions while preserving higher-order accuracy in time). As suggested by our theoretical analysis of the algorithms for a variety of special cases, an extensive set of numerical experiments clearly indicate that all of the BDF-based ADI algorithms proposed in this paper are "quasi-unconditionally stable" in the following sense: each algorithm is stable for all couples (h , Δt)of spatial and temporal mesh sizes in a problem-dependent rectangular neighborhood of the form (0 ,Mh) × (0 ,Mt). In other words, for each fixed value of Δt below a certain threshold, the Navier-Stokes solvers presented in this paper are stable for arbitrarily small spatial mesh-sizes. The second-order formulation has further been rigorously shown to be unconditionally stable for linear hyperbolic and parabolic equations in two-dimensional space. Although implicit ADI solvers for the Navier-Stokes equations with nominal second-order of temporal accuracy have been proposed in the past, the algorithms presented in this paper are the first ADI-based Navier-Stokes solvers for which second-order or better accuracy has been verified in practice under non-trivial (non-periodic) boundary conditions.

  20. Real-time object recognition in multidimensional images based on joined extended structural tensor and higher-order tensor decomposition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyganek, Boguslaw; Smolka, Bogdan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper a system for real-time recognition of objects in multidimensional video signals is proposed. Object recognition is done by pattern projection into the tensor subspaces obtained from the factorization of the signal tensors representing the input signal. However, instead of taking only the intensity signal the novelty of this paper is first to build the Extended Structural Tensor representation from the intensity signal that conveys information on signal intensities, as well as on higher-order statistics of the input signals. This way the higher-order input pattern tensors are built from the training samples. Then, the tensor subspaces are built based on the Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition of the prototype pattern tensors. Finally, recognition relies on measurements of the distance of a test pattern projected into the tensor subspaces obtained from the training tensors. Due to high-dimensionality of the input data, tensor based methods require high memory and computational resources. However, recent achievements in the technology of the multi-core microprocessors and graphic cards allows real-time operation of the multidimensional methods as is shown and analyzed in this paper based on real examples of object detection in digital images.

  1. Synthesis of 3,5- and 3,6-linked calix[n]naphthalenes.

    PubMed

    Shorthill, Berkeley J; Granucci, Robert G; Powell, Douglas R; Glass, Timothy E

    2002-02-01

    The preparation of calix[n]naphthalenes from derivatives of 2,7-dihydroxynaphthalene is described. 1,8-Dialkyl substitution is used to direct the regiochemistry of the acid-catalyzed condensation reactions. Acyclic peri substituents lead to a 3,5-linked calix[3]naphthalene, whereas cyclic peri substituents give predominantly a calix[5]naphthalene with the corresponding 3,6-linkage. The 3,6-linked calix[4]naphthalene is prepared in pure form by a dimerization strategy. PMID:11856035

  2. Younger age at initiation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination series is associated with higher rates of on-time completion.

    PubMed

    St Sauver, Jennifer L; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Ebbert, Jon O; Jacobson, Debra J; McGree, Michaela E; Jacobson, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Vaccination rates for human papillomavirus (HPV) have remained disappointingly low. It is critical to identify methods to increase on-time vaccine series completion rates (before 13 or 15years). To determine whether younger age (9 to 10years of age) at HPV vaccine series initiation was associated with improved on-time completion rates compared to initiation at 11 to 12years, we examined the prevalence of on-time HPV vaccine series completion rates from August 2006 through December 2012 in a large, population-based cohort of children and adolescents (aged 9.5 to 27years) residing in Olmsted County, MN on December 31, 2012 (n=36,223). We compared age at vaccine initiation between individuals who successfully completed both 2 and 3 doses of the vaccination series on-time (before age 13.5 or 15.0years) using multivariate logistic regression. On-time completion of both 2 and 3 doses of the vaccine series by age 13.5 or 15.0years was significantly associated with initiation at 9 to 10years as compared to 11 to 12years after adjusting for sex, race, insurance status, frequent health care visits, and year of first vaccination (all p<.01). Interventions focused on beginning the vaccination series at 9 to 10years of age may result in higher rates of timely series completion. PMID:26930513

  3. Dynamics of higher-order rational solitons for the nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the self-induced parity-time-symmetric potential.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Yong; Yan, Zhenya; Yang, Yunqing

    2016-06-01

    The integrable nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the self-induced parity-time-symmetric potential [M. J. Ablowitz and Z. H. Musslimani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 064105 (2013)] is investigated, which is an integrable extension of the standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Its novel higher-order rational solitons are found using the nonlocal version of the generalized perturbation (1,N-1)-fold Darboux transformation. These rational solitons illustrate abundant wave structures for the distinct choices of parameters (e.g., the strong and weak interactions of bright and dark rational solitons). Moreover, we also explore the dynamical behaviors of these higher-order rational solitons with some small noises on the basis of numerical simulations. PMID:27368788

  4. EQ3/6 software test and verification report 9/94

    SciTech Connect

    Kishi, T.

    1996-02-01

    This document is the Software Test and Verification Report (STVR) for the EQ3/6 suite of codes as stipulated in the Individual Software Plan for Initial Qualification of EQ3/6 (ISP-NF-07, Revision 1, 11/25/92). The software codes, EQPT, EQ3NR, EQ6, and the software library EQLIB constitute the EQ3/6 software package. This software test and verification project for EQ3/6 was started under the requirements of the LLNL Yucca Mountain Project Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP), Revision 0, December 14, 1989, but QP 3.2, Revision 2, June 21, 1994 is now the operative controlling procedure. This is a ``V and V`` report in the language of QP 3.2, Revision 2. Because the author of this report does not have a background in geochemistry, other technical sources were consulted in order to acquire some familiarity with geochemisty, the terminology minology involved, and to review comparable computational methods especially, geochemical aqueous speciation-solubility calculations. The software for the EQ3/6 package consists of approximately 47,000 lines of FORTRAN77 source code and nine on platforms ranging from workstations to supercomputers. The physical control of EQ3/6 software package and documentation is on a SUN SPARC station. Walkthroughs of each principal software packages, EQPT, EQ3NR, and EQ6 were conducted in order to understand the computational procedures involved, to determine any commonality in procedures, and then to establish a plan for the test and verification of EQ3/6. It became evident that all three phases depended upon solving an n x n matrix by the Newton-Raphson Method. Thus, a great deal of emphasis on the test and verification of this procedure was carried out on the first code in the software package EQPT.

  5. Conformationally armed 3,6-tethered glycosyl donors: synthesis, conformation, reactivity, and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Heuckendorff, Mads; Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Bols, Mikael

    2013-07-19

    The reactivity and selectivity of 3,6-tethered glycosyl donors have been studied using acceptors with different steric and electronic characteristics. Eight (four anomeric pairs) 3,6-bridged-glycosyl donors were synthesized in high yields from their common parent sugars. The glycosylation properties were tested using at least three different acceptors and several promoter systems. Thiophenyl 2,4-di-O-benzyl-3,6-O-(di-tert-butylsilylene)-α-D-glucopyranoside gave α/β mixtures with standard NIS/TfOH mediated activation, whereas the corresponding fluoride was found to be highly β-selective, when using SnCl2/AgB(C6F5)4 as the promoter system. Mannosyl donors were highly α-selective despite the altered conformation. Galactosylations using NIS/TfOH were generally α-selective, but more β-selective using the galactosyl fluoride and depending on the acceptor used. Thiophenyl 2-azido-2-deoxy-4-O-benzyl-3,6-O-(di-tert-butylsilylene)-α-D-glucopyranoside was found to be α-selective. The reactivity of the donors was investigated using competition experiments, and some but not all were found to be highly reactive. Generally it was found that the α-thioglycosides were significantly more reactive than the β; this difference in reactivity was not found for 3,6-anhydro-, armed-(benzylated), or the classic super armed (silylated) donors. A mechanism supporting the unusual observations has been suggested. PMID:23786671

  6. Enhanced antioxidant activity of gold nanoparticle embedded 3,6-dihydroxyflavone: a combinational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medhe, Sharad; Bansal, Prachi; Srivastava, Man Mohan

    2012-12-01

    The antioxidative effect of selected dietary compounds (3,6-dihydroxyflavone, lutein and selenium methyl selenocysteine) was determined in single and combination using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl), OH (hydroxyl), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) and NO (nitric oxide) radical scavenging assays. Radical scavenging effect of the dietary phytochemicals individually are found to be in the order: ascorbic acid (standard) > lutein > 3,6-dihydroxyflavone > selenium methyl selenocysteine, at concentration 100 μg/ml, confirmed by all the four bioassays (p < 0.05). Among the various combinations studied, the triplet combination of 3,6-dihydroxyflavone, lutein and selenium methyl selenocysteine (1:1:1), exhibited enhancement in the target activity at same concentration level. Synthesized gold nanoparticle embedded 3,6-dihydroxyflavone further enhanced the target antioxidant activity. The combinational study including gold nanoparticle embedded 3,6-dihydroxyflavone with other native dietary nutrients showed remarkable increase in antioxidant activity at the same concentration level. The present in vitro study on combinational and nanotech enforcement of dietary phytochemicals shows the utility in the architecture of nanoparticle embedded phytoproducts having a wide range of applications in medical science.

  7. Reaction of Topopah Spring tuff with J-13 water: a geochemical modeling approach using the EQ3/6 reaction path code

    SciTech Connect

    Delany, J.M.

    1985-11-25

    EQ3/6 geochemical modeling code package was used to investigate the interaction of the Topopah Spring Tuff and J-13 water at high temperatures. EQ3/6 input parameters were obtained from the results of laboratory experiments using USW G-1 core and J-13 water. Laboratory experiments were run at 150 and 250{sup 0}C for 66 days using both wafer-size and crushed tuff. EQ3/6 modeling reproduced results of the 150{sup 0}C experiments except for a small increase in the concentration of potassium that occurs in the first few days of the experiments. At 250{sup 0}C, the EQ3/6 modeling reproduced the major water/rock reactions except for a small increase in potassium, similar to that noted above, and an overall increase in aluminum. The increase in potassium concentration cannot be explained at this time, but the increase in A1 concentration is believed to be caused by the lack of thermodynamic data in the EQ3/6 data base for dachiardite, a zeolite observed as a run product at 250{sup 0}C. The ability to reproduce the majority of the experimental rock/water interactions at 150{sup 0}C validates the use of EQ3/6 as a geochemical modeling tool that can be used to theoretically investigate physical/chemical environments in support of the Waste Package Task of NNWSI.

  8. Phenylated polyimides prepared from 3,6-diarylpyromellitic dianhydride and aromatic diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A new class of soluble phenylated polyimides made from 3,6-diarypyromellitic dianhydride and process for the manufacture of the 3,6-diarypyromellitic dianhydride starting material. The polyimides obtained with said dianhydride are readily soluble in appropriate organic solvents and are distinguished by excellent thermal, electrical and/or mechanical properties making the polyimides ideally suited as coating materials for microelectronic apparatii, as membranes for selective molecular separation or permeation or selective gas separation or permeation, or as reinforcing fibers in molecular composites, or as high modulus, high tensile strength fibers.

  9. The Louvain-La-Neuve sea ice model LIM3.6: global and regional capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, C.; Vancoppenolle, M.; Madec, G.; Fichefet, T.; Flavoni, S.; Barthélemy, A.; Benshila, R.; Chanut, J.; Levy, C.; Masson, S.; Vivier, F.

    2015-10-01

    The new 3.6 version of the Louvain-la-Neuve sea ice model (LIM) is presented, as integrated in the most recent stable release of Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) (3.6). The release will be used for the next Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP6). Developments focussed around three axes: improvements of robustness, versatility and sophistication of the code, which involved numerous changes. Robustness was improved by enforcing exact conservation through the inspection of the different processes driving the air-ice-ocean exchanges of heat, mass and salt. Versatility was enhanced by implementing lateral boundary conditions for sea ice and more flexible ice thickness categories. The latter includes a more practical computation of category boundaries, parameterizations to use LIM3.6 with a single ice category and a flux redistributor for coupling with atmospheric models that cannot handle multiple sub-grid fluxes. Sophistication was upgraded by including the effect of ice and snow weight on the sea surface. We illustrate some of the new capabilities of the code in two standard simulations. One is an ORCA2-LIM3 global simulation at a nominal 2° resolution, forced by reference atmospheric climatologies. The other one is a regional simulation at 2 km resolution around the Svalbard Archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, with open boundaries and tides. We show that the LIM3.6 forms a solid and flexible base for future scientific studies and model developments.

  10. Rainbows: Stories and Customs from Around the World. Grades 3-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Naseem

    This book, appropriate for use in grades 3-6, presents information about nine regions of the world: Malaysia; Costa Rica; Taiwan; New Mexico, United States; Japan; India; Nigeria; Thailand; and China. Each region is presented in a three part format: (1) Background information provides a look at the geographical location, the flag, and the social…

  11. Scholastic Guide to Balanced Reading 3-6: Making It Work for You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltas, Joyce, Ed.; Shafer, Susan, Ed.

    Suggesting the need for a balance between literature and intentional skills instruction, this book provides grade 3-6 teachers and administrators with a theoretical base for creating a balanced reading program and gives educators a chance to step into actual classrooms where teachers have successfully implemented effective programs. Each chapter…

  12. Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James

    2006-01-01

    In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development of science inquiry, in which…

  13. Motivating Every Student in Literacy (Including the Highly Unmotivated!), Grades 3-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athans, Sandra K.; Devine, Denise Ashe

    2010-01-01

    "Motivating Every Student in Literacy (Including the Highly Unmotivated!), Grades 3-6" provides an effective model for improving reading levels and increasing motivation. Under the guidance of Athans and Devine, classroom leaders develop their own Motivation Improvement Action Plans, where small-group instruction, end-of-unit assessments, and…

  14. Kinetics of gas-liquid reaction between NO and Co(NH3)6(2+).

    PubMed

    Long, Xiang-li; Xiao, Wen-De; Yuan, Wei-kang

    2005-08-31

    Wet ammonia desulphurization process can be retrofitted for combined removal of SO2 and NO from the flue gas by adding soluble cobalt(II) salts into the aqueous ammonia solutions. The Co(NH3)6(2+) formed by ammonia binding with Co2+ is the active constituent of scrubbing NO from the flue gas streams. A stirred vessel with a plane gas-liquid interface was used to measure the chemical absorption rates of nitric oxide into the Co(NH3)6(2+) solution under anaerobic and aerobic conditions separately. The experiments manifest that the nitric oxide absorption reaction can be regarded as instantaneous when nitric oxide concentration levels are parts per million ranges. The gas-liquid reaction becomes gas film controlling as Co(NH3)6(2+) concentration exceeds 0.02 mol/l. The NO absorption rate is proportional to the nitric oxide inlet concentration. Oxygen in the gas phase is favorable to the absorption of nitric oxide. But it is of little significance to increase the oxygen concentration above 5.2%. The NO absorption rate decreases with temperature. The kinetic equation of NO absorption into the Co(NH3)6(2+) solution under aerobic condition can be written as. PMID:15869841

  15. Toolkit for Professional Developers: Training Targets 3?6 Grade Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMunn, Nancy; Dunnivant, Michael; Williamson, Jan; Reagan, Hope

    2004-01-01

    The professional development CAR Toolkit is focused on the assessment of reading process at the text level, rather than at the word level. Most students in grades 3-6 generally need support in comprehending text, not just decoding words. While the assessment of reading methods in the CAR Toolkit will help teachers pinpoint difficulties at the word…

  16. Elevated Temperature Creep Deformation in Solid Solution <001> NiAL-3.6Ti Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Noebe, Ronald D.; Darolia, Ram

    2003-01-01

    The 1100 to 1500 K slow plastic strain rate compressive properties of <001> oriented NiAl-3.6Ti single crystals have been measured, and the results suggests that two deformation processes exist. While the intermediate temperature/faster strain rate mechanism is uncertain, plastic flow at elevated temperature/slower strain rates in NiAl-3.6Ti appears to be controlled by solute drag as described by the Cottrell-Jaswon solute drag model for gliding b = a(sub 0)<101> dislocations. While the calculated activation energy of deformation is much higher (approximately 480 kJ/mol) than the activation energy for diffusion (approximately 290 kJ/mol) used in the Cottrell-Jaswon creep model, a forced temperature compensated - power law fit using the activation energy for diffusion was able to adequately (greater than 90%) predict the observed creep properties. Thus we conclude that the rejection of a diffusion controlled mechanism can not be simply based on a large numerical difference between the activation energies for deformation and diffusion.

  17. A 3.6V lithium-based fluorosulphate insertion positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recham, N.; Chotard, J.-N.; Dupont, L.; Delacourt, C.; Walker, W.; Armand, M.; Tarascon, J.-M.

    2010-01-01

    Li-ion batteries have contributed to the commercial success of portable electronics, and are now in a position to influence higher-volume applications such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Most commercial Li-ion batteries use positive electrodes based on lithium cobalt oxides. Despite showing a lower voltage than cobalt-based systems (3.45V versus 4V) and a lower energy density, LiFePO4 has emerged as a promising contender owing to the cost sensitivity of higher-volume markets. LiFePO4 also shows intrinsically low ionic and electronic transport, necessitating nanosizing and/or carbon coating. Clearly, there is a need for inexpensive materials with higher energy densities. Although this could in principle be achieved by introducing fluorine and by replacing phosphate groups with more electron-withdrawing sulphate groups, this avenue has remained unexplored. Herein, we synthesize and show promising electrode performance for LiFeSO4F. This material shows a slightly higher voltage (3.6V versus Li) than LiFePO4 and suppresses the need for nanosizing or carbon coating while sharing the same cost advantage. This work not only provides a positive-electrode contender to rival LiFePO4, but also suggests that broad classes of fluoro-oxyanion materials could be discovered.

  18. A 3.6 V lithium-based fluorosulphate insertion positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Recham, N; Chotard, J-N; Dupont, L; Delacourt, C; Walker, W; Armand, M; Tarascon, J-M

    2010-01-01

    Li-ion batteries have contributed to the commercial success of portable electronics, and are now in a position to influence higher-volume applications such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Most commercial Li-ion batteries use positive electrodes based on lithium cobalt oxides. Despite showing a lower voltage than cobalt-based systems (3.45 V versus 4 V) and a lower energy density, LiFePO(4) has emerged as a promising contender owing to the cost sensitivity of higher-volume markets. LiFePO(4) also shows intrinsically low ionic and electronic transport, necessitating nanosizing and/or carbon coating. Clearly, there is a need for inexpensive materials with higher energy densities. Although this could in principle be achieved by introducing fluorine and by replacing phosphate groups with more electron-withdrawing sulphate groups, this avenue has remained unexplored. Herein, we synthesize and show promising electrode performance for LiFeSO(4)F. This material shows a slightly higher voltage (3.6 V versus Li) than LiFePO(4) and suppresses the need for nanosizing or carbon coating while sharing the same cost advantage. This work not only provides a positive-electrode contender to rival LiFePO(4), but also suggests that broad classes of fluoro-oxyanion materials could be discovered. PMID:19946280

  19. 22 CFR 3.6 - Procedure to be followed by employees in depositing gifts of more than minimal value and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedure to be followed by employees in depositing gifts of more than minimal value and reporting acceptance of travel or travel expenses. 3.6 Section 3.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL GIFTS AND DECORATIONS FROM FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS § 3.6 Procedure to be followed by employees...

  20. Time Is Money...and the Enemy of College Completion: Transform American Higher Education to Boost Completion and Reduce Costs. Testimony before the United States House of Representatives Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Stan Jones' testimony before the United States House of Representatives Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training. In his testimony, he talks about a new American majority of students that is emerging on campuses, especially at community colleges. These students must delicately balance long hours at jobs they must…

  1. Divided We Fail: Why It's Time for a Broader, More Inclusive Conversation on the Future of Higher Education. A Final Report on the 2013 National Issues Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean

    2014-01-01

    At state and institutional levels, leaders are discussing and enacting policy changes that could shape the future of higher education for decades-especially public higher education. But when citizens talk about the mission of higher education today, their conversations are different from those of policymakers. How do their values and concerns…

  2. Collective Bargaining in Higher Education: Leadership in Uncertain Times. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the Professions (19th, New York, New York, March 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Joan A., Ed.; Johnson, Beth H., Ed.

    This proceedings document discusses academic leadership in uncertain times, the need for a cooperative model of collective bargaining to provide administration and faculty the flexibility required to respond to changing times, who should bargain for whom and for what, readiness of the next generation to lead, and retirement issues for college…

  3. The EQ3/6 software package for geochemical modeling: Current status

    SciTech Connect

    Wolery, T.J.; Jackson, K.J.; Bourcier, W.L.; Bruton, C.J.; Viani, B.E.; Knauss, K.G.; Delany, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    EQ3/6 is a software package for modeling chemical and mineralogic interactions in aqueous geochemical systems. The major components of the package are EQ3NR (a speciation-solubility code), EQ6 (a reaction path code), EQLIB (a supporting library), and a supporting thermodynamic data base. EQ3NR calculates aqueous speciation and saturation indices from analytical data. It can also be used to calculate compositions of buffer solutions for use in laboratory experiments. EQ6 computes reaction path models of both equilibrium step processes and kinetic reaction processes. These models can be computed for closed systems and relatively simple open systems. EQ3/6 is useful in making purely theoretical calculations, in designing, interpreting, and extrapolating laboratory experiments, and in testing and developing submodels and supporting data used in these codes. The thermodynamic data base supports calculations over the range 0-300{degree}C. 60 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Perception of neon color spreading in 3-6-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2009-12-01

    Although lots of studies about neon color spreading have been reported, few of these studies have focused on the perceptual development of it in human infants. Therefore, this study explores the perceptual development of neon color spreading in infants. In experiment 1, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in static conditions. In experiment 2, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in moving conditions. Our results suggest that while only 5-6-month-old infants show a preference for neon color spreading in the static condition, 3-4-month-old infants also prefer neon color spreading if motion information is available. PMID:19836080

  5. Crystal structure of [Co(NH3)6][Co(CO)4]2.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas G; Kraus, Florian

    2015-11-01

    Hexaamminecobalt(II) bis-[tetra-carbonyl-cobaltate(-I)], [Co(NH3)6][Co(CO)4]2, was synthesized by reaction of liquid ammonia with Co2(CO)8. The Co(II) atom is coordinated by six ammine ligands. The resulting polyhedron, the hexa-amminecobalt(II) cation, exhibits point group symmetry -3. The Co(-I) atom is coordinated by four carbonyl ligands, leading to a tetra-carbonyl-cobaltate(-I) anion in the shape of a slightly distorted tetra-hedron, with point group symmetry 3. The crystal structure is related to that of high-pressure BaC2 (space group R-3m), with the [Co(NH3)6](2+) cations replacing the Ba sites and the [Co(CO)4](-) anions replacing the C sites. N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between cations and anions stabilize the structural set-up in the title compound. PMID:26594524

  6. Enclosure design for the ARIES 3.6m optical telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, A. K.; Shukla, Vishal; Bangia, Tarun; Raskar, R. D.; Kulkarni, R. R.; Ghanti, A. S.

    2012-09-01

    A 3.6-m, f/9 optical telescope is planned to be installed at Devasthal, India (Latitude:29° 21' 40'' N, Longitude: 79° 41' 04'' E, Altitude: 2450 m above msl). The telescope has Cassegrain focus and alt-azimuth mount. The design of the telescope enclosure and the auxiliary building includes a fixed base enclosure, a telescope pier, a rotating dome structure, an auxiliary building, ventilation and component handling systems. The design is optimized for thermal, mechanical, structural, as well as for telescope installation and maintenance requirements. The design aims to provide seeing limited images within the telescope enclosure. This paper presents design of the 3.6m telescope enclosure.

  7. Metabolic pathway of 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose in carrageenan-degrading microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Bok; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lim, Hyun Seung

    2016-05-01

    Complete hydrolysis of κ-carrageenan produces two sugars, D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose (D-AnG). At present, however, we do not know how carrageenan-degrading microorganisms metabolize D-AnG. In this study, we investigated the metabolic pathway of D-AnG degradation by comparative genomic analysis of Cellulophaga lytica LIM-21, Pseudoalteromonas atlantica T6c, and Epulopiscium sp. N.t. morphotype B, which represent the classes Flavobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Clostridia, respectively. In this bioinformatic analysis, we found candidate common genes that were believed to be involved in D-AnG metabolism. We then experimentally confirmed the enzymatic function of each gene product in the D-AnG cluster. In all three microorganisms, D-AnG metabolizing genes were clustered and organized in operon-like arrangements, which we named as the dan operon (3,6-d-anhydro-galactose). Combining bioinformatic analysis and experimental data, we showed that D-AnG is metabolized to pyruvate and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate via four enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the following route: 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose → 3,6-anhydro-D-galactonate → 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-galactonate (D-KDGal) → 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-galactonate → pyruvate + D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The pathway of D-AnG degradation is composed of two parts: transformation of D-AnG to D-KDGal using two D-AnG specific enzymes and breakdown of D-KDGal to two glycolysis intermediates using two DeLey-Doudoroff pathway enzymes. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the metabolic pathway of D-AnG degradation. PMID:26875872

  8. Synthesis and fluorescence emission properties of 1,3,6,8-tetraarylpyrenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jian-Yong; Feng, Xing; Tomiyasu, Hirotsugu; Seto, Nobuyuki; Rayhan, Ummey; Elsegood, Mark R. J.; Redshaw, Carl; Yamato, Takehiko

    2013-09-01

    Three types of stable pyrene-based highly fluorescence (blue) compounds, 1-, 1,6-bis, 1,8-bis and 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(7-tert-butylpyrenyl)pyrenes and 1,3,6,8-tetrakis[9,9-bis(3-methylbutyl)-9H-fluoren-2-yl]pyrene, were successfully synthesized via a Pd/Cu-catalysed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of the corresponding bromopyrenes with 7-tert-butyl-1-pyrenylboronic ester or 2-[9,9-bis(3-methylbutyl)-9H-fluoren-2-yl]-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl[1,3,2]dioxaborolane, respectively. All compounds have good solubility in common organic solvents and high thermal stability with melting points up to 270 °C; the exceptions are the isomeric 1,6-bis-, and 1,8-bispyrenyl-substituted pyrenes. All products show high extinction coefficients of absorption (λmax ≈ 349-396 nm) and high quantum yields (λmax ≈ 432-465 nm; Φf ≈ 0.75-0.99) in dichloromethane solution, and emit strong fluorescence in the visible region ranging from deep-blue to pure-blue on increasing the number of substituents. This data suggests that such systems have promise as blue emitters in organic light-emitting device (OLED) applications (OLED = organic light emitting diode). Crystal structures were determined for 1,3,6,8-tetrakis [9,9-bis(3-methylbutyl)-9H-fluoren-2-yl] pyrene and 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrene.

  9. Construction of 3.6m ARIES telescope enclosure with eccentric pier at Devasthal, Nainital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangia, Tarun

    Space optimized enclosure with eccentric pier for 3.6m ARIES telescope presents construction challenges at the unique observing site of Devasthal, Nainital, India. Enclosure comprises of about 16.5m diameter and 14m high insulated steel framed cylindrical dome rotating on a 14m high stationery dome supporting structure and a 24m × 12m extension structure building for accommodating aluminizing plant and ventilation system etc. Great deal of manual and mechanical excavation was carried out at the rocky site using rock breaking and JCB machines. Foundation bolts for columns of dome supporting structure and extension structure building were grouted after alignment with total station. A 7m diameter hollow cylindrical pier isolated from other structures and 1.85m eccentric with dome center designed due to space limitation at site is being casted for mounting 150 MT mass of the largest 3.6m telescope in the country. A 7m diameter template was fabricated for 3.6m pier top. Most of enclosure components are manufactured and tested in works before assembly/erection at site. Dome drive was tested with dummy loads using VVVF drive with 6 drive and 12 idler wheel assemblies at works to simulate dome weight and smooth operation before erection at site. A 4.2m wide motorized windscreen is being manufactured with a special grade synthetic fabric to withstand wind speed up to 15m/s.

  10. Illegitimate RAG-mediated recombination events are involved in IKZF1 Δ3-6 deletion in BCR-ABL1 lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Dong, Y; Liu, F; Wu, C; Li, S; Zhao, X; Zhang, P; Jiao, J; Yu, X; Ji, Y; Zhang, M

    2016-09-01

    Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukaemia viral oncogene homologue 1 (BCR-ABL1), encoded by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, is the characteristic of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and a subset of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We demonstrated that expression of the Ik6 transcript, which lacked exons 3-6, was observed exclusively in BCR-ABL1(+) B ALL and lymphoid blast crisis CML (BC-CML) patients harbouring the IKZF1 Δ3-6 deletion. To confirm the hypothesis that illegitimate recombination activating gene protein (RAG)-mediated recombination events are involved in IKZF1 Δ3-6 deletion in BCR-ABL1 lymphoblastic leukaemia, we first demonstrated that the expression rates of RAG1 and RAG2, collectively called RAG, were higher in ALL and BC-CML (lymphoid). Notably, analysis of relationships among RAG, BCR-ABL1 and Ikaros 6 (Ik6) showed that Ik6 can be generated only if RAG and BCR-ABL1 are co-existing. The sequencing data showed that the deleted segments of introns 2 and 6 contained cryptic recombination signal sequences (cRSSs) and frequently had non-template nucleotides inserted between breakpoints. Furthermore, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technology and demonstrated that the sequences directly flanking IKZF1 Δ3-6 deletion breakpoints have significantly higher levels of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) modifications. Overall, RAG expression, good-quality cRSS and a specific chromatin modification, H3K4me3, satisfy the conditions of RAG's off-target effects on IKZF1. Our work provides evidence for RAG-mediated IKZF1 Δ3-6 deletion. Our results raise the prospect that RAG is a valuable biomarker in disease surveillance. Dissecting the contribution of RAG should not only provide valuable mechanistic insights, but will also lead to a new therapeutic direction. PMID:27198500

  11. Biosynthesis of dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucose.

    PubMed

    Pföstl, Andreas; Zayni, Sonja; Hofinger, Andreas; Kosma, Paul; Schäffer, Christina; Messner, Paul

    2008-02-15

    Derivatives of 3-amino-3,6-dideoxyhexoses are widespread in Nature. They are part of the repeating units of lipopolysaccharide O-antigens, of the glycan moiety of S-layer (bacterial cell surface layer) glycoproteins and also of many antibiotics. In the present study, we focused on the elucidation of the biosynthesis pathway of dTDP-alpha-D-Quip3NAc (dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucose) from the Gram-positive, anaerobic, thermophilic organism Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum E207-71, which carries Quip3NAc in its S-layer glycan. The biosynthesis of dTDP-alpha-D-Quip3NAc involves five enzymes, namely a transferase, a dehydratase, an isomerase, a transaminase and a transacetylase, and follows a pathway similar to that of dTDP-alpha-D-Fucp3NAc (dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-galactose) biosynthesis in Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus L420-91(T). The ORFs (open reading frames) of interest were cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. To elucidate the enzymatic cascade, the different products were purified by HPLC and characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The initiating reactions catalysed by the glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase RmlA and the dTDP-D-glucose-4,6-dehydratase RmlB are well established. The subsequent isomerase was shown to be capable of forming a dTDP-3-oxo-6-deoxy-D-glucose intermediate from the RmlB product dTDP-4-oxo-6-deoxy-D-glucose, whereas the isomerase involved in the dTDP-alpha-D-Fucp3NAc pathway synthesizes dTDP-3-oxo-6-deoxy-D-galactose. The subsequent reaction steps of either pathway involve a transaminase and a transacetylase, leading to the specific production of nucleotide-activated 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucose and 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-galactose respectively. Sequence comparison of the ORFs responsible for the biosynthesis of dTDP-alpha-D-Quip3NAc revealed homologues in Gram-negative as well as in antibiotic-producing Gram-positive bacteria. There is strong evidence that the

  12. Biosynthesis of dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-α-d-glucose

    PubMed Central

    Pföstl, Andreas; Zayni, Sonja; Hofinger, Andreas; Kosma, Paul; Schäffer, Christina; Messner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Derivatives of 3-amino-3,6-dideoxyhexoses are widespread in Nature. They are part of the repeating units of lipopolysaccharide O-antigens, of the glycan moiety of S-layer (bacterial cell surface layer) glycoproteins and also of many antibiotics. In the present study, we focused on the elucidation of the biosynthesis pathway of dTDP-α-d-Quip3NAc (dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-α-d-glucose) from the Gram-positive, anaerobic, thermophilic organism Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum E207-71, which carries Quip3NAc in its S-layer glycan. The biosynthesis of dTDP-α-d-Quip3NAc involves five enzymes, namely a transferase, a dehydratase, an isomerase, a transaminase and a transacetylase, and follows a pathway similar to that of dTDP-α-d-Fucp3NAc (dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-α-d-galactose) biosynthesis in Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus L420-91T. The ORFs (open reading frames) of interest were cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. To elucidate the enzymatic cascade, the different products were purified by HPLC and characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The initiating reactions catalysed by the glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase RmlA and the dTDP-d-glucose-4,6-dehydratase RmlB are well established. The subsequent isomerase was shown to be capable of forming a dTDP-3-oxo-6-deoxy-d-glucose intermediate from the RmlB product dTDP-4-oxo-6-deoxy-d-glucose, whereas the isomerase involved in the dTDP-α-d-Fucp3NAc pathway synthesizes dTDP-3-oxo-6-deoxy-d-galactose. The subsequent reaction steps of either pathway involve a transaminase and a transacetylase, leading to the specific production of nucleotide-activated 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-α-d-glucose and 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-α-d-galactose respectively. Sequence comparison of the ORFs responsible for the biosynthesis of dTDP-α-d-Quip3NAc revealed homologues in Gram-negative as well as in antibiotic-producing Gram-positive bacteria. There is strong evidence that the elucidated biosynthesis

  13. 2,2',3,3',6,6'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) is Enantioselectively Oxidized to Hydroxylated Metabolites by Rat Liver Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xianai; Pramanik, Ananya; Duffel, Michael W.; Hrycay, Eugene G.; Bandiera, Stelvio M.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela

    2011-01-01

    Developmental exposure to multiple-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in laboratory animals and humans by mechanisms involving the sensitization of Ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In the case of PCB 136, the sensitization of RyR is enantiospecific, with only (-)-PCB 136 being active. However, the role of enantioselective metabolism in the developmental neurotoxicity of PCB 136 is poorly understood. The present study employed hepatic microsomes from phenobarbital (PB-), dexamethasone (DEX-) and corn oil (VEH-)treated male Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the hypothesis that PCB 136 atropisomers are enantioselectively metabolized by P450 enzymes to potentially neurotoxic, hydroxylated PCB 136 metabolites. The results demonstrated the time- and isoform-dependent formation of three metabolites, with 5-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol) being the major metabolite. The formation of 5-OH-PCB 136 increased with the activity of P450 2B enzymes in the microsomal preparation, which is consistent with PCB 136 metabolism by rat P450 2B1. The minor metabolite 4-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-4-ol) was produced by a currently unidentified P450 enzymes. An enantiomeric enrichment of (-)-PCB 136 was observed in microsomal incubations due to the preferential metabolism of (+)-PCB 136 to the corresponding 5-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol) atropisomer. 4-OH-PCB 136 displayed an enrichment of the atropisomer formed from (-)-PCB 136; however, the enrichment of this metabolite atropisomer didn't affect the enantiomeric enrichment of the parent PCB because 4-OH-PCB 136 is only a minor metabolite. Although the formation of 5- and 4-OH-PCB 136 atropisomers increased with time, the enantioselective formation of the OH-PCB metabolites resulted in constant enantiomeric enrichment, especially at later incubation times. These observations not only demonstrate that the chiral signatures of

  14. Stride time variability as a marker for higher level of gait control in multiple sclerosis: its association with fear of falling.

