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Sample records for 3-axis stabilized geostationary

  1. Image Stability Requirements For a Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, G. E.; Cantwell, G.; Robinson, R. C.; Revercomb, H. E.; Smith, W. L.

    2001-01-01

    A Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) has been selected for the NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) Earth Observing-3 (EO-3) mission. Our paper will discuss one of the key GIFTS measurement requirements, Field of View (FOV) stability, and its impact on required system performance. The GIFTS NMP mission is designed to demonstrate new and emerging sensor and data processing technologies with the goal of making revolutionary improvements in meteorological observational capability and forecasting accuracy. The GIFTS payload is a versatile imaging FTS with programmable spectral resolution and spatial scene selection that allows radiometric accuracy and atmospheric sounding precision to be traded in near real time for area coverage. The GIFTS sensor combines high sensitivity with a massively parallel spatial data collection scheme to allow high spatial resolution measurement of the Earth's atmosphere and rapid broad area coverage. An objective of the GIFTS mission is to demonstrate the advantages of high spatial resolution (4 km ground sample distance - gsd) on temperature and water vapor retrieval by allowing sampling in broken cloud regions. This small gsd, combined with the relatively long scan time required (approximately 10 s) to collect high resolution spectra from geostationary (GEO) orbit, may require extremely good pointing control. This paper discusses the analysis of this requirement.

  2. Attitude Control and Orbital Dynamics Challenges of Removing the First 3-Axis Stabilized Tracking and Data Relay Satellite from the Geosynchronous ARC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benet, Charles A.; Hofman, Henry; Williams, Thomas E.; Olney, Dave; Zaleski, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Launched on April 4, 1983 onboard STS 6 (Space Shuttle Challenger), the First Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS 1) was retired above the Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) on June 27, 2010 after having provided real-time communications with a variety of low-orbiting spacecraft over a 26-year period. To meet NASA requirements limiting orbital debris 1, a team of experts was assembled to conduct an End-Of-Mission (EOM) procedure to raise the satellite 350 km above the GEO orbit. Following the orbit raising via conventional station change maneuvers, the team was confronted with having to deplete the remaining propellant and passivate all energy storage or generation sources. To accomplish these tasks within the time window, communications (telemetry and control links), electrical power, propulsion, and thermal constraints, a spacecraft originally designed as a three-axis stabilized satellite was turned into a spinner. This paper (a companion paper to Innovative Approach Enabled the Retirement of TDRS 1, paper # 1699, IEEE 2011 Aerospace Conference, March 5-12, 2011 sup 2) focuses on the challenges of maintaining an acceptable spinning dynamics, while repetitively firing thrusters. Also addressed are the effects of thruster firings on the orbit characteristics and how they were mitigated by a careful scheduling of the fuel depletion operations. Periodic thruster firings for spin rate adjustment, nutation damping, and precession of the momentum vector were also required in order to maintain effective communications with the satellite. All operations were thoroughly rehearsed and supported by simulations thus lending a high level of confidence in meeting the NASA EOM goals.

  3. Pulsed 3-Axis Vector SERF Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, Morgan; Romalis, Michael

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a 3-axis atomic vector magnetometer operating in the SERF regime, using a single beam path, and capable of operating in Earth's field using field feedback. It has similar sensitivity along all 3 axes that is fundamentally limited by photon and atom shot noise. The scheme uses a high intensity pump pulse to polarize Rb atoms in ~ 1 μs and a sequence of magnetic field pulses applied while the atoms are monitored during free precession. The sequence used provides minimal sensitivity to pulse errors, while also allowing unambiguous discrimination between external magnetic fields and misalignment between laser and magnetic coil axes.

  4. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Miller, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Natra, Vijay; Rider, David; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for an earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. The GeoFTS instrument is a half meter cube size instrument designed to operate in geostationary orbit as a secondary "hosted" payload on a commercial geostationary satellite mission. The advantage of GEO is the ability to continuously stare at a region of the earth, enabling frequent sampling to capture the diurnal variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental scales. The science goal is to obtain a process-based understanding of the carbon cycle from simultaneous high spatial resolution measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) many times per day in the near infrared spectral region to capture their spatial and temporal variations on diurnal, synoptic, seasonal and interannual time scales. The GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design with a number of advanced features incorporated. Two of the most important advanced features are the focal plane arrays and the optical path difference mechanism. A breadboard GeoFTS instrument has demonstrated functionality for simultaneous measurements in the visible and IR in the laboratory and subsequently in the field at the California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) observatory on Mt. Wilson overlooking the Los Angeles basin. A GeoFTS engineering model instrument is being developed which will make simultaneous visible and IR measurements under space flight like environmental conditions (thermal-vacuum at 180 K). This will demonstrate critical instrument capabilities such as optical alignment stability, interferometer modulation efficiency, and high throughput FPA signal processing. This will reduce flight instrument development risk and show that the Geo

  5. NASA's geostationary communications platform program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramler, J.; Durrett, R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews recent trends in communications satellites and explains NASA's current interest in geostationary communications platforms. Large communications platforms capable of supporting multiple payloads with common utilities have been examined in a number of studies since 1974 and appear to offer a number of potential advantages. In 1981, an Industry Briefing and Workshop sponsord by NASA focused on the institutional, operational and technical issues that will influence the implementation of geostationary platforms. The workshop identified numerous issues and problem areas that needed more detailed study. To address the issues/problems identified, a NASA geostationary communications platform program has been developed. This program is described, focusing on the initial studies to be performed.

  6. Earth Science Geostationary Platform Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Robert L. (Editor); Campbell, Thomas G. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the workshop was to address problems in science and in four technology areas (large space antenna technology, microwave sensor technology, electromagnetics-phased array adaptive systems technology, and optical metrology technology) related to Earth Science Geostationary Platform missions.

  7. Local oscillator distribution using a geostationary satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardin, Joseph; Weinreb, Sander; Bagri, Durga

    2004-01-01

    A satellite communication system suitable for distribution of local oscillator reference signals for a widely spaced microwave array has been developed and tested experimentally. The system uses a round-trip correction method of the satellite This experiment was carried out using Telstar-5, a commercial Ku-band geostationary satellite. For this initial experiment, both earth stations were located at the same site to facilitate direct comparison of the received signals. The local oscillator reference frequency was chosen to be 300MHz and was sent as the difference between two Ku-band tones. The residual error after applying the round trip correction has been measured to be better than 3psec for integration times ranging from 1 to 2000 seconds. For integration times greater then 500 seconds, the system outperforms a pair of hydrogen masers with the limitation believed to be ground-based equipment phase stability. The idea of distributing local oscillators using a geostationary satellite is not new; several researchers experimented with this technique in the eighties, but the achieved accuracy was 3 to 100 times worse than the present results. Since substantially and the performance of various components has improved. An important factor is the leasing of small amounts of satellite communication bandwidth. We lease three 100kHz bands at approximately one hundredth the cost of a full 36 MHz transponder. Further tests of the system using terminal separated by large distances and comparison tests with two hydrogen masers and radio interferometry is needed.

  8. Formation dynamics in geostationary ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonova, Sofya

    2016-08-01

    A relative motion model for a satellite formation composed of two Earth-orbiting spacecraft located in the geostationary ring is developed taking into account major gravitational and non-gravitational forces. A previously existing model featuring perturbation due to J_2 is enhanced by the perturbations due to solar radiation pressure arising from unequal area-to-mass ratios, as well as the secular and long-periodic gravitational perturbations due to the Sun and the Moon. The extended relative motion model is validated using several typical formation geometries against a reference generated by numerical integration of the absolute orbits of the two spacecraft. The results of this work can find application in future on-orbit servicing and formation flying missions in near-geostationary orbit.

  9. Geostationary microwave imagers detection criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Geostationary orbit is investigated as a vantage point from which to sense remotely the surface features of the planet and its atmosphere, with microwave sensors. The geometrical relationships associated with geostationary altitude are developed to produce an efficient search pattern for the detection of emitting media and metal objects. Power transfer equations are derived from the roots of first principles and explain the expected values of the signal-to-clutter ratios for the detection of aircraft, ships, and buoys and for the detection of natural features where they are manifested as cold and warm eddies. The transport of microwave power is described for modeled detection where the direction of power flow is explained by the Zeroth and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. Mathematical expressions are derived that elucidate the detectability of natural emitting media and metal objects. Signal-to-clutter ratio comparisons are drawn among detectable objects that show relative detectability with a thermodynamic sensor and with a short-pulse radar.

  10. Communications payloads for geostationary platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    Trends in communication satellites show increasing reuse of the frequency spectrum through multiple spot beams and orthogonal polarization, as well as consortia operation. Current reliance on orbital arc separation for frequency reuse may be inadequate for the projected traffic growth and the orbital slotting proposals before the ITU. This paper notes that cost advantages can accrue through common use of spacecraft subsystems and multiple users' platforms aboard a common geostationary platform. The rationale for such platforms is described and potential payloads are suggested.

  11. The evolution of the geostationary platform concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Lovell, Robert R.; Cuccia, C. Louis

    1987-01-01

    The paper will review the conceptual development over the last decade of the use of very large spacecraft, i.e., 'platforms', in geostationary orbit. Geostationary platforms were originally conceived as an efficient means of increasing the capacity at a point in the geostationary orbital arc. Also, geostationary platforms have been suggested for mounting very large antennas as will be required for mobile communications, or high power sources as will be required for broadcast services to small terminals. More recently these 'large satellite' platforms were also envisioned as including earth observation and other science payloads. The advent of the Space Station, which can provide a staging base for platform assembly and test in space at low earth orbit prior to launch to geostationary earth orbit, will introduce a new dimension to practical platform design. This paper describes the evolution of concepts for geostationary platforms over the last decade based on both communications and science user scenarios developed worldwide.

  12. Pre-Launch Algorithms and Risk Reduction in Support of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper for GOES-R and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven; Blakeslee, Richard; Koshak, William; Petersen, Walt; Buechler, Dennis; Krehbiel, Paul; Gatlin, Patrick; Zubrick, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a single channel, near-IR optical transient event detector, used to detect, locate and measure total lightning activity over the full-disk as part of a 3-axis stabilized, geostationary weather satellite system. The next generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series with a planned launch in 2014 will carry a GLM that will provide continuous day and night observations of lightning from the west coast of Africa (GOES-E) to New Zealand (GOES-W) when the constellation is fully operational.The mission objectives for the GLM are to 1) provide continuous,full-disk lightning measurements for storm warning and Nowcasting, 2) provide early warning of tornadic activity, and 3) accumulate a long-term database to track decadal changes of lightning. The GLM owes its heritage to the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (1997-Present) and the Optical Transient Detector (1995-2000), which were developed for the Earth Observing System and have produced a combined 13 year data record of global lightning activity. Instrument formulation studies were completed in March 2007 and the implementation phase to develop a prototype model and up to four flight units is expected to begin in latter part of the year. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2B algorithms and applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) sate]lite and regional test beds (e.g., Lightning Mapping Arrays in North Alabama and the Washington DC Metropolitan area) are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. Real time lightning mapping data provided to selected National Weather Service forecast offices in Southern and Eastern Region are also improving

  13. 47 CFR 74.643 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.643 Interference to geostationary-satellites. Applicants and... geostationary-satellites....

  14. 47 CFR 74.643 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.643 Interference to geostationary-satellites. Applicants and... geostationary-satellites....

  15. 47 CFR 74.643 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.643 Interference to geostationary-satellites. Applicants and... geostationary-satellites....

  16. 47 CFR 74.643 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.643 Interference to geostationary-satellites. Applicants and... geostationary-satellites....

  17. 47 CFR 74.643 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.643 Interference to geostationary-satellites. Applicants and... geostationary-satellites....

  18. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Ken; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (2.7kmx2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

  19. Digital cloud stereography from geostationary orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, J. T.; Desjardins, M. L.; Hasler, A. F.; Minzner, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that geostationary satellite imagery provides an effective means of extracting two-dimensional cloud motion wind measurements over large areas. The addition of cloud height information is necessary, however, for the proper assignment of altitude to the wind vectors. This paper discusses the methodology and accuracy of extracting multilevel cloud motion measurements from stereo digital imagery acquired from geostationary orbit.

  20. The geostationary orbit and developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The geostationary orbit is becoming congested due to use by several countries throughout the world, and the request for use of this orbit is increasing. There are 188 geostationary stations in operation. An equitable distribution of stations on this orbit is requested.

  1. 47 CFR 25.278 - Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite service. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.278 Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite...

  2. 47 CFR 25.278 - Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite service. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.278 Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite...

  3. 47 CFR 25.278 - Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite service. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.278 Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite...

  4. 47 CFR 25.278 - Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite service. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.278 Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite...

  5. 47 CFR 25.278 - Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite service. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.278 Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite...

  6. Comments on satellite meteorology from geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1982-01-01

    Examples of the use of geostationary satellites in meteorology are given. Studies of the rate of change of cumulus clouds and cloud systems and wind parameter determination from cloud motions are reviewed. Computer processed imagery products are also discussed.

  7. Design of a geostationary microwave precipitation radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, William J.; Eldred, Daniel B.

    1993-11-01

    The Geostationary Microwave Precipitation Radiometer will be a passive microwave radiometer system to be flown on the NASA Geostationary Earth Observatory. This instrument will provide microwave images for meteorology. It will measure radiation from the Earth and its atmosphere in seven frequency bands from 37 to 220 GHz. The instrument will have a 4 m Cassegrain antenna which will be mechanically scanned to provide images of the Earth in approximately equals 2 hours.

  8. Magnetic bearing momentum wheels with magnetic gimballing capability for 3-axis active attitude control and energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sindlinger, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetic bearings used for the suspension of momentum wheels provide conclusive advantages: the low friction torques and the absence of abrasion allow the realization of lightweight high speed wheels with high angular momentum and energy storage capacity and virtually unlimited lifetime. The use of actively controlled bearings provides a magnetic gimballing capability by applying the external signals to the two servo loops controlling the rotational degrees of freedom. Thus, an attitude control system can be realized by using only one rotating mass for 3-axis active satellite stabilization.

  9. Electric propulsion for geostationary orbit insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Curran, Francis M.; Myers, Roger M.

    1995-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology is already being used for geostationary satellite stationkeeping to increase payload mass. By using this same technology to perform part of the orbit transfer additional increases in payload mass can be achieved. Advanced chemical and N2H4 arcjet systems are used to increase the payload mass by performing stationkeeping and part of the orbit transfer. Four mission options are analyzed which show the impact of either sharing the orbit transfer between chemical and SEP systems or having either complete the transfer alone. Results show that for an Atlas 2AS payload increases in net mass (geostationary satellite mass less wet propulsion system mass) of up to 100 kg can be achieved using advanced chemical for the transfer and advanced N2H4 arcjets for stationkeeping. An additional 100 kg can be added using advanced N2H4 arcjets for part of a 40 day orbit transfer.

  10. A 3-axis force balanced accelerometer using a single proof-mass

    SciTech Connect

    Lemkin, M.A.; Boser, B.E.; Auslander, D.; Smith, J.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents a new method for wideband force balancing a proof-mass in multiple axes simultaneously. Capacitive position sense and force feedback are accomplished using the same air-gap capacitors through time multiplexing. Proof of concept is experimentally demonstrated with a single-mass monolithic surface micromachined 3-axis accelerometer.

  11. Geostationary Radiatively-Cooled Telescope (Grot)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholomitskii, G. B.; Maslov, I. A.

    A possibility of the survey experiment onboard the geostationary GOMS-Electro spacecraft comprising the 15cm-telescope 1:1.8 and the in-flight-tested radiative cooler is considered. With presumed CCD perfomance the limiting stellar magnitudes V=16 and K=12 would allow regular daily monitoring of variable and high throughput observations of extended sources as well as environmental studies of the near-Earth and near-Earth-orbit space in the wide FOV 2 deg

  12. Astrometry and Geostationary Satellites in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacruz, E.; Abad, C.

    2015-10-01

    We present the current status and the first results of the astrometric project CIDA - ABAE for tracking geo-stationary satellites. This project aims to determine a preliminary orbit for the Venezuelan satellite VENESAT-1, using astrometric positions obtained from an optical telescope. The results presented here are based on observations from the Luepa space tracking ground station in Venezuela, which were processed using astrometric procedures.

  13. Evaluation of ISCCP multisatellite radiance calibration for geostationary imager visible channels using the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Thomas C.; William B. Rossow,; Joseph Ferrier,; Laura M. Hinkelman,

    2013-01-01

    Since 1983, the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) has collected Earth radiance data from the succession of geostationary and polar-orbiting meteorological satellites operated by weather agencies worldwide. Meeting the ISCCP goals of global coverage and decade-length time scales requires consistent and stable calibration of the participating satellites. For the geostationary imager visible channels, ISCCP calibration provides regular periodic updates from regressions of radiances measured from coincident and collocated observations taken by Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer instruments. As an independent check of the temporal stability and intersatellite consistency of ISCCP calibrations, we have applied lunar calibration techniques to geostationary imager visible channels using images of the Moon found in the ISCCP data archive. Lunar calibration enables using the reflected light from the Moon as a stable and consistent radiometric reference. Although the technique has general applicability, limitations of the archived image data have restricted the current study to Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite and Geostationary Meteorological Satellite series. The results of this lunar analysis confirm that ISCCP calibration exhibits negligible temporal trends in sensor response but have revealed apparent relative biases between the satellites at various levels. However, these biases amount to differences of only a few percent in measured absolute reflectances. Since the lunar analysis examines only the lower end of the radiance range, the results suggest that the ISCCP calibration regression approach does not precisely determine the intercept or the zero-radiance response level. We discuss the impact of these findings on the development of consistent calibration for multisatellite global data sets.

  14. Progress in developing a geostationary AMSU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrigtsen, Bjorn

    2009-09-01

    The "Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity" (PATH) mission is one of the 15 NASA "decadalsurvey" missions recommended by the U.S. National Research Council in 2007 and will implement the first microwave sounder in geostationary orbit. This is possible with a new sensor being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer (GeoSTAR). Adequate spatial resolution is achieved by using aperture synthesis instead of a large parabolic reflector as is used in conventional systems. A proof-of-concept prototype was developed at JPL in 2005 under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program and used to demonstrate that this new concept works well at sounding frequencies. Another IIP effort is now under way to advance key technology required for a full space system. The maturity of the concept and technology is now such that mission development could be initiated in 2010-11. The possibility of flying GeoSTAR as an "instrument of opportunity" on NOAA's new series of "GOES-R" geostationary weather satellites is being actively pursued. Other low-cost options are under study as well. PATH/GeoSTAR will provide a number of measurements that are key in monitoring and predicting hurricanes and severe storms - including hemispheric 3-dimensional temperature, humidity and cloud liquid water fields, rain rates and rain totals, tropospheric wind vectors, sea surface temperature, and parameters associated with deep convection and atmospheric instability - everywhere and all the time, even in the presence of clouds - and will also provide key measurements related to climate research.

  15. Prospects for Geostationary Doppler Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanelli, Simone; Fang, Houfei; Durden, Stephen L.; Im, Eastwood; Rhamat-Samii, Yahya

    2009-01-01

    A novel mission concept, namely NEXRAD in Space (NIS), was developed for detailed monitoring of hurricanes, cyclones, and severe storms from a geostationary orbit. This mission concept requires a space deployable 35-m diameter reflector that operates at 35-GHz with a surface figure accuracy requirement of 0.21 mm RMS. This reflector is well beyond the current state-of-the-art. To implement this mission concept, several potential technologies associated with large, lightweight, spaceborne reflectors have been investigated by this study. These spaceborne reflector technologies include mesh reflector technology, inflatable membrane reflector technology and Shape Memory Polymer reflector technology.

  16. Communications satellites in non-geostationary orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kent M.; Doong, Wen; Nguyen, Tuan Q.; Turner, Andrew E.; Weyandt, Charles

    1988-01-01

    The design of a satellite communications system in an orbit lower than GEO is described. Two sun-synchronous orbits which lie in the equatorial plane have been selected: (1) the apogee at constant time-of-day equatorial orbit, a highly eccentric orbit with five revolutions per day, which allows 77-135 percent more satellite mass to be placed in orbit than for GEO; and (2) the sun-synchronous 12-hour equatorial orbit, a circular orbit with two revolutions per day, which allows 23-29 percent more mass. The results of a life cycle economic analysis illustrate that nongeostationary satellite systems could be competitive with geostationary satellite systems.

  17. 47 CFR 78.106 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 78...-satellites. Applicants and licensees must comply with § 101.145 of this chapter to minimize the potential of interference to geostationary-satellites....

  18. 47 CFR 78.106 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 78...-satellites. Applicants and licensees must comply with § 101.145 of this chapter to minimize the potential of interference to geostationary-satellites....

  19. 47 CFR 78.106 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 78...-satellites. Applicants and licensees must comply with § 101.145 of this chapter to minimize the potential of interference to geostationary-satellites....

  20. 47 CFR 78.106 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 78...-satellites. Applicants and licensees must comply with § 101.145 of this chapter to minimize the potential of interference to geostationary-satellites....

  1. 47 CFR 101.145 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 101...-satellites. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 54433, Sept. 5, 2012. These limitations are necessary to..., and 12.7-13.25 GHz on board geostationary-space stations in the fixed-satellite service. (a)...

  2. 47 CFR 78.106 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 78...-satellites. Applicants and licensees must comply with § 101.145 of this chapter to minimize the potential of interference to geostationary-satellites....

  3. Normalization and calibration of geostationary satellite radiances for the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desormeaux, Yves; Rossow, William B.; Brest, Christopher L.; Campbell, G. G.

    1993-01-01

    Procedures are described for normalizing the radiometric calibration of image radiances obtained from geostationary weather satellites that contributed data to the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The key step is comparison of coincident and collocated measurements made by each satellite and the concurrent AVHRR on the 'afternoon' NOAA polar-orbiting weather satellite at the same viewing geometry. The results of this comparison allow transfer of the AVHRR absolute calibration, which has been established over the whole series, to the radiometers on the geostationary satellites. Results are given for Meteosat-2, 3, and 4, for GOES-5, 6, and 7, for GMS-2, 3, and 4 and for Insat-1B. The relative stability of the calibrations of these radiance data is estimated to be within +/- 3 percent; the uncertainty of the absolute calibrations is estimated to be less than 10 percent. The remaining uncertainties are at least two times smaller than for the original radiance data.

  4. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) mission profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, W. C.; Defazio, R. L.; Sauter, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The GOES mission profile used to achieve geostationary orbit following separation from the Delta launch vehicle is described. The mission profile was constrained by the solid-propellant apogee kick motor which was undersized relative to the spacecraft weight. The resulting deficiency in delivered delta-V had to be made up by the spacecraft hydrazine propulsion system. The mission profile which best utilizes the on-board hydrazine requires that the transfer orbit apogee height be biased 13,800 km above geosynchronous altitude. This maximizes the effectiveness of the apogee motor in performing the plane change necessary to achieve near-equatorial orbit. The highly eccentric drift orbit which results from the apogee motor firing has an average drift rate of 60 deg/day. Circularizing this orbit requires maneuvers designed to achieve geostationary position within a tightly constrained hydrazine allocation. The sequence takes advantage of the orbit changes resulting from attitude maneuvers and combined inplane/out-of-plane maneuvers to achieve hydrazine savings.

  5. The geostationary remote infrared pollution sounder (GRIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, H.; Dickerson, Russell; Schoeberl, M.; Gordley, L. L.; Marshall, B. T.; McHugh, M.; Spackman, R.; Fish, C.; Kim, J.

    2012-11-01

    Climate change and air quality are the most pressing environmental issues of the 21st century. Despite decades of research, the sources and sinks of key greenhouse gases remain highly uncertain [IPCC, 2007] making atmospheric composition predictions difficult. The Geostationary Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder (GRIPS) will measure carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) with unprecedented precision to reduce substantially this uncertainty. The GRIPS instrument uses gas filter correlation radiometry (GFCR) to detect reflected and thermal IR radiation from geostationary orbit. GRIPS is designed to haves sensitivity down to the Earth's surface at ~8 km nadir resolution. GRIPS can also resolve CO2, CO, and CH4 anomalies in the planetary boundary layer and the free troposphere to quantify lofting, diurnal variations and long-range transport. With repeated measurements throughout the day GRIPS can maximize the number of cloud free measurements determining biogenic and anthropogenic sources, sinks, and fluxes. Finally, the GFCR technique is, to first order, insensitive to aerosols interference. GRIPS is highly complementary to the Orbiting Carbon Observatory, OCO-2, and other existing and planned missions.

  6. GRIPS - The Geostationary Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Gordley, L. L.; McHugh, M. J.; Thompson, A. M.; Burrows, J. P.; Zeng, N.; Marshall, B. T.; Fish, C. S.; Spackman, J. R.; Kim, J.; Park, R.; Warner, J. X.; Bhartia, P. K.; Kollonige, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change and air quality are the most pressing environmental issues of the 21st century - for America and for the world as a whole. Despite decades of research, the sources and sinks of key greenhouse gases and other pollutants remain highly uncertain making atmospheric composition predictions difficult. The Geostationary Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder (GRIPS) will measure carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and methane (CH4). By using measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) and the O2 A-band to help correct for clouds and aerosols, GRIPS will achieve unprecedented precision. Together these gases account for about 85% of all climate forcing and they impact atmospheric ozone (O3). GRIPS, employing gas-filter correlation radiometry, uses the target gases themselves in place of dispersive elements to achieve outstanding throughput, sensitivity, and specificity. Because it uses a combination of reflected and thermal IR, GRIPS will detect trace gas concentrations right down to the Earth's surface. When flown in parallel to a UV/VIS sensor such as GEMS on GEO-KOMPSAT-2B over East Asia or the Sentinel 4 on MTG over Europe/Africa, the combination offers powerful finger-printing capabilities to distinguish and quantify diverse pollution sources such as electricity generation, biomass burning, and motor vehicles. From geostationary orbit, GRIPS will be able to focus on important targets to quantify sources, net flux, diurnal cycles, and long-range transport of these key components in the Earth's radiative balance and air quality.

  7. GRIPS - The Geostationary Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackman, Ryan; Dickerson, Russell; Schoeberl, Mark; Bloom, Hal; Gordley, Larry; McHugh, Martin; Thompson, Anne; Burrows, John; Zeng, Ning; Marshall, Tom; Fish, Chad; Kim, Jhoon; Park, Rokjin; Warner, Juying; Bhartia, Pawan; Kollonige, Debra

    2013-04-01

    Climate change and air quality are the most pressing environmental issues of the 21st century for America and for the world as a whole. Despite decades of research, the sources and sinks of key greenhouse gases and other pollutants remain highly uncertain making atmospheric composition predictions difficult. The Geostationary Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder (GRIPS) will measure carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and methane (CH4). By using measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) and the O2 A-band to help correct for clouds and aerosols, GRIPS will achieve unprecedented precision. Together these gases account for about 85% of all climate forcing and they impact atmospheric ozone (O3). GRIPS, employing gas-filter correlation radiometry, uses the target gases themselves in place of dispersive elements to achieve outstanding throughput, sensitivity, and specificity. Because it uses a combination of reflected and thermal IR, GRIPS will detect trace gas concentrations right down to the Earth's surface. When flown in parallel to a UV/VIS sensor such as GEMS on GEO-KOMPSAT-2B over East Asia or the Sentinel 4 on MTG over Europe/Africa, the combination offers powerful finger-printing capabilities to distinguish and quantify diverse pollution sources such as electricity generation, biomass burning, and motor vehicles. From geostationary orbit, GRIPS will be able to focus on important targets to quantify sources, net flux, diurnal cycles, and long-range transport of these key components in the Earth's radiative balance and air quality.

  8. Relativistic Electrons at Geostationary Orbit: Modeling Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Lyatsky, W.

    2008-05-01

    We developed a new prediction model for forecasting relativistic (>2MeV) electrons, which provides a VERY HIGH correlation between predicted and actually measured electron fluxes at geostationary orbit. This model implies the multi-step particle acceleration and is based on numerical integrating two linked continuity equations for primarily accelerated particles and relativistic electrons. The model includes a source and losses, and used solar wind data as only input parameters. We used the coupling function which is a best-fit combination of solar wind/interplanetary magnetic field parameters, responsible for the generation of geomagnetic activity, as a source. The loss function was derived from experimental data. We tested the model for four year period 2004- 2007. The correlation coefficient between predicted and actual values of the electron fluxes for whole four year period as well as for each of these years is stable and incredibly high (about 0.9). The high and stable correlation between the computed and actual electron fluxes shows that the reliable forecasting these electrons at geostationary orbit is possible.

  9. Analysis of geostationary orbital slot availability for the SPS programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flower, R. J.

    Analyses were carried out, using predicted future geostationary satellite numbers and distributions, to examine geostationary orbital slot availability on a global and domestic basis. The various international considerations applicable to the geostationary orbit are discussed, with particular attention being paid to potential conflict areas. The factors involved in the definition of geostationary satellite spacing conditions are described, and their effects analyzed with respect to SPS. Three separate distribution characteristics are considered to estimate geostationary satellite numbers and distributions in 1991. From these distributions, predictions are made of orbital slot availability as a function of satellite spacing on a global basis, and also when applied specifically to the U.S.A. and W. Europe. In the European case, attempts are made to compare regional consumption area power density demands with potential orbital slot availability for the SPS.

  10. Feasibility study on 3 axis magnetic sensor for flux leakage method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasamoto, Akira

    2014-04-01

    Most of NDT system by magnetic field sensing has employed coil or semiconductor as sensor which has one axis sensitivity. Recent development of semiconductor technology can makes a chip that enable us to measure 3 axis magnetic field in a 1mm square. This vector information is expected to show a new insight in NDT testing. This presentation will show a basic experimental feasibility study for application of magnetic sensor to flux leakage and eddy current testing method by using a sensing system with the chip.

  11. The detection of lightning from geostationary orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Hugh J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to the development of the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS), a space sensor capable of mapping intracloud and cloud-to-ground lightning discharges from geostationary orbit during day and night. The LMS is expected to have a spatial resolution of 10 km and a detection efficiency of 90 percent. The LMS combines modern solid state mosaic focal planes with extensive on-board signal processing to make it possible to detect weak background-contaminated signals. The LMS is planned to have a 10.5 degree field of view covering all of the continental U.S. The characteristics and design of the LMS are described, noting the possible applications of the sensor.

  12. Spacecraft Charging in Geostationary Transfer Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    The 700 km x 5.8 Re orbit of the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft provide a unique opportunity to investigate spacecraft charging in geostationary transfer orbits. We use records from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) plasma spectrometer to identify candidate surface charging events based on the "ion line" charging signature in the ion records. We summarize the energetic particle environment and the conditions necessary for charging to occur in this environment. We discuss the altitude, duration, and magnitude of events observed in the Van Allen Probes from the beginning of the mission to present time. In addition, we explore what information the dual satellites provide on the spatial and temporal variations in the charging environments.

  13. Multicolour Optical Photometry of Active Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolley, A.; Wade, G.; Bedard, D.

    Although broadband photometry has been used to infer information about artificial satellites since soon after the launch of Sputnik 1, the development of photometric techniques for non-resolved space object identification or characterisation has been hampered by the large number of variables involved. Many individual studies, and some long ongoing experiments, have used costly metre-class telescopes to obtain data despite other experiments demonstrating that much more flexible and affordable small aperture telescopes may be suitable for the task. In addition, due to the highly time consuming and weather dependent nature of obtaining photometric observations, many studies have suffered from data sets of limited size, or relied upon simulations to support their claims. With this in mind, an experiment was conducted with the aim of determining the utility of small aperture telescopes for conducting broadband photometry of satellites for the purpose of non-resolved space object identification and characterisation. A 14 inch Celestron CG-14 telescope was used to gain multiple night-long, high temporal resolution data sets of six active geostationary satellites. The results of the experiment cast doubt on the efficacy of some of the previous approaches to obtaining and analysing photometric data. It was discovered that geostationary satellite lightcurves can vary to a greater degree than has generally been recognised, and colour ratios vary considerably with changes in the illumination/observation geometry, making it difficult to use colour for satellite discrimination. Evidence was also detected of variations in the spectral energy distribution of sunlight reflected off satellite surface materials, which could have implications for surface material characterisation and techniques that aim to separate satellite body and solar panel contributions to the total observed spectra.

  14. Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, S. P.; Bekker, D. L.; Blavier, J. L.; Duren, R. M.; Eldering, A.; Frankenberg, C.; Key, R.; Manatt, K.; Miller, C. E.; Natraj, V.; Rider, D. M.; Wu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In order to confidently project the future evolution of climate and support efforts to mitigate the climate change, quantifying the emissions of CO2 and CH4 is a national and international priority. To accomplish this goal, new observational approaches are required that operate over spatial scales ranging from regional to global, and temporal scales from diurnal to decadal. Geostationary satellite observations of CO2, CH4 and correlative quantities such as CO and chlorophyll fluorescence provide a new measurement approach to deliver the quantity and quality of data needed for improved flux estimates and an improved understanding of the partitioning between biogenic and anthropogenic sources. GeoFTS is an exciting new concept that combines the game changing technology of imaging Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with the observational advantages of a geostationary orbit. The GeoFTS observations enable well-posed surface-atmospheric carbon exchange assessments as well as quantify the atmospheric signatures of anthropogenic CO2 and CH4 emissions. GeoFTS uses a single instrument to make measurements in the near-infrared spectral region at high spectral resolution. The imaging FTS measures atmospheric CO2, CH4, and CO to deliver high-resolution maps multiple times per day. A half-meter-sized cube, the instrument is designed to be a secondary "hosted" payload on a commercial GEO satellite. The instrument leverages recent NASA technology investments, uses a flight-proven interferometer and sensor chip assemblies, and requires no new technology development. NASA and other government agencies have adopted the hosted payload implementation approach because it substantially reduces the overall mission cost. Dense continuous mapping (4 km x 4 km pixels at 40 deg. latitude) is a transformational advance beyond, and complementary to, the capabilities of the NASA missions of record in low earth orbit, providing two to three orders of magnitude improvement in the number of

  15. An international geostationary overlay for GPS and GLONASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinal, G. V.; Singh, J. P.

    The concept of employing nonautonomous satellite repeaters on geostationary hosts for civil radionavigation, especially for integrity broadcast and for coverage augmentation, is reviewed. It is suggested that a worldwide geostationary overlay can be more economical than launching additional autonomous navigation satellites. Also presented are recently developed technical considerations for the geostationary overlay concept, including design parameters for the navigation package, signal and data format considerations for augmentation and integrity, and ground network concepts for generating and timing the uplink signal. Early results of a test program being conducted with transmission of GPS-like signals via an existing L-band mobile communications satellite are reported.

  16. Geostationary Platforms Mission and Payload Requirements study. Volume 2: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of using geostationary platforms to provide communications and other services was examined. Detailed data on the payload and housekeeping requirements of selected communications missions and one typical noncommunications mission are presented.

  17. NIMROD validation using 3-axis probe data from the TCSU experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milroy, Richard; Velas, Katherine

    2013-10-01

    Recent analysis the data from a 3-axis translatable magnetic probe on the TCSU experiment has revealed new details of the magnetic structure of rotating magnetic field (RMF) sustained FRCs. This data was acquired from TCSU just prior to its shutdown in 2011. This analysis which reveals the 3D structure of the magnetic field shows the field lines are opened and relatively short with even-parity current drive, but can be much longer with odd-parity current drive. A torque analysis has revealed new details about the flow of magnetic torque due to both the RMF field and the steady component of the field. This detailed magnetic data provides a good platform for the validation of numerical simulations, and will be compared with predictions from the NIMROD code, which has been adapted to simulate the formation and sustainment of FRCs using Rotating Magnetic Fields (RMF).

  18. Developing the concept of a geostationary platform. [for communication services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, W. T.; Bowman, R. M.; Stone, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    A geostationary platform concept with a proliferation of low-cost earth stations is discussed. Candidate platform concepts, servicing, life, and Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) options are considered. A Life Cycle Costing model is used to select the minimum cost concept meeting program criteria. It is concluded that the geostationary platform concept is a practical and economical approach to providing expanding communication services within the limitations imposed by the available frequency spectrum and orbital arc.

  19. Rain radars for earth science geostationary platforms: Some possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gogineni, S. P.; Moore, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a feasibility study for a geostationary rain radar are presented. A 2-cm wavelength radar with a 15 to 20 mm antenna will be useful for general scale meteorology. The transmitter power of 500 W with a pulse compression ratio of 200 will provide adequate signal-to-noise ratio for a rain rate of 1 mm/hour. Various problems associated with a geostationary radar and solutions are also discussed.

  20. Geostationary payload concepts for personal satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedicto, J.; Rinous, P.; Roberts, I.; Roederer, A.; Stojkovic, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews candidate satellite payload architectures for systems providing world-wide communication services to mobile users equipped with hand-held terminals based on large geostationary satellites. There are a number of problems related to the payload architecture, on-board routing and beamforming, and the design of the S-band Tx and L-band Rx antenna and front ends. A number of solutions are outlined, based on trade-offs with respect to the most significant performance parameters such as capacity, G/T, flexibility of routing traffic to beams and re-configuration of the spot-beam coverage, and payload mass and power. Candidate antenna and front-end configurations were studied, in particular direct radiating arrays, arrays magnified by a reflector and active focused reflectors with overlapping feed clusters for both transmit (multimax) and receive (beam synthesis). Regarding the on-board routing and beamforming sub-systems, analog techniques based on banks of SAW filters, FET or CMOS switches and cross-bar fixed and variable beamforming are compared with a hybrid analog/digital approach based on Chirp Fourier Transform (CFT) demultiplexer combined with digital beamforming or a fully digital processor implementation, also based on CFT demultiplexing.

  1. Microparticles in the geostationary orbit (GORID experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drolshagen, G.; Svedhem, H.; Grün, E.; Grafodatsky, O.; Prokopiev, U.

    1999-01-01

    A Cosmic Dust/Space Debris detector was launched in September 1996 into geostationary orbit (GEO) as a piggyback instrument on the Russian Express-2 telecommunications spacecraft. The instrument consists of a plasma type detector and associated electronics and is essentially identical to the dust detectors flying on the Ulysses and Galileo spacecraft. The aperture size is 0.1 m2 and the instrument is capable of detecting particles with a mass down to 10-14 g (velocity dependent). The detector is stationed at 80° Eastern longitude. It has a fixed viewing direction which is 65° away from the flight direction towards North. The extracted parameters include particle mass, velocity and crude impact direction. To some extent, orbital debris and natural meteoroids can be separated by the impact velocity which at the GEO altitude is typically below 5 km/s for debris and higher for meteoroids. GORID is in normal operation since mid April 1997. As of early May 1998, 591 events were recorded which most likely are true impacts and many more potential impact events. The number of impacts per day ranged from 0 to 19. The majority of impacts occurred during local night times. About half of the recorded impacts apparently carried a high negative charge of up to 10-9 C when they entered the detector, a surprising finding which requires further analysis. The design life of the Express satellite is 5 to 7 years.

  2. Radar for Monitoring Hurricanes from Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Durden, Stephen; Huang, John; Lou, Michael; Smith, Eric; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    A document describes a scanning Doppler radar system to be placed in a geostationary orbit for monitoring the three-dimensional structures of hurricanes, cyclones, and severe storms in general. The system would operate at a frequency of 35 GHz. It would include a large deployable spherical antenna reflector, instead of conventional paraboloidal reflectors, that would allow the reflector to remain stationary while moving the antenna feed(s), and thus, create a set of scanning antenna beams without degradation of performance. The radar would have separate transmitting and receiving antenna feeds moving in spiral scans over an angular excursion of 4 from the boresight axis to providing one radar image per hour of a circular surface area of 5,300-km diameter. The system would utilize a real-time pulse-compression technique to obtain 300-m vertical resolution without sacrificing detection sensitivity and without need for a high-peakpower transmitter. An onboard data-processing subsystem would generate three-dimensional rainfall reflectivity and Doppler observations with 13-km horizontal resolution and line-of-sight Doppler velocity at a precision of 0.3 m/s.

  3. Sea surface temperature: Observations from geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, John J.; Smith, William L.

    1985-11-01

    A procedure is developed for estimating sea surface temperatures (SST) from multispectral image data acquired from the VISSR atmospheric sounder (VAS) on the geostationary GOES satellites. Theoretical regression equations for two and three infrared window channels are empirically tuned by using clear field of view satellite radiances matched with reports of SST from NOAA fixed environmental buoys from 1982. The empirical regression equations are then used to produce daily regional analyses of SST. The daily analyses are used to study the response of SST's to the passage of Hurricane Alicia (1983) and Hurricane Debbie (1982) and are also used as a first guess surface temperature in the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles over the oceanic regions. Monthly mean SST's for the western North Atlantic and the eastern equatorial Pacific during March and July 1982 were produced for use in the NASA/JPL SST intercomparison workshop series. Workshop results showed VAS SST's have a scatter of 0.8°-1.0°C and a slight warm bias with respect to the other measurements of SST. Subsequently, a second set of VAS/ buoy matches collected during 1983 and 1984 was used to produce a set of bias corrected regression relations for VAS.

  4. On orbital allotments for geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonsalvez, David J. A.; Reilly, Charles H.; Mount-Campbell, Clark A.

    1986-01-01

    The following satellite synthesis problem is addressed: communication satellites are to be allotted positions on the geostationary arc so that interference does not exceed a given acceptable level by enforcing conservative pairwise satellite separation. A desired location is specified for each satellite, and the objective is to minimize the sum of the deviations between the satellites' prescribed and desired locations. Two mixed integer programming models for the satellite synthesis problem are presented. Four solution strategies, branch-and-bound, Benders' decomposition, linear programming with restricted basis entry, and a switching heuristic, are used to find solutions to example synthesis problems. Computational results indicate the switching algorithm yields solutions of good quality in reasonable execution times when compared to the other solution methods. It is demonstrated that the switching algorithm can be applied to synthesis problems with the objective of minimizing the largest deviation between a prescribed location and the corresponding desired location. Furthermore, it is shown that the switching heuristic can use no conservative, location-dependent satellite separations in order to satisfy interference criteria.

  5. CMOS Compatible 3-Axis Magnetic Field Sensor using Hall Effect Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, Joshua R.

    The purpose of this study is to design, fabricate and test a CMOS compatible 3-axis Hall effect sensor capable of detecting the earth's magnetic field, with strength's of ˜50 muT. Preliminary testing of N-well Van Der Pauw structures using strong neodymium magnets showed proof of concept for hall voltage sensing, however, poor geometry of the structures led to a high offset voltage. A 1-axis Hall effect sensor was designed, fabricated and tested with a sensitivity of 1.12x10-3 mV/Gauss using the RIT metal gate PMOS process. Poor geometry and insufficient design produced an offset voltage of 0.1238 volts in the 1-axis design; prevented sensing of the earth's magnetic field. The new design features improved geometry for sensing application, improved sensitivity and use the RIT sub-CMOS process. The completed 2-axis device showed an average sensitivity to large magnetic fields of 0.0258 muV/Gauss at 10 mA supply current.

  6. Design and manufacturing of cranioplasty implants by 3-axis cnc milling.

    PubMed

    Hieu, L C; Bohez, E; Vander Sloten, J; Oris, P; Phien, H N; Vatcharaporn, E; Binh, P H

    2002-01-01

    Although various techniques and materials have been used for making cranioplasty implants, personalized cranioplasty implants are high in cost because of expensive materials and production technology, long design and manufacturing time, and intensive labor use. This research was a part of our research project in ASEAN countries to investigate feasible technical solutions of minimizing the implant cost based on available production technologies in the region. The use of 3-axis CNC (Computer Numerical Control) milling techniques for making molds to fabricate PMMA implants was successfully investigated. With the development of a design support program bridging between Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Medical Image Processing (MIP) system, the time for geometrical modeling of implants and molds was reduced to half a day. The machining time to complete a mold was about 5 to 6 hours; and it took maximal 2 hours to fabricate an implant with self-curing PMMA and 3 and half hours for fabricating an implant with heat-curing PMMA. The cost of implants is acceptable for the ASEAN region. PMID:12368561

  7. Spacecraft flight control system design selection process for a geostationary communication satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, slowly tumbled in orbit. The first U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, also tumbled out of control. Now, as we launch the Mars observer and the Cassini spacecraft, stability and control have become higher priorities. The flight control system design selection process is reviewed using as an example a geostationary communication satellite which is to have a life expectancy of 10 to 14 years. Disturbance torques including aerodynamic, magnetic, gravity gradient, solar, micrometeorite, debris, collision, and internal torques are assessed to quantify the disturbance environment so that the required compensating torque can be determined. Then control torque options, including passive versus active, momentum control, bias momentum, spin stabilization, dual spin, gravity gradient, magnetic, reaction wheels, control moment gyros, nutation dampers, inertia augmentation techniques, three-axis control, reactions control system (RCS), and RCS sizing, are considered. A flight control system design is then selected and preliminary stability criteria are met by the control gains selection.

  8. Geostationary satellite imaging spectrometry for GEOSS: importance and expected benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W., Sr.; Mango, S.

    2008-12-01

    Satellite infrared hyperspectral instruments provide atmospheric soundings with high spatial resolution. Already implemented aboard polar orbiting satellites, these instruments have provided data that are proving to improve greatly global Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). When implemented aboard geostationary satellites as imaging spectrometers, even greater impacts on global NWP are expected from their capability to observe vertically resolved cloud and water vapor tracer winds. Possibly most important, geostationary imaging spectrometry will enable much improved mesoscale severe weather prediction because of the ability to observe atmospheric dynamics through nearcontinuous observation of the three dimensional water vapor and temperature distribution of the atmosphere. Furthermore, hyperspectral measurements of greenhouse and pollutant gas fluxes from geostationary orbit are expected to be an important ingredient for understanding climate change and producing timely air quality forecasts. In this paper, the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), recent improvements in the satellite observing system, and the importance and expected benefits of geostationary satellite imaging spectrometry for the GEOSS are discussed. Demonstration of a few of the expected measurement capabilities of these systems is provided from experimental aircraft and satellite measurements. Finally, the status of the development of the geostationary satellite imaging spectrometer is provided.