    PubMed

    Allali, Gilles; Laidet, Magali; Armand, Stéphane; Elsworth-Edelsten, Charlotte; Assal, Frédéric; Lalive, Patrice H

    2016-06-01

    Fear of falling (FOF) and gait disorders represent both prevalent symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, the association between FOF and higher level of gait control (HLGC) has not been studied in MS. This study aims to assess the association between FOF and HLGC in patients with MS. HLGC was assessed by stride time variability (STV) during single and dual-tasks (forward counting, backward counting, categorical verbal fluency and literal verbal fluency) and FOF was quantified by the falls efficacy scale-international (FES-I). Seventy-one patients (age: 39.27 ± 9.77 years; 63 % female) were included in this cross-sectional study (Expanded Disability Status Scale (median): 2.00) with a low prevalence of FOF (FES-I: 21.52 ± 8.37). The mean gait speed was 1.19 ± 0.23 m/s with a STV of 2.35 ± 1.68 % during single walking task. STV during single task and the dual tasks of forward counting and backward counting were associated with the FES-I in the univariable linear regression models (p ≤ 0.001), but only STV while backward counting (β: 0.42, [0.18;0.66]) was associated with FOF in the multivariable model (adjusted for age, gender, previous fall, Expanded Disability Status Scale and gait speed). These findings indicate that FOF is associated with STV while backward counting, a marker of HLGC in relationship with working memory in a MS population including a majority of low disabled patients. PMID:27106906

  15. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  16. Pressure Dependent Decomposition Kinetics of the Energetic Material HMX up to 3.6 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E A; Zaug, J M; Burnham, A K

    2009-05-29

    The effect of pressure on the thermal decomposition rate of the energetic material HMX was studied. HMX was precompressed in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) and heated at various rates. The parent species population was monitored as a function of time and temperature using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Decomposition rates were determined by fitting the fraction reacted to the extended-Prout-Tompkins nucleation-growth model and the Friedman isoconversional method. The results of these experiments and analysis indicate that pressure accelerates the decomposition at low to moderate pressures (i.e. between ambient pressure and 1 GPa) and decelerates the decomposition at higher pressures. The decomposition acceleration is attributed to pressure enhanced autocatalysis whereas the deceleration at high pressures is attributed pressure inhibiting bond homolysis step(s), which would result in an increase in volume. These results indicate that both {beta} and {delta} phase HMX are sensitive to pressure in the thermally induced decomposition kinetics.

  17. From Lean Times to Enrollment Declines: The Governor's Commission on the Future of Higher Education in Michigan. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widmayer, Patricia

    Conditions in higher education in Michigan and the role of the Governor's Commission on the Future of Higher Education in Michigan are highlighted. The average college tuition rate in Michigan is the highest in the nation, and a critical maintenance and equipment problem exists. The Commission is composed of knowledgeable persons without vested…

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: OGLE-LMC-CEP-0227 RV and VI[3.6] curves (Pilecki+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilecki, B.; Graczyk, D.; Pietrzynski, G.; Gieren, W.; Thompson, I. B.; Freedman, W. L.; Scowcroft, V.; Madore, B. F.; Udalski, A.; Soszynski, I.; Konorski, P.; Smolec, R.; Nardetto, N.; Bono, G.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Storm, J.; Gallenne, A.

    2015-01-01

    In total, we acquired 1045 measurements in the I band and 317 in the V band collected with the Warsaw telescope by the OGLE project (Udalski 2003AcA....53..291U; Soszynski et al. 2012AcA....62..219S, Cat. J/AcA/62/219) and during the time granted to the Araucaria project by CNTAC organization. The auxiliary K-band data (only outside eclipses) were acquired by the Araucaria group using the SOFI instrument attached to the New Technology Telescope at La Silla Observatory, which allowed us to use the V-K colour variation to calculate the effective temperature as a function of the pulsation phase. We have also acquired 3.6 and 4.5um photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope (114 points) - the observations and data reduction provided by the CHP team. (4 data files).

  19. Fiber Optics at ESO - Part Two - Fiber Optics Multiple Object Spectroscopy at the 3.6-METER Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enard, D.; Lund, G.; Tarenghi, M.

    1983-09-01

    During a 6-day test period late in November 1982, a prototype optical fiber device (nicknamed "Fiber Optopus") was tested at the 3.6 m telescope Cassegrain focus. The principle of this device, described in more detail in the following paragraphs, is such that the light from up to 50 randomly separated points on the sky (within the Cassegrain focus field of view) can be simultaneously guided via separate flexible optical fibers to the entrance slit of the B&C spectrograph. By making use of a two-dimensional detector such as a CCO the individual spectra, corresponding to each sampled point on the field, can be recorded simultaneously. When fully operational, the Fiber Optopus should enable a very strong reduction in telescope time to be achieved in observing programmes involving low resolution spectral mapping of extended fields. This feature will be of great interest to astronomers wishing to observe clusters of faint objects requiring long integration periods.

  20. 3.6MW Power Supply System of the 170GHz ECH&CD System in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Eun-yong; Ahn, Il-kun; Seo, Tae-won; Lee, Seung-kyo; Bae, Young-soon; Joung, Jin-Hyun; Joung, Mi

    2012-09-01

    A 3.6 MW (-66 kV/55 A) Gyrotron power supply system was developed for the 170 GHz ECH&CD gyrotron system in KSTAR. This power supply system consists of Cathode Power Supply(CPS), Anode Power Supply(APS) and Body Power Supply(BPS). The CPS is using the Pulse Step Modulation by the 32set of IGBT choppers. The respons time of Chopper is very fast. So the cathode voltaget is able to be controlled rapidly. The APS is a sort of voltage devider using zener and switch component. It was achieved 3kHz modulation operation. The BPS is combined the commercial power supply and special high voltage switches. It is very simple topology but 5kHz modulation was accomplished easily. Theses power supply system were installed and commissioned successfully in 2011. This paper presents the topology of the each power supply and test result for 170 GHz gyrotron in KSTAR.

  1. Identification of 3,6-disubstituted dihydropyrones as inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Fauber, Benjamin P; Dragovich, Peter S; Chen, Jinhua; Corson, Laura B; Ding, Charles Z; Eigenbrot, Charles; Labadie, Sharada; Malek, Shiva; Peterson, David; Purkey, Hans E; Robarge, Kirk; Sideris, Steve; Ultsch, Mark; Wei, BinQing; Yen, Ivana; Yue, Qin; Zhou, Aihe

    2014-12-15

    A series of 3,6-disubstituted dihydropyrones were identified as inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A. Structure activity relationships were explored and a series of 6,6-spiro analogs led to improvements in LDHA potency (IC50 <350 nM). An X-ray crystal structure of an improved compound bound to human LDHA was obtained and it illustrated additional opportunities to enhance the potency of these compounds, resulting in the identification of 51 (IC50=30 nM). PMID:25467161

  2. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  3. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

  4. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  5. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This eighth chapter of "The Yearbook of School Law, 1986" summarizes and analyzes over 330 state and federal court cases litigated in 1985 in which institutions of higher education were involved. Among the topics examined were relationships between postsecondary institutions and various governmental agencies; discrimination in the employment of…

  6. 3,6-diHydroxyflavone/bovine serum albumin interaction in cyclodextrin medium: Absorption and emission monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voicescu, Mariana; Bandula, Rodica

    2015-03-01

    Photophysical properties of a bioactive flavonol which can be used as a model for polyhydroxylated natural flavonols, 3,6-diHydroxyflavone (3,6-diHF) in cyclodextrins (CDs)/bovine serum albumin (BSA) systems have been studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The influence of CDs nature and of the different molar ratios BSA/CDs on the fluorescent characteristics of 3,6-diHF, and on the excited - state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) process were studied. Quantitative information on the interaction between 3,6-diHF and BSA in CDs medium, were estimated. The influence of temperature (25-60 °C range) on the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA in 3,6-diHF/BSA/CDs systems, was investigated. The results are discussed with relevance to 3,6-diHF as a potential sensitive fluorescence probe in the systems of biological interest.

  7. Crystal structure of [Co(NH3)6][Co(CO)4]2

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Thomas G.; Kraus, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Hexaamminecobalt(II) bis­[tetra­carbonyl­cobaltate(-I)], [Co(NH3)6][Co(CO)4]2, was synthesized by reaction of liquid ammonia with Co2(CO)8. The CoII atom is coordinated by six ammine ligands. The resulting polyhedron, the hexa­amminecobalt(II) cation, exhibits point group symmetry -3. The Co-I atom is coordinated by four carbonyl ligands, leading to a tetra­carbonyl­cobaltate(−I) anion in the shape of a slightly distorted tetra­hedron, with point group symmetry 3. The crystal structure is related to that of high-pressure BaC2 (space group R-3m), with the [Co(NH3)6]2+ cations replacing the Ba sites and the [Co(CO)4]− anions replacing the C sites. N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between cations and anions stabilize the structural set-up in the title compound. PMID:26594524

  8. EQ3/6 geochemical modeling task plan for Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI)

    SciTech Connect

    Isherwood, D.; Wolery, T.

    1984-04-10

    This task plan outlines work needed to upgrade the EQ3/6 geochemical code and expand the supporting data bases to allow the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) to model chemical processes important to the storage of nuclear waste in a tuff repository in the unsaturated zone. The plan covers the fiscal years 1984 to 1988. The scope of work includes the development of sub-models in the EQ3/6 code package for studying the effects of sorption, precipitation kinetics, redox disequilibrium, and radiolysis on radionuclide speciation and solubility. The work also includes a glass/water interactions model and a geochemical flow model which will allow us to study waste form leaching and reactions involving the waste package. A special emphasis is placed on verification of new capabilities as they are developed and code documentation to meet NRC requirements. Data base expansion includes the addition of elements and associated aqueous species and solid phases that are specific to nuclear waste (e.g., actinides and fission products) and the upgrading and documentation of the thermodynamic data for other species of interest.

  9. Maternal self-efficacy and feeding practices in children aged 3-6 years

    PubMed Central

    Doaei, Saeid; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition in childhood has an important role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother’s lifestyle has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child. This paper aimed to investigate the association between mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle with feeding practices in children aged 3- 6 years. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was carried out in 30 primary schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child’s demographics. Aspects of mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle and mother’s control practices were assessed using Weight Efficacy Lifestyle (WEL) questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices questionnaire (CFPQ) respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. The role of mother’s weight efficacy in predicting child’s feeding practices was assessed using linear regression. Results: Results showed that mother’s weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices. The mothers with similar weight efficacy lifestyle applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety, environmental control, child involvement and less emotion regulation using foods. Conclusion: ‎ ‏ ‏‎ The result of the ‎study showed that maternal ‎lifestyle was associated with ‎child feeding practices.‎ PMID:27006673

  10. Influence of Wind Buffeting on the 3.6 m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, S.; Haar, S.; Walker, E.; Whiting, A.; Williams, S.

    2013-09-01

    Unsteady wind loading is the largest dynamic loading on most large ground telescopes. The maximum operational windspeed not only sets requirements on the wind load rejection performance of the mount control system but also is a significant driver for tracker error rejection. In addition, turbulence due to the wind contributes to wavefront distortion. With the recent interest in daylight imaging, introduction of a baffle that reduces background light during the day may further accentuate wind loading on the 3.6 m telescope. The initial daylight configuration of the telescope has been to operate without a baffle and to use operational constraints to avoid angles close to the sun. This configuration offers reasonable daylight performance but is susceptible to stray light that limits achievable signal-to-noise ratio. Also under test is a unique baffled configuration where the telescope is shrouded to increase target signal-to-noise ratio. Traditional baffles increase jitter and wind loading due to increased exposed area to the wind and increase wavefront distortion due to thermal gradients introduced by the baffle. The 3.6 m telescope baffle has been designed out of an opaque fabric to limit the negative impacts on jitter and wavefront distortion while increasing signal-to-noise ratio for daylight imaging. The intent of the design is to limit high frequency transmission of wind loading by the relatively compliant fabric and to allow some circulation using the fabric's porosity to limit thermal gradients. The fabric design also facilitates the extension to a deployable design, since it is relatively easy to deploy and stow compared to a traditional approach. This paper will present analytical results predicting jitter and mount control performance with and without the baffle as well as signal-to-noise ratio predictions with and without the baffle. The jitter results will use measured wind loading in conjunction with a system line-of-sight model for performance

  11. Pluto-Charon: Infrared Reflectance from 3.6 to 8.0 Micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Emery, Joshua P.; Stansberry, John A.; VanCleve, Jeffrey E.

    2004-01-01

    We have measured the spectral reflectance of the Pluto-Charon pair at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 micrometers with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) (G. G. Fazzio et al. Ap.J.Supp. 154, 10-17, 2004) on the Spitzer Space Telescope (STS), at eight different longitudes that cover a full rotation of the planet. STS does not have sufficient resolution to separate the light from the planet and the satellite. The image of the Pluto-Charon pair is clearly visible at each of the four wavelengths. We will discuss the spectral reflectance in terms of models that include the known components of Pluto and Charon s surfaces, and evidence for diurnal variations.

  12. Crystal structure of Cs2[Th(NO3)6

    PubMed Central

    Woidy, Patrick; Kraus, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Dicaesium hexa­nitratothorate(IV), Cs2[Th(NO3)6], was synthesized in the form of colourless crystals by reaction of thorium nitrate and caesium nitrate in aqueous solution. The Th atom is located on an inversion centre and is coordinated by six chelating nitrate anions. The resulting ThO12 coordination polyhedron is best described as a slightly distorted icosa­hedron. The Cs atom also has a coordination number of 12, but its coordination polyhedron is considerably more distorted. The crystal packing can be derived from an hexa­gonal dense packing (hcp) of idealized spherical CsO12 and ThO12 units. The CsO12 units form a distorted hcp arrangement and half of the octa­hedral sites are occupied by the ThO12 units. PMID:25249865

  13. The 3,6 m Indo-Belgian Devasthal Optical Telescope: general description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninane, Nathalie; Flebus, Carlo; Kumar, Brijesh

    2012-09-01

    AMOS SA has been awarded of the contract for the design, manufacturing, assembly, tests and on site installation (Devasthal, Nainital in central Himalayan region) of the 3.6 m Indo-Belgian Devasthal Optical Telescope (IDOT). The telescope has Ritchey-Chrétien optical configuration with one axial and two side Cassegrain ports. The meniscus primary mirror is active and it is supported by pneumatic actuators. The azimuth axis system is equipped with hydrostatic bearing. The telescope was completely assembled and tested in AMOS workshop. This step is completed and successful. The telescope is now ready for shipment to Nainital. This paper describes the telescope and summarizes the test results performed at AMOS to demonstrate that the telescope satisfies the main system requirements.

  14. Synthesis and anticancer potential of novel xanthone derivatives with 3,6-substituted chains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaomei; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Zhang, Steven B; Yang, Shanmin; Zhang, Amy; Yin, Liangjie; Swarts, Steven; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan; Zhang, Lurong; Okunieff, Paul

    2016-09-15

    In an effort to develop new drug candidates with enhanced anticancer activity, our team synthesized and assessed the cytotoxicity of a series of novel xanthone derivatives with two longer 3,6-disubstituted amine carbonyl methoxy side chains on either benzene ring in selected human cancer cell lines. An MTT assay revealed that a set of compounds with lower IC50 values than the positive control, 5-FU, exhibited greater anticancer effects. The most potent derivative (XD8) exhibited anticancer activity in MDA-MB-231, PC-3, A549, AsPC-1, and HCT116 cells lines with IC50 values of 8.06, 6.18, 4.59, 4.76, and 6.09μM, respectively. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis activation suggested that the mechanism of action of these derivatives includes cell cycle regulation and apoptosis induction. PMID:27448774

  15. The radio light curve of FK Comae at 3. 6 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, S.M. )

    1991-06-01

    The VLA radio telescope was used to obtain 29 X-band (3.6 cm) observations of the very active, rapidly rotating giant FK Comae over three weeks in October 1989. A brightening from the usual 1-2 mJy to about 12 mJy which lasted about 5 days was observed at the beginning of the run. The brightening seemed to be modulated by the 2.4 day rotation of the star with the maximum of the radio flux at the predicted optical light maximum. The circularly polarized flux (Stokes parameter V) did not exactly follow changes of the flux f (Stokes parameter I), suggesting that separate flares but at the same active longitude were observed. Determinations of the degree of circular polarization V/I had low accuracy except during phases of the brightenings when V/I is not greater than + 0.1 was observed. 20 refs.

  16. 3,6-Diarylcarbazole Derivatives as a Host Material in Organic Electrophosphorescent Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneuchi, Kenji; Sasaki, Masaomi; Sasabe, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Chihaya

    2010-08-01

    We synthesized 3,6-diarylcarbazole (CBZ) derivatives and investigated their thin-film optical (i.e., absorption, fluorescence and phosphorescence) properties and electroluminescence characteristics. We fabricated phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) employing CBZ derivatives as the host and fac-tris(2-phenypyridine)iridium [Ir(ppy)3] as the guest at a doping concentration of 6 wt %. These devices exhibited maximum external quantum efficiencies (ηext) in the range 1 to 11%, depending on the host. In particular, the OLED with CBZ7 as the host exhibited the highest ηext of 11.2% and a maximum power conversion efficiency (ηenergy) of 25 lm/W.

  17. Construction and Test of 3.6 m Nb3Sn Racetrack Coils for LARP

    SciTech Connect

    Wanderer, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D. W.; Cozzolino, J.; Dietderich, D.R.; Escallier, J.; Feher, S.; Ferracin, P.; Ganetis, G.; Ghosh, A. K.; Gupta, R. C.; Hafalia,, A. R.; Hannaford, C. R.; Joshi, P.; Kovach, P.; Lietzke, A. F.; Lizarazo, J.; Louie, W.; Marone, A.; McInturff, A.D.; Muratore, J.; Nobrega, F.; Sabbi, G.; Schmalzle, J.; Thomas, R.; Turrioni, D.

    2008-06-01

    Development of high-performance Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles is one of the major goals of the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). As part of this program, long racetrack magnets were made in order to check the fabrication steps for long Nb{sub 3}Sn coils, that the changes in coil length that take place during reaction and cooldown are correctly accounted for in the quadrupole design, and the use of a long aluminum shell for the support structure. This paper reports the construction of the first long Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet with racetrack coils 3.6 m long. The magnet reached a nominal 'plateau' at 9596 A after five quenches. This is about 90% of the estimated conductor limit. The peak field in the coils at this current was 11 T.

  18. A 3.6 nm Ti52-Oxo Nanocluster with Precise Atomic Structure.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jian

    2016-06-22

    We report a 3.6 nm Ti52-oxo cluster with precise atomic structure, which presents a largest size record in the family of titanium-oxo clusters (TOCs). The crystal growth of such large Ti52 is based on a stepwise interlayer assembly approach from Ti6 substructures. The possible growth mechanism of Ti52 could be deduced from crystal structures of two substructures, Ti6 and Ti17, which were also synthesized under similar conditions as Ti52. Moreover, these TOCs show cluster-size-dependent photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activities with Ti52 giving a H2 production rate up to 398 μmol/h/g, which is also the highest record in the family of TOCs. This work not only represents a milestone in constructing large TOCs with comparable sizes as TiO2 nanoparticles but also brings significant advances in improving photocatalytic behaviors of TOCs. PMID:27248658

  19. Preliminary toxicology study of 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The calculated acute oral LD 30/50 (lethal dose for 50% of the animals occurring within 30 days after compound administration) value for 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DATZ) was 863 mg/kg in rats. According to classical guidelines, DATZ would be considered slightly to moderately toxic for rats. The calculated acute oral LD {sub 30/50} value was 2,288 mg/kg in mice and would be considered slightly to moderately toxic for mice. Skin application studies using rabbits demonstrated DATZ to be a nonirritant. The eye study using rabbits disclosed DATZ to be a very mild irritant. The sensitization study using guinea pigs did not show DATZ to have potential sensitizing properties.

  20. Preliminary toxicology study of 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The calculated acute oral LD 30/50 (lethal dose for 50% of the animals occurring within 30 days after compound administration) value for 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DATZ) was 863 mg/kg in rats. According to classical guidelines, DATZ would be considered slightly to moderately toxic for rats. The calculated acute oral LD [sub 30/50] value was 2,288 mg/kg in mice and would be considered slightly to moderately toxic for mice. Skin application studies using rabbits demonstrated DATZ to be a nonirritant. The eye study using rabbits disclosed DATZ to be a very mild irritant. The sensitization study using guinea pigs did not show DATZ to have potential sensitizing properties.

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Omega-3/6 Fatty Acids, Methylphenidate, and a Combined Treatment in Children With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Barragán, Eduardo; Breuer, Dieter; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-24

    Objective: To compare efficacy of Omega-3/6 fatty acids (Equazen eye q™) with methylphenidate (MPH) and combined MPH + Omega-3/6 in children with ADHD. Method: Participants (N = 90) were randomized to Omega-3/6, long-acting MPH, or combination for 12 months. ADHD symptoms were assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) scale. Results: ADHD symptoms decreased in all treatment arms. Although significant differences favoring Omega + MPH over Omega-3/6 alone were found for ADHD Total and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity subscales, results on the Inattention subscale were similar. CGI-S scores decreased slowly and consistently with Omega-3/6, compared with a rapid decrease and subsequent slight increase in the MPH-containing arms. Adverse events were numerically less frequent with Omega-3/6 or MPH + Omega-3/6 than MPH alone. Conclusion: The tested combination of Omega-3/6 fatty acids had similar effects to MPH, whereas the MPH + Omega combination appeared to have some tolerability benefits over MPH. PMID:24464327

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of a Chlorinated-Ethene Degrader, Cupriavidus necator Strain PHE3-6 (NBRC 110655)

    PubMed Central

    Yonezuka, Kenta; Shimodaira, Jun; Tabata, Michiro; Nagase, Shun; Kasai, Daisuke; Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Fujita, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Cupriavidus necator strain PHE3-6 grows on phenol as a sole carbon source and cometabolizes cis- and trans-dichloroethenes and trichloroethene. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of PHE3-6, which provides insights into the degradation system of phenol and chlorinated ethenes. PMID:26941158

  3. Tetrahydrophthalic Anhydrides as Addition Curing Polyimide End Caps: Thermal Isomerization of Methylendianiline 3,6-Diphenyltetrahydrophthalic Bisimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Gilinsky-Sharon, Pessia; Gottlieb, Hugo E.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Johnston, J. Christopher

    2005-01-01

    In depth NMR studies confirm that heating a 1:2 mixture of cis, cis, cis 3,6-diphenyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride (end cap 9c) with methylenedianiline at 316 C initially yields the corresponding highly congested cis, cis, cis 3,6-diphenyltetrahydrophthalic bisimide 11, which is converted at this temperature to the observed product, the less hindered trans, cis, trans isomer 12.

  4. Understanding the Changing Faculty Workforce in Higher Education: A Comparison of Full-Time Non-Tenure Track and Tenure Line Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Molly; Cisneros, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Non-tenure track faculty are a growing majority in American higher education, but research examining their work lives is limited. Moreover, the theoretical frameworks commonly used by scholars have been critiqued for reliance on ideologically charged assumptions. Using a conceptual model developed from Hackman and Oldham's (1980) Job…

  5. Technology, Time and Transition in Higher Education--Two Different Realities of Everyday "Facebook" Use in the First Year of University in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Within the range of websites and apps that are part of first-year undergraduates' digital environments, the social network site "Facebook" is perhaps the most popular and prominent. As such, the ubiquitous nature of "Facebook" in the higher education landscape has drawn much attention from scholars. Drawing on data from a…

  6. Providing Higher Education in Post-Modern Times: What Do University Mission Statements Tell Us about What They Believe and Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jennifer; Miller, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) are critical to the delivery of education for all in any nation state. What they believe and what they do are critical components to creating societal impact. But what they believe and do is not always clear. Using a derivative of SWIFT (Structured Word Identification and Frequency Totals), the authors examined…

  7. Assessing the Impact of a Statewide STEM Investment on K-12, Higher Education, and Business/Community STEM Awareness over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondergeld, Toni A.; Johnson, Carla C.; Walten, Janet B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite monetary and educational investments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) being at record high levels, little attention has been devoted to generating a common understanding of STEM. In addition, working with business, K-12 schools, and/or institutions of higher education to establish a grassroots effort to help…

  8. Higher Education in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    This report presents information about higher education in Arkansas. Arkansas is 49th in the United States in the number of citizens over the age of 25 with a baccalaureate or higher degree. Arkansas faces shortages of qualified teachers and nurses in regions of the state at a time when the number of graduates in these professions is declining…

  9. Fertilization Independent Endosperm genes repress NbGH3.6 and regulate the auxin level during shoot development in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jun; Ding, Qi; Fukuda, Hiroo; He, Xin-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE) gene is required to restrict endosperm development without fertilization, and it represses flowering during embryo and seedling development in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the regulatory mechanism of the FIE gene in postembryonic shoot development is not well understood. Silencing of Nicotiana benthamiana homologues of the FIE gene, NbFIE1 and NbFIE2, resulted in the enhanced outgrowth of axillary buds and the impairment of secondary xylem differentiation. RNA sequencing analysis found that one of the auxin-responsive GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3) family genes, NbGH3.6, was upregulated and maintained a high expression during the time course of silencing NbFIE genes. Chromatin immunoprecipiation (ChIP)-PCR results showed a lack of H3K27me3 marks on NbGH3.6 chromatin in NbFIE-silenced plants compared with negative control plants, indicating that NbGH3.6 was a direct target of NbFIE genes during postembryonic shoot development. Moreover, the free IAA content was reduced significantly in NbFIE-silenced plants, which might cause the enhanced outgrowth of axillary buds as well as impaired secondary xylem differentiation. These results clearly indicated that NbGH3.6 was a primary target of NbFIE genes during postembryonic shoot development, and NbFIE genes regulated axillary bud growth and secondary xylem formation through tuning endogenous auxin homeostasis, possibly by regulating the expression of the NbGH3.6 gene. PMID:26873977

  10. Fertilization Independent Endosperm genes repress NbGH3.6 and regulate the auxin level during shoot development in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jun; Ding, Qi; Fukuda, Hiroo; He, Xin-Qiang

    2016-04-01

    TheFertilization Independent Endosperm(FIE) gene is required to restrict endosperm development without fertilization, and it represses flowering during embryo and seedling development inArabidopsis thaliana However, the regulatory mechanism of theFIEgene in postembryonic shoot development is not well understood. Silencing ofNicotiana benthamianahomologues of theFIEgene,NbFIE1andNbFIE2, resulted in the enhanced outgrowth of axillary buds and the impairment of secondary xylem differentiation. RNA sequencing analysis found that one of the auxin-responsiveGRETCHEN HAGEN 3(GH3) family genes,NbGH3.6, was upregulated and maintained a high expression during the time course of silencingNbFIEgenes. Chromatin immunoprecipiation (ChIP)-PCR results showed a lack of H3K27me3 marks onNbGH3.6chromatin inNbFIE-silenced plants compared with negative control plants, indicating thatNbGH3.6was a direct target ofNbFIEgenes during postembryonic shoot development. Moreover, the free IAA content was reduced significantly inNbFIE-silenced plants, which might cause the enhanced outgrowth of axillary buds as well as impaired secondary xylem differentiation. These results clearly indicated thatNbGH3.6was a primary target ofNbFIEgenes during postembryonic shoot development, andNbFIEgenes regulated axillary bud growth and secondary xylem formation through tuning endogenous auxin homeostasis, possibly by regulating the expression of theNbGH3.6gene. PMID:26873977

  11. Separation of 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid-labelled neutral and sialylated N-linked complex oligosaccharides by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Klockow, A; Amadò, R; Widmer, H M; Paulus, A

    1995-11-17

    Complex oligosaccharides, both neutral and sialylated, were derivatized with 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (ANTS) and separated by capillary electrophoresis. The derivatization reaction was carried out in a total reaction volume of 2 microliters. The separated peaks were detected by laser-induced fluorescence detection using the 325-nm line of a He-Cd laser. Concentration and mass detection limits of 5 x 10(-8) M and 500 amol, respectively, could be achieved. The limiting step for higher sensitivity is not the detector performance, however, but the chemistry with a derivatization limit of 2.5 x 10(-6) M. Two labelling protocols were established, one with overnight reaction at 40 degrees C and the other with a 2.5-h derivatization time at 80 degrees C. Neutral oligosaccharides could be labelled with either protocol. However, sialylated oligosaccharides hydrolysed when labeled at 80 degrees C. Low nanomole to picomole amounts of oligomannose-type and complex-type oligosaccharide mixtures were derivatized and separated in less than 8 min with excellent resolution using a phosphate background electrolyte at pH 2.5. The linear relationship between the electrophoretic mobility and the charge-to-mass ratios of the ANTS conjugates was used for peak assignment. Further, the influence of the three-dimensional structure of the complex oligosaccharides on their migration behaviour is discussed. The suitability of the ANTS derivatization and the subsequent separation for the analysis of complex oligosaccharide patterns is demonstrated with oligosaccharide libraries derived from ovalbumin and bovine fetuin. For peak assignment the patterns are compared with those of the oligomannose and the complex-type oligosaccharide mixtures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8574387

  12. Metabolism of 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine by Mitochondrion-targeted Cytochrome P450 2D6

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Prachi; Sangar, Michelle C.; Singh, Shilpee; Tang, Weigang; Bansal, Seema; Chowdhury, Goutam; Cheng, Qian; Fang, Ji-Kang; Martin, Martha V.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Avadhani, Narayan G.

    2013-01-01

    1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a neurotoxic side product formed in the chemical synthesis of desmethylprodine opioid analgesic, which induces Parkinson disease. Monoamine oxidase B, present in the mitochondrial outer membrane of glial cells, catalyzes the oxidation of MPTP to the toxic 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+), which then targets the dopaminergic neurons causing neuronal death. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrion-targeted human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), supported by mitochondrial adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase, can efficiently catalyze the metabolism of MPTP to MPP+, as shown with purified enzymes and also in cells expressing mitochondrial CYP2D6. Neuro-2A cells stably expressing predominantly mitochondrion-targeted CYP2D6 were more sensitive to MPTP-mediated mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and complex I inhibition than cells expressing predominantly endoplasmic reticulum-targeted CYP2D6. Mitochondrial CYP2D6 expressing Neuro-2A cells produced higher levels of reactive oxygen species and showed abnormal mitochondrial structures. MPTP treatment also induced mitochondrial translocation of an autophagic marker, Parkin, and a mitochondrial fission marker, Drp1, in differentiated neurons expressing mitochondrial CYP2D6. MPTP-mediated toxicity in primary dopaminergic neurons was attenuated by CYP2D6 inhibitor, quinidine, and also partly by monoamine oxidase B inhibitors deprenyl and pargyline. These studies show for the first time that dopaminergic neurons expressing mitochondrial CYP2D6 are fully capable of activating the pro-neurotoxin MPTP and inducing neuronal damage, which is effectively prevented by the CYP2D6 inhibitor quinidine. PMID:23258538

  13. The Use of Quantile Regression to Forecast Higher Than Expected Respiratory Deaths in a Daily Time Series: A Study of New York City Data 1987-2000

    PubMed Central

    Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Reidpath, Daniel D.

    2013-01-01

    Forecasting higher than expected numbers of health events provides potentially valuable insights in its own right, and may contribute to health services management and syndromic surveillance. This study investigates the use of quantile regression to predict higher than expected respiratory deaths. Data taken from 70,830 deaths occurring in New York were used. Temporal, weather and air quality measures were fitted using quantile regression at the 90th-percentile with half the data (in-sample). Four QR models were fitted: an unconditional model predicting the 90th-percentile of deaths (Model 1), a seasonal / temporal (Model 2), a seasonal, temporal plus lags of weather and air quality (Model 3), and a seasonal, temporal model with 7-day moving averages of weather and air quality. Models were cross-validated with the out of sample data. Performance was measured as proportionate reduction in weighted sum of absolute deviations by a conditional, over unconditional models; i.e., the coefficient of determination (R1). The coefficient of determination showed an improvement over the unconditional model between 0.16 and 0.19. The greatest improvement in predictive and forecasting accuracy of daily mortality was associated with the inclusion of seasonal and temporal predictors (Model 2). No gains were made in the predictive models with the addition of weather and air quality predictors (Models 3 and 4). However, forecasting models that included weather and air quality predictors performed slightly better than the seasonal and temporal model alone (i.e., Model 3 > Model 4 > Model 2) This study provided a new approach to predict higher than expected numbers of respiratory related-deaths. The approach, while promising, has limitations and should be treated at this stage as a proof of concept. PMID:24147122

  14. The use of quantile regression to forecast higher than expected respiratory deaths in a daily time series: a study of New York City data 1987-2000.

    PubMed

    Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2013-01-01

    Forecasting higher than expected numbers of health events provides potentially valuable insights in its own right, and may contribute to health services management and syndromic surveillance. This study investigates the use of quantile regression to predict higher than expected respiratory deaths. Data taken from 70,830 deaths occurring in New York were used. Temporal, weather and air quality measures were fitted using quantile regression at the 90th-percentile with half the data (in-sample). Four QR models were fitted: an unconditional model predicting the 90th-percentile of deaths (Model 1), a seasonal/temporal (Model 2), a seasonal, temporal plus lags of weather and air quality (Model 3), and a seasonal, temporal model with 7-day moving averages of weather and air quality. Models were cross-validated with the out of sample data. Performance was measured as proportionate reduction in weighted sum of absolute deviations by a conditional, over unconditional models; i.e., the coefficient of determination (R1). The coefficient of determination showed an improvement over the unconditional model between 0.16 and 0.19. The greatest improvement in predictive and forecasting accuracy of daily mortality was associated with the inclusion of seasonal and temporal predictors (Model 2). No gains were made in the predictive models with the addition of weather and air quality predictors (Models 3 and 4). However, forecasting models that included weather and air quality predictors performed slightly better than the seasonal and temporal model alone (i.e., Model 3 > Model 4 > Model 2) This study provided a new approach to predict higher than expected numbers of respiratory related-deaths. The approach, while promising, has limitations and should be treated at this stage as a proof of concept. PMID:24147122

  15. Determinants of the abilities to jump higher and shorten the contact time in a running 1-legged vertical jump in basketball.

    PubMed

    Miura, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Zushi, Koji

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain useful information for developing training techniques for the running 1-legged vertical jump in basketball (lay-up shot jump). The ability to perform the lay-up shot jump and various basic jumps was measured by testing 19 male basketball players. The basic jumps consisted of the 1-legged repeated rebound jump, the 2-legged repeated rebound jump, and the countermovement jump. Jumping height, contact time, and jumping index (jumping height/contact time) were measured and calculated using a contact mat/computer system that recorded the contact and air times. The jumping index indicates power. No significant correlation existed between the jumping height and contact time of the lay-up shot jump, the 2 components of the lay-up shot jump index. As a result, jumping height and contact time were found to be mutually independent abilities. The relationships in contact time between the lay-up shot jump to the 1-legged repeated rebound jump and the 2-legged repeated rebound jump were correlated on the same significance levels (p < 0.05). A significant correlation for jumping height existed between the 1-legged repeated rebound jump and the lay-up shot jump (p < 0.05), although none existed for jumping height between the lay-up shot jump and both the 2-legged repeated rebound jump and countermovement jump. The lay-up shot index correlated more strongly to the 1-legged repeated rebound jump index (p < 0.01) when compared to the 2-legged repeated rebound jump index (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the 1-legged repeated rebound jump is effective in improving both contact time and jumping height in the lay-up shot jump. PMID:19996782

  16. 3,6-Carbazole vs 2,7-carbazole: A comparative study of hole-transporting polymeric materials for inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Otsuka, Munechika; Kato, Takehito; Wang, Yang; Mori, Takehiko; Michinobu, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for clean energy has encouraged researchers to intensively investigate environmentally friendly photovoltaic devices. Inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are very promising due to their potentials of easy fabrication processes and high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Designing hole-transporting materials (HTMs) is one of the key factors in achieving the high PCEs of PSCs. We now report the synthesis of two types of carbazole-based polymers, namely 3,6-Cbz-EDOT and 2,7-Cbz-EDOT, by Stille polycondensation. Despite the same chemical composition, 3,6-Cbz-EDOT and 2,7-Cbz-EDOT displayed different optical and electrochemical properties due to the different connectivity mode of the carbazole unit. Therefore, their performances as hole-transporting polymeric materials in the PSCs were also different. The device based on 2,7-Cbz-EDOT showed better photovoltaic properties with the PCE of 4.47% than that based on 3,6-Cbz-EDOT. This could be due to its more suitable highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level and higher hole mobility. PMID:27559390

  17. 3,6-Carbazole vs 2,7-carbazole: A comparative study of hole-transporting polymeric materials for inorganic–organic hybrid perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Otsuka, Munechika; Wang, Yang; Mori, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ever increasing demand for clean energy has encouraged researchers to intensively investigate environmentally friendly photovoltaic devices. Inorganic–organic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are very promising due to their potentials of easy fabrication processes and high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Designing hole-transporting materials (HTMs) is one of the key factors in achieving the high PCEs of PSCs. We now report the synthesis of two types of carbazole-based polymers, namely 3,6-Cbz-EDOT and 2,7-Cbz-EDOT, by Stille polycondensation. Despite the same chemical composition, 3,6-Cbz-EDOT and 2,7-Cbz-EDOT displayed different optical and electrochemical properties due to the different connectivity mode of the carbazole unit. Therefore, their performances as hole-transporting polymeric materials in the PSCs were also different. The device based on 2,7-Cbz-EDOT showed better photovoltaic properties with the PCE of 4.47% than that based on 3,6-Cbz-EDOT. This could be due to its more suitable highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level and higher hole mobility. PMID:27559390

  18. Copper-catalysed asymmetric allylic alkylation of alkylzirconocenes to racemic 3,6-dihydro-2H-pyrans

    PubMed Central

    Rideau, Emeline

    2015-01-01

    Summary Asymmetric allylic alkylation is a powerful reaction that allows the enantioselective formation of C–C bonds. Here we describe the asymmetric alkylation of alkylzirconium species to racemic 3,6-dihydro-2H-pyrans. Two systems were examined: 3-chloro-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyran using linear optimization (45–93% ee, up to 33% yield, 5 examples) and 3,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-3-yl diethyl phosphate with the assistance of a design of experiments statistical approach (83% ee, 12% yield). 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to gain insight into the reaction mechanisms. PMID:26734091

  19. Short synthesis of 16beta-hydroxy-5alpha-cholestane-3,6-dione a novel cytotoxic marine oxysterol.

    PubMed

    Denancé, Mickaël; Guyot, Michèle; Samadi, Mohammad

    2006-07-01

    The first and short synthesis of 16beta-hydroxy-5alpha-cholestane-3,6-dione 1 a metabolite from marine algae, has been achieved in six steps from readily available diosgenin 5. Selective deoxygenation of primary alcohol of triol 6 has been accomplished in one step using Et(3)SiH and catalytic amount of B(C(6)F(5))(3) to produce compound 9 in high yield. Oxidation of 11 with PCC, allowed the introduction of 3,6-ene-dione functionality, and further catalytic hydrogenation and deprotection furnished the 3,6-diketo steroid 1. PMID:16620894

  20. The 3,6 m Indo-Belgian Devasthal Optical Telescope: the hydrostatic azimuth bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ville, Jonathan; Piérard, Maxime; Bastin, Christian

    2012-09-01

    AMOS SA has been awarded of the contract for the design, manufacturing, assembly, tests and on site installation (Devasthal, Nainital in central Himalayan region) of the 3.6 m Indo-Belgian Devasthal Optical Telescope (IDOT). The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien optical configuration with a Cassegrain focus equipped with one axial port and two side ports. The primary mirror is a meniscus active mirror. The mount is an Alt-Az type with for the azimuth axis a 5 m diameter hydrostatic track. This paper presents the solution adopted by AMOS to meet the specific requirements for the azimuth axis. The track is designed to be able to control the positioning of the telescope around the azimuth axis with an accuracy of 0.05 arc second for all tracking configurations. The challenge came from this tight accuracy with a mass in rotation weighting 125 tons. The azimuth track was mounted and tested in AMOS workshop; the tests and performances are also discussed.

  1. Entry of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine into the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Riachi, N.J.; LaManna, J.C.; Harik, S.I.

    1989-06-01

    We studied blood-to-brain entry of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and butanol in anesthetized rats using the indicator-fractionation method with right atrial bolus injection. Minimal amounts of MPP+, which has low octanol/water partition coefficient, crossed the blood-brain barrier. MPTP and butanol, both of which have high octanol/water partition coefficients, were almost completely extracted by all regions of the brain on the first pass. The main difference between the MPTP and butanol tracers is that butanol rapidly left the brain with an exponential rate constant of 1.24 min-1, whereas MPTP was avidly retained by the brain with a washout rate constant of 0.10 min-1 (mean values for the four brain regions that we studied). Early retention of MPTP by the brain was not due to its rapid metabolism by monoamine oxidase because pargyline pretreatment did not affect this rate constant. However, 30 min after (/sup 3/H)MPTP injection, brain retention of the 3H tracer was reduced significantly by pargyline treatment, and the ratio of brain MPTP/MPP+ was increased markedly.

  2. Variable Stars in the 3.6 Year DIRBE Near-Infrared Light Curve Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Price, S. D.; Smith, B. J.; Kuchar, T. A.; Mizuno, D. R.; Webb, J.

    2011-05-01

    The 3.6 year light curve archive created by Price et al. (2010) from the cryo+post-cryo Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) mission contains a wealth of variable star information at 1.25, 2.2, 3.5, and 4.9 microns. Of the 2700 objects in the archive, over 500 show strong variability and another 75 show potential variability. We have combined visible observations obtained during the DIRBE extended mission with the infrared archive to investigate wavelength-dependent phase lags between the visible and the near-IR maxima, extending the study of Smith et al. (2006) to those stars with periods longer than the 300 day cryo mission. Of those 518 stars exhibiting strong near-infrared variability, 200 have visible light curves in the American Association of Variable Star Observers database during the DIRBE mission. Because viewing geometry for both the visible observers and DIRBE mission limited the opportunities for observing the stars, the light curves were inspected to determine if the peaks were defined well enough to determine phase lags among the five wavebands. For those objects that have sufficient data, we investigate a number of methods to best estimate the peaks and thus find the phase lags, if any. We have also examined the differences in phase dependence on variable type, e.g. Miras, SRa's, SRb's, and carbon stars. The DIRBE light curve data are available to the community through the Vizier service at the Centre de Donnees Astronomique de Strasbourg.

  3. Structure of a yeast spliceosome at 3.6-angstrom resolution.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chuangye; Hang, Jing; Wan, Ruixue; Huang, Min; Wong, Catherine C L; Shi, Yigong

    2015-09-11

    Splicing of precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) in yeast is executed by the spliceosome, which consists of five small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), NTC (nineteen complex), NTC-related proteins (NTR), and a number of associated enzymes and cofactors. Here, we report the three-dimensional structure of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe spliceosome at 3.6-angstrom resolution, revealed by means of single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy. This spliceosome contains U2 and U5 snRNPs, NTC, NTR, U6 small nuclear RNA, and an RNA intron lariat. The atomic model includes 10,574 amino acids from 37 proteins and four RNA molecules, with a combined molecular mass of approximately 1.3 megadaltons. Spp42 (Prp8 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the key protein component of the U5 snRNP, forms a central scaffold and anchors the catalytic center. Both the morphology and the placement of protein components appear to have evolved to facilitate the dynamic process of pre-mRNA splicing. Our near-atomic-resolution structure of a central spliceosome provides a molecular framework for mechanistic understanding of pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:26292707

  4. Acoustic features of infant vocalic utterances at 3, 6, and 9 months.

    PubMed

    Kent, R D; Murray, A D

    1982-08-01

    Recordings were obtained of the comfort-state vocalizations of infants at 3, 6, and 9 months of age during a session of play and vocal interaction with the infant's mother and the experimenter. Acoustic analysis, primarily spectrography, was used to determine utterance durations, formant frequencies of vocalic utterances, patterns of f0 frequency change during vocalizations, variations in source excitation of the vocal tract, and general properties of the utterances. Most utterances had durations of less than 400 ms although occasional sounds lasted 2 s or more. An increase in the ranges of both the F1 and F2 frequencies was observed across both periods of age increase, but the center of the F1-F2 plot for the group vowels appeared to change very little. Phonatory characteristics were at least generally compatible with published descriptions of infant cry. The f0 frequency averaged 445 Hz for 3-month-olds, 450 Hz for 6-month-olds, and 415 Hz for 9-month-olds. As has been previously reported for infant cry, the vocalizations frequently were associated with tremor (vibrato), harmonic doubling, abrupt f0 shift, vocal fry (or roll), and noise segments. Thus, from a strictly acoustic perspective, early cry and the later vocalizations of cooing and babbling appear to be vocal performances in continuity. Implications of the acoustic analyses are discussed for phonetic development and speech acquisition. PMID:7119278

  5. Observations of the microwave emission of Venus from 1.3 to 3.6 cm.

    PubMed

    Steffes, P G; Klein, M J; Jenkins, J M

    1990-03-01

    Laboratory measurements of Steffes (1986) have suggested that the intensity and shape of the microwave spectrum of Venus might be especially sensitive to the subcloud abundance of constituents such as SO2 and gaseous H2SO4. It was likewise suggested that some variations of the shape of the emission spectrum might occur between 1.5 and 3 cm (10 to 20 GHz), a wavelength range which had previously only been sparsely observed. As a result, coordinated observations of Venus emission were conducted at four wavelengths between 1.35 cm (22.2 GHz) and 3.6 cm (8.42 GHz) using the 43-m NRAO antenna at Green Bank, West Virginia, and the 64-m antenna at NASA's Deep Space Communication Complex, Goldstone, California. In this paper, we report the methodology and results of these observations, and compare the results with other observations and with calculated emission spectra. We conclude that the observed emission spectrum is consistent with an average subcloud abundance of gaseous H2SO4 in equatorial and midlatitude regions which is approximately 5 ppm. It is suggested that additional measurements of atmospheric microwave opacity be made with the Pioneer-Venus Orbiter Radio Occultation experiment to search for temporal and spatial variations in gaseous H2SO4 abundance in the Venus atmosphere. An upper limit for the subcloud abundance of SO2 is also determined. PMID:11538401

  6. A VLA 3.6 centimeter survey of N-type carbon stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luttermoser, Donald G.; Brown, Alexander

    1992-01-01

    The results are presented of a VLA-continuum survey of 7 N-type carbon stars at 3.6 cm. Evidence exists for hot plasma around such stars; the IUE satellite detected emission lines of singly ionized metals in the optically brightest carbon stars, which in solar-type stars indicate the existence of a chromosphere. In the past, these emission lines were used to constrain the lower portion of the archetypical chromospheric model of N-type carbon stars, that of TX Psc. Five of the survey stars are semiregular (1 SRa and 4 SRb) variables and two are irregular (Lb) variables. Upper limits of about 0.07 mJy are set of the SRb and Lb variables and the lone SRa (V Hya) was detected with a flux of 0.22 mJy. The upper limits for the six stars that are not detected indicate that the temperature in their winds is less than 10,000 K. Various scenarios for the emission from V Hya are proposed, and it is suggested that the radio continuum is shock-related (either due to pulsation or the suspected bipolar jet) and not due to a supposed accretion disk around an unseen companion.

  7. One-step preparation of 2,3,6-tricarboxy cellulose.

    PubMed

    Takaichi, Satoshi; Hiraoki, Ryoya; Inamochi, Toru; Isogai, Akira

    2014-09-22

    Water-soluble sodium 2,3,6-tricarboxylate cellulose (NaTCC) or sodium mesotartarate/monohydrated glyoxilate alternating co-polyacetal was prepared from regenerated cellulose in a yield of 82% by one-step oxidation with catalytic amounts of 2-azaadamantane N-oxyl (AZADO), NaBr, and excess NaOCl in water at room temperature under alkaline conditions. The AZADO-oxidized product was shown to have an almost homogeneous NaTCC chemical structure by its 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The weight- and number-average molecular masses of the obtained NaTCC were 10,700 and 7000. When AZADO-mediated oxidation was applied to softwood bleached kraft pulp, a water-soluble oxidized product was obtained. However, it had a more heterogeneous chemical structure showing that the complete oxidation of the C2, C3, and C6 hydroxyls to carboxyls is difficult to achieve in native cellulose. PMID:24906784

  8. 6th Dysferlin Conference, 3-6 April 2013, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Douglas E; Rufibach, Laura E; Williams, Bradley A; Lee, Elaine R; Windish, Hillarie P; Hwang, Esther Y; Shira, Sarah R; Mittal, Plavi

    2014-03-01

    The 2013 Dysferlin Conference, sponsored and organized by the Jain Foundation, was held from April 3-6, 2013 in Arlington, VA. Participants included 34 researcher speakers, 5 dysferlinopathy patients and all 8 members of the Jain Foundation team. Dysferlinopathy is a rare disease that typically robs patients of mobility during their second or third decade of life. The goals of these Dysferlin Conferences are to bring experts in the field together so that they will collaborate with one another, to quicken the pace of understanding the biology of the disease and to build effective platforms to ameliorate disease. This is important because the function of dysferlin and how to compensate for its absence is still not well understood, in spite of the fact that the dysferlin gene was identified more than a decade ago. The objective of this conference, therefore, was to share and discuss the newest unpublished research defining the role of dysferlin in skeletal muscle, why its absence causes muscular dystrophy and possible therapies for dysferlin-deficient muscular dystrophy patients. PMID:24480524

  9. 3.6 YEARS OF DIRBE NEAR-INFRARED STELLAR LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Stephan D.; Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Kuchar, Thomas A.; Mizuno, Donald R. E-mail: smithbj@etsu.ed

    2010-10-15

    The weekly averaged near-infrared fluxes for 2652 stars were extracted from the cold and warm era all-sky maps of the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). Since the DIRBE program only archived the individual Calibrated Infrared Observations for the 10 month cold era mission, the weekly averaged fluxes were all that were available for the warm era. The steps required to extract stellar fluxes are described as are the adjustments that were necessary to correct the results for several systematic effects. The observations are at a cadence of once a week for 3.6 years ({approx}1300 days), providing continuous sampling on variable stars that span the entire period for the longest fundamental pulsators. The stars are divided into three categories: those with large amplitude of variability, smaller amplitude variables, and sources whose near-infrared brightness do not vary according to our classification criteria. We show examples of the results and the value of the added baseline in determining the phase lag between the visible and infrared.

  10. Mitochondria Targeted Peptides Protect Against 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lichuan; Zhao, Kesheng; Calingasan, Noel Y.; Luo, Guoxiong; Szeto, Hazel H.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A large body of evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). A number of antioxidants have been effective in animal models of PD. We have developed a family of mitochondria-targeted peptides that can protect against mitochondrial swelling and apoptosis (SS peptides). In this study, we examined the ability of two peptides, SS-31 and SS-20, to protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity in mice. SS-31 produced dose-dependent complete protection against loss of dopamine and its metabolites in striatum, as well as loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta. SS-20, which does not possess intrinsic ability in scavenging reactive oxygen species, also demonstrated significant neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons of MPTP-treated mice. Both SS-31 and SS-20 were very potent (nM) in preventing MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium)-induced cell death in cultured dopamine cells (SN4741). Studies with isolated mitochondria showed that both SS-31 and SS-20 prevented MPP+-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption and ATP production, and mitochondrial swelling. These findings provide strong evidence that these neuroprotective peptides, which target both mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage, are a promising approach for the treatment of PD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 2095–2104. PMID:19203217

  11. [Longer waiting time and higher mortality in older people with traumatic brain injuries. Mapping of emergency prehospital management and hospital management in Västerbotten].

    PubMed

    Holzmann, Martin; Bylund, Per O; Degerfält, Lisa; Carlsson, Axel C; Wändell, Per; Ruge, Toralph

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose was to study the prehospital and early intrahospital treatment of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the county of Västerbotten 2011-2012. In total, 162 patients were included. The main finding was that a large proportion of TBI patients were older men who fell in the same or from a different level. Older patients had higher mortality and had to wait longer for diagnostic imaging compared to younger patients. Furthermore, most patients were initially relatively unaffected by the injury and around 1/5 of the patients were transported to hospital by private transport. Finally, we observed that most patients were admitted to hospital and computer tomography scan of the head was performed within 4 hours. PMID:26440946

  12. Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) caused by duplication of exons 3-6 of the dystrophin gene presenting as dilated cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, A.C.; Allingham-Hawkins, D.J.; Becker, L.

    1994-09-01

    X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (XLCM) is a progressive myocardial disease presenting with congestive heart failure in teenage males without clinical signs of skeletal myopathy. Tight linkage of XLCM to the DMD locus has been demonstrated; it has been suggested that, at least in some families, XLCM is a {open_quotes}dystrophinopathy.{close_quotes} We report a 14-year-old boy who presented with acute heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy. He had no history of muscle weakness, but physical examination revealed pseudohypertrophy of the calf muscles. He subsequently received a heart transplantation. Family history was negative. Serum CK level at the time of diagnosis was 10,416. Myocardial biopsy showed no evidence of carditis. Dystrophin staining of cardiac and skeletal muscle with anti-sera to COOH and NH{sub 2}termini showed a patchy distribution of positivity suggestive of Becker muscular dystrophy. Analysis of 18 of the 79 dystrophin exons detected a duplication that included exons 3-6. The proband`s mother has an elevated serum CK and was confirmed to be a carrier of the same duplication. A mutation in the muscle promotor region of the dystrophin gene has been implicated in the etiology of SLCM. However, Towbin et al. (1991) argued that other 5{prime} mutations in the dystrophin gene could cause selective cardiomyopathy. The findings in our patient support the latter hypothesis. This suggests that there are multiple regions in the dystrophin gene which, when disrupted, can cause isolated dilated cardiomyopathy.

  13. Geochemical modeling (EQ3/6) plan: Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, W.F.; Wolery, T.J.; Delany, J.M.; Silva, R.J.; Jackson, K.J.; Bourcier, W.L.; Emerson, D.O.

    1986-08-28

    This plan replaces an earlier plan for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. It includes activities for all repository projects in the Office of Geologic Repositories: NNWSI, the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, the Salt Repository Project, and the Crystalline Project. Each of these projects is part of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. The scope of work for fiscal years 1986 to 1992 includes the work required to upgrade the geochemical codes and supporting data bases, to permit modeling of chemical processes associated with nuclear waste repositories in four geological environments: tuff, salt, basalt, and crystalline rock. Planned tasks include theoretical studies and code development to take account of the effects of precipitation kinetics, sorption, solid solutions, glass/water interactions, variable gas fugacities, and simple mass transport. Recent progress has been made in the ability of the codes to account for precipitation kinetics, highly-saline solutions, and solid solutions. Transition state theory was re-examined resulting in new insights that will provide the foundation for further improvements necessary to model chemical kinetics. Currently there is an increased effort that is concentrated on the supporting data base. For aqueous species and solid phases, specific to nuclear waste, requisite thermodynamic values reported in the literature are being evaluated and for cases where essential data is lacking, laboratory measurements will be carried out. Significant modifications and expansions have been made to the data base. During FY86, the total number of species in the data base has almost doubled and many improvements have been made with regard to consistency, organization, user applications, and documentation. Two Ridge computers using a RISC implementation of UNIX were installed; they are completely dedicated EQ3/6 machines.

  14. PREFACE: International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design, Hiroshima, Japan, 3 6 December 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Oguchi, Tamio

    2007-09-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter comprises selected papers from the 1st International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design (QSD2006) held in Hiroshima, Japan, 3-6 December 2006. This conference was organized under the auspices of the Development of New Quantum Simulators and Quantum Design Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT), and Hiroshima University Quantum design is a computational approach to the development of new materials with specified properties and functionalities. The basic ingredient is the use of quantum simulations to design a material that meets a given specification of properties and functionalities. For this to be successful, the quantum simulation should be highly reliable and be applicable to systems of realistic size. A central interest is, therefore, the development of new methods of quantum simulation and quantum design. This includes methods beyond the local density approximation of density functional theory (LDA), order-N methods, methods dealing with excitations and reactions, and so on, as well as the application of these methods to the design of new materials and devices. The field of quantum design has developed rapidly in the past few years and this conference provides an international forum for experimental and theoretical researchers to exchange ideas. A total of 183 delegates from 8 countries participated in the conference. There were 18 invited talks, 16 oral presentations and 100 posters. There were many new ideas and we foresee dramatic progress in the coming years. The 2nd International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design will be held in Tokyo, Japan, 31 May-3 June 2008.

  15. Estimation of food portion sizes frequently consumed by children 3-6 years old in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Keiko; Haga, Megumi; Adachi, Miyuki; Sakai, Haruko; Takahashi, Chieko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    No study has documented Japanese children's food portion sizes. Since this information is essential to establish valid measurement tools and effective education methods for dietary intake, we measured them using one-day, semi-weighed diet records (DRs) for 489 Japanese children aged 3-6 y. Each food's frequency of appearance on the DRs was counted. If a child consumed a certain food more than once per day, an average weight for that food was calculated and used in the portion size calculation as that child's representative value. In total, 67 food items were consumed by twenty or more children. We calculated the mean, standard deviation, median, minimum, and maximum portion size values for these food items. In addition to these 67 items, Chinese noodles and water were included in the analysis. The most frequently consumed food was well-milled rice (mean portion size for rice=79 g), which was consumed by 350 children, followed by soy sauce (4 g), eggs (26 g), and carrots (9 g). Among the five most frequently consumed foods, portion sizes of rice and pork but not milk, eggs, or carrots significantly increased with age, height, and weight. In multivariate linear regression analysis, however, the significant relationships between rice portion size and age were not observed. Regarding pork, only the relationship with height was significant. A sex difference was detected in the rice and milk portion sizes. Most of portion sizes observed here were apparently smaller than those reported among United Kingdom children. This study provides important basic information for the implementation of quantitative nutritional research and educational efforts for Japanese preschool children. PMID:25866301

  16. LLW-3-6 and Celecoxib Impacts Growth in Prostate Cancer Cells and Subcellular Localization of COX-2

    PubMed Central

    YEROKUN, TOKUNBO; WINFIELD, LEYTE L.

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation in human prostate carcinomas, PC3 and MDA-PCa-2b, was analyzed for cells treated with LLW-3-6 and celecoxib in the presence and absence of sulfasalazine. LLW-3-6 was more potent than celecoxib at mediating a dose-dependent reduction of viable PC3 cells. Co-treatment with a non-lethal dose of sulfasalazine diminished the potency of both drugs in this cell line. The effects of the drugs in MDA-PCa-2b cells were less significant than those observed in the PC3 cells. Localization of COX-2 in LLW-3-6- and CBX-treated PC3 cells is consistent with protein aggregation known for cells responding to stress stimuli. To complement this, an analysis of the theoretical binding interactions of LLW-3-6 was completed to illustrate the potential of LLW-3-6 to bind to COX-2 in a manner similar to that of celecoxib. Studies to further define the mechanism of action for LLW-3-6 are ongoing. PMID:25202054

  17. 3,6-dihydroxyflavone suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junli; Chang, Hui; Peng, Xiaoli; Gu, Yeyun; Yi, Long; Zhang, Qianyong; Zhu, Jundong; Mi, Mantian

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical developmental program in cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance and in cancer metastasis. Here, our study found that 3,6-DHF could effectively inhibit EMT in BC cells in vitro and in vivo. 3,6-DHF effectively inhibits the formation and proliferation of BCSCs, and consequently reduces the tumor-initiating capacity of tumor cells in NOD/SCID mice. Optical in vivo imaging of cancer metastasis showed that 3,6-DHF administration suppresses the lung metastasis of BC cells in vivo. Further studies indicated that 3,6-DHF down-regulates Notch1, NICD, Hes-1 and c-Myc, consequently decreasing the formation of the functional transcriptional unit of NICD-CSL-MAML, causing Notch signaling inactivation in BC cells. Over-expression of Notch1 or inhibition of miR-34a significantly reduced the inhibitory effects of 3,6-DHF on EMT, CSCs, as well as cells migration and invasion in BC cells. These data indicated that 3,6-DHF effectively inhibits EMT and CSCs, as well as cells migration and invasion in BC cells, in which miR-34a-mediated Notch1 down-regulation plays a crucial role. PMID:27345219

  18. 3,6-dihydroxyflavone suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junli; Chang, Hui; Peng, Xiaoli; Gu, Yeyun; Yi, Long; Zhang, Qianyong; Zhu, Jundong; Mi, Mantian

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical developmental program in cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance and in cancer metastasis. Here, our study found that 3,6-DHF could effectively inhibit EMT in BC cells in vitro and in vivo. 3,6-DHF effectively inhibits the formation and proliferation of BCSCs, and consequently reduces the tumor-initiating capacity of tumor cells in NOD/SCID mice. Optical in vivo imaging of cancer metastasis showed that 3,6-DHF administration suppresses the lung metastasis of BC cells in vivo. Further studies indicated that 3,6-DHF down-regulates Notch1, NICD, Hes-1 and c-Myc, consequently decreasing the formation of the functional transcriptional unit of NICD-CSL-MAML, causing Notch signaling inactivation in BC cells. Over-expression of Notch1 or inhibition of miR-34a significantly reduced the inhibitory effects of 3,6-DHF on EMT, CSCs, as well as cells migration and invasion in BC cells. These data indicated that 3,6-DHF effectively inhibits EMT and CSCs, as well as cells migration and invasion in BC cells, in which miR-34a-mediated Notch1 down-regulation plays a crucial role. PMID:27345219

  19. Collection and conversion of silicon furnace waste gas into higher value products: Phase 3, 6 MW pilot plant dc closed furnace technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dosaj, V.D.

    1995-01-01

    The construction and operation of a 6 MW, closed dc furnace for smelting silicon was the primary focus of Phase 3. A 6 MW, dc closed furnace pilot plant was built in East Selkirk, Manitoba, Canada. The furnace is equipped with world`s most modern automatic control system used to control and monitor the process variables and operational data. This control system is suitable for commercial applications and could be used with either closed or open dc furnaces for smelting silicon or ferrosilicon. The construction was started in September 1990, and the facility was operational within 18 months. Following successful commissioning of the pilot plant in June 1992, twelve smelting test campaigns were conducted through November 1994.

  20. Numerical approximation of higher-order time-fractional telegraph equation by using a combination of a geometric approach and method of line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, M. S.; Baleanu, D.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a simple and accurate numerical scheme for solving the time fractional telegraph (TFT) equation within Caputo type fractional derivative. A fictitious coordinate ϑ is imposed onto the problem in order to transform the dependent variable u (x , t) into a new variable with an extra dimension. In the new space with the added fictitious dimension, a combination of method of line and group preserving scheme (GPS) is proposed to find the approximate solutions. This method preserves the geometric structure of the problem. Power and accuracy of this method has been illustrated through some examples of TFT equation.