  9. Latest developments of geostationary microwave sounder technologies for NOAA's mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajpai, Shyam; Madden, Michael; Chu, Donald; Yapur, Martin

    2006-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been flying microwave sounders since 1975 on Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). Microwave observations have made significant contributions to the understanding of the atmosphere and earth surface. This has helped in improving weather and storm tracking forecasts. However, NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have microwave requirements that can not be met due to the unavailability of proven technologies. Several studies of a Geostationary Microwave Sounder (GMS) have been conducted. Among those, are the Geostationary Microwave Sounder (GEM) that uses a mechanically steered solid dish antenna and the Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer (GeoSTAR) that utilizes a sparse aperture array. Both designs take advantage of the latest developments in sensor technology. NASA/Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) has recently successfully built and tested a prototype ground-based GeoSTAR at 50 GHz frequency with promising test results. Current GOES IR Sounders are limited to cloud top observations. Therefore, a sounding suite of IR and Microwave should be able to provide observations under clear as well as cloudy conditions all the time. This paper presents the results of the Geostationary Microwave Sounder studies, user requirements, frequencies, technologies, limitations, and implementation strategies.

  10. A geostationary Earth orbit satellite model using Easy Java Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Loo Kang; Hwee Goh, Giam

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic 3D view and associated learning in the real world; (2) comparative visualization of permanent geostationary satellites; (3) examples of non-geostationary orbits of different rotation senses, periods and planes; and (4) an incorrect physics model for conceptual discourse. General feedback from the students has been relatively positive, and we hope teachers will find the computer model useful in their own classes.

  11. Involvement of the P2X7-NLRP3 axis in leukemic cell proliferation and death

    PubMed Central

    Salaro, Erica; Rambaldi, Alessia; Falzoni, Simonetta; Amoroso, Francesca Saveria; Franceschini, Alessia; Sarti, Alba Clara; Bonora, Massimo; Cavazzini, Francesco; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Ciccone, Maria; Audrito, Valentina; Deaglio, Silvia; Pelegrin, Pablo; Pinton, Paolo; Cuneo, Antonio; Di Virgilio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Lymphocyte growth and differentiation are modulated by extracellular nucleotides and P2 receptors. We previously showed that the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R or P2RX7) is overexpressed in circulating lymphocytes from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. In the present study we investigated the P2X7R/NLRP3 inflammasome axis in lymphocytes from a cohort of 23 CLL patients. P2X7R, ASC and NLRP3 were investigated by Western blot, PCR and transfection techniques. P2X7R was overexpressed and correlated with chromosome 12 trisomy in CLL patients. ASC mRNA and protein were also overexpressed. On the contrary, NLRP3 was dramatically down-modulated in CLL lymphocytes relative to lymphocytes from healthy donors. To further investigate the correlation between P2X7R, NLRP3 and cell growth, NLRP3 was silenced in THP-1 cells, a leukemic cell line that natively expresses both NLRP3 and P2X7R. NLRP3 silencing enhanced P2X7R expression and promoted growth. On the contrary, NLRP3 overexpression caused accelerated apoptosis. The P2X7R was also up-modulated in hematopoietic cells from NLRP3-KO mice. In conclusion, we show that NLRP3 down-modulation stimulates P2X7R expression and promotes growth, while NLRP3 overexpression inhibits cell proliferation and stimulates apoptosis. These findings suggest that NLRP3 is a negative regulator of growth and point to a role of the P2X7R/NLRP3 axis in CLL. PMID:27221966

  12. Involvement of the P2X7-NLRP3 axis in leukemic cell proliferation and death.

    PubMed

    Salaro, Erica; Rambaldi, Alessia; Falzoni, Simonetta; Amoroso, Francesca Saveria; Franceschini, Alessia; Sarti, Alba Clara; Bonora, Massimo; Cavazzini, Francesco; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Ciccone, Maria; Audrito, Valentina; Deaglio, Silvia; Pelegrin, Pablo; Pinton, Paolo; Cuneo, Antonio; Di Virgilio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Lymphocyte growth and differentiation are modulated by extracellular nucleotides and P2 receptors. We previously showed that the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R or P2RX7) is overexpressed in circulating lymphocytes from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. In the present study we investigated the P2X7R/NLRP3 inflammasome axis in lymphocytes from a cohort of 23 CLL patients. P2X7R, ASC and NLRP3 were investigated by Western blot, PCR and transfection techniques. P2X7R was overexpressed and correlated with chromosome 12 trisomy in CLL patients. ASC mRNA and protein were also overexpressed. On the contrary, NLRP3 was dramatically down-modulated in CLL lymphocytes relative to lymphocytes from healthy donors. To further investigate the correlation between P2X7R, NLRP3 and cell growth, NLRP3 was silenced in THP-1 cells, a leukemic cell line that natively expresses both NLRP3 and P2X7R. NLRP3 silencing enhanced P2X7R expression and promoted growth. On the contrary, NLRP3 overexpression caused accelerated apoptosis. The P2X7R was also up-modulated in hematopoietic cells from NLRP3-KO mice. In conclusion, we show that NLRP3 down-modulation stimulates P2X7R expression and promotes growth, while NLRP3 overexpression inhibits cell proliferation and stimulates apoptosis. These findings suggest that NLRP3 is a negative regulator of growth and point to a role of the P2X7R/NLRP3 axis in CLL. PMID:27221966

  13. Local orbital debris flux study in the geostationary ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Paul V.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2013-06-01

    A local orbital debris flux analysis is performed in the geostationary (GEO) ring to investigate how frequently near-miss events occur for each longitude slot in the GEO ring. The current resident space object (RSO) environment at GEO is evaluated, and publicly-available two-line element (TLE) data are utilized in tandem with a geostationary torus configuration to simulate near-miss events incurred by the trackable RSO population at GEO. Methodology for determining near-miss events with this formulation is introduced, and the results of the analysis for a one-year time frame are provided to illustrate the need for active GEO remediation.

  14. Mission to Planet Earth's Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V.; Beranek, R.; Herrmann, M.; Koczor, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's) are the space-based element of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program which provide the excellent temporal resolution data required for a thorough understanding of earth processes and their role in global climate change. This paper discusses the scientific rationale, required instrumentation, observatory configuration, and data system of the GEO program.

  15. Plasma propulsion for geostationary satellites for telecommunication and interplanetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudeck, M.; Doveil, F.; Arcis, N.; Zurbach, S.

    2012-02-01

    The advantages of electric propulsion for the orbit maintenance of geostationary satellites for telecommunications are described. Different types of plasma sources for space propulsion are presented. Due to its large performances, one of them, named Hall effect thruster is described in detail and two recent missions in space (Stentor and Smart1) using French Hall thrusters are briefly presented.

  16. 47 CFR 101.145 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 101...-satellites. These limitations are necessary to minimize the probability of harmful interference to reception... in the fixed-satellite service. (a) Stations authorized prior to July 1, 1976 in the band...

  17. A Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite Model Using Easy Java Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Goh, Giam Hwee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic…

  18. 47 CFR 101.145 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 101...-satellites. These limitations are necessary to minimize the probability of harmful interference to reception... in the fixed-satellite service. (a) Stations authorized prior to July 1, 1976 in the band...

  19. 47 CFR 101.145 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 101...-satellites. These limitations are necessary to minimize the probability of harmful interference to reception... in the fixed-satellite service. (a) Stations authorized prior to July 1, 1976 in the band...

  20. 47 CFR 101.145 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 101...-satellites. These limitations are necessary to minimize the probability of harmful interference to reception... in the fixed-satellite service. (a) Stations authorized prior to July 1, 1976 in the band...

  1. Performance Analysis of the HTTP Protocol on Geostationary Satellite Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krus, Hans; Allman, Mark; Griner, Jim; Tran, Diepchi

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with HTTP protocol on geostationary satellite links are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Network reference points; 2) The HTTP 1.0 and 1.1 mechanisms; 3) Experimental setup; 4) TCP and HTTP configuration; 5) Modelling slow start and 6) Results and future work.

  2. A statistical survey of ELF waves in a geostationary orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Parrot, M.; Gaye, C.A.

    1994-11-15

    In this paper the authors summarize data taken by the wave experiment on the GEOS 2 satellite. This instrument looked at extremely low frequency emissions from a geostationary orbit. The authors do a statistical study of the observed ELF emissions, and in particular discuss chorus emissions, which with hiss and electron cyclotron emissions are the prominent low frequency wave features.

  3. Air Quality Science and Regulatory Efforts Require Geostationary Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Allen, D. J.; Stehr, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Air quality scientists and regulatory agencies would benefit from the high spatial and temporal resolution trace gas and aerosol data that could be provided by instruments on a geostationary platform. More detailed time-resolved data from a geostationary platform could be used in tracking regional transport and in evaluating mesoscale air quality model performance in terms of photochemical evolution throughout the day. The diurnal cycle of photochemical pollutants is currently missing from the data provided by the current generation of atmospheric chemistry satellites which provide only one measurement per day. Often peak surface ozone mixing ratios are reached much earlier in the day during major regional pollution episodes than during local episodes due to downward mixing of ozone that had been transported above the boundary layer overnight. The regional air quality models often do not simulate this downward mixing well enough and underestimate surface ozone in regional episodes. Having high time-resolution geostationary data will make it possible to determine the magnitude of this lower-and mid-tropospheric transport that contributes to peak eight-hour average ozone and 24-hour average PM2.5 concentrations. We will show ozone and PM(sub 2.5) episodes from the CMAQ model and suggest ways in which geostationary satellite data would improve air quality forecasting. Current regulatory modeling is typically being performed at 12 km horizontal resolution. State and regional air quality regulators in regions with complex topography and/or land-sea breezes are anxious to move to 4-km or finer resolution simulations. Geostationary data at these or finer resolutions will be useful in evaluating such models.

  4. Magnetic bearing momentum wheels with magnetic gimballing capability for 3-axis active attitude control and energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sindlinger, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    A 3-axis active attitude control system with only one rotating part was developed using a momentum wheel with magnetic gimballing capability as a torque actuator for all three body axes. A brief description of magnetic bearing technology is given. It is concluded that based on this technology an integrated energy storage/attitude control system with one air of counterrotating rings could reduce the complexity and weight of conventional systems.

  5. PC4 induces lymphangiogenesis dependent VEGF-C/VEGF-D/VEGFR-3 axis activation in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Shaolin; Yu, Jie; Xu, Yi; Deng, Bo; Sun, Tianyu; Hu, Pingping; Wei, Zhuanqin; Zhang, Jingge; Wang, Ruwen; Shi, Chunmeng; Tan, Qunyou

    2015-01-01

    Human transcriptional positive cofactor 4 (PC4) is a novel marker for diagnosis and treatment of advanced human cancers metastasis. In human lung adenocarcinoma, tumor lymphangiogenesis, an important early event, can promotes lymphatic metastasis, while it has been reported that VEGF-C/VEGF-D/VEGFR-3 axis plays an important role in lymphangiogenesis. The proposed study aims to explore whether PC4 correlates with VEGF-C/VEGF-D/VEGFR-3 axis of lymphangiogenesis in the lymph node metastasis during lung adenocarcinoma. Here, small interfering RNA technique was employed to investigate the relationship of PC4 and the VEGF-C/VEGF-D/VEGFR-3 axis in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines as well as tumor xenografts of mice model. And then mRNA and protein levels of PC4, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 were analyzed. Moreover, the correlation between PC4 expression and lymphatic vessel density or the rate of metastatsis in vivo was also revealed. Down-regulating PC4 expression resulted in the lower expression of VEGFC, VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 in mRNA and protein levels, and PC4 expression was significantly related with the factor of VEGF-C/VEGF-D/VEGFR-3 axis expression (P<0.05). Meanwhile, high expression level of PC4 was accompanied by the higher density of tumor lymphatic vessels and the rate of metastatsis in vivo (P<0.05). PC4 expression correlated with the levels of VEGF-C, VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 during the development of lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo, which may be a novel marker in the development of lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis of tumors. PMID:26269750

  6. Adaptive array for weak interfering signals: Geostationary satellite experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, Karl

    The performance of an experimental adaptive array is evaluated using signals from an existing geostationary satellite interference environment. To do this, an earth station antenna was built to receive signals from various geostationary satellites. In these experiments the received signals have a frequency of approximately 4 GHz (C-band) and have a bandwidth of over 35 MHz. These signals are downconverted to a 69 MHz intermediate frequency in the experimental system. Using the downconverted signals, the performance of the experimental system for various signal scenarios is evaluated. In this situation, due to the inherent thermal noise, qualitative instead of quantitative test results are presented. It is shown that the experimental system can null up to two interfering signals well below the noise level. However, to avoid the cancellation of the desired signal, the use a steering vector is needed. Various methods to obtain an estimate of the steering vector are proposed.

  7. Calibration of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, F. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Bingham, G. E.; Knuteson, R. O.; Tobin, D. C.; LaPorte, D. D.; Smith, W. L.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA New Millennium Program's Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) requires highly accurate radiometric and spectral calibration in order to carry out its mission to provide water vapor, wind, temperature, and trace gas profiling from geostationary orbit. A calibration concept has been developed for the GIFTS Phase A instrument design. The in-flight calibration is performed using views of two on-board blackbody sources along with cold space. A radiometric calibration uncertainty analysis has been developed and used to show that the expected performance for GIFTS exceeds its top level requirement to measure brightness temperature to better than 1 K. For the Phase A GIFTS design, the spectral calibration is established by the highly stable diode laser used as the reference for interferogram sampling, and verified with comparisons to atmospheric calculations.

  8. Ka-band geostationary satellite spacing requirements and access schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caron, Mario; Hindson, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Geostationary satellite systems for wideband personal communications applications have been proposed. This paper looks at the geostationary satellite spacing requirement to meet the ITU-R sharing criterion for FDMA and CDMA access schemes. CDMA capacity equation is first developed. Then the basis for the interference analysis between two systems with an overlapping coverage area is developed for the cases of identical and different access schemes and for bandwidth and power limited systems. An example of an interference analysis between two systems is fully carried out. The paper also points out the inherent problems when comparing systems with different access schemes. It is found that under certain scenarios, CDMA can allow a closer spacing between satellites.

  9. Conceptual design of a geostationary radar for hurricane studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Smith, Eric A.; Durden, Stephen L.; Tanelli, Simone; Huang, John; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Lou, Michael

    2003-01-01

    A novel 35-GHz Doppler radar instrument concept and the associated critical technologies are being developed for detailed monitoring of hurricanes and severe storms from a geostationary orbit. This instrument is designed to make quantitative rainfall rate profiling measurements at 13-km horizontal resolution and 300-m vertical resolution, and the radial Doppler velocity at 0.3 m/s precision, of the 3-D hurricane structure once per hour throughout its life cycle.

  10. Monitoring of atmospheric phase fluctuations using geostationary satellite signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiguro, M.; Kanzawa, T.; Kasuga, T.

    The use of geostationary satellite signals to monitor atmospheric phase fluctuations is studied. Data obtained with an initial two-element interferometer situated at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory are presented. This interferometer was shown to be effective in the continuous monitoring of radio seeing. It is noted that the baselines in this type of interferometer system should not be too long unless the fringe tracking is incorporated to remove the phase drift due to satellite motion.

  11. Impact of Non-geostationary Orbits on PASS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, Polly; Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The use of satellites in non-geostationary orbits (NGO) for PASS (Personal Access Satellite System) is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) orbit parameters (circular and elliptical orbit characteristics); (2) link characteristics (Doppler shift, propagation loss, CONUS coverage antenna, multibeam antenna gain, and impact on link equations); (3) number of satellites required for continuous CONUS coverage (circular and elliptical orbit results); and (4) advantages and disadvantages of NGOs.

  12. Geostationary Imaging FTS (GIFTS) Data Processing: Measurement Simulation and Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Hung-Lung; Revercomb, H. E.; Thom, J.; Antonelli, P. B.; Osborne, B.; Tobin, D.; Knuteson, R.; Garcia, R.; Dutcher, S.; Li, J.

    2001-01-01

    GIFTS (Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer), a forerunner of next generation geostationary satellite weather observing systems, will be built to fly on the NASA EO-3 geostationary orbit mission in 2004 to demonstrate the use of large area detector arrays and readouts. Timely high spatial resolution images and quantitative soundings of clouds, water vapor, temperature, and pollutants of the atmosphere for weather prediction and air quality monitoring will be achieved. GIFTS is novel in terms of providing many scientific returns that traditionally can only be achieved by separate advanced imaging and sounding systems. GIFTS' ability to obtain half-hourly high vertical density wind over the full earth disk is revolutionary. However, these new technologies bring forth many challenges for data transmission, archiving, and geophysical data processing. In this paper, we will focus on the aspect of data volume and downlink issues by conducting a GIFTS data compression experiment. We will discuss the scenario of using principal component analysis as a foundation for atmospheric data retrieval and compression of uncalibrated and un-normalized interferograms. The effects of compression on the degradation of the signal and noise reduction in interferogram and spectral domains will be highlighted. A simulation system developed to model the GIFTS instrument measurements is described in detail.

  13. Geostationary platform systems concepts definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of a geostationary platform concept analysis are summarized. Mission and payloads definition, concept selection, the requirements of an experimental platform, supporting research and technology, and the Space Transportation System interface requirements are addressed. It is concluded that platforms represent a logical extension of current trends toward larger, more complex, multifrequency satellites. Geostationary platforms offer significant cost savings compared to individual satellites, with the majority of these economies being realized with single Shuttle launched platforms. Further cost savings can be realized, however, by having larger platforms. Platforms accommodating communications equipment that operates at multiple frequencies and which provide larger scale frequency reuse through the use of large aperture multibeam antennas and onboard switching maximize the useful capacity of the orbital arc and frequency spectrum. Projections of market demand indicate that such conservation measures are clearly essential if orderly growth is to be provided for. In addition, it is pointed out that a NASA experimental platform is required to demonstrate the technologies necessary for operational geostationary platforms of the 1990's.

  14. Static and kinematic positioning using WADGPS from geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cefalo, R.; Gatti, M.

    2003-04-01

    STATIC AND KINEMATIC POSITIONING USING WADGPS CORRECTIONS FROM GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES Cefalo R. (1), Gatti M (2) (1) Department of Civil Engineering, University of Trieste, P.le Europa 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy, cefalo@dic.univ.trieste.it, (2) Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara, Italy, mgatti@ing.unife.it ABSTRACT. Starting from February 2000, static and kinematic experiments have been performed at the Department of Civil Engineering of University of Trieste, Italy and the Department of Engineering of University of Ferrara, Italy, using the WADGPS (Wide Area Differential GPS) corrections up linked by Geostationary Satellites belonging to the American WAAS and European EGNOS. Recently, a prototypal service by ESA (European Space Agency) named SISNet (Signal In Space through Internet), has been introduced using Internet to diffuse the messages up linked through AOR-E and IOR Geostationary Satellites. This service will overcome the problems relative to the availability of the corrections in urban areas. This system is currently under tests by the authors in order to verify the latency of the message and the applicability and accuracies obtainable in particular in dynamic applications.

  15. The use of satellites in non-geostationary orbits for unloading geostationary communication satellite traffic peaks. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, K.; Turner, A.; Nguyen, T.; Doong, W.; Weyandt, C.

    1987-01-01

    The overall objective of this program was to assess the application, economic benefits, and technology and system implications of satellites in non-geostationary (non-GEO) orbits for off-loading peak traffic from GEO communications satellites. The study was organized into four technical tasks which are described in turn. They are: (1) concepts development; (2) system definition; (3) economic comparisons; and (4) technology requirements definition. Each of these tasks is defined in detail and the results of each are given.

  16. Potential for calibration of geostationary meteorological satellite imagers using the Moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; Grant, I.F.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Solar-band imagery from geostationary meteorological satellites has been utilized in a number of important applications in Earth Science that require radiometric calibration. Because these satellite systems typically lack on-board calibrators, various techniques have been employed to establish "ground truth", including observations of stable ground sites and oceans, and cross-calibrating with coincident observations made by instruments with on-board calibration systems. The Moon appears regularly in the margins and corners of full-disk operational images of the Earth acquired by meteorological instruments with a rectangular field of regard, typically several times each month, which provides an excellent opportunity for radiometric calibration. The USGS RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) project has developed the capability for on-orbit calibration using the Moon via a model for lunar spectral irradiance that accommodates the geometries of illumination and viewing by a spacecraft. The ROLO model has been used to determine on-orbit response characteristics for several NASA EOS instruments in low Earth orbit. Relative response trending with precision approaching 0.1% per year has been achieved for SeaWiFS as a result of the long time-series of lunar observations collected by that instrument. The method has a demonstrated capability for cross-calibration of different instruments that have viewed the Moon. The Moon appears skewed in high-resolution meteorological images, primarily due to satellite orbital motion during acquisition; however, the geometric correction for this is straightforward. By integrating the lunar disk image to an equivalent irradiance, and using knowledge of the sensor's spectral response, a calibration can be developed through comparison against the ROLO lunar model. The inherent stability of the lunar surface means that lunar calibration can be applied to observations made at any time, including retroactively. Archived geostationary imager data

  17. Small Aperture Telescope Observations of Co-located Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R.; Wallace, B.

    As geostationary orbit (GEO) continues to be populated, satellite operators are increasing usage of co-location techniques to maximize usage of fewer GEO longitude slots. Co-location is an orbital formation strategy where two or more geostationary satellites reside within one GEO stationkeeping box. The separation strategy used to prevent collision between the co-located satellites generally uses eccentricity (radial separation) and inclination (latitude separation) vector offsets. This causes the satellites to move in relative motion ellipses about each other as the relative longitude drift between the satellites is near zero. Typical separations between the satellites varies from 1 to 100 kilometers. When co-located satellites are observed by optical ground based space surveillance sensors the participants appear to be separated by a few minutes of arc or less in angular extent. Under certain viewing geometries, these satellites appear to visually conjunct even though the satellites are, in fact, well separated spatially. In situations where one of the co-located satellites is more optically reflective than the other, the reflected sunglint from the more reflective satellite can overwhelm the other. This less frequently encountered issue causes the less reflective satellite to be glint masked in the glare of the other. This paper focuses on space surveillance observations on co-located Canadian satellites using a small optical telescope operated by Defence R&D Canada - Ottawa. The two above mentioned problems (cross tagging and glint masking) are investigated and we quantify the results for Canadian operated geostationary satellites. The performance of two line element sets when making in-frame CCD image correlation between the co-located satellites is also examined. Relative visual magnitudes between the co-located members are also inspected and quantified to determine the susceptibility of automated telescopes to glint masking of co-located satellite members.

  18. Interpretation of Spectrometric Measurements of Active Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedard, D.; Wade, G.

    2014-09-01

    Over 5000 visible near-infrared (VNIR) spectrometric measurements of active geostationary satellites have been collected with the National Research Council (NRC) 1.8m Plaskett telescope located at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) in Victoria, Canada. The objective of this ongoing experiment is to study how reflectance spectroscopy can be used to reliably identify specific material types on the surface of artificial Earth-orbiting objects. Active geostationary satellites were selected as the main subjects for this experiment since their orientation is stable and can be estimated to a high-level of confidence throughout a night of observation. Furthermore, for most geostationary satellites, there is a wide variety of sources that can provide some level of information as to their external surface composition. Notwithstanding the high number of measurements that have been collected to date, it was assumed that the experimenters would have a much greater success rate in material identification given the choice experimental subjects. To date, only the presence of aluminum has been confidently identified in some of the reflectance spectra that have been collected. Two additional material types, namely photovoltaic cells and polyimide film, the first layer of multi-layer insulation (MLI), have also been possibly identified. However uncertainties in the reduced spectral measurements prevent any definitive conclusion with respect to these materials at this time. The surprising lack of results with respect to material identification have forced the experimenters to use other data interpretation methods to characterize the spectral scattering characteristics of the studied satellites. The results from this study have already led to improvements in the ways that reflectance spectra from spacecraft are collected and analysed. Equally important, the data interpretation techniques elaborated over the course of this experiment will also serve to increase the body of

  19. Geo-STAR: A Geostationary Microwave Sounder for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Brown, S. T.; Dinardo, S. J.; Gaier, T. C.; Kangaslahti, P. P.; Tanner, A. B.

    2007-01-01

    The Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer (GeoSTAR) is a new Earth remote sensing instrument concept that has been under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. First conceived in 1998 as a NASA New Millennium Program mission and subsequently developed in 2003-2006 as a proof-of-concept prototype under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program, it is intended to fill a serious gap in our Earth remote sensing capabilities - namely the lack of a microwave atmospheric sounder in geostationary orbit. The importance of such observations have been recognized by the National Academy of Sciences National Research Council, which recently released its report on a 'Decadal Survey' of NASA Earth Science activities1. One of the recommended missions for the next decade is a geostationary microwave sounder. GeoSTAR is well positioned to meet the requirements of such a mission, and because of the substantial investment NASA has already made in GeoSTAR technology development, this concept is fast approaching the necessary maturity for implementation in the next decade. NOAA is also keenly interested in GeoSTAR as a potential payload on its next series of geostationary weather satellites, the GOES-R series. GeoSTAR, with its ability to map out the three-dimensional structure of temperature, water vapor, clouds, precipitation and convective parameters on a continual basis, will significantly enhance our ability to observe hurricanes and other severe storms. In addition, with performance matching that of current and next generation of low-earth-orbiting microwave sounders, GeoSTAR will also provide observations important to the study of the hydrologic cycle, atmospheric processes and climate variability and trends. In particular, with GeoSTAR it will be possible to fully resolve the diurnal cycle. We discuss the GeoSTAR concept and basic design, the performance of the prototype, and a number of science applications that will be possible with GeoSTAR. The work reported

  20. GeoSTAR: a geostationary microwave sounder for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrigtsen, B. H.; Brown, S. T.; Dinardo, S. J.; Gaier, T. C.; Kangaslahti, P. P.; Tanner, A. B.

    2007-09-01

    The Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer (GeoSTAR) is a new Earth remote sensing instrument concept that has been under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. First conceived in 1998 as a NASA New Millennium Program mission and subsequently developed in 2003-2006 as a proof-of-concept prototype under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program, it is intended to fill a serious gap in our Earth remote sensing capabilities - namely the lack of a microwave atmospheric sounder in geostationary orbit. The importance of such observations have been recognized by the National Academy of Sciences National Research Council, which recently released its report on a "Decadal Survey" of NASA Earth Science activities. One of the recommended missions for the next decade is a geostationary microwave sounder. GeoSTAR is well positioned to meet the requirements of such a mission, and because of the substantial investment NASA has already made in GeoSTAR technology development, this concept is fast approaching the necessary maturity for implementation in the next decade. NOAA is also keenly interested in GeoSTAR as a potential payload on its next series of geostationary weather satellites, the GOES-R series. GeoSTAR, with its ability to map out the three-dimensional structure of temperature, water vapor, clouds, precipitation and convective parameters on a continual basis, will significantly enhance our ability to observe hurricanes and other severe storms. In addition, with performance matching that of current and next generation of low-earth-orbiting microwave sounders, GeoSTAR will also provide observations important to the study of the hydrologic cycle, atmospheric processes and climate variability and trends. In particular, with GeoSTAR it will be possible to fully resolve the diurnal cycle. We discuss the GeoSTAR concept and basic design, the performance of the prototype, and a number of science applications that will be possible with GeoSTAR. The work reported

  1. The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Product Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, S. L.; Suggs, R. J.; Jedlovec, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Product Generation System (GPGS) is introduced and described. GPGS is a set of computer programs developed and maintained at the Global Hydrology and Climate Center and is designed to generate meteorological data products using visible and infrared measurements from the GOES-East Imager and Sounder instruments. The products that are produced by GPGS are skin temperature, total precipitable water, cloud top pressure, cloud albedo, surface albedo, and surface insolation. A robust cloud mask is also generated. The retrieval methodology for each product is described to include algorithm descriptions and required inputs and outputs for the programs. Validation is supplied where applicable.

  2. CNES organization for station positioning of geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulac, Jean

    1993-01-01

    Since 1975, the Toulouse Space Centre (a technical establishment of the French Space Agency, CNES) has successfully brought 15 geostationary satellites on to station. During these 17 years of experience, an organization of human and material resources has been built up that ensures a very high level of reliability in the execution of these station positioning operations. The main characteristics of this organization are a rigourous definition of the roles and responsibilities of each person involved, very detailed operations documentation, and methodical preparation of the operations.

  3. The GOES-R Series Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), which will have just completed Critical Design Review and move forward into the construction phase of instrument development. The GLM will operate continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development (an engineering development unit and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional ground-based lightning networks are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms, test data sets, and applications, as well as improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this presentation we review the planned implementation of the instrument and suite of operational algorithms

  4. GEO/SAMS - The Geostationary Synthetic Aperture Microwave Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.

    2008-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has for many years operated two weather satellite systems, the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite system (POES), using low-earth orbiting (LEO) satellites, and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES), using geostationary earth orbiting (GEO) satellites. (Similar systems are also operated by other nations.) The POES satellites have been equipped with both infrared (IR) and microwave (MW) atmospheric sounders, which makes it possible to determine the vertical distribution of temperature and humidity in the troposphere even under cloudy conditions. Such satellite observations have had a significant impact on weather forecasting accuracy, especially in regions where in situ observations are sparse. In contrast, the GOES satellites have only been equipped with IR sounders, since it has not been feasible to build a large enough antenna to achieve sufficient spatial resolution for a MW sounder in GEO. As a result, GOES soundings can only be obtained in cloud free areas and in the less important upper atmosphere, above the cloud tops. This has hindered the effective use of GOES data in numerical weather prediction. Full sounding capabilities with the GOES system is highly desirable because of the advantageous spatial and temporal coverage that is possible from GEO. While POES satellites provide coverage in relatively narrow swaths, and with a revisit time of 12-24 hours or more, GOES satellites can provide continuous hemispheric coverage, making it possible to monitor highly dynamic phenomena such as hurricanes.

  5. GeoCARB design maturity and geostationary heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Kevin; Clark, Charles; Katz, Noah; Kumar, Jack; Nast, Ted; Palmer, Alice

    2013-09-01

    Our companion paper `Progress in development of Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS): geostationary greenhouse gas (GHG) application' describes geoCARB performance and science. Here we describe a geoCARB instrument design study leading to near PDR maturity. It is based on heritage geostationary (AIA and HMI on SDO, SBIRS GEO-1 and upcoming GLM on GOES-R as examples) and other (IRIS and NIRcam) flight instrumentation. Heritage work includes experience and well developed specifications for near a-thermal carbon fiber honeycomb composite optical benches and optical element mounting design forms that utilize a "family" of mounts for nearly any type of optical element. The geoCARB approach utilizes composite optical benches and bipod flexures to kinematically mount optics. Tooling for alignment and staking of all elements is integral to the design and is "removed before flight" for mass minimization. GeoCARB requires a cryogenic region for focal planes and spectrometers but front end optics and main structure are designed to run much warmer. A star tracker is used for geoCARB posteriori geolocation including pseudo-diurnal thermal distortion characterization. It is kinematically mounted by low conductance thermal isolators directly on to the low expansion high stiffness composite bench that defines the master optical surfaces including the scanning mirrors. The thermal load from the camera heads is routed away from the bench heat pipes. Use of kinematic mounting is advantageous for low thermal conduction designs. Honeycomb composites enable the design's low thermal mechanical distortions.

  6. Development of a Flexible Solar Reflector for Geostationary Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigbeder, J.; Demont, P.; Remaury, S.; Nabarra, P.; Lacabanne, C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to avoid electrostatic discharge on satellites caused by the accumulation of electric charges on their external surface, thermal control coatings should have a surface resistivity between 106 Ω/square and 1010 Ω/square or a bulk conductivity higher than 10-8 Sṡcm-1. The polysiloxane resin of a cold thermal control coating, the flexible solar reflector (FSR), was filled with different conducting nanoparticles: indium tin oxide, zinc oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Adding conducting nanoparticles increased the electrical conductivity of the FSR but also degraded its thermooptical properties. A simulation test of electron bombardment in geostationary orbit was performed on some samples. The existence of electron bombardment induced conductivity allowed oxide-filled composites to evacuate electric charges more effectively than the CNT-filled composites. None of the composites exhibited the required properties for a new version of FSR for geostationary orbit. Although charge dissipation was achieved with two samples, their thermooptical properties were not acceptable.

  7. Geostationary Atmospheric Observation Satellite Plan in Japan (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, H.; Kasai, Y.; Kita, K.; Irie, H.; Sagi, K.; Hayashida, S.

    2009-12-01

    As emissions of air pollutants in Asia have increased in the past decades accompanying with rapid economic growth of developing countries, Asian regional air pollution has attracted concern from the view of inter-continental and intra-continental long-range transport as well as domestic air quality. Particularly in Japan, transboundary transport of ozone is of recent social concern as one of a cause of increasing trend of near surface ozone concentration. In order to elucidate the transport and chemical transformation processes of air pollution in East Asia, and to attain internationally common understanding on this issue, geostationary atmospheric observation satellite has been proposed in Japan. In 2006, the Japan Society of Atmospheric Chemistry (JSAC) formed Commission on the Atmospheric Environmental Observation Satellite to initiate the discussion. In 2009, Committee on Geostationary Atmospheric Observation Satellite has been formed within JAXA to promote the plan. The proposed satellite consists of a UV/VIS sensor for O3, NO2, HCHO and AOT, and a MIR sensor for O3, CO, HNO3, NO2, H2O and temperature. Targeted spatial and temporal resolutions are ca.10 km and 1-2 hrs, respectively, and focused observation area is northeast Asia potentially covering the southeast and south Asia. Sensitivity analysis and simulation have been made for both the UV/VIS and MIR sensors. Overview of user requirement and the sensitivity analysis for each species will be presented in this talk.

  8. The GOES-R GeoStationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved capability for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The Geostationary Lighting Mapper (GLM) will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lighting flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. In parallel with the instrument development (a prototype and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms (environmental data records), cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications using GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, merged with ground-based sensors, and decision aids augmented by numerical weather prediction model forecasts. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. An international field campaign planned for 2011-2012 will produce concurrent observations from a VHF lightning mapping array, Meteosat multi-band imagery, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning

  9. Geostationary Operational Environmental Statellite(GEOS-N report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Missions Analysis Office (AMAO) of GSFC has completed a study of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-N) series. The feasibility, risks, schedules, and associated costs of advanced space and ground system concepts responsive to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) requirements were evaluated. The study is the first step in a multi-phased procurement effort that is expected to result in launch ready hardware in the post 2000 time frame. This represents the latest activity of GSFC in translating meteorological requirements of NOAA into viable space systems in geosynchronous earth orbits (GEO). GOES-N represents application of the latest spacecraft, sensor, and instrument technologies to enhance NOAA meteorological capabilities via remote and in-situ sensing from GEO. The GOES-N series, if successfully developed, could become another significant step in NOAA weather forecasting space systems, meeting increasingly complex emerging national needs for that agency's services.

  10. Space-based sensor management and geostationary satellites tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fallah, A.; Zatezalo, A.; Mahler, R.; Mehra, R. K.; Donatelli, D.

    2007-04-01

    Sensor management for space situational awareness presents a daunting theoretical and practical challenge as it requires the use of multiple types of sensors on a variety of platforms to ensure that the space environment is continuously monitored. We demonstrate a new approach utilizing the Posterior Expected Number of Targets (PENT) as the sensor management objective function, an observation model for a space-based EO/IR sensor platform, and a Probability Hypothesis Density Particle Filter (PHD-PF) tracker. Simulation and results using actual Geostationary Satellites are presented. We also demonstrate enhanced performance by applying the ProgressiveWeighting Correction (PWC) method for regularization in the implementation of the PHD-PF tracker.

  11. Investigation of water vapor motion winds from geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velden, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    Motions deduced in animated water vapor imagery from geostationary satellites can be used to infer wind fields in cloudless regimes. For the past several years, CIMSS has been exploring this potentially important source of global-scale wind information. Recently, METEOSAT-3 data has become routinely available to both the U.S. operational and research community. Compared with the current GOES satellite, the METEOSAT has a superior resolution (5 km vs. 16 km) in its water vapor channel. Preliminary work: at CIMSS has demonstrated that wind sets derived from METEOSAT water vapor imagery can provide important upper-tropospheric wind information in data void areas, and can positively impact numerical model guidance in meteorological applications. Specifically, hurricane track forecasts can be improved. Currently, we are exploring methods to further improve the derivation and quality of the water vapor wind sets.

  12. Differential spacecraft charging on the geostationary operational environmental satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farthing, W. H.; Brown, J. P.; Bryant, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    Subsystems aboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites 4 and 5 showed instances of anomalous changes in state corresponding to false commands. Evidence linking the anomalous changes to geomagnetic activity, and presumably static discharges generated by spacecraft differential charging induced by substorm particle injection events is presented. The anomalies are shown to be correlated with individual substorms as monitored by stations of the North American Magnetometer Chain. The relative frequency of the anomalies is shown to be a function of geomagnetic activity. Finally a least squares fit to the time delay between substorm initiation and spacecraft anomaly as a function of spacecraft local time is shown to be consistent with injected electron populations with energy in the range 10 keV to 15 keV, in agreement with present understanding of the spacecraft charging mechanism. The spacecraft elements responsible for the differential charging were not satisfactorily identified. That question is currently under investigation.

  13. A concept for measuring currents from geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popstefanija, I.; McIntosh, R. E.

    The measurement of ocean surface currents may be possible from geostationary satellites in space using coherent dual-frequency radars. However, feasibility of this concept depends on how reliable a resonant 'Delta K peak' is observed when the cross-product power spectrum of the two microwave signals is formed. Experimental results obtained with the University of Massachusetts Stepped-Frequency Delta K radar. The radar is a frequency-agile radar, which rapidly switches between pairs of signal frequencies. Data obtained at a North Truro, Massachusetts, test site indicates that the radar can measure tidal surface currents as well as wind-driven currents. When surface winds are steady, periodic tidal current variations are observed. However, when the wind changes speed or direction there are corresponding fluctuations in the measured currents.

  14. Geostationary earth climate sensor: Scientific utility and feasibility, phase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, G. Garrett; Vonderharr, T. H.; Evert, T.; Kidder, Stanley Q.; Purdom, James F. W.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of accurate broad band radiation budget measurements from a GEO platform will provide a unique opportunity for viewing radiation processes in the atmosphere-ocean system. The CSU/TRW team has prepared a Phase 1 instrument design study demonstrating that measurements of radiation budget are practical from geosynchronous orbit with proven technology. This instrument concept is the Geostationary Earth Climate Sensor (GECS). A range of resolutions down to 20 km at the top of the atmosphere are possible, depending upon the scientific goals of the experiment. These tradeoffs of resolution and measurement repeat cycles are examined for scientific utility. The design of a flexible instrument is shown to be possible to meet the two goals: long-term, systematic monitoring of the diurnal cycles of radiation budget; and high time and space resolution studies of regional radiation features.

  15. Diffractive optics technology and the NASA Geostationary Earth Observatory (GEO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, G. Michael; Michaels, Robert L.; Faklis, Dean

    1992-01-01

    Diffractive (or binary) optics offers unique capabilities for the development of large-aperture, high-performance, light-weight optical systems. The Geostationary Earth Observatory (GEO) will consist of a variety of instruments to monitor the environmental conditions of the earth and its atmosphere. The aim of this investigation is to analyze the design of the GEO instrument that is being proposed and to identify the areas in which diffractive (or binary) optics technology can make a significant impact in GEO sensor design. Several potential applications where diffractive optics may indeed serve as a key technology for improving the performance and reducing the weight and cost of the GEO sensors have been identified. Applications include the use of diffractive/refractive hybrid lenses for aft-optic imagers, diffractive telescopes for narrowband imaging, subwavelength structured surfaces for anti-reflection and polarization control, and aberration compensation for reflective imaging systems and grating spectrometers.

  16. Fiber-Optical Temperature Sensing Onboard Geostationary Telecommunication Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putzer, Philipp; Koch, Alexander W.; Hurni, Andreas; Schweyer, Sebastian; Tiefenbeck, Christoph; Plattner, Markus

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we present a system for fiber-optical temperature sensing onboard geostationary telecommunication satellites. Fiber-optical sensing allows the replacement of many of the point-to-point wired temperature sensors which are actual state-of-the-art in European telecommunication satellites. Initially the paper indicates the problem description with viewpoint on the environmental requirements. Afterwards the principle of a fiber-optical sensor is described in detail followed by the design of the fiber-optical interrogator module (FIM). The paper closes with first measurement results to prove the presented concept. The FIM is a part of the Hybrid Sensor Bus (HSB) unit [1, 2] which will be implemented as flight demonstrator onboard the Heinrich-Hertz satellite (H2-Sat).

  17. Using Geostationary Communications Satellites as a Sensor: Telemetry Search Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoy, K.; Carlton, A.; Lohmeyer, W. Q.

    2014-12-01

    For decades, operators and manufacturers have collected large amounts of telemetry from geostationary (GEO) communications satellites to monitor system health and performance, yet this data is rarely mined for scientific purposes. The goal of this work is to mine data archives acquired from commercial operators using new algorithms that can detect when a space weather (or non-space weather) event of interest has occurred or is in progress. We have developed algorithms to statistically analyze power amplifier current and temperature telemetry and identify deviations from nominal operations or other trends of interest. We then examine space weather data to see what role, if any, it might have played. We also closely examine both long and short periods of time before an anomaly to determine whether or not the anomaly could have been predicted.

  18. Constraints on methane emissions from future geostationary remote sensing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousserez, N.; Henze, D. K.; Perkins, W. A.; Worden, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission aims to put atmospheric chemistry sensors into geostationary orbit in the 2020 time frame. Multiple observations per day over North America would provide unprecedented constraints for top-down estimates of trace gase emissions. As there are multiple instruments being considered for such a mission, there is a crucial need for characterizing the degree to which spectral design impacts the mission's capability to address key scientific questions. In this study, we assess constraints on methane (CH4) emissions over the United States for three different instrument configurations. Results are presented for an Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) based on a 4D-Var inversion which uses a GEOS-Chem nested simulation at 0.5°x0.66° over North America. Two XCH4 column retrievals based on existing infrared measurements are considered, one from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), and one from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT)). A newly proposed CH4 profile retrieval from a multi-spectral instrument is also tested. Full resolution posterior errors for these three inversion configurations are estimated using a computationally efficient stochastic algorithm. Large error reductions (>60%) over broad areas were obtained when using the multi-spectral CH4 retrievals. The GOSAT CH4 retrievals provided smaller constraints on the CH4 emissions (error reductions <40%), while the TES configuration was associated with the smallest information content (error reductions <20%). We quantify the spatial scales at which different instruments could separate CH4 emissions from different sources and the value of the emissions constraints as a function of the emissions magnitudes. These results also demonstrate that using observations from a multi-spectral instrument significantly mitigate the influence of biases in the boundary conditions on the inversion compared to other instruments.

  19. GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper Performance Specifications and Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Petersen, William A.; Boldi, Robert A.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Bateman, Monte G.; Buchler, Dennis E.; McCaul, E. William, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a single channel, near-IR imager/optical transient event detector, used to detect, locate and measure total lightning activity over the full-disk. The next generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series will carry a GLM that will provide continuous day and night observations of lightning. The mission objectives for the GLM are to: (1) Provide continuous, full-disk lightning measurements for storm warning and nowcasting, (2) Provide early warning of tornadic activity, and (2) Accumulate a long-term database to track decadal changes of lightning. The GLM owes its heritage to the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (1997- present) and the Optical Transient Detector (1995-2000), which were developed for the Earth Observing System and have produced a combined 13 year data record of global lightning activity. GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms and applications. The science data will consist of lightning "events", "groups", and "flashes". The algorithm is being designed to be an efficient user of the computational resources. This may include parallelization of the code and the concept of sub-dividing the GLM FOV into regions to be processed in parallel. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds (e.g., Lightning Mapping Arrays in North Alabama, Oklahoma, Central Florida, and the Washington DC Metropolitan area) are being used to develop the prelaunch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution.

  20. How Strong is the Case for Geostationary Hyperspectral Sounders?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.; Liu, Z.; Jensen, S.; Housley, E.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA GIFTS program designed and constructed a flight-ready hyperspectral infrared sounder for geostationary orbit. Efforts are now underway to launch a constellation of similar instruments. Salient characteristics included 4 km spatial resolution at nadir and 0.6 cm-1 spectral resolution in two infrared bands. Observing system experiments have demonstrated the success of assimilated hyperspectral infrared radiances from IASI and AIRS in improving weather forecast skill. These results provide circumstantial evidence that additional observations at higher spatial and temporal resolution would likely improve forecast skill further. However, there is only limited work investigating the magnitude of this skill improvement in the literature. Here we present a systematic program to quantify the additional skill of a constellation of geostationary hyperspectral sounders through observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) using the WRF model and the WRFDA data assimilation system. The OSSEs will focus first on high-impact events, such as the forecast for Typhoon Haiyun, but will also address quotidian synoptic forecast skill. The focus will be on short-term forecast skill (<24 hours lead time), in accord with WRF's mesoscale design, and with the view that high time frequency observations are likely to make the biggest impact on the skill of short-range forecasts. The experiments will use as their starting point the full existing observational suite, so that additionality can be addressed, but will also consider contingencies, such as the loss of particular elements of the existing system, as well as the degree to which a stand-alone system of hyperspectral sounds would be able to successfully initialize a regional forecast model. A variety of settings, tropical and extratropical, marine and continental will be considered.

  1. G3E - Geostationary Emission Explorer for Europe: mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, Andre; Orphal, Johannes; Bovensmann, Heinrich; von Clarmann, Thomas; Friedl-Vallon, Felix; Knigge, Thiemo; Muenzenmayer, Ralf; Schmuelling, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities release various gaseous and particulate substances into the Earth's atmosphere affecting air quality and climate. The greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are particularly important drivers of man-made climate change while ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and aerosols are major players in tropospheric photochemistry controlling air quality. Once released to the atmosphere the fate of man-made pollutants and climate forcers is controlled by natural removal processes. We present the mission concept of the Geostationary Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E). G3E primarily aims at accurately measuring CO2 and CH4 column-average concentrations across Europe with spatial and temporal resolution of a few kilometers and a few hours, respectively. Such spatiotemporally dense imaging of the greenhouse gas concentration fields above Europe is expected to boost our ability to disentangle anthropogenic emissions from natural source and sink processes and to impose unprecedented observational constraints on surface flux quantification. In support of the retrieval and interpretation of greenhouse gas concentrations, G3E's grating spectrometers cover a wide spectral range from the near infrared into the shortwave infrared. This facilitates estimates of column-average CO and aerosol abundances providing extra information on air-quality from a geostationary view. A flexible pointing design further allows for selecting focus regions beyond the European continent in order to address the surface flux budgets of other regions of interest such as tropical Africa. We demonstrate G3E's capabilities in terms of prospective instrument design, observation concept, and retrieval performance.