  1. Traceable stopping cross sections of Al and Mo elemental targets for 0.9-3.6-MeV protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, M. V.; Silva, T. F.; Mangiarotti, A.; Guimarães-Filho, Z. O.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M. H.

    2016-02-01

    Accurate knowledge about the energy loss of ions in matter is essential in many problems, ranging from fundamental to applied nuclear physics. Indeed, there is a recent and increasing demand for new data on stopping cross sections measured with high accuracy and with a rigorous budget of their uncertainty sources. In the present paper we describe an accurate and traceable approach to determine the stopping cross sections in pure elemental materials—aluminum and molybdenum—for protons in the energy range of 0.9-3.6 MeV by the transmission method. The main sources of uncertainties here considered are (i) (random) the uncertainty in the peak positions and in the Gaussian fits and (ii) (systematic) the presence of thickness nonuniformity (a special procedure has been developed to correct it as far as possible). The accuracy in the final stopping cross section is 0.63 % (0.32 % random and 0.54 % systematic) for Al and 1.5 % (0.44 % random and 1.4 % systematic) for Mo, both mainly limited by the quality and homogeneity of the foils. For Al, this high accuracy represents an improvement compared to previous publications and serves as a benchmark for our procedure. For Mo, even though the uncertainty is somewhat higher, our results will help in improving the few data currently available in the energy range here considered. The data were also compared to the most commonly employed theoretical models (srim 1985, srim 2013, pstar, and casp 5.2) and Monte Carlo codes (geant 3 and geant 4). The experimental results are electronically available as supplemental material.

  2. Task 6.3/6.7.4 - Engineering Performance of Advanced Structural Materials

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Hurley; John P. Kay

    1998-11-16

    Future energy systems will be required to fire low-grade fuels and meet higher energy conversion efficiencies than today's systems. The steam cycle used at present is-limited to a maximum temperature of 550C, because above that the stainless steel tubes deform and corrode excessively. However, to boost efficiency significantly, much higher working fluid temperatures are required. Although high-temperature alloys will suffice for the construction of these components in the near term, the greatest efficiency increases can only be reached with the use of advanced structural ceramics

  3. Benchmarks on automated system and software generation higher flexibility increased productivity and shorter time-to-market by ScaPable software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlich, Rainer

    2002-07-01

    "ScaPable" is an acronym derived from "scalable" and "portable". The attribute "scalable" indicates that specific application software can automatically be built from scratch and verified without writing any statement in a programming language like C, thereby covering a large variety of embedded and/or distributed applications. The term "portable" addresses the capability to automatically port parts of such an application from one physical node to another one - the processor and operating system type may change - only requiring the names of the nodes, their processor type and operating system. This way the infrastructure of an embedded / distributed system can be built just by provision of literals and figures which define the system interaction, communication, topology and performance. Moreover, dedicated application software like needed for on-board command handling, data acquisition and processing, and telemetry handling can be built from generic templates. The generation time range from less than one second up to about twenty minutes on a PC/Linux platform (800 MHz). By this extremely short generation time risks can be identified early because the executable application is immediately available for validation. A rough estimation shows that one hour of automated system and software generation is equivalent to about 5 .. 50 man years. Currently, about 50% of a typical space embedded system can be covered by the available automated approach. However, the more it is applied, the more can be covered by automation. A system is constructed by applying a formal transformation to the few information as delivered by the user. This approach is not limited to the space domain, although the first industrial application was a space project. Quite different domains can take advantage of such principles of system construction. This paper explains the approach, compares it with other approaches, and provides figures on productivity, duration of system generation and reliability.

  4. The Carnegie Hubble Program: The Leavitt Law at 3.6 microns and 4.5 microns in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scowcroft, Victoria; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Monson, Andrew J.; Persson, S. E.; Seibert, Mark; Rigby, Jane R.; Sturch, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The Carnegie Hubble Program (CHP) is designed to improve the extragalactic distance scale using data from the post-cryogenic era of Spitzer. The ultimate goal is a determination of the Hubble constant to an accuracy of 2%. This paper is the first in a series on the Cepheid population of the Large Magellanic Cloud, and focuses on the period-luminosity relations (Leavitt laws) that will be used, in conjunction with observations of Milky Way Cepheids, to set the slope and zero-point of the Cepheid distance scale in the mid-infrared. To this end, we have obtained uniformly-sampled light curves for 85 LMC Cepheids, having periods between 6 and 140 days. Period- luminosity and period-color relations are presented in the 3.6 micron and 4.5 micron bands. We demonstrate that the 3.6 micron band is a superb distance indicator. The cyclical variation of the [3.6]-[4.5] color has been measured for the first time. We attribute the amplitude and phase of the color curves to the dissociation and recombination of CO molecules in the Cepheid s atmosphere. The CO affects only the 4.5 micron flux making it a potential metallicity indicator.

  5. THE CARNEGIE HUBBLE PROGRAM: THE LEAVITT LAW AT 3.6 {mu}m AND 4.5 {mu}m IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Scowcroft, Victoria; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Monson, Andrew J.; Persson, S. E.; Seibert, Mark; Rigby, Jane R.; Sturch, Laura E-mail: wendy@obs.carnegiescience.edu E-mail: amonson@obs.carnegiescience.edu E-mail: mseibert@obs.carnegiescience.edu E-mail: lsturch@bu.edu

    2011-12-10

    The Carnegie Hubble Program is designed to improve the extragalactic distance scale using data from the post-cryogenic era of Spitzer. The ultimate goal is a determination of the Hubble constant to an accuracy of 2%. This paper is the first in a series on the Cepheid population of the Large Magellanic Cloud, and focusses on the period-luminosity (PL) relations (Leavitt laws) that will be used, in conjunction with observations of Milky Way Cepheids, to set the slope and zero point of the Cepheid distance scale in the mid-infrared. To this end, we have obtained uniformly sampled light curves for 85 LMC Cepheids, having periods between 6 and 140 days. PL and period-color relations are presented in the 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m bands. We demonstrate that the 3.6 {mu}m band is a superb distance indicator. The cyclical variation of the [3.6]-[4.5] color has been measured for the first time. We attribute the amplitude and phase of the color curves to the dissociation and recombination of CO molecules in the Cepheid's atmosphere. The CO affects only the 4.5 {mu}m flux making it a potential metallicity indicator.

  6. Vibrations and reorientations of NH3 molecules in [Mn(NH3)6](ClO4)2 studied by infrared spectroscopy and theoretical (DFT) calculations.

    PubMed

    Hetmańczyk, Joanna; Hetmańczyk, Łukasz; Migdał-Mikuli, Anna; Mikuli, Edward

    2015-02-01

    The vibrational and reorientational motions of NH3 ligands and ClO4(-) anions were investigated by Fourier transform middle-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) in the high- and low-temperature phases of [Mn(NH3)6](ClO4)2. The temperature dependencies of full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the infrared bands at: 591 and 3385cm(-1), associated with: ρr(NH3) and νas(N-H) modes, respectively, indicate that there exist fast (correlation times τR≈10(-12)-10(-13)s) reorientational motions of NH3 ligands, with a mean values of activation energies: 7.8 and 4.5kJmol(-1), in the phase I and II, respectively. These reorientational motions of NH3 ligands are only slightly disturbed in the phase transition region and do not significantly contribute to the phase transition mechanism. Fourier transform far-infrared and middle-infrared spectra with decreasing of temperature indicated characteristic changes at the vicinity of PT at TC(c)=137.6K (on cooling), which suggested lowering of the crystal structure symmetry. Infrared spectra of [Mn(NH3)6](ClO4)2 were recorded and interpreted by comparison with respective theoretical spectra calculated using DFT method (B3LYP functional, LANL2DZ ECP basis set (on Mn atom) and 6-311+G(d,p) basis set (on H, N, Cl, O atoms) for the isolated equilibrium two models (Model 1 - separate isolated [Mn(NH3)6](2+) cation and ClO4(-) anion and Model 2 - [Mn(NH3)6(ClO4)2] complex system). Calculated optical spectra show a good agreement with the experimental infrared spectra (FT-FIR and FT-MIR) for the both models. PMID:25459713

  7. Vibrations and reorientations of NH3 molecules in [Mn(NH3)6](ClO4)2 studied by infrared spectroscopy and theoretical (DFT) calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetmańczyk, Joanna; Hetmańczyk, Łukasz; Migdał-Mikuli, Anna; Mikuli, Edward

    2015-02-01

    The vibrational and reorientational motions of NH3 ligands and ClO4- anions were investigated by Fourier transform middle-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) in the high- and low-temperature phases of [Mn(NH3)6](ClO4)2. The temperature dependencies of full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the infrared bands at: 591 and 3385 cm-1, associated with: ρr(NH3) and νas(N-H) modes, respectively, indicate that there exist fast (correlation times τR ≈ 10-12-10-13 s) reorientational motions of NH3 ligands, with a mean values of activation energies: 7.8 and 4.5 kJ mol-1, in the phase I and II, respectively. These reorientational motions of NH3 ligands are only slightly disturbed in the phase transition region and do not significantly contribute to the phase transition mechanism. Fourier transform far-infrared and middle-infrared spectra with decreasing of temperature indicated characteristic changes at the vicinity of PT at TCc = 137.6 K (on cooling), which suggested lowering of the crystal structure symmetry. Infrared spectra of [Mn(NH3)6](ClO4)2 were recorded and interpreted by comparison with respective theoretical spectra calculated using DFT method (B3LYP functional, LANL2DZ ECP basis set (on Mn atom) and 6-311 + G(d,p) basis set (on H, N, Cl, O atoms) for the isolated equilibrium two models (Model 1 - separate isolated [Mn(NH3)6]2+ cation and ClO4- anion and Model 2 - [Mn(NH3)6(ClO4)2] complex system). Calculated optical spectra show a good agreement with the experimental infrared spectra (FT-FIR and FT-MIR) for the both models.

  8. Bicyclo[3.2.1]octa-3,6-dien-2-yl cation: a bishomoantiaromate.

    PubMed

    Volz, Heinrich; Shin, Jung-Hyu

    2006-03-17

    Antiaromatic compounds with a closed loop of 4n p-electrons are relatively unstable and often difficult to study. We report in this article the synthesis of alcohols 2-(4'-fluorophenyl)bicyclo[3.2.1]octan-2-ol 11, 2-(4'-fluorophenyl)bicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-en-2-ol 12, and 2-(4'-fluorophenyl)bicyclo[3.2.1]octa-3,6-dien-2-ol 13 and their transformations into corresponding carbocations 14-16, respectively, in a superacidic medium (FSO3H/SO2ClF) at -120 degrees C. Cations 14-16 are characterized by NMR analysis (1H, 13C, 19F), and 15 and 16 are further characterized by quenching in NaOCH3/H3COH at -120 degrees C. The relative stabilities of 14-16 are determined experimentally by 19F NMR spectroscopy. Cation 16 is found to be experimentally less stable than cation 15 by 3.7 kcal/mol. DFT calculations (structure and energy: B3LYP/6-31G(d); NMR: B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p)) are performed for alcohols 11-13 and bicyclo[3.2.1]octyl cations 6, 7, 9, 14-16, 26, 28, and 30. In the case of 11-16, data from DFT calculations is in good agreement with experimental data. Because 6,7-dimethylenebicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-en-2-yl cation 26 is more stable than cation 7 by 1.69 kcal/mol, the inductive effect of sp(2)-hybridized carbon atoms C6 and C7 in carbocations 6 and 16 cannot be the reason for the destabilization of 6 relative to 7 and 16 relative to 15. Destabilization of 6 relative to 7 and 16 relative to 15 and the calculated NICS of 6 (+4.17 ppm) and 16(+3.3 ppm) document that 6 and 16 are bishomoantiaromates. PMID:16526766

  9. An in situ bioseismicity experiment 3.6 km beneath the surface at NELSAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onstott, T.; Chan, E.; van Heerden, E.; Litthauer, D.; Bester, A.; Reches, Z.; van Aswegen, G.; Moller, H.; Lippmann-Pipke, J.

    2008-12-01

    Instrumentation has been designed and constructed for performing in situ biogeochemical experiments in a borehole, DAFBIO, situated at 3.6 km beneath the surface of South Africa in the Natural Earthquake Laboratory in South African Mine, NELSAM, site at Tau Tona gold mine. At this location, which lies within the Pretorius fault zone, several boreholes contain 3-component accelerometers, seismometers, strain-meters and a gas mass spectrometer. Characterization of rock cores and formation fluids from NELSAM suggest that sulfate reducing microbial communities are present. Periodic release of H2 from the fault zone has been correlated with blasting induced seismic activity from along this fault zone. As blasting can also cause anomalous N species in the environment the instrument was designed to measure N and S species as well as collect dissolved gas and microbial samples. The instrument is designed to circulate fluid and automatically collect samples from inside a stainless steel, straddle packer that has isolated a fracture within the Pretorius Fault zone, 18 meters from the wall of the laboratory. Because of the deformation within the borehole an inflatable packer is used. HPLC pumps circulate fluid through peek tubing the from the straddle packer a flow cell that monitors the temperature, conductivity, pH and utilizes ion specific electrodes (Pasco, Scientific and RMS, Ltd.) to measure NH4+, NO3- and HS- concentrations. An autosampler (Gilson) has been converted into a fraction collector that periodically injects 20 mL of fluid into 160, inverted, sterile, Ar-filled, high pressure Balsch tubes. Fluid is replaced into the straddle packer from a sterile, 10 L, anaerobic, Nalgene reservoir with an Ar headspace by a second HPLC pump. Because of the high ambient air temperature, the flow cell, autosampler and reservoir are housed inside a cooler (ST Gebaudetechnik GmbH) that maintains a constant 10oC environment. Because of the remote location of the NELSAM site, the

  10. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Studies in Mossy Maze Polypore, Cerrena unicolor (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Lin, Qi; Lin, Juan; Ye, Xiuyun

    2016-01-01

    With its ability to produce ligninolytic enzymes such as laccases, white-rot basidiomycete Cerrena unicolor, a medicinal mushroom, has great potential in biotechnology. Elucidation of the expression profiles of genes encoding ligninolytic enzymes are important for increasing their production. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a powerful tool to study transcriptional regulation of genes of interest. To ensure accuracy and reliability of qPCR analysis of C. unicolor, expression levels of seven candidate reference genes were studied at different growth phases, under various induction conditions, and with a range of carbon/nitrogen ratios and carbon and nitrogen sources. The stability of the genes were analyzed with five statistical approaches, namely geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, the ΔCt method, and RefFinder. Our results indicated that the selection of reference genes varied with sample sets. A combination of four reference genes (Cyt-c, ATP6, TEF1, and β-tubulin) were recommended for normalizing gene expression at different growth phases. GAPDH and Cyt-c were the appropriate reference genes under different induction conditions. ATP6 and TEF1 were most stable in fermentation media with various carbon/nitrogen ratios. In the fermentation media with various carbon or nitrogen sources, 18S rRNA and GAPDH were the references of choice. The present study represents the first validation analysis of reference genes in C. unicolor and serves as a foundation for its qPCR analysis. PMID:27279538

  11. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  12. Properties of z ~ 3-6 Lyman break galaxies. II. Impact of nebular emission at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, S.; Schaerer, D.; Stark, D. P.

    2014-03-01

    Context. To gain insight on the mass assembly and place constraints on the star formation history (SFH) of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), it is important to accurately determine their properties. Aims: We estimate how nebular emission and different SFHs affect parameter estimation of LBGs. Methods: We present a homogeneous, detailed analysis of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of ~1700 LBGs from the GOODS-MUSIC catalogue with deep multi-wavelength photometry from the U band to 8 μm to determine stellar mass, age, dust attenuation, and star formation rate. Using our SED fitting tool, which takes into account nebular emission, we explore a wide parameter space. We also explore a set of different star formation histories. Results: Nebular emission is found to significantly affect the determination of the physical parameters for the majority of z ~ 3-6 LBGs. We identify two populations of galaxies by determining the importance of the contribution of emission lines to broadband fluxes. We find that ~65% of LBGs show detectable signs of emission lines, whereas ~35% show weak or no emission lines. This distribution is found over the entire redshift range. We interpret these groups as actively star-forming and more quiescent LBGs, respectively. We find that it is necessary to considerer SED fits with very young ages (<50 Myr) to reproduce some colours affected by strong emission lines. Other arguments favouring episodic star formation and relatively short star formation timescales are also discussed. Considering nebular emission generally leads to a younger age, lower stellar mass, higher dust attenuation, higher star formation rate, and a large scatter in the SFR-M⋆ relation. Our analysis yields a trend of increasing specific star formation rate with redshift, as predicted by recent galaxy evolution models. Conclusions: The physical parameters of approximately two thirds of high redshift galaxies are significantly modified when we account for nebular emission. The

  13. Stocks and Flows of U and Pu in a World with 3.6 TWe of Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, Robert J

    2012-08-10

    Integrated energy, environment, and economics models project that worldwide electrical energy use will increase to ~12 TWe in 2100 and nuclear power may be required to provide 3.6 TWe at this time. If pulverized coal without carbon sequestration were employed instead, the resulting incremental long-term global temperature rise would be about 2/3 deg C. Calculations are presented of the stocks and flows of uranium and plutonium associated with the scenario where this energy is provided by nuclear power. If only light-water reactors (LWRs) are used, the scenario consumes about 33.4 Mt of mined uranium. Continuing to operate the reactors in place in 2100 through the end of their assumed 60 year lifetime raises this to 59 Mt, 4.7x the NEA/ IAEA Redbook estimate for total discovered + undiscovered uranium. The waste corresponds to about 86x the legally defined capacity of Yucca Mtn. A case is also considered where a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors in 2040, both for a “balanced” system of LWRs and transuranic (TRU) burners with conversion ration (CR) = 0.5, and for a system of breeders. In the latter case we find that CR = 1.21 is adequate to replace all LWRs with breeders by 2100, using solely TRU from LWRs to start up the reactors – assuming reprocessed fuel is available for use two years after its removal from the reactor. The stock of plutonium circulating in the fast reactor system in 2100 is comparable to that which would have been buried in the LWR-only case. One year of fueling corresponds to 2,000 – 6,000t of Pu. Fusion energy, if first brought on line in mid-century, could in principle replace fast reactors in this scenario.

  14. Identification of a cryptic type III polyketide synthase (1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene synthase) from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Gopal Prasad; Oh, Tae-Jin; Liou, Kwangkyoung; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2008-10-31

    We identified a 1,134-bp putative type III polyketide synthase from the sequence analysis of Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952, named Sp-RppA, which is characterized as 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene synthase and shares 33% identity with SCO1206 from S. coelicolor A3(2) and 32% identity with RppA from S. griseus. The 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene synthase is known to catalyze the sequential decarboxylative condensation, intramolecular cyclization, and aromatization of an oligoketide derived from five units of malonyl-CoA to give 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene, which spontaneously oxidizes to form 2,5,7-trihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (flaviolin). In this study, we report the in vivo expression and in vitro synthesis of flaviolin from purified gene product (Sp-RppA). PMID:18612244

  15. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Regulates TRPC3/6 Channels and Protects Against Myocardial Infarction in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Pengzhou; Zhao, Jing; Cai, Benzhi; Tian, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Guo, Jing; Sun, Chuan; Li, Yue; Du, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with coronary artery diseases. However, its role and mechanism in myocardial infarction (MI) is not fully understood. Methods: Wistar rat and Kunming mouse model of MI were induced by the ligation of left coronary artery. Blood samples were collected from MI rats and patients. Plasma BDNF level, protein expression of BDNF, tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and its downstream transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC)3/6 channels were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. Infarct size, cardiac function and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were measured after intra-myocardium injection with recombinant human BDNF. Protective role of BDNF against cardiomyocyte apoptosis was confirmed by BDNF scavenger TrkB-Fc. The regulation of TRPC3/6 channels by BDNF was validated by pretreating with TRPC blocker (2-Aminoethyl diphenylborinate, 2-APB) and TRPC3/6 siRNAs. Results: Circulating BDNF was significantly enhanced in MI rats and patients. Protein expression of BDNF, TrkB and TRPC3/6 channels were upregulated in MI. 3 days post-MI, BDNF treatment markedly reduced the infarct size and serum lactate dehydrogenase activity. Meanwhile, echocardiography indicated that BDNF significantly improved cardiac function of MI mice. Furthermore, BDNF markedly inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis by upregulating Bcl-2 expression and downregulating caspase-3 expression and activity in ischemic myocardium. In neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, cell viability was dramatically increased by BDNF in hypoxia, which was restored by TrkB-Fc. Furthermore, protective role of BDNF against hypoxia-induced apoptosis was reversed by 2-APB and TRPC3/6 siRNAs. Conclusion: BDNF/TrkB alleviated cardiac ischemic injury and inhibited cardiomyocytes apoptosis by regulating TRPC3/6 channels, which provides a novel potential therapeutic candidate for MI. PMID:25892961

  16. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Alan

    Women have traditionally been discriminated against in higher education in both the attainment of degrees and in employment after earning degrees. It has been felt that women are not as capable, reliable, or effective as men in administrative and classroom situations. Statistics show that even at the present time women are underemployed and…

  17. Process for manufacturing bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Paul George; Lawton, Richard Graham

    2014-06-03

    A process to manufacture substituted tetracyano-hexaazatricyclics with the substitutions occurring at the 9 and 10 hydrogens. The process begins with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanopyrazine, which is reacted to form the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different process embodiments enable different reaction paths to the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic embodiments include bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene and bis(2-methoxyethoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracen- e.

  18. A Review of Subsurface Behavior of Plutonium and Americium at the 200-PW-1/3/6 Operable Units

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Riley, Robert G.

    2008-01-31

    This report begins with a brief summary of the history and current status of 200-PW-1/3/6 OUs in section 2.0. This is followed by a description of our concentual model of Pu/Am migration at the 200-PW-1/3/6 OUs, during both past artificial recharge conditions and current natural recharge condictions (section 3.0). Section 4.0 discusses data gaps and information needs. The final section (section 5.0) provides recommendations for futher work to address the data gaps and information needs identified in section 4.0.

  19. [Chemical constituents in higher polar substances from Desmodium caudatum].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Wang, Di; Wang, Guang-Hui; Guo, Zhi-Jian; Zou, Xiu-Hong; Lin, Ting; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2014-08-01

    In this study the chemical constituents of the higher polar sustances from Desmodium caudatum were investigated.The compounds were isolated by using column chromatographies over silicagel, polyamide, ODS, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC. The structures of these compounds were identified on the basis of NMR and MS spectra. Thirteen compounds were obtained and their structures were identified as vanillin(1), loliolide(2), indole-3-carboxaldehyde(3), salicylic acid(4), swertisin(5), saccharumoside C(6), isosinensin (7), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (8), isovitexin (9), vitexin (10), nothofagin(11), resveratroloside (12), and 2"-α-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-methylvitexin (13). Except for compound 5, the remaining compounds were isolated from D. caudatum for the first time. Compounds 2, 3, 6-8, 11-13 were separated from the genus Desmodium for the first time. PMID:25509297

  20. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. Celecoxib and LLW-3-6 reduce survival of human glioma cells independently and synergistically with sulfasalazine

    PubMed Central

    Yerokun, Tokunbo; Winfield, Leyte L.

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are among the most commonly diagnosed central nervous system tumors. Celecoxib has been utilized with success in the treatment of several types of cancer, including gliomas. The present study examined the antiproliferative effects of celecoxib and its benzimidazole-based analog, LLW-3-6, when used as co-treatments with sulfasalazine against human glioma LN18 cells. At 48-hour treatment, the glioma cells maintained 60% viability in the presence of celecoxib or LLW-3-6 at the maximum concentration tested (40 μM). Co-treatment of the glioma cells with a non-lethal dose (50 μM) of sulfasalazine and either celecoxib or LLW-3-6 (administered at different concentrations) resulted in improved inhibition of cell viability. The concentration of the molecules needed to reduce cell growth in the combined treatments was significantly less than that needed when either molecule was administered independently. Based on computational values, LLW-3-6 has physiochemical characteristics that should allow for improved bioavailability in comparison to that of celecoxib. PMID:26637851

  4. Celecoxib and LLW-3-6 Reduce Survival of Human Glioma Cells Independently and Synergistically with Sulfasalazine.

    PubMed

    Yerokun, Tokunbo; Winfield, Leyte L

    2015-12-01

    Gliomas are among the most commonly diagnosed central nervous system tumors. Celecoxib has been utilized with success in the treatment of several types of cancer, including gliomas. The present study examined the antiproliferative effects of celecoxib and its benzimidazole-based analog, LLW-3-6, when used as co-treatment with sulfasalazine against human glioma LN18 cells. At 48-h treatment, the glioma cells maintained 60% viability in the presence of celecoxib or LLW-3-6 at the maximum concentration tested (40 μM). Co-treatment of glioma cells under a non-lethal dose (50 μM) of sulfasalazine and either celecoxib or LLW-3-6 (administered at different concentrations) resulted in improved inhibition of cell viability. The concentration of the molecules required to reduce cell growth in the combined treatment was significantly less than that needed when either molecule was administered independently. Based on computational values, LLW-3-6 has physiochemical characteristics that should allow for improved bioavailability in comparison to that of celecoxib. PMID:26637851

  5. The Performance of Latinos in Rural Public Schools: A Comparative Analysis of Test Scores in Grades 3, 6, and 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Steve; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines effects of socioeconomic status, school funding, English proficiency, and Latino population concentration on achievement scores of students in grades 3, 6, and 12 in 66 rural California school districts. Performance on the California Assessment Program was predicted primarily by parental socioeconomic status, and, unexpectedly, improved…

  6. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. Everybody Has a Body: Science from Head to Toe. Activities Book for Teachers of Children Ages 3-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Robert E.; And Others

    This science activity book contains age-appropriate activities that will enable children ages 3-6 to explore one of the first environments they encounter, their own body. The knowledge gained in these activities can be interspersed with pre-science skills, health information, literature, self-concept development, and body awareness. Each chapter…

  8. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. Statistical Methods for Protecting Personally Identifiable Information in the Disclosure of Graduation Rates of First-Time, Full-Time Degree- or Certificate-Seeking Undergraduate Students by 2-Year Degree-Granting Institutions of Higher Education. Technical Brief. NCES 2012-151

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xianglei; Bersudskaya, Vera; Cubarrubi, Archie

    2011-01-01

    The Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 (HEOA) requires that Title IV degree-granting institutions disclose annually the graduation rates of first-time, full-time degree- or certificate-seeking undergraduate students, disaggregated by gender, each major racial/ethnic subgroup, and receipt or non-receipt of a federal Pell grant or subsidized…

  10. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite task 3.6. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    Major reforms in the Czech energy sector have been initiated to reverse 40 years of central planning, subsidized energy pricing, unchecked pollution from coal-fired plants, concerns over nuclear safety and fuel cycle management, and dependence on the former U.S.S.R. for oil, gas, and nuclear fuel processing. Prices for electricity, heat, and natural gas paid by industry are close to western levels, but subsidized prices for households are as much as 40% lower and below economic cost. State control of major energy enterprises is being reduced by moving toward government-regulated, investor-owned companies to raise needed capital, but with a strategic stake retained by the state. Foreign firms will participate in privatization, but they are not expected to acquire a controlling interest in Czech energy companies. Economic conditions in the Czech Republic are now improving after the disruptions caused by restructuring since 1989 and separation of the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republics in January 1993. The downturn in the economy after 1989 was concentrated in energy-intensive heavy industry, and recovery is paced by consumer trade, services, light industry and construction. Energy use in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) has declined, but it is still significantly higher than in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. The GDP increased by 2% in 1994 after dropping 22% between 1989 and 1993. A positive balance of payments has been achieved, with foreign investment offsetting a small trade deficit. The government`s external debt is only 4% of GDP. This report studies the application of lignite resources within the newly formulated energy policies of the republic, in light of a move toward privatization and stronger air pollution regulations. Lignite has represented the major energy source for the country.

  11. Higher Education in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, James D.

    Events and conditions over the last 20 years that have altered the course of higher education are briefly noted, and trends in higher education for the early eighties are examined. Among the past influences on higher education that illustrate the wisdom of planning for a realistic period of time, such as five years, are the following: the massive…

  12. A Tax for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to…

  13. High efficiency antireflection coating in MWIR region (3.6-4.9 μm) simultaneously effective for Germanium and Silicon optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Meenakshi; Nautiyal, B. B.; Bandyopadhyay, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Antireflection coatings have critical importance in thermal imaging system working in MWIR region (3-5 μm) since optics of high refractive index materials are used. Germanium (Ge) and Silicon (Si) optics are used extensively in the MWIR thermal systems. In this paper a study has been carried out on the design and fabrication of multi-substrate antireflection coating effective for Germanium and Silicon optics in MWIR (3.6-4.9 μm) region. The wave band 3.6-4.9 μm is chosen for the reported work because detector system used in MWIR region has a band selection filter effective in the same wavelength region and atmospheric transmission window in MWIR region is effective in 3-5 μm spectral band. Comprehensive search method was used to design the multilayer stack on the substrate. The coating materials used in the design were Germanium (Ge), Hafnium oxide (HfO 2) and Y-Ba-Fluoride (IR-F625). The fabrication of coating was made in a coating plant fitted with Cryo pump system and residual gas analyzer (RGA). The evaporation was carried out at high vacuum (2-6 × 10 -6 mbar) with the help of electron beam gun system and layer thicknesses were measured with crystal monitor. The result achieved for the antireflection coating was 98.5% average transmission in 3.6-4.9 μm band for Germanium and Silicon optics. This work will be helpful in reducing the plant operation time, material and power consumption, as two different kinds of optics are simultaneously coated in a single coating cycle.

  14. 8-Hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulphonate and octanesulphonate co-assembled layered double hydroxide and its controllable solid-state luminescence by hydrothermal synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dang Sile; Yan Dongpeng; Lu Jun

    2012-01-15

    8-Hydroxy-pyrene-1,3,6-trisulphonate (HPTS) and octanesulphonate (OS) have been co-intercalated into the ZnAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) host by a hydrothermal co-precipitation method, with samples denoted as HPTS (x%)-OS/Zn{sub 2}Al-LDH (x stands for the molar percentage content of HPTS with respect to total amount of HPTS and OS). The structure and chemical compositions of the as-prepared compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and elemental analysis. The steady-state and time-decay fluorescent studies show that HPTS (2%)-OS/Zn{sub 2}Al-LDH has the optimal luminous emission and the longest fluorescent lifetime. Moreover, these samples exhibit controllable dual fluorescence between the blue and green regions upon changing the interlayer HPTS content, external pH values, and host-guest interaction, illustrating that these organic-inorganic samples have potential application in the field of tunable solid luminescent materials. - Graphical Abstract: 8-Hydroxy-pyrene-1,3,6-trisulphonate and octanesulfonate co-intercalated ZnAl layered double hydroxide can exhibit tunable solid-state blue and green fluorescence by treating the sample at acid and neutral media under hydrothermal condition. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 8-hydroxy-pyrene-1,3,6-trisulphonate (HPTS) was intercalated into ZnAl LDHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They show the controllable dual fluorescence response to the HPTS content and pH values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence of the HPTS/LDH film was insensitive to the quencher (Cu{sup 2+}) concentration.

  15. The 2:3:6 quasi-periodic oscillation structure in GRS 1915+105 and cubic subharmonics in the context of relativistic discoseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Rodríguez, M.; Solís-Sánchez, H.; López-Barquero, V.; Matamoros-Alvarado, B.; Venegas-Li, A.

    2014-06-01

    We propose a simple toy model to explain the 2:3:6 quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) structure in GRS 1915+105 and, more generally, the 2:3 QPO structure in XTE J1550-564, GRO J1655-40 and H1743-322. The model exploits the onset of subharmonics in the context of discoseismology. We suggest that the observed frequencies may be the consequence of a resonance between a fundamental g mode and an unobservable p wave. The results include the prediction that, as better data become available, a QPO with a frequency of twice the higher twin frequency and a large quality factor will be observed in twin peak sources, as it might already have been observed in the especially active GRS 1915+105.

  16. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Tooth Decay in a Population of 3-6-Year-Old Children in Iran.

    PubMed

    Bafti, Leila Shafie; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Poureslami, Hamidreza; Hoseinian, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and tooth decay in a population of Iranian children. In this cross-sectional descriptive/analytical study, 1482 children were selected from kindergartens and preschool centers in Kerman, Iran. The children underwent examination of deciduous teeth (using the dmft index) after determination of height and weight for calculation of BMI. The relationship between BMI (after adjustment for age) and dmft was determined using Poisson's regression model. The mean of dmft in children with normal BMI was 1.5-fold that in subjects with extra body weight. Age had a significant effect on dmft. In addition, dmft was higher in boys compared to girls. The results of the present study showed that caries rate in the deciduous teeth of 3-6-year-old children decreases with an increase in body weight. PMID:25788943

  17. Radio range measurements of coronal electron densities at 13 and 3.6 centimeter wavelengths during the 1988 solar conjunction of Voyager 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisher, T. P.; Anderson, J. D.; Morabito, D. D.; Asmar, S. W.; Borutzki, S. E.; Delitsky, M. L.; Densmore, A. C.; Eshe, P. M.; Lewis, G. D.; Maurer, M. J.; Roth, D. C.; Son, Y. H.; Spilker, T. R.; Sweetnam, D. N.; Taylor, A. H.; Tyler, G. L.; Gresh, D. L.; Rosen, P. A.

    1991-07-01

    Radio range measurements of total solar plasma delay obtained during the solar conjunction of the Voyager 2 spacecraft in December 1988, which occurred near solar maximum activity in the 11 yr cycle are reported. The radio range measurements were generated by the Deep Space Network at two wavelengths on the downlink from the spacecraft: 3.6 and 13 cm. A direct measurement of the integrated electron density along the ray path between the earth stations and the spacecraft was obtained by differencing the range at the two wavelengths. Coronal electron density profiles have been derived during ingress and egress of the ray path, which approached the sun to within 5 solar radii. At 10 solar radii, the derived density profiles yield 34079 + or - 611/cu cm on ingress and 49688 + or - 983/cu cm on egress. These density levels are significantly higher than observed near previous solar maxima.

  18. Improved selectivity in discriminating handedness and diameter of single-walled carbon nanotubes with N-substituted 3,6-carbazolylene-bridged chiral diporphyrin nanotweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Matsuda, Kazunari; Rahman, A. F. M. Mustafizur; Kimura, Takahide; Komatsu, Naoki

    2011-10-01

    Chiral diporphyrin nanotweezers 1 consisting of two chiral porphyrins with N-substituted 3,6-carbazolylene in between have been studied for the separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). As compared to the analogous nanotweezers 2 without an N-substitutent, nanotweezers 1 with the N-octylcarbazolylene spacer exhibit much higher extraction ability and better selectivity for SWNTs. A narrower diameter range of SWNTs, from 0.88 to 0.92 nm, was selectively extracted with nanotweezers 1. In addition, only (7,6)-SWNTs of 0.90 nm diameter were optically enriched through extraction with 1, while SWNTs extracted with 2 showed lower optical purity of (7,6)-SWNTs. These enhanced extraction and discrimination abilities of 1 can be attributed to the formation of a more stable SWNT complex of 1 than of 2 in methanol.Chiral diporphyrin nanotweezers 1 consisting of two chiral porphyrins with N-substituted 3,6-carbazolylene in between have been studied for the separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). As compared to the analogous nanotweezers 2 without an N-substitutent, nanotweezers 1 with the N-octylcarbazolylene spacer exhibit much higher extraction ability and better selectivity for SWNTs. A narrower diameter range of SWNTs, from 0.88 to 0.92 nm, was selectively extracted with nanotweezers 1. In addition, only (7,6)-SWNTs of 0.90 nm diameter were optically enriched through extraction with 1, while SWNTs extracted with 2 showed lower optical purity of (7,6)-SWNTs. These enhanced extraction and discrimination abilities of 1 can be attributed to the formation of a more stable SWNT complex of 1 than of 2 in methanol. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: 1H-NMR and HR-ESI-MS spectra of (R)-1. Table S1 and Figs S1 and S2. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10211g

  19. Application of RELAP5/MOD3.1 code to the LOFT test L3-6

    SciTech Connect

    Pylev, S.S.; Roginskaja, V.L.

    1998-02-01

    A calculation of LOFT Experiment L3-6, a small break equivalent to a 4-in diameter rupture in the cold leg of a four-loop commercial pressurized water reactor, has been performed to help validate RELAP5/MOD3.1 for this application. The version of the code to be used is SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.1.8d0. Three calculations were carried out in order to study the sensitivity to change break nozzle superheated discharge coefficient. Conducted comparative analysis of the LOFT L3-6 experiment shows on the whole a reasonable agreement between calculated data. Some discrepancies in the system pressure do not distort a picture of the transient. 6 refs.

  20. The thermodynamic properties of 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Smith, N.K.; Steele, W.V.

    1992-12-01

    Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene. Experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, vibrating-tube densitometry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Critical properties were estimated for both materials based on the measurement results. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gases for selected temperatures between 380 K and 700 K. The property-measurement results reported here for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene are the first for these important intermediates in the pyrene/H{sub 2} hydrogenation reaction network.

  1. Near-achromatic retardance behavior of HN22 Polaroid 3.6 to 5.4 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lompado, Arthur; Sornsin, Elizabeth A.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1997-10-01

    Polaroid HN22, a popular sheet polarizer, has been measured to be a nearly half wave retarder in the 3.6 to 5.4 micrometers spectral band with a transmittance of approximately 20 percent. The exact retardance value may be tuned to the range of 60 degrees - 260 degrees by tilting the HN22 with respect to the incident beam. The material's polarizing effects have been shown to be minimal in this waveband. Its availability, relatively large available aperture, large filed of view, and low cost make HN22 an excellent candidate for use as an IR retarder for systems operating from 3.6 to 5.4 micrometers . As such, HN22 may be used for rotating the plane of polarization of an incident linearly polarized beam as well as to convert between circular polarization states.

  2. ILs-3, 6 and 11 increase, but ILs-10 and 24 decrease stemness of human prostate cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dandan; Zhong, Yali; Li, Xiaoran; Li, Yaqing; Li, Xiaoli; Cao, Jing; Fan, Huijie; Yuan, Yuan; Ji, Zhenyu; Qiao, Baoping; Wen, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Mingzhi; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are associated with cancer recurrence and metastasis. Prostate cancer cells often metastasize to the bone with a complex microenvironment of cytokines favoring cell survival. In this study, the cell stemness influence of a group of interleukins including IL-3, 6, 10, 11 and 24 on human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC-3 was explored in vitro. Sulforhodamine B(SRB) and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) assays were applied to examine the effect on cell proliferation, and wound healing and transwell assays were used for migration and invasion studies, in addition to colony formation, Western blotting and flowcytometry for the expression of stemness factors and chemotherapy sensitivity. We observed that ILs-3, 6 and 11 stimulated while ILs-10 and 24 inhibited the growth, invasion and migration of both cell lines. Interestingly, ILs-3, 6 and 11 significantly promoted colony formation and increased the expression of SOX2, CD44 and ABCG2 in both prostate cancer cell lines. However, ILs-10 and 24 showed the opposite effect on the expression of these factors. In line with the above findings, treatment with either IL-3 or IL-6 or IL-11 decreased the chemosensitivity to docetaxel while treatment with either IL-10 or IL-24 increased the sensitivity of docetaxel chemotherapy. In conclusion, our results suggest that ILs-3, 6 and 11 function as tumor promoters while ILs-10 and 24 function as tumor suppressors in the prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP in vitro, and such differences may attribute to their different effect on the stemness of PCa cells. PMID:26528857

  3. Dynamic Studies of Exoplanet Atmospheres: Revisiting the 3.6 micron Phase Curve of HD209458b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nikole; Knutson, Heather; Cowan, Nicolas; Zellem, Robert; Griffith, Caitlin; Fortney, Jonathan; Showman, Adam

    2013-10-01

    One of the best-characterized exoplanet atmospheres is that of HD209458b, which has been the target of numerous transit, eclipse, and phase-curve observations. Despite this wealth of observational information, the global circulation patterns in the atmosphere of this benchmark planet remain largely unconstrained. To date, only an upper limit on the amplitude of the phase variations of HD209458b at 8 microns has been reported. Recently, phase-curve observations of HD209458b at 3.6 and 4.5 microns were acquired with the hope of better understanding energy transport in this benchmark planetary atmosphere. Unfortunately, the 3.6 micron phase-curve observations have been found to be badly corrupted by an unidentified noise source and have subsequently been declared 'failed' by the SSC. Here we request to re-observe HD209458b's full-orbit phase-curve at 3.6 microns in order to combine it with the phase-curve information at 4.5 and 8 microns to give a clearer picture of the atmospheric processes shaping this planet's emitted flux as a function of pressure and longitude. A comparison of the HD209458b full-orbit phase-curve at 4.5 microns with predictions from global circulation models suggest that both the dayside thermal inversion and a possible lack of strong magnetic effects in the planet's atmosphere could be shaping its global circulation patterns. However, this picture is incomplete without the 3.6 micron phase curve, which probes fundamentally different pressure levels in HD209458b's atmosphere. Only with multi-wavelength phase-curve information can we begin to constrain the radiative, chemical, advective, and possibly magnetic processes shaping HD209458b's atmosphere.[The AORs for this observation are in program 60021.

  4. 3.6 and 4.5 m Phase Curves of the Highly Irradiated Eccentric Hot Jupiter WASP-14b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ian; Knutson, Heather A.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Kataria, Tiffany; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Schwartz, Joel; Agol, Eric; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Deming, Drake; Désert, Jean-Michel; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Langton, Jonathan; Laughlin, Gregory; Showman, Adam P.; Todorov, Kamen

    2015-10-01

    We present full-orbit phase curve observations of the eccentric (e ∼ 0.08) transiting hot Jupiter WASP-14b obtained in the 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We use two different methods for removing the intrapixel sensitivity effect and compare their efficacy in decoupling the instrumental noise. Our measured secondary eclipse depths of 0.1882% ± 0.0048% and 0.2247% ± 0.0086% at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively, are both consistent with a blackbody temperature of 2402 ± 35 K. We place a 2σ upper limit on the nightside flux at 3.6 μm and find it to be 9% ± 1% of the dayside flux, corresponding to a brightness temperature of 1079 K. At 4.5 μm, the minimum planet flux is 30% ± 5% of the maximum flux, corresponding to a brightness temperature of 1380 ± 65 K. We compare our measured phase curves to the predictions of one-dimensional radiative transfer and three-dimensional general circulation models. We find that WASP-14b’s measured dayside emission is consistent with a model atmosphere with equilibrium chemistry and a moderate temperature inversion. These same models tend to overpredict the nightside emission at 3.6 μm, while underpredicting the nightside emission at 4.5 μm. We propose that this discrepancy might be explained by an enhanced global C/O ratio. In addition, we find that the phase curves of WASP-14b (7.8 MJup) are consistent with a much lower albedo than those of other Jovian mass planets with thermal phase curve measurements, suggesting that it may be emitting detectable heat from the deep atmosphere or interior processes.

  5. The synthesis and structure of gemini QASs of 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-L-iditol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Karol; Nowacki, Andrzej; Sikorski, Artur; Dmochowska, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    New, efficient, straightforward method of synthesizing quaternary diammonium salts of 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-L-iditol have been developed. This paper presents the synthesis and structural analysis of diammonium (gemini) salts, including their X-ray diffraction analysis, wherein the linking structure of nitrogen atoms consists of two fused furanoid rings. 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-2,5-di-O-triflyl-D-mannitol and four tertiary amines, i.e., 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP), pyridine, trimethylamine and N,N-dimethyloctylamine, were used for the synthesis. All the syntheses were carried out under mild conditions by the direct nucleophilic displacement of the O-triflil group by the amine. Walden inversion of configuration at C2 and C5 atoms has occurred during the reaction, giving products with L-ido configuration. Furthermore, NMR and X-ray conformational analysis of 1,4:3,6-dianhydrohexitol residue was done. In most cases furanoid rings adopt the twisted conformation both in the crystal and in solution.

  6. [Synthesis and spectra of transition metals complexes RE3L6(NO3)6(H2O)2].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing-shan; Mao, Ju-lin; Zhou, Hui-liang; Hu, Qi-lin; Liu, Wan-yi

    2009-09-01

    Schiff base 4-(p-dimethylaminobenzaldehydeamino)-4H-1,2,4-triazole(L) was synthesized from 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole and p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde using acetic acid as the catalyst. The solid complexes RE3L6(NO3)6(H2O)2 (RE = Cu, Co, Zn, Cd; x = 3-6) were synthesized with 4-(p-dimethylaminobenzaldehydeamino)-4H-1,2,4-triazole and nitrate of transition metals in ethanol and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, UV spectrum, and fluorescence spectrum. Experimental results showed that the free ligand is a thermally stable material, and its ethanol solution emitted intense blue fluorescence at the peak wavelength of 416 nm. The absorption band at about 406 nm can be assigned to the intrinsic absorption of C==N. Compared with the fluorescence emission of free ligand in ethanol solution, the emission of the complex of RE3L6 (NO3)6(H2O)2 was red-shifted to 445 nm and narrow in solution. RE(II) was coordinated with N atomy of triazole in 4-(p-dimethylaminobenzaldehydeamino)-4H-1,2,4-triazole. PMID:19950662

  7. Building Solid Communities within Higher Education: Leadership, Connections and Commitment. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Continuing Higher Education (63rd, Vancouver, British Columbia, November 3-6, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrineau, Irene T., Ed.

    These proceedings presents addresses, 60 concurrent sessions, and business meetings from a conference that evolved from a vision of people coming together--like a town meeting--to start building "communities of interest and practice." Part 1 includes the presidential-elect address on his theme for the next conference, "Pathways to Success:…

  8. A common column density threshold for scattering at 3.6 μm and water-ice in molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, M.; Thi, W.-F.; Steinacker, J.; Tothill, N.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Observations of scattered light in the 1-5 μm range have revealed dust grains in molecular cores with sizes larger than commonly inferred for the diffuse interstellar medium. It is currently unclear whether these grains are grown within the molecular cores or are an ubiquitous component of the interstellar medium. Aims: We investigate whether the large grains necessary for efficient scattering at 1-5 μm are associated with the abundance of water-ice within molecular clouds and cores. Methods: We combined water-ice abundance measurements for sight lines through the Lupus IV molecular cloud complex with measurements of the scattered light at 3.6 μm for the same sight lines. Results: We find that there is a similar threshold for the cores in emission in scattered light at 3.6 μm (τ9.7 = 0.15 ± 0.05, AK = 0.4 ± 0.2) as water-ice (τ9.7 = 0.11 ± 0.01, AK = 0.19 ± 0.04) and that the scattering efficiency increases as the relative water-ice abundance increases. The ice layer increases the average grain size, which again strongly increases the albedo. Conclusions: The higher scattering efficiency is partly due to layering of ice on the dust grains. Although the layer can be relatively thin, it can enhance the scattering substantially. Table 1 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Catalytic transformations of vinylthiiranes by tungsten carbonyl complexes. A new route to 3,6-dihydro-1,2-dithiins

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.D.; Perrin, J.L.

    1999-04-28

    W(CO){sub 5}(NCMe) has been found to transform vinylthiirane and a series of methyl-substituted vinylthiiranes into a series of 3,6-dihydro-1,2-dithiin compounds. Two equivalents of the vinylthiirane are required, and 1 equiv of a butadiene is formed by the transfer of its sulfur atom to the second vinylthiirane, which is then transformed into the dihydrodithiin. The formation of 3,6-dihydro-1,2-dithiin proceeds at 15 turnovers/h at 25 C using vinylthiirane as the catalyst. The catalyst is long-lived (up to 2,000 turnovers have been obtained without loss of activity) and relatively insensitive to air. Methyl substituents on the vinyl group increase the rate of reaction while methyl substituents on the thiirane ring slow it considerably. The introduction of phosphine ligands to the catalyst also leads to significant increases in the rate of reaction. The dithiin complex W(CO){sub 5}({ovr SSCH{sub 2}CH{double_bond}CHC}H{sub 2}) was isolated from the catalytic reactions and was structurally characterized. The dihydrodithiin is coordinated to the tungsten atom through one of its two sulfur atoms. This product was shown to be a species in the catalytic cycle. A mechanism involving a vinylthiirane intermediate that undergoes spontaneous ring opening, followed by addition of a second vinylthiirane to the terminal carbon of the chain, elimination of 1 equiv of butadiene, and formation of a sulfur-sulfur bond leading to the compound above is proposed. The vinylthiirane intermediate is regenerated by ligand substitution which releases the dihydrodithiin product. 3,6-dihydro1,2-dithiin readily polymerizes when its pure form is exposed to visible light. If the polymerization is interrupted at an early stage, 1,2,7,8-tetrathiacyclododeca-4,10-diene, a dimer, can be isolated. The dimer was obtained in 5.6% yield and was structurally characterized crystallographically.

  10. Reagent-Controlled α-Selective Dehydrative Glycosylation of 2,6-Dideoxy- and 2,3,6-Trideoxy Sugars.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Jason M; Bylsma, Marissa; Bright, Danielle K; Bennett, Clay S

    2016-08-16

    We have found that activating either 2,3-bis(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)cyclopropenone or 2,3-bis(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)cyclopropene-1-thione with oxalyl bromide results in the formation of a species that promotes the glycosylation between 2,6-dideoxy-sugar hemiacetals and glycosyl acceptors in good yield and high α-selectivity. Both reactions are mild and tolerate a number of sensitive functional groups including highly acid-labile 2,3,6-trideoxy-sugar linkages. PMID:27431663

  11. 3-[(6-Arylamino)pyridazinylamino]benzoic acids: design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Abouzid, Khaled A M; Khalil, Nadia A; Ahmed, Eman M; Mohamed, Khaled Omar

    2013-01-01

    A series of novel substituted 3,6-disubstituted pyridazines based on the structure of vatalanib (PTK787) were designed and synthesized. The cytotoxicity of the final compounds was tested in vitro on HT-29 colon cancer cell line. Compounds 2a and 2b with 4-chlorophenylamino moiety, exerted the highest cytotoxic activity with IC(50) values equal to 15.3 and 3.9 μM respectively. The most promising compound, 2b, was found to be about fivefold more active than vatalanib against HT-29 colon cancer cell line. PMID:23307426

  12. Photometry of Scattered Disk Objects at 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellton, Chad; Emery, Joshua P.; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Mommert, Michael; Lejoly, Cassandra; Trilling, David E.

    2015-11-01

    Scattered disk objects (SDO) are some of the most interesting of the estimated 100,000 icy bodies located in the outer Solar System. SDOs have been gravitationally disturbed and scattered by the orbital migration of Neptune. The surface compositions of these objects provide a window into formation conditions and dynamics of the outer Solar System. Characterization of volatiles and organic materials, in particular, provide important constraints on formation conditions and subsequent surface processing of these objects. We measured fluxes of 36 SDOs at 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) aboard the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope in order to characterize volatiles and organics on their surfaces. Albedos calculated from these fluxes are combined with broadband albedos from ground-based observations at shorter wavelengths (V, R, I, J, H, K bands, spanning 0.55 - 2.22 μm) to provide spectrophotometry from 0.5 to 4.5 μm. Much of those ground-based data are from previously published literature. However, we have also conducted new ground-based Y, J, H, K observations of several of the targets. Sizes and visible geometric albedos, which are required to convert IRAC fluxes to geometric albedos, were extracted from published literature when available and computed from absolute magnitudes otherwise. The resulting spectrophotometry of these 36 SDOs shows a wide range of surface compositions. Several of the SDOs we observed show red visible and near-infrared spectral slopes and strong absorptions at 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm. These absorption features suggest the presence of complex organics. Other SDOs appear red as well but show only moderate absorptions at 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm. Moderate absorption features at these wavelengths may indicate a mixture of H2O ice and refractory material on the surface. Finally, some objects show no absorption at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, most likely characteristic of silicate dust. We will discuss implications of these findings in terms of

  13. Microstructural examination of V-(3-6%)Cr-(3-5%)Ti irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.

    1998-09-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for four heats of V-(3-6%)Cr-(3-5%)Ti irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment to {approximately}4 dpa at {approximately}200 and 300 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment or composition.

  14. Asymptotic behavior of Laplacian-energy-like invariant of the 3.6.24 lattice with various boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Bao; Cao, Jinde; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaadi, Fuad E

    2016-01-01

    Let G be a connected graph of order n with Laplacian eigenvalues [Formula: see text]. The Laplacian-energy-like invariant of G, is defined as [Formula: see text]. In this paper, we investigate the asymptotic behavior of the 3.6.24 lattice in terms of Laplacian-energy-like invariant as m, n approach infinity. Additionally, we derive that [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] have the same asymptotic Laplacian-energy-like invariants. PMID:27625970

  15. Triple Benzannulation of Naphthalene via a 1,3,6-Naphthotriyne Synthetic Equivalent. Synthesis of Dibenz[a,c]anthracene.

    PubMed

    Mannes, Philip Z; Onyango, Evans O; Gribble, Gordon W

    2015-11-01

    A new synthesis of dibenzo[a,c]anthracene (4) is described that features the generation, from tetrabromo-bis-triflate 1 and phenyllithium, of a 1,3,6-naphthotriyne (2) synthetic equivalent that is trapped with 3 equiv of furan to form Diels-Alder tris-adduct 3. A subsequent two-step deoxygenation of 3 represents the first synthesis of dibenz[a,c]anthracene (4) that involves a tandem aryne Diels-Alder cycloaddition-deoxygenation strategy. PMID:26452053

  16. Reactivity of Mo(PMe3)6 towards benzothiophene and selenophenes: new pathways relevant to hydrodesulfurization.

    PubMed

    Buccella, Daniela; Janak, Kevin E; Parkin, Gerard

    2008-12-01

    Mo(PMe(3))(6) cleaves a C-S bond of benzothiophene to give (kappa(2)-CHCHC(6)H(4)S)Mo(PMe(3))(4), which rapidly isomerizes to the olefin-thiophenolate and 1-metallacyclopropene-thiophenolate complexes, (kappa(1),eta(2)-CH(2)CHC(6)H(4)S)Mo(PMe(3))(3)(eta(2)-CH(2)PMe(2)) and (kappa(1),eta(2)-CH(2)CC(6)H(4)S)Mo(PMe(3))(4). The latter two molecules result from a series of hydrogen transfers and are differentiated according to whether the termini of the organic fragments coordinate as olefin or eta(2)-vinyl ligands, respectively. The reactions between Mo(PMe(3))(6) and selenophenes proceed differently from those of the corresponding thiophenes. For example, whereas Mo(PMe(3))(6) reacts with thiophene to give eta(5)-thiophene and butadiene-thiolate complexes, (eta(5)-C(4)H(4)S)Mo(PMe(3))(3) and (eta(5)-C(4)H(5)S)Mo(PMe(3))(2)(eta(2)-CH(2)PMe(2)), selenophene affords the metallacyclopentadiene complex [(kappa(2)-C(4)H(4))Mo(PMe(3))(3)(Se)](2)[Mo(PMe(3))(4)] in which the selenium has been completely abstracted from the selenophene moiety. Likewise, in addition to (kappa(1),eta(2)-CH(2)CC(6)H(4)Se)Mo(PMe(3))(4) and (kappa(1),eta(2)-CH(2)CHC(6)H(4)Se)Mo(PMe(3))(3)(eta(2)-CH(2)PMe(2)), which are counterparts of the species observed in the benzothiophene reaction, the reaction of Mo(PMe(3))(6) with benzoselenophene yields products resulting from C-C coupling, namely [kappa(2),eta(4)-Se(C(6)H(4))(CH)(4)(C(6)H(4))Se]Mo(PMe(3))(2) and [mu-Se(C(6)H(4))(CH)C(CH)(2)(C(6)H(4))](mu-Se)[Mo(PMe(3))(2)][Mo(PMe(3))(2)H]. PMID:18998651

  17. 40 CFR 721.5260 - 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]- 4-[[4-[[2-[2-(ethenylsulfonyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo... substance identified as 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- -4- ethyl]amino]-6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5260 - 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]- 4-[[4-[[2-[2-(ethenylsulfonyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo... substance identified as 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- -4- ethyl]amino]-6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5260 - 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]- 4-[[4-[[2-[2-(ethenylsulfonyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo... substance identified as 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- -4- ethyl]amino]-6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid,...

  20. 2,3,6-/3,4,5-Trimethyl substituted diaryl carotenoid derivatives (Chlorobiaceae) in petroleums of the Belarussian Pripyat River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifford, D.J.; Clayton, J.L.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Degradation products of the 2,3,6-/3,4,5-trimethyl substituted analog of isorenieratene were characterized in Belarussian petroleums. Devonian oils of low maturity were found to contain high concentrations (e.g., 35 mg/g) of C40 diaryl isoprenoids (2,3,6-/3,4,5-trimethyl substitution) along with an abundance of maturation-related compounds. A maturation scheme for diaryl carotenoid (2,3,6-/3,4,5-trimethyl substitution) precursors was proposed. Diaryl isoprenoids and aryl isoprenoid (2,3,6- and 3,4,5-trimethyl substitutions) contents were found to decrease as a function of maturity. Maturity parameters based on (i) the ratio of two specific C15 aryl isoprenoids and (ii) the ratio of C15 (2,3,6) aryl isoprenoids to C40 diaryl isoprenoids (2,3,6-/3,4,5) were proposed.Degradation products of the 2,3,6-/3,4,5-trimethyl substituted analog of isorenieratene were characterized in Belarussian petroleums. Devonian oils of low maturity were found to contain high concentrations (e.g., 35 mg/g) of C40 diaryl isoprenoids (2,3,6-/3,4,5-trimethyl substitution) along with an abundance of maturation-related compounds. A maturation scheme for diaryl carotenoid (2,3,6-/3,4,5-trimethyl substitution) precursors was proposed. Diaryl isoprenoids and aryl isoprenoid (2,3,6- and 3,4,5-trimethyl substitutions) contents were found to decrease as a function of maturity. Maturity parameters based on (i) the ratio of two specific C15 aryl isoprenoids and (ii) the ratio of C15 (2,3,6) aryl isoprenoids to C40 diaryl isoprenoids (2,3,6-/3,4,5) were proposed.

  1. Construction of two novel indium phosphites with (3,6)- and (3,5)-connected frameworks: Synthesis, structure and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Li Huiduan; Zhang Lirong; Huo Qisheng; Liu Yunling

    2013-01-15

    Two novel anionic indium phosphites, formulated as [H{sub 3}O][In(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}] (1) and [C{sub 4}H{sub 12}N{sub 2}][In{sub 2}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 3}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})] (2), were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by using piperazine (PIP) as a structure-directing agent (SDA). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}mc (No. 186) and orthorhombic space group Cmcm (No. 63), respectively. Compound 1, constructed from InO{sub 6} octahedra and HPO{sub 3} pseudo-pyramids, exhibits a rare (3,6)-connected layer structure with kgd (Kagome dual) topology. Compound 2, on the other hand, features a 3D phosphite-oxalate hybrid structure with intersecting 8- and 12-MRs channels. From a topological perspective 2 can be regarded as a (3, 5)-connected binodal net with the Schlaefli symbol (4{sup 2}.6)(4{sup 2}.6{sup 5}.8{sup 3}). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two novel indium phosphite and indium phosphite-oxalate hybrid compounds are synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (3, 6)-connected layer structure with kgd topology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (3,5)-connected binodal net with the Schlaefli symbol (4{sup 2}.6)(4{sup 2}.6{sup 5}.8{sup 3}).

  2. Mechanical, thermal and spectral characteristics of Nd3+:Sr6YSc(BO3)6 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Feifei; Zhao, Wang; Sun, Shijia; Zhang, Lizhen; Huang, Yisheng; Lin, Zhoubin

    2015-05-01

    A crystal of Nd3+:Sr6YSc(BO3)6 was grown successfully by the top-seeded solution growth method. The average laser-induced damage thresholds are 1.76 GW/cm2 for (0 0 1) face and 1.47 GW/cm2 for (1 0 0) face at 1064 nm radiation, respectively. The average Vickers hardness of (1 0 0) and (0 0 1) faces are 629 and 545 N/mm2, respectively. The thermal expansion coefficients are 12.3 × 10-6 K-1 along a-axis and 9.39 × 10-6 K-1 along c-axis, respectively. The thermal conductivity is about 2.3 W/m K at room temperature. The polarized spectral properties were investigated in detail. Based on the Judd-Ofelt theory, the intensity parameters were obtained. The results show that Nd3+:Sr6YSc(BO3)6 crystal is a potential laser crystal.

  3. Water in HD209458b's atmosphere from 3.6 -8 microns IRAC photometric observations in primary transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanella, Giammarco; Beaulieu, J. P.; Kipping, D. M.; Batista, V.; Tinetti, G.; Ribas, I.; Carey, S.; Noriega-Crespo, J. A.; Griffith, C. A.; Dong, S.; Tennyson, J.; Barber, R. J.; Deroo, P.; Fossey, S. J.; Liang, D.; Swain, M. R.; Yung, Y.; Allard, N.

    Since planets were first discovered outside our own Solar System in 1992 (around a pulsar) and in 1995 (around a main sequence star), extrasolar planet studies have become one of the most dynamic research fields in astronomy. Now that more than 400 exoplanets have been discovered, focus has moved from finding planets to characterise these alien worlds. Part of the characterisation process undoubtedly involves the detection of the atmospheres of these exoplanets. We describe the primary transit observations of the hot Jupiter HD 209458b we obtained at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 µm using the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We detail the procedures we adopted to correct for the systematic trends present in IRAC data. The lightcurves were fitted, taking into account limb darkening effects, using Markov Chain Monte Carlo and prayer-bead Monte Carlo techniques. We obtained the following depth measurements: at 3.6 µm, 1.469±0.013 % and 1.448±0.013 %; at 4.5 µm, 1.478±0.017 %; at 5.8 µm, 1.549±0.015 % and at 8.0 µm 1.535±0.011 %. Our results indicate the presence of water in the planetary atmosphere.

  4. 3.6 AND 4.5 {mu}m PHASE CURVES AND EVIDENCE FOR NON-EQUILIBRIUM CHEMISTRY IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF EXTRASOLAR PLANET HD 189733b

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, Heather A.; Lewis, Nikole; Showman, Adam P.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Burrows, Adam; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Aigrain, Suzanne; Charbonneau, David; Desert, Jean-Michel; Deming, Drake; Henry, Gregory W.; Langton, Jonathan

    2012-07-20

    We present new, full-orbit observations of the infrared phase variations of the canonical hot Jupiter HD 189733b obtained in the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands using the Spitzer Space Telescope. When combined with previous phase curve observations at 8.0 and 24 {mu}m, these data allow us to characterize the exoplanet's emission spectrum as a function of planetary longitude and to search for local variations in its vertical thermal profile and atmospheric composition. We utilize an improved method for removing the effects of intrapixel sensitivity variations and robustly extracting phase curve signals from these data, and we calculate our best-fit parameters and uncertainties using a wavelet-based Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis that accounts for the presence of time-correlated noise in our data. We measure a phase curve amplitude of 0.1242% {+-} 0.0061% in the 3.6 {mu}m band and 0.0982% {+-} 0.0089% in the 4.5 {mu}m band, corresponding to brightness temperature contrasts of 503 {+-} 21 K and 264 {+-} 24 K, respectively. We find that the times of minimum and maximum flux occur several hours earlier than predicted for an atmosphere in radiative equilibrium, consistent with the eastward advection of gas by an equatorial super-rotating jet. The locations of the flux minima in our new data differ from our previous observations at 8 {mu}m, and we present new evidence indicating that the flux minimum observed in the 8 {mu}m is likely caused by an overshooting effect in the 8 {mu}m array. We obtain improved estimates for HD 189733b's dayside planet-star flux ratio of 0.1466% {+-} 0.0040% in the 3.6 {mu}m band and 0.1787% {+-} 0.0038% in the 4.5 {mu}m band, corresponding to brightness temperatures of 1328 {+-} 11 K and 1192 {+-} 9 K, respectively; these are the most accurate secondary eclipse depths obtained to date for an extrasolar planet. We compare our new dayside and nightside spectra for HD 189733b to the predictions of one-dimensional radiative transfer models from

  5. Fusion of the TBL1XR1 and HMGA1 genes in splenic hemangioma with t(3;6)(q26;p21)

    PubMed Central

    PANAGOPOULOS, IOANNIS; GORUNOVA, LUDMILA; BJERKEHAGEN, BODIL; LOBMAIER, INGVILD; HEIM, SVERRE

    2016-01-01

    RNA-sequencing of a splenic hemangioma with the karyotype 45~47,XX,t(3;6)(q26;p21) showed that this translocation generated a chimeric TBL1XR1-HMGA1 gene. This is the first time that this tumor has been subjected to genetic analysis, but the finding of an acquired clonal chromosome abnormality in cells cultured from the lesion and the presence of the TBL1XR1-HMGA1 fusion in them strongly favor the conclusion that splenic hemangiomas are of a neoplastic nature. Genomic PCR confirmed the presence of the TBL1XR1-HMGA1 fusion gene, and RT-PCR together with Sanger sequencing verified the presence of the fusion transcripts. The molecular consequences of the t(3;6) would be substantial. The cells carrying the translocation would retain only one functional copy of the wild-type TBL1XR1 gene while the other, rearranged allele could produce a putative truncated form of TBL1XR1 protein containing the LiSH and F-box-like domains. In the TBL1XR1-HMGA1 fusion transcript, furthermore, untranslated exons of HMGA1 are replaced by the first 5 exons of the TBL1XR1 gene. The result is that the entire coding region of HMGA1 comes under the control of the TBL1XR1 promoter, bringing about dysregulation of HMGA1. This is reminiscent of similar pathogenetic mechanisms involving high mobility genes in benign connective tissue tumors such as lipomas and leiomyomas. PMID:26708416

  6. X-ray crystallographic analysis of IMP-1 metallo-β-lactamase complexed with a 3-aminophthalic acid derivative, structure-based drug design, and synthesis of 3,6-disubstituted phthalic acid derivative inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hiraiwa, Yukiko; Saito, Jun; Watanabe, Takashi; Yamada, Mototsugu; Morinaka, Akihiro; Fukushima, Takayoshi; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2014-10-15

    3-(4-Hydroxypiperidine-1-yl) phthalic acid 1 shows potent inhibitory activity against metallo-β-lactamase, which is known to inactivate β-lactam antibiotics such as carbapenems. Here, the structure of co-crystals of the metallo-β-lactamase IMP-1 and 1 was first analyzed by X-ray crystallography, and then used for structure-based drug design. Four novel compounds bearing substituents at the 6-position were synthesized to produce 3,6-disubstituted phthalic acid derivatives, and their IMP-1 inhibitory activity and synergistic effect with the carbapenem biapenem (BIPM) were evaluated. 3,6-Disubstituted phthalic acid derivatives showed potent IMP-1 inhibitory activity. In particular, compound 13 showed 10-fold higher IMP-1 inhibitory activity as compared with the parent derivative 1. PMID:25246278

  7. Onset of Time-Dependent 3-D spherical Mantle Convection using a Radial Basis Function-Pseudospectral Method ; Spectral-Finite Volume ; Spectral Higher-Order Finite- Difference Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, G.; Flyer, N.; Yuen, D. A.; Monnereau, M.; Zhang, S.; Wang, S. M.