  2. Activation of the GP130-STAT3 axis and its potential implications in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hae-Ki; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Verdianelli, Aurora; Pacana, Tommy; Patel, Vaishali; Park, Chun-Geon; Choi, Aejin; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Chung-Berm; Ren, Shunlin

    2015-01-01

    The status of the GP130-STAT3 signaling pathway in humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its relevance to disease pathogenesis are unknown. The expression of the gp130-STAT3 axis and gp130 cytokine receptors were studied in subjects with varying phenotypes of NAFLD including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and compared with lean and weight-matched controls without NAFLD. Gp130 and its downstream signaling element (Tyk2 and STAT3) expression were inhibited in obese controls whereas they were increased in NAFLD. IL-6 levels were increased in NASH and correlated with gp130 expression (P < 0.01). Palmitate inhibited gp130-STAT3 expression and signaling. IL-6 and palmitate inhibited hepatic insulin signaling via STAT3-dependent and independent mechanisms, respectively. STAT3 overexpression reversed palmitate-induced lipotoxicity by increasing autophagy (ATG7) and decreasing endoplasmic reticulum stress. These data demonstrate that the STAT3 pathway is activated in NAFLD and can worsen insulin resistance while protecting against other lipotoxic mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. PMID:25747354

  3. Metformin represses bladder cancer progression by inhibiting stem cell repopulation via COX2/PGE2/STAT3 axis

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Dali; Liu, Gaolei; Lan, Weihua; Zhang, Dianzheng; Xiao, Hualiang; Zhang, Yao; Huang, Zaoming; Yang, Junjie; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a sub-population of tumor cells playing essential roles in initiation, differentiation, recurrence, metastasis and development of drug resistance of various cancers, including bladder cancer. Although multiple lines of evidence suggest that metformin is capable of repressing CSC repopulation in different cancers, the effect of metformin on bladder cancer CSCs remains largely unknown. Using the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced rat orthotropic bladder cancer model, we demonstrated that metformin is capable of repressing bladder cancer progression from both mild to moderate/severe dysplasia lesions and from carcinoma in situ (CIS) to invasive lesions. Metformin also can arrest bladder cancer cells in G1/S phases, which subsequently leads to apoptosis. And also metformin represses bladder cancer CSC repopulation evidenced by reducing cytokeratin 14 (CK14+) and octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (OCT3/4+) cells in both animal and cellular models. More importantly, we found that metformin exerts these anticancer effects by inhibiting COX2, subsequently PGE2 as well as the activation of STAT3. In conclusion, we are the first to systemically demonstrate in both animal and cell models that metformin inhibits bladder cancer progression by inhibiting stem cell repopulation through the COX2/PGE2/STAT3 axis. PMID:27058422

  4. Geostationary Platforms Mission and Payload Requirements Study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Time-phased missions and payloads for potential accommodation on geostationary platforms and the engineering requirements placed upon the platform housekeeping elements by selected payloads are identified. Optimum locations for geostationary platforms, potential missions and their characteristics, and potential user requirements were determined as well as the interface requirements between the missions and h the geostationary platform. A payload data book was prepared and antenna tradeoff studies were conducted. Payload missions are defined in terms of frequencies, power, beam patterns, interconnections, support requirements, and other characteristics.

  5. Debris in the geostationary orbit ring, the endless shooting gallery: The necessity for a disposal policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suddeth, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    NASA is considering establishing a policy for the limitation of the physical crowding of the geostationary orbit. The proposed policy is intended to address the following issues: (1) deal only with geostationary altitudes; (2) illustrate the unique value and usefulness of the geostationary orbit ring; (3) describe the orbital dynamics as simply as possible; (4) describe the current spacecraft and debris situation; (5) briefly review current industry and agency policies; (6) project future trends of physical crowding with the present nonpolicy; (7) propose solutions that can be implemented in the near future; and (8) use previous work as much as desirable.

  6. Implementation and Test of the Automatic Flight Dynamics Operations for Geostationary Satellite Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangwook; Lee, Young-Ran; Hwang, Yoola; Javier Santiago Noguero Galilea

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes the Flight Dynamics Automation (FDA) system for COMS Flight Dynamics System (FDS) and its test result in terms of the performance of the automation jobs. FDA controls the flight dynamics functions such as orbit determination, orbit prediction, event prediction, and fuel accounting. The designed FDA is independent from the specific characteristics which are defined by spacecraft manufacturer or specific satellite missions. Therefore, FDA could easily links its autonomous job control functions to any satellite mission control system with some interface modification. By adding autonomous system along with flight dynamics system, it decreases the operator’s tedious and repeated jobs but increase the usability and reliability of the system. Therefore, FDA is used to improve the completeness of whole mission control system’s quality. The FDA is applied to the real flight dynamics system of a geostationary satellite, COMS and the experimental test is performed. The experimental result shows the stability and reliability of the mission control operations through the automatic job control.

  7. Geostationary platform systems concepts definition study. Volume 2A: Appendixes, book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Appendixes addressing various aspects of a geostationary platform concepts definition study are given. Communication platform traffic requirements, video conferencing forecast, intersatellite link capacity requirements, link budgets, payload data, payload assignments, and platform synthesis are addressed.

  8. Remote Sensing from Geostationary Orbit: GEO TROPSAT, A New Concept for Atmospheric Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Alan D.; Neil, Doreen O.; Sachse, Glen W.; Fishman, Jack; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1997-01-01

    The Geostationary Tropospheric Pollution Satellite (GEO TROPSAT) mission is a new approach to measuring the critical constituents of tropospheric ozone chemistry: ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and aerosols. The GEO TROPSAT mission comprises a constellation of three instruments flying as secondary payloads on geostationary communications satellites around the world. This proposed approach can significantly reduce the cost of getting a science payload to geostationary orbit and also generates revenue for the satellite owners. The geostationary vantage point enables simultaneous high temporal and spatial resolution measurement of tropospheric trace gases, leading to greatly improved atmospheric ozone chemistry knowledge. The science data processing, conducted as a research (not operational) activity, will provide atmospheric trace gas data many times per day over the same region at better than 25 km ground footprint. The high temporal resolution identifies short time scale processes, diurnal variations, seasonal trends, and interannual variation.

  9. Geostationary earth observatories - Key elements of NASA's 'Mission to Planet Earth'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, William C.; Keller, Vernon W.

    1991-01-01

    The scientific rationale, required instrumentation, observatory configuration, and data system of the Geostationary Earth Observatory (GEO) element of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program are discussed. Physical characteristics of GEO candidate instruments are listed.

  10. Geostationary platform systems concepts definition study. Volume 2: Technical, book 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The supporting research and technology, and space demonstrations required to support the 1990s operational geostationary platforms are identified. Also the requirements on and interfaces with the Space Transportation System hardware elements supporting the geostationary platform program, including the shuttle, orbital transfer vehicles, teleoperator, etc., are investigated to provide integrated support requirements. Finally, a preliminary evaluation of the practicability and capabilities of an experimental platform from the standpoint of technology, schedule, and cost is given.