    2009-05-01

    Many numerical methods, such as finite-differences, finite-volume, their yin-yang variants, finite-elements and spectral methods have been employed to study 3-D mantle convection. All have their own strengths, but also serious weaknesses. Spectrally accurate methods do not practically allow for node refinement and often involve cumbersome algebra while finite difference, volume, or element methods are generally low-order, adding excessive numerical diffusion to the model. For the 3-D mantle convection problem, we have introduced a new mesh-free approach, using radial basis functions (RBF). This method has the advantage of being algorithmic simple, spectrally accurate for arbitrary node layouts in multi-dimensions and naturally allows for node-refinement. One virtue of the RBF scheme allows the user to use a simple Cartesian geometry, while implementing the required boundary conditions for the temperature, velocities and stress components on a spherical surface at both the planetary surface and the core-mantle boundary. We have studied time- dependent mantle convection, using both a RBF-pseudospectral code and a code which uses spherical- harmonics in the angular direction and second-order finite volume in the radial direction. We have employed a third code , which uses spherical harmonics and higher-order finite-difference method a la Fornberg in the radial coordinate.We first focus on the onset of time-dependence at Rayleigh number Ra of 70,000. We follow the development of stronger time-dependence to a Ra of one million, using high enough resolution with 120 to 200 points in the radial direction and 128 to 256 spherical harmonics.

  8. Construction of two novel indium phosphites with (3,6)- and (3,5)-connected frameworks: Synthesis, structure and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huiduan; Zhang, Lirong; Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Yunling

    2013-01-01

    Two novel anionic indium phosphites, formulated as [H3O][In(HPO3)2] (1) and [C4H12N2][In2(HPO3)3(C2O4)] (2), were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by using piperazine (PIP) as a structure-directing agent (SDA). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in the hexagonal space group P63mc (No. 186) and orthorhombic space group Cmcm (No. 63), respectively. Compound 1, constructed from InO6 octahedra and HPO3 pseudo-pyramids, exhibits a rare (3,6)-connected layer structure with kgd (Kagome dual) topology. Compound 2, on the other hand, features a 3D phosphite-oxalate hybrid structure with intersecting 8- and 12-MRs channels. From a topological perspective 2 can be regarded as a (3, 5)-connected binodal net with the Schläfli symbol (42.6)(42.65.83).

  9. Low-field magnetization studies in the reentrant superconductor ErRh/sub 1. 1/Sn/sub 3. 6/

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, K.; Remeika, J.P.; Espinosa, G.P.; Cooper, A.S.

    1981-02-01

    Absolute static magnetization measurements in fields as low as 0.1 Oe in a single crystal of ErRh/sub 1.1/Sn/sub 3.6/ show a clear Meissner effect at the superconducting transition. In the superconducting state, the magnetization shows reversible type-II behavior above a field of 6 Oe, and a thermodynamic critical field H/sub 0/=20 +- 5 Oe can be deduced from the data. The previously reported reduction in H/sub c/2 upon cooling towards the ferromagnetic Curie temperature (T/sub C/=0.46 K) can be explained entirely as being due to the increasing paramagnetic induction in the sample. A search for a coexistence region of superconductivity and ferromagnetism below T/sub C/ indicates that such a region must be smaller than 0.03 K.

  10. Quantitative Measurements of the Daytime Near Infrared Sky Brightness at the AEOS 3.6 m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, M.; Jefferies, S.; Hope, D.; Nagy, J.; Williams, S.

    2014-09-01

    We report daytime sky brightness measurements recorded in the near infrared from the 3.6 m AEOS telescope. Measurements were made at various positions in the sky and separation angles from the sun. The detector was an InGaAs focal plane array in a FLIR SC6000 camera, with images taken through a 50 nm wide filter centered at 1250 nm as well as without any optical filter. The brightness measurements have been calibrated by reference to observations of a photometric standard star in the same bands. We discuss how these new results are motivated by the selection of optimal techniques for high-resolution imaging of satellites from the AEOS telescope.

  11. Micro-integrated 1 Watt semiconductor laser system with a linewidth of 3.6 kHz.

    PubMed

    Spiessberger, Stefan; Schiemangk, Max; Sahm, Alexander; Wicht, Andreas; Wenzel, Hans; Peters, Achim; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther

    2011-04-11

    We demonstrate a compact, narrow-linewidth, high-power, micro-integrated semiconductor-based master oscillator power amplifier laser module which is implemented on a footprint of 50 x 10 mm(2). A micro-isolator between the oscillator and the amplifier suppresses optical feedback. The oscillator is a distributed Bragg reflector laser optimized for narrow-linewidth operation and the amplifier consists of a ridge waveguide entry and a tapered amplifier section. The module features stable single-mode operation with a FWHM linewidth of only 100 kHz and an intrinsic linewidth as small as 3.6 kHz for an output power beyond 1 W. PMID:21503020

  12. Design and Fabrication of a Supporting Structure for 3.6m Long Nb3Sn Racetrack Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Caspi, Shlomo; Cheng, Daniel; Dietderich, Daniel; Gourlay, Steve; Hafalia, A. Ray; Hannaford, Charles; Lietzke, Alan; Nobrega, A.R.; Sabbi, GianLuca; Schmalzle, J.; Wanderer, R. J; Zlobin, A.V.; Ferracin, P.

    2007-06-01

    As part of the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), three US national laboratories (BNL, FNAL, and LBNL) are currently engaged in the development of superconducting magnets for the LHC Interaction Regions (IR) beyond the current design. As a first step towards the development of long Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnets, a 3.6 m long structure, based on the LBNL Subscale Common-Coil Magnet design, will be fabricated, assembled, and tested with aluminum-plate 'dummy coils'. The structure features an aluminum shell pre-tensioned over iron yokes using pressurized bladders and locking keys (bladder and key technology). Pre-load homogeneity and mechanical responses are monitored with pressure sensitive films and strain gauges mounted on the aluminum shell and the dummy coils. The details of the design and fabrication are presented and discussed, and the expected mechanical behavior is analyzed with finite element models.

  13. 3,6-O-[N-(2-Aminoethyl)-acetamide-yl]-chitosan exerts antibacterial activity by a membrane damage mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yan, Feilong; Dang, Qifeng; Liu, Chengsheng; Yan, Jingquan; Wang, Teng; Fan, Bing; Cha, Dongsu; Li, Xiaoli; Liang, Shengnan; Zhang, Zhenzhen

    2016-09-20

    A novel chitosan derivative, 3,6-O-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-acetamide-yl]-chitosan (AACS), was successfully prepared to improve water solubility and antibacterial activity of chitosan. AACS had good antibacterial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.25mg/mL, against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Cell membrane integrity, electric conductivity and NPN uptake tests showed that AACS caused quickly increasing the release of intracellular nucleic acids, the uptake of NPN, and the electric conductivity by damaging membrane integrity. On the other hand, hydrophobicity, cell viability and SDS-PAGE experiments indicated that AACS was able to reduce the surface hydrophobicity, the cell viability and the intracellular proteins through increasing membrane permeability. SEM observation further confirmed that AACS could kill bacteria via disrupting their membranes. All results above verified that AACS mainly exerted antibacterial activity by a membrane damage mechanism, and it was expected to be a new food preservative. PMID:27261735

  14. 35C NQR studies in 2,4,6-,2,3,6-, and 2,3,4-trichloro anisoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukmani, K.; Ramakrishna, J.

    1985-02-01

    The chlorine-35 NQR frequencies and their temperature variation in 2,4,6-, 2,3,6- and 2,3,4-trichloro anisoles have been studied and compared with the corresponding chlorophenols with a view to studying the effect of hydrogen bonding. The observed frequencies have been assigned to the various chlorines with the help of the additive model of the substituent effect. The temperature dependence has been analysed in terms of the Bayer—Kushida—Brown models. The torsional frequencies and their temperature dependence have been calculated numerically under a two mode approximation. A comparison of the trichloro anisoles with the corresponding trichloro phenols has shown that the resonance frequency decreases due to hydrogen bonding while the torsional frequencies are not affected.

  15. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine inhibits proton motive force in energized liver mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Y.; Bhatnagar, R.; Sidhu, G.S.; Batra, J.K.; Krishna, G. )

    1989-05-15

    It is known that 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which induces Parkinson's-like disease in primates and humans, depletes hepatocytes of ATP and subsequently causes cell death. Incubation of rat liver mitochondria with MPTP and 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium ion (MPP+) significantly inhibited incorporation of {sup 32}Pi into ATP. MPTP and MPP+ inhibited the development of membrane potential and pH gradient in energized rat liver mitochondria, suggesting that reduction of the proton motive force may have reduced ATP synthesis. Since deprenyl, an inhibitor of monoamine oxidase, prevented the formation of MPP+ and inhibited the decrease in membrane potential caused by MPTP, but not that caused by MPP+, these effects of MPTP, as well as cell death, probably were mediated by MPP+. This mechanism may play a role in the specific loss of dopaminergic neurons resulting in MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease.

  16. Experimental and theoretical determination of the antioxidant properties of isoespintanol (2-isopropyl-3,6-dimethoxy-5-methylphenol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojano, Benjamín; Saez, Jairo; Schinella, Guillermo; Quijano, Jairo; Vélez, Ederley; Gil, Andrea; Notario, Rafael

    2008-04-01

    The present study compares, theoretically and experimentally, the antioxidant power of isoespintanol (2-isopropyl-3,6-dimethoxy-5-methylphenol) isolated from the leaves of Oxandra cf. xylopioides, with its biosyntetic analogue thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol). Calculations based on the density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level allowed us to determine the O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), and the ionization potential (IP) of isoespintanol and thymol in the gas phase and in solution in water and in methanol. Computed ΔBDE and ΔIP values, and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assays have shown that isoespintanol is twice better antioxidant than thymol.

  17. Vaccine Assistance To Low- And Middle-Income Countries Increased To $3.6 Billion In 2014.

    PubMed

    Haakenstad, Annie; Birger, Maxwell; Singh, Lavanya; Liu, Patrick; Lim, Stephen; Ng, Marie; Dieleman, Joseph L

    2016-02-01

    In the 2012 Global Vaccine Action Plan, development assistance partners committed to providing sustainable financing for vaccines and expanding vaccination coverage to all children in low- and middle-income countries by 2020. To assess progress toward these goals, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation produced estimates of development assistance for vaccinations. These estimates reveal major increases in the assistance provided since 2000. In 2014, $3.6 billion in development assistance for vaccinations was provided for low- and middle-income countries, up from $822 million in 2000. The funding increase was driven predominantly by the establishment of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the governments of the United States and United Kingdom. Despite stagnation in total development assistance for health from donors from 2010 onward, development assistance for vaccination has continued to grow. PMID:26858376

  18. 40 CFR 721.5260 - 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]- 4-[[4-[[2-[2-(ethenylsulfonyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo], trisodium salt. 721.5260 Section 721...,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo... substance identified as 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- -4-......

  19. 40 CFR 721.5260 - 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]- 4-[[4-[[2-[2-(ethenylsulfonyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo], trisodium salt. 721.5260 Section 721...,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo... substance identified as 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- -4-......

  20. Propellant Containing 3, 6bis(1h-1,2,3,4-Tetrazol-5-Ylamino)-1,2,4,5- Tetrazine Or Salt Thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hiskey, Michael A.; Chavez, David E.; Naud, Darren

    2003-12-02

    The compound 3,6-bis(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-ylamino)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine and its salts are provided together with a propellant composition including an oxidizer, a binder and 3,6-bis(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-ylamino)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine or its salts.

  1. Motion of 3-6 keV Nonthermal Sources Along the Legs of a Flare Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sui, Linhui; Holman, Gordon D.; Dennis, Brian R.

    2007-01-01

    Observations of nonthermal X-ray sources me critical to studying electron acceleration and transport in solar flares. Strong thermal emission radiated from the preheated plasma before the flare impulsive phase often makes it difficult to detect low-energy X-ray sources that are produced by relatively low-energy nonthermal electrons. Knowledge of the distribution of these low-energy nonthermal electrons is particularly important in determining the total nonthermal electron energy in solar flares. We report on an 'early impulsive flare' in which impulsive hard X-ray emission was seen early in the flare before the soft X-ray emission had risen significantly, indicating limited plasma pre-heating. Early in the flare, RHESSI < 25 keV images show coronal sources that moved first downward and then upwards along the legs of a flare loop. In particular, the 3-6 keV source appeared as a single coronal source at the start of the flare, and then it involved into two coronal sources moving down along the two legs of the loop. After nearly reaching the two footpoints at the hard X-ray peak, the two sources moved back up to the looptop again. RHESSI images and light curves all indicate that nonthermal emission dominated at energies as low as 3-6 keV. We suggest that the evolution of both the spectral index and the low-energy cutoff of the injected electron distribution could result in the accelerated electrons reaching a lower altitude along the legs of the dense flare loop and hence result in the observed downward and upward motions of the nonthermal sources.

  2. The Increase in Phosphorylation Levels of Serine Residues of Protein HSP70 during Holding Time at 17°C Is Concomitant with a Higher Cryotolerance of Boar Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Estrada, Efrén; Rivera del Álamo, Maria-Montserat; Bonet, Sergi; Rigau, Teresa; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan-Enric

    2014-01-01

    Boar-sperm cryopreservation is not usually performed immediately after semen collection, but rather a holding time (HT) of 4 h–30 h at 17°C is spent before starting this procedure. Taking this into account, the aim of this study was to go further in-depth into the mechanisms underlying the improving effects of HT at 17°C on boar-sperm cryotolerance by evaluating the effects of two different HTs (3 h and 24 h) on overall boar-sperm function and survival before and after cryopreservation. Given that phospho/dephosphorylation mechanisms are of utmost importance in the overall regulation of sperm function, the phosphorylation levels of serine residues (pSer) in 30 different sperm proteins after a 3 h- or 24 h-HT period were also assessed. We found that a HT of 24 h contributed to a higher sperm resistance to freeze-thawing procedures, whereas mini-array protein analyses showed that a HT of 24 h induced a significant (P<0.05) increase in pSer (from 100.0±1.8 arbitrary units in HT 3 h to 150.2±5.1 arbitrary units in HT 24 h) of HSP70 and, to a lesser extent, in protein kinases GSK3 and total TRK and in the cell-cycle regulatory protein CDC2/CDK1. In the case of HSP70, this increase was confirmed through immunoprecipation analyses. Principal component and multiple regression analyses indicated that a component explaining a percentage of variance higher than 50% in sperm cryotolerance was significantly correlated with pSer levels in HSP70. In addition, from all the parameters evaluated before freeze-thawing, only pSer levels in HSP70 resulted to be able to predict sperm cryotolerance. In conclusion, our results suggest that boar spermatozoa modulate its function during HT, at least partially, by changes in pSer levels of proteins like HSP70, and this is related to a higher cryotolerance. PMID:24603527

  3. The increase in phosphorylation levels of serine residues of protein HSP70 during holding time at 17°C is concomitant with a higher cryotolerance of boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Yeste, Marc; Estrada, Efrén; Rivera Del Álamo, Maria-Montserat; Bonet, Sergi; Rigau, Teresa; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan-Enric

    2014-01-01

    Boar-sperm cryopreservation is not usually performed immediately after semen collection, but rather a holding time (HT) of 4 h-30 h at 17°C is spent before starting this procedure. Taking this into account, the aim of this study was to go further in-depth into the mechanisms underlying the improving effects of HT at 17°C on boar-sperm cryotolerance by evaluating the effects of two different HTs (3 h and 24 h) on overall boar-sperm function and survival before and after cryopreservation. Given that phospho/dephosphorylation mechanisms are of utmost importance in the overall regulation of sperm function, the phosphorylation levels of serine residues (pSer) in 30 different sperm proteins after a 3 h- or 24 h-HT period were also assessed. We found that a HT of 24 h contributed to a higher sperm resistance to freeze-thawing procedures, whereas mini-array protein analyses showed that a HT of 24 h induced a significant (P<0.05) increase in pSer (from 100.0±1.8 arbitrary units in HT 3 h to 150.2±5.1 arbitrary units in HT 24 h) of HSP70 and, to a lesser extent, in protein kinases GSK3 and total TRK and in the cell-cycle regulatory protein CDC2/CDK1. In the case of HSP70, this increase was confirmed through immunoprecipation analyses. Principal component and multiple regression analyses indicated that a component explaining a percentage of variance higher than 50% in sperm cryotolerance was significantly correlated with pSer levels in HSP70. In addition, from all the parameters evaluated before freeze-thawing, only pSer levels in HSP70 resulted to be able to predict sperm cryotolerance. In conclusion, our results suggest that boar spermatozoa modulate its function during HT, at least partially, by changes in pSer levels of proteins like HSP70, and this is related to a higher cryotolerance. PMID:24603527

  4. Mechanism of Nanotization-Mediated Improvement in the Efficacy of Caffeine Against 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine-Induced Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Naveen Kumar; Agarwal, Swati; Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Tiwari, Manindra Nath; Tiwari, Shashi Kant; Srivastava, Garima; Kumar, Pradeep; Brashket, Seth; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar; Singh, Mahendra Pratap; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to measure the neuroprotective efficacy of caffeine-encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles over bulk and to delineate the mechanism of improvement in efficacy both in vitro and in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of Parkinsonism. Caffeine-encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles exhibited more pronounced increase in the endurance of dopaminergic neurons, fibre outgrowth and expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced alterations in vitro. Caffeine-encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles also inhibited MPP(+)-mediated nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and augmented protein kinase B phosphorylation more potentially than bulk counterpart. Conversely, MPTP reduced the striatal dopamine and its metabolites and nigral TH immunoreactivity whereas augmented the nigral microglial activation and nigrostriatal lipid peroxidation and nitrite content, which were shifted towards normalcy by caffeine. The modulations were more evident in caffeine-encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles treated animals as compared with bulk. Moreover, the striatal caffeine and its metabolites were found to be significantly higher in caffeine-encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles-treated mice as compared with bulk. The results thus suggest that nanotization improves the protective efficacy of caffeine against MPTP-induced Parkinsonism owing to enhanced bioavailability, inhibition of the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and activation of protein kinase B phosphorylation. PMID:26510314

  5. An LC-MS/MS method for determination of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Xin-Min; Pan, Rui-Le; Wang, Geng-Nan; Fu, Ying; Chang, Qi

    2009-12-01

    3,6'-Disinapoylsucrose (DSS), a major active component of traditional Chinese medicine Yuan-Zhi (the roots of Polygala tenuifolia), has significant effects for neuroprotection and improving learning memory. In order to explore the pharmacokinetic properties of DSS so as to further understand its in vivo activities, a sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for determination of DSS in rat plasma and applied to a pharmacokinetic study in the present study. After treatment by protein precipitation, the plasma sample was separated on a C(18) HPLC column and analyzed by a mass spectrometry under positive electrospray ionization. Multiple-reaction monitoring was employed to measure the ion transition at m/z 777.4 --> 409.2 for DSS and m/z 557.2 --> 309.1 for forsythin as internal standard. The method was linear over the studied concentration range of 0.5-1000.0 ng/mL. The precision and accuracy ranged from 1.4 to 18.4%, and from -3.7 to -9.5%, respectively, for within-day and between-day assay. Extraction recovery was higher than 86.6%. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.3 and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. The present method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study. DSS was found to have poor oral absorption with only about 0.5% bioavailability. PMID:19517426

  6. Correlation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine Neurotoxicity with Blood-Brain Barrier Monoamine Oxidase Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaria, Rajesh N.; Mitchell, Mary Jo; Harik, Sami I.

    1987-05-01

    Systemic administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) causes parkinsonism in humans and subhuman primates, but not in rats and many other laboratory animals; mice are intermediate in their susceptibility. Since MPTP causes selective dopaminergic neurotoxicity when infused directly into rat substantia nigra, we hypothesized that systemic MPTP may be metabolized by monoamine oxidase and/or other enzymes in rat brain capillaries and possibly other peripheral organs and thus prevented from reaching its neuronal sites of toxicity. We tested this hypothesis by assessing monoamine oxidase in isolated cerebral microvessels of humans, rats, and mice by measuring the specific binding of [3H]pargyline, an irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and by estimating the rates of MPTP and benzylamine oxidation. [3H]Pargyline binding to rat cerebral microvessels was about 10-fold higher than to human or mouse microvessels. Also, MPTP oxidation by rat brain microvessels was about 30-fold greater than by human microvessels; mouse microvessels yielded intermediate values. These results may explain, at least in part, the marked species differences in susceptibility to systemic MPTP. They also suggest the potential importance of ``enzyme barriers'' at the blood-brain interface that can metabolize toxins not excluded by structural barriers, and may provide biological bases for developing therapeutic strategies for the prevention of MPTP-induced neurotoxicity and other neurotoxic conditions including, possibly, Parkinson disease.

  7. Synthesis of chitosan 3,6-diphenylcarbamate-2-urea derivatives and their applications as chiral stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Shen, Jun; Zuo, Wenli; Okamoto, Yoshio

    2014-10-24

    Fourteen chitosan 3,6-diphenylcarbamate-2-urea derivatives were synthesized using well-deacetylated chitosan and the corresponding phenyl isocyanates. After coating them on silica gel, their chiral recognition abilities were evaluated as the chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for high-performance liquid chromatography. These coated-type CSPs exhibited different chiral recognitions depending on the position, nature, and number of the substituents introduced on the phenyl group, and the introduction of either an electron-withdrawing or an electron-donating substituent improved the chiral recognition of the CSPs. Among the CSPs, the 2-substituted CSPs showed low chiral recognition abilities, while those with 3,5-dimethyl and 3,5-dichloro substituents showed relatively higher chiral recognition abilities, which enabled the baseline separation of some racemates. The CSPs could be used with some eluents containing chloroform, which cannot be used for other polysaccharide-based CSPs. Some racemates were more efficiently resolved with these nonstandard eluents. The correlation between the chiral recognition ability and the chemical shifts of the N-H protons in the (1)H NMR spectra of the chitosan derivatives or the N-H frequencies in the IR spectra of the carbamate moieties was discussed. PMID:25262030

  8. Immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 in the MPTP(1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) -induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting-ting; Zu, Guo; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Xiao-gang; Li, Shao; Liang, Zhan-hua; Zhao, Jie

    2015-12-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1, one of the biologically active ingredients of ginseng, has been considered to be a candidate neuroprotective drug. The objective of the study was to study the protective effects of Rg1 through the peripheral and central inflammation in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model. Rg1 treatment protected TH-positive cells in the SNpc region from MPTP toxicity measured with immunofluoresence. The protein expression levels of TH in the SNpc region of MPTP-induced mice following treatment with Rg1 were higher than MPTP-induced mice which were tested with Western blot. The ratio of CD3(+)CD4(+) to CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells and CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in the blood increased in MPTP-induced mice following treatment with Rg1 which were detected by flow cytometry analysis. Moreover, Rg1 reduced the serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β and IL-6 which were tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, Rg1 inhibited the activation of microglia and reduced the infiltration of CD3(+) T cells into the SNpc region which were measured by immunofluorescence. Our results indicated that Rg1 may represent a promising drug for the treatment of PD via the regulation of the peripheral and central inflammation. PMID:26548343

  9. Higher Education Exchange, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that not only does higher education not see the public; when the public, in turn, looks at higher education, it sees mostly malaise, inefficiencies, expense, and unfulfilled promises. Yet, the contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" tell of bright spots in higher education where experiments in working…

  10. Higher Education Exchange, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  11. Higher Education Exchange, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  12. Higher Education Exchange, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  13. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  14. Reconstructing the Stellar Mass Distributions of Galaxies Using S4G IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm Images. I. Correcting for Contamination by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Hot Dust, and Intermediate-age Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meidt, Sharon E.; Schinnerer, Eva; Knapen, Johan H.; Bosma, Albert; Athanassoula, E.; Sheth, Kartik; Buta, Ronald J.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Salo, Heikki; Regan, Michael; Ho, Luis C.; Madore, Barry F.; Hinz, Joannah L.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Seibert, Mark; Kim, Taehyun; Mizusawa, Trisha; Laine, Jarkko; Comerón, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of constructing accurate two-dimensional maps of the stellar mass distribution in nearby galaxies from Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies 3.6 and 4.5 μm images, we report on the separation of the light from old stars from the emission contributed by contaminants. Results for a small sample of six disk galaxies (NGC 1566, NGC 2976, NGC 3031, NGC 3184, NGC 4321, and NGC 5194) with a range of morphological properties, dust content, and star formation histories are presented to demonstrate our approach. To isolate the old stellar light from contaminant emission (e.g., hot dust and the 3.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature) in the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands we use an independent component analysis (ICA) technique designed to separate statistically independent source distributions, maximizing the distinction in the [3.6]-[4.5] colors of the sources. The technique also removes emission from evolved red objects with a low mass-to-light ratio, such as asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars, revealing maps of the underlying old distribution of light with [3.6]-[4.5] colors consistent with the colors of K and M giants. The contaminants are studied by comparison with the non-stellar emission imaged at 8 μm, which is dominated by the broad PAH feature. Using the measured 3.6 μm/8 μm ratio to select individual contaminants, we find that hot dust and PAHs together contribute between ~5% and 15% to the integrated light at 3.6 μm, while light from regions dominated by intermediate-age (AGB and RSG) stars accounts for only 1%-5%. Locally, however, the contribution from either contaminant can reach much higher levels; dust contributes on average 22% to the emission in star-forming regions throughout the sample, while intermediate-age stars contribute upward of 50% in localized knots. The removal of these contaminants with ICA leaves maps of the old stellar disk that retain a high degree of structural information and

  15. RECONSTRUCTING THE STELLAR MASS DISTRIBUTIONS OF GALAXIES USING S{sup 4}G IRAC 3.6 AND 4.5 {mu}m IMAGES. I. CORRECTING FOR CONTAMINATION BY POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, HOT DUST, AND INTERMEDIATE-AGE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Meidt, Sharon E.; Schinnerer, Eva; Bosma, Albert; Athanassoula, E.; Sheth, Kartik; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Buta, Ronald J.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Hinz, Joannah L.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Elmegreen, Debra; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Regan, Michael; Ho, Luis C.; Madore, Barry F.; Gil de Paz, Armando; and others

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of constructing accurate two-dimensional maps of the stellar mass distribution in nearby galaxies from Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m images, we report on the separation of the light from old stars from the emission contributed by contaminants. Results for a small sample of six disk galaxies (NGC 1566, NGC 2976, NGC 3031, NGC 3184, NGC 4321, and NGC 5194) with a range of morphological properties, dust content, and star formation histories are presented to demonstrate our approach. To isolate the old stellar light from contaminant emission (e.g., hot dust and the 3.3 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature) in the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands we use an independent component analysis (ICA) technique designed to separate statistically independent source distributions, maximizing the distinction in the [3.6]-[4.5] colors of the sources. The technique also removes emission from evolved red objects with a low mass-to-light ratio, such as asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars, revealing maps of the underlying old distribution of light with [3.6]-[4.5] colors consistent with the colors of K and M giants. The contaminants are studied by comparison with the non-stellar emission imaged at 8 {mu}m, which is dominated by the broad PAH feature. Using the measured 3.6 {mu}m/8 {mu}m ratio to select individual contaminants, we find that hot dust and PAHs together contribute between {approx}5% and 15% to the integrated light at 3.6 {mu}m, while light from regions dominated by intermediate-age (AGB and RSG) stars accounts for only 1%-5%. Locally, however, the contribution from either contaminant can reach much higher levels; dust contributes on average 22% to the emission in star-forming regions throughout the sample, while intermediate-age stars contribute upward of 50% in localized knots. The removal of these contaminants with ICA leaves maps of the old stellar disk that retain a high degree of

  16. Evidence for the Assembly of a Bacterial Tripartite Multidrug Pump with a Stoichiometry of 3:6:3*

    PubMed Central

    Janganan, Thamarai K.; Bavro, Vassiliy N.; Zhang, Li; Matak-Vinkovic, Dijana; Barrera, Nelson P.; Venien-Bryan, Catherine; Robinson, Carol V.; Borges-Walmsley, Maria Inês; Walmsley, Adrian R.

    2011-01-01

    The multiple transferable resistance (mTR) pump from Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrCDE multidrug pump is assembled from the inner and outer membrane proteins MtrD and MtrE and the periplasmic membrane fusion protein MtrC. Previously we established that while there is a weak interaction of MtrD and MtrE, MtrC binds with relatively high affinity to both MtrD and MtrE. MtrD conferred antibiotic resistance only when it was expressed with MtrE and MtrC, suggesting that these proteins form a functional tripartite complex in which MtrC bridges MtrD and MtrE. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MtrC interacts with an intraprotomer groove on the surface of MtrE, inducing channel opening. However, a second groove is apparent at the interface of the MtrE subunits, which might also be capable of engaging MtrC. We have now established that MtrC can be cross-linked to cysteines placed in this interprotomer groove and that mutation of residues in the groove impair the ability of the pump to confer antibiotic resistance by locking MtrE in the closed channel conformation. Moreover, MtrE K390C forms an intermolecular disulfide bond with MtrC E149C locking MtrE in the open channel conformation, suggesting that a functional salt bridge forms between these residues during the transition from closed to open channel conformations. MtrC forms dimers that assemble into hexamers, and electron microscopy studies of single particles revealed that these hexamers are arranged into ring-like structures with an internal aperture sufficiently large to accommodate the MtrE trimer. Cross-linking of single cysteine mutants of MtrC to stabilize the dimer interface in the presence of MtrE, trapped an MtrC-MtrE complex with a molecular mass consistent with a stoichiometry of 3:6 (MtrE3MtrC6), suggesting that dimers of MtrC interact with MtrE, presumably by binding to the two grooves. As both MtrE and MtrD are trimeric, our studies suggest that the functional pump is assembled with a stoichiometry of 3:6

  17. Conventional high-performance liquid chromatography versus derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt in the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Pyranine).

    PubMed

    Jitian, Simion; White, Samuel R; Yang, H-H Wendy; Weisz, Adrian

    2014-01-10

    Specifications in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Colour Index No. 59040) limit the levels of the subsidiary colors 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt (P3S) and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (P4S). The present paper describes a comparative study of two possible methods to replace the currently used multi-step TLC/spectrophotometry method of separating and quantifying the minor components P3S and P4S in G8. One of the new approaches uses conventional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the other, derivative spectrophotometry. While the derivative spectrophotometric method was shown to be inadequate for the analysis of minor components overwhelmed by components of much higher concentration, the HPLC method was proven highly effective. The closely related, very polar compounds P3S and P4S were separated by the new HPLC method in less than 4 min using a conventional HPLC instrument. P3S and P4S were quantified by using five-point calibration curves with data points that ranged from 0.45 to 7.63% and from 0.13 to 1.82%, by weight, for P3S and P4S, respectively. The HPLC method was applied to the analysis of test portions from 20 batches of D&C Green No. 8 submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for certification. PMID:24315677

  18. [Pyrolysates of novel latent fragrant compound 3,6-dimethyl-2,5-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid menthol ester].

    PubMed

    Lai, Miao; Zhao, Boya; Bao, Xiaorong; Zhao, Mingqin; Ji, Xiaoming; Fu, Peipei; Zhang, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop a new tobacco flavor released at high-temperature, the novel latent fragrant compound 3,6-dimethyl-2,5-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid menthol ester (DPAME) was synthesized by esterification using 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine and menthol as raw materials. In air atmosphere, the pyrolysis behavior of DPAME was investigated using an on-line pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) method at three temperature levels of 300, 600 and 900 degrees C, separately. The pyrolysis products were directly introduced into GC-MS and were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed. The results showed that a variety of aroma compounds of aldehydes, 3-p-menthene and menthol were released and identified at 300 degrees C. While at 600 degrees C and 900 degrees C, flavor alkene class, the alkyl pyrazines, menthol and 3-p-menthene were generated. And the types and relative amounts of pyrazines were significantly increased, at these two temperatures. Combined the analytical results of DPAME pyrolysates and the results of sensory evaluation of the cigarette, the possible pyrolysis mechanism was preliminarily speculated. The Py-GC-MS technique for the study of the pyrolysis products of DPAME was convenient and rapid. The investigation provided a reliable theoretical foundation for the perfume reinforcement technology in tobacco products, contributing to the development of cigarette products with better aroma and taste. This method is an accurate and quick way to study the pyrolysis products of latent fragrant substance. PMID:25958667

  19. The observation of scintillation in a hydrated inorganic compound: CeCl3 6H2O

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, Lynn A; Neal, John S; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Chakoumakos, Bryan C; Custelcean, Radu

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported the discovery of a new family of rare-earth metal-organic single-crystal scintillators based on Ce3+ as the activator ion. Starting with the CeCl3(CH3OH)4 prototype, this family of scintillators has recently been extended to include complex metal-organic adducts produced by reacting CeCl3 with heavier organics (e.g., isomers of propanol and butanol). Some of these new rare-earth metal-organic materials incorporated waters of hydration in their structures, and the observation of scintillation in these hydrated compounds was an original finding for any solid scintillator. In the present work, we now report what is apparently the initial observation of gamma-ray-excited scintillation in an inorganic hydrated material, namely single-crystal monoclinic CeCl3 6H2O. This observation shows that the mechanisms of the various scintillation energy-transfer processes are not blocked by the presence of waters of hydration in an inorganic material and that the observation of scintillation in other hydrated inorganic compounds is not precluded.

  20. Dextromethorphan prevents the diethyldithiocarbamate enhancement of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Vaglini, Francesca; Pardini, Carla; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Maggio, Roberto; Corsini, Giovanni U

    2003-05-30

    In this report we show that dextromethorphan, a non-opioid cough suppressant, prevents the neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of mice treated with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). This effect is further substantiated by the assessment of dopamine (DA) content in the striatum of these animals. Dextromethorphan does not attenuate the striatal DA fall induced by MPTP alone but completely prevents DDC-induced enhancement after the combined treatment. Moreover, a study of DA metabolites has confirmed this neuroprotective property. The striatal levels of serotonin, which were studied as a control neuronal marker, did not change with any of the treatments administered. Furthermore, we show that dextromethorphan reduces the toxicity of glutamate against dopamine neurons in mesencephalic cell cultures. In line with previous data suggesting that dextromethorphan can prevent neuronal damage, our observations supply new evidence regarding the possibility of this compound being of therapeutic use in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:12738074

  1. Optical biosensor with poly[N-nonyl-3,6-bis(ethylenedioxythiophene)carbazole] matrix for monitoring of phenol derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrychowska, Agnieszka; Malecha, Karol; Cabaj, Joanna; Sołoducho, Jadwiga

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the research was to develop an enzymatic, optical biosensor which provides quick and convenient determination of phenolic compounds in aqueous solutions. The biosensing strategy concerns design, fabrication and testing of a miniature ceramic-based biosensor which is destined for in-situ substrate monitoring. The base of the measuring system was fabricated using low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology. The biocatalyst - laccase- was immobilized on the thin film of poly[N-nonyl-3,6-bis(ethylenedioxythiophene)carbazole] which provided good binding of the enzyme to the substrate and positively affected on the catalytic activity of the protein. In order to evaluate properties of the designed biosensor, its response for various concentrations of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diamonnium sal (ABTS) was measured. The optical biosensor produced by presented method could find applications in many fields, i.e. for detection of phenolic compounds in food products and beverages, in industry for control of technological processes or for environmental monitoring

  2. Singlet Fission via an Excimer-Like Intermediate in 3,6-Bis(thiophen-2-yl)diketopyrrolopyrrole Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Catherine M; Hartnett, Patrick E; Margulies, Eric A; Ma, Lin; Miller, Claire E; Schatz, George C; Marks, Tobin J; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2016-09-14

    Singlet fission (SF) in polycrystalline thin films of four 3,6-bis(thiophen-2-yl)diketopyrrolopyrrole (TDPP) chromophores with methyl (Me), n-hexyl (C6), triethylene glycol (TEG), and 2-ethylhexyl (EH) substituents at the 2,5-positions is found to involve an intermediate excimer-like state. The four different substituents yield four distinct intermolecular packing geometries, resulting in variable intermolecular charge transfer (CT) interactions in the solid. SF from the excimer state of Me, C6, TEG, and EH takes place in τSF = 22, 336, 195, and 1200 ps, respectively, to give triplet yields of 200%, 110%, 110%, and 70%, respectively. The transient spectra of the excimer-like state and its energetic proximity to the lowest excited singlet state in these derivatives suggests that this state may be the multiexciton (1)(T1T1) state that precedes formation of the uncorrelated triplet excitons. The excimer decay rates correlate well with the SF efficiencies and the degree of intermolecular donor-acceptor interactions resulting from π-stacking of the thiophene donor of one molecule with the DPP core acceptor in another molecule as observed in the crystal structures. Such interactions are found to also increase with the SF coupling energies, as calculated for each derivative. These structural and spectroscopic studies afford a better understanding of the electronic interactions that enhance SF in chromophores having strong intra- and intermolecular CT character. PMID:27547986

  3. Assembly and Test of a Support Structure for 3.6 m Long Nb3Sn Racetrack Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.W.; Felice, H.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; Lizarazo, J.; Muratore, J.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmalzle, J.; Thomas, R.; Wanderer, P.J.; Ferracin, P.

    2008-06-01

    The LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is currently developing 4 m long Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnets for a possible upgrade of the LHC Interaction Regions (IR). In order to provide a reliable test bed for the fabrication and test of long Nb{sub 3}Sn coils, LARP has started the development of the long racetrack magnet LRS01. The magnet is composed of two 3.6 m long racetrack coils contained in a support structure based on an aluminum shell pre-tensioned with water-pressurized bladders and interference keys. For the phase-one test of the assembly procedure and loading operation, the structure was pre-stressed at room temperature and cooled down to 77 K with instrumented, solid aluminum 'dummy coils'. Mechanical behavior and stress homogeneity were monitored with strain gauges mounted on the shell and the dummy coils. The dummy coils were replaced with reacted and impregnated Nb{sub 3}Sn coils in a second assembly procedure, followed by cool-down to 4.5 K and powered magnet test. This paper report on the assembly and loading procedures of the support structure as well as the comparison between strain gauge data and 3D model predictions.

  4. Halogen effect on structure and 13C NMR chemical shift of 3,6-disubstituted-N-alkyl carbazoles.

    PubMed

    Radula-Janik, Klaudia; Kupka, Teobald; Ejsmont, Krzysztof; Daszkiewicz, Zdzislaw; Sauer, Stephan P A

    2013-10-01

    Structures of selected 3,6-dihalogeno-N-alkyl carbazole derivatives were calculated at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2pd) level of theory, and their (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) isotropic shieldings were predicted using density functional theory (DFT). The model compounds contained 9H, N-methyl and N-ethyl derivatives. The relativistic effect of Br and I atoms on nuclear shieldings was modeled using the spin-orbit zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) method. Significant heavy atom shielding effects for the carbon atom directly bonded with Br and I were observed (~-10 and ~-30 ppm while the other carbon shifts were practically unaffected). The decreasing electronegativity of the halogen substituent (F, Cl, Br, and I) was reflected in both nonrelativistic and relativistic NMR results as decreased values of chemical shifts of carbon atoms attached to halogen (C3 and C6) leading to a strong sensitivity to halogen atom type at 3 and 6 positions of the carbazole ring. The predicted NMR data correctly reproduce the available experimental data for unsubstituted N-alkylcarbazoles. PMID:23922027

  5. How was the proton transfer process in bis-3, 6-(2- benzoxazolyl)-pyrocatechol, single or double proton transfer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongjia; Sun, Mengtao; Li, Yongqing

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical analysis of proton transfer process for the symmetric systems with two intramolecular hydrogen bonds, bis-3,6-(2-benzoxazolyl)-pyrocatechol(BBPC) in hexane solvent, has been researched. In this study, we utilized ωB97X-D/ 6-311 + g (d,p) and B3LYP/6-31 + G(d) two procedures calculating the foremost bond length and bond angle, respectively. Our calculations demonstrate the two intramolecular hydrogen bonds were strengthened in S1 state, thus the proton transfer reaction can be facilitated. Furthermore, the calculated IR vibrational spectra confirmed hydrogen bonds were enhanced in S1 state. We found three local minima A B and C from the potential energy surfaces (PESs) on the S1 state, and the energy of B point and C point are identical. A new ESIPT mechanism has been proposed that was not equal to the previous conclusions. The new ESIPT mechanism elucidates that single proton transfer more likely occurs in the symmetric BBPC molecule in comparison with the double proton transfer reaction. And the frontier molecular orbitals(MOs) further illustrate the trend of ESIPT reaction.

  6. 3. 6-Mb genomic and YAC physical map of the Down syndrome chromosome region on chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    Dufresne-Zacharia, M.C.; Dahmane, N.; Theophile, D.; Orti, R.; Chettouh, Z.; Sinet, P.M.; Delabar, J.M. )

    1994-02-01

    The Down syndrome chromosome region (DCR) on chromosome 21 has been shown to contain a gene(s) important in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome. The authors constructed a long-range restriction map of the D21S55-D21S65 region covering the proximal part of the DCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of lymphocyte DNA digested with three rare cutting enzymes, NotI, NruI, and Mlu1, was used to establish two physical linkage groups of 5 and 7 markers, respectively, spanning 4.6 Mb on the NotI map. Mapping analysis of 40 YACs allowed the selection of 13 YACs covering 95% of the D21S55-D21S65 region and spanning 3.6 Mb. The restriction maps of these YACs and their positioning on the genomic map allowed 19 markers to be ordered, including 4 NotI linking clones, 9 polymorphic markers, the CBR gene, and the AML1 gene. The distances between markers could also be estimated. This physical map and the location of eight NotI sites between D21S55 and D21S17 should facilitate the isolation of previously unidentified genes in this region. 34 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The 3-6-year results of a modular noncemented low-bending stiffness hip implant. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Cameron, H U

    1993-06-01

    A review of the 3-6-year clinical and radiographic results of a modular noncemented stem has been carried out. This is a three-part stem consisting of a head, stem, and proximal sleeve. The stems are split distally like a clothespin in the coronal plane to reduce bending stiffness. No mechanical failures have occurred, including no bead separation from the single-layer porous-coated taper lock sleeves. Of the 48 cases, 13 had smooth stems distally while the rest were fluted. Five of the fluted stems were solid, that is, nonsplit. Clinical results are 93.7% excellent, 4.2% good, and 2.1% poor with the Harris hip rating. There have been no revisions. Thigh pain incidence with the distal split stem was 4.4%. Radiographic follow-up evaluations revealed nonprogressive radiolucency around one of the ingrowth sleeves. When inserted in varus the smooth stems developed some radiolucency around the distal end. Fluting of the stem appeared to prevent this. PMID:8326303

  8. Anti-parkinsonian effects of octacosanol in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine-treated mice☆

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Yanyong; Yang, Nan; Ji, Chao; Chan, Piu; Zuo, Pingping

    2012-01-01

    Our previous research showed that octacosanol exerted its protective effects in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinsonian rats. The goal of this study was to investigate whether octacosanol would attenuate neurotoxicity in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated C57BL/6N mice and its potential mechanism. Behavioral tests, tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry and western blot were used to investigate the effects of octacosanol in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Oral administration of octacosanol (100 mg/kg) significantly improved behavioral impairments in mice treated by MPTP and markedly ameliorated morphological appearances of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neuronal cells in the substantia nigra. Furthermore, octacosanol blocked MPTP-induced phosphorylation of p38MAPK and JNK, but not ERK1/2. These findings implicated that the protective effects afforded by octacosanol might be mediated by blocking the phosphorylation of p38MAPK and JNK on the signal transduction in vivo. Considering its excellent tolerability, octacosanol might be considered as a candidate agent for clinical application in treating Parkinson's disease. PMID:25722698

  9. How was the proton transfer process in bis-3, 6-(2- benzoxazolyl)-pyrocatechol, single or double proton transfer?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongjia; Sun, Mengtao; Li, Yongqing

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of proton transfer process for the symmetric systems with two intramolecular hydrogen bonds, bis-3,6-(2-benzoxazolyl)-pyrocatechol(BBPC) in hexane solvent, has been researched. In this study, we utilized ωB97X-D/ 6-311 + g (d,p) and B3LYP/6-31 + G(d) two procedures calculating the foremost bond length and bond angle, respectively. Our calculations demonstrate the two intramolecular hydrogen bonds were strengthened in S1 state, thus the proton transfer reaction can be facilitated. Furthermore, the calculated IR vibrational spectra confirmed hydrogen bonds were enhanced in S1 state. We found three local minima A B and C from the potential energy surfaces (PESs) on the S1 state, and the energy of B point and C point are identical. A new ESIPT mechanism has been proposed that was not equal to the previous conclusions. The new ESIPT mechanism elucidates that single proton transfer more likely occurs in the symmetric BBPC molecule in comparison with the double proton transfer reaction. And the frontier molecular orbitals(MOs) further illustrate the trend of ESIPT reaction. PMID:27157994

  10. e-Cadherin in 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-Induced Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cataldi, Samuela; Codini, Michela; Hunot, Stéphane; Légeron, François-Pierre; Ferri, Ivana; Siccu, Paola; Sidoni, Angelo; Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Saverio; Beccari, Tommaso; Curcio, Francesco; Albi, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Today a large number of studies are focused on clarifying the complexity and diversity of the pathogenetic mechanisms inducing Parkinson disease. We used 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a neurotoxin that induces Parkinson disease, to evaluate the change of midbrain structure and the behavior of the anti-inflammatory factor e-cadherin, interleukin-6, tyrosine hydroxylase, phosphatase and tensin homolog, and caveolin-1. The results showed a strong expression of e-cadherin, variation of length and thickness of the heavy neurofilaments, increase of interleukin-6, and reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase known to be expression of dopamine cell loss, reduction of phosphatase and tensin homolog described to impair responses to dopamine, and reduction of caveolin-1 known to be expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis. The possibility that the overexpression of the e-cadherin might be implicated in the anti-inflammatory reaction to MPTP treatment by influencing the behavior of the other analyzed molecules is discussed. PMID:27194825

  11. Special Higher Education Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Meyer

    1982-01-01

    Cites works relevant to the higher education of Blacks and minority group members. Lists references alphabetically under the following headings: (1) financial aid on the campus; (2) Chicanos in higher education; and (3) race and equality on California campuses. (GC)

  12. Time for Decisions: Visualizing the Future. Proceedings of the Annual NEAIR Conference (39th, Bethesda, Maryland, November 3-6, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Cristi, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The NEAIR (North East Association for Institutional Research) 2012 Conference Proceedings is a compilation of papers presented at the Bethesda, Maryland conference. Papers in this document include: (1) Can a Marketing Campaign Increase Response Rates to Online Course Evaluations? (Kimberly Puhala); (2) Developing Community College Peer…

  13. Siblings, Theory of Mind, and Executive Functioning in Children Aged 3-6 Years: New Longitudinal Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlister, Anna R.; Peterson, Candida C.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal data were obtained from 157 children aged 3 years 3 months to 5 years 6 months at Time 1. At Time 2 these children had aged an average of 12 months. Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) were measured at both time points. Results suggest that Time 1 ToM scores predict Time 2 EF scores. Detailed examination of sibling…

  14. African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew, Ed.; Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

    This book is a comprehensive survey of all aspects and dimensions of higher education in Africa. It includes a historical overview of higher education, descriptions of the higher education systems in each African country, and analyses of current and timely topics in higher education. Part 1, "Themes," contains 13 essays on trends in African higher…

  15. Spotlight on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Donna; Iwanowski, Jay

    1997-01-01

    A number of current issues and initiatives in higher education are highlighted, including impending reauthorization of the Higher Education Act, the need for advocacy of higher education in public policy arenas, a University of Florida program combining accountability and institutional autonomy, and institutional compliance with nonresident alien…

  16. Higher Education Exchange, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" discuss the concept of growing public scholars; each contribution incorporates a student component. Articles include: (1) "Foreword"…

  17. The Higher Education Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottinger, Cecilia A.

    1991-01-01

    Higher education not only contributes to the development of the human resources and intellectual betterment of the nation but is also a major economic enterprise. This research brief reviews and highlights data on the size and growth of higher education and illustrates how higher education institutions are preparing the future labor force. It…

  18. Western Arctic Vulnerability to Warming over the past 3.6 Myr: Lessons from sediments drilled at Lake El'gygytgyn, Western Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham-Grette, J.; Melles, M.; Minyuk, P.; Lake El'gygytgyn Science Team

    2011-12-01

    International Continental Deep drilling (ICDP) at Lake El'gygytgyn (67_30' N, 172_05' E; "Lake E"), recovered lacustrine sediments dating back to 3.6 Ma that provides the first time-continuous Pliocene-Pleistocene paleoclimate record of different interglacials from the terrestrial Arctic. While discontinuous, spatially diverse Pliocene and Pleistocene marine interglacial records are known from the arctic borderlands at the outcrop scale, the Lake El'gygytgyn record is critically important understanding the western Arctic landscape response to different forcing factors operating across the Arctic since the mid-Pliocene warm period. The record is important for evaluating the sensitivity of the Arctic region and to provide a template of Arctic climate variability that can be compared to other regions. Lake E modeling is framed around suites of sensitivity tests of Beringian climate response to the full range of forcing experienced over the last ~3.5 million years using a nested Global-Regional Climate Model (GCM-RCM). The Pliocene portion of the lake record (~3.6-3.0 Ma; a time when atmospheric CO2 levels may have been like today) has nearly twice the sedimentation rate as later Quaternary intervals, partly as a consequence of basin infilling but also presumably due to more rainfall and more active rivers at that time. Studies of spores and pollen from this portion of the core (samples every ~10k) show that the area was once dominated by trees, providing us with the pace of variability in Pliocene Arctic forests, which included species of pine, larch, spruce, fir, alder, and hemlock. Hemlock and tree pine pollen is exceptional for this latitude but the assemblage implies July temperatures nearly 8 degrees warmer than today with ~3 times the annual precipitation. Modeling suggests sustained forests at Lake E in both cold and warm orbits during this interval. The record includes a strong M2 cooling event to conditions like today at ~3.3 Ma, but not glacial climates as

  19. Amelioration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced behavioural dysfunction and oxidative stress by Pycnogenol in mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Hoda, Md Nasrul; Ishrat, Tauheed; Ahmad, Ajmal; Khan, Mohammad Badruzzaman; Khuwaja, Gulrana; Raza, Syed Shadab; Safhi, Mohammed M; Islam, Fakhrul

    2010-09-01

    Increased oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease in which dopaminergic neurons are intrinsically susceptible to oxidative damage. Swiss albino mice were pretreated with Pycnogenol (PYC), an extract of Pinus maritime bark [20 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] once daily for 15 days. Thereafter, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) (20 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) was given four times at 2-hour intervals on 1 day only. Behaviours were altered in the MPTP group as compared with the vehicle-treated group and were restored in the PYC-pretreated MPTP group. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of glutathione were significantly depleted in the MPTP-induced Parkinsonian group. The MPTP group pretreated with PYC showed significant protection of the activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content when compared with the vehicle-treated MPTP group. A significantly elevated level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the MPTP group was decreased significantly in the animals pretreated with PYC. An increase in the number of dopaminergic D2 receptors and decrease in the level of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid in the striatum were observed after MPTP injection, and restored significantly after PYC pretreatment. Thus, PYC may be used to prevent or reduce the deterioration caused by free radicals, thereby preventing subsequent behavioural and biochemical changes that occur in Parkinsonian mice. PMID:20657266

  20. Local cerebral metabolic effects of L-dopa therapy in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced parkinsonism in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Porrino, L J; Burns, R S; Crane, A M; Palombo, E; Kopin, I J; Sokoloff, L

    1987-08-01

    The quantitative 2-deoxy[14C]glucose autoradiographic method was used to map the distribution of alterations in local cerebral glucose utilization that accompanies clinically effective chronic L-dopa therapy of rhesus monkeys made parkinsonian by the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). This pattern of changes was compared to the effects of a similar treatment regimen in normal monkeys. L-Dopa (100 mg with 10 mg carbidopa) was administered orally to normal and parkinsonian monkeys 3 times daily for 60-120 days prior to measurement of local cerebral glucose utilization. In parkinsonian monkeys treated with L-dopa, signs and symptoms of parkinsonism were controlled or suppressed, and widespread increases in glucose utilization were seen throughout the brain. Cerebral metabolic activity was increased both in areas rich in dopaminergic receptors, such as the caudate and putamen, and in nondopaminergic areas involved in motor functions. In many structures the rates of glucose utilization in L-dopa-treated parkinsonian monkeys were increased to levels that far exceeded rates measured in normal monkeys. In sharp contrast, similar treatment with L-dopa in normal monkeys had little if any effect on local cerebral glucose utilization. L-Dopa, then, appears to have an action in animals with selective lesions of the substantia nigra pars compacta produced by MPTP that is distinctly different from its effects in the normal monkey. PMID:3497401

  1. Local cerebral metabolic effects of L-dopa therapy in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced parkinsonism in monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Porrino, L.J.; Burns, R.S.; Crane, A.M.; Palombo, E.; Kopin, I.J.; Sokoloff, L.

    1987-08-01

    The quantitative 2-deoxy(/sup 14/C) glucose autoradiographic method was used to map the distribution of alterations in local cerebral glucose utilization that accompanies clinically effective chronic L-dopa therapy of rhesus monkeys made parkinsonian by the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). This pattern of changes was compared to the effects of a similar treatment regimen in normal monkeys. L-Dopa was administered orally to normal and parkinsonian monkeys 3 times daily for 60-120 days prior to measurement of local cerebral glucose utilization. In parkinsonian monkeys treated with L-dopa, signs and symptoms of parkinsonism were controlled or suppressed, and widespread increases in glucose utilization were seen throughout the brain. Cerebral metabolic activity was increased both in areas rich in dopaminergic receptors, such as the caudate and putamen, and in nondopaminergic areas involved in motor functions. In many structures the rates of glucose utilization in L-dopa-treated parkinsonian monkeys were increased to levels that far exceeded rates measured in normal monkeys. In sharp contrast, similar treatment with L-dopa in normal monkeys had little if any effect on local cerebral glucose utilization. L-Dopa, then, appears to have an action in animals with selective lesions of the substantia nigra pars compacta produced by MPTP that is distinctly different from its effects in the normal monkey.

  2. Increasing levels of the endocannabinoid 2-AG is neuroprotective in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mounsey, Ross B.; Mustafa, Sarah; Robinson, Lianne; Ross, Ruth A.; Riedel, Gernot; Pertwee, Roger G.; Teismann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common chronic neurodegenerative disorder, usually of idiopathic origin. Symptoms including tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability are caused by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal region of the brain. Symptomatic therapies are available but no treatment slows or prevents the loss of neurons. Neuroinflammation has been implicated in its pathogenesis. To this end, the present study utilises the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxin to reproduce the pattern of cell death evident in PD patients. Herein, the role of a potential regulator of an immune response, the endocannabinoid system (ECS), is investigated. The most prevalent endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) (3 and 5 mg/kg), was added exogenously and its enzymatic degradation inhibited to provide protection against MPTP-induced cell death. Furthermore, the addition of DFU (25 mg/kg), a selective inhibitor of inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), potentiated these effects. Levels of 2-AG were shown to be upregulated in a time- and region-specific manner following MPTP administration, indicating that the ECS represents a natural defence mechanism against inflammation, potentiation of which could provide therapeutic benefits. The results expand the current understanding of the role that this signalling system has and its potential influence in PD. PMID:26244281

  3. Intestinal transport of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose, a major active component of Polygala tenuifolia, using Caco-2 cell monolayer and in situ rat intestinal perfusion models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Xinmin; Pan, Ruile; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Steinmetz, André; Liao, Yonghong; Wang, Ning; Peng, Bo; Chang, Qi

    2013-10-01

    3,6'-Disinapoylsucrose is a major active component of the herb Polygala tenuifolia which has long been used for relieving tranquilization, uneasiness of the mind, and improving learning and memory. Our previous study found that 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose had a very low oral bioavailability. Its mechanisms of absorption in the small intestine have so far been unclear. In the present study, the absorption mechanisms of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose were investigated by using the Caco-2 cell monolayer and in situ rat intestinal perfusion models. The 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose concentration was determined by an LC/MS/MS method. In a Caco-2 cell transport study, the results showed that 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose had very limited intestinal permeability with average apparent permeability coefficient values around (1.11-1.34) × 10(-7) cm/s from the apical (A) to the basolateral (B) side and (1.37-1.42) × 10(-7) cm/s from B to A, at concentrations of 5, 20, and 33 µM. No concentration dependence in the 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose transport was observed. The apparent permeability coefficient value of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose (5 µM) from A to B greatly increased to 4.49 × 10(-7) and 1.81 × 10(-7) cm/s, respectively, when the cells were preincubated with EDTA (17 mM) and sodium caprate (5.14 mM). No significant effect on the 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose transport by the inhibitors including verapamil, cyclosporine A, and sodium azide was observed. Similar results were found in the small intestinal perfusion study. The apparent permeability coefficient value of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose greatly increased from 3.97 × 10(-6) to 23.4 × 10(-6) and 20.0 × 10(-6) cm/s in the presence of EDTA (17 mM) and sodium caprate (5.14 mM), respectively, in perfusion buffer. An in vitro stability evaluation of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose in the gastrointestinal tract showed that it was relatively stable both in the stomach and small intestine contents, while it was found to be more instable in the colon contents. All of the

  4. Chemically induced Parkinson's disease: intermediates in the oxidation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine to the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion

    SciTech Connect

    Chacon, J.N.; Chedekel, M.R.; Land, E.J.; Truscott, T.G.

    1987-04-29

    Various unstable intermediate oxidation states have been postulated in the metabolic activation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine to the 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium ion. We now report the first direct observation of these free radical intermediates by pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis. Studies are described of various reactions of such species, in particular with dopamine whose autoxidation to dopamine quinone is reported to be potentiated by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine.

  5. [Effects of N, N'-Di-(m-methylphenyi)-3, 6-dimethyl-1, 4-dihydro-1, 2, 4, 5-tetrazine-1, 4-dicarboamide on proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of NB4 leukemia cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong-Lie; Lü, Ya-Ping; Hu, Wei-Xiao; Qiu, Lian-Nü; Wang, Wen-Song; Wu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Jian-Dong

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of N, N'-di-(m-methylphenyi)-3, 6-dimethyl-1, 4-dihydro-1, 2, 4, 5-tetrazine-1, 4-dicarboamide (ZGDHu-1) on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in NB4 human leukemia cell line and its possible mechanism. Different concentrations of ZGDHu-1 and the different time of cultivation were used to treat NB4 cells. The proliferation inhibition of NB4 cells was analysed by cell counting, alive cell count, MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was determined by cell morphology, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA content, Annexin-V/PI and Hoechst 33258 labeling method. The analysis of cell morphological change, expression of CD11b, CD13 and NBT reduction were performed to evaluate the differentiation of NB4 cells. The expressions of bcl-2, bax and phosphorylated p38MAPK or STAT3 were detected by flow cytometry. While the expression of hTERT mRNA in transcriptional level was measured by fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that ZGDHu-1 could inhibit NB4 cell proliferation viability within a certain range of treating time and does, IC(50) values at 48 and 72 hours were 450 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml respectively. A majority of NB4 cells were arrested in G(2/M) phase and a progressive decline of cells was seen in G(0/1). The NB4 cells apoptosis was confirmed by cell typical cell morphology, DNA fragments and sub-G(1) phase peak as well as Hoechst33258 and Annexin-V/PI labeling method with a time-dose-related manner. The morphology of NB4 cells cultured in the presence of 2 - 100 ng/ml ZGDHu-1 for three days was more mature with higher NBT positivity and expressions of CD11b and CD13 than those in control. The expression of phosphor-p38MAPK and bax was increased while phosphor-STAT3 and bcl-2 were unchanged by the treatment of ZGDHu-1. ZGDHu-1 could decrease the expression of hTERT-mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. It is concluded that ZGDHu-1 can inhibit proliferation, induce differentiation and apoptosis of NB4 cells

  6. Specialized Roles of the Conserved Subunit OST3/6 of the Oligosaccharyltransferase Complex in Innate Immunity and Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Farid, Akhlaq; Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Veit, Christiane; Schoberer, Jennifer; Zipfel, Cyril; Strasser, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Asparagine-linked glycosylation of proteins is an essential cotranslational and posttranslational protein modification in plants. The central step in this process is the transfer of a preassembled oligosaccharide to nascent proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum by the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex. Despite the importance of the catalyzed reaction, the composition and the function of individual OST subunits are still ill defined in plants. Here, we report the function of the highly conserved OST subunit OST3/6. We have identified a mutant in the OST3/6 gene that causes overall underglycosylation of proteins and affects the biogenesis of the receptor kinase EF-TU RECEPTOR involved in innate immunity and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase KORRIGAN1 required for cellulose biosynthesis. Notably, the ost3/6 mutation does not affect mutant variants of the receptor kinase BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1. OST3/6 deficiency results in activation of the unfolded protein response and causes hypersensitivity to salt/osmotic stress and to the glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin. Consistent with its role in protein glycosylation, OST3/6 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum and interacts with other subunits of the OST complex. Together, our findings reveal the importance of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) OST3/6 for the efficient glycosylation of specific glycoproteins involved in different physiological processes and shed light on the composition and function of the plant OST complex. PMID:23493405

  7. Primate adult brain cell autotransplantation produces behavioral and biological recovery in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced parkinsonian St. Kitts monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Jocelyne; Brunet, Jean-François; McEntire, Caleb R S; Redmond, D Eugene

    2014-08-15

    The potential for "replacement cells" to restore function in Parkinson's disease has been widely reported over the past 3 decades, rejuvenating the central nervous system rather than just relieving symptoms. Most such experiments have used fetal or embryonic sources that may induce immunological rejection and generate ethical concerns. Autologous sources, in which the cells to be implanted are derived from recipients' own cells after reprogramming to stem cells, direct genetic modifications, or epigenetic modifications in culture, could eliminate many of these problems. In a previous study on autologous brain cell transplantation, we demonstrated that adult monkey brain cells, obtained from cortical biopsies and kept in culture for 7 weeks, exhibited potential as a method of brain repair after low doses of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) caused dopaminergic cell death. The present study exposed monkeys to higher MPTP doses to produce significant parkinsonism and behavioral impairments. Cerebral cortical cells were biopsied from the animals, held in culture for 7 weeks to create an autologous neural cell "ecosystem" and reimplanted bilaterally into the striatum of the same six donor monkeys. These cells expressed neuroectodermal and progenitor markers such as nestin, doublecortin, GFAP, neurofilament, and vimentin. Five to six months after reimplantation, histological analysis with the dye PKH67 and unbiased stereology showed that reimplanted cells survived, migrated bilaterally throughout the striatum, and seemed to exert a neurorestorative effect. More tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons and significant behavioral improvement followed reimplantation of cultured autologous neural cells as a result of unknown trophic factors released by the grafts. PMID:24610674

  8. Higher prices in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    1982-03-01

    Price increases in the Jamaica CSM program went into effect on August 31, 1981. The program began in 1975. While the need for higher prices has been under discussion for the past 3 years, this is the 1st time the requisite approval from the Jamaica Price Commission has been obtained. The Jamaica National Family Planning Board (JNFPB) reports that the Panther 3-pack (condom) is up US$0.15 to US$0.30. Each Perle package (oral contraceptive) was increased by US$0.20. Single cycle Perle now sells for US$0.50, and 3-pack Perle sells for US$1.10. The 6-year price stagnation experienced by the CSM program resulted in a decreasing operational budget as program costs continued to rise. Marketing costs alone during this period escalated by 100-300%. For example, Panther pop-up display cartons cost the project US 16U each in 1975. By 1979 the same product cost US 49U. Newspaper advertisements have increased from the 1975 cost of US$68.00 to nearly $200.00 per placement. The overall inflation rate in Jamaica during the last 5 years has averaged more than 20% annually. In the face of these rising costs, outlet expansion for Perle has been prevented, wholesaler margins have been unavailable, and new retailer training has been discontinued. It is projected that the new prices will result in an annual increased revenues of US$80,000 which will be used to reinstate these essential marketing activities. The JNFPB is also planning to introduce a Panther 12-pack and Panther strips to the CSM product line. According to Marketing Manager Aston Evans, "We believe the public is now ready for this type of packaging" which is scheduled to be available soon. Panther is presently only available in a 3-pack, but annual sales have been steady. The new 12-pack will be stocked on supermarket shelves to provide higher product visibility and wider distribution. The selling price has been set as US$1.20 and is expected to yield a 25% increase in sales during the 1st year. A complete sales promotion

  9. Elevating the Higher Education Beat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    1998-01-01

    Problems in media coverage of higher education in New England are examined, noting high turnover in journalists covering colleges and universities and journalists' lack of time to visit campuses. What coverage there is appears to be focused heavily on a few prestigious institutions and state colleges where news is easily gathered from bureaucrats…

  10. Higher Education's Coming Leadership Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appadurai, Arjun

    2009-01-01

    The full impact of the current recession on American higher education remains uncertain, but drops in applications, faculty autonomy and job security, frozen salaries and hiring processes, and scaling back of new facilities and programs are already being seen. American colleges face tough times ahead for teaching, research, and capital projects…

  11. American Higher Education in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at doctoral…

  12. State Budgeting for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenny, Lyman A.

    1976-01-01

    State government is and is expected to remain the chief source of funding for higher education. At the same time, the state is confronted with serious policy issues relating to support of research, public services, and adult education, to falling enrollments in some public institutions, to the probable closure of some private liberal arts colleges…

  13. Supercomplexity in Higher Education Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Betty A.; Estes, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article employs Barnett's (2004) specifications of the aspects that describe the times of "supercomplexity." This term characterizes the challenges universities are facing regarding the expanding and competing forces that are affecting higher education, particularly in the West. Outside forces related to globalization, digital technologies,…

  14. EQ3/6, a software package for geochemical modeling of aqueous systems: Package overview and installation guide (Version 7.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Wolery, T.J.