  11. Transport of the plasma sheet electrons to the geostationary distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganushkina, N. Y.; Amariutei, O. A.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<p label="1">The transport and acceleration of low-energy electrons (50-250 keV) from the plasma sheet to the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit were investigated. Two moderate storm events, which occurred on 6-7 November 1997 and 12-14 June 2005, were modeled using the Inner Magnetosphere Particle Transport and Acceleration model (IMPTAM) with the boundary set at 10 RE in the plasma sheet. The output of the IMPTAM was compared to the observed electron fluxes in four energy ranges (50-225 keV) measured by the Synchronous Orbit Particle Analyzer instrument onboard the Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft. It was found that the large-scale convection in combination with substorm-associated impulsive fields is the drivers of the transport of plasma sheet electrons from 10 RE to <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit at 6.6 RE during storm times. The addition of radial diffusion had no significant influence on the modeled electron fluxes. At the same time, the modeled electron fluxes are one (two) order(s) smaller than the observed ones for 50-150 keV (150-225 keV) electrons, respectively, most likely due to inaccuracy of electron boundary conditions. The loss processes due to wave-particle interactions were not considered. The choice of the large-scale convection electric field model used in simulations did not have a significant influence on the modeled electron fluxes, since there is not much difference between the equipotential contours given by the Volland-Stern and the Boyle et al. (1997) models at distances from 10 to 6.6 RE in the plasma sheet. Using the TS05 model for the background magnetic field instead of the T96 model resulted in larger deviations of the modeled electron fluxes from the observed ones due to specific features of the TS05 model. The increase in the modeled electron fluxes can be as large as two orders of magnitude when substorm-associated electromagnetic fields were taken into account. The obtained model distribution of low-energy electron</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM44A..08G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM44A..08G"><span id="translatedtitle">Transport of the plasma sheet electrons to the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> distances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ganushkina, N. Y.; Amariutei, O. A.; Shprits, Y.; Liemohn, M. W.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The transport and acceleration of low energy electrons (10-250 keV) from the plasma sheet to the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit were investigated. Two moderate storm events, which occurred on November 6-7, 1997 and June 12-14, 2005, were modeled using the Inner Magnetosphere Particle Transport and Acceleration model (IMPTAM) with the boundary set at 10 RE in the plasma sheet. The output of the IMPTAM model was compared to the observed electron fluxes in four energy ranges measured onboard the LANL spacecraft by the SOPA instrument. It was found that the large-scale convection in combination with substorm-associated impulsive fields are the drivers of the transport of plasma sheet electrons from 10 RE to <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit at 6.6 RE during storm times. The addition of radial diffusion had no significant influence on the modeled electron fluxes. At the same time, comparison between the modeled electron fluxes and observed ones showed two orders of difference most likely due to inaccuracy of electron boundary conditions and omission of the important loss processes due to wave-particle interactions. This did not allow us to accuractly reproduce the dynamics of 150-225 keV electron fluxes. The choice of the large-scale convection electric field model used in simulations did not significantly influence on the modeled electron fluxes, since there is not much difference between the equipotential contours given by the Volland-Stern and Boyle et al. [1997] models at the distances from 10 to 6.6 RE in the plasma sheet. Using the TS05 model for the background magnetic field instead of the T96 model resulted in larger deviations of the modeled electron fluxes from the observed ones due to specific features of the TS05 model. The increase in the modeled electron fluxes can be as large as three orders of magnitude when substorm-associated electromagnetic fields were taken into account. The obtained model distribution of low energy electron fluxes can be used as an input to the radiation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6361E..0KL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6361E..0KL"><span id="translatedtitle">GeoSTAR: a microwave sounder for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lambrigtsen, B. H.; Brown, S. T.; Dinardo, S. J.; Gaier, T. C.; Kangaslahti, P. P.; Tanner, A. B.; Piepmeier, J. R.; Ruf, C. S.; Gross, S. M.; Musko, S.; Rogacki, S.</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer, GeoSTAR, is a new concept for a microwave atmospheric sounder intended for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites such as the GOES weather satellites operated by NOAA. A small but fully functional prototype has recently been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to demonstrate the feasibility of using aperture synthesis in lieu of the large solid parabolic dish antenna that is required with the conventional approach. Spatial resolution requirements dictate such a large aperture in GEO that the conventional approach has not been feasible, and it is only now, with the GeoSTAR approach, that a GEO microwave sounder can be contemplated. Others have proposed GEO microwave radiometers that would operate at sub-millimeter wavelengths to circumvent the large-aperture problem, but GeoSTAR is the only viable approach that can provide full sounding capabilities equal to or exceeding those of the AMSU systems now operating on LEO weather satellites and which have had tremendous impact on numerical weather forecasting. GeoSTAR will satisfy a number of important measurement objectives, many of them identified by NOAA as unmet needs in their GOES-R pre-planned product improvements (P3I) lists and others by NASA in their research roadmaps and as discussed in a white paper submitted to the NRC Decadal Survey. The performance of the prototype has been outstanding, and this proof of concept represents a major breakthrough in remote sensing capabilities. The GeoSTAR concept is now at a stage of development where an infusion into space systems can be initiated, either on a NASA sponsored research mission or on a NOAA sponsored operational mission. GeoSTAR is an ideal candidate for a joint "research to operations" mission, and that may be the most likely scenario. Additional GeoSTAR related technology development and other risk reduction activities are under way, and a GeoSTAR mission is feasible in the GOES-R/S time frame, 2012-2014.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AtmRe.125...34G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AtmRe.125...34G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The GOES-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas; Bailey, Jeffrey; Buechler, Dennis; Carey, Larry; Schultz, Chris; Bateman, Monte; McCaul, Eugene; Stano, Geoffrey</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite R-series (GOES-R) is the next block of four satellites to follow the existing GOES constellation currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Advanced spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved cloud and moisture imagery with the 16-channel Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning activity continuously day and night with near-uniform storm-scale spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 s over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions in the western hemisphere. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development, an Algorithm Working Group (AWG) Lightning Detection Science and Applications Team developed the Level 2 (stroke and flash) algorithms from the Level 1 lightning event (pixel level) data. Proxy data sets used to develop the GLM operational algorithms as well as cal/val performance monitoring tools were derived from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) instruments in low Earth orbit, and from ground-based lightning networks and intensive prelaunch field campaigns. The GLM will produce the same or similar lightning flash attributes provided by the LIS and OTD, and thus extend their combined climatology over the western hemisphere into the coming decades. Science and application development along with preoperational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS forecast offices and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMAE11A..01G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMAE11A..01G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The GOES-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Mach, D. M.; Bailey, J. C.; Buechler, D. E.; Carey, L. D.; Schultz, C. J.; Bateman, M. G.; McCaul, E., Jr.; Stano, G. T.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series provides the continuity for the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. New and improved instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution for the next generation Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. In parallel with the instrument development, an Algorithm Working Group (AWG) Lightning Detection Science and Applications Team developed the Level 2 (stroke and flash) algorithms from the Level 1 lightning event (pixel level) data. Proxy data sets used to develop the GLM operational algorithms as well as cal/val performance monitoring tools were derived from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) instruments in low earth orbit, and from ground-based lightning networks and intensive pre-launch field campaigns. GLM will produce the same or similar lightning flash attributes provided by the LIS and OTD, and thus extends their combined climatology over the western hemisphere into the coming decades. Science and application development along with pre-operational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS forecast offices and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.1343S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.1343S"><span id="translatedtitle">Plans for EUMETSAT's Thrid Generation Meteosat (MTG) <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stuhlmann, R. S.; Tjemkes, S. A. T.; Rodriguez, A. R. R.; Bézy, J. L. B.; Aminou, D. A.; Bensi, P. B.</p> <p></p> <p>After movement of the first Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite to 3.4 degree West by end of January 2004, the satellite has been renamed Meteosat-8 and the system has been declared fully operational. Meteosat-8 is now the primary European source of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> observations over Europe and Africa, as the first in a series of four satellites expected to deliver operational services at least until 2015. Considering the time required for the definition phases of new space systems their typical development cycle and the approval of complex programmes, it is necessary to plan for follow-up missions. EUMETSAT has therefore, as a first step in the preparation of the Third Generation Meteosat (MTG) European <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite system, established a USER Consultation Process aimed at capturing the foreseeable high-level user/service needs and priorities of the EUMETSAT customers and users in the 2015-2025 timeframe. This process was implemented through the set up of Applications Expert Groups (AEGs) tasked to propose their vision on operational services, to define associated needs and priorities for input information and observations. At the 1st Post-MSG User Consultation Workshop, November 2001, the work of the AEGs were presented to a broader user group serving as a basis for the identification of relevant observing techniques and the definition of requirements for the MTG observation missions. Currently, a total of five observation missions has been defined for pre-phase A studies at system level under ESA contract to be started in July 2004. Those are: High Resolution Fast Imagery Mission (successor to MSG SEVIRI HRV mission) Full Disk High Spectral Resolution Imagery Mission (successor to the mission of other SEVIRI channels) Lightning Imagery Mission IR Sounding Mission UV Sounding Mission Prior to the start of industry pre-phase A studies the joined ESA/EUMETSAT MTG Project Team, supported by an external group of experts named the MTG Mission Team</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015amos.confE..30V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015amos.confE..30V"><span id="translatedtitle">Developing <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Imaging at the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Belle, G.; von Braun, K.; Armstrong, J. T.; Baines, E. K.; Schmitt, H. R.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Elias, N.; Mozurkewich, D.; Oppenheimer, R.; Restaino, S.</p> <p></p> <p>The Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI) is a six-beam long-baseline optical interferometer, located in Flagstaff, Arizona; the facility is operated by a partnership between Lowell Observatory, the US Naval Observatory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. NPOI operates every night of the year (except holidays) in the visible with baselines between 8 and 100 meters (up to 432m is available), conducting programs of astronomical research and technology development for the partners. NPOI is the only such facility as yet to directly observe <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites, enabling milliarcsecond resolution of these objects. To enhance this capability towards true imaging of geosats, a program of facility upgrades will be outlined. These upgrades include AO-assisted large apertures feeding each beam line, new visible and near-infrared instrumentation on the back end, and infrastructure supporting baseline-wavelength bootstrapping which takes advantage of the spectral and morphological features of geosats. The large apertures will enable year-round observations of objects brighter than 10th magnitude in the near-IR. At its core, the system is enabled by a approach that tracks the low-resolution (and thus, high signal-to-noise), bright near-IR fringes between aperture pairs, allowing multi-aperture phasing for high-resolution visible light imaging. A complementary program of visible speckle and aperture masked imaging at Lowell's 4.3-m Discovery Channel Telescope, for constraining the low-spatial frequency imaging information, will also be outlined, including results from a pilot imaging study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1997JASS...14..136Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1997JASS...14..136Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Precise Orbit Propagation of <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Using Cowell's Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoon, Jae-Cheol; Choi, Kyu-Hong; Kim, Eun-Kyou</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>To calculate the position and velocity of the artificial satellite precisely, one has to broil a mathematical model concerning the perturbations by understanding and analysing the space environment correctly and then quantifying. Due to these space environment model, the total acceleration of the artificial satellite can be expressed as the 2nd order differential equation and we build an orbit propagation algorithm by integrating twice this equation by using the Cowell's method which gives the position arid velocity of th artificial satellite at any given time. Perturbations important for the orbits of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> spacecraft are the Earth's gravitational potential, the gravitational influence of the sun and moon, and the solar radiation pressure. For precise orbit propagation in Cowell' method, 40 x 40 spherical harmonic coefficients cal be applied and the JPL DE403 ephemeris files were used to generate the range from earth to sun and moo and 8th order Runge-Kutta single step method with variable step-size control is use to integrate the orbit propagation equations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.tmp..183R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.tmp..183R"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring Snow Using <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Retrievals During the SAAWSO Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rabin, Robert M.; Gultepe, Ismail; Kuligowski, Robert J.; Heidinger, Andrew K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The SAAWSO (Satellite Applications for Arctic Weather and SAR (Search And Rescue) Operations) field programs were conducted by Environment Canada near St. Johns, NL and Goose Bay, NL in the winters of 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively. The goals of these programs were to validate satellite-based nowcasting products, including snow amount, wind intensity, and cloud physical parameters (e.g., cloud cover), over northern latitudes with potential applications to Search And Rescue (SAR) operations. Ground-based in situ sensors and remote sensing platforms were used to measure microphysical properties of precipitation, clouds and fog, radiation, temperature, moisture and wind profiles. Multi-spectral infrared observations obtained from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-13 provided estimates of cloud top temperature and height, phase (water, ice), hydrometer size, extinction, optical depth, and horizontal wind patterns at 15 min intervals. In this work, a technique developed for identifying clouds capable of producing high snowfall rates and incorporating wind information from the satellite observations is described. The cloud top physical properties retrieved from operational satellite observations are validated using measurements obtained from the ground-based in situ and remote sensing platforms collected during two precipitation events: a blizzard heavy snow storm case and a moderate snow event. The retrieved snow precipitation rates are found to be comparable to those of ground-based platform measurements in the heavy snow event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120008940','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120008940"><span id="translatedtitle">Crew Transfer Options for Servicing of <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cerro, Jeffrey A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In 2011, NASA and DARPA undertook a study to examine capabilities and system architecture options which could be used to provide manned servicing of satellites in <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Earth Orbit (GEO). The study focused on understanding the generic nature of the problem and examining technology requirements, it was not for the purpose of proposing or justifying particular solutions. A portion of this study focused on assessing possible capabilities to efficiently transfer crew between Earth, Low Earth Orbit (LEO), and GEO satellite servicing locations. This report summarizes the crew transfer aspects of manned GEO satellite servicing. Direct placement of crew via capsule vehicles was compared to concepts of operation which divided crew transfer into multiple legs, first between earth and LEO and second between LEO and GEO. In space maneuvering via purely propulsive means was compared to in-space maneuvering which utilized aerobraking maneuvers for return to LEO from GEO. LEO waypoint locations such as equatorial, Kennedy Space Center, and International Space Station inclinations were compared. A discussion of operational concepts is followed by a discussion of appropriate areas for technology development.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6067339','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6067339"><span id="translatedtitle">Relativistic electrons near <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit: Evidence for internal magnetospheric acceleration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Callis, L. B.; Belian, R. D.; Cayton, T. E.</p> <p>1989-06-01</p> <p>At times, relativistic electron fluxes in Earth's outer magnetosphere are not obviously related to an external (Jovian or solar) source. This finding suggests that an internal magnetospheric acceleration mechanism may operate under some circumstances. A possible mechanism identified for Jupiter's magnetosphere could also be considered in the terrestrial case. Such a model requires the substorm- generation of a spectrally-soft electron component with subsequent inward radial diffusion (violating the third adiabatic invariant). A large electron energy gain transverse to the magnetic field occurs in this process. Eventually, deep within the magnetosphere, substantial pitch angle scattering occurs violating all adiabatic invariants. Then, at low L-values, there occurs an energy-preserving outward transport of energetic electrons near the mirror points. This leads to a return of the accelerated population to the outer magnetosphere. Such low-altitude processes should result in ''conic'' or ''butterfly'' pitch angle distributions at very high energies as the electrons execute trans-L diffusion at the mirror altitudes and then are magnetically focussed near the equator. Data collected concurrently at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit at three widely-spaced local times during a relativisic electron event show a butterfly pitch angle distribution, while lower energy electrons simultaneously show pancake-like distributions. The butterfly pitch angle distributions appear in /similar to/25% of the examined relativistic electron events, thereby providing support for acceleration by a recirculation process. /copyright/ American Geophysical Union 1989</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.3085R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.3085R"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring Snow Using <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Retrievals During the SAAWSO Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rabin, Robert M.; Gultepe, Ismail; Kuligowski, Robert J.; Heidinger, Andrew K.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The SAAWSO (Satellite Applications for Arctic Weather and SAR (Search And Rescue) Operations) field programs were conducted by Environment Canada near St. Johns, NL and Goose Bay, NL in the winters of 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively. The goals of these programs were to validate satellite-based nowcasting products, including snow amount, wind intensity, and cloud physical parameters (e.g., cloud cover), over northern latitudes with potential applications to Search And Rescue (SAR) operations. Ground-based in situ sensors and remote sensing platforms were used to measure microphysical properties of precipitation, clouds and fog, radiation, temperature, moisture and wind profiles. Multi-spectral infrared observations obtained from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-13 provided estimates of cloud top temperature and height, phase (water, ice), hydrometer size, extinction, optical depth, and horizontal wind patterns at 15 min intervals. In this work, a technique developed for identifying clouds capable of producing high snowfall rates and incorporating wind information from the satellite observations is described. The cloud top physical properties retrieved from operational satellite observations are validated using measurements obtained from the ground-based in situ and remote sensing platforms collected during two precipitation events: a blizzard heavy snow storm case and a moderate snow event. The retrieved snow precipitation rates are found to be comparable to those of ground-based platform measurements in the heavy snow event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080012643','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080012643"><span id="translatedtitle">A General Approach to the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Transfer Orbit Mission Recovery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Faber, Nicolas; Aresini, Andrea; Wauthier, Pascal; Francken, Philippe</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This paper discusses recovery scenarios for geosynchronous satellites injected in a non-nominal orbit due to a launcher underperformance. The theory on minimum-fuel orbital transfers is applied to develop an operational tool capable to design a recovery mission. To obtain promising initial guesses for the recovery three complementary techniques are used: p-optimized impulse function contouring, a numerical impulse function minimization and the solutions to the switching equations. The tool evaluates the feasibility of a recovery with the on-board propellant of the spacecraft and performs the complete mission design. This design takes into account for various mission operational constraints such as e.g., the requirement of multiple finite-duration burns, third-body orbital perturbations, spacecraft attitude constraints and ground station visibility. In a final case study, we analyze the consequences of a premature breakdown of an upper rocket stage engine during injection on a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> transfer orbit, as well as the possible recovery solution with the satellite on-board propellant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900009943','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900009943"><span id="translatedtitle">Coherent radar measurement of ocean currents from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcintosh, R. E.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A coherent HF radar system developed by Barrick has successfully measured ocean surface currents near shore. This innovative system, called CODAR, can map the current vector for coastal areas as large as 10,000 sq km. CODAR's range is limited owing to the strong attenuation suffered by HF ground waves. An alternate technique was proposed by Schuler, in which the cross-product power spectrum of two (different frequency) microwave signals is processed. The frequency of the resonant peak corresponds close by to the Doppler shift of an ocean gravity wave traveling toward the radar at the phase velocity, v(sub p). The slight difference between the frequency of the measured resonant delta K peak and the Doppler frequency shift caused by the motion of the gravity wave is attributed to be the current velocity in the pointing direction of the radar. The Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory (MIRSL) has considered the feasibility of using this technique to measure ocean surface currents from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite platforms. Problems are discussed that must be overcome if a satellite current measurement system is to be realized. MIRSL research activities that address some of these problem areas are discussed. Current measurements are presented that were made using a specially-designed C-Band, step-frequency delta K radar. These measurements suggest that progress is being achieved in detecting ocean surface current motion for a wide variety of ocean surface conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E.537E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E.537E"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Ionosphere on <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Communication Satellite Signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erdem, Esra; Arikan, Feza; Gulgonul, Senol</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> orbit (GEO) communications satellites allow radio, television, and telephone transmissions to be sent live anywhere in the world. They are extremely important in daily life and also for military applications. Since, satellite communication is an expensive technology addressing crowd of people, it is critical to improve the performance of this technology. GEO satellites are at 35,786 kilometres from Earth's surface situated directly over the equator. A satellite in a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit (GEO) appears to stand still in the sky, in a fixed position with respect to an observer on the earth, because the satellite's orbital period is the same as the rotation rate of the Earth. The advantage of this orbit is that ground antennas can be fixed to point towards to satellite without their having to track the satellite's motion. Radio frequency ranges used in satellite communications are C, X, Ku, Ka and even EHG and V-band. Satellite signals are disturbed by atmospheric effects on the path between the satellite and the receiver antenna. These effects are mostly rain, cloud and gaseous attenuation. It is expected that ionosphere has a minor effect on the satellite signals when the ionosphere is quiet. But there are anomalies and perturbations on the structure of ionosphere with respect to geomagnetic field and solar activity and these conditions may cause further affects on the satellite signals. In this study IONOLAB-RAY algorithm is adopted to examine the effect of ionosphere on satellite signals. IONOLAB-RAY is developed to calculate propagation path and characteristics of high frequency signals. The algorithm does not have any frequency limitation and models the plasmasphere up to 20,200 km altitude, so that propagation between a GEO satellite and antenna on Earth can be simulated. The algorithm models inhomogeneous, anisotropic and time dependent structure of the ionosphere with a 3-D spherical grid geometry and calculates physical parameters of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960008976','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960008976"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of water vapor motion winds from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Velden, Christopher S.; Nieman, Steven J.; Wanzong, Steven</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Water vapor imagery from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites has been available for over a decade. These data are used extensively by operational analysts and forecasters, mainly in a qualitative mode (Weldon and Holmes 1991). In addition to qualitative applications, motions deduced in animated water vapor imagery can be used to infer wind fields in cloudless regimes, thereby augmenting the information provided by cloud-drift wind vectors. Early attempts at quantifying the data by tracking features in water vapor imagery met with modest success (Stewart et al. 1985; Hayden and Stewart 1987). More recently, automated techniques have been developed and refined, and have resulted in upper-level wind observations comparable in quality to current operational cloud-tracked winds (Laurent 1993). In a recent study by Velden et al. (1993) it was demonstrated that wind sets derived from Meteosat-3 (M-3) water vapor imagery can provide important environmental wind information in data void areas surrounding tropical cyclones, and can positively impact objective track forecasts. M-3 was repositioned to 75W by the European Space Agency in 1992 in order to provide complete coverage of the Atlantic Ocean. Data from this satellite are being transmitted to the U.S. for operational use. Compared with the current GOES-7 (G-7) satellite (positioned near 112W), the M-3 water vapor channel contains a superior horizontal resolution (5 km vs. 16 km ). In this paper, we examine wind sets derived using automated procedures from both GOES-7 and Meteosat-3 full disk water vapor imagery in order to assess this data as a potentially important source of large-scale wind information. As part of a product demonstration wind sets were produced twice a day at CIMSS during a six-week period in March and April (1994). These data sets are assessed in terms of geographic coverage, statistical accuracy, and meteorological impact through preliminary results of numerical model forecast studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.777E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.777E"><span id="translatedtitle">Time Resolved Atmospheric Carbon Satellite Observations from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edwards, David; Worden, Helen</p> <p></p> <p>This presentation describes proposed satellite carbon measurements from CHRONOS (Commercially Hosted spectroRadiometer Observations and New Opportunities for Science). The primary goal of this mission is to measure the atmospheric pollutants carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit, with hourly observations of North America at high spatial resolution. Carbon monoxide is produced by combustion processes such as urban activity and wildfires, and serves as a proxy for other combustion pollutants that are not easily measured. Both CO and CH4 are chemical precursors of tropospheric ozone pollution. Methane has diverse anthropogenic sources ranging from fossil fuel production, animal husbandry, agriculture and waste management. The impact of gas exploration in the Western States of the USA and oil extraction from the Canadian tar sands will be particular foci of the mission, as will the poorly-quantified natural CH4 emissions from wetlands and thawing permafrost. In addition to characterizing pollutant sources, improved understanding of the domestic CH4 budget is a priority for policy decisions related to short-lived climate forcers. A primary motivation for targeting CO is its value as a tracer of atmospheric pollution. The CHRONOS measurements will provide insight into local and long-range transport across the North American continent, as well as the processes governing the entrainment and venting of pollution in and out of the planetary boundary layer. As a result of significantly improved characterization of diurnal changes in atmospheric composition, CHRONOS observations will find direct societal applications for air quality regulation and forecasting. We present a quantification of this expected improvement in the prediction of near-surface concentrations when CHRONOS measurements are used in Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). If CHRONOS and the planned NASA Earth Venture TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.2962D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.2962D"><span id="translatedtitle">Mass density at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit and apparent mass refilling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Denton, R. E.; Takahashi, Kazue; Amoh, Justice; Singer, H. J.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We used the inferred equatorial mass density ρm,eq based on measurements of Alfvén wave frequencies measured by the GOES satellites during 1980-1991 in order to construct a number of different models of varying complexity for the equatorial mass density at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. The most complicated models are able to account for 66% of the variance with a typical variation from actual values of a factor of 1.56. The factors that influenced ρm,eq in the models were, in order of decreasing importance, the F10.7 EUV index, magnetic local time, the solar wind dynamic pressure Pdyn, the phase of the year, and the solar wind BZ (GSM Z direction). During some intervals, some of which were especially geomagnetically quiet, ρm,eq rose to values that were significantly higher than those predicted by our models. For 10 especially quiet intervals, we examined long-term (>1 day) apparent refilling, the increase in ρm,eq at a fixed location. We found that the behavior of ρm,eq varies for different events. In some cases, there is significant apparent refilling, whereas in other cases ρm,eq stays the same or even decreases slightly. Nevertheless, we showed that on average, ρm,eq increases exponentially during quiet intervals. There is variation of apparent refilling with respect to the phase of the solar cycle. On the third day of apparent refilling, ρm,eq has on average a similar value at solar maximum or solar minimum, but at solar maximum, ρm,eq begins with a larger value and rises relatively less than at solar minimum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11A0023L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11A0023L"><span id="translatedtitle">Icing detection from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite data using machine learning approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, J.; Ha, S.; Sim, S.; Im, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Icing can cause a significant structural damage to aircraft during flight, resulting in various aviation accidents. Icing studies have been typically performed using two approaches: one is a numerical model-based approach and the other is a remote sensing-based approach. The model based approach diagnoses aircraft icing using numerical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, and vertical thermodynamic structure. This approach tends to over-estimate icing according to the literature. The remote sensing-based approach typically uses meteorological satellite/ground sensor data such as <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and Dual-Polarization radar data. This approach detects icing areas by applying thresholds to parameters such as liquid water path and cloud optical thickness derived from remote sensing data. In this study, we propose an aircraft icing detection approach which optimizes thresholds for L1B bands and/or Cloud Optical Thickness (COT) from Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite-Meteorological Imager (COMS MI) and newly launched Himawari-8 Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) over East Asia. The proposed approach uses machine learning algorithms including decision trees (DT) and random forest (RF) for optimizing thresholds of L1B data and/or COT. Pilot Reports (PIREPs) from South Korea and Japan were used as icing reference data. Results show that RF produced a lower false alarm rate (1.5%) and a higher overall accuracy (98.8%) than DT (8.5% and 75.3%), respectively. The RF-based approach was also compared with the existing COMS MI and GOES-R icing mask algorithms. The agreements of the proposed approach with the existing two algorithms were 89.2% and 45.5%, respectively. The lower agreement with the GOES-R algorithm was possibly due to the high uncertainty of the cloud phase product from COMS MI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26368426','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26368426"><span id="translatedtitle">Vicarious calibration of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ahn, Jae-Hyun; Park, Young-Je; Kim, Wonkook; Lee, Boram; Oh, Im Sang</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Measurements of ocean color from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) with a moderate spatial resolution and a high temporal frequency demonstrate high value for a number of oceanographic applications. This study aims to propose and evaluate the calibration of GOCI as needed to achieve the level of radiometric accuracy desired for ocean color studies. Previous studies reported that the GOCI retrievals of normalized water-leaving radiances (nLw) are biased high for all visible bands due to the lack of vicarious calibration. The vicarious calibration approach described here relies on the assumed constant aerosol characteristics over the open-ocean sites to accurately estimate atmospheric radiances for the two near-infrared (NIR) bands. The vicarious calibration of visible bands is performed using in situ nLw measurements and the satellite-estimated atmospheric radiance using two NIR bands over the case-1 waters. Prior to this analysis, the in situ nLw spectra in the NIR are corrected by the spectrum optimization technique based on the NIR similarity spectrum assumption. The vicarious calibration gain factors derived for all GOCI bands (except 865nm) significantly improve agreement in retrieved remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) relative to in situ measurements. These gain factors are independent of angular geometry and possible temporal variability. To further increase the confidence in the calibration gain factors, a large data set from shipboard measurements and AERONET-OC is used in the validation process. It is shown that the absolute percentage difference of the atmospheric correction results from the vicariously calibrated GOCI system is reduced by ~6.8%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411453D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411453D"><span id="translatedtitle">Reference Crop Evapotranspiration obtained from the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite MSG (METEOSAT).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Bruin, H. A. R.; Trigo, I. F.; Lorite, I. J.; Cruz-Blanco, M.; Gavilán, P.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Among others, the scope of the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) is to increase benefit from the EUMETSAT <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Satellites MSG data related to land, land-atmosphere interactions and biophysical applications. This is achieved by developing techniques, products and algorithms that will allow an effective use of MSG data, if needed, combined with data from numerical weather prediction models (e.g., ECMWF). Although directly designed to improve the observation of meteorological systems, the spectral characteristics, time resolution and area coverage offered by MSG allow for their use in a broad spectrum of other applications, for instance in agro- and hydrometeorology. This study concerns a method to determine how much water is needed for irrigation. Note that this is complementary to the actual evapotranspiration LSA SAF product. The objective of this study is to present a novel semi-empirical method to determine the Reference Crop Evapotranspiration (ET0) from the down-welling shortwave radiation and air temperature obtained through LSF SAF. ET0 is defined in the FAO Irrigation and Drainage report 56 (FAO56) and it is used to determine water requirements of agricultural crops in irrigated regions. It is evaluated with a special version of the Penman-Monteith equation (PM_FAO56) using data of a weather station installed over non-stressed grass. Such stations are expensive and very labor consuming. We developed our method for semi-arid regions where appropriate weather stations needed for FAO56 ET0 are missing. This concerns huge areas in the world. High-quality FAO-grass station near Cordoba, Spain were used, where, besides all input for PM-FAO56, independent lysimeter data are collected. In addition, it will be shown that significant errors in ET0 can occur if meteorological gathered over dry terrain will be used as input of PM-FAO56. For this purpose data sets obtained in different semi-arid regions will be analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23A0894H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23A0894H"><span id="translatedtitle">A uniform <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> visible calibration approach to achieve a climate quality dataset</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haney, C.; Doelling, D.; Bhatt, R.; Scarino, B. R.; Gopalan, A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) weather satellite visible and IR image record has surpassed 30 years. They have been preserved in the ISCCP-B1U 3-hourly dataset and other archives such as McIDAS, EUMETSAT, and NOAA CLASS. Since they were designed to aid in weather forecasting, long-term calibration <span class="hlt">stability</span> was not a high priority. All GEO imagers lack onboard visible calibration and suffer from optical degradation after they are launched. In order to piece together the 35+ GEO satellite record both in time and space, a uniform calibration approach is desired to remove individual GEO temporal trends, as well as GEO spectral band differences. Otherwise, any artificial discontinuities caused by sequential GEO satellite records or spurious temporal trends caused by optical degradation may be interpreted as a change in climate. The approach relies on multiple independent methods to reduce the overall uncertainty of the GEO calibration coefficients. Consistency among methods validates the approach. During the MODIS record (2000 to the present) the GEO satellites are inter-calibrated against MODIS using ray-matched or bore-sighted radiance pairs. The MODIS and the VIIRS follow on instruments are equipped with onboard calibration thereby providing a stable calibration reference. The GEO spectral band differences are accounted for using a Spectral Band Adjustment Factor (SBAF) based on hyper-spectral SCIAMACHY data. During the pre-MODIS era, invariant earth targets of deserts and deep convective clouds (DCC) are used. Since GEO imagers have maintained their imaging scan schedules, GEO desert and DCC bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) can be constructed and validated during the MODIS era. The BRDF models can then be applied to historical GEO imagers. Consistency among desert and DCC GEO calibration gains validates the approach. This approach has been applied to the GEO record beginning in 1985 and the results will be presented at the meeting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMIN41B1491C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMIN41B1491C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Verifying the Accuracy of <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Weather Satellite Image Navigation and Registration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carr, J. L.; Herndon, D.; Reehl, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The next generation GOES-R <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> weather satellites will provide imagery products with improved spatial and temporal resolutions and with more spectral bands than previous systems. Image Navigation and Registration (INR), which enables users to accurately pinpoint severe weather and <span class="hlt">stabilizes</span> movie loops, will also improve. As INR performance improves, so must the technology for measuring INR performance. We describe our Product Monitoring (PM) system being deployed with the GOES-R ground system. It automatically measures INR performance using landmarks that are positioned with respect to a digital map created from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM). Performance testing with Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) proxy data is part of the verification of the PM system, which is the main focus of this paper. A legacy system ironically called the Replacement Product Monitor (RPM) is in operational use on the GOES-NOP program. It is generally assumed that this system is capable of measuring the absolute position of landmark features relative to their mapped locations with an accuracy of about 0.5 pixels. This is plausible given that observed INR navigation error is about 1 pixel at the finest GOES-NOP resolution. However, a few landmark sites are observed to have biases possibly related to mapping error in the legacy digital map (not SRTM). Because the GOES-R system has finer spatial resolution than the GOES-NOP system and more stringent INR requirements, errors at the GOES-NOP pixel level are quite important. Our verification work with the GOES-R PM seeks to systematically characterize the measurement errors in a controlled test environment to demonstrate its suitability for a GOES-R mission with finer spatial resolution and more stringent INR requirements in comparison with GOES-NOP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993imsc.conf....9L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993imsc.conf....9L"><span id="translatedtitle">ESA personal communications and digital audio broadcasting systems based on non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Logalbo, P.; Benedicto, J.; Viola, R.</p> <p></p> <p>Personal Communications and Digital Audio Broadcasting are two new services that the European Space Agency (ESA) is investigating for future European and Global Mobile Satellite systems. ESA is active in promoting these services in their various mission options including non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems. A Medium Altitude Global Satellite System (MAGSS) for global personal communications at L and S-band, and a Multiregional Highly inclined Elliptical Orbit (M-HEO) system for multiregional digital audio broadcasting at L-band are described. Both systems are being investigated by ESA in the context of future programs, such as Archimedes, which are intended to demonstrate the new services and to develop the technology for future non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile communication and broadcasting satellites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018264','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018264"><span id="translatedtitle">ESA personal communications and digital audio broadcasting systems based on non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Logalbo, P.; Benedicto, J.; Viola, R.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Personal Communications and Digital Audio Broadcasting are two new services that the European Space Agency (ESA) is investigating for future European and Global Mobile Satellite systems. ESA is active in promoting these services in their various mission options including non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems. A Medium Altitude Global Satellite System (MAGSS) for global personal communications at L and S-band, and a Multiregional Highly inclined Elliptical Orbit (M-HEO) system for multiregional digital audio broadcasting at L-band are described. Both systems are being investigated by ESA in the context of future programs, such as Archimedes, which are intended to demonstrate the new services and to develop the technology for future non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile communication and broadcasting satellites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990ppln.symp....9N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990ppln.symp....9N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> repeaters - A low cost way to enhance civil user performance of GPS and GLONASS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nagle, J. R.; Kinal, G. V.</p> <p></p> <p>Inmarsat proposes to implement a set of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> repeaters operating in the navigation L-band (approximately 1575 MHz) to serve as an overlay to the GPS (Global Positioning System) and GLONASS (the Soviet global navigation satellite system). One major motivation for the overlay is the need expressed by the aeronautical community for an independent, quick response (10 s) external integrity channel. An additional advantage of a navigation band solution is that it would be received by (virtually) unmodified GPS and/or (slightly) modified GLONASS receivers. The integrity, coverage, availability, and timing enhancements that are possible from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> augmentation to GPS are discussed. A description of the Inmarsat pseudonoise (PN) test program where GPS-compatible PN-signal formats are transmitted through current Inmarsat satellites is presented to demonstrate the simplicity and practicality of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> repeater augmentation technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830007056','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830007056"><span id="translatedtitle">Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 2A: Descriptions of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and high-altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hills, H. K. (Editor); Littlefield, R. G. (Editor); Schofield, N. J. (Editor); Vetts, J. I. (Editor)</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Data from Earth-orbiting spacecraft at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and higher altitudes was cataloged. Three lunar-orbiting spacecraft and some others whose apogees did not attain the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> altitude are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec25-142.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec25-142.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.142 - Licensing provisions for the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>...-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service. 25.142 Section 25.142 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.142 Licensing provisions for the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec25-142.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec25-142.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.142 - Licensing provisions for the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Mobile-Satellite Service.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>...-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Mobile-Satellite Service. 25.142 Section 25.142 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.142 Licensing provisions for the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Mobile-Satellite Service....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec25-259.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec25-259.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.259 - Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 137-138 MHz band. 25.259 Section... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.259 Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 137-138 MHz band. (a) The space...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec25-142.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec25-142.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.142 - Licensing provisions for the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>...-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service. 25.142 Section 25.142 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.142 Licensing provisions for the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec25-146.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec25-146.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.146 - Licensing and operating authorization provisions for the non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite orbit fixed...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... provisions for the non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite orbit fixed-satellite service (NGSO FSS) in the bands 10.7 GHz...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.146 Licensing and operating authorization provisions for the non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite orbit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec25-259.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec25-259.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.259 - Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 137-138 MHz band. 25.259 Section... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.259 Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 137-138 MHz band. (a) A non-voice,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec25-146.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec25-146.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.146 - Licensing and operating authorization provisions for the non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite orbit fixed...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... provisions for the non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite orbit fixed-satellite service (NGSO FSS) in the bands 10.7 GHz...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.146 Licensing and operating authorization provisions for the non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite orbit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Mobile...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Mobile-Satellite Service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Mobile-Satellite Service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec25-259.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec25-259.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.259 - Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 137-138 MHz band. 25.259 Section... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.259 Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 137-138 MHz band. (a) A non-voice,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec25-142.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec25-142.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.142 - Licensing provisions for the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>...-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service. 25.142 Section 25.142 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.142 Licensing provisions for the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec25-259.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec25-259.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.259 - Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 137-138 MHz band. 25.259 Section... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.259 Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 137-138 MHz band. (a) A non-voice,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec25-146.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec25-146.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.146 - Licensing and operating rules for the non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite orbit Fixed-Satellite Service...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>...-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite orbit Fixed-Satellite Service (NGSO FSS) in the 10.7 GHz-14.5 GHz bands. 25.146 Section... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.146 Licensing and operating rules for the non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite orbit Fixed-Satellite Service (NGSO FSS) in the 10.7 GHz-14.5...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec25-142.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec25-142.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.142 - Licensing provisions for the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Mobile-Satellite Service.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>...-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Mobile-Satellite Service. 25.142 Section 25.142 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.142 Licensing provisions for the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Mobile-Satellite Service....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec25-259.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec25-259.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.259 - Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 137-138 MHz band. 25.259 Section... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.259 Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 137-138 MHz band. (a) The space...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec25-146.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec25-146.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.146 - Licensing and operating authorization provisions for the non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite orbit fixed...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... provisions for the non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite orbit fixed-satellite service (NGSO FSS) in the bands 10.7 GHz...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.146 Licensing and operating authorization provisions for the non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite orbit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A53A0240P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A53A0240P"><span id="translatedtitle">Options for a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Science Demonstration Mission (GSDM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pougatchev, N. S.; Bingham, G. E.; Zollinger, L.; Hancock, J. J.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> ultraspectral imager with spectral resolution comparable with the ones of the current advanced LEO sounders such as AIRS and IASI brings the potential for significant new products to improve our lives and protect property. These include: improved severe weather warnings and hurricane track prediction, troposphere wind profiles at 2 Km vertical resolution, and pollutant and water vapor flux profiles. The GSDM data combined with OCO and GOSAT data can provide local and regional CO, CO2 emissions. The potential value of a GSDM is so great that the resent NASA/NOAA Decadal Survey recommended they “Complete the GIFTS instrument, deliver it to orbit via a cost-effective launch and spacecraft opportunity, and evaluate its potential to be a prototype for the HES instrument…”. GOES-R mission costs led to the cancellation of the HES program. Development of an entirely new instrument and flying it as an operational payload is clearly outside of the NOAA budget profile. However a joint NASA/NOAA An out-of-the-box, Venture Class style, PI-led mission to satisfy the NASA/NOAA Decadal Survey recommendation can be funded and managed with today’s budgets. An ideal NASA/NOAA mission would combine NOAA’s spare “Q” Imager and the upgraded GIFTS EDU hardware on a free flyer, launched in 2014 to the GOES East position and using the developing GOES-R downlink and communications system. Because the Ultraspectral Imager/Sounder data pixels are independent, GSDM data can be easily segmented into subimages, processed by massively parallel Linux computers, and analyzed by NASA and NOAA Algorithm working groups and science teams. A well calibrated Ultraspectral Imager/Sounder in a Geo orbit would also become the ultimate calibration transfer standard to support the WMO Global Space-based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS) effort. This poster reviews the science payoff of a GSDM, the measured GIFTS EDU hardware performance, and suggests an affordable mission strategy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10170106','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10170106"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span>-satellite beacon-receiver array for studies of ionospheric irregularities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carlos, R.C.; Jacobson, A.R.; Wu, Guanghui</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>Ionospheric irregularities can be studied by various techniques. These include widely spaced Doppler sounders or ionosondes, Faraday rotation polarimetry, and two-frequency differential Doppler, and radio interferometry. With <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites, one usually uses Faraday rotation of the beacon signal to measure the ionospheric TEC. With a network of polarimeters, the horizontal wave parameters of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDS) can be deduced, but the shortcoming of this technique is its poor sensitivity. This paper describes a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span>-satellite beacon-receiver array at Los Alamos, New Mexico, which will be employed for the studying of ionospheric irregularities, especially the fine-scale TIDS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7184600','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7184600"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span>-satellite beacon-receiver array for studies of ionospheric irregularities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carlos, R.C.; Jacobson, A.R.; Wu, Guanghui.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Ionospheric irregularities can be studied by various techniques. These include widely spaced Doppler sounders or ionosondes, Faraday rotation polarimetry, and two-frequency differential Doppler, and radio interferometry. With <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites, one usually uses Faraday rotation of the beacon signal to measure the ionospheric TEC. With a network of polarimeters, the horizontal wave parameters of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDS) can be deduced, but the shortcoming of this technique is its poor sensitivity. This paper describes a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span>-satellite beacon-receiver array at Los Alamos, New Mexico, which will be employed for the studying of ionospheric irregularities, especially the fine-scale TIDS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSA51A2383K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSA51A2383K"><span id="translatedtitle">Ionospheric TEC Estimations with the Signals of Various <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Navigational Satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kurbatov, G. A.; Padokhin, A. M.; Kunitsyn, V.; Yasyukevich, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The development of GNSS and SBAS systems provides the possibility to retrieve ionospheric TEC from the dual frequency observations from a number of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites using the same approach as for dual frequency GPS/GLONASS observations. In this connection, the quality of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> data, first of all the level of noise in TEC estimations is of great interest and importance. In this work we present the results of the comparison of the noise patterns in TEC estimations using signals of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites of augumentation systems - indian GAGAN, european EGNOS and american WAAS, as well as the signals of chinees COMPASS/Beidou navigational system. We show that among above mentioned systems <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> COMPASS/Beidou satellites provide best noise level in TEC estimations (RMS~0.1TECU), which corresponds to those of GPS/GLONASS, while GAGAN and WAAS TEC RMS could reach up to 1.5 TECU with typical values of 0.25-0.5 TECU which is up to one order greater than for common GPS/GLONASS observations. EGNOS TEC estimations being even more noisy (TEC RMS up to 10TECU) than WAAS and GAGAN ones at present time are not suitable for ionospheric studies. We also present <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> TEC response to increasing solar X-Ray and EUV ionizing radiation during several recent X-class flares. Good correlation was found between TEC and EUV flux for the stations at the sunlit hemisphere. We also present <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> TEC response to geomagnetic field variations during strong and moderate geomagnetic storms (including G4 St. Patricks Day Storm of 2015) showing examples of both positive and negative TEC anomalies of order of tens of TECU during main storm phase. Our results show the capability of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> GNSS and SBAS observations for continuous monitoring of ionospheric TEC. Intensively growing networks of dedicated receivers (for example MGEX network) and increasing number of dual-frequency <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites in SBAS and GNSS constellations potentially make it a</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987fac..reptR....P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987fac..reptR....P"><span id="translatedtitle">The use of satellites in non-goestationary orbits for unloading <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communication satellite traffic peaks. Volume 2: Technical report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Price, K.; Turner, A.; Nguyen, T.; Doong, W.; Weyandt, C.</p> <p>1987-05-01</p> <p>The part of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) orbital arc used for United States domestic fixed, communications service is rapidly becoming filled with satellites. One of the factors currently limiting its utilization is that communications satellites must be designed to have sufficient capacity to handle peak traffic leads, and thus are under utilized most of the time. A solution is to use satellites in suitable non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbits to unload the traffic peaks. Three different designs for a non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit communications satellite system are presented for the 1995 time frame. The economic performance is analyzed and compared with <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites for two classes of service, trunking and customer premise service. The result is that the larger payload of the non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite offsets the burdens of increased complexity and worse radiation environment to give improved economic performance. Depending on ground terminal configuration, the improved economic performance of the space segment may be offset by increased ground terminal expenses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870011780','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870011780"><span id="translatedtitle">The use of satellites in non-goestationary orbits for unloading <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communication satellite traffic peaks. Volume 2: Technical report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Price, K.; Turner, A.; Nguyen, T.; Doong, W.; Weyandt, C.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The part of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) orbital arc used for United States domestic fixed, communications service is rapidly becoming filled with satellites. One of the factors currently limiting its utilization is that communications satellites must be designed to have sufficient capacity to handle peak traffic leads, and thus are under utilized most of the time. A solution is to use satellites in suitable non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbits to unload the traffic peaks. Three different designs for a non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit communications satellite system are presented for the 1995 time frame. The economic performance is analyzed and compared with <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites for two classes of service, trunking and customer premise service. The result is that the larger payload of the non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite offsets the burdens of increased complexity and worse radiation environment to give improved economic performance. Depending on ground terminal configuration, the improved economic performance of the space segment may be offset by increased ground terminal expenses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810009549','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810009549"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> platform systems concepts definition study. Volume 2: Technical, book 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The initial selection and definition of operational <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform concepts is discussed. Candidate <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform missions and payloads were identified from COMSAT, Aerospace, and NASA studies. These missions and payloads were cataloged; classified with to communications, military, or scientific uses; screened for application and compatibility with <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platforms; and analyzed to identify platform requirements. Two platform locations were then selected (Western Hemisphere - 110 deg W, and Atlantic - 15 deg W), and payloads allocated based on nominal and high traffic models. Trade studies were performed leading to recommendation of selected concepts. Of 30 Orbit Transfer Vehicle (0TV) configuration and operating mode options identified, 18 viable candidates compatible with the operational <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform missions were selected for analysis. Each was considered using four platform operational modes - 8 or 16 year life, and serviced or nonserviced, providing a total of 72 OTV/platform-mode options. For final trade study concept selection, a cost program was developed considering payload and platform costs and weight; transportation unit and total costs for the shuttle and OTV; and operational costs such as assembly or construction time, mating time, and loiter time. Servicing costs were added for final analysis and recommended selection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A33G..01A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A33G..01A"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Constellation for Observing Global Air Quality: Status of the CEOS Activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Al-Saadi, J. A.; Zehner, C.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Several countries and space agencies are currently planning to launch <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites in the 2017-2022 time frame to obtain atmospheric composition measurements for characterizing anthropogenic and natural distributions of tropospheric ozone, aerosols, and their precursors, which are important factors in understanding air quality and climate change. While a single <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite can view only a portion of the globe, it is possible for a minimum of three <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites, positioned to view Europe/Middle East/Africa, Asia/Australasia, and the Americas, to collectively provide near-global coverage. Harmonizing the planned <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> missions to be contemporaneous and have common observing capabilities and data distribution protocols would synergistically enable critically needed understanding of the interactions between regional and global atmospheric composition and of the implications for air quality and climate. Such activities would directly address societal benefit areas of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), including Health, Energy, Climate, Disasters, and Ecosystems, and are responsive to the requirements of each mission to provide advanced user services and societal benefits. Over the past 2 years, the Atmospheric Composition Constellation (ACC) of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a white paper describing such collaboration and the benefits to be derived from it. The resulting ACC recommendations were endorsed by CEOS in May 2011. Here we will present an update on collaborative activities and next steps. This presentation is envisioned to serve as an introduction to the oral sessions associated with Session A.25.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830015766&hterms=qualitative+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dqualitative%2Bdata','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830015766&hterms=qualitative+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dqualitative%2Bdata"><span id="translatedtitle">Specifying heights and velocities of cloud motion from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> sounding data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Menzel, P.; Stewart, T. R.; Smith, W. L.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Data from the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Visible Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) for assigning simultaneous heights and velocities of cloud motion winds were processed. The following two techniques are discussed: The technique which delivers qualitative height assignments from imagery; and which uses the radiometric information contained in the VAS data to calculate quantitative heights.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810009553','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810009553"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> platform systems concepts definition study. Volume 2A: Appendixes, book 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Various investigations and support data concerning <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform feasibility are presented. Servicing flight analyses, platform cost model runs, and funding spread analyses are included. In addition, investigations of the radiation environment at synchronous altitude and its effects on satellite communication are reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950010802','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950010802"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> satellite positioning by DLR/GSOC operations and management methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brittinger, Peter</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Starting with a short description of the GSOC (German Space Operations Center) and its role within the wider framework of the research institute DLR, this paper provides a review of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> telecommunications satellites positioned by the GSOC. The paper then proceeds to describe the evolution of the operations and management structures and methods which have been effectively used to accomplish these missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.9188S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.9188S"><span id="translatedtitle">Assimilation of next generation <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> aerosol optical depth retrievals to improve air quality simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saide, Pablo E.; Kim, Jhoon; Song, Chul H.; Choi, Myungje; Cheng, Yafang; Carmichael, Gregory R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Planned <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites will provide aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals at high temporal and spatial resolution which will be incorporated into current assimilation systems that use low-Earth orbiting (e.g., Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) AOD. The impacts of such additions are explored in a real case scenario using AOD from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) on board of the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite, a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite observing northeast Asia. The addition of GOCI AOD into the assimilation system generated positive impacts, which were found to be substantial in comparison to only assimilating MODIS AOD. We found that GOCI AOD can help significantly to improve surface air quality simulations in Korea for dust, biomass burning smoke, and anthropogenic pollution episodes when the model represents the extent of the pollution episodes and retrievals are not contaminated by clouds. We anticipate future <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> missions to considerably contribute to air quality forecasting and provide better reanalyses for health assessments and climate studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010HESSD...7.5957A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010HESSD...7.5957A"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field to global scales using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and polar orbiting satellite imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, M. C.; Kustas, W. P.; Norman, J. M.; Hain, C. R.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Schultz, L.; González-Dugo, M. P.; Cammalleri, C.; D'Urso, G.; Pimstein, A.; Gao, F.</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST) provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetation amount (e.g., as quantified by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) have demonstrated utility in monitoring ET and drought conditions over large areas, they may provide ambiguous results when other factors (soil moisture, advection, air temperature) are affecting plant stress. A more physically based interpretation of LST and NDVI and their relationship to sub-surface moisture conditions can be obtained with a surface energy balance model driven by TIR remote sensing. The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model is a multi-sensor TIR approach to ET mapping, coupling a two-source (soil+canopy) land-surface model with an atmospheric boundary layer model in time-differencing mode to routinely and robustly map daily fluxes at continental scales and 5-10 km resolution using thermal band imagery and insolation estimates from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites. A related algorithm (DisALEXI), spatially disaggregates ALEXI fluxes down to finer spatial scales using moderate resolution TIR imagery from polar orbiting satellites. An overview of this modeling approach is presented, along with strategies for fusing information from multiple satellite platforms and wavebands to map daily ET down to resolutions of 30 m. The ALEXI/DisALEXI model has potential for global applications by integrating data from multiple <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite systems, such as the US <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellites, the European Meteosat satellites, the Chinese Fen-yung 2B series, and the Japanese <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Meteorological Satellites. Work is underway to further evaluate multi-scale ALEXI implementations over the US, Europe and, Africa and other continents</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011HESS...15..223A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011HESS...15..223A"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field to continental scales using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and polar orbiting satellite imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, M. C.; Kustas, W. P.; Norman, J. M.; Hain, C. R.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Schultz, L.; González-Dugo, M. P.; Cammalleri, C.; D'Urso, G.; Pimstein, A.; Gao, F.