    1992-09-14

    EQ3/6 is a software package for geochemical modeling of aqueous systems. This report describes version 7.0. The major components of the package include: EQ3NR, a speciation-solubility code; EQ6, a reaction path code which models water/rock interaction or fluid mixing in either a pure reaction progress mode or a time mode; EQPT, a data file preprocessor, EQLIB, a supporting software library; and five supporting thermodynamic data files. The software deals with the concepts of thermodynamic equilibrium, thermodynamic disequilibrium, and reaction kinetics. The five supporting data files contain both standard state and activity coefficient-related data. Three support the use of the Davies or B-dot equations for the activity coefficients; the other two support the use of Pitzer`s equations. The temperature range of the thermodynamic data on the data files varies from 25{degree}C only to 0--300{degree}C. EQPT takes a formatted data file (a data0 file) and writes an unformatted near-equivalent called a datal file, which is actually the form read by EQ3NR and EQ6. EQ3NR is useful for analyzing groundwater chemistry data, calculating solubility limits, and determining whether certain reactions are in states of partial equilibrium or disequilibrium. It is also required to initialize an EQ6 calculation. EQ6 models the consequences of reacting an aqueous solution with a set of reactants which react irreversibly. It can also model fluid mixing and the consequences of changes in temperature. This code operates both in a pure reaction progress frame and in a time frame.

  15. Application of the ruthenium and technetium thermodynamic data bases used in the EQ3/6 geochemical codes

    SciTech Connect

    Isherwood, D.

    1985-04-01

    Based on a critical review of the available thermodynamic data, computerized data bases for technetium and ruthenium were created for use with the EQ3/6 geochemical computer codes. The technetium data base contains thermodynamic data for 8 aqueous species and 15 solids; 26 aqueous species and 9 solids were included in the ruthenium data base. The EQ3NR code was used to calculate solubility limits for ruthenium (8 x 10{sup -16} M) in ground water from Yucca Mountain, a potential nuclear waste repository site near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The code confirmed the essentially unlimited solubility of technetium in oxidizing conditions, such as those that are believed to exist in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain and the Cambric Nuclear event site at the NTS. Ruthenium migration observed from the Cambric site was evaluated. The solubility limit for ruthenium (as the aqueous species RuO{sub 4}{sup -}) when constrained by RuO{sub 2} is approximately equal to the concentration of ruthenium found in the cavity ground water (i.e., 2.1 x 10{sup -11} vs 4.5 x 10{sup -11} M). Differences in ruthenium solubility limits between Yucca Mountain and Cambric are primarily due to differences in ground-water pH. Technetium solubility (3 x 10{sup -8} M) for moderately reducing conditions (Eh = -0.1 V) using the metastable oxide, TcO{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O, as the solubility constraint is within the range of experimental values recently published in a study of technetium sorption on basalt. Previously published technetium solubilities of 10{sup -12} to 10{sup -16} M were apparently based on a technetium data base that did not include aqueous species other than TcO{sub 4}{sup -}. When TcO(OH){sub 2}{sup 0} is included in the data base, the calculated values are much closer to the experimental results. Eh-pH diagrams were also generated for a variety of conditions using the SOLUPLOT code.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 3.6um S4G Galactic bars characterization (Diaz-Garcia+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Garcia, S.; Salo, H.; Laurikainen, E.; Herrera-Endoqui, M.

    decomposition model ('rotationcurve_decomposition.dat'), with the stellar component inferred from the 3.6~um imaging and the halo component estimated using the universal rotation curve models). (5 data files).

  17. Studies of the biosynthesis of 3,6-dideoxyhexoses: molecular cloning and characterization of the asc (ascarylose) region from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serogroup VA.

    PubMed Central

    Thorson, J S; Lo, S F; Ploux, O; He, X; Liu, H W

    1994-01-01

    The 3,6-dideoxyhexoses are found in the lipopolysaccharides of gram-negative bacteria, where they have been shown to be the dominant antigenic determinants. Of the five 3,6-dideoxyhexoses known to occur naturally, four have been found in various strains of Salmonella enterica (abequose, tyvelose, paratose, and colitose) and all five, including ascarylose, are present among the serotypes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Although there exists one report of the cloning of the rfb region harboring the abequose biosynthetic genes from Y. pseudotuberculosis serogroup HA, the detailed genetic principles underlying a 3,6-dideoxyhexose polymorphism in Y. pseudotuberculosis have not been addressed. To extend the available information on the genes responsible for 3,6-dideoxyhexose formation in Yersinia spp. and facilitate a comparison with the established rfb (O antigen) cluster of Salmonella spp., we report the production of three overlapping clones containing the entire gene cluster required for CDP-ascarylose biosynthesis. On the basis of a detailed sequence analysis, the implications regarding 3,6-dideoxyhexose polymorphism among Salmonella and Yersinia spp. are discussed. In addition, the functional cloning of this region has allowed the expression of Ep (alpha-D-glucose cytidylyltransferase), Eod (CDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase), E1 (CDP-6-deoxy-L-threo-D-glycero-4- hexulose-3-dehydrase), E3 (CDP-6-deoxy-delta 3,4-glucoseen reductase), Eep (CDP-3,6-dideoxy-D-glycero-D- glycero-4-hexulose-5-epimerase), and Ered (CDP-3,6-dideoxy-L-glycero-D-glycero-4-hexulose-4-reductase), facilitating future mechanistic studies of this intriguing biosynthetic pathway. Images PMID:8071227

  18. Reinventing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are in the battle of a lifetime as they are coping with political and economic uncertainties, threats to federal aid, declining state support, higher tuition rates and increased competition from for-profit institutions. Amid all these challenges, these institutions are pressed to keep up with technological demands,…

  19. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don M. Blandin);…

  20. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  1. Quality in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

    This volume contains 21 new and classic papers and readings on quality philosophies and concepts, first, as they have been applied in business and industry but primarily as they relate to and can be applied in higher education. The introduction is titled "The Quality Approach in Higher Education: Context and Concepts for Change" by Brent D. Ruben.…

  2. Higher Education Exchange 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Contributors to this issue of the Higher Education Exchange debate the issues around knowledge production, discuss the acquisition of deliberative skills for democracy, and examine how higher education prepares, or does not prepare, students for citizenship roles. Articles include: (1) "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (2) "Knowledge, Judgment and…

  3. UNIVERSAL HIGHER EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGRATH, EARL J.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A REPORT ON A GROUP INQUIRY INTO THE SUBSTANCE AND IMPLICATIONS OF UNIVERSAL HIGHER EDUCATION. ELEVEN CHAPTERS ARE PAPERS PRESENTED AT A CONFERENCE HELD UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION, TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, IN PUERTO RICO, NOVEMBER 15-21, 1964, FORECASTING THE FORM AND MISSION OF AMERICAN…

  4. Reinventing Continuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshok, Mary Lindenstein

    2012-01-01

    Re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in a region's civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. Continuing higher education will require data gathering, analytical tools, convening authority, interpretive skills, new models of delivery,…

  5. Gender and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  6. Consumerism in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Mark

    1973-01-01

    In considering consumerism in higher education, the student becomes the consumer,'' the university the corporation,'' and higher education the education industry.'' Other members of the education fraternity become investors, management, workers, direct consumers, and indirect consumers. This article proposes that it behooves the student to…

  7. [Deregulation and Higher Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The extent to which the Reagan Administration has achieved its deregulation goals in the area of higher education is addressed in three articles: "Deregulation and Higher Education: The View a Year Later" (Sheldon Elliot Steinbach); "Student Financial Aid Deregulation: Rhetoric or Reality?" (Robin E. Jenkins); and "Administration Reform of Civil…

  8. Higher Education Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological conundrum of "knowledge produced…

  9. Higher Education Exchange, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Kettering's president David Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological…

  10. Siblings, theory of mind, and executive functioning in children aged 3-6 years: new longitudinal evidence.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Anna R; Peterson, Candida C

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal data were obtained from 157 children aged 3 years 3 months to 5 years 6 months at Time 1. At Time 2 these children had aged an average of 12 months. Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) were measured at both time points. Results suggest that Time 1 ToM scores predict Time 2 EF scores. Detailed examination of sibling influences suggests that benefits-in terms of advanced ToM development-accrue to children with siblings versus without, and to those with a larger number of child-aged siblings. Any advance in either area (ToM or EF) is likely to benefit the other, and early sibling interaction appears to act as a catalyst. PMID:23848417

  11. Alcohol intoxication in road traffic accidents leads to higher impact speed difference, higher ISS and MAIS, and higher preclinical mortality.

    PubMed

    Stübig, Timo; Petri, Maximilian; Zeckey, Christian; Brand, Stephan; Müller, Christian; Otte, Dietmar; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol is one of the most important personal risk factors for serious and fatal injuries, contributing to approximately one third of all deaths from accidents. It is also described that alcohol intoxication leads to a higher mortality in the clinical course. In this study, we hypothesized that alcohol intoxication leads to different accident kinematics, a higher ISS (Injury Severity Score), and higher preclinical mortality compared to sober patients. A technical and medical investigation of alcohol intoxicated road users was performed on the scene of the crash and at the primary admitting hospital. Alcohol testing was performed with either breath alcohol tests or measurement of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in a standard laboratory test. Between 1999 and 2010, 37,635 road traffic accidents were evaluated by the Accident Research Unit. Overall 20,741 patients were injured, 2.3% of the patients were killed. Among the injured patients, 2.2% with negative BAC were killed, compared to 4.6% fatal injuries in patients with a positive BAC (p < 0.0001). Of the patients with a positive BAC, 8.0% were severely injured, compared to 3.6% in the BAC negative group (p < 0.0001). Regarding the relative speed at impact (Δv for motorized drivers, vehicle collision speed for pedestrians and bikers), there was a significant higher difference for BAC positive patients (30 ± 20) compared to the BAC negative patients (25 ± 19, p < 0.0001). Alcohol intoxication in trauma patients leads to higher preclinical mortality, higher impact speed difference, and higher injury severity. The subgroup analysis for different alcohol concentrations shows no difference in ISS, MAIS, and relative speed, but a correlation of increasing age of patients with higher alcohol concentrations. PMID:22819121

  12. Carboxylate ligands induced structural diversity of zinc(II) coordination polymers based on 3,6-bis(imidazol-1-yl)carbazole: Syntheses, structures and photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hong-Jian; Tang, Hui-Xiang; Shen, Ya-Li; Xia, Nan-Nan; Yin, Wen-Yu; Zhu, Wei; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Yun-Sheng; Yuan, Rong-Xin

    2015-12-01

    Solvothermal reactions of Zn(NO3)2·6H2O with 3,6-bis(1-imidazolyl)carbazole (3,6-bmcz) and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (1,4-H2bdc), p-phenylenediacetic acid (p-H2pda), benzophenone-4,4-dicarboxylic acid (H2bpda) afforded three coordination polymers [Zn(1,4-bdc)(3,6-bmcz)]n (1), {[Zn(p-pda)(3,6-bmcz)]·1.5H2O}n (2) and {[Zn(bpda)(3,6-bmcz)]·0.25H2O}n (3). Complexes 1-3 were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, powder X-ray diffraction, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complex 1 shows 3D structure with 2D nets inclined polycatenation. Complexes 2 and 3 possess an extended 3D supramolecular architecture based on their respective 2D layers through hydrogen-bonding interactions and the π···π stacking interactions. The solid state luminescent and optical properties of 1-3 at ambient temperature were also investigated. A comparative study on their photocatalytic activity toward the degradation of methylene blue in polluted water was explored.

  13. Halogenated indigo dyes: a likely source of 1,3,6,8-tetrabromocarbazole and some other halogenated carbazoles in the environment.

    PubMed

    Parette, Robert; McCrindle, Robert; McMahon, Katherine S; Pena-Abaurrea, Miren; Reiner, Eric; Chittim, Brock; Riddell, Nicole; Voss, Gundula; Dorman, Frank L; Pearson, Wendy N

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, a number of halogenated carbazoles have been detected in environmental samples. These emerging contaminants have been shown to be persistent and possess dioxin-like toxicological potential. The goal of this research was to examine the literature to determine likely anthropogenic origin(s) of halogenated carbazoles in the environment. The scientific literature indicated a number of pathways by which 1,3,6,8-tetrabromocarbazole could form in the manufacture of 5,5',7,7'-tetrabromoindigo. The U.S. production history of 5,5',7,7'-tetrabromoindigo correlates well with the concentration rise, decline, and disappearance of 1,3,6,8-tetrabromocarbazole in dated Lake Michigan sediments. Additionally, other halogenated carbazoles that have been found in environmental sediments can be explained by the production of other halogenated indigo dyes. 1,8-dibromo-3,6-dichlorocarbazole can be accounted for by the manufacture of 7,7'-dibromo-5,5'-dichloroindigo, while 1,3,6,8-tetrachlorocarbazole was found at relatively high concentration near the outfall of a U.S. manufacturer of 5,5',7,7'-tetrachloroindigo. Carbazoles containing an iodo-substituent can be explained by the use of iodine as a catalyst in the manufacture of halogenated indigo dyes. 3,6-Dichlorocarbazole measured in soils and dibromocarbazoles measured in more recently deposited sediments are not easily rationalized on the basis of an indigo related source and may be related to other anthropogenic sources or natural origins. PMID:25638463

  14. "I Don't Make out How Important It Is or Anything": Identity and Identity Formation by Part-Time Higher Education Students in an English Further Education College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esmond, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers in England have recently, in common with other Anglophone countries, encouraged the provision of higher education within vocational Further Education Colleges. Policy documents have emphasised the potential contribution of college-based students to widening participation: yet the same students contribute in turn to the difficulties of…

  15. Monitoring 67P/C-G coma dust environment from 3.6 AU in-bound to the Sun to 2 AU out-bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Corte, Vincenzo; Rotundi, Alessandra; Fulle, Marco

    2016-04-01

    GIADA, on board the Rosetta/ESA space mission is an instrument devoted to monitor the dynamical and physical properties of the dust particles emitted by comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (hereafter 67P/C-G) along its orbit, from 3.6 AU in-bound to the Sun to 2 AU out-bound. Since the 17th of July 2014 GIADA is fully operative and was able to measure the speed and mass of individual dust particles. GIADA capability of detecting dust particles with an high time resolution and the accurate characterization of the physical properties of each detected particle allowed the identification of two different families of dust particles emitted by 67P/C-G nucleus: compact particles with densities varying from about 100 kg/m3 to 3000 kg/m3 and the fluffy particles with densities down to 1kg/m^3. GIADA continuous monitoring of the coma dust environment of comet 67P/C-G along its orbit, accounted for the different geometry of the observation along Rosetta trajectories, enabled us to: 1) investigate how the dust fluxes for each particle family evolves with respect to the heliocentric distance; 2) identify the nucleus/coma regions with high dust emission/density; 3) observe the changes that this regions undergo along the comet orbit; 4) measure and monitor the dust production rate; and, 5) evaluate the 67P/C-G dust to gas ratio by coupling GIADA measurements with the results of the Rosetta instruments devoted to gas measurements (MIRO and ROSINA).

  16. Delineation of G-Quadruplex Alkylation Sites Mediated by 3,6-Bis(1-methyl-4-vinylpyridinium iodide)carbazole-Aniline Mustard Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Han; Hu, Tsung-Hao; Huang, Tzu-Chiao; Chen, Ying-Lan; Chen, Yet-Ran; Cheng, Chien-Chung; Chen, Chao-Tsen

    2015-11-23

    A new G-quadruplex (G-4)-directing alkylating agent BMVC-C3M was designed and synthesized to integrate 3,6-bis(1-methyl-4-vinylpyridinium iodide)carbazole (BMVC) with aniline mustard. Various telomeric G-4 structures (hybrid-2 type and antiparallel) and an oncogene promoter, c-MYC (parallel), were constructed to react with BMVC-C3M, yielding 35 % alkylation yield toward G-4 DNA over other DNA categories (<6 %) and high specificity under competition conditions. Analysis of the intact alkylation adducts by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS) revealed the stepwise DNA alkylation mechanism of aniline mustard for the first time. Furthermore, the monoalkylation sites and intrastrand cross-linking sites were determined and found to be dependent on G-4 topology based on the results of footprinting analysis in combination with mass spectroscopic techniques and in silico modeling. The results indicated that BMVC-C3M preferentially alkylated at A15 (H26), G12 (H24), and G2 (c-MYC), respectively, as monoalkylated adducts and formed A15-C3M-A21 (H26), G12-C3M-G4 (H24), and G2-C3M-G4/G17 (c-MYC), respectively, as cross-linked dialkylated adducts. Collectively, the stability and site-selective cross-linking capacity of BMVC-C3M provides a credible tool for the structural and functional characterization of G-4 DNAs in biological systems. PMID:26769627

  17. Fish oil, melatonin and vitamin E attenuates midbrain cyclooxygenase-2 activity and oxidative stress after the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Genaro Gabriel; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P; Gómez-Rodríguez, Víctor M; González-Renovato, Erika D; Torres-Sánchez, Erandhis D; Ramírez-Anguiano, Ana C

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease whose hallmark pathological features include a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. Ciclooxygenase-2 activity induction and oxidative stress have been implicated in the aetiology of Parkinson's disease and in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) animal model of Parkinson disease. Upon administration of fish oil, melatonin and vitamin E, neuroprotective effects on MPTP-induced neurotoxicity have been indicated. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course and compare the potency of these agents alone, on several parameters such as COX-2 and lipid peroxides (LPO) products associated with MPTP neurotoxicity in midbrain homogenates of C57BL/6 mice. Using fish oil (0.0368 g EPA and 0.0184 g DHA, per day), melatonin (10 mg/kg/day), and vitamin E (50 mg/Kg/day) we have now shown that COX-2 activity, LPO and nitrite/nitrate levels were significantly increased in MPTP treated mice (p < 0.001) while fish oil, melatonin and vitamin E treatment were capable of decreasing significantly the outcome of all above noted parameters (p < 0.05). The effect of fish oil on COX-2 activity and nitrite/nitrate levels was more profound than that of vitamin E or melatonin while the latter was more effective on reducing the LPO levels compared to fish oil and vitamin E. In conclusion, the outcome of the neuroprotective effects of these agents is long lasting and of variable potency indicating a different anti-inflammatory mode of action. PMID:23703110

  18. On higher structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baas, Nils A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss various philosophical aspects of the hyperstructure concept extending networks and higher categories. By this discussion, we hope to pave the way for applications and further developments of the mathematical theory of hyperstructures.

  19. Forecasting Higher Education's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, Don; Buck, Tina S.; Kollie, Ellen; Przyborowski, Danielle; Rondinelli, Joseph A.; Hunter, Jeff; Hanna, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Offers predictions on trends in higher education to accommodate changing needs, lower budgets, and increased enrollment. They involve campus construction, security, administration, technology, interior design, athletics, and transportation. (EV)

  20. Marketing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brian, Edward J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the 4 basic areas in which institutional marketing can be put to use in higher educational institutions: educational services offered, pricing (tuition), promotion to prospective students, and distribution (extension courses and courses that go to the student). (PG)

  1. Laser photoacoustic spectra of Sm3+ ion in Sm2O3 and SmCl3.6H2O in the spectral profile 484-542 nm.

    PubMed

    Mandal, B; Thakur, S N

    2004-03-01

    Microphone based photoacoustic (PA) spectrometer to study solids in powder form was designed and fabricated. Laser PA spectra of Sm3+ ion in Sm2O3 and SmCl3.6H2O microcrystalline powders were recorded first time in 484-542 nm spectral region at room temperature. Analysis of these PA spectra shows new information on the Stark components of ground and excited states of Sm3+ ion. A comparison of Stark energy levels of Sm3+ ion in both oxide and hexahydrated chloride hosts is presented here. PMID:15036106

  2. High electrical conductivity in Ni₃(2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene)₂, a semiconducting metal-organic graphene analogue.

    PubMed

    Sheberla, Dennis; Sun, Lei; Blood-Forsythe, Martin A; Er, Süleyman; Wade, Casey R; Brozek, Carl K; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Dincă, Mircea

    2014-06-25

    Reaction of 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaaminotriphenylene with Ni(2+) in aqueous NH3 solution under aerobic conditions produces Ni3(HITP)2 (HITP = 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene), a new two-dimensional metal-organic framework (MOF). The new material can be isolated as a highly conductive black powder or dark blue-violet films. Two-probe and van der Pauw electrical measurements reveal bulk (pellet) and surface (film) conductivity values of 2 and 40 S·cm(-1), respectively, both records for MOFs and among the best for any coordination polymer. PMID:24750124

  3. Molecular structures and vibrations of neutral and anionic CuOx (x=1 3,6) clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Tunna; Zope, Rajendra R.; Pederson, Mark R.

    2004-02-01

    We report equilibrium geometric structures of CuO2, CuO3, CuO6, and CuO-16 clusters obtained by an all-electron linear combination of atomic orbitals scheme within the density-functional theory with generalized gradient approximation to describe the exchange-correlation effects. The vibrational stability of all clusters is examined on the basis of the vibrational frequencies. A structure with Cs symmetry is found to be the lowest-energy structure for CuO2, while a Y-shaped structure with C2v symmetry is the most stable structure for CuO3. For the larger CuO6 and CuO-16 clusters, several competitive structures exist with structures containing ozonide units being higher in energy than those with O2 units. The infrared and Raman spectra are calculated for the stable optimal geometries.

  4. Reversible addition of water to the high-hydride-content cluster [Rh6(PiPr3)6H12][BArF4]2. Synthesis and Structure of [Rh6PiPr3)6H11(OH)][BArF4]2.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Thomas M; Brayshaw, Simon K; Raithby, Paul R; Weller, Andrew S

    2008-02-01

    The hydroxyhydrido salt [Rh(6)(P(i)Pr(3))(6)H(11)(OH)][BArF(4)](2) results from the addition of water to [Rh(6)(P(i)Pr(3))(6)H(12)][BArF(4)](2). This reaction is reversible, and the addition of dihydrogen to [Rh(6)(P(i)Pr(3))(6)H(11)(OH)][BArF(4)](2) results in the elimination of water and the regeneration of the hydride cluster. PMID:18181618

  5. Higher dimensional Hadamard matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlichta, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper defines higher dimensional Hadamard matrices and enumerates on some of the simplest three-, four-, and five-dimensional cases and procedures for generating them. Special emphasis is given to proper matrices that have a dimensional hierarchy of orthogonalities. It is determined that this property lends itself primarily to the application of higher dimensional Hadamard matrices to error-correcting codes. A list of derived statements for n-dimensional Hadamard matrices are given, as well as a definition of Hadamard matrix families, such as minimal, Petrie polygon, antipodal (n-2)-dimensional sections, and double proximity shells.

  6. Higher Spin Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi-Ming

    This dissertation splits into two distinct halves. The first half is devoted to the study of the holography of higher spin gauge theory in AdS 3. We present a conjecture that the holographic dual of W N minimal model in a 't Hooft-like large N limit is an unusual "semi-local" higher spin gauge theory on AdS3 x 1. At each point on the S1 lives a copy of three-dimensional Vasiliev theory, that contains an infinite tower of higher spin gauge fields coupled to a single massive complex scalar propagating in AdS3. The Vasiliev theories at different points on the S1 are correlated only through the AdS3 boundary conditions on the massive scalars. All but one single tower of higher spin symmetries are broken by the boundary conditions. This conjecture is checked by comparing tree-level two- and three-point functions, and also one-loop partition functions on both side of the duality. The second half focuses on the holography of higher spin gauge theory in AdS 4. We demonstrate that a supersymmetric and parity violating version of Vasiliev's higher spin gauge theory in AdS4 admits boundary conditions that preserve N = 0,1,2,3,4 or 6 supersymmetries. In particular, we argue that the Vasiliev theory with U( M) Chan-Paton and N = 6 boundary condition is holographically dual to the 2+1 dimensional U(N) k x U(M) -k ABJ theory in the limit of large N, k and finite M. In this system all bulk higher spin fields transform in the adjoint of the U(M) gauge group, whose bulk t'Hooft coupling is M/N. Our picture suggests that the supersymmetric Vasiliev theory can be obtained as a limit of type IIA string theory in AdS4 x CP3, and that the non-Abelian Vasiliev theory at strong bulk 't Hooft coupling smoothly turn into a string field theory. The fundamental string is a singlet bound state of Vasiliev's higher spin particles held together by U(M) gauge interactions.

  7. Higher spin cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash; Roy, Shubho; Thakur, Somyadip

    2014-02-01

    We construct cosmological solutions of higher spin gravity in 2+1 dimensional de Sitter space. We show that a consistent thermodynamics can be obtained for their horizons by demanding appropriate holonomy conditions. This is equivalent to demanding the integrability of the Euclidean boundary conformal field theory partition function, and it reduces to Gibbons-Hawking thermodynamics in the spin-2 case. By using the prescription of Maldacena, we relate the thermodynamics of these solutions to those of higher spin black holes in AdS3.

  8. 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE (MPTP)-INDUCED DAMAGE OF STRIATAL DOPAMINERGIC FIBERS ATTENUATES SUBSEQUENT ASTROCYTE RESPONSE TO MPTP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute administration of the dopaminergic neurotoxicant, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to the C57B1/6 mouse caused a rapid decrease in the amount of striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a marker of dopaminergic neurons, followed by a large increase in the astr...

  9. DIETHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE POTENTIATES THE NEUROTOXICITY OF IN VIVO 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE AND OF IN VITRO 1-METHYL-4-PHENYLPYRIDINIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DDC), a dithiocarbamate, potentiates the neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-r-pheny-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in vivo and of its major metabolite, 1,-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), in bovine adrenal medullary (BAM) cells maintained in culture. ale C5...

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ASTROCYTE RESPONSE TO INJURY USING THE DOPAMINERGIC NEUROTOXICANT, 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The amount of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an astrocyte protein, increases following injury of the CNS. e used a radioimmunoassay of GFAP to characterize the astrocytic response to injury resulting from exposure to the dopaminergic neurotoxicant, 1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetra...

  11. An Examination on the Quality of Contents of the Cartoons That Children Aged 3-6 Years Preferred to Watch: "The Cartoon I Like Most"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiliçgün, Müge Yurtsever

    2015-01-01

    In this study it was aimed to examine the content quality of cartoons preferred to watch by 3-6 years children. The content quality of the cartoons in current study was investigated under two titles: "themes and futures of characters". Themes of the cartoons were analyzed under three subtitles: reality status, contents and types of…

  12. 16Beta-hydroxy-5alpha-cholestane-3,6-dione, a novel cytotoxic oxysterol from the red alga Jania rubens.

    PubMed

    Ktari, L; Blond, A; Guyot, M

    2000-11-20

    A new cytotoxic oxysterol, 16beta-hydroxy-5alpha-cholestane-3,6-dione was isolated from the red alga Jania rubens. Its structure was established by spectroscopic method. The ID50 value was 0.5 microg/mL. PMID:11086730

  13. Syntheses and Properties of Homoleptic Carbonyl and Trifluorophosphane Niobates: [Nb(CO)(6)](-), [Nb(PF(3))(6)](-) and [Nb(CO)(5)](3)(-) (,)(1).

    PubMed

    Barybin, Mikhail V.; Ellis, John E.; Pomije, Marie K.; Tinkham, Mary L.; Warnock, Garry F.

    1998-12-14

    Reductive carbonylations of NbCl(4)(THF)(2), THF = tetrahydrofuran, mediated by sodium naphthalene in 1,2-dimethoxyethane, DME, or sodium anthracene in THF, provide [Nb(CO)(6)](-) as the tetraethylammonium salt in 60% or 70% isolated yields, respectively, the highest known for atmospheric pressure syntheses of this metal carbonyl. Corresponding reductions involving PF(3) give about 40% yields of [Et(4)N][Nb(PF(3))(6)], which in the past was only accessible by a photochemical route. Electrochemical data for [Nb(CO)(6)](-) and [Nb(PF(3))(6)](-) are compared and show that the PF(3) complex is almost 1 V more difficult to oxidize than the CO analogue. Protonation of [Nb(PF(3))(6)](-) by concentrated sulfuric acid yields a volatile, thermally unstable species, which has been shown by (1)H NMR and mass spectral studies to be the new niobium hydride, Nb(PF(3))(6)H. Previously unpublished (93)Nb and (13)C NMR studies corroborate prior claims that the sodium metal reduction of [Nb(CO)(6)](-) in liquid ammonia affords [Nb(CO)(5)](3)(-), the only known Nb(III-) species. The first details of this synthesis and those of [Nb(CO)(5)H](2)(-), [Nb(CO)(5)SnPh(3)](2)(-), [Nb(CO)(5)NH(3)](-), and [Nb(CO)(5)(CNtBu)](-) are presented. PMID:11670773

  14. New Biosynthetic Step in the Melanin Pathway of Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis: Evidence for 2-Acetyl-1,3,6,8-Tetrahydroxynaphthalene as a Novel Precursor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The predominant cell wall melanin of Wangiella dermatitidis, a black fungal pathogen of humans, is synthesized from 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (D2HN). An early precursor, 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene (T4HN), in the pathway leading to D2HN is reportedly produced as a pentaketide directly by an iter...

  15. The Role of Morphology and Short Vowelization in Reading Arabic among Normal and Dyslexic Readers in Grades 3, 6, 9, and 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    2007-01-01

    This study was an investigation of several Arabic reading measures among dyslexics and normal Arabic readers across different ages (grades 3, 6, 9, and 12): the role of morphology, short vowelization (phonological and syntactic skills), spelling, reading isolated words, and reading comprehension. The results of the one-way ANOVAs indicated clear…

  16. Angular and velocity distributions of secondary particles emitted in interaction of 3. 6-GeV/nucleon. cap alpha. particles and lead nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Antonenko, V.G.; Vinogradov, A.A.; Galitskii, V.M.; Grigor'yan, Y.I.; Ippolitov, M.S.; Karadzhev, K.V.; Kuz'min, E.A.; Man'ko, V.I.; Ogloblin, A.A.; Paramonov, V.V.; Tsvetkov, A.A.

    1980-04-01

    The technique is described and results presented of measurements of the velocity and angular distributions of pions, protons, and deuterons, and tritons emitted in bombardment of lead nuclei by ..cap alpha.. particles with energy 3.6 GeV/nucleon.

  17. Interdisciplinarity in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanisch, Thor Einar; Vollmann, Wolfgang, Ed.

    The advantages of an interdisciplinary approach to college instruction and research are examined, based in part on a 1983 symposium of the European Centre for Higher Education. Six case studies are also presented. It is noted that interdisciplinarity opens up possibilities of exchange between individual disciplines and encourages the development…

  18. Higher Education's Strange Paradox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Harold, II

    The university which has had the temerity to change the world has not had the nerve to change itself to live in that world. The result is that the university's grading system, curriculum, teaching methods, and philosophies are in conflict with the world beyond the campus gates, and higher education does not meet the intellectual and social needs…

  19. Entrepreneurship and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Jonathan, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and…

  20. California's Future: Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…