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST) provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetation amount (e.g., as quantified by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) have demonstrated utility in monitoring ET and drought conditions over large areas, they may provide ambiguous results when other factors (e.g., air temperature, advection) are affecting plant functioning. A more physically based interpretation of LST and NDVI and their relationship to sub-surface moisture conditions can be obtained with a surface energy balance model driven by TIR remote sensing. The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model is a multi-sensor TIR approach to ET mapping, coupling a two-source (soil + canopy) land-surface model with an atmospheric boundary layer model in time-differencing mode to routinely and robustly map daily fluxes at continental scales and 5 to 10-km resolution using thermal band imagery and insolation estimates from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites. A related algorithm (DisALEXI) spatially disaggregates ALEXI fluxes down to finer spatial scales using moderate resolution TIR imagery from polar orbiting satellites. An overview of this modeling approach is presented, along with strategies for fusing information from multiple satellite platforms and wavebands to map daily ET down to resolutions on the order of 10 m. The ALEXI/DisALEXI model has potential for global applications by integrating data from multiple <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite systems, such as the US <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellites, the European Meteosat satellites, the Chinese Fen-yung 2B series, and the Japanese <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Meteorological Satellites. Work is underway to further evaluate multi-scale ALEXI implementations over the US, Europe, Africa and other</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E.319A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E.319A"><span id="translatedtitle">Status of CNES optical observations of space debris in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alby, F.; Deguine, B.; Escane, I.</p> <p></p> <p>Ground observation of space debris in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit (GEO) or close to it is not feasible with radar facilities. Optical systems using a telescope and a CCD camera are effective solutions for such a GEO survey because objects remain fixed with report to the Earth. The photons can be cumulated during the exposure time, thus allowing observing faint objects. CNES has been studying and developing such systems for several years with two main objectives: first to develop systems able to detect debris in the vicinity of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit for statistical evaluation of the population, secondly to develop a tool to accurately determine the orbits: these activities are led in the frame of two projects called Tarot and Rosace. On one hand, the capability of detecting small objects in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit was demonstrated during previous studies using a large Schmidt telescope. Now, the software has been transferred on a smaller telescope called Tarot. This telescope has the advantage to be automatic with a real time processing capability and can be remotely controlled. Moreover, its large field of view enables a systematic survey of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> region to detect uncatalogued objects. Beside the detection function, a step by step orbit determination function is implemented. This function is necessary to find again the same object a few minutes or a few hours later. On the other hand, Rosace was designed as a low cost accurate orbit determination system for on-station <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites. The main application is the calibration of the classical tracking systems. The other objectives are to provide redundancy to existing facilities, to track failed satellites or to monitor co-located satellites. The first operational use is now foreseen in the frame of the Stentor project. This paper presents the main characteristics of both systems, the principle of their image processing software, their development status and the main results obtained. Finally, perspectives</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8321E..24Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8321E..24Y"><span id="translatedtitle">A new measuring method for motion accuracy of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">axis</span> NC equipments based on composite trajectory of circle and non-circle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Fan; Du, Zhengchun; Yang, Jiangguo; Hong, Maisheng</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Geometric motion error measurement has been considered as an important task for accuracy enhancement and quality assurance of NC machine tools and CMMs. In consideration of the disadvantages of traditional measuring methods,a new measuring method for motion accuracy of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">axis</span> NC equipments based on composite trajectory including circle and non-circle(straight line and/or polygonal line) is proposed. The principles and techniques of the new measuring method are discussed in detail. 8 feasible measuring strategies based on different measuring groupings are summarized and optimized. The experiment of the most preferable strategy is carried out on the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">axis</span> CNC vertical machining center Cincinnati 750 Arrow by using cross grid encoder. The whole measuring time of 21 error components of the new method is cut down to 1-2 h because of easy installation, adjustment, operation and the characteristics of non-contact measurement. Result shows that the new method is suitable for `on machine" measurement and has good prospects of wide application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810003623','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810003623"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> platform systems concepts definition follow-on study. Volume 2A: Technical Task 2 LSST special emphasis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The results of the Large Space Systems Technology special emphasis task are presented. The task was an analysis of structural requirements deriving from the initial Phase A Operational <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Platform study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920002341','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920002341"><span id="translatedtitle">The science benefits of and the antenna requirements for microwave remote sensing from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stutzman, Warren L. (Editor); Brown, Gary S. (Editor)</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The primary objective of the Large Space Antenna (LSA) Science Panel was to evaluate the science benefits that can be realized with a 25-meter class antenna in a microwave/millimeter wave remote sensing system in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. The panel concluded that a 25-meter or larger antenna in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit can serve significant passive remote sensing needs in the 10 to 60 GHz frequency range, including measurements of precipitation, water vapor, atmospheric temperature profile, ocean surface wind speed, oceanic cloud liquid water content, and snow cover. In addition, cloud base height, atmospheric wind profile, and ocean currents can potentially be measured using active sensors with the 25-meter antenna. Other environmental parameters, particularly those that do not require high temporal resolution, are better served by low Earth orbit based sensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSMSM41A..03K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSMSM41A..03K"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of a ULF Wave Index With Dynamics of <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Relativistic Electrons During Space Weather Month</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kozyreva, O. V.; Pilipenko, V. A.; Engebretson, M. J.; Yumoto, K.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>A new ULF wave index, characterizing the turbulent level of the geomagnetic field, has been calculated and applied for the analysis of relativistic electron enhancements during Space Weather Month (10-30 September 1999). The wave index has been produced from the INTERMAGNET, MACCS and CPMN dense arrays of ULF magnetometers in the Northern hemisphere. During the analyzed period two magnetic storms occurred (on September 12 and 22), and several significant increases of relativistic electron flux at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit (up to 2-3 orders of magnitude) were detected by <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> monitors. However, these electron enhancements were not related to the magnetic storm intervals. Instead, and rather unexpectedly, they correlated well with intervals of elevated ULF wave index, caused by the occurrence of intense Pc5 pulsations in the magnetosphere. This comparison is an additional indication of the possible importance of magnetospheric turbulence in energizing relativistic electrons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019455','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019455"><span id="translatedtitle">HISPASAT launch and early operations phases: Computation and monitoring of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite positioning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brousse, Pascal; Desprairies, Arnaud</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Since 1974, CNES, the French National Space Agency, has been involved in the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> launch and early operations phases (LEOP) of moving satellites from a transfer orbit delivered by a launcher to a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> point. During the operations and their preparation, the Flight Dynamics Center (FDC), part of CNES LEOP facilities, is in charge of the space mechanics aspects. What is noteworthy about the Spanish HISPASAT satellite positioning is that all the operations were performed on the customer's premises, and consequently the FDC was duplicated in Madrid, Spain. The first part of this paper is the FDC presentation: its role, its hardware configuration, and its space dynamics ground control system called MERCATOR. The second part of this paper details the preparation used by the FDC for the HISPASAT mission: hardware and software installation in Madrid, integration with the other entities, and technical and operational qualifications. The third part gives results concerning flight dynamics aspects and operational activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.5886Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.5886Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol data assimilation using data from Himawari-8, a next-generation <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yumimoto, K.; Nagao, T. M.; Kikuchi, M.; Sekiyama, T. T.; Murakami, H.; Tanaka, T. Y.; Ogi, A.; Irie, H.; Khatri, P.; Okumura, H.; Arai, K.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Maki, T.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Himawari-8, a next-generation <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite, was launched on 7 October 2014 and became operational on 7 July 2015. The advanced imager on board Himawari-8 is equipped with 16 observational bands (including three visible and three near-infrared bands) that enable retrieval of full-disk aerosol optical properties at 10 min intervals from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) orbit. Here we show the first application of aerosol optical properties (AOPs) derived from Himawari-8 data to aerosol data assimilation. Validation of the assimilation experiment by comparison with independent observations demonstrated successful modeling of continental pollution that was not predicted by simulation without assimilation and reduced overestimates of dust front concentrations. These promising results suggest that AOPs derived from Himawari-8/9 and other planned GEO satellites will considerably improve forecasts of air quality, inverse modeling of emissions, and aerosol reanalysis through assimilation techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A23J..01E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A23J..01E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> atmospheric composition observations from the NASA Decadal Survey GEO-CAPE mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edwards, D. P.; Jacob, D. J.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Iraci, L. T.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the science definition work that is being performed in preparation for the NASA Decadal Survey GEO-CAPE mission. To serve the atmospheric composition community, GEO-CAPE will make a suite of trace gas and aerosol measurements from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit concentrating on North America with high spatiotemporal resolution. This will provide unique insights into pollutant sources, transport, chemical transformations and climate impact. In addition to significantly improved understanding of the underlying processes determining atmospheric composition, GEO-CAPE observations will also find direct societal application for air quality management and forecasting. The paper will also discuss the potential phased implementation of this mission as a series of hosted payloads, and GEO-CAPE as the U.S. contribution to a constellation of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platforms to achieve continuous coverage at northern mid-latitudes by the turn of the decade.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991mont.iafcV....F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991mont.iafcV....F"><span id="translatedtitle">SILEX mission - First European experiment using optical frequencies between <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and low earth orbiting satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Faup, Michel; Laurent, Bernard; Pera, Luigi</p> <p>1991-10-01</p> <p>Since 1982, CNES has investigated the possibility to relay data from a low earth orbiting satellite to the ground via a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite through a high data rate optical link. This work has led to a collaboration between ESA and CNES to implement the Semiconductor Intersatellite Link experiment (SILEX) which involves two terminals, one on Artemis (ESA <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite) and one on SPOT-4 (French Earth Observation Satellite). This paper presents the technical baseline that has been selected for SILEX. A short discussion of the performance will be initiated mainly concerning the questions linked to interfaces with the host platforms and the expected communication performance. The areas of development that could help to define the next generation of optical communication experiments and applications are explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016755','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016755"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive Array for Weak Interfering Signals: <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Experiments. M.S. Thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Steadman, Karl</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The performance of an experimental adaptive array is evaluated using signals from an existing <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite interference environment. To do this, an earth station antenna was built to receive signals from various <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites. In these experiments the received signals have a frequency of approximately 4 GHz (C-band) and have a bandwidth of over 35 MHz. These signals are downconverted to a 69 MHz intermediate frequency in the experimental system. Using the downconverted signals, the performance of the experimental system for various signal scenarios is evaluated. In this situation, due to the inherent thermal noise, qualitative instead of quantitative test results are presented. It is shown that the experimental system can null up to two interfering signals well below the noise level. However, to avoid the cancellation of the desired signal, the use a steering vector is needed. Various methods to obtain an estimate of the steering vector are proposed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760026032','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760026032"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary analysis of the implications of natural radiations on <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, J. W.; Denn, F. M.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The natural radiations present at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit are discussed. Low-level galactic cosmic rays are important for careers spending a year or more at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> altitude. Trapped radiation will on occasion require interruption of extravehicular activity (EVA). The spacesuit shield requirements are strongly affected by the number of interruptions allowed. EVA cannot proceed during a large solar event and maximum allowable doses are exceeded in a few hours unless a heavily shielded area is provided. A shelter of 10 g/sq cm with personal shielding for the eyes and testes would contain exposure to within the presently accepted exposure constraints. Since radiation levels can increase unexpectedly to serious levels, an onboard radiation monitoring system with rate and integration capabilities is required for both surface-dose and depth-dose monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080008382&hterms=geo&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dgeo','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080008382&hterms=geo&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dgeo"><span id="translatedtitle">An LO Phase Link Using a Commercial <span class="hlt">Geo-Stationary</span> Satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bardin, Joseph C.; Weinreb, Sander; Bagri, Durgadas S.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This viewgraph presentation reviews an experiment to determine feasibility of achieving 1 ps level time transfer using a satellite link and make use of inexpensive Ku band transmit/receive equipment. It reviews the advantages of Two Way Satellite Time Transfer using a commercial <span class="hlt">Geo-Stationary</span> Satellite: (1) Commercial satellites are available (2) Significant cost reduction when compared to Hydrogen Masers and (3) Large footprint- entire US (including Hawaii) with just one satellite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920073169&hterms=ARCHITECTURE+NETWORK&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DARCHITECTURE%2BNETWORK','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920073169&hterms=ARCHITECTURE+NETWORK&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DARCHITECTURE%2BNETWORK"><span id="translatedtitle">Destination directed packet switch architecture for a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communication satellite network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ivancic, W. D.; Shalkhauser, M. J.; Bobinsky, E. A.; Soni, N. J.; Quintana, J. A.; Kim, H.; Wagner, P.; Vanderaar, M.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A major effort at NASA/Lewis is to identify and develop critical digital technologies and components that enable new commercial missions or significantly improve the performance, cost efficiency, and/or reliability of existing and planned space comunications systems. NASA envisions the need for low data rate, direct to the user communications services, for data, facsimile, voice, and video conferencing. A report that focuses on destination directed packet switching architectures for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communication satellites is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SoSyR..48..507S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SoSyR..48..507S"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined system for the compensation of the solar pressure-induced disturbing torque for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shmatov, S. I.; Mordvinkin, A. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The problem is considered of determining the shape and dimensions of the passive component in a combined system for offsetting the solar pressure-induced disturbing torque for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> spacecraft with asymmetrical solar arrays. The problem statement, numerical solution algorithm, and calculated results are presented. The resulting shape, the study suggests, not only has the required compensation properties but is also the most efficient from the standpoint of manufacture and functional reliability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010016101','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010016101"><span id="translatedtitle">EHL Transition Temperature Measurements on a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Filter Wheel Bearing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jansen, Mark J.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Predmore, Roamer E.; Shogrin, Bradley A.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) transition temperature was measured for a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) sounder filter wheel bearing in a vacuum tribometer. Conditions included both an 89 N (20 lb.) hard and soft load, 600 rpm, temperatures between 23 C (73 F) and 85 C (185 F), and a vacuum of approximately 1.3 x 10(exp -5) Pa. Elastohydrodynamic to mixed lubrication started to occur at approximately 70 C (158 F).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000092072','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000092072"><span id="translatedtitle">Earth-to-<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Orbit Transportation for Space Solar Power System Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Martin, James A.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Lawrence, Schuyler C.; McClanahan, James A.; Carrington, Connie K. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Space solar power satellites have the potential to provide abundant quantities of electricity for use on Earth. One concept, the Sun Tower, can be assembled in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit from pieces transferred from Earth. The cost of transportation is one of the major hurdles to space solar power. This study found that autonomous solar-electric transfer is a good choice for the transportation from LEO to GEO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1995ApOpt..34.7054B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1995ApOpt..34.7054B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Angular aberration in the problem of power beaming to <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites through the atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baryshnikov, Fedor F.</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>The influence of angular aberration of radiation as a result of the difference in speed of a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite and the speed of the Earth's surface on laser power beaming to satellites is considered. Angular aberration makes it impossible to direct the energy to the satellite, and additional beam rotation is necessary. Because the Earth's rotation may cause how to transfer incoherent radiation to remote satellites. In the framework of the Kolmogorov turbulence model simple conditions of energy transfer are derived and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984ITCom..32..627H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984ITCom..32..627H"><span id="translatedtitle">On the relationship between <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit capacity and the interference allowance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hedinger, R. A.; Jeruchim, M. C.</p> <p>1984-05-01</p> <p>A discussion is conducted concerning the impact which may be anticipated from an increase of the intersatellite interference allowance in the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit which would permit a greater number of satellites to be accommodated within that orbit/spectrum resource. Since the individual satellites' capabilities will be reduced as a result of such a change, attention is given to the tradeoff between intersatellite interference and total orbit capacity for both digital and analog modulation methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A51A0001K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A51A0001K"><span id="translatedtitle">Developments of aerosol retrieval algorithm for <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) and the retrieval accuracy test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Ahn, C.; Bhartia, P. K.; Torres, O.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A scanning UV-Visible spectrometer, the GEMS (<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) onboard the GEO-KOMPSAT2B (<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite) is planned to be launched in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit in 2018. The GEMS employs hyper-spectral imaging with 0.6 nm resolution to observe solar backscatter radiation in the UV and Visible range. In the UV range, the low surface contribution to the backscattered radiation and strong interaction between aerosol absorption and molecular scattering can be advantageous in retrieving aerosol optical properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA). By taking the advantage, the OMI UV aerosol algorithm has provided information on the absorbing aerosol (Torres et al., 2007; Ahn et al., 2008). This study presents a UV-VIS algorithm to retrieve AOD and SSA from GEMS. The algorithm is based on the general inversion method, which uses pre-calculated look-up table with assumed aerosol properties and measurement condition. To obtain the retrieval accuracy, the error of the look-up table method occurred by the interpolation of pre-calculated radiances is estimated by using the reference dataset, and the uncertainties about aerosol type and height are evaluated. Also, the GEMS aerosol algorithm is tested with measured normalized radiance from OMI, a provisional data set for GEMS measurement, and the results are compared with the values from AERONET measurements over Asia. Additionally, the method for simultaneous retrieve of the AOD and aerosol height is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890005531&hterms=bold&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dbold','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890005531&hterms=bold&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dbold"><span id="translatedtitle">Control of the flexible modes of an advanced technology <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dewalt, Diane V.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A controls analysis is conducted on an advanced technology <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform. This spacecraft is a large flexible structure with a payload of Earth-sensing instruments which will collect data from Earth's oceans, land, and atmosphere as a part of the bold initiative mission to Planet Earth proposed by NASA. This program will provide a collection of data from a family of spacecraft in both low-Earth orbit and <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit, which will afford a global definition of the Earth as a system with the capability to predict future events resulting from human and natural forces. The platform concept studied here is a large flexible structure with a payload of eighteen instruments. Because the platform is in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit, these instruments have sensitive pointing accuracy requirements, in the range of 0.1 to 0.0001 degrees, which must be satisfied. The structure housing the instruments is large and flexible with characteristic low natural frequencies, so active control is necessary for vibration suppression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4927997','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4927997"><span id="translatedtitle">Qingchang Wenzhong Decoction Ameliorates Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats by Downregulating the IP10/CXCR<span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">Axis</span>-Mediated Inflammatory Response</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mao, Tang-you; Shi, Rui; Zhao, Wei-han; Guo, Yi; Gao, Kang-li; Chen, Chen; Xie, Tian-hong; Li, Jun-xiang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Qingchang Wenzhong Decoction (QCWZD) is an effective traditional Chinese medicine prescription. Our previous studies have shown that QCWZD has significant efficacy in patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis (UC) and in colonic mucosa repair in UC rat models. However, the exact underlying mechanism remains unknown. Thus, this study was conducted to determine QCWZD's efficacy and mechanism in dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced UC rat models, which were established by 7-day administration of 4.5% DSS solution. QCWZD was administered daily for 7 days, after which the rats were euthanized. Disease activity index (DAI), histological score (HS), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) level were determined to evaluate UC severity. Serum interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP10) levels were determined using ELISA kits. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction were, respectively, used to determine colonic protein and gene expression of IP10, chemokine (cys-x-cys motif) receptor (CXCR)3, and nuclear factor- (NF-) κB p65. Intragastric QCWZD administration ameliorated DSS-induced UC, as evidenced by decreased DAI, HS, and MPO levels. Furthermore, QCWZD decreased the protein and gene expression of IP10, CXCR3, and NF-κB p65. Overall, these results suggest that QCWZD ameliorates DSS-induced UC in rats by downregulating the IP10/CXCR<span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">axis</span>-mediated inflammatory response and may be a novel UC therapy. PMID:27413386</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27470388','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27470388"><span id="translatedtitle">CXCL10/CXCR<span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">axis</span> promotes the invasion of gastric cancer via PI3K/AKT pathway-dependent MMPs production.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Hongfeng; Wu, Jin; Wang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Xufeng; Liu, Dan</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>CXCR3, a G-protein coupled chemokine receptor, has been found to be overexpressed in many tumors and act as an independent prognostic marker. However, it is still unclear whether CXCR3 is involved in gastric cancer progression. In this study, we found that CXCR3 was markedly expressed in gastric cancer cells and tissues. High CXCR3 expression correlated with advanced tumor stage, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis and poor survival of gastric cancer patients. Activation of CXCR3 by one of its ligands CXCL10 promoted the invasion and migration of gastric cancer BGC-823 and MGC-803 cells, and increased the secretion and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9. However, the effects of CXCL10 on gastric cancer cells were attenuated by CXCR3 siRNA transfection. Furthermore, overexpression of CXCR3 enhanced CXCL10-mediated cell invasion and migration of gastric cancer MKN28 cells. In addition, CXCR3 time-dependently induced activation of AKT. PI3K/AKT pathway was required for CXCR3-mediated gastric cancer cell invasion, migration and MMP-2/9 production. Together, our findings suggest that CXCL10/CXCR<span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">axis</span> promotes gastric cancer cell invasion and migration by upregulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 production via PI3K/AKT pathway. Thus, CXCR3 could be a potential target for the gastric cancer treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110004347','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110004347"><span id="translatedtitle">The Goes-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM): Algorithm and Instrument Status</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved capability for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lighting Mapper (GLM) will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lighting flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development (a prototype and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. A joint field campaign with Brazilian researchers in 2010-2011 will produce concurrent observations from a VHF lightning mapping array, Meteosat multi-band imagery, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) overpasses, and related ground and in-situ lightning and meteorological measurements in the vicinity of Sao Paulo. These data will provide a new comprehensive proxy data set for algorithm and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E2591B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E2591B"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Tropospheric Pollution Explorer (GeoTROPE) mission: Objectives and Requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burrows, J.; Bergametti, G.; Bovensmann, H.; Flaud, J.; Orphal, J.; Noel, S.; Monks, P.; Corlett, G.; Goede, A.; von Clarmann, T.; Steck, T.; Fischer, H.; Friedl-Vallon, F.</p> <p></p> <p>One of the major challenges facing atmospheric sciences is to assess, understand and quantify the impact of natural and anthropogenic pollution on the quality of life on Earth on a local, regional and continental scale. It has become apparent that pollution originating from local/regional events can have serious effects on the composition of the lower atmosphere on a continental scale. However, to understand the effects of regional pollution on a continental scale there is a requirement to transcend traditional atmospheric spatial and temporal scales and attempt to monitor the entire atmosphere at the same time. In the troposphere the variability of chemical processes, of source strength and the dynamics induce important short term, i.e. sub-hourly, variations and significant horizontal and vertical variability of constituents and geophysical parameters relevant to a range of contemporary issues such as air quality. To study tropospheric composition, it is therefore required to link diurnal with seasonal and annual timescales, as well as local and regional with continental spatial scales, by performing sub-hourly measurements at appropriate horizontal and vertical resolution. Tropospheric observations from low-Earth orbit (LEO) platforms have already demonstrated the potential of detecting constituents relevant for air quality but they are limited, for example by the daily revisit time and local cloud cover statistics. The net result of this is is that the troposphere is currently significantly under sampled. Measurements from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Orbit (GEO) offer the only practical approach to the observation of diurnal variation from space with the pertinent horizontal resolution. The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Tropospheric Pollution Explorer (GeoTROPE) is an attempt to determine tropospheric constituents with high temporal and spatial resolution. The talk will summarise the needs for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> observations of tropospheric composition and will give the mission objectives and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AdSpR..34..682B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AdSpR..34..682B"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> tropospheric pollution explorer (GeoTROPE) mission: objectives, requirements and mission concept</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burrows, J. P.; Bovensmann, H.; Bergametti, G.; Flaud, J. M.; Orphal, J.; Noël, S.; Monks, P. S.; Corlett, G. K.; Goede, A. P.; von Clarmann, T.; Steck, T.; Fischer, H.; Friedl-Vallon, F.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>One of the major challenges facing atmospheric sciences is to assess, understand and quantify the impact of natural and anthropogenic pollution on the quality of life on Earth on a local, regional and continental scale. It has become apparent that pollution originating from local/regional events can have serious effects on the composition of the lower atmosphere on a continental scale. However, to understand the effects of regional pollution on a continental scale there is a requirement to transcend traditional atmospheric spatial and temporal scales and attempt to monitor the entire atmosphere at the same time. In the troposphere the variability of chemical processes, of source strength and the dynamics induce important short term, i.e., sub-hourly, variations and significant horizontal and vertical variability of constituents and geophysical parameters relevant to a range of contemporary issues such as air quality. To study tropospheric composition, it is therefore required to link diurnal with seasonal and annual timescales, as well as local and regional with continental spatial scales, by performing sub-hourly measurements at appropriate horizontal and vertical resolution. Tropospheric observations from low-Earth orbit (LEO) platforms have already demonstrated the potential of detecting constituents relevant for air quality but they are limited, for example by the daily revisit time and local cloud cover statistics. The net result of this is that the troposphere is currently significantly under sampled. Measurements from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Orbit (GEO) offer the only practical approach to the observation of diurnal variation from space with the pertinent horizontal resolution. The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Tropospheric Pollution Explorer (GeoTROPE) is an attempt to determine tropospheric constituents with high temporal and spatial resolution. The paper will summarise the needs for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> observations of tropospheric composition and will give the mission objectives and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B53C0563L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B53C0563L"><span id="translatedtitle">Minimizing Gaps of Daily Ndvi Map with <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Remote Sensing Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, S.; Ryu, Y.; Jiang, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Satellite based remote sensing has been used to monitor plant phenology. Numerous studies have generally utilized normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to quantify phenological patterns and changes in regional to the global scales. Obtaining the NDVI values during summer in East Asian Monsoon regions is important because most plants grow vigorously in this season. However, satellite derived NDVI data are error prone to clouds during most of the period. Various methods have attempted to reduce the effect of cloud in temporal and spatial NDVI monitoring; the fundamental solution is to have a large data pool that includes multiple images in short period and supplements NDVI values in same period. Multiple images of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite in a day can be a method to expand the pool. In this study, we suggest an approach that minimizes data gaps in NDVI of the day through <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite derived NDVI composition. We acquired data from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) which is a satellite that was launched to monitor ocean around the Korean peninsula, China, Japan and Russia. The satellite observes eight times per day (09:00 - 16:00, every hour) at 500 x 500 m resolution from 2011 to 2015. GOCI red- and near infrared radiance was converted into surface reflectance by using 6S Radiative Transfer Model (6S). We calculated NDVI tiles for each of observed eight tiles per day and made one day NDVI through maximum-value composite method. We evaluated the composite GOCI derived NDVI by comparing with daily MODIS-derived NDVI (composited from MOD09GA and MYD09GA), 16-day Landsat 8-derived NDVI, and in-situ light emitting diode (LED) NDVI measurements at a homogeneous deciduous forest and rice paddy sites. We found that GOCI-derived NDVI maps revealed little data gaps compared to MODIS and Landsat, and GOCI derived NDVI time series were smoother than MODIS derived NDVI time series in summer. GOCI-derived NDVI agreed well with in-situ observations of NDVI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780006589','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780006589"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential applications of digital, visible, and infrared data from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> environmental satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, D. B.; Waters, M. P., III; Tarpley, J. D.; Green, R. N.; Dismachek, D. C.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>An hourly, digital data base from the Visible/Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) instrument on the GOES-1 and SMS-2 <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites is described. Several examples of developmental applications of these quantitative digital data are presented. These include a review of recent attempts to develop products that are of use to meteorologists who provide services to aviation, agriculture, forestry, hydrology, oceanography, and climatology. The sample products include high resolution thermal gradients of land and ocean surfaces, thermal change analyses, fruit frost/freeze application, cloud-top altitude analysis, analysis of hurricane characteristics, and analyses of solar insolation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JASS...17..256E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JASS...17..256E"><span id="translatedtitle">a Study on Fuel Estimation Algorithms for a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Communication & Broadcasting Satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eun, Jong-Won</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>It has been developed to calculate fuel budget for a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communication and broadcasting satellite. It is quite essential that the pre-launch fuel budget estimation must account for the deterministic transfer and drift orbit maneuver requirements. After on-station, the calculation of satellite lifetime should be based on the estimation of remaining fuel and assessment of actual performance. These estimations step from the proper algorithms to produce the prediction of satellite lifetime. This paper concentrates on the fuel estimation method that was studied for calculation of the propellant budget by using the given algorithms. Applications of this method are discussed for a communication and broadcasting satellite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980045090&hterms=tor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dtor','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980045090&hterms=tor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dtor"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite system for mobile multimedia applications using portable, aeronautical and mobile terminals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Losquadro, G.; Luglio, M.; Vatalaro, F.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite system for mobile multimedia services via portable, aeronautical and mobile terminals was developed within the framework of the Advanced Communications Technology Service (ACTS) programs. The architecture of the system developed under the 'satellite extremely high frequency communications for multimedia mobile services (SECOMS)/ACTS broadband aeronautical terminal experiment' (ABATE) project is presented. The system will be composed of a Ka band system component, and an extremely high frequency band component. The major characteristics of the space segment, the ground control station and the portable, aeronautical and mobile user terminals are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870028812&hterms=right+maritime+International&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dright%2Bmaritime%2BInternational','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870028812&hterms=right+maritime+International&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dright%2Bmaritime%2BInternational"><span id="translatedtitle">406-MHz <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> SAR experiment. [for detection and location of aeronautical, maritime and terrestrial distress incidents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dumont, P.; Hayes, E. J.; Friedman, M. L.; Rogalskii, W. I.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The ability of a 406-MHz satellite to detect and locate aeronautical, maritime, and terrestrial distress incidents is investigated. The <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite, uplink and downlink budgets, and processors utilized in the experiment are described. The experiment involves: (1) benchmark testing, (2) verification of spacecraft repeater performance, (3) system evaluation, and (4) environmental testing. The Canadian processor data reveal that the processor threshold is 28 dB Hz, the degradation at 27 dB Hz is significant, the median distress message throughput time is 6 minutes, and the microcomputer can handle 10 distress incidents per hour.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.5435H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.5435H"><span id="translatedtitle">Convective cloud top vertical velocity estimated from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite rapid-scan measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamada, Atsushi; Takayabu, Yukari N.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We demonstrate that the rate of development of cumulus clouds, as inferred from the so-called <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite "rapid-scan" measurements, is a good proxy for convective cloud top vertical velocity related to deep convective clouds. Convective cloud top vertical velocity is estimated from the decreasing rate of infrared brightness temperature observed by the Multi-functional Transport SATellite-1R (MTSAT-1R) over the ocean south of Japan during boreal summer. The frequency distribution of the estimated convective cloud top vertical velocity at each height is shown to distribute lognormally, and it is consistent with the statistical characteristics of direct measurements acquired in previous studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780047983&hterms=Longitude&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DLongitude','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780047983&hterms=Longitude&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DLongitude"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> longitude acquisition planning algorithm. [for maneuver planning of geosynchronous satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Petruzzo, C. J.; Bryant, W. C., Jr.; Nickerson, K. G.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The paper is concerned with the phase of the geosynchronous mission termed station acquisition, which involves the maneuvering of a spacecraft to its <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> longitude by means of the spacecraft propulsion system. An algorithm which assists in maneuver planning is described, and examples of its use are presented. The algorithm can be applied when sequences of more than three maneuvers are to be expected. While, in general, three maneuvers are sufficient to achieve the desired end conditions when orbital mechanics are the only consideration, operational considerations may add constraints resulting in an increased number of maneuvers required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=321652&keyword=satellite&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68457117&CFTOKEN=81926027','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=321652&keyword=satellite&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68457117&CFTOKEN=81926027"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen dioxide observations from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument: Retrieval algorithm and measurements during DISCOVER-AQ Texas 2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument is a test bed for upcoming air quality satellite instruments that will measure backscattered ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. GeoTASO flew on the NASA F...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec25-260.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec25-260.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.260 - Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. 25.260... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.260 Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. (a) A...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec25-260.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec25-260.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.260 - Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. 25.260... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.260 Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. (a) A...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec25-260.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec25-260.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.260 - Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. 25.260... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.260 Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. (a) The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec25-260.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec25-260.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.260 - Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. 25.260... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.260 Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. (a) A...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec25-260.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec25-260.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.260 - Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. 25.260... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.260 Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. (a) The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940008638','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940008638"><span id="translatedtitle">Destination-directed, packet-switched architecture for a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communications satellite network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ivancic, William D.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Bobinsky, Eric A.; Soni, Nitin J.; Quintana, Jorge A.; Kim, Heechul; Wager, Paul; Vanderaar, Mark</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A major goal of the Digital Systems Technology Branch at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to identify and develop critical digital components and technologies that either enable new commercial missions or significantly enhance the performance, cost efficiency, and/or reliability of existing and planned space communications systems. NASA envisions a need for low-data-rate, interactive, direct-to-the-user communications services for data, voice, facsimile, and video conferencing. The network would provide enhanced very-small-aperture terminal (VSAT) communications services and be capable of handling data rates of 64 kbps through 2.048 Mbps in 64-kbps increments. Efforts have concentrated heavily on the space segment; however, the ground segment has been considered concurrently to ensure cost efficiency and realistic operational constraints. The focus of current space segment developments is a flexible, high-throughput, fault-tolerant onboard information-switching processor (ISP) for a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite communications network. The Digital Systems Technology Branch is investigating both circuit and packet architectures for the ISP. Destination-directed, packet-switched architectures for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communications satellites are addressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998eati.symp..307B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998eati.symp..307B"><span id="translatedtitle">Displacement and dissipation under the rotating tidal potential, in contrast to Love's <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bostrom, R. C.</p> <p></p> <p>The Earth rotates relative to the solunar gravity field. In consequence the M2, S2 tides are represented by permanent bulges, travelling westward around the Earth as distortion waves. The associated tidal stress ellipsoid progresses perpetually by rotation, without reversal. It is shown that under imperfect elasticity, in lieu of the body forces induced by Love's <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> time-variant potential a rotating potential induces internal body couples, equally pervasive. Displacement is cumulative, and in the vortical mode formulated by Helmholtz (1858). Whereas in the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> formulation of Love cumulative distortion is nil, in actuality this motion is primary, and dimensionally capable of coupling with extant mantle convection. Unlike the marine tides, the bodily wave-tides proceed unhindered around the Earth unhindered by continental margins. Corrected for oceanic effects the complex Love numbers measure dissipation, as commonly supposed. However dissipation is the result of unmapped cumulative vortical displacement (a circulation component), rather than oscillatory forces having the form of a geographically stationary spheroidal eigenvibration. The characteristic period of the loss factor 1/Q is infinity rather than the period pertinent to seismicity or wobble, to which it is dimensionally unrelated. Although primary vorticity-induction is required by the existence of the rotating tidal potential, its tectonic consequences are a matter of speculation, treated elsewhere [1]. --- [1] Bostrom, R.C., 1998. Tectonic Consequences of the Earth's Rotation. Oxfo rd University Press.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22089853','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22089853"><span id="translatedtitle">A TEMPORAL MAP IN <span class="hlt">GEOSTATIONARY</span> ORBIT: THE COVER ETCHING ON THE EchoStar XVI ARTIFACT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Weisberg, Joel M.; Paglen, Trevor</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> satellites are unique among orbital spacecraft in that they experience no appreciable atmospheric drag. After concluding their respective missions, <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> spacecraft remain in orbit virtually in perpetuity. As such, they represent some of human civilization's longest lasting artifacts. With this in mind, the EchoStar XVI satellite, to be launched in fall 2012, will play host to a time capsule intended as a message for the deep future. Inspired in part by the Pioneer Plaque and Voyager Golden Records, the EchoStar XVI Artifact is a pair of gold-plated aluminum jackets housing a small silicon disk containing 100 photographs. The Cover Etching, the subject of this paper, is etched onto one of the two jackets. It is a temporal map consisting of a star chart, pulsar timings, and other information describing the epoch from which EchoStar XVI came. The pulsar sample consists of 13 rapidly rotating objects, 5 of which are especially stable, having spin periods <10 ms and extremely small spin-down rates. In this paper, we discuss our approach to the time map etched onto the cover and the scientific data shown on it, and we speculate on the uses that future scientists may have for its data. The other portions of the EchoStar XVI Artifact will be discussed elsewhere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910001728','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910001728"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal-distortion analysis of a spacecraft box truss in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cosgrove, Patrick A.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Rowell, Lawrence F.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The Mission to Planet Earth enlists the use of a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform to support Earth science monitoring instruments. The strongback for a proposed <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform is a deployable box truss that supports two large diameter passive microwave radiometer (PMR) and several other science instruments. A study was performed to estimate the north-south and east-west pointing errors at the mounting locations of the two PMRs due to on-orbit thermal distortions of the main truss. The baseline configuration indicated that the east-west pointing error greatly exceeded the required limits. Primary origins of the pointing errors were identified, and methods for their reduction were discussed. Thermal performance enhancements to the truss structure were modeled and analyzed, including state-of-the-art surface coatings and insulation techniques. Comparisons of the thermal enhancements to the baseline were performed. Results demonstrated that using a thermal enclosure insulating technique reduced external heat fluxes, and distributed those heat fluxes more evenly throughout the structure, sufficiently reducing the pointing error to satisfy pointing accuracy requirements for the PMR's.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24919017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24919017"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal physical property-based fusion of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite visible and infrared channel images.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Han, Lei; Shi, Lu; Yang, Yiling; Song, Dalei</p> <p>2014-06-10</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> meteorological satellite infrared (IR) channel data contain important spectral information for meteorological research and applications, but their spatial resolution is relatively low. The objective of this study is to obtain higher-resolution IR images. One common method of increasing resolution fuses the IR data with high-resolution visible (VIS) channel data. However, most existing image fusion methods focus only on visual performance, and often fail to take into account the thermal physical properties of the IR images. As a result, spectral distortion occurs frequently. To tackle this problem, we propose a thermal physical properties-based correction method for fusing <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite IR and VIS images. In our two-step process, the high-resolution structural features of the VIS image are first extracted and incorporated into the IR image using regular multi-resolution fusion approach, such as the multiwavelet analysis. This step significantly increases the visual details in the IR image, but fake thermal information may be included. Next, the Stefan-Boltzmann Law is applied to correct the distortion, to retain or recover the thermal infrared nature of the fused image. The results of both the qualitative and quantitative evaluation demonstrate that the proposed physical correction method both improves the spatial resolution and preserves the infrared thermal properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8866E..02S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8866E..02S"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder (GRIPS): measurement of the carbon gases from space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schoeberl, M.; Dickerson, R.; Marshall, B. T.; McHugh, M.; Fish, C.; Bloom, H.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Climate change and air quality are the most pressing environmental issues of the 21st century. Despite decades of research, the sources and sinks of key greenhouse gases remain highly uncertain [IPCC1] making quantitative predictions of atmospheric composition and their impacts. The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder (GRIPS) is a multi-purpose instrument designed to reduce uncertainty associated with atmospheric radiative forcing. GRIPS will measure will measure greenhouse gases and aerosols - two of the most important elements in the earth's radiation budget. GRIPS will observe carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), - the carbon gases, nitrous oxide (N2O), water vapor and aerosols with unprecedented precision through the atmosphere. The GRIPS instrument uses gas filter correlation radiometry (GFCR) to detect reflected and thermal IR radiation to detect the gases and the reflected solar radiation in the visible and short-wave infrared bands for aerosols. GRIPS is designed to have sensitivity down to the Earth's surface at ~2-8km nadir resolution. GRIPS can resolve CO2, CO, and CH4 anomalies in the planetary boundary layer and the free troposphere to quantify lofting, diurnal variations and longrange transport. With repeated measurements throughout the day GRIPS can maximize the number of cloud free measurements determining biogenic and anthropogenic sources, sinks, and fluxes. GRIPS is highly complementary to the Orbiting Carbon Observatory, OCO-2, the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and other existing and planned missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.127..296Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.127..296Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Minimum-fuel station-change for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites using low-thrust considering perturbations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, ShuGe; Zhang, JingRui</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The objective of this paper is to find the minimum-fuel station change for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites with low-thrust while considering significant perturbation forces for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Earth orbit (GEO). The effect of Earth's triaxiality, lunisolar perturbations, and solar radiation pressure on the terminal conditions of a long duration GEO transfer is derived and used for establishing the station change model with consideration of significant perturbation forces. A method is presented for analytically evaluating the effect of Earth's triaxiality on the semimajor axis and longitude during a station change. The minimum-fuel problem is solved by the indirect optimization method. The easier and related minimum-energy problem is first addressed and then the energy-to-fuel homotopy is employed to finally obtain the solution of the minimum-fuel problem. Several effective techniques are employed in solving the two-point boundary-value problem with a shooting method to overcome the problem of the small convergence radius and the sensitivity of the initial costate variables. These methods include normalization of the initial costate vector, computation of the analytic Jacobians matrix, and switching detection. The simulation results show that the solution of the minimum-fuel station change with low-thrust considering significant perturbation forces can be obtained by applying these preceding techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810009550','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810009550"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> platform systems concepts definition study. Volume 2: Technical, book 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A selected concept for a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform is defined in sufficient detail to identify requirements for supporting research and technology, space demonstrations, GFE interfaces, costs, and schedules. This system consists of six platforms in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit (GEO) over the Western Hemisphere and six over the Atlantic, to satisfy the total payload set associated with the nominal traffic model. Each platform is delivered to low Earth orbit (LEO) in a single shuttle flight, already mated to its LEO to GEO transfer vehicle and ready for deployment and transfer to GEO. An alternative concept is looked at briefly for comparison of configuration and technology requirements. This alternative consists of two large platforms, one over the Western Hemisphere consisting of three docked modules, and one over the Atlantic (two docked modules), to satisfy a high traffic model. The modules are full length orbiter cargo bay payloads, mated at LEO to orbital transfer vehicles (OTVs) delivered in other shuttle flights, for transfer to GEO, rendezvous, and docking. A preliminary feasibility study of an experimental platform is also performed to demonstrate communications and platform technologies required for the operational platforms of the 1990s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AJ....144..118W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AJ....144..118W"><span id="translatedtitle">A Temporal Map in <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Orbit: The Cover Etching on the EchoStar XVI Artifact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weisberg, Joel M.; Paglen, Trevor</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> satellites are unique among orbital spacecraft in that they experience no appreciable atmospheric drag. After concluding their respective missions, <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> spacecraft remain in orbit virtually in perpetuity. As such, they represent some of human civilization's longest lasting artifacts. With this in mind, the EchoStar XVI satellite, to be launched in fall 2012, will play host to a time capsule intended as a message for the deep future. Inspired in part by the Pioneer Plaque and Voyager Golden Records, the EchoStar XVI Artifact is a pair of gold-plated aluminum jackets housing a small silicon disk containing 100 photographs. The Cover Etching, the subject of this paper, is etched onto one of the two jackets. It is a temporal map consisting of a star chart, pulsar timings, and other information describing the epoch from which EchoStar XVI came. The pulsar sample consists of 13 rapidly rotating objects, 5 of which are especially stable, having spin periods <10 ms and extremely small spin-down rates. In this paper, we discuss our approach to the time map etched onto the cover and the scientific data shown on it, and we speculate on the uses that future scientists may have for its data. The other portions of the EchoStar XVI Artifact will be discussed elsewhere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160001773','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160001773"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Sensitivity Analysis Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Meemong; Bowman, Kevin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal and Air pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) is a NASA decadal survey mission to be designed to provide surface reflectance at high spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit necessary for studying regional-scale air quality issues and their impact on global atmospheric composition processes. GEO-CAPE's Atmospheric Science Questions explore the influence of both gases and particles on air quality, atmospheric composition, and climate. The objective of the GEO-CAPE Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is to analyze the sensitivity of ozone to the global and regional NOx emissions and improve the science impact of GEO-CAPE with respect to the global air quality. The GEO-CAPE OSSE team at Jet propulsion Laboratory has developed a comprehensive OSSE framework that can perform adjoint-sensitivity analysis for a wide range of observation scenarios and measurement qualities. This report discusses the OSSE framework and presents the sensitivity analysis results obtained from the GEO-CAPE OSSE framework for seven observation scenarios and three instrument systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980018993','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980018993"><span id="translatedtitle">Upper-Tropospheric Winds Derived from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Water Vapor Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Velden, Christopher S.; Hayden, Christopher M.; Nieman, Steven J.; Menzel, W. Paul; Wanzong, Steven; Goerss, James S.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The coverage and quality of remotely sensed upper-tropospheric moisture parameters have improved considerably with the deployment of a new generation of operational <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellites: GOES-8/9 and GMS-5. The GOES-8/9 water vapor imaging capabilities have increased as a result of improved radiometric sensitivity and higher spatial resolution. The addition of a water vapor sensing channel on the latest GMS permits nearly global viewing of upper-tropospheric water vapor (when joined with GOES and Meteosat) and enhances the commonality of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite observing capabilities. Upper-tropospheric motions derived from sequential water vapor imagery provided by these satellites can be objectively extracted by automated techniques. Wind fields can be deduced in both cloudy and cloud-free environments. In addition to the spatially coherent nature of these vector fields, the GOES-8/9 multispectral water vapor sensing capabilities allow for determination of wind fields over multiple tropospheric layers in cloud-free environments. This article provides an update on the latest efforts to extract water vapor motion displacements over meteorological scales ranging from subsynoptic to global. The potential applications of these data to impact operations, numerical assimilation and prediction, and research studies are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120015525','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120015525"><span id="translatedtitle">High Impact Weather Forecasts and Warnings with the GOES-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William; Mach, Douglas M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. A major advancement over the current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM). The GLM will operate continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Science Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop cal/val performance monitoring tools and new applications using the GLM alone, in conjunction with other instruments, and merged or blended integrated observing system products combining satellite, radar, in-situ and numerical models. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional ground-based lightning networks are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms, test data sets, and applications, as well as improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this presentation we review the planned implementation of the instrument and suite of operational algorithms.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950026496','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950026496"><span id="translatedtitle">Advanced Propulsion for <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Orbit Insertion and North-South Station Keeping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Oleson, Steven R.; Myers, Roger M.; Kluever, Craig A.; Riehl, John P.; Curran, Francis M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology is currently being used for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite station keeping to increase payload mass. Analyses show that advanced electric propulsion technologies can be used to obtain additional increases in payload mass by using these same technologies to perform part of the orbit transfer. In this work three electric propulsion technologies are examined at two power levels for an Atlas 2AS class spacecraft. The on-board chemical propulsion apogee engine fuel is reduced to allow the use of electric propulsion. A numerical optimizer is used to determine the chemical burns which will minimize the electric propulsion transfer time. Results show that for a 1550 kg Atlas 2AS class payload, increases in net mass (<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite mass less wet propulsion system mass) of 150 to 800 kg are possible using electric propulsion for station keeping, advanced chemical engines for part of the transfer, and electric propulsion for the remainder of the transfer. Trip times are between one and four months.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9610E..0UX','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9610E..0UX"><span id="translatedtitle">Detecting harmful algal blooms using <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) data in Bohai Sea, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Mingzhu; Gao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Chaoshun</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Bohai Sea is a semi-enclosed inland sea with serious environmental problems. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) in Bohai Sea happen almost every year covering a large area for a long duration. Real time detection of the HABs can significantly reduce economic loss and assure human safety. Remote sensing technology can monitor the sea surface over a large area and detect HABs. <span class="hlt">Geo-stationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) is the world's first <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> ocean color imager with high spatial and temporal resolution for monitoring the Bohai Sea. Rapid scanning of the GOCI allows enough cloud-free observations to accumulate for detection of HABs. Many approaches exist for detecting the HABs with GOCI data, but the approaches are rarely validated.. In this paper, an Aureococcus anophagefferens bloom that happened in Qinhuangdao is used to evaluate several HAB detecting approaches: abnormal chlorophyll concentration, red tide index (RI) and MODIS red tide index (MRI). Validations with field observations showed that the HAB was best detected with MRI, second with chlorophyll concentration abnormity and worst with RI. These results show that the MRI best detects the Aureococcus anophagefferens algae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950020965','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950020965"><span id="translatedtitle">Fuzzy logic techniques for rendezvous and docking of two <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ortega, Guillermo</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Large assemblings in space require the ability to manage rendezvous and docking operations. In future these techniques will be required for the gradual build up of big telecommunication platforms in the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. The paper discusses the use of fuzzy logic to model and implement a control system for the docking/berthing of two satellites in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. The system mounted in a chaser vehicle determines the actual state of both satellites and generates torques to execute maneuvers to establish the structural latching. The paper describes the proximity operations to collocate the two satellites in the same orbital window, the fuzzy guidance and navigation of the chaser approaching the target and the final Fuzzy berthing. The fuzzy logic system represents a knowledge based controller that realizes the close loop operations autonomously replacing the conventional control algorithms. The goal is to produce smooth control actions in the proximity of the target and during the docking to avoid disturbance torques in the final assembly orbit. The knowledge of the fuzzy controller consists of a data base of rules and the definitions of the fuzzy sets. The knowledge of an experienced spacecraft controller is captured into a set of rules forming the Rules Data Base.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AdSpR..36..975S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AdSpR..36..975S"><span id="translatedtitle">Plans for EUMETSAT’s Third Generation Meteosat <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite programme</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stuhlmann, R.; Rodriguez, A.; Tjemkes, S.; Grandell, J.; Arriaga, A.; Bézy, J.-L.; Aminou, D.; Bensi, P.</p> <p></p> <p>The second generation of Meteosat satellites is expected to provide operational services at least until 2015. Considering the time required for the definition phases of new space systems their typical development cycle and the approval of complex programmes, it is necessary to start planning for follow-up <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> missions already now. EUMETSAT has therefore established a User Consultation Process aimed at capturing the foreseeable high-level user/service needs and priorities of the EUMETSAT Customers and users in the 2015-2025 timeframe. This process led to a first definition of the Third Generation Meteosat (MTG) European <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite system, which currently consists of a total of five observation missions defined for pre-phase A studies at system level under ESA contract to be started in autumn 2004. The paper gives an overview on the current status of definition of the five observation missions, and a brief description of the MTG schedule and related milestones. Results of scientific studies and presentations/conclusions of MTG User Consultation Workshops and dedicated expert workshops conducted to define the MTG candidate missions are openly available from the EUMETSAT web-page www.eumetsat.de, under the sub-directory 'Preparation of Future Programmes/Meteosat Third Generation (MTG)'.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080013566','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080013566"><span id="translatedtitle">A Semi-Empirical Model for Forecasting Relativistic Electrons at <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Khazanov, George V.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We developed a new prediction model for forecasting relativistic (>2MeV) electrons, which provides a VERY HIGH correlation between predicted and actually measured electron fluxes at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. This model implies the multi-step particle acceleration and is based on numerical integrating two linked continuity equations for primarily accelerated particles and relativistic electrons. The model includes a source and losses, and used solar wind data as only input parameters. We used the coupling function which is a best-fit combination of solar wind/Interplanetary Magnetic Field parameters, responsible for the generation of geomagnetic activity, as a source. The loss function was derived from experimental data. We tested the model for four year period 2004-2007. The correlation coefficient between predicted and actual values of the electron fluxes for whole four year period as well as for each of these years is about 0.9. The high and stable correlation between the computed and actual electron fluxes shows that the reliable forecasting these electrons at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit is possible. The correlation coefficient between predicted and actual electron fluxes is stable and incredibly high.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009AGUFMNH31C1124W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009AGUFMNH31C1124W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A New Tool for Earth-Ionosphere Interactions: [SQUID]2 Ultra Low Noise <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">Axis</span> SQUID Magnetometer, 2009 status and perspectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Waysand, G.; Marfaing, J.; Bois, J.; Pozzo di Borgo, E.; Blancon, R.; Gaffet, S.; Auguste, M.; Boyer, D.; Cavaillou, A.; Barroy, P.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>: Each ground movement on Earth shakes the air column above it. When the acoustic wave reaches the ionosphere floor, charges are temporarily displaced, parallel to the acoustic excitation. An electric current is created giving birth to a magnetic signal. The density difference between ground and air makes the coupling very poor but this is compensated by very large amplification of displacement with respect to the ground one. To detect these signals we used [SQUID]2 . [SQUID]2 is a low Tc Superconducting QUantum Interferometer Device in a <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">axis</span> magnetometer configuration inside a Shielding QUalified for Ionosphere Detection (noise level : 2fT/√ Hz above 40Hz without µ metal). This set-up is buried below 518m of karst in the Low Noise Underground Laboratory of Rustrel-Pays d’Apt (France),it allows the detection of these magnetic signals. For ionosphere responses to P waves, either above the epicenter or above our lab, the response for quakes M>3 is non linear: a resonance mode of the ionosphere floor is excited whose period is around 60 to 80 seconds. The same type of signal has been observed one hour before the Sichuan quake of May 2008, in time coincidence with observation of rainbow colored clouds in the surrounding area. S and T Earth breathing modes of the Earth interaction with the ionosphere were observed above the 1/f noise background during a magnetically quiet 72 hours time window with no quake M>5.2 . Since the frequencies of these modes are in the millihertz range, wherever such an instrument is on Earth, it is always electromagnetically near the signal source . In addition the ionosphere response is linear: each detected mode is obtained with a 1% precision with respect to the PREM model. If one consider that instruments of this type allows also the observation at mid latitude of magnetic storms with a sensitivity at least equivalent to conventional polar magnetometer, it is worthwhile to discuss the feasibility of a world wide network of SQUID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec25-261.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec25-261.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.261 - Procedures for avoidance of in-line interference events for Non <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Orbit...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... interference events for Non <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Orbit (NGSO) Satellite Network Operations in the Fixed-Satellite Service (FSS) Bands. 25.261 Section 25.261 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.261 Procedures...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec25-261.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec25-261.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.261 - Procedures for avoidance of in-line interference events for Non <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Orbit...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... interference events for Non <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Orbit (NGSO) Satellite Network Operations in the Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) Bands. 25.261 Section 25.261 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.261 Procedures...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec25-261.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec25-261.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.261 - Procedures for avoidance of in-line interference events for Non <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Orbit...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... interference events for Non <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Orbit (NGSO) Satellite Network Operations in the Fixed-Satellite Service (FSS) Bands. 25.261 Section 25.261 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.261 Procedures...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec25-261.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec25-261.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.261 - Procedures for avoidance of in-line interference events for Non <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Orbit...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... interference events for Non <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Orbit (NGSO) Satellite Network Operations in the Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) Bands. 25.261 Section 25.261 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.261 Procedures...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec25-261.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec25-261.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.261 - Procedures for avoidance of in-line interference events for Non <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Orbit...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... interference events for Non <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Orbit (NGSO) Satellite Network Operations in the Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) Bands. 25.261 Section 25.261 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.261 Procedures...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec25-140.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec25-140.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.140 - Further requirements for license applications for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> space stations in the Fixed...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> space stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service and the 17/24 GHz Broadcasting-Satellite Service. 25.140 Section 25.140 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations §...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920047300&hterms=ARCHITECTURE+NETWORK&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DARCHITECTURE%2BNETWORK','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920047300&hterms=ARCHITECTURE+NETWORK&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DARCHITECTURE%2BNETWORK"><span id="translatedtitle">Circuit-switch architecture for a 30/20-GHz FDMA/TDM <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite communications network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ivancic, William D.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A circuit-switching architecture is described for a 30/20-GHz frequency-division, multiple-access uplink/time-division-multiplexed downlink (FDMA/TDM) <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite communications network. Critical subsystems and problem areas are identified and addressed. Work was concentrated primarily on the space segment; however, the ground segment was considered concurrently to ensure cost efficiency and realistic operational constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920004986','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920004986"><span id="translatedtitle">Destination directed packet switch architecture for a 30/20 GHz FDMA/TDM <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communication satellite network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ivancic, William D.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Emphasis is on a destination directed packet switching architecture for a 30/20 GHz frequency division multiplex access/time division multiplex (FDMA/TDM) <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite communication network. Critical subsystems and problem areas are identified and addressed. Efforts have concentrated heavily on the space segment; however, the ground segment was considered concurrently to ensure cost efficiency and realistic operational constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SpWea...6.7003S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SpWea...6.7003S"><span id="translatedtitle">A new international <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> electron model: IGE-2006, from 1 keV to 5.2 MeV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sicard-Piet, A.; Bourdarie, S.; Boscher, D.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Thomsen, M.; Goka, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Koshiishi, H.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Département Environnement Spatial, Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA) has been developing a model for the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> electron environment since 2003. Until now, this model was called Particle ONERA-LANL Environment (POLE), and it is valid from 30 keV up to 5.2 MeV. POLE is based on the full complement of Los Alamos National Laboratory <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites, covers the period 1976-2005, and takes into account the solar cycle variation. Over the period 1976 to present, four different detectors were flown: charged particle analyzer (CPA), synchronous orbit particle analyzer (SOPA), energetic spectra for particles (ESP), and magnetospheric plasma analyzer (MPA). Only the first three were used to develop the POLE model. Here we extend the energy coverage of the model to low energies using MPA measurements. We further include the data from the Japanese <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> spacecraft, Data Relay Test Satellite (DRTS). These data are now combined into an extended <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> electron model which we call IGE-2006.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920010520','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920010520"><span id="translatedtitle">Destination-directed, packet-switching architecture for 30/20-GHz FDMA/TDM <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communications satellite network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ivancic, William D.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A destination-directed packet switching architecture for a 30/20-GHz frequency division multiple access/time division multiplexed (FDMA/TDM) <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite communications network is discussed. Critical subsystems and problem areas are identified and addressed. Efforts have concentrated heavily on the space segment; however, the ground segment has been considered concurrently to ensure cost efficiency and realistic operational constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920005891','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920005891"><span id="translatedtitle">Circuit-switch architecture for a 30/20-GHz FDMA/TDM <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite communications network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ivancic, William D.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A circuit switching architecture is described for a 30/20 GHz frequency division, multiple access uplink/time division multiplexed downlink (FDMA/TDM) <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite communications network. Critical subsystems and problem areas are identified and addressed. Work was concentrated primarily on the space segment; however, the ground segment was considered concurrently to ensure cost efficiency and realistic operational constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMTD....8.6949B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMTD....8.6949B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E): mission concept and initial performance assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Butz, A.; Orphal, J.; Checa-Garcia, R.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; von Clarmann, T.; Bovensmann, H.; Hasekamp, O.; Landgraf, J.; Knigge, T.; Weise, D.; Sqalli-Houssini, O.; Kemper, D.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E) is a concept for a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite sounder that targets at constraining the sources and sinks of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) for continental-scale regions. Thereby, its primary focus is on Central Europe. G3E carries a spectrometer system that collects sunlight backscattered from the Earth's surface and atmosphere in the near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) spectral range. Solar absorption spectra allow for spatiotemporally dense observations of the column-average concentrations of carbon dioxide (XCO2), methane (XCH4), and carbon monoxide (XCO) including sampling of the diurnal variation with several measurements per day during summer. Here, we present the mission concept and carry out an initial performance assessment of the retrieval capabilities. The radiometric performance of the 4 grating spectrometers is tuned to reconcile small ground-pixel sizes (~ 2 km × 3 km at 50° latitude) with short single-shot exposures (∼ 2.9 s) that allow for sampling continental regions such as Central Europe within 2 h while providing sufficient signal-to-noise. The noise errors to be expected for XCO2, XCH4, and XCO are assessed through retrieval simulations for a European trial ensemble. Generally, single-shot precision for the targeted XCO2 and XCH4 is better than 0.5 % with some exception for scenes with low infrared surface albedo observed under low sun conditions in winter. For XCO, precision is generally better than 10 %. Performance for aerosol and cirrus loaded atmospheres is assessed by mimicking G3E's slant view on Europe for an ensemble of atmospheric scattering properties used previously for evaluating nadir-viewing low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. While retrieval concepts developed for LEO configurations generally succeed in mitigating aerosol and cirrus induced retrieval errors for G3E's setup, residual errors are somewhat greater in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMT.....8.4719B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMT.....8.4719B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E): mission concept and initial performance assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Butz, A.; Orphal, J.; Checa-Garcia, R.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; von Clarmann, T.; Bovensmann, H.; Hasekamp, O.; Landgraf, J.; Knigge, T.; Weise, D.; Sqalli-Houssini, O.; Kemper, D.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E) is a concept for a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite sounder that aims to constrain the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) for continental-scale regions. Its primary focus is on central Europe. G3E carries a spectrometer system that collects sunlight backscattered from the Earth's surface and atmosphere in the near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) spectral range. Solar absorption spectra allow for spatiotemporally dense observations of the column-average concentrations of carbon dioxide (XCO2), methane (XCH4), and carbon monoxide (XCO). The mission concept in particular facilitates sampling of the diurnal variation with several measurements per day during summer. Here, we present the mission concept and carry out an initial performance assessment of the retrieval capabilities. The radiometric performance of the 4 grating spectrometers is tuned to reconcile small ground-pixel sizes (~2 km × 3 km at 50° latitude) with short single-shot exposures (~2.9 s) that allow for sampling continental regions such as central Europe within 2 h while providing a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. The noise errors to be expected for XCO2, XCH4, and XCO are assessed through retrieval simulations for a European trial ensemble. Generally, single-shot precision for the targeted XCO2 and XCH4 is better than 0.5 % with some exception for scenes with low infrared surface albedo observed under low sun conditions in winter. For XCO, precision is generally better than 10 %. Performance for aerosol and cirrus loaded atmospheres is assessed by mimicking G3E's slant view on Europe for an ensemble of atmospheric scattering properties used previously for evaluating nadir-viewing low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. While retrieval concepts developed for LEO configurations generally succeed in mitigating aerosol- and cirrus-induced retrieval errors for G3E's setup, residual errors are somewhat greater in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcAau.112...56S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcAau.112...56S"><span id="translatedtitle">An approach to ground based space surveillance of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> on-orbit servicing operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scott, Robert (Lauchie); Ellery, Alex</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>On Orbit Servicing (OOS) is a class of dual-use robotic space missions that could potentially extend the life of orbiting satellites by fuel replenishment, repair, inspection, orbital maintenance or satellite repurposing, and possibly reduce the rate of space debris generation. OOS performed in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit poses a unique challenge for the optical space surveillance community. Both satellites would be performing proximity operations in tight formation flight with separations less than 500 m making atmospheric seeing (turbulence) a challenge to resolving a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite pair when viewed from the ground. The two objects would appear merged in an image as the resolving power of the telescope and detector, coupled with atmospheric seeing, limits the ability to resolve the two objects. This poses an issue for obtaining orbital data for conjunction flight safety or, in matters pertaining to space security, inferring the intent and trajectory of an unexpected object perched very close to one's satellite asset on orbit. In order to overcome this problem speckle interferometry using a cross spectrum approach is examined as a means to optically resolve the client and servicer's relative positions to enable a means to perform relative orbit determination of the two spacecraft. This paper explores cases where client and servicing satellites are in unforced relative motion flight and examines the observability of the objects. Tools are described that exploit cross-spectrum speckle interferometry to (1) determine the presence of a secondary in the vicinity of the client satellite and (2) estimate the servicing satellite's motion relative to the client. Experimental observations performed with the Mont Mégantic 1.6 m telescope on co-located <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites (acting as OOS proxy objects) are described. Apparent angular separations between Anik G1 and Anik F1R from 5 to 1 arcsec were observed as the two satellites appeared to graze one another. Data</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.6175B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.6175B"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on methane emissions in North America from future <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> remote-sensing measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bousserez, Nicolas; Henze, Daven K.; Rooney, Brigitte; Perkins, Andre; Wecht, Kevin J.; Turner, Alexander J.; Natraj, Vijay; Worden, John R.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The success of future <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) satellite observation missions depends on our ability to design instruments that address their key scientific objectives. In this study, an Observation System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is performed to quantify the constraints on methane (CH4) emissions in North America obtained from shortwave infrared (SWIR), thermal infrared (TIR), and multi-spectral (SWIR+TIR) measurements in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit and from future SWIR low-Earth orbit (LEO) measurements. An efficient stochastic algorithm is used to compute the information content of the inverted emissions at high spatial resolution (0.5° × 0.7°) in a variational framework using the GEOS-Chem chemistry-transport model and its adjoint. Our results show that at sub-weekly timescales, SWIR measurements in GEO orbit can constrain about twice as many independent flux patterns than in LEO orbit, with a degree of freedom for signal (DOF) for the inversion of 266 and 115, respectively. Comparisons between TIR GEO and SWIR LEO configurations reveal that poor boundary layer sensitivities for the TIR measurements cannot be compensated for by the high spatiotemporal sampling of a GEO orbit. The benefit of a multi-spectral instrument compared to current SWIR products in a GEO context is shown for sub-weekly timescale constraints, with an increase in the DOF of about 50 % for a 3-day inversion. Our results further suggest that both the SWIR and multi-spectral measurements on GEO orbits could almost fully resolve CH4 fluxes at a spatial resolution of at least 100 km × 100 km over source hotspots (emissions > 4 × 105 kg day-1). The sensitivity of the optimized emission scaling factors to typical errors in boundary and initial conditions can reach 30 and 50 % for the SWIR GEO or SWIR LEO configurations, respectively, while it is smaller than 5 % in the case of a multi-spectral GEO system. Overall, our results demonstrate that multi-spectral measurements from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ihy..workE.131R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ihy..workE.131R"><span id="translatedtitle">Our Understanding of Space Weather features responsible for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite anamolies (P39)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rajaram, G.; et al.</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>girija60@yahoo.com The topic of space weather effects on operational anomalies on spacecraft is one of considerable research investigation, with both pure and applied aspects. This is because of the very high costs involved in fabricating and operating spacecraft, and in insuring them against the harmful effects of space weather. This is more true for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites than of low-orbiting spacecraft, as the former operate in the high-risk environment of the Earth’s outer radiation belts, with its large vagaries in spatial and time variations of high- energy electron and proton distributions (BAKER 2003). Without doubt, plasma and magnetic field emissions from active regions on the Sun are the root cause for spacecraft anomalies. Our study for 2005 shows that over 95% of anomalies can be related to some definite activity on the Sun, ranging from high-speed solar wind streams with their 27-day recurrence patterns/coronal holes/coronal mass ejections preceded by X or M type of flares/and magnetic cloud events. The most energetic solar activity events are generally accompanied by a large rise in solar MeV proton densities at <span class="hlt">geo-stationary</span> orbit (WILKINSON 1994), and they account for definite anomalies classified as SEU (Single Event Upsets which most often are reversible through resetting commands). Any particles in the low energy ranges (eV and keV, and these could be of magnetospheric or ionospheric origin), are believed to cause external charging effects in exposed parts of the spacecraft such as solar power arrays and power cables. These mainly result in power losses which are debilitating over a period of time. The most dangerous and often irrecoverable damage is due to electronics in the 1-5 MeV range which cause deep dielectric discharge of arc type in semi-conductors comprising spacecraft instruments. Following major solar activity, the populations of these rise to more than (5x103) particles/cm2.ster.sec, with large spatial and time variations (LOVE</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9605K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9605K"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of aerosol retrieval algorithm for <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Mijin; Kim, Jhoon; Park, Sang Seo; Jeong, Ukkyo; Ahn, Changwoo; Bhartia, Pawan. K.; Torres, Omar; Song, Chang-Keun; Han, Jin-Seok</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>A scanning UV-Visible spectrometer, the GEMS (<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) onboard the GEO-KOMPSAT2B (<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite) is planned to be launched in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit in 2018. The GEMS employs hyper-spectral imaging with 0.6 nm resolution to observe solar backscatter radiation in the UV and Visible range. In the UV range, the low surface contribution to the backscattered radiation and strong interaction between aerosol absorption and molecular scattering can be advantageous in retrieving aerosol optical properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA). This study presents a UV-VIS algorithm to retrieve AOD and SSA from GEMS. The algorithm is based on the general inversion method, which uses pre-calculated look-up table (LUT) with assumed aerosol properties and measurement condition. To calculate LUT, aerosol optical properties over Asia [70°E-145°E, 0°N-50°N] are obtained from AERONET inversion data (level 2.0) at 46 AERONET sites, and are applied to VLIDORT (spur, 2006). Because the backscattering radiance in UV-Visible range has significant sensitivity to radiance absorptivity and size distribution of loading aerosol, aerosol types are classified from AERONET inversion data by using aerosol classification method suggested in Lee et al. (2010). Then the LUTs are calculated with average optical properties for each aerosol type. The GEMS aerosol algorithm is tested with OMI level-1B dataset, a provisional data for GEMS measurement. The aerosol types for each measured scene are selected by using both of UVAI and VISAI, and AOD and SSA are simultaneously retrieved by comparing simulated radiance with selected aerosol type and the measured value. The AOD and SSA retrieved from GEMS aerosol algorithm are well matched with OMI products, although the retrieved AOD is slightly higher than OMI value. To detect cloud pixel, spatial standard deviation test of radiance is applied in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23481840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23481840"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean color products from the Korean <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Menghua; Ahn, Jae-Hyun; Jiang, Lide; Shi, Wei; Son, SeungHyun; Park, Young-Je; Ryu, Joo-Hyung</p> <p>2013-02-11</p> <p>The first <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> ocean color satellite sensor, <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), which is onboard South Korean Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), was successfully launched in June of 2010. GOCI has a local area coverage of the western Pacific region centered at around 36°N and 130°E and covers ~2500 × 2500 km(2). GOCI has eight spectral bands from 412 to 865 nm with an hourly measurement during daytime from 9:00 to 16:00 local time, i.e., eight images per day. In a collaboration between NOAA Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) and Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST), we have been working on deriving and improving GOCI ocean color products, e.g., normalized water-leaving radiance spectra (nLw(λ)), chlorophyll-a concentration, diffuse attenuation coefficient at the wavelength of 490 nm (Kd(490)), etc. The GOCI-covered ocean region includes one of the world's most turbid and optically complex waters. To improve the GOCI-derived nLw(λ) spectra, a new atmospheric correction algorithm was developed and implemented in the GOCI ocean color data processing. The new algorithm was developed specifically for GOCI-like ocean color data processing for this highly turbid western Pacific region. In this paper, we show GOCI ocean color results from our collaboration effort. From in situ validation analyses, ocean color products derived from the new GOCI ocean color data processing have been significantly improved. Generally, the new GOCI ocean color products have a comparable data quality as those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the satellite Aqua. We show that GOCI-derived ocean color data can provide an effective tool to monitor ocean phenomenon in the region such as tide-induced re-suspension of sediments, diurnal variation of ocean optical and biogeochemical properties, and horizontal advection of river discharge. In particular, we show some examples of ocean</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080014146','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080014146"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Satellite Measurements to Investigate Regional-scale Chemistry: The Case for <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fishman, Jack; Wozniak, Amy; Creilson, Jack</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>One of the recommendations of the Decadal Survey that was recently released by the National Academy of Science was that of a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform from which to obtain trace gas measurements. The use of such a platform is particularly advantageous when applied to understanding the formation of regional air pollution. This study demonstrates the challenges of trying to utilize information from instruments on satellites in low-earth orbit (LEO). We also demonstrate the advantage gained through a simulation that would provide hourly observations. In this case study, we take advantage of the high resolution Level-2 orbital data available from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), in conjunction with assimilated stratospheric column ozone fields, to evaluate if meaningful tropospheric ozone information can be obtained on a regional scale. We focus on a period on late June 2005 when a widespread pollution episode enveloped the Houston metropolitan area as well as a large region in southeast Texas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9521E..1QW','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9521E..1QW"><span id="translatedtitle">Research on space-based optical surveillance's observation strategy of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span>-orbit's pitch point region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Xue-ying; An, Wei; Wu, Yu-hao; Li, Jun</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>In order to surveillance the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) objects, including man-made satellites and space debris, more efficiently, a space-based optical surveillance system was designed in this paper. A strategy to observe the pinch point region was selected because of the GEO objects' dynamics features. That strategy affects the surveillance satellites orbital type and sensor pointing strategy. In order to minimize total surveillance satellites and the revisit time for GEO objects, a equation was set. More than 700 GEO objects' TLE from NASA's website are used for simulation. Results indicate that the revisit time of the surveillance system designed in this paper is less than 24 hours, more than 95% GEO objects can be observed by the designed system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1771S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1771S"><span id="translatedtitle">Passive correlation ranging of a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite using DVB-S payload signals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shakun, Leonid; Shulga, Alexandr; Sybiryakova, Yevgeniya; Bushuev, Felix; Kaliuzhnyi, Mykola; Bezrukovs, Vladislavs; Moskalenko, Sergiy; Kulishenko, Vladislav; Balagura, Oleg</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Passive correlation ranging (PaCoRa) for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites is now considered as an alternate to tone-ranging (https://artes.esa.int/search/node/PaCoRa). The PaCoRa method has been employed in the Research Institute "Nikolaev astronomical observatory" since the first experiment in August 2011 with two stations spatially separated on 150 km. The PaCoRa has been considered as an independent method for tracking the future Ukrainian <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite "Lybid'. Now a radio engineering complex (RC) for passive ranging consists of five spatially separated stations of receiving digital satellite television and a data processing center located in Mykolaiv. The stations are located in Kyiv, Kharkiv, Mukacheve, Mykolaiv (Ukraine) and in Ventspils (Latvia). Each station has identical equipment. The equipment allows making synchronous recording of fragments of the DVB-S signal from the quadrature detector output of a satellite television receiver. The fragments are recorded every second. Synchronization of the stations is performed using GPS receivers. Samples of the complex signal obtained in this way are archived and are sent to the data processing center over the Internet. Here the time differences of arrival (TDOA) for pairs of the stations are determined as a result of correlation processing of received signals. The values of the TDOA that measured every second are used for orbit determination (OD) of the satellite. The results of orbit determination of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> telecommunication satellite "Eutelsat-13B" (13º East) obtained during about four months of observations in 2015 are presented in the report. The TDOA and OD accuracies are also given. Single-measurement error (1 sigma) of the TDOA is equal about 8.7 ns for all pairs of the stations. Standard deviations and average values of the residuals between the observed TDOA and the TDOA computed using the orbit elements obtained from optical measurements are estimated for the pairs Kharkiv-Mykolaiv and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ESASP.691E.208J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ESASP.691E.208J"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environment on Silicone Rubbers-Correlation between Chemical Degradations and Technological Properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jochem, H.; Rejsek-Riba, V.; Maerten, E.; Baceiredo A.; Remaury, S.; Sole, S.; Serra, G.; Guillaumon, O.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Silicone rubbers were independently exposed to main <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> parameters: Ultraviolet (UV), electrons and protons radiations. The influence of different components used in formulations such as catalyst, silica, MQVi resins, and phenyl functionalized silicone chains was investigated through the evaluation of mechanical and thermo-optical properties. UV cause thermo-optical properties degradations. Phenyl groups on silicone chains lead to a supplementary degradation. Protons radiations cause important thermo-optical properties degradations independently of components used in formulations. Electrons radiations generate significant mechanical properties damage shown by a modulus increase. The highest modulus increase was measured for the silicone rubber with a high MQVi amount; whereas the silica filled silicone rubber with phenyl groups on silicone chains presents the smallest modulus variation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..52.1072U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..52.1072U"><span id="translatedtitle">Practical method to identify orbital anomaly as spacecraft breakup in the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uetsuhara, Masahiko; Hanada, Toshiya</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Identifying spacecraft breakup events is an essential issue for better understanding of the current orbital debris environment. This paper proposes an observation planning approach to identify an orbital anomaly, which appears as a significant discontinuity in archived orbital history, as a spacecraft breakup. The proposed approach is applicable to orbital anomalies in the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> region. The proposed approach selects a spacecraft that experienced an orbital anomaly, and then predicts trajectories of possible fragments of the spacecraft at an observation epoch. This paper theoretically demonstrates that observation planning for the possible fragments can be conducted. To do this, long-term behaviors of the possible fragments are evaluated. It is concluded that intersections of their trajectories will converge into several corresponding regions in the celestial sphere even if the breakup epoch is not specified and it has uncertainty of the order of several weeks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.1234K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.1234K"><span id="translatedtitle">Sea surface temperature from the new Japanese <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological Himawari-8 satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kurihara, Yukio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kachi, Misako</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Himawari-8 is a new <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The Earth Observation Research Center of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in collaboration with the JMA produces skin sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from Himawari-8 data. A new quasi-physical algorithm was used to calculate SSTs. Cloud screening based on the Bayesian inference method was used to detect cloudy pixels. Himawari-8 SSTs from June to September 2015 were compared with drifting and tropical moored buoy data. This comparison showed a root-mean-square difference of ˜0.59 K and a bias of ˜-0.16 K against the buoy data. Positive and variable biases were found in seas along the viewing boundaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920012971','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920012971"><span id="translatedtitle">Inflated concepts for the earth science <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform and an associated flight experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Friese, G.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Large parabolic reflectors and solar concentrators are of great interest for microwave transmission, solar powered rockets, and Earth observations. Collector subsystems have been under slow development for a decade. Inflated paraboloids have a great weight and package volume advantage over mechanically erected systems and, therefore, have been receiving greater attention recently. The objective of this program was to produce a 'conceptual definition of an experiment to assess in-space structural damping characteristics and effects of the space meteoroid environment upon structural integrity and service life of large inflatable structures.' The flight experiment was to have been based upon an inflated solar concentration, but much of that was being done on other programs. To avoid redundancy, the Earth Science <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Platform (ESGP) was selected as a focus mission for the experiment. Three major areas were studied: the ESGP reflector configuration; flight experiment; and meteoroids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960008982','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960008982"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite water vapor channel data on weather analysis and forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Velden, Christopher S.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Preliminary results from NWP impact studies are indicating that upper-tropospheric wind information provided by tracking motions in sequences of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite water vapor imagery can positively influence forecasts on regional scales, and possibly on global scales as well. The data are complimentary to cloud-tracked winds by providing data in cloud-free regions, as well as comparable in quality. First results from GOES-8 winds are encouraging, and further efforts and model impacts will be directed towards optimizing these data in numerical weather prediction (NWP). Assuming successful launches of GOES-J and GMS-5 satellites in 1995, high quality and resolution water vapor imagers will be available to provide nearly complete global upper-tropospheric wind coverage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMTD....7.4123K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMTD....7.4123K"><span id="translatedtitle">Retrieval of cirrus cloud optical thickness and top altitude from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> remote sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kox, S.; Bugliaro, L.; Ostler, A.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>A novel approach for the detection of cirrus clouds and the retrieval of optical thickness and top altitude based on the measurements of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) aboard the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite is presented. Trained with 8 000 000 co-incident measurements of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission the new "cirrus optical properties derived from CALIOP and SEVIRI algorithm during day and night" (COCS) algorithm utilizes a backpropagation neural network to provide accurate measurements of cirrus optical depth τ at λ =532 nm and top altitude z every 15 min covering almost one third of Earth's atmosphere. The retrieved values are validated with independent measurements of CALIOP and the optical thickness derived by an airborne high spectral resolution lidar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMT.....7.3233K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMT.....7.3233K"><span id="translatedtitle">Retrieval of cirrus cloud optical thickness and top altitude from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> remote sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kox, S.; Bugliaro, L.; Ostler, A.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>A novel approach for the detection of cirrus clouds and the retrieval of optical thickness and top altitude based on the measurements of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) aboard the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite is presented. Trained with 8 000 000 co-incident measurements of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission the new "cirrus optical properties derived from CALIOP and SEVIRI algorithm during day and night" (COCS) algorithm utilizes a backpropagation neural network to provide accurate measurements of cirrus optical depth τ at λ = 532 nm and top altitude z every 15 min covering almost one-third of the Earth's atmosphere. The retrieved values are validated with independent measurements of CALIOP and the optical thickness derived by an airborne high spectral resolution lidar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18259561','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18259561"><span id="translatedtitle">Operational calibration of <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite-8 and-9 imagers and sounders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weinreb, M; Jamieson, M; Fulton, N; Chen, Y; Johnson, J X; Bremer, J; Smith, C; Baucom, J</p> <p>1997-09-20</p> <p>We describe the operational in-orbit calibration of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 and-9 imagers and sounders. In the infrared channels the calibration is based on observations of space and an onboard blackbody. The calibration equation expresses radiance as a quadratic in instrument output. To suppress noise in the blackbody sequences, we filter the calibration slopes. The calibration equation also accounts for an unwanted variation of the reflectances of the instruments' scan mirrors with east-west scan position, which was not discovered until the instruments were in orbit. The visible channels are not calibrated, but the observations are provided relative to the level of space and are normalized to minimize east-west striping in the images. Users receive scaled radiances in a GOES variable format (GVAR) data stream. We describe the procedure users can apply to transform GVAR counts into radiances, temperatures, and mode-A counts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004686','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004686"><span id="translatedtitle">Post Launch Calibration and Testing of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper on GOES-R Satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rafal, Marc; Cholvibul, Ruth; Clarke, Jared</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is procuring the GOES-R spacecraft and instruments with the first launch of the GOES-R series planned for October 2016. Included in the GOES-R Instrument suite is the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM). GLM is a single-channel, near-infrared optical detector that can sense extremely brief (800 s) transient changes in the atmosphere, indicating the presence of lightning. GLM will measure total lightning activity continuously over the Americas and adjacent ocean regions with near-uniform spatial resolution of approximately 10 km. Due to its large CCD (1372x1300 pixels), high frame rate, sensitivity and onboard event filtering, GLM will require extensive post launch characterization and calibration. Daytime and nighttime images will be used to characterize both image quality criteria inherent to GLM as a space-based optic system (focus, stray light, crosstalk, solar glint) and programmable image processing criteria (dark offsets, gain, noise, linearity, dynamic range). In addition ground data filtering will be adjusted based on lightning-specific phenomenology (coherence) to isolate real from false transients with their own characteristics. These parameters will be updated, as needed, on orbit in an iterative process guided by pre-launch testing. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on GLM over the six-month Post Launch Test period to optimize and demonstrate GLM performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004688','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004688"><span id="translatedtitle">Post Launch Calibration and Testing of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper on the GOES-R Satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rafal, Marc D.; Clarke, Jared T.; Cholvibul, Ruth W.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is procuring the GOES-R spacecraft and instruments with the first launch of the GOES-R series planned for October 2016. Included in the GOES-R Instrument suite is the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM). GLM is a single-channel, near-infrared optical detector that can sense extremely brief (800 microseconds) transient changes in the atmosphere, indicating the presence of lightning. GLM will measure total lightning activity continuously over the Americas and adjacent ocean regions with near-uniform spatial resolution of approximately 10 km. Due to its large CCD (1372x1300 pixels), high frame rate, sensitivity and onboard event filtering, GLM will require extensive post launch characterization and calibration. Daytime and nighttime images will be used to characterize both image quality criteria inherent to GLM as a space-based optic system (focus, stray light, crosstalk, solar glint) and programmable image processing criteria (dark offsets, gain, noise, linearity, dynamic range). In addition ground data filtering will be adjusted based on lightning-specific phenomenology (coherence) to isolate real from false transients with their own characteristics. These parameters will be updated, as needed, on orbit in an iterative process guided by pre-launch testing. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on GLM over the six-month Post Launch Test period to optimize and demonstrate GLM performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4563R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4563R"><span id="translatedtitle">True Color Images of the Earth created with the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Instrument MSG SEVIRI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reuter, Maximilian</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>One of the most famous pictures ever taken was by the crew of Apollo 17 in 1972, showing our Earth from a distance of about 45000km. This picture was named 'Blue Marble' and it reminds us of the beauty and uniqueness of our home planet. With <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites, such views of the Earth are possible without the need to have a photographer in space. However, up to the present, the production of such Blue Marble type images from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite data has been impaired by the lack of channels in the visible spectral region. A method for the generation of full disk MSG (METEOSAT Second Generation) SEVIRI (Scanning-Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) true colour composite images will be presented. The algorithm mainly uses the SEVIRI channels VIS006 (0.6μm), NIR008 (0.8μm) and NIR016 (1.6μm). The lack of information in the blue and green parts of the visible spectrum is compensated by using data from NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration's) Blue Marble next generation (BMNG) project to fill a look-up table (LUT) transforming RGB (red/green/blue) false colour composite images of VIS006/NIR008/NIR016 into true colour images. Tabulated radiative transfer calculations of a pure Rayleigh atmosphere are used to add an impression of Rayleigh scattering towards the sunlit horizon. The resulting images satisfy naive expectations: clouds are white or transparent, vegetated surfaces are greenish, deserts are sandy-coloured, the ocean is dark blue to black and a narrow halo due to Rayleigh scattering is visible at the sunlit horizon. Therefore, such images are easily interpretable also for inexperienced users not familiar with the characteristics of typical MSG false colour composite images. The images can be used for scientific applications to illustrate specific meteorological conditions or for non-scientific purposes, for example, for raising awareness in the public of the Earth's worthiness of protection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A23A0272J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A23A0272J"><span id="translatedtitle">Expected trace gas and aerosol retrieval accuracy of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environment Monitoring Spectrometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jeong, U.; Kim, J.; Liu, X.; Lee, K. H.; Chance, K.; Song, C. H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The predicted accuracy of the trace gases and aerosol retrievals from the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> environment monitoring spectrometer (GEMS) was investigated. The GEMS is one of the first sensors to monitor NO2, SO2, HCHO, O3, and aerosols onboard <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> earth orbit (GEO) over Asia. Since the GEMS is not launched yet, the simulated measurements and its precision were used in this study. The random and systematic component of the measurement error was estimated based on the instrument design. The atmospheric profiles were obtained from Model for Ozone And Related chemical Tracers (MOZART) simulations and surface reflectances were obtained from climatology of OMI Lambertian equivalent reflectance. The uncertainties of the GEMS trace gas and aerosol products were estimated based on the OE method using the atmospheric profile and surface reflectance. Most of the estimated uncertainties of NO2, HCHO, stratospheric and total O3 products satisfied the user's requirements with sufficient margin. However, about 26% of the estimated uncertainties of SO2 and about 30% of the estimated uncertainties of tropospheric O3 do not meet the required precision. Particularly the estimated uncertainty of SO2 is high in winter, when the emission is strong in East Asia. Further efforts are necessary in order to improve the retrieval accuracy of SO2 and tropospheric O3 in order to reach the scientific goal of GEMS. Random measurement error of GEMS was important for the NO2, SO2, and HCHO retrieval, while both the random and systematic measurement errors were important for the O3 retrievals. The degree of freedom for signal of tropospheric O3 was 0.8 ± 0.2 and that for stratospheric O3 was 2.9 ± 0.5. The estimated uncertainties of the aerosol retrieval from GEMS measurements were predicted to be lower than the required precision for the SZA range of the trace gas retrievals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9881E..2ER','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9881E..2ER"><span id="translatedtitle">Post launch calibration and testing of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper on GOES-R satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rafal, Marc; Clarke, Jared T.; Cholvibul, Ruth W.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is procuring the GOES-R spacecraft and instruments with the first launch of the GOES-R series planned for October 2016. Included in the GOES-R Instrument suite is the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM). GLM is a single-channel, near-infrared optical detector that can sense extremely brief (800 μs) transient changes in the atmosphere, indicating the presence of lightning. GLM will measure total lightning activity continuously over the Americas and adjacent ocean regions with near-uniform spatial resolution of approximately 10 km. Due to its large CCD (1372x1300 pixels), high frame rate, sensitivity and onboard event filtering, GLM will require extensive post launch characterization and calibration. Daytime and nighttime images will be used to characterize both image quality criteria inherent to GLM as a space-based optic system (focus, stray light, crosstalk, solar glint) and programmable image processing criteria (dark offsets, gain, noise, linearity, dynamic range). In addition ground data filtering will be adjusted based on lightning-specific phenomenology (coherence) to isolate real from false transients with their own characteristics. These parameters will be updated, as needed, on orbit in an iterative process guided by pre-launch testing. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on GLM over the six-month Post Launch Test period to optimize and demonstrate GLM performance.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010100545&hterms=Fourier+Transform+Spectrometer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DFourier%2BTransform%2BSpectrometer','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010100545&hterms=Fourier+Transform+Spectrometer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DFourier%2BTransform%2BSpectrometer"><span id="translatedtitle">Demonstration of Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Performance for Planetary and <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Earth Observing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Revercomb, Henry E.; Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Fry, Patrick M.; Best, Fred A.; LaPorte, Daniel D.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The combination of massively parallel spatial sampling and accurate spectral radiometry offered by imaging FTS makes it extremely attractive for earth and planetary remote sensing. We constructed a breadboard instrument to help assess the potential for planetary applications of small imaging FTS instruments in the 1 - 5 micrometer range. The results also support definition of the NASA <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Imaging FTS (GIFTS) instrument that will make key meteorological and climate observations from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> earth orbit. The Planetary Imaging FTS (PIFTS) breadboard is based on a custom miniaturized Bomen interferometer that uses corner cube reflectors, a wishbone pivoting voice-coil delay scan mechanism, and a laser diode metrology system. The interferometer optical output is measured by a commercial infrared camera procured from Santa Barbara Focalplane. It uses an InSb 128x128 detector array that covers the entire FOV of the instrument when coupled with a 25 mm focal length commercial camera lens. With appropriate lenses and cold filters the instrument can be used from the visible to 5 micrometers. The delay scan is continuous, but slow, covering the maximum range of +/- 0.4 cm in 37.56 sec at a rate of 500 image frames per second. Image exposures are timed to be centered around predicted zero crossings. The design allows for prediction algorithms that account for the most recent fringe rate so that timing jitter produced by scan speed variations can be minimized. Response to a fixed source is linear with exposure time nearly to the point of saturation. Linearity with respect to input variations was demonstrated to within 0.16% using a 3-point blackbody calibration. Imaging of external complex scenes was carried out at low and high spectral resolution. These require full complex calibration to remove background contributions that vary dramatically over the instrument FOV. Testing is continuing to demonstrate the precise radiometric accuracy and noise characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150006611&hterms=Hurricanes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DHurricanes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150006611&hterms=Hurricanes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DHurricanes"><span id="translatedtitle">NEXRAD-In-Space: A <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Orbiting Doppler Radar for Hurricane Monitoring and Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Im, Eastwood; Durden, Stephen L.; Tanelli, Simone; Fang, Houfei; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Under NASA's Earth Science Technology Program, a novel mission concept has been developed for detailed monitoring of hurricanes, cyclones, and severe storms from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit: "NEXRAD in Space" (NIS). By operating in the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Earth Orbit (GEO), NIS would enable rapid-update sampling (less than or equal to 1 hour cadence) of three dimenional fields of 35 GHz (Ka-band) radar reflectivity factor (Z) and line-of-sight Doppler velocity (VD) profiles, at mesoscale horizontal resolutions (approx. 10 km) over a circular Earth region of approximately 5300 km in diameter (equivalent to much of an oceanic basin, such as the Atlantic). NIS GEO-radar concept was chosen as one of only four potential post-2020 missions for the Weather Focus area in the 2007-2016 NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Plan. The results of the first project aiming at developing the NIS concept highlighted the enormous potential of such mission, and the technological challenges presented by it. In essence, it is because of its rapid-cadence capability that NIS science planning is focusing on hurricane monitoring and prediction. Hurricanes, or generically tropical cyclones (TCs), have always been among the most devastating natural phenomena. This has been painfully reiterated in recent years with a number of powerful TCs landfalling in North America and elsewhere. In April 2007, the first NIS Science Workshop was convened at the University of Miami to galvanize the scientific community's interest in NIS's measurement capabilities for improved TC monitoring and prediction. The general consensus of the workshop was that a GEO Doppler radar would provide a major breakthrough in regards to the observation of TCs, and, when combined with cloud-resolving numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. This paper presents brief summaries of the instrument concept, the current technology status, the anticipated impacts on hurricane monitoring and model prediction, and the future science</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610718G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610718G"><span id="translatedtitle">Transport and acceleration of plasma sheet electrons to <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ganushkina, Natalia</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Transport and acceleration of the electrons with energies less than 200 keV from the plasma sheet to <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit were investigated. These electron fluxes constitute the seed population for the high energy MeV particles in the radiation belts and are responsible for hazardous phenomena such as surface charging. We modeled several quiet and storm events, when the presence of isolated substorms was seen in the AE index. We used the Inner Magnetosphere Particle Transport and Acceleration Model (IMPTAM) with the boundary at 10 Re with Tsyganenko and Mukai moment values for the electrons in the plasma sheet. The output of the IMPTAM modeling was compared to the observed electron fluxes in ten energy ranges (from 5 to 50 keV) measured onboard the AMC 12 <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> spacecraft by the CEASE II ESA instrument and to LANL data from MPA and SOPA instruments. The behavior of the fluxes depends on the electron energy. IMPTAM model, driven by the observed parameters such as IMF By and Bz, solar wind velocity, number density and dynamic pressure and the Dst index, was not able to reproduce the observed peaks in the electron fluxes when no significant variations are present in those parameters. The variations of the observed fluxes during this non-storm period are due to substorm activity. We introduced the substorm-associated electromagnetic fields by launching several electromagnetic pulses at the substorm onsets during the modeled period. The substorm-associated increases in the observed fluxes can be captured by IMPTAM when substorm-associated electromagnetic fields are taken into account. Modifications of the pulse model used here are needed, especially related to the pulse front velocity and arrival time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcSci..12..703K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcSci..12..703K"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean colour opportunities from Meteosat Second and Third Generation <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kwiatkowska, Ewa J.; Ruddick, Kevin; Ramon, Didier; Vanhellemont, Quinten; Brockmann, Carsten; Lebreton, Carole; Bonekamp, Hans G.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Ocean colour applications from medium-resolution polar-orbiting satellite sensors have now matured and evolved into operational services. These applications are enabled by the Sentinel-3 OLCI space sensors of the European Earth Observation Copernicus programme and the VIIRS sensors of the US Joint Polar Satellite System programme. Key drivers for the Copernicus ocean colour services are the national obligations of the EU member states to report on the quality of marine, coastal and inland waters for the EU Water Framework Directive and Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Further applications include CO2 sequestration, carbon cycle and climate, fisheries and aquaculture management, near-real-time alerting to harmful algae blooms, environmental monitoring and forecasting, and assessment of sediment transport in coastal waters. Ocean colour data from polar-orbiting satellite platforms, however, suffer from fractional coverage, primarily due to clouds, and inadequate resolution of quickly varying processes. Ocean colour remote sensing from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platforms can provide significant improvements in coverage and sampling frequency and support new applications and services. EUMETSAT's SEVIRI instrument on the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Meteosat Second Generation platforms (MSG) is not designed to meet ocean colour mission requirements, however, it has been demonstrated to provide valuable contribution, particularly in combination with dedicated ocean colour polar observations. This paper describes the ongoing effort to develop operational ocean colour water turbidity and related products and user services from SEVIRI. SEVIRI's multi-temporal capabilities can benefit users requiring improved local-area coverage and frequent diurnal observations. A survey of user requirements and a study of technical capabilities and limitations of the SEVIRI instruments are the basis for this development and are described in this paper. The products will support monitoring of sediment transport</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS23A1632C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS23A1632C"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring of hourly variations in coastal water turbidity using the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> ocean color imager (GOCI)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, J.; Ryu, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Temporal variations of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in coastal water are the key to understanding the pattern of sediment movement within coastal area, in particular, such as in the west coast of the Korean Peninsula which is influenced by semi-diurnal tides. Remote sensing techniques can effectively monitor the distribution and dynamic changes in seawater properties across wide areas. Thus, SSC on the sea surface has been investigated using various types of satellite-based sensors. An advantage of <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), the world's first <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> ocean color observation satellite, over other ocean color satellite images is that it can obtain data every hour during the day and makes it possible to monitor the ocean in real time. In this study, hourly variations in turbidity on the coastal waters were estimated quantitatively using GOCI. Thirty three water samples were obtained on the coastal water surface in southern Gyeonggi Bay, located on the west coast of Korea. Water samples were filtered using 25-mm glass fiber filters (GF/F) for the estimation of SSC. The radiometric characteristics of the surface water, such as the total water-leaving radiance (LwT, W/m2/nm/sr), the sky radiance (Lsky, W/m2/nm/sr) and the downwelling irradiance, were also measured at each sampling location. In situ optical properties of the surface water were converted into remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) and then were used to develop an algorithm to generate SSC images in the study area. GOCI images acquired on the same day as the samples acquisition were used to generate the map of turbidity and to estimate the difference in SSC displayed in each image. The estimation of the time-series variation in SSC in a coastal, shallow-water area affected by tides was successfully achieved using GOCI data that had been acquired at hourly intervals during the daytime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7149E..0CT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7149E..0CT"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiometric modeling and calibration of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) ground based measurement experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere's thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The GIFTS calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts, therefore, enhancing the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is applied to data collected during the GIFTS Ground Based Measurement (GBM) experiment, together with simultaneous observations by the accurately calibrated AERI (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer), both simultaneously zenith viewing the sky through the same external scene mirror at ten-minute intervals throughout a cloudless day at Logan Utah on September 13, 2006. The accurately calibrated GIFTS radiances are produced using the first four PC scores in the GIFTS-AERI regression model. Temperature and moisture profiles retrieved from the PC-calibrated GIFTS radiances are verified against radiosonde measurements collected throughout the GIFTS sky measurement period. Using the GIFTS GBM calibration model, we compute the calibrated radiances from data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcScD..12.3143K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcScD..12.3143K"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean colour products from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platforms, opportunities with Meteosat Second and Third Generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kwiatkowska, E. J.; Ruddick, K.; Ramon, D.; Vanhellemont, Q.; Brockmann, C.; Lebreton, C.; Bonekamp, H. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Ocean colour applications from medium-resolution polar-orbiting satellite sensors have now matured and evolved into operational services. The examples include the Sentinel-3 OLCI missions of the European Earth Observation Copernicus programme and the VIIRS missions of the US Joint Polar Satellite System programme. Key drivers for Copernicus ocean colour services are the national obligations of the EU member states to report on the quality of marine, coastal and inland waters for the EU Water Framework Directive and Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Further applications include CO2 sequestration, carbon cycle and climate, fisheries and aquaculture management, near-real-time alerting to harmful algae blooms, environmental monitoring and forecasting, and assessment of sediment transport in coastal waters. Ocean colour data from polar-orbiting satellite platforms, however, suffer from fractional coverage, primarily due to clouds, and inadequate resolution of quickly varying processes. Ocean colour remote sensing from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platforms can provide significant improvements in coverage and sampling frequency and support new applications and services. EUMETSAT's SEVIRI instrument on the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Meteosat Second Generation platforms (MSG) is not designed to meet ocean colour mission requirements, however, it has been demonstrated to provide valuable contribution, particularly in combination with dedicated ocean colour polar observations. This paper describes the ongoing effort to develop operational ocean colour water turbidity and related products and user services from SEVIRI. A survey of user requirements and a study of technical capabilities and limitations of the SEVIRI instruments are the basis for this development and are described in this paper. The products will support monitoring of sediment transport, water clarity, and tidal dynamics. Further products and services are anticipated from EUMETSAT's FCI instruments on Meteosat Third Generation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.4503G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.4503G"><span id="translatedtitle">Method for Experimental Observations of Space Debris Connected with Fragmentations in the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grigoriev, K.</p> <p></p> <p>Small field-of-view of special telescopes and limited time of observation with best conditions, and also increased number of uncorrelated objects in GEO raise a problem of identification of fragments of space debris and research of a possibility of their support and cataloguing. For detection and identification of fragments of known events of destructions in the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> ring, the determined model for definition of parameters of spatial area of movement of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> objects and trajectory density in the specific moments of time has been constructed. Our purpose is the creation of a technique of optimum planning of observations for detection, support and identification of fragments, in the cases when there is a reliable apriori information (moment of destruction, orbital elements of parental body, estimation of number and sizes of fragments). Such events are for example explosions of the satellites Ekran 2 (1977-092A, 21/06/1978), Titan IIIC Transtage (1968-081E, 21/02/1992) and some other, for which the precomputations are executed and the comparison with results of survey of the European Debris telescope is carried out. The modeling of the destruction for any number of fragments and the change of orbital parameters allows to investigate evolution of area of movement of fragments and to determine area of maximal trajectory density in the right ascension - declination space. The barrier scanning of the fixed area can be carried out by one or several observatories. The initial identification of objects at barrier scanning is carried out on the bases of analysis of angular measurements and angular velocities using real data for the catalogued objects and model parameters of movement for the fragments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A21C0085C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A21C0085C"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimal spectral resolution for NO2 and SO2 retrieval by <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chong, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Scientific Team of DOAS</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Ministry of Environment, Korea is planning an environmental <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite program as a part of MP-GEOSAT (Multi-Purpose <span class="hlt">GEOstationary</span> SATellite), which is scheduled to be launched in 2017 (Lee S. et al., 2010). It is supposed to be placed on an orbit of approximately 36,000 kilometers high directly over the equator, which revolves in the same direction the earth rotates. Its missions include meteorological, ocean monitoring, and environmental monitoring. Especially, <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) is to provide atmospheric chemistry measurements of trace gases such as O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, and aerosol in high temporal (every 1 hour) and spatial (30x30 km2) resolution over Asia, to monitor regional transport events such as transboundary pollution and Asian dust, and to enhance our understanding on interactions between atmospheric chemistry and meteorology. In order to determine the minimum required spectral resolution of GEMS, measurement accuracy has been estimated for different spectral resolutions based on the actual satellite data as well as model simulation data of very fine spectral resolution. Absorption spectra of SCIAMACHY level 2 data (http://www.temis.nl) with spectral resolution of 0.2nm and reconstructed spectra of broader spectral resolution; 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8nm have been utilized to assess the applicability for SO2 and NO2 retrievals over GEMS spatial coverage areas using the DOAS fitting method. The relative fitting error in SO2 retrieval of each spectral resolution over southern China was determined to be 45.1, 56.1, 99.7, and 187.3 %, respectively. The relative fitting errors in NO2 retrieval of each spectral resolution over northern India were 16.2, 24.6, 32.6, and 38.9 %, respectively. Since relative fitting error in SO2 retrieval increases as the spectra resolution increases, the optimal spectrum resolution was determined to be 0.4nm. On the other hand, since the relative fitting error in NO2 retrieval is below</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A23J..04A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A23J..04A"><span id="translatedtitle">Synergistic Opportunities for the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Constellation: Status of the CEOS Activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Al-Saadi, J. A.; Zehner, C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>This talk will summarize activities of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Atmospheric Composition Constellation (ACC) to collaboratively advance the next generation of air quality monitoring from space. Over the past 2 years, CEOS ACC have developed a position paper describing the benefits to be derived from such collaboration. The resulting ACC recommendations were endorsed by CEOS in May 2011. We will discuss next steps toward implementing this vision, starting with a new 3-year CEOS Action in 2012. Several countries and space agencies are currently planning to launch <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Earth orbit (GEO) missions in 2017-2022 to obtain atmospheric composition measurements for characterizing anthropogenic and natural distributions of tropospheric ozone, aerosols, and their precursors. These missions include Europe's ESA Sentinel-4 with EUMETSAT IRS, the United States' NASA GEO-CAPE, Korea's ME/MEST/KARI GEMS, and Japan's JAXA GMAP-Asia. GEO observations offer a quantum advance in air quality monitoring from space by providing measurements many times per day. However, a single GEO satellite views only a portion of the globe. These satellites, positioned to view Europe, East Asia, and North America, will collectively provide hourly coverage of the industrialized Northern Hemisphere at similar spatial resolutions. Planned low Earth orbit (LEO) missions will provide complementary daily global observations. Observations from a single LEO satellite will overlap those from each GEO satellite once per day, providing a means for combining the GEO observations and a necessary perspective for interpreting global impacts of smaller scale processes. The EUMETSAT Metop series, NOAA/NASA JPSS series, and ESA Sentinel-5 Precursor and Sentinel-5 missions will each provide such daily overlap with the GEO missions. The Canadian PCW PHEMOS mission will make an additional unique suite of observations. PCW will provide quasi-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> coverage over the Arctic that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11G0132F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11G0132F"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and Temporal Variability of Trace Gases during DISCOVER-AQ: Planning for <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Observations of Atmospheric Composition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Follette-Cook, M. B.; Pickering, K. E.; Crawford, J. H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We quantify spatial and temporal variability of both in-situ mixing ratios and column integrated O3, NO2, CO, SO2, and HCHO during the four deployments of the NASA Earth Venture mission DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality). Using structure function analyses, we compare simulated variability of output from the regional chemical models WRF/Chem and CMAQ with variability observed during the campaigns. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument will be the first NASA mission to make atmospheric composition observations from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit and partially fulfills the goals of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission. We compare both observed and simulated variability to the precision requirements defined by the science traceability matrices of these space-borne missions to explore how they relate to the science questions they are tasked to address.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A51M..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A51M..03S"><span id="translatedtitle">Feasibility study for Japanese Air Quality Mission from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite: Infrared Imaging Spectrometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sagi, K.; Kasai, Y.; Philippe, B.; Suzuki, K.; Kita, K.; Hayashida, S.; Imasu, R.; Akimoto, H.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Earth Orbit (GEO) satellite is potentially able to monitor the regional distribution of pollution with good spatial and temporal resolution. The Japan Society of Atmospheric Chemistry (JSAC) and the Japanese Space Exploration Agency (JAXA) initiated a concept study for air quality measurements from a GEO satellite targeting the Asian region [1]. This work presents the results of sensitivity studies for a Thermal Infrared (TIR) (650-2300cm-1) candidate instrument. We performed a simulation study and error analysis to optimize the instrumental operating frequencies and spectral resolution. The scientific requirements, in terms of minimum precision (or error) values, are 10% for tropospheric O3 and CO and total column of HN3 and nighttime HNO2 and 25% for O3 and CO with separating 2 or 3 column in troposphere. Two atmospheric scenarios, one is Asian background, second is polluted case, were assumed for this study. The forward calculations and the retrieval error analysis were performed with the AMATERASU model [2] developed within the NICT-THz remote sensing project. Retrieval error analysis employed the Optimal Estimation Method [3]. The geometry is off-nadir observation on Tokyo from the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite at equator. Fine spectral resolution will allow to observe boundary layer O3 and CO. We estimate the observation precision in the spectral resolution from 0.1cm-1 to 1cm-1 for 0-2km, 2-6km, and 6-12km. A spectral resolution of 0.3 cm-1 gives good sensitivity for all target molecules (e.g. tropospheric O3 can be detected separated 2 column with error 30%). A resolution of 0.6 cm-1 is sufficient to detect tropospheric column amount of O3 and CO (in the Asian background scenario), which is within the required precision and with acceptable instrumental SNR values of 100 for O3 and 30 for CO. However, with this resolution, the boundary layer ozone will be difficult to detect in the background abundance. In addition, a spectral resolution of 0.6 cm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1519017B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1519017B"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on methane emissions in North America from future <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> remote sensing measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bousserez, N.; Henze, D. K.; Rooney, B.; Perkins, A.; Wecht, K. J.; Turner, A. J.; Natraj, V.; Worden, J. R.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The success of future <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) satellite observation missions depends on our ability to design instruments that address their key scientific objectives. In this study, an Observation System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is performed to quantify the constraints on methane (CH4) emissions in North America obtained from Short Wave Infrared (SWIR), Thermal Infrared (TIR) and multi-spectral measurements in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit compared to existing SWIR low earth (LEO) measurements. A stochastic algorithm is used to compute the information content of a variational inversion at high spatial resolution (0.5° × 0.7°) using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint. Both the SWIR LEO and TIR GEO configurations generally provide poor constraints on CH4 emissions (error reduction <30 %), with the exception of a few hotspots (e.g., Los Angeles, Toronto urban areas and Appalachian Mountains) where the error reduction is greater than 50 %. On weekly time scales and for a GEO orbit, the degree of freedom for signal (DOFs) of the inversion from multi-spectral observations (500) is a factor of two higher than that obtained from a SWIR instrument (255) due to the increase in measurement sensitivity to boundary layer concentrations in the multi-spectral case. On a monthly time scale and for a GEO orbit, a SWIR instrument would reduce error in emission estimates by more than 70 % for hotspots of CH4 sources (emissions > 4 × 105 kg day-1 grid-1) at model grid scale, while a TIR instrument would provide a relative error reduction of 25-60 % over those areas. While performing similarly for monthly inversions, a multi-spectral instrument would allow for more than 70 % error reduction for these emissions for 7 or 3 day inversions. Sensitivity of the inversions to error in boundary conditions are found to be negligible. Moreover, estimates of the model resolution matrix over significant emitting regions (CH4 emissions > 2 × 105 kg day-1 grid-1) show that for all</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSA13B2357C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSA13B2357C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Communications Satellites as Sensors for the Space Weather Environment: Telemetry Event Identification Algorithms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carlton, A.; Cahoy, K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Reliability of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communication satellites (GEO ComSats) is critical to many industries worldwide. The space radiation environment poses a significant threat and manufacturers and operators expend considerable effort to maintain reliability for users. Knowledge of the space radiation environment at the orbital location of a satellite is of critical importance for diagnosing and resolving issues resulting from space weather, for optimizing cost and reliability, and for space situational awareness. For decades, operators and manufacturers have collected large amounts of telemetry from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) communications satellites to monitor system health and performance, yet this data is rarely mined for scientific purposes. The goal of this work is to acquire and analyze archived data from commercial operators using new algorithms that can detect when a space weather (or non-space weather) event of interest has occurred or is in progress. We have developed algorithms, collectively called SEER (System Event Evaluation Routine), to statistically analyze power amplifier current and temperature telemetry by identifying deviations from nominal operations or other events and trends of interest. This paper focuses on our work in progress, which currently includes methods for detection of jumps ("spikes", outliers) and step changes (changes in the local mean) in the telemetry. We then examine available space weather data from the NOAA GOES and the NOAA-computed Kp index and sunspot numbers to see what role, if any, it might have played. By combining the results of the algorithm for many components, the spacecraft can be used as a "sensor" for the space radiation environment. Similar events occurring at one time across many component telemetry streams may be indicative of a space radiation event or system-wide health and safety concern. Using SEER on representative datasets of telemetry from Inmarsat and Intelsat, we find events that occur across all or many of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007287','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007287"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the Pseudo <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper Products at the Spring Program and Summer Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stano, Geoffrey T.; Calhoun, Kristin K.; Terborg, Amanda M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Since 2010, the de facto <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) demonstration product has been the Pseudo-<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (PGLM) product suite. Originally prepared for the Hazardous Weather Testbed's Spring Program (specifically the Experimental Warning Program) when only four ground-based lightning mapping arrays were available, the effort now spans collaborations with several institutions and eight collaborative networks. For 2013, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center and NOAA's National Severe Storms Laboratory have worked to collaborate with each network to obtain data in real-time. This has gone into producing the SPoRT variant of the PGLM that was demonstrated in AWIPS II for the 2013 Spring Program. Alongside the PGLM products, the SPoRT / Meteorological Development Laboratory's total lightning tracking tool also was evaluated to assess not just another visualization of future GLM data but how to best extract more information while in the operational environment. Specifically, this tool addressed the leading request by forecasters during evaluations; provide a time series trend of total lightning in real-time. In addition to the Spring Program, SPoRT is providing the PGLM "mosaic" to the Aviation Weather Center (AWC) and Storm Prediction Center. This is the same as what is used at the Hazardous Weather Testbed, but combines all available networks into one display for use at the national centers. This year, the mosaic was evaluated during the AWC's Summer Experiment. An important distinction between this and the Spring Program is that the Summer Experiment focuses on the national center perspective and not at the local forecast office level. Specifically, the Summer Experiment focuses on aviation needs and concerns and brings together operational forecaster, developers, and FAA representatives. This presentation will focus on the evaluation of SPoRT's pseudo-GLM products in these separate test beds. The emphasis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1728S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1728S"><span id="translatedtitle">The super-low frequency resonances at magnetospheric boundaries versus <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and ionospheric data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savin, Sergey; Surjalal Sharma, A.; Pilipenko, Viacheslav; Marcucci, Maria Federica; Nemecek, Zdenek; Safrankova, Jana; Consolini, Giuseppe; Belakhovsky, Vladimir; Kozak, Ludmila; Blecki, Jan; Kronberg, Elena</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We do a multi-point study of the influence of the lowest frequency resonances (0.02-10 mHz) at the outer magnetospheric boundaries on the fluctuations inside the magnetosphere and ionosphere presented. The correlations of the dynamic pressure data from CLUSTER, DOUBLE STAR, GEOTAIL, ACE/ WIND, particle data from LANL, GOES with the magnetic data from polar ionospheric stations on March 27, 2005, show that: i) the waves generated by boundary resonances and their harmonics penetrate inside the magnetosphere and reach the ionosphere; ii) correlations between the dynamic pressure fluctuations at the magnetospheric boundaries and magnetospheric/ ionospheric disturbances, including indices such as AE and SYM-H, can exceed 80%; iii) the new resonance frequencies are lower by an order of magnitude compared with our previous studies, which are as low as 0.02 mHz. Furthermore, such resonances are characteristic also for the night-side <span class="hlt">geostationary</span>/ionospheric data and for the middle tail, i.e., they are global magnetospheric features. Analysis of different types of correlations yields the unexpected result that in ~48% of the cases with pronounced maximum in the correlation function the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span>/ ionospheric response is seen before the magnetosheath (MSH) response. We propose that some global magnetospheric resonances (e.g. membrane bow shock surface (0.2-0.5 mHz) and/or magnetopause (0.5-0.9 mHz) modes along with the cavity MHS/ cusp (3-10 mHz) and magnetospheric global modes (0.02-0.09mHz)) can account for the data presented. The multiple jets at the sampled MSH locations can be a consequence of the resonances, while an initial disturbance (e.g. through the interplanetary shocks, Hot Flow Anomalies, foreshock irregularities etc., were not observed by particular spacecraft in MSH because they were localized in the plane perpendicular to the Sun-Earth line. So, in the explorations of the solar wind - magnetosphere interactions one should take into account these</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7840E..25L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7840E..25L"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of the model of calibrating differences of brightness temperature from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite generated by time zone differences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Weidong; Shan, Xinjian; Qu, Chunyan</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>In comparison with polar-orbiting satellites, <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites have a higher time resolution and wider field of visions, which can cover eleven time zones (an image covers about one third of the Earth's surface). For a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite panorama graph at a point of time, the brightness temperature of different zones is unable to represent the thermal radiation information of the surface at the same point of time because of the effect of different sun solar radiation. So it is necessary to calibrate brightness temperature of different zones with respect to the same point of time. A model of calibrating the differences of the brightness temperature of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite generated by time zone differences is suggested in this study. A total of 16 curves of four positions in four different stages are given through sample statistics of brightness temperature of every 5 days synthetic data which are from four different time zones (time zones 4, 6, 8, and 9). The above four stages span January -March (winter), April-June (spring), July-September (summer), and October-December (autumn). Three kinds of correct situations and correct formulas based on curves changes are able to better eliminate brightness temperature rising or dropping caused by time zone differences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7840E..25L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7840E..25L"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of the model of calibrating differences of brightness temperature from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite generated by time zone differences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Weidong; Shan, Xinjian; Qu, Chunyan</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>In comparison with polar-orbiting satellites, <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites have a higher time resolution and wider field of visions, which can cover eleven time zones (an image covers about one third of the Earth's surface). For a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite panorama graph at a point of time, the brightness temperature of different zones is unable to represent the thermal radiation information of the surface at the same point of time because of the effect of different sun solar radiation. So it is necessary to calibrate brightness temperature of different zones with respect to the same point of time. A model of calibrating the differences of the brightness temperature of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite generated by time zone differences is suggested in this study. A total of 16 curves of four positions in four different stages are given through sample statistics of brightness temperature of every 5 days synthetic data which are from four different time zones (time zones 4, 6, 8, and 9). The above four stages span January -March (winter), April-June (spring), July-September (summer), and October-December (autumn). Three kinds of correct situations and correct formulas based on curves changes are able to better eliminate brightness temperature rising or dropping caused by time zone differences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN13C..04H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN13C..04H"><span id="translatedtitle">Implementing a combined polar-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> algorithm for smoke emissions estimation in near real time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hyer, E. J.; Schmidt, C. C.; Hoffman, J.; Giglio, L.; Peterson, D. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Polar and <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites are used operationally for fire detection and smoke source estimation by many near-real-time operational users, including operational forecast centers around the globe. The input satellite radiance data are processed by data providers to produce Level-2 and Level -3 fire detection products, but processing these data into spatially and temporally consistent estimates of fire activity requires a substantial amount of additional processing. The most significant processing steps are correction for variable coverage of the satellite observations, and correction for conditions that affect the detection efficiency of the satellite sensors. We describe a system developed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) that uses the full raster information from the entire constellation to diagnose detection opportunities, calculate corrections for factors such as angular dependence of detection efficiency, and generate global estimates of fire activity at spatial and temporal scales suitable for atmospheric modeling. By incorporating these improved fire observations, smoke emissions products, such as NRL's FLAMBE, are able to produce improved estimates of global emissions. This talk provides an overview of the system, demonstrates the achievable improvement over older methods, and describes challenges for near-real-time implementation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120008704','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120008704"><span id="translatedtitle">Global Assessment of Land Surface Temperature From <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellites and Model Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reichle, Rolf H.; Liu, Q.; Minnis, P.; daSilva, A. M., Jr.; Palikonda, R.; Yost, C. R.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Land surface (or 'skin') temperature (LST) lies at the heart of the surface energy balance and is a key variable in weather and climate models. In this research we compare two global and independent data sets: (i) LST retrievals from five <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites generated at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and (ii) LST estimates from the quasi-operational NASA GEOS-5 global modeling and assimilation system. The objective is to thoroughly understand both data sets and their systematic differences in preparation for the assimilation of the LaRC LST retrievals into GEOS-5. As expected, mean differences (MD) and root-mean-square differences (RMSD) between modeled and retrieved LST vary tremendously by region and time of day. Typical (absolute) MD values range from 1-3 K in Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude regions to near 10 K in regions where modeled clouds are unrealistic, for example in north-eastern Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and southern Brazil. Typically, model estimates of LST are higher than satellite retrievals during the night and lower during the day. RMSD values range from 1-3 K during the night to 2-5 K during the day, but are larger over the 50-120 W longitude band where the LST retrievals are derived from the FY2E platform</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900018422','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900018422"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal-distortion analysis of an antenna strongback for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> high-frequency microwave applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Farmer, Jeffrey T.; Wahls, Deborah M.; Wright, Robert L.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The global change technology initiative calls for a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform for Earth science monitoring. One of the major science instruments is the high frequency microwave sounder (HFMS) which uses a large diameter, high resolution, high frequency microwave antenna. This antenna's size and required accuracy dictates the need for a segmented reflector. On-orbit disturbances may be a significant factor in its design. A study was performed to examine the effects of the geosynchronous thermal environment on the performance of the strongback structure for a proposed antenna concept for this application. The study included definition of the strongback and a corresponding numerical model to be used in the thermal and structural analyses definition of the thermal environment, determination of structural element temperature throughout potential orbits, estimation of resulting thermal distortions, and assessment of the structure's capability to meet surface accuracy requirements. Analyses show that shadows produced by the antenna reflector surface play a major role in increasing thermal distortions. Through customization of surface coating and element expansion characteristics, the segmented reflector concept can meet the tight surface accuracy requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160012694','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160012694"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Satellite R Series SpaceWire Based Data System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, William; Birmingham, Michael; Krimchansky, Alexander; Lombardi, Matthew</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series Program (GOES-R, S, T, and U) mission is a joint program between National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). SpaceWire was selected as the science data bus as well as command and telemetry for the GOES instruments. GOES-R, S, T, and U spacecraft have a mission data loss requirement for all data transfers between the instruments and spacecraft requiring error detection and correction at the packet level. The GOES-R Reliable Data Delivery Protocol (GRDDP) [1] was developed in house to provide a means of reliably delivering data among various on board sources and sinks. The GRDDP was presented to and accepted by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS) and is part of the ECSS Protocol Identification Standard [2]. GOES-R development and integration is complete and the observatory is scheduled for launch November 2016. Now that instrument to spacecraft integration is complete, GOES-R Project reviewed lessons learned to determine how the GRDDP could be revised to improve the integration process. Based on knowledge gained during the instrument to spacecraft integration process the following is presented to help potential GRDDP users improve their system designs and implementation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25835299','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25835299"><span id="translatedtitle">Coarse initial orbit determination for a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite using single-epoch GPS measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Ghangho; Kim, Chongwon; Kee, Changdon</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A practical algorithm is proposed for determining the orbit of a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit (GEO) satellite using single-epoch measurements from a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver under the sparse visibility of the GPS satellites. The algorithm uses three components of a state vector to determine the satellite's state, even when it is impossible to apply the classical single-point solutions (SPS). Through consideration of the characteristics of the GEO orbital elements and GPS measurements, the components of the state vector are reduced to three. However, the algorithm remains sufficiently accurate for a GEO satellite. The developed algorithm was tested on simulated measurements from two or three GPS satellites, and the calculated maximum position error was found to be less than approximately 40 km or even several kilometers within the geometric range, even when the classical SPS solution was unattainable. In addition, extended Kalman filter (EKF) tests of a GEO satellite with the estimated initial state were performed to validate the algorithm. In the EKF, a reliable dynamic model was adapted to reduce the probability of divergence that can be caused by large errors in the initial state. PMID:25835299</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5888285','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5888285"><span id="translatedtitle">Los Alamos <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit synoptic data set: a compilation of energetic particle data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baker, D.N.; Higbie, P.R.; Belian, R.D.; Aiello, W.P.; Hones, E.W. Jr.; Tech, E.R.; Halbig, M.F.; Payne, J.B.; Robinson, R.; Kedge, S.</p> <p>1981-08-01</p> <p>Energetic electron (30 to 2000 keV) and proton (145 keV to 150 MeV) measurements made by Los Alamos National Laboratory sensors at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit 6.6 R/sub E/ are summarized. The data are plotted in terms of daily average spectra, 3-h local time averages, and in a variety of statistical formats. The data summarize conditions from mid-1976 through 1978 (S/C 1976-059) and from early 1977 through 1978 (S/C 1977-007). The compilations correspond to measurements at 35/sup 0/W, 70/sup 0/W, and 135/sup 0/W geographic longitude and, thus, are indicative of conditions at 9/sup 0/, 11/sup 0/, and 4.8/sup 0/ geomagnetic latitude, respectively. Most of this report is comprised of data plots that are organized according to Carrington solar rotations so that the data can be easily compared to solar rotation-dependent interplanetary data. As shown in prior studies, variations in solar wind conditions modulate particle intensity within the terrestrial magnetosphere. The effects of these variations are demonstrated and discussed. Potential uses of the Synoptic Data Set by the scientific and applications-oriented communities are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRC..119.3988Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRC..119.3988Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) to estimates of ocean surface currents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Hyun; Choi, Jong-Kuk; Park, Young-Je; Han, Hee-Jeong; Ryu, Joo-Hyung</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) can be utilized efficiently to observe subtle changes in oceanic environments under cloud-free conditions because it receives ocean color images around the Korean Peninsula hourly, for 8 h a day. Here we investigated the applicability of the GOCI for estimating hourly variations in ocean surface currents, which provide significant information on seawater circulation for fisheries, shipping controls, and more. Ocean surface currents were deduced from eight images of GOCI-derived total suspended matter (TSM) from highly turbid coastal waters and images of chlorophyll concentration (CHL) for relatively clear waters. The results showed that GOCI TSM-derived ocean surface currents can effectively estimate and represent fast tidal currents, as well as flood and ebb tides on the west coast of Korea, in comparison with in situ measurements. GOCI-derived CHL scenes successfully illustrated currents moving along boundaries where warm and cold seawaters mix, in addition to mesoscale currents such as the East Korea Warm Current (EKWC) in the East Sea of Korea. Satellite-based sea surface temperature and sea surface height images supported the reliability of GOCI-derived ocean surface currents in the East Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160011366&hterms=CARTOGRAPHY&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DCARTOGRAPHY','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160011366&hterms=CARTOGRAPHY&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DCARTOGRAPHY"><span id="translatedtitle">The Intercalibration of <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Visible Imagers Using Operational Hyperspectral SCIAMACHY Radiances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Doelling, David R.; Scarino, Benjamin R.; Morstad, Daniel; Gopalan, Arun; Bhatt, Rajendra; Lukashin, Constantine; Minnis, Patrick</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Spectral band differences between sensors can complicate the process of intercalibration of a visible sensor against a reference sensor. This can be best addressed by using a hyperspectral reference sensor whenever possible because they can be used to accurately mitigate the band differences. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using operational Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) large-footprint hyperspectral radiances to calibrate <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Earth-observing (GEO) sensors. Near simultaneous nadir overpass measurements were used to compare the temporal calibration of SCIAMACHY with Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer band radiances, which were found to be consistent to within 0.44% over seven years. An operational SCIAMACHY/GEO ray-matching technique was presented, along with enhancements to improve radiance pair sampling. These enhancements did not bias the underlying intercalibration and provided enough sampling to allow up to monthly monitoring of the GEO sensor degradation. The results of the SCIAMACHY/GEO intercalibration were compared with other operational four-year Meteosat-9 0.65-µm calibration coefficients and were found to be within 1% of the gain, and more importantly, it had one of the lowest temporal standard errors of all the methods. This is more than likely that the GEO spectral response function could be directly applied to the SCIAMACHY radiances, whereas the other operational methods inferred a spectral correction factor. This method allows the validation of the spectral corrections required by other methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012856','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012856"><span id="translatedtitle">The GOES-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) and the Global Observing System for Total Lightning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Koshak, W.; Buechler, D.; Carey, L.; Chronis, T.; Mach, D.; Bateman, M.; Peterson, H.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.; Stano, G. T.; Bitzer, P. M.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Cummins, K. L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>for the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. New and improved instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution for the next generation Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product latency of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. The GLM will help address the National Weather Service requirement for total lightning observations globally to support warning decision-making and forecast services. Science and application development along with pre-operational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS national centers, forecast offices, and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and check-out of GOES-R in 2016. New applications will use GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, or integrated (fused) with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks, nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A53A0230K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A53A0230K"><span id="translatedtitle">Transboundary air pollution in East/Southeast Asia and <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kita, K.; Kasai, Y.; Sagi, K.; Hayashida, S.; Irie, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Miyazaki, K.; Takigawa, M.; Noguchi, K.; Kondo, Y.; Koike, M.; Akimoto, H.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Accompanying with recent development of industry and economy in countries in Eastern/Southern/Southeastern Asia, emissions of air pollutants have been increasing significantly. Long-range, transboundary transport of these pollutants probably affects the atmospheric environment and the regional climate in this region. In Japan, although concentrations of ozone precursors have been decreasing in 1990s-2000s, surface ozone concentration has been gradually increasing and photochemical smog sometimes occurs not only in urban regions but also in remote areas. One of the causes of this ozone increase is considered to be transboundary transport of polluted air masses in East Asia. <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> (GEO) satellite observation of air pollutants over Asia is expected to contribute to understanding the photochemical and transport processes as well as the spatial and temporal variation of their emissions in this region. It can play crucial rolls for monitoring and predicting the transboundary pollution events. In this talk, some examples of transboundary pollution in East and Southeast Asia will be presented, and the detection possibility of these pollution events from GEO satellite will be discussed. Possible improvement of the model prediction of these pollution events by assimilating GEO satellite data will be also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSpR..56.1139V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSpR..56.1139V"><span id="translatedtitle">Rainfall estimation for real time flood monitoring using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Veerakachen, Watcharee; Raksapatcharawong, Mongkol</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Rainfall estimation by <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite data provides good spatial and temporal resolutions. This is advantageous for real time flood monitoring and warning systems. However, a rainfall estimation algorithm developed in one region needs to be adjusted for another climatic region. This work proposes computationally-efficient rainfall estimation algorithms based on an Infrared Threshold Rainfall (ITR) method calibrated with regional ground truth. Hourly rain gauge data collected from 70 stations around the Chao-Phraya river basin were used for calibration and validation of the algorithms. The algorithm inputs were derived from FY-2E satellite observations consisting of infrared and water vapor imagery. The results were compared with the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) near real time product (GSMaP_NRT) using the probability of detection (POD), root mean square error (RMSE) and linear correlation coefficient (CC) as performance indices. Comparison with the GSMaP_NRT product for real time monitoring purpose shows that hourly rain estimates from the proposed algorithm with the error adjustment technique (ITR_EA) offers higher POD and approximately the same RMSE and CC with less data latency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993STIA...9585753H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993STIA...9585753H"><span id="translatedtitle">Combinatorial optimization of long-term maneuver sequences applied to <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haerting, A.; Meixner, H.</p> <p></p> <p>Eccentricity control schemes for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites are discussed considering realistic mission profiles. The advantages of long-term maneuver planning are outlined in terms of fuel savings, number of maneuvers, orbit control accuracy and safety. The planning ahead of a dozen or more maneuvers involves, in particular, the selection of discrete alternatives such as thruster branches and time intervals. The proposed planning scheme is developed by heuristic augmentation taking the TVSat-2 spacecraft as an example. Then it is formalized in the framework of combinatorial optimization by adapting the method of simulated annealing to maneuver sequences. Results for TVSat-2 are shown and compared to actual mission experience. As a conclusion, optimal control of the eccentricity vector need not be along a sun-pointing perigee circle, but along a more sophisticated path depending on spacecraft characteristics. The number of double east-west maneuvers is reduced to two per year and these are scheduled when the eccentricity is smallest. The long-term planning scheme is also demonstrated for contingency analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESASP.723E.141W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESASP.723E.141W"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Observation Correlation Techniques for a Telescope Survey of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weigel, Martin; Meinel, Michael; Fiedler, Hauke</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The history of space surveillance by ground based optical telescopes goes back to the early days of spaceflight. Since the beginning, detection of uncatalogued space objects faces the difficulty of initial orbit determination from angles only observations within a limited time period. Multiple short arc data sets have to be combined to calculate orbital elements with sufficient accuracy. For this purpose, the hypotheses have to be tested that one or more short arc measurements belong to the same object. Solving this correlation or object identification problem efficiently becomes more urgent than ever before with the increasing space object population. The described correlation problem is set up on a large scale by observation simulations for a global network of six robotic telescopes over one month. This survey generates more than 12.000 short arc data sets called tracklets from 1.027 objects in near <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbits (GEO). Initial orbital elements are determined from the short arc measurements applying a circular orbit assumption. Based on the orbital elements, a hypotheses filter for pair and triple tracklet combinations is presented. The newly developed pair filter features high filter rates with simultaneously low filter errors at a negligible computational effort. It is therefore recommended as a pre-filtering stage for more complex correlation methods like recent approaches that utilize the admissible region concept.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27437491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27437491"><span id="translatedtitle">Lifetime Estimation of the Upper Stage of GSAT-14 in <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Transfer Orbit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jeyakodi David, Jim Fletcher; Sharma, Ram Krishan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The combination of atmospheric drag and lunar and solar perturbations in addition to Earth's oblateness influences the orbital lifetime of an upper stage in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> transfer orbit (GTO). These high eccentric orbits undergo fluctuations in both perturbations and velocity and are very sensitive to the initial conditions. The main objective of this paper is to predict the reentry time of the upper stage of the Indian geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle, GSLV-D5, which inserted the satellite GSAT-14 into a GTO on January 05, 2014, with mean perigee and apogee altitudes of 170 km and 35975 km. Four intervals of near linear variation of the mean apogee altitude observed were used in predicting the orbital lifetime. For these four intervals, optimal values of the initial osculating eccentricity and ballistic coefficient for matching the mean apogee altitudes were estimated with the response surface methodology using a genetic algorithm. It was found that the orbital lifetime from these four time spans was between 144 and 148 days.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8893E..0JK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8893E..0JK"><span id="translatedtitle">Retrieval of fire radiative power and biomass combustion using the Korean <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, D. S.; Lee, Y. W.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Global warming induced by greenhouse gases is increasing wildfire frequencies and scale. Since wildfire again releases greenhouse gases(GHGs) into the air, the vicious cycle is repeated. Satellite remote sensing is a useful tool for detecting wildfire. However, estimating the GHGs emission from wildfire has not been challenged yet. Wildfires are estimated to be responsible for, on average, around 30% of global total CO emissions, 10% of methane emissions, 38% of tropospheric ozone, and over 86% of black carbon. So we need to quantify the emitted gases by biomass combustions, which can be measured by the FRP (fire radiative power) derived from the spectral characteristics of satellite sensors. This paper described the algorithm for retrieval of FRP using COMS(Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite), the Korean <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite. The FRP of wildfire is retrieved by single waveband methods suitable to COMS channels. The retrieval of FRP is dependent on the emissivity of each bandwidth. So, we used MODIS NDVI through a spatio-temporal calibration for the emissivity calculations. We made sure that the FRP in wildfire pixel is much higher than its spatially and temporally neighboring pixels. For future work, we should quantify the relationships between FRP and the biomass combustion according to fuel types.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040171564&hterms=wms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dwms','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040171564&hterms=wms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dwms"><span id="translatedtitle">Status of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Spectrograph (GeoSpec) for Earth and Atmospheric Science Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Janz, Scott; Hilsenrath, Ernest; Mount, G.; Brune, W.; Heath, D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>GeoSpec will support future satellite mission concepts in the Atmospheric Sciences and in Land and Ocean Sciences by providing time-resolved measurements of both chemically linked atmospheric trace gas concentrations of important molecules such as O3, NO2, CH2O and SO2 and at the same time coastal and ocean pollution events, tidal effects, and the origin and evolution of aerosol plumes. The instrument design concept in development is a dual spectrograph covering the WMS wavelength region of 310-500 nm and the VIS/NIR wavelength region of 480-900 nm coupled to all reflective telescope and high sensitivity PIN/CMOS area detector. The goal of the project is to demonstrate a system capable of making moderate spatial resolution (750 meters at nadir) hyperspectral measurements (0.6 to 1.2 nm resolution) from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. This would enable studies of time-varying pollution and coastal change processes with a temporal resolution of 5 minutes on a regional scale to 1 hour on a continental scale. Other spatial resolutions can be supported by varying the focal length of the input telescope. Scientific rationale and instrument design and status will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRA..121.3181S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRA..121.3181S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Empirical predictive models of daily relativistic electron flux at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit: Multiple regression analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Simms, Laura E.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Pilipenko, Viacheslav; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Clilverd, Mark</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The daily maximum relativistic electron flux at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit can be predicted well with a set of daily averaged predictor variables including previous day's flux, seed electron flux, solar wind velocity and number density, AE index, IMF Bz, Dst, and ULF and VLF wave power. As predictor variables are intercorrelated, we used multiple regression analyses to determine which are the most predictive of flux when other variables are controlled. Empirical models produced from regressions of flux on measured predictors from 1 day previous were reasonably effective at predicting novel observations. Adding previous flux to the parameter set improves the prediction of the peak of the increases but delays its anticipation of an event. Previous day's solar wind number density and velocity, AE index, and ULF wave activity are the most significant explanatory variables; however, the AE index, measuring substorm processes, shows a negative correlation with flux when other parameters are controlled. This may be due to the triggering of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves by substorms that cause electron precipitation. VLF waves show lower, but significant, influence. The combined effect of ULF and VLF waves shows a synergistic interaction, where each increases the influence of the other on flux enhancement. Correlations between observations and predictions for this 1 day lag model ranged from 0.71 to 0.89 (average: 0.78). A path analysis of correlations between predictors suggests that solar wind and IMF parameters affect flux through intermediate processes such as ring current (Dst), AE, and wave activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ArtSa..51...55M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ArtSa..51...55M"><span id="translatedtitle">Accuracy Assessment of <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span>-Earth-Orbit with Simplified Perturbations Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, Lihua; Xu, Xiaojun; Pang, Feng</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>A two-line element set (TLE) is a data format encoding orbital elements of an Earth-orbiting object for a given epoch. Using suitable prediction formula, the motion state of the object can be obtained at any time. The TLE data representation is specific to the simplified perturbations models, so any algorithm using a TLE as a data source must implement one of these models to correctly compute the state at a specific time. Accurately adjustment of antenna direction on the earth station is the key to satellite communications. With the TLE set topocentric elevation and azimuth direction angles can be calculated. The accuracy of perturbations models directly affect communication signal quality. Therefore, finding the error variations of the satellite orbits is really meaningful. In this present paper, the authors investigate the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span>-Earth-Orbit (GEO) with simplified perturbations models. The coordinate residuals of the simplified perturbations models in this paper can give references for engineers to predict the satellite orbits with TLE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AcAau..61..312T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AcAau..61..312T"><span id="translatedtitle">Ground guided CX-OLEV rendez-vous with uncooperative <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tarabini, Lorenzo; Gil, Jesús; Gandia, Fernando; Molina, Miguel Ángel; Del Cura, Juan Manuel; Ortega, Guillermo</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>CX-OLEV is a commercial mission aimed to extend the operational life of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> telecommunications satellites by supplying them propulsion, navigation and guidance services. Under SENER's contract and ESA's supervision, GMV designed the CX-OLEV ground guided rendez-vous (RV) approach. The starting point of the RV phase between CX-OLEV and the client is at 35 km distance with an uncertainty of 2 km. Dedicated ground tracking is performed to reduce the position uncertainty to 200 m and therefore to command the closing to 1 km distance. Fly around and final approach maneuvers complete the CX-OLEV RV approach along the client's zenith direction up to a relative distance of 7 m. Two redundant optical cameras working in the 5 m-2 km range are selected as RV sensors. The RV camera images are sent to ground and processed to determine the relative position of the spacecraft. The flight dynamics system calculates, validates and transmits in near real time the RV maneuvers commands. The relative spiral motion of CX-OLEV around the telecommunication satellite is synchronized with the Sun-client-CXOLEV angle to guarantee a good illumination of the client but without shadowing the client satellite's solar panels. The complete RV is simulated in a dedicated environment to assess its feasibility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....14006B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....14006B"><span id="translatedtitle">The future of hydrological forecast from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite-based rainfall estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrera, D. F.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Rainfall-runoff mathematical models of any type need rainfall areal estimates as input. Due to the existence of a lag-time, rainfall estimates can be used for prediction of hydrological variables such as runoff, soil moisture, and phreatic level by means of such models. The accuracy of areal rainfall estimates obtained from a raingauge network was investigated and discussed by several authors, who showed that because of rainfall variability these estimates are strongly affected by errors in most cases. On the other hand, remote sensing methods provide full spatial coverage, and even when rainfall estimates at a single pixel are not precise they introduce smaller errors in area-averaged estimations over sub-basins. The techniques using data from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites proved to be the best for estimating accumulated rainfall due to the high frequency of images than these satellites provide, which allow to account for the temporal variability of rain. Some of these proposed techniques gave promising results. They involve two steps: 1. Estimation of mean spatial rain intensity at each pixel of the analyzed image (or, in case of multispectral techniques, the selected set of images for different wavelength channels and the same scanning time). 2. Time integration over a specified lapse assigned to the images at current scanning time. Regarding step 1, the "auto-estimator" (AE) technique was been run operationally by NOAA to have estimates of rain intensity from GOES IR images. It uses data of infrared outgoing radiation in the spectral channel of 10.7. Recent studies made in Argentina showed that a set of daily rainfall values estimated each one over an area of about 100 km^2 by using the AE technique allow to better map the precipitation field at a mesoscale region than the respective set of raingauges values at the same locations, which implies that the first ones give a better representation of the regional phenomena and can provide better estimates of sub</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A33J0279N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A33J0279N"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporal variation of the cloud top height over the tropical Pacific observed by <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nishi, N.; Hamada, A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Stratiform clouds (nimbostratus and cirriform clouds) in the upper troposphere accompanied with cumulonimbus activity cover large part of the tropical region and largely affect the radiation and water vapor budgets there. Recently new satellites (CloudSat and CALIPSO) can give us the information of cloud height and cloud ice amount even over the open ocean. However, their coverage is limited just below the satellite paths; it is difficult to capture the whole shape and to trace the lifecycle of each cloud system by using just these datasets. We made, as a complementary product, a dataset of cloud top height and visible optical thickness with one-hour resolution over the wide region, by using infrared split-window data of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites (AGU fall meeting 2011) and released on the internet (http://database.rish.kyoto-u.ac.jp/arch/ctop/). We made lookup tables for estimating cloud top height only with <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> infrared observations by comparing them with the direct cloud observation by CloudSat (Hamada and Nishi, 2010, JAMC). We picked out the same-time observations by MTSAT and CloudSat and regressed the cloud top height observation of CloudSat back onto 11μm brightness temperature (Tb) and the difference between the 11μm Tb and 12μm Tb. We will call our estimated cloud top height as "CTOP" below. The area of our coverage is 85E-155W (MTSAT2) and 80E-160W(MTSAT1R), and 20S-20N. The accuracy of the estimation with the IR split-window observation is the best in the upper tropospheric height range. We analyzed the formation and maintenance of the cloud systems whose top height is in the upper troposphere with our CTOP analysis, CloudSat 2B-GEOPROF, and GSMaP (Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation) precipitation data. Most of the upper tropospheric stratiform clouds have their cloud top within 13-15 km range. The cloud top height decreases slowly when dissipating but still has high value to the end. However, we sometimes observe that a little</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..11321205G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..11321205G"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of surface ultraviolet radiation over north America using <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellites observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gadhavi, H.; Pinker, R. T.; Laszlo, I.</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>Information on ultraviolet (UV) radiative fluxes is needed for public safety, understanding biodiversity, and for chemical transport modeling. Space-based observations can provide homogeneous and systematic estimates of the UV flux over large regions. In the past, UV flux estimates have been made from polar orbiting satellites; such estimates lack information on diurnal variability that can result in significant errors in UV dose (diurnally integrated UV flux). An algorithm has been developed to estimate diurnally varying spectral UV flux at the surface based on information from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites (cloud amount, surface albedo and aerosols) and from polar orbiting satellites (ozone). Algorithm evaluation is done by comparison with ground-based observations made between January 1998 and December 2000 over eighteen stations of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)'s UV monitoring network. A good agreement between ground-based observations and satellite estimates is found with a mean bias (satellite - ground) of +3.5% for all-sky (cloudy + clear) cases. A negative mean bias of the same magnitude is found for clear-sky cases. Root mean square (RMS) differences are 25% and 14% for all-sky and clear-sky cases, respectively. Using simulations, it is shown that when only one observation near noontime is used to estimate UV dose, errors in the range of -61% to 48% can result, depending on cloud conditions. The RMS difference is 9% and it increases to 13% when off-noon hour (±2 hrs) observations are used to estimate the UV flux over Queenstown, MD.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21K..06E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21K..06E"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon Observations from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Earth Orbit as Part of an Integrated Observing System for Atmospheric Composition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edwards, D. P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This presentation describes proposed satellite carbon measurements from the CHRONOS mission. The primary goal of this experiment is to measure the atmospheric pollutants carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit, with hourly observations of North America at high spatial resolution. CHRONOS observations would provide measurements not currently available or planned as part of a surface, suborbital and satellite integrated observing system for atmospheric composition over North America. Carbon monoxide is produced by combustion processes such as urban activity and wildfires, and serves as a proxy for other combustion pollutants that are not easily measured. Methane has diverse anthropogenic sources ranging from fossil fuel production, animal husbandry, agriculture and waste management. The impact of gas exploration in the Western States of the USA and oil extraction from the Canadian tar sands will be particular foci of the mission, as will the poorly-quantified natural CH4 emissions from wetlands and thawing permafrost. In addition to characterizing pollutant sources, improved understanding of the domestic CH4 budget is a priority for policy decisions related to short-lived climate forcers. A primary motivation for targeting CO is its value as a tracer of atmospheric pollution, and CHRONOS measurements will provide insight into local and long-range transport across the North American continent, as well as the processes governing the entrainment and venting of pollution in and out of the planetary boundary layer. As a result of significantly improved characterization of diurnal changes in atmospheric composition, CHRONOS observations will find direct societal applications for air quality regulation and forecasting. We present a quantification of this expected improvement in the prediction of near-surface concentrations when CHRONOS measurements are used in Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). If CHRONOS and the planned NASA Earth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140008582','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140008582"><span id="translatedtitle">Lightning Jump Algorithm Development for the GOES·R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schultz. E.; Schultz. C.; Chronis, T.; Stough, S.; Carey, L.; Calhoun, K.; Ortega, K.; Stano, G.; Cecil, D.; Bateman, M.; Goodman, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Current work on the lightning jump algorithm to be used in GOES-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM)'s data stream is multifaceted due to the intricate interplay between the storm tracking, GLM proxy data, and the performance of the lightning jump itself. This work outlines the progress of the last year, where analysis and performance of the lightning jump algorithm with automated storm tracking and GLM proxy data were assessed using over 700 storms from North Alabama. The cases analyzed coincide with previous semi-objective work performed using total lightning mapping array (LMA) measurements in Schultz et al. (2011). Analysis shows that key components of the algorithm (flash rate and sigma thresholds) have the greatest influence on the performance of the algorithm when validating using severe storm reports. Automated objective analysis using the GLM proxy data has shown probability of detection (POD) values around 60% with false alarm rates (FAR) around 73% using similar methodology to Schultz et al. (2011). However, when applying verification methods similar to those employed by the National Weather Service, POD values increase slightly (69%) and FAR values decrease (63%). The relationship between storm tracking and lightning jump has also been tested in a real-time framework at NSSL. This system includes fully automated tracking by radar alone, real-time LMA and radar observations and the lightning jump. Results indicate that the POD is strong at 65%. However, the FAR is significantly higher than in Schultz et al. (2011) (50-80% depending on various tracking/lightning jump parameters) when using storm reports for verification. Given known issues with Storm Data, the performance of the real-time jump algorithm is also being tested with high density radar and surface observations from the NSSL Severe Hazards Analysis & Verification Experiment (SHAVE).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989esgp.nasa...37G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989esgp.nasa...37G"><span id="translatedtitle">Science requirements for passive microwave sensors on earth science <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gasiewski, A. J.; Staelin, D. H.</p> <p>1989-07-01</p> <p>It is suggested that the science requirements for passive <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> microwave observations be met by near- and far-term sensors for each of two overlapping bands, with each band covering no more than a decade in frequency. The low-frequency band includes channels near 6, 10, 18, 22, 31 to 37, and possibly 50 to 60 GHz. The high-frequency band includes channels near 220 to 230, 183, 166, 118, 90 to 110, and possibly 50 to 60 and 31 to 37 GHz. The precise channel specifications will have to comply with international frequency allocations. The near-term goal is a high-frequency sensor based on a filled-aperture solid reflector antenna, which should rely on currently existing technology. The most critical issues for the near-term sensor are momentum compensation and the design of the feed assembly; these issues are coupled through the desired scan rate. The successful demonstration of the near-term (high-frequency) sensor will be essential for the continued development of far-term sensors satisfying the ideal science requirements. The far-term goal includes both a high-frequency sensor which meets the ideal science requirements, and a low-frequency sensor whose design will depend on advances in large antenna technology. The low-frequency (far-term) sensor might be based on one of several concepts: a deployable mesh reflector antenna of diameter at least 20 m, which shows promise for use at frequencies up to 30-GHz, a synthetic aperture interferometer of maximum baseline from 100 to 300 m, or a deployable phased-array bootlace lens, of diameter from 100 to 300 m. The first of these, a deployable mesh reflector antenna, will satisfy only the adequate spatial resolution requirements. The last two concepts meet the ideal spatial resolution science requirements, although they present significant structural and meteorological challenges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E2316N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E2316N"><span id="translatedtitle">First results of measurements of extreme ultraviolet radiation onboard a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite "ELECTRO-L"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nusinov, Anatoliy; Kazachevskaya, Tamara; Gonjukh, David</p> <p></p> <p>Measurements of the intensity of EUV emission in the hydrogen Lyman-alpha line were conducted by a broadband photometer VUSS-E onboard <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Hydrometeorological satellite "Electro" since March 2011. The solar hydrogen Lyman-alpha line (lambda = 121.6 nm) was monitored. The photomultiplier with LiF window used as a detector insensitive to visible light. Long-wavelength limit of the spectral band sensitivity of the instrument is about 200 nm, so the signal of the device is defined as the flux of solar radiation in the region of 123-200 nm. Its exclusion was carried out by calculation. Since the satellite "Electro" designed for remote sensing of the Earth, its line of sight focused on Earth. Alignment of instrument in the Sun direction was achieved by installing it on the solar panel, periodically moved in the solar direction. Correction of instrument readings, reduced due to the deviation of its axis from the Sun direction, carried out by calculation. Measurements were carried out every second. The first results of the measurements are presented. The difference in absolute calibration Electro-L/VUSS-E is within 5% of corresponding values for measurements TIMED satellite in those days, that is in agreement with laboratory calibrations. It is useful to measure the temperature of the instrument, as its variation on a small interval of time makes change the value of the output signal about 1-2 %. During first year of operation, the sensitivity of the apparatus remained within ± 2% of measured value, significant degradation of sensitivity was not observed. Over time of observation there have been several large flares of X class. The increase of the signal in the ultraviolet range does not exceed a few percent during these flares.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900009935','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900009935"><span id="translatedtitle">Science requirements for passive microwave sensors on earth science <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gasiewski, A. J.; Staelin, D. H.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>It is suggested that the science requirements for passive <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> microwave observations be met by near- and far-term sensors for each of two overlapping bands, with each band covering no more than a decade in frequency. The low-frequency band includes channels near 6, 10, 18, 22, 31 to 37, and possibly 50 to 60 GHz. The high-frequency band includes channels near 220 to 230, 183, 166, 118, 90 to 110, and possibly 50 to 60 and 31 to 37 GHz. The precise channel specifications will have to comply with international frequency allocations. The near-term goal is a high-frequency sensor based on a filled-aperture solid reflector antenna, which should rely on currently existing technology. The most critical issues for the near-term sensor are momentum compensation and the design of the feed assembly; these issues are coupled through the desired scan rate. The successful demonstration of the near-term (high-frequency) sensor will be essential for the continued development of far-term sensors satisfying the ideal science requirements. The far-term goal includes both a high-frequency sensor which meets the ideal science requirements, and a low-frequency sensor whose design will depend on advances in large antenna technology. The low-frequency (far-term) sensor might be based on one of several concepts: a deployable mesh reflector antenna of diameter at least 20 m, which shows promise for use at frequencies up to 30-GHz, a synthetic aperture interferometer of maximum baseline from 100 to 300 m, or a deployable phased-array bootlace lens, of diameter from 100 to 300 m. The first of these, a deployable mesh reflector antenna, will satisfy only the adequate spatial resolution requirements. The last two concepts meet the ideal spatial resolution science requirements, although they present significant structural and meteorological challenges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040015290&hterms=wms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dwms','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040015290&hterms=wms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dwms"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Spectrograph (GeoSpec) for Earth and Atmospheric Science Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Janz, Scott J.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>GeoSpec will support several possible future mission concepts in the Atmospheric Sciences and in Land and Ocean Sciences by measurement of both chemically linked atmospheric trace gas concentrations and profiles of important molecules such as OS, N02, CH20 and SO2 and at the same time coastal and ocean pollution events, tidal effects, and the origin and evolution of aerosol plumes. The instrument design concept we will describe is a dual spectrograph covering the WMS wavelength region of 310- 481 nm and the VIS/NIR wavelength region of 500-900 nm. A third channel in the short- wave infrared (SWIR) region between 2.2 p and 2.4 pn for total column measurements of CO, CH4, and N20 will also be described. The goal is to design a system capable of making moderate spatial resolution (750 meters at nadir) hyperspectral measurements (0.2 to 1.2 nm resolution) from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. This would enable studies of time- varying pollution and coastal change processes with a temporal resolution of 5 minutes on a regional scale to 1 hour on a continental scale. Technological advances in the design and fabrication of convex holographic gratings and large format, high dynamic range PIN/CMOS detectors at the focal plane will be exploited. By simply changing the focal length of the front-end telescope GeoSpec can accommodate different orbital altitudes, including low Earth orbit, the Sun-side Lagrangian point L1, and/or different spatial resolutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090019654','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090019654"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite Proving Ground for the GOES-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, Steven J.; Gurka, James; Bruning, E. C.; Blakeslee, J. R.; Rabin, Robert; Buechler, D.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The key mission of the Satellite Proving Ground is to demonstrate new satellite observing data, products and capabilities in the operational environment to be ready on Day 1 to use the GOES-R suite of measurements. Algorithms, tools, and techniques must be tested, validated, and assessed by end users for their utility before they are finalized and incorporated into forecast operations. The GOES-R Proving Ground for the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) focuses on evaluating how the infusion of the new technology, algorithms, decision aids, or tailored products integrate with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks; nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing forecasts and warning products. Additionally, the testing concept fosters operation and development staff interactions which will improve training materials and support documentation development. Real-time proxy total lightning data from regional VHF lightning mapping arrays (LMA) in Northern Alabama, Central Oklahoma, Cape Canaveral Florida, and the Washington, DC Greater Metropolitan Area are the cornerstone for the GLM Proving Ground. The proxy data will simulate the 8 km Event, Group and Flash data that will be generated by GLM. Tailored products such as total flash density at 1-2 minute intervals will be provided for display in AWIPS-2 to select NWS forecast offices and national centers such as the Storm Prediction Center. Additional temporal / spatial combinations are being investigated in coordination with operational needs and case-study proxy data and prototype visualizations may also be generated from the NASA heritage Lightning Imaging Sensor and Optical Transient Detector data. End users will provide feedback on the utility of products in their operational environment, identify use cases and spatial/temporal scales of interest, and provide feedback to the developers for adjusted or</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002iaf..confE..79L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002iaf..confE..79L"><span id="translatedtitle">High Temporal and Spatial Resolution Coverage of Earth from Commercial AVSTAR Systems in <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lecompte, M. A.; Heaps, J. F.; Williams, F. H.</p> <p></p> <p>Imaging the earth from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Earth Orbit (GEO) allows frequent updates of environmental conditions within an observable hemisphere at time and spatial scales appropriate to the most transient observable terrestrial phenomena. Coverage provided by current GEO Meteorological Satellites (METSATS) fails to fully exploit this advantage due primarily to obsolescent technology and also institutional inertia. With the full benefit of GEO based imaging unrealized, rapidly evolving phenomena, occurring at the smallest spatial and temporal scales that frequently have significant environmental impact remain unobserved. These phenomena may be precursors for the most destructive natural processes that adversely effect society. Timely distribution of information derived from "real-time" observations thus may provide opportunities to mitigate much of the damage to life and property that would otherwise occur. AstroVision International's AVStar Earth monitoring system is designed to overcome the current limitations if GEO Earth coverage and to provide real time monitoring of changes to the Earth's complete atmospheric, land and marine surface environments including fires, volcanic events, lightning and meteoritic events on a "live," true color, and multispectral basis. The understanding of severe storm dynamics and its coupling to the earth's electro-sphere will be greatly enhanced by observations at unprecedented sampling frequencies and spatial resolution. Better understanding of these natural phenomena and AVStar operational real-time coverage may also benefit society through improvements in severe weather prediction and warning. AstroVision's AVStar system, designed to provide this capability with the first of a constellation of GEO- based commercial environmental monitoring satellites to be launched in late 2003 will be discussed, including spatial and temporal resolution, spectral coverage with applications and an inventory of the potential benefits to society</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........50F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........50F"><span id="translatedtitle">Derivation and evaluation of land surface temperature from the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> operational environmental satellite series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fang, Li</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have been continuously monitoring the earth surface since 1970, providing valuable and intensive data from a very broad range of wavelengths, day and night. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) is currently operating GOES-15 and GOES-13. The design of the GOES series is now heading to the 4 th generation. GOES-R, as a representative of the new generation of the GOES series, is scheduled to be launched in 2015 with higher spatial and temporal resolution images and full-time soundings. These frequent observations provided by GOES Image make them attractive for deriving information on the diurnal land surface temperature (LST) cycle and diurnal temperature range (DTR). These parameters are of great value for research on the Earth's diurnal variability and climate change. Accurate derivation of satellite-based LSTs from thermal infrared data has long been an interesting and challenging research area. To better support the research on climate change, the generation of consistent GOES LST products for both GOES-East and GOES-West from operational dataset as well as historical archive is in great demand. The derivation of GOES LST products and the evaluation of proposed retrieval methods are two major objectives of this study. Literature relevant to satellite-based LST retrieval techniques was reviewed. Specifically, the evolution of two LST algorithm families and LST retrieval methods for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites were summarized in this dissertation. Literature relevant to the evaluation of satellite-based LSTs was also reviewed. All the existing methods are a valuable reference to develop the GOES LST product. The primary objective of this dissertation is the development of models for deriving consistent GOES LSTs with high spatial and high temporal coverage. Proper LST retrieval algorithms were studied</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100017069','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100017069"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (GEO CEDI) for the GEO Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Mission. Concept Presentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Janz, Scott; Smith, James C.; Mannino, Antonio</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This slide presentation reviews the concepts of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (GEO CEDI) which will be used on the GEO Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Mission. The primary science requirements require scans of the U.S. Coastal waters 3 times per day during the daylight hours. Included in the overview are presentations about the systems, the optics, the detectors, the mechanical systems, the electromechanical systems, the electrical design, the flight software, the thermal systems, and the contamination prevention requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A13F0277H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A13F0277H"><span id="translatedtitle">Cloud-Top Height Estimation by <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Split-Window Measurements using CloudSat Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamada, A.; Nishi, N.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Estimation of cloud-top height and visible optical thickness of upper-tropospheric clouds by brightness temperature (TB) measurements of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite at two infrared split-window wavelengths was conducted. These cloud parameters were estimated by regressing the measurements of 94-GHz cloud radar onboard CloudSat satellite in terms of TB at 10.8 um (T11) and its difference from TB at 12 um (ΔT = T11 - T12) measured by <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite MTSAT-1R. Estimation by <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite measurements are fairly useful in field campaigns aiming mesoscale cloud systems, where cloud-top heights are compared with the vertical profiles of ground-based measurements such as wind and cloud condensates in a short time interval. Hamada et al. (2008) conducted the estimation of cloud-top height by T11 and ΔT measured by GMS-5, using ship-borne cloud radar measurements. However, their ground-based result was limited to the non-rainy clouds, since cloud radar signal is heavily attenuated by precipitation particles. Spaceborne radar measurements enables an estimation of cloud-top height without concern for the existence of precipitation. We examined the dependences of the estimates of cloud-top height on latitude, season, satellite zenith angle, day-night, and land-sea differences. It was shown that these dependences were considered as being uniform in tropics, except for the region with large satellite zenith angle. The dependences on latitude and season were negligible in tropics, while they became the most significant factor affecting the estimates at higher latitudes. Estimation of visible optical thickness was also conducted, although limited to the non-rainy high clouds. The distributions of estimates in TB-ΔT space were qualitatively consistent with those expected from a simplified radiative transfer equation, although the standard deviations of measurements were slightly large. Since the CloudSat conducts cloud radar observations on a global scale, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820024824','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820024824"><span id="translatedtitle">Visible infrared spin-scan radiometers (VISSR) for the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) B and C application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Two visible infrared spin scan radiometer (VISSR) instruments provided for the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite B and C (GOES B and C) spacecrafts are described. The instruments are identical to those supplied previously are summarized. A significant number of changes primarily involving corrections of drawing errors and omissions were also performed. All electrical changes were breadboarded (where complexity required this), were incorporated into the test module, and subjected to verification of proper operation throughout fall instrument temperature range. Evaluation of the changes also included design operating safety margins to account for component variations and life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSA23C..05E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSA23C..05E"><span id="translatedtitle">Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission: Science from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Orbit on-board a Commercial Communications Satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eastes, R.; Deaver, T.; Krywonos, A.; Lankton, M. R.; McClintock, W. E.; Pang, R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> orbits are ideal for many science investigations of the Earth system on global scales. These orbits allow continuous observations of the same geographic region, enabling spatial and temporal changes to be distinguished and eliminating the ambiguity inherent to observations from low Earth orbit (LEO). Just as observations from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit have revolutionized our understanding of changes in the troposphere, they will dramatically improve our understanding of the space environment at higher altitudes. However, <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbits are infrequently used for science missions because of high costs. <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> satellites are large, typically weighing tons. Consequently, devoting an entire satellite to a science mission requires a large financial commitment, both for the spacecraft itself and for sufficient science instrumentation to justify a dedicated spacecraft. Furthermore, the small number of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites produced for scientific missions increases the costs of each satellite. For these reasons, it is attractive to consider flying scientific instruments on satellites operated by commercial companies, some of whom have fleets of ~40 satellites. However, scientists' lack of understanding of the capabilities of commercial spacecraft as well as commercial companies' concerns about risks to their primary mission have impeded the cooperation necessary for the shared use of a spacecraft. Working with a commercial partner, the GOLD mission has successfully overcome these issues. Our experience indicates that there are numerous benefits to flying on commercial communications satellites (e.g., it is possible to downlink large amounts of data) and the costs are low if the experimental requirements adequately match the capabilities and available resources of the host spacecraft. Consequently, affordable access to <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit aboard a communications satellite now appears possible for science payloads.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090027668','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090027668"><span id="translatedtitle">Online Visualization and Analysis of Merged Global <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Infrared Dataset</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Leptoukh, G.; Mehta, A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC) is home of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data archive. The global merged IR product also known as the NCEP/CPC 4-km Global (60 degrees N - 60 degrees S) IR Dataset, is one of TRMM ancillary datasets. They are globally merged (60 degrees N - 60 degrees S) pixel-resolution (4 km) IR brightness temperature data (equivalent blackbody temperatures), merged from all available <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites (GOES-8/10, METEOSAT-7/5 and GMS). The availability of data from METEOSAT-5, which is located at 63E at the present time, yields a unique opportunity for total global (60 degrees N- 60 degrees S) coverage. The GES DISC has collected over 8 years of the data beginning from February of 2000. This high temporal resolution dataset can not only provide additional background information to TRMM and other satellite missions, but also allow observing a wide range of meteorological phenomena from space, such as, mesoscale convection systems, tropical cyclones, hurricanes, etc. The dataset can also be used to verify model simulations. Despite that the data can be downloaded via ftp, however, its large volume poses a challenge for many users. A single file occupies about 70 MB disk space and there is a total of approximately 73,000 files (approximately 4.5 TB) for the past 8 years. In order to facilitate data access, we have developed a web prototype to allow users to conduct online visualization and analysis of this dataset. With a web browser and few mouse clicks, users can have a full access to over 8 year and over 4.5 TB data and generate black and white IR imagery and animation without downloading any software and data. In short, you can make your own images! Basic functions include selection of area of interest, single imagery or animation, a time skip capability for different temporal resolution and image size. Users can save an animation as a file (animated gif) and import it in other</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMOS13A1018R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMOS13A1018R"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Bio-Optical Algorithms for <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryu, J.; Moon, J.; Min, J.; Palanisamy, S.; Han, H.; Ahn, Y.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>GOCI, the first <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager, shall be operated in a staring-frame capture mode onboard its Communication Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) and tentatively scheduled for launch in 2008. The mission concept includes eight visible-to-near-infrared bands, 0.5 km pixel resolution, and a coverage region of 2,500 ¢®¢¯ 2,500 km centered at Korea. The GOCI is expected to provide SeaWiFS quality observations for a single study area with imaging interval of 1 hour from 10 am to 5 pm. In the GOCI swath area, the optical properties of the East Sea (typical of Case-I water), the Yellow Sea and East China Sea (typical of Case-II water) are investigated. For developing the GOCI bio-optical algorithms in optically more complex waters, it is necessary to study and understand the optical properties around the Korean Sea. Radiometric measurements were made using WETLabs AC-S, TriOS RAMSES ACC/ARC, and ASD FieldSpec Pro Dual VNIR Spectroradiometer. Seawater samples were collected concurrently with the radiometric measurements at about 300 points around the Korean Sea during 1998 to 2007. The absorption coefficients were determined using Perkin-Elmer Lambda 19 dual-beam spectrophotometer. We analyzed the absorption coefficient of sea water constituents such as phytoplankton, Suspended Sediment (SS) and Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM). Two kinds of chlorophyll algorithms are developed by using statistical regression and fluorescence-based technique considering the bio- optical properties in Case-II waters. Fluorescence measurements were related to in situ Chl-a concentrations to obtain the Flu(681), Flu(688) and Flu(area) algorithms, which were compared with those from standard spectral ratios of the remote sensing reflectance. The single band algorithm for is derived by relationship between Rrs (555) and in situ concentration. The CDOM is estimated by absorption spectra and its slope centered at 440 nm wavelength. These standard algorithms will be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960014818','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960014818"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of biomass burning and aerosol loading and transport in South America utilizing <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Menzel, Paul; Prins, Elaine</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This study attempts to assess the extent of burning and associated aerosol transport regimes in South America and the South Atlantic using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite observations, in order to explore the possible roles of biomass burning in climate change and more directly in atmospheric chemistry and radiative transfer processes. Modeling and analysis efforts have suggested that the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols from biomass burning may play a major role in the radiative balance of the earth and are an important factor in climate change calculations. One of the most active regions of biomass burning is located in South America, associated with deforestation in the selva (forest), grassland management, and other agricultural practices. As part of the NASA Aerosol Interdisciplinary Program, we are utilizing GOES-7 (1988) and GOES-8 (1995) visible and multispectral infrared data (4, 11, and 12 microns) to document daily biomass burning activity in South America and to distinguish smoke/aerosols from other multi-level clouds and low-level moisture. This study catalogues the areal extent and transport of smoke/aerosols throughout the region and over the Atlantic Ocean for the 1988 (July-September) and 1995 (June-October) biomass burning seasons. The smoke/haze cover estimates are compared to the locations of fires to determine the source and verify the haze is actually associated with biomass burning activities. The temporal resolution of the GOES data (half-hourly in South America) makes it possible to determine the prevailing circulation and transport of aerosols by considering a series of visible and infrared images and tracking the motion of smoke, haze and adjacent clouds. The study area extends from 40 to 70 deg W and 0 to 40 deg S with aerosol coverage extending over the Atlantic Ocean when necessary. Fire activity is estimated with the GOES Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (ABBA). To date, our efforts have focused on GOES-7 and GOES-8 ABBA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960022585&hterms=time+visualization&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dtime%2Bvisualization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960022585&hterms=time+visualization&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dtime%2Bvisualization"><span id="translatedtitle">A versatile system for processing <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite data with run-time visualization capability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Landsfeld, M.; Gautier, C.; Figel, T.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>To better predict global climate change, scientists are developing climate models that require interdisciplinary and collaborative efforts in their building. We are currently involved in several such projects but will briefly discuss activities in support of two such complementary projects: the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program of the Department of Energy and Sequoia 2000, a joint venture of the University of California, the private sector, and government agencies. Our contribution to the ARM program is to investigate the role of clouds on the top of the atmosphere and on surface radiance fields through the data analysis of surface and satellite observations and complex modeling of the interaction of radiation with clouds. One of our first ARM research activities involves the computation of the broadband shortwave surface irradiance from satellite observations. <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> satellite images centered over the first ARM observation site are received hourly over the Internet network and processed in real time to compute hourly and daily composite shortwave irradiance fields. The images and the results are transferred via a high-speed network to the Sequoia 2000 storage facility in Berkeley, where they are archived These satellite-derived results are compared with the surface observations to evaluate the accuracy of the satellite estimate and the spatial representation of the surface observations. In developing the software involved in calculating the surface shortwave irradiance, we have produced an environment whereby we can easily modify and monitor the data processing as required. Through the principles of modular programming, we have developed software that is easily modified as new algorithms for computation are developed or input data availability changes. In addition, the software was designed so that it could be run from an interactive, icon-driven, graphical interface, TCL-TK, developed by Sequoia 2000 participants. In this way, the data flow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14..871P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14..871P"><span id="translatedtitle">The validation service of the hydrological SAF <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and polar satellite precipitation products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Puca, S.; Porcu, F.; Rinollo, A.; Vulpiani, G.; Baguis, P.; Balabanova, S.; Campione, E.; Ertürk, A.; Gabellani, S.; Iwanski, R.; Jurašek, M.; Kaňák, J.; Kerényi, J.; Koshinchanov, G.; Kozinarova, G.; Krahe, P.; Lapeta, B.; Lábó, E.; Milani, L.; Okon, L'.; Öztopal, A.; Pagliara, P.; Pignone, F.; Rachimow, C.; Rebora, N.; Roulin, E.; Sönmez, I.; Toniazzo, A.; Biron, D.; Casella, D.; Cattani, E.; Dietrich, S.; Di Paola, F.; Laviola, S.; Levizzani, V.; Melfi, D.; Mugnai, A.; Panegrossi, G.; Petracca, M.; Sanò, P.; Zauli, F.; Rosci, P.; De Leonibus, L.; Agosta, E.; Gattari, F.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The development phase (DP) of the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility for Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF) led to the design and implementation of several precipitation products, after 5 yr (2005-2010) of activity. Presently, five precipitation estimation algorithms based on data from passive microwave and infrared sensors, on board <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and sun-synchronous platforms, function in operational mode at the H-SAF hosting institute to provide near real-time precipitation products at different spatial and temporal resolutions. In order to evaluate the precipitation product accuracy, a validation activity has been established since the beginning of the project. A Precipitation Product Validation Group (PPVG) works in parallel with the development of the estimation algorithms with two aims: to provide the algorithm developers with indications to refine algorithms and products, and to evaluate the error structure to be associated with the operational products. In this paper, the framework of the PPVG is presented: (a) the characteristics of the ground reference data available to H-SAF (i.e. radar and rain gauge networks), (b) the agreed upon validation strategy settled among the eight European countries participating in the PPVG, and (c) the steps of the validation procedures. The quality of the reference data is discussed, and the efforts for its improvement are outlined, with special emphasis on the definition of a ground radar quality map and on the implementation of a suitable rain gauge interpolation algorithm. The work done during the H-SAF development phase has led the PPVG to converge into a common validation procedure among the members, taking advantage of the experience acquired by each one of them in the validation of H-SAF products. The methodology is presented here, indicating the main steps of the validation procedure (ground data quality control, spatial interpolation, up-scaling of radar data vs. satellite grid</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150006549&hterms=pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpollution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150006549&hterms=pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpollution"><span id="translatedtitle">A Panchromatic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer for the NASA <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal and Air Pollution Events Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Yen-Hung; Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Rider, David</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper summarizes the design and development of the Panchromatic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) for the NASA <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission. The PanFTS instrument will advance the understanding of the global climate and atmospheric chemistry by measuring spectrally resolved outgoing thermal and reflected solar radiation. With continuous spectral coverage from the near-ultraviolet through the thermal infrared, this instrument is designed to measure pollutants, greenhouse gases, and aerosols as called for by the U.S. National Research Council Decadal Survey; Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond1. The PanFTS instrument is a hybrid instrument based on spectrometers like the Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES) that measures thermal emission, and those like the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) that measure scattered solar radiation. Simultaneous measurements over the broad spectral range from IR to UV is accomplished by a two sided interferometer with separate optical trains and detectors for the ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectral domains. This allows each side of the instrument to be independently optimized for its respective spectral domain. The overall interferometer design is compact because the two sides share a single high precision cryogenic optical path difference mechanism (OPDM) and metrology laser as well as a number of other instrument systems including the line-of-sight pointing mirror, the data management system, thermal control system, electrical system, and the mechanical structure. The PanFTS breadboard instrument has been tested in the laboratory and demonstrated the basic functionality for simultaneous measurements in the visible and infrared. It is set to begin operations in the field at the California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) observatory on Mt. Wilson</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmRe.122..504H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmRe.122..504H"><span id="translatedtitle">Patterns of fire activity over Indonesia and Malaysia from polar and <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Prins, Elaine M.; Hoffman, Jay P.; Schmidt, Christopher C.; Miettinen, Jukka I.; Giglio, Louis</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Biomass burning patterns over the Maritime Continent of Southeast Asia are examined using a new active fire detection product based on application of the Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) to data from the imagers on the MTSAT <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites operated by the Japanese space agency JAXA. Data from MTSAT-1R and MTSAT-2 covering 34 months from September 2008 to July 2011 are examined for a study region consisting of Indonesia, Malaysia, and nearby environs. The spatial and temporal distributions of fires detected in the MTSAT WF_ABBA product are described and compared with active fire observations from MODIS MOD14 data. Land cover distributions for the two instruments are examined using a new 250 m land cover product from the National University of Singapore. The two products show broadly similar patterns of fire activity, land cover distribution of fires, and pixel fire radiative power (FRP). However, the MTSAT WF_ABBA data differ from MOD14 in important ways. Relative to MODIS, the MTSAT WF_ABBA product has lower overall detection efficiency, but more fires detected due to more frequent looks, a greater relative fraction of fires in forest and a lower relative fraction of fires in open areas, and significantly higher single-pixel retrieved FRP. The differences in land cover distribution and FRP between the MTSAT and MODIS products are shown to be qualitatively consistent with expectations based on pixel size and diurnal sampling. The MTSAT WF_ABBA data are used to calculate coverage-corrected diurnal cycles of fire for different regions within the study area. These diurnal cycles are preliminary but demonstrate that the fraction of diurnal fire activity sampled by the two MODIS sensors varies significantly by region and vegetation type. Based on the results from comparison of the two fire products, a series of steps is outlined to account for some of the systematic biases in each of these satellite products in order to produce a</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050237927&hterms=risk+factors+risk+management+models&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drisk%2Bfactors%2Brisk%2Bmanagement%2Bmodels','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050237927&hterms=risk+factors+risk+management+models&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drisk%2Bfactors%2Brisk%2Bmanagement%2Bmodels"><span id="translatedtitle">Pre-Launch GOES-R Risk Reduction Activities for the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Boccippio, D. J.; Christian, H. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Petersen, W. A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The GOES-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a new instrument planned for GOES-R that will greatly improve storm hazard nowcasting and increase warning lead time day and night. Daytime detection of lightning is a particularly significant technological advance given the fact that the solar illuminated cloud-top signal can exceed the intensity of the lightning signal by a factor of one hundred. Our approach is detailed across three broad themes which include: Data Processing Algorithm Readiness, Forecast Applications, and Radiance Data Mining. These themes address how the data will be processed and distributed, and the algorithms and models for developing, producing, and using the data products. These pre-launch risk reduction activities will accelerate the operational and research use of the GLM data once GOES-R begins on-orbit operations. The GLM will provide unprecedented capabilities for tracking thunderstorms and earlier warning of impending severe and hazardous weather threats. By providing direct information on lightning initiation, propagation, extent, and rate, the GLM will also capture the updraft dynamics and life cycle of convective storms, as well as internal ice precipitation processes. The GLM provides information directly from the heart of the thunderstorm as opposed to cloud-top only. Nowcasting applications enabled by the GLM data will expedite the warning and response time of emergency management systems, improve the dispatch of electric power utility repair crews, and improve airline routing around thunderstorms thereby improving safety and efficiency, saving fuel and reducing delays. The use of GLM data will assist the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Forest Service in quickly detecting lightning ground strikes that have a high probability of causing fires. Finally, GLM data will help assess the role of thunderstorms and deep convection in global climate, and will improve regional air quality and global chemistry/climate modeling</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013927','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013927"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating the Use of Deep Convective Clouds (DCCT) to Monitor On-orbit Performance of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) using Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buechler, Dennis E.; Christian, Hugh J.; Koshak, William J.; Goodman, Steven J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>There is a need to monitor the on-orbit performance of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) on the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) for changes in instrument calibration that will affect GLM's lightning detection efficiency. GLM has no onboard calibration so GLM background radiance observations (available every 2.5 min) of Deep Convective Clouds (DCCs) are investigated as invariant targets to monitor GLM performance. Observations from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite are used as proxy datasets for GLM and ABI 11 m measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11I0170T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11I0170T"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of SW radiation budget using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites and quasi-real-time monitoring of PV power generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takenaka, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Inoue, T.; Takamura, T.; Pinker, R. T.; Teruyuki, N.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Clouds can cool the Earth by reflecting solar radiation and also can keep the Earth warm by absorbing and emitting terrestrial radiation. They are important in the energy balance at the Earth surface and the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) and are connected complicatedly into the Earth system as well as other climate feedback processes. Thus it is important to estimate Earth's radiation budget for better understanding of climate and environmental change. In this study, we developed the high speed and accurate algorithm for shortwave (SW) radiation budget and it's applied to five <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites for global analysis. There are validated by SKYNET and BSRN ground observation data. The analysis results showed a distinctive trend of direct and diffuse component of surface SW fluxes in North Pacific and North Atlantic ocean. Similarly, developed algorithm is applied to quasi-real time analysis synchronous to <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite observation. It enabled highly accurate monitoring of solar radiation and photo voltaic (PV) power generation. It indicates the possibility of the fusion analysis of climate study and renewable energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007P%26SS...55..755K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007P%26SS...55..755K"><span id="translatedtitle">In search of a new ULF wave index: Comparison of Pc5 power with dynamics of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> relativistic electrons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kozyreva, O.; Pilipenko, V.; Engebretson, M. J.; Yumoto, K.; Watermann, J.; Romanova, N.</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>A new ULF wave index, characterizing the turbulent level of the geomagnetic field, has been calculated and applied to the analysis of relativistic electron enhancements during space weather events in March-May 1994 and September 1999. This global wave index has been produced from the INTERMAGNET, MACCS, CPMN, and Greenland dense magnetometer arrays in the northern hemisphere. A similar ULF wave index has been calculated using magnetometer data from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GOES) and interplanetary (Wind, ACE) satellites. During the periods analyzed several magnetic storms occurred, and several significant increases of relativistic electron flux up to 2-3 orders of magnitude were detected by <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> monitors. However, these electron enhancements were not directly related to the intensity of magnetic storms. Instead, they correlated well with intervals of elevated ULF wave index, caused by the occurrence of intense Pc5 pulsations in the magnetosphere. This comparison confirmed earlier results showing the importance of magnetospheric ULF turbulence in energizing relativistic electrons. In addition to relativistic electron energization, a wide range of space physics and geophysics studies will benefit from the introduction of the ULF wave index. The ULF index database is freely available via anonymous FTP for all interested researchers for further validation and statistical studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.1563H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.1563H"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping surface tidal currents and Changjiang plume in the East China Sea from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Zifeng; Wang, Dong-Ping; Pan, Delu; He, Xianqiang; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Bai, Yan; Wang, Difeng; Gong, Fang</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The spatial pattern of the semidiurnal M2 tidal currents in the East China Sea (ECS) is mapped from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), taking advantage of the satellite's unique 8 hourly local daytime sequential images. The GOCI-derived surface M2 tidal currents are validated with a comprehensive set of twenty-eight surface drifters and four mooring observations. The agreement is outstanding with the error variance less than 10% of the total variance. The gridded GOCI-derived tidal currents are also in good agreement with the Oregon State University (OSU) high-resolution regional tidal model of the China Seas. The detided mean flow shows a strong Changjiang plume extending hundreds of kilometers offshore, in agreement with the concurrent satellite sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) distributions. The observed surface currents are compared with the daily mean flows derived from the Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment (JCOPE2). The model results are consistent with the observations, showing the sensitivity of Changjiang plume to wind forcing. The study clearly demonstrates the utility of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite in mapping the surface currents over a wide (˜400 km), tidally dominated continental shelf.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A21C0063S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A21C0063S"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Surface Albedo on Smoke Detection Through <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Imagery in the Hazard Mapping System (HMS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salemi, A.; Ruminski, M. G.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) of NOAA/NESDIS uses <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and polar orbiting satellite imagery to identify fires and smoke throughout the continental United States. The fires and smoke are analyzed daily on the Hazard Mapping System (HMS) and made available via the internet in various formats. Analysis of smoke plumes generated from wildfires, agricultural and prescribe burns is performed with single channel visible imagery primarily from NOAA's <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) animations. Identification of smoke in visible imagery is complicated by the presence of clouds, the viewing angle produced by the sun, smoke, satellite geometry, and the surface albedo of the ground below the smoke among other factors. This study investigates the role of surface albedo in smoke detection. LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) instruments are capable of detecting smoke and other aerosols. Through the use of ground and space based LIDAR systems in areas of varying albedo a relationship between the subjective analyst drawn smoke plumes versus those detected by LIDAR is established. The ability to detect smoke over regions of higher albedo (brighter surface, such as grassland, scrub and desert) is diminished compared to regions of lower albedo (darker surface, such as forest and water). Users of the HMS smoke product need to be aware of this limitation in smoke detection in areas of higher albedo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811216C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811216C"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-day convective-environmental evolution prior to tropical cyclone formation from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Minhee; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Park, Myung-Sook</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Tropical cyclones (TCs) are developed through persistent latent heating taken from deep convective process. By analyzing aircraft and polar-orbit satellite observations, distinct upper-level warm-core induced by strong updraft was found in pre-TCs while vertically uniform temperature profile is found in non-developers. Precipitation is also broader and more frequent in developing disturbances than in nondeveloping ones. However, large uncertainties remain in determining which disturbance will develop into TC by using observation snap-shots. Here, five-day systematic evolution of deep convection and environments in developing (80) and non-developing (491) disturbances are examined over the western North Pacific for 20072009 by using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite observation. Daily, positive tendencies in the hourly time series of the area of the MTSAT-1R infrared (IR) and water vapor (WV) brightness temperature difference < 0 are used to define single diurnal convective burst (CB) event. In terms of single CB properties (duration, expanded convective area, maximum convective area, and expanding rate), developing and nondeveloping disturbances shows significantly different mean values in the statistics, but it is not effective to estimate TC genesis. The presence of continuous CB events more than two days (i.e. multi-day CB; mCB), however, is generally found in developing disturbances. Based on the presence and absence mCB in the IR-WV time series, two different evolutions from Day 1 to Day 5 of TC formation (non-development) are explored, in which Day 6 is set to be a TC formation day (Day5 as non-development vortex decaying day). The majority of developing disturbances with mCB (83 %) initially have stronger large-scale vorticity with low-level maxima, tend to have gradually increasing deep convective area and vorticities at low-to-upper troposphere. By contrast, few developing disturbances (17 %) without mCB are pre-conditioned by much weaker large-scale vorticity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec25-146.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec25-146.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 25.146 - Licensing and operating rules for the non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit Fixed-Satellite Service in the 10.7...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>...-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit Fixed-Satellite Service in the 10.7 GHz-14.5 GHz bands. 25.146 Section 25.146 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... Fixed-Satellite Service in the 10.7 GHz-14.5 GHz bands. (a) A comprehensive technical showing shall...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100020902&hterms=constellation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dconstellation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100020902&hterms=constellation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dconstellation"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) for the GOES-R Series Next Generation Operational Environmental Satellite Constellation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard; Koshak, William; Petersen, Walter; Carey, Larry; Mach, Douglas; Buechler, Dennis; Bateman, Monte; McCaul, Eugene; Bruning, Eric; Albrecht, Rachel; MacGorman, Donald</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The next generation <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series with a planned launch in 2015 is a follow on to the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. The system will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. The system provides products including lightning, cloud properties, rainfall rate, volcanic ash, air quality, hurricane intensity, and fire/hot spot characterization. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution for the 16-channel Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM), an optical transient detector will map total (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground) lightning flashes continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions, from the west coast of Africa (GOES-E) to New Zealand (GOES-W) when the constellation is fully operational. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the higher level algorithms and applications using the GLM alone and decision aids incorporating information from the ABI, ground-based weather radar, and numerical models. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional lightning networks are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. Real time total lightning mapping data are also being provided in an experimental mode to selected National Weather Service (NWS) national centers and forecast offices via</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160001366','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160001366"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Feasibility of Monitoring Carbon Monoxide in the Lower Troposphere from a Constellation of Northern Hemisphere <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellites (PART 1)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barre, Jerome; Edwards, David; Worden, Helen; Da Silva, Arlindo; Lahoz, William</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>By the end of the current decade, there are plans to deploy several <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Earth orbit (GEO) satellite missions for atmospheric composition over North America, East Asia and Europe with additional missions proposed. Together, these present the possibility of a constellation of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platforms to achieve continuous time-resolved high-density observations over continental domains for mapping pollutant sources and variability at diurnal and local scales. In this paper, we use a novel approach to sample a very high global resolution model (GEOS-5 at 7 km horizontal resolution) to produce a dataset of synthetic carbon monoxide pollution observations representative of those potentially obtainable from a GEO satellite constellation with predicted measurement sensitivities based on current remote sensing capabilities. Part 1 of this study focuses on the production of simulated synthetic measurements for air quality OSSEs (Observing System Simulation Experiments). We simulate carbon monoxide nadir retrievals using a technique that provides realistic measurements with very low computational cost. We discuss the sampling methodology: the projection of footprints and areas of regard for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> geometries over each of the North America, East Asia and Europe regions; the regression method to simulate measurement sensitivity; and the measurement error simulation. A detailed analysis of the simulated observation sensitivity is performed, and limitations of the method are discussed. We also describe impacts from clouds, showing that the efficiency of an instrument making atmospheric composition measurements on a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform is dependent on the dominant weather regime over a given region and the pixel size resolution. These results demonstrate the viability of the "instrument simulator" step for an OSSE to assess the performance of a constellation of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites for air quality measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.9801Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.9801Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of submesoscale coastal frontal waves in the East China Sea based on <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> ocean color imager observational data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yin, Wenbin; Huang, Daji</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Oceanic frontal waves are frequently observed, but their life cycles are poorly understood because of the lack of time series data. In this study, the data of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> ocean color imager was used to explore the complete evolutionary process of submesoscale frontal waves off the southeast coast of China. Their evolution was analyzed in terms of both wave outline and ridge lines. The process lasted approximately 10 days as the waves propagated southward along the isobaths, accompanied by tidal oscillations. The life cycle comprised three stages: development, maturation, and decay. Scale estimation suggested that the onset of this process is caused by the collective effect of forced motion and unforced instability which is triggered by the passage of a tropical storm. The observed life cycle of frontal waves will provide an empirical basis for future theoretical investigations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990dres.iafcZ....G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990dres.iafcZ....G"><span id="translatedtitle">1.6 GHz distress radio call system (DRCS) via <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite (Inmarsat-E) - Results of the preoperational demonstration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goebel, Walter</p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p>The paper discusses features and operations of the spaceborne Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) system for distress alerting, which is expected to be used on every ship by August 1, 1993. Two types of EPIRBs that were developed to date are described: the floatable EPIRB, used by vessels over 300 GRT (convention ships subjected to the IMO rules) and the hand-held EPIRB used by smaller vessels such as fishing boats or yachts. The transmitted message formats of both are fully compatible. The distress alerts are presently transmitted through the polar orbiting satellite service at 406 MHz. However, the 36th Inmarsat Council in 1990 passed a decision to the effect that the Inmarsat <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite shall provide service at 1.6 GHz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A53A0237C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A53A0237C"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing Scales of Variability for Constituents Relevant to Future <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Observations and Models of Air Quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crawford, J. H.; Ryerson, T. B.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Cohen, R. C.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Holloway, J.; Chen, G.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Establishing appropriate specifications for satellite observations of atmospheric composition is a difficult and inexact task since neither models nor field observations can provide both the resolution and spatial coverage required. Despite shortcomings in temporal and spatial coverage, field observations are unique in capturing atmospheric variability on scales down to and below those of satellite observations. Airborne field observations from NOAA and NASA-sponsored field campaigns offer dense observations focused on air quality across North America. Here we use variogram analyses to assess spatial variability in key constituents (NO2, O3, CO, and SO2) for a number of air quality focused field campaigns (ICARTT, TEXAQS2000 and 2006, ARCTAS-CARB). The resulting variograms provide a useful metric for evaluating resolution requirements for future <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite observations. Variograms also provide an assessment of subgrid variability expected to influence nonlinear ozone photochemistry within air quality models based on a chosen model resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830015779','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830015779"><span id="translatedtitle">A method for diagnosing surface parameters using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite imagery and a boundary-layer model. M.S. Thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Polansky, A. C.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A method for diagnosing surface parameters on a regional scale via geosynchronous satellite imagery is presented. Moisture availability, thermal inertia, atmospheric heat flux, and total evaporation are determined from three infrared images obtained from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Three GOES images (early morning, midafternoon, and night) are obtained from computer tape. Two temperature-difference images are then created. The boundary-layer model is run, and its output is inverted via cubic regression equations. The satellite imagery is efficiently converted into output-variable fields. All computations are executed on a PDP 11/34 minicomputer. Output fields can be produced within one hour of the availability of aligned satellite subimages of a target area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720027172&hterms=rangaswamy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drangaswamy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720027172&hterms=rangaswamy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drangaswamy"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of total electron content with a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite during the solar eclipse of March 7, 1970.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rangaswamy, S.; Schmid, P. E.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>This note deals with the measurement of the total electron content of the ionosphere at the Goddard Space Flight Center, looking towards the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite ATS 3 during the solar eclipse of Mar. 7, 1970. Obscuration at this site was nearly total. Faraday rotation was measured with a stationary circularly polarized antenna and a dual-channel phase-lock receiver tuned to 137.350 MHz. By comparing the electrical phase of the two opposite circularly polarized components, a continuous chart recording was made of Faraday rotation vs local time. A depletion of about 25% in electron content was observed from first contact to the time of minimum electron content. The time variations of the electron content during the eclipse are briefly examined in the light of current theories of ionospheric processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364954','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364954"><span id="translatedtitle">ESTIMATE OF SOLAR MAXIMUM USING THE 1-8 Å <span class="hlt">GEOSTATIONARY</span> OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITES X-RAY MEASUREMENTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Winter, L. M.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We present an alternate method of determining the progression of the solar cycle through an analysis of the solar X-ray background. Our results are based on the NOAA <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) X-ray data in the 1-8 Å band from 1986 to the present, covering solar cycles 22, 23, and 24. The X-ray background level tracks the progression of the solar cycle through its maximum and minimum. Using the X-ray data, we can therefore make estimates of the solar cycle progression and the date of solar maximum. Based upon our analysis, we conclude that the Sun reached its hemisphere-averaged maximum in solar cycle 24 in late 2013. This is within six months of the NOAA prediction of a maximum in spring 2013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B33C0190Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B33C0190Y"><span id="translatedtitle">The estimation of rice paddy yield with GRAMI crop model and <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) image over South Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yeom, J. M.; Kim, H. O.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In this study, we estimated the rice paddy yield with moderate <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite based vegetation products and GRAMI model over South Korea. Rice is the most popular staple food for Asian people. In addition, the effects of climate change are getting stronger especially in Asian region, where the most of rice are cultivated. Therefore, accurate and timely prediction of rice yield is one of the most important to accomplish food security and to prepare natural disasters such as crop defoliation, drought, and pest infestation. In the present study, GOCI, which is world first <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Image, was used for estimating temporal vegetation indices of the rice paddy by adopting atmospheric correction BRDF modeling. For the atmospheric correction with LUT method based on Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S), MODIS atmospheric products such as MOD04, MOD05, MOD07 from NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) were used. In order to correct the surface anisotropy effect, Ross-Thick Li-Sparse Reciprocal (RTLSR) BRDF model was performed at daily basis with 16day composite period. The estimated multi-temporal vegetation images was used for crop classification by using high resolution satellite images such as Rapideye, KOMPSAT-2 and KOMPSAT-3 to extract the proportional rice paddy area in corresponding a pixel of GOCI. In the case of GRAMI crop model, initial conditions are determined by performing every 2 weeks field works at Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea. The corrected GOCI vegetation products were incorporated with GRAMI model to predict rice yield estimation. The predicted rice yield was compared with field measurement of rice yield.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ACP....1111977Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ACP....1111977Z"><span id="translatedtitle">A multi-angle aerosol optical depth retrieval algorithm for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite data over the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, H.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Kondragunta, S.; Laszlo, I.; Ciren, P.; Hoff, R. M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites have high temporal resolution compared to the polar orbiting satellites and thus enable us to monitor aerosol motion. However, current <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have only one visible channel for retrieving aerosols and hence the retrieval accuracy is lower than those from the multichannel polar-orbiting satellite instruments such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The operational GOES AOD retrieval algorithm (GOES Aerosol/Smoke Product, GASP) uses 28-day composite images from the visible channel to derive surface reflectance, which can produce large uncertainties. In this work, we develop a new AOD retrieval algorithm for the GOES imager by applying a modified Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm. The algorithm assumes the surface Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) in the channel 1 of GOES is proportional to seasonal average MODIS BRDF in the 2.1 μm channel. The ratios between them are derived through time series analysis of the GOES visible channel images. The results of AOD and surface reflectance retrievals are evaluated through comparisons against those from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), GASP, and MODIS. The AOD retrievals from the new algorithm demonstrate good agreement with AERONET retrievals at several sites across the US with correlation coefficients ranges from 0.71 to 0.85 at five out of six sites. At the two western sites Railroad Valley and UCSB, the MAIAC AOD retrievals have correlations of 0.8 and 0.85 with AERONET AOD, and are more accurate than GASP retrievals, which have correlations of 0.7 and 0.74 with AERONET AOD. At the three eastern sites, the correlations with AERONET AOD are from 0.71 to 0.81, comparable to the GASP retrievals. In the western US where surface reflectance is higher than 0.15, the new algorithm also produces larger AOD retrieval coverage</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ACPD...1112519Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ACPD...1112519Z"><span id="translatedtitle">A multi-angle aerosol optical depth retrieval algorithm for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite data over the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, H.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Kondragunta, S.; Laszlo, I.; Ciren, P.; Hoff, R. M.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites has high temporal resolution compared to the polar orbiting satellites and thus enables us to monitor aerosol motion. However, current <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have only one visible channel for retrieving aerosol and hence the retrieval accuracy is lower than those from the multichannel polar-orbiting satellite instruments such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The operational GOES AOD retrieval algorithm (GOES Aerosol/Smoke Product, GASP) uses 28-day composite images from the visible channel to derive surface reflectance, which can produce large uncertainties. In this work, we develop a new AOD retrieval algorithm for the GOES imager by applying a modified multi-angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm. The algorithm assumes the surface Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) at channel 1 of GOES is proportional to seasonal average BRDF in the 2.1 μm channel from MODIS. The ratios between them are derived through time series analysis of the GOES visible channel images. The results of the AOD and surface reflectance retrievals are evaluated through comparison against those from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), GASP, and MODIS. The AOD retrievals from the new algorithm demonstrate good agreement with AERONET retrievals at several sites across the US. They are comparable to the GASP retrievals in the eastern-central sites and are more accurate than GASP retrievals in the western sites. In the western US where surface reflectance is high, the new algorithm also produces larger AOD retrieval coverage than both GASP and MODIS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080048262','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080048262"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiometric Modeling and Calibration of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS)Ground Based Measurement Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere s thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The GIFTS calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts, therefore, enhancing the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is applied to data collected during the GIFTS Ground Based Measurement (GBM) experiment, together with simultaneous observations by the accurately calibrated AERI (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer), both simultaneously zenith viewing the sky through the same external scene mirror at ten-minute intervals throughout a cloudless day at Logan Utah on September 13, 2006. The accurately calibrated GIFTS radiances are produced using the first four PC scores in the GIFTS-AERI regression model. Temperature and moisture profiles retrieved from the PC-calibrated GIFTS radiances are verified against radiosonde measurements collected throughout the GIFTS sky measurement period. Using the GIFTS GBM calibration model, we compute the calibrated radiances from data</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.6374M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.6374M"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite observations and the development of a 1-2 h prediction model for future storm intensity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mecikalski, John R.; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Manzato, Agostino</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>A study was conducted to gain insights into the use of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite-based indicators for characterizing and identifying growing cumulus clouds that evolve into severe weather producing convective storms. Eleven convective initiation (CI), 41 cloud top temperature-effective radius (T-re), and 9 additional fields were formed for 340 growing cumulus clouds that were manually tracked for 2 h and checked for association with severe weather to 2-3 h into the future. The <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite data were at 5 min resolution from Meteosat-8 on six convectively active days in 2010, 2012, and 2013. The study's goals were to determine which satellite fields are useful to forecasting severe storms and to form a simple model for predicting future storm intensity. The CI fields were applied on 3 × 3 pixel regions, and the T-re fields were analyzed on 9 × 9 and 51 × 51 pixel domains (needed when forming T-re vertical profiles). Of the 340 growing cumulus clouds examined, 34 were later associated with severe weather (using European Severe Weather Database reports), with the remaining being nonsevere storms. Using a multivariate analysis, transforming predictors into their empirical posterior probability, and maximizing the Peirce skill score, the best predictors were T1451 (51 × 51 pixel T, where re exceeds 14 µm), TG9 (9 × 9 pixel glaciation T surrounding a growing cloud), and ReBRTG51 (51 × 51 pixel re at the breakpoint T in the T-re profile). Rapid cloud growth prior to severe storm formation leads to delayed particle growth, colder temperatures of the first 14 µm particles, and lower TG values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100004877&hterms=storm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dstorm','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100004877&hterms=storm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dstorm"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lighting Mapper (GLM) for GOES-R: A New Operational Capability to Improve Storm Forecasts and Warnings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, R.; Koshak, William J.; Petersen, W. A.; Carey, L.; Mah, D.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The next generation <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series is a follow on to the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved spectral (3x), spatial (4x), and temporal (5x) resolution for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM, an optical transient detector and imager operating in the near-IR at 777.4 nm will map all (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground) lighting flashes continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions, from the west coast of Africa (GOES-E) to New Zealand (GOES-W) when the constellation is fully operational. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development (a prototype and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms and applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. Real time lightning mapping data are being provided in an experimental mode to selected National Weather Service (NWS) national centers and forecast offices via the GOES-R Proving Ground to help improve our understanding of the application of these data in operational settings and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080023315','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080023315"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential Use of a Bayesian Network for Discriminating Flash Type from Future GOES-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Solakiewiz, Richard; Koshak, William</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Continuous monitoring of the ratio of cloud flashes to ground flashes may provide a better understanding of thunderstorm dynamics, intensification, and evolution, and it may be useful in severe weather warning. The National Lighting Detection Network TM (NLDN) senses ground flashes with exceptional detection efficiency and accuracy over most of the continental United States. A proposed <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) aboard the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) will look at the western hemisphere, and among the lightning data products to be made available will be the fundamental optical flash parameters for both cloud and ground flashes: radiance, area, duration, number of optical groups, and number of optical events. Previous studies have demonstrated that the optical flash parameter statistics of ground and cloud lightning, which are observable from space, are significantly different. This study investigates a Bayesian network methodology for discriminating lightning flash type (ground or cloud) using the lightning optical data and ancillary GOES-R data. A Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) is set up with lightning as a "root" and data observed by GLM as the "leaves." This allows for a direct calculation of the joint probability distribution function for the lighting type and radiance, area, etc. Initially, the conditional probabilities that will be required can be estimated from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) together with NLDN data. Directly manipulating the joint distribution will yield the conditional probability that a lightning flash is a ground flash given the evidence, which consists of the observed lightning optical data [and possibly cloud data retrieved from the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) in a more mature Bayesian network configuration]. Later, actual GLM and NLDN data can be used to refine the estimates of the conditional probabilities used in the model; i.e., the Bayesian</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009991','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009991"><span id="translatedtitle">The United States' Next Generation of Atmospheric Composition and Coastal Ecosystem Measurements: NASA's <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fishman, J.; Iraci, Laura T.; Al-Saddi, J.; Chance, K.; Chavez, F.; Chin, M.; Coble, P.; Davis, C.; DiGiacomo, P. M.; Edwards, D.; Eldering, A.; Goes, J.; Herman, J.; Hu, C.; Jacob, D. J.; Jordan, C.; Kawa, S. R.; Key, R.; Liu, X.; Lohrenz, S.; Mannino, A.; Natraj, V.; Neil, D.; Neu, J.; Newchurch, M.; Pickering, K.; Salisbury, J.; Sosik, H.; Subramaniam, A.; Tzortziou, M; Wang, J.; Wang, M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission was recommended by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Earth Science Decadal Survey to measure tropospheric trace gases and aerosols and coastal ocean phytoplankton, water quality, and biogeochemistry from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit, providing continuous observations within the field of view. To fulfill the mandate and address the challenge put forth by the NRC, two GEO-CAPE Science Working Groups (SWGs), representing the atmospheric composition and ocean color disciplines, have developed realistic science objectives using input drawn from several community workshops. The GEO-CAPE mission will take advantage of this revolutionary advance in temporal frequency for both of these disciplines. Multiple observations per day are required to explore the physical, chemical, and dynamical processes that determine tropospheric composition and air quality over spatial scales ranging from urban to continental, and over temporal scales ranging from diurnal to seasonal. Likewise, high-frequency satellite observations are critical to studying and quantifying biological, chemical, and physical processes within the coastal ocean. These observations are to be achieved from a vantage point near 95deg-100degW, providing a complete view of North America as well as the adjacent oceans. The SWGs have also endorsed the concept of phased implementation using commercial satellites to reduce mission risk and cost. GEO-CAPE will join the global constellation of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> atmospheric chemistry and coastal ocean color sensors planned to be in orbit in the 2020 time frame.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014298','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014298"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysing the Advantages of High Temporal Resolution <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> MSG SEVIRI Data Compared to Polar Operational Environmental Satellite Data for Land Surface Monitoring in Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fensholt, R.; Anyamba, A.; Huber, S.; Proud, S. R.; Tucker, C. J.; Small, J.; Pak, E.; Rasmussen, M. O.; Sandholt, I.; Shisanya, C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Since 1972, satellite remote sensing of the environment has been dominated by polar-orbiting sensors providing useful data for monitoring the earth s natural resources. However their observation and monitoring capacity are inhibited by daily to monthly looks for any given ground surface which often is obscured by frequent and persistent cloud cover creating large gaps in time series measurements. The launch of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite into <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit has opened new opportunities for land surface monitoring. The Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) instrument on-board MSG with an imaging capability every 15 minutes which is substantially greater than any temporal resolution that can be obtained from existing polar operational environmental satellites (POES) systems currently in use for environmental monitoring. Different areas of the African continent were affected by droughts and floods in 2008 caused by periods of abnormally low and high rainfall, respectively. Based on the effectiveness of monitoring these events from Earth Observation (EO) data the current analyses show that the new generation of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> remote sensing data can provide higher temporal resolution cloud-free (less than 5 days) measurements of the environment as compared to existing POES systems. SEVIRI MSG 5-day continental scale composites will enable rapid assessment of environmental conditions and improved early warning of disasters for the African continent such as flooding or droughts. The high temporal resolution <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> data will complement existing higher spatial resolution polar-orbiting satellite data for various dynamic environmental and natural resource applications of terrestrial ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960008489','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960008489"><span id="translatedtitle">Implementation of a state of the art automated system for the production of cloud/water vapor motion winds from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Velden, Christopher</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The research objectives in this proposal were part of a continuing program at UW-CIMSS to develop and refine an automated <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite winds processing system which can be utilized in both research and operational environments. The majority of the originally proposed tasks were successfully accomplished, and in some cases the progress exceeded the original goals. Much of the research and development supported by this grant resulted in upgrades and modifications to the existing automated satellite winds tracking algorithm. These modifications were put to the test through case study demonstrations and numerical model impact studies. After being successfully demonstrated, the modifications and upgrades were implemented into the NESDIS algorithms in Washington DC, and have become part of the operational support. A major focus of the research supported under this grant attended to the continued development of water vapor tracked winds from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> observations. The fully automated UW-CIMSS tracking algorithm has been tuned to provide complete upper-tropospheric coverage from this data source, with data set quality close to that of operational cloud motion winds. Multispectral water vapor observations were collected and processed from several different <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites. The tracking and quality control algorithms were tuned and refined based on ground-truth comparisons and case studies involving impact on numerical model analyses and forecasts. The results have shown the water vapor motion winds are of good quality, complement the cloud motion wind data, and can have a positive impact in NWP on many meteorological scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ACPD....7.8395H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ACPD....7.8395H"><span id="translatedtitle">Operational retrieval of Asian sand and dust storm from FY-2C <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite and its application to real time forecast in Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, X. Q.; Lu, N. M.; Niu, T.; Zhang, P.</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>This paper describes an operational retrieval algorithm for the sand/dust storm (SDS) from FY-2C/S-VISSR (Stretched - Visible and Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer) developed at the National Satellite Meteorological Center (NSMC) of China. This algorithm, called Dust Retrieval Algorithm based on <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Imager (DRAGI), is based on the optical and radiative physical properties of SDS in mid-infrared and thermal infrared spectral regions as well as the observation of all bands in the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> imager, which include the Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD) in split window channels, Infrared Difference Dust Index (IDDI) and the ratio of middle infrared reflectance to visible reflectance. It also combines the visible and water vapor bands observation of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> imager to identify the dust clouds from the surface targets and meteorological clouds. The output product is validated by and related to other dust aerosol observations such as the synoptic weather reports, surface visibility, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and ground-based PM10 observations. Using the SDS-IDDI data and a data assimilation scheme, the dust forecast model CUACE/Dust achieved a substantial improvement to the SDS predictions in spring 2006.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ACP.....8.1649H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ACP.....8.1649H"><span id="translatedtitle">Operational retrieval of Asian sand and dust storm from FY-2C <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite and its application to real time forecast in Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, X. Q.; Lu, N. M.; Niu, T.; Zhang, P.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>This paper describes an operational retrieval algorithm for the sand/dust storm (SDS) from FY-2C/S-VISSR (Stretched-Visible and Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer) developed at the National Satellite Meteorological Center (NSMC) of China. This algorithm, called Dust Retrieval Algorithm based on <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Imager (DRAGI), is based on the optical and radiative physical properties of SDS in mid-infrared and thermal infrared spectral regions as well as the observation of all bands in the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> imager, which include the Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD) in split window channels, Infrared Difference Dust Index (IDDI) and the ratio of middle infrared reflectance to visible reflectance. It also combines the visible and water vapor bands observation of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> imager to identify the dust clouds from the surface targets and meteorological clouds. The output product is validated by and related to other dust aerosol observations such as the synoptic weather reports, surface visibility, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and ground-based PM10 observations. Using the SDS-IDD product and a data assimilation scheme, the dust forecast model CUACE/Dust achieved a substantial improvement to the SDS predictions in spring 2006.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAnIII7....3M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAnIII7....3M"><span id="translatedtitle">Bidirectional Reflectance Modeling of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Sensor HIMAWARI-8/AHI Using a Kernel-Driven BRDF Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsuoka, M.; Takagi, M.; Akatsuka, S.; Honda, R.; Nonomura, A.; Moriya, H.; Yoshioka, H.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Himawari-8/AHI is a new <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> sensor that can observe the land surface with high temporal frequency. Bidirectional reflectance derived by the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) includes information regarding land surface properties such as albedo, vegetation condition, and forest structure. This information can be extracted by modeling bidirectional reflectance using a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). In this study, a kernel-driven BRDF model was applied to the red and near infrared reflectance observed over 8 hours during daytime to express intraday changes in reflectance. We compared the goodness of fit for six combinations of model kernels. The Ross-Thin and Ross-Thick kernels were selected as the best volume kernels for the red and near infrared bands, respectively. For the geometric kernel, the Li-sparse-Reciprocal and Li-Dense kernels displayed similar goodness of fit. The coefficient of determination and regression residuals showed a strong dependency on the azimuth angle of land surface slopes and the time of day that observations were made. Atmospheric correction and model adjustment of the terrain were the main issues encountered. These results will help to improve the BRDF model and to extract surface properties from bidirectional reflectance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..11423201B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..11423201B"><span id="translatedtitle">An assessment of Saharan dust loading and the corresponding cloud-free longwave direct radiative effect from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brindley, Helen E.; Russell, Jacqueline E.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Previously, a method was developed to quantify Saharan dust optical thickness and simultaneously diagnose the cloud-free longwave dust direct radiative effect (LWDRE) over a single surface site using observations from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) and <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument both flying on the Meteosat Second Generation series of satellites. In this paper the overall utility of the approach is investigated using a more comprehensive suite of observations, and the inherent uncertainties associated with the method are assessed. On the basis of these findings, the approach has been updated to account for the effects of varying dust layer altitude. Comparisons with colocated observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) using the modified approach indicate that the visible optical thickness at 0.55 μm, τ055, can be obtained with an RMS uncertainty of ˜0.3 over North Africa and Arabia during sunlit hours, while monthly maps of optical depth derived over this region through spring and summer of 2006 show similar variability to that identified in the long-term climatology provided by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Aerosol Index. The regional mean instantaneous cloud-free LWDRE and associated LW radiative efficiency estimated from GERB over the same period are relatively constant with season, ranging from 9 to 11 W m-2 and 16-20 W m-2τ055-1, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B1..389W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B1..389W"><span id="translatedtitle">On-Orbit Geometric Calibration Approach for High-Resolution <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Optical Satellite GaoFen-4</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Mi; Cheng, Yufeng; Long, Xiaoxiang; Yang, Bo</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The GaoFen-4 (GF-4) remote sensing satellite is China's first civilian high-resolution <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> optical satellite, which has been launched at the end of December 2015. To guarantee the geometric quality of imagery, this paper presents an on-orbit geometric calibration method for the area-array camera of GF-4. Firstly, we introduce the imaging features of area-array camera of GF-4 and construct a rigorous imaging model based on the analysis of the major error sources from three aspects: attitude measurement error, orbit measurement error and camera distortion. Secondly, we construct an on-orbit geometric calibration model by selecting and optimizing parameters of the rigorous geometric imaging model. On this basis, the calibration parameters are divided into two groups: external and internal calibration parameters. The external parameters are installation angles between the area-array camera and the star tracker, and we propose a two-dimensional direction angle model as internal parameters to describe the distortion of the areaarray camera. Thirdly, we propose a stepwise parameters estimation method that external parameters are estimated firstly, then internal parameters are estimated based on the generalized camera frame determined by external parameters. Experiments based on the real data of GF-4 shows that after on-orbit geometric calibration, the geometric accuracy of the images without ground control points is significantly improved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OSJ....47..465L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OSJ....47..465L"><span id="translatedtitle">First retrieval of data regarding spatial distribution of Asian dust aerosol from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Kwon Ho; Ryu, Joo Hyung; Ahn, Jae Hyun; Kim, Young Joon</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was retrieved from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) on board the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the first time. AOT values were retrieved over the ocean at a spatial scale of 0.5 × 0.5 km2 by using the look-up table (LUT)-based separation technique. The radiative transfer model (RTM) was used for different models of atmosphere-ocean environmental conditions, taking into account the realistic variability of scattering and absorption. Ocean surface properties affected by whitecaps and pigment content were also taken into account. The results show that the radiance observed by the GOCI amounts to only 5% of the radiation that penetrated the ocean and, consequently, 95% of the radiation is scattered in the atmosphere or reflected at the ocean surface in the visible wavelengths longer than 0.6 ìm. Within these wavelengths, radiance variations at the top of atmosphere (TOA) due to pigment variations are within 10%, while the radiance variation due to wind speed is considerably higher. For verification of GOCI-retrieved AOTs, comparison between GOCI and ground-based sunphotometer measurement at Gosan, Korea (126.10°E, 33.23°N)) showed good correlation (r = 0.99). The GOCI observations obtained by using the proposed technique showed promising results for the daily monitoring of atmospheric aerosol loading as well as being useful for environmental supervisory authorities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A13F0283L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A13F0283L"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary Study on Remote Sensing of Aerosol Optical Properties over Ocean around the Korean Peninsula from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Ryu, J.; Ahn, Y.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>An aerosol retrieval algorithm for the first <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) to be launched in September 2009 onboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) is presented by applying the algorithm to the MODIS data. Over clear water, the algorithm retrieves aerosol optical depth (AOD) and fine-mode fraction (FMF) together with aerosol type in 1 km × 1 km resolution. Over turbid water, only AOD is retrieved due to uncertainty in bright surface reflectance. To develop optimized algorithm for the target area of GOCI, optical properties of aerosol are analyzed from extensive observation of AERONET sunphotometer to generate lookup table. Surface reflectance of turbid water is determined from 30-day composite of Rayleigh- and gas corrected reflectances. The comparison of retrieved AOD with those of MODIS collection 5 and AERONET sunphotometer observations shows reliable results. Especially, the application of turbid water algorithm significantly increases the accuracy in retrieving AOD at Anmyon station. The sensitivity study between MODIS and GOCI instruments in terms of relative sensitivity and scattering angle shows promising applicability of the developed algorithm to real GOCI data. Hourly retrieval of aerosol optical properties from GOCI can be used in many ways, especially for environmental monitoring and to study the effect of aerosol in climate change over the East Asia which is one of the most polluted regions over the globe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AMTD....7.1645H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AMTD....7.1645H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The added value of a visible channel to a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> thermal infrared instrument to monitor ozone for air quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hache, E.; Attié, J.-L.; Tourneur, C.; Ricaud, P.; Coret, L.; Lahoz, W. A.; El Amraoui, L.; Josse, B.; Hamer, P.; Warner, J.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Höpfner, M.; Spurr, R.; Natraj, V.; Kulawik, S.; Eldering, A.; Orphal, J.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Ozone is a tropospheric pollutant and plays a key role in determining the air quality that affects human wellbeing. In this study, we compare the capability of two hypothetical grating spectrometers onboard a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) satellite to sense ozone in the lowermost troposphere (surface and the 0-1 km column). We consider one week during the Northern Hemisphere summer simulated by a chemical transport model, and use the two GEO instrument configurations to measure ozone concentration (1) in the thermal infrared (GEO TIR) and (2) in the thermal infrared and the visible (GEO TIR+VIS). These configurations are compared against each other, and also against an ozone reference state and a priori ozone information. In a first approximation, we assume clear sky conditions neglecting the influence of aerosols and clouds. A number of statistical tests are used to assess the performance of the two GEO configurations. We consider land and sea pixels and whether differences between the two in the performance are significant. Results show that the GEO TIR+VIS configuration provides a better representation of the ozone field both for surface ozone and the 0-1 km ozone column during the daytime especially over land.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AMT.....7.2185H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AMT.....7.2185H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The added value of a visible channel to a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> thermal infrared instrument to monitor ozone for air quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hache, E.; Attié, J.-L.; Tourneur, C.; Ricaud, P.; Coret, L.; Lahoz, W. A.; El Amraoui, L.; Josse, B.; Hamer, P.; Warner, J.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Höpfner, M.; Spurr, R.; Natraj, V.; Kulawik, S.; Eldering, A.; Orphal, J.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Ozone is a tropospheric pollutant and plays a key role in determining the air quality that affects human wellbeing. In this study, we compare the capability of two hypothetical grating spectrometers onboard a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) satellite to sense ozone in the lowermost troposphere (surface and the 0-1 km column). We consider 1 week during the Northern Hemisphere summer simulated by a chemical transport model, and use the two GEO instrument configurations to measure ozone concentration (1) in the thermal infrared (GEO TIR) and (2) in the thermal infrared and the visible (GEO TIR+VIS). These configurations are compared against each other, and also against an ozone reference state and a priori ozone information. In a first approximation, we assume clear sky conditions neglecting the influence of aerosols and clouds. A number of statistical tests are used to assess the performance of the two GEO configurations. We consider land and sea pixels and whether differences between the two in the performance are significant. Results show that the GEO TIR+VIS configuration provides a better representation of the ozone field both for surface ozone and the 0-1 km ozone column during the daytime especially over land.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/131789','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/131789"><span id="translatedtitle">Slope <span class="hlt">stability</span> and <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Abramson, L.W.; Lee, T.S.; Boyce, G.M.; Sharma, S.S.</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>Slope <span class="hlt">stability</span> can be a major problem during the construction of surface facilities. Cutting into existing ground disturbs the mechanics of the surrounding area, which can result in landslides and rock falls. This practical reference gives you the comprehensive information you need for slope <span class="hlt">stability</span> analysis, suitable methods of analysis with and without the use of computers, and examples of common <span class="hlt">stability</span> problems and <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> methods for cuts and fills. It includes detailed discussions of methods used in slope <span class="hlt">stability</span> analysis, including the Ordinary Method of Slices, Simplified Janbu Method, Simplified Bishop Method, Spencer`s Method, other limit equilibrium methods, numerical methods, total stress analysis, effective stress analysis, and the use of computer programs to solve problems. Chapters include: General Slope <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Concepts; Engineering Geology Principles; Groundwater Conditions; Geologic Site Exploration; Laboratory Testing Interpretation; Slope <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Concepts; Slope <span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> Methods; and Design, Construction and Maintenance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003989','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003989"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of NASA SPoRT's Pseudo-<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper Products in the 2011 Spring Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stano, Geoffrey T.; Carcione, Brian; Siewert, Christopher; Kuhlman, Kristin M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program is a contributing partner with the GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) preparing forecasters to understand and utilize the unique products that will be available in the GOES-R era. This presentation emphasizes SPoRT s actions to prepare the end user community for the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM). This preparation is a collaborative effort with SPoRT's National Weather Service partners, the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL), and the Hazardous Weather Testbed s Spring Program. SPoRT continues to use its effective paradigm of matching capabilities to forecast problems through collaborations with our end users and working with the developers at NSSL to create effective evaluations and visualizations. Furthermore, SPoRT continues to develop software plug-ins so that these products will be available to forecasters in their own decision support system, AWIPS and eventually AWIPS II. In 2009, the SPoRT program developed the original pseudo <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> lightning mapper (PGLM) flash extent product to demonstrate what forecasters may see with GLM. The PGLM replaced the previous GLM product and serves as a stepping-stone until the AWG s official GLM proxy is ready. The PGLM algorithm is simple and can be applied to any ground-based total lightning network. For 2011, the PGLM used observations from four ground-based networks (North Alabama, Kennedy Space Center, Oklahoma, and Washington D.C.). While the PGLM is not a true proxy product, it is intended as a tool to train forecasters about total lightning as well as foster discussions on product visualizations and incorporating GLM-resolution data into forecast operations. The PGLM has been used in 2010 and 2011 and is likely to remain the primary lightning training tool for the GOES-R program for the near future. This presentation will emphasize the feedback received during the 2011 Spring Program. This will discuss several topics. Based on feedback</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC54B..06T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC54B..06T"><span id="translatedtitle">Quasi-real-time monitoring of SW radiation budget using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite for Climate study and Renewable energy. (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takenaka, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Kuze, H.; Takamura, T.; Pinker, R. T.; Nakajima, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Solar radiation is the only source of energy that drives the weather and climate of the Earth's surface. Earth is warmed by incoming solar radiation, and emitted energy to space by terrestrial radiation due to its temperature. It has been kept to the organisms viable environment by the effect of heating and cooling. Clouds can cool the Earth by reflecting solar radiation and also can keep the Earth warm by absorbing and emitting terrestrial radiation. They are important in the energy balance at the Earth surface and the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) and are connected complicatedly into the Earth system as well as other climate feedback processes. Thus it is important to estimate Earth's radiation budget for better understanding of climate and environmental change. We have shared several topics related to climate change. Energy issues close to the climate change, it is an environmental problems. Photovoltaics is one of the power generation method to converts from solar radiation to electric power directly. It does not emit greenhouse gases during power generation. Similarly, drainage, exhaust, vibration does not emit. PV system can be distributed as a small power supply in urban areas and it can installed to near the power demand points. Also solar thermal is heat generator with high efficiency. Therefor it is an effective energy source that the solar power is expected as one of the mitigation of climate change (IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation). It is necessary to real-time-monitoring of the surface solar radiation for safety operation of electric power system. We introduce a fusion analysis of renewable energy and Quasi-real-time analysis of SW radiation budget. Sample of estimated PV power mapping using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960008510','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960008510"><span id="translatedtitle">Monthly mean large-scale analyses of upper-tropospheric humidity and wind field divergence derived from three <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schmetz, Johannes; Menzel, W. Paul; Velden, Christopher; Wu, Xiangqian; Vandeberg, Leo; Nieman, Steve; Hayden, Christopher; Holmlund, Kenneth; Geijo, Carlos</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes the results from a collaborative study between the European Space Operations Center, the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies investigating the relationship between satellite-derived monthly mean fields of wind and humidity in the upper troposphere for March 1994. Three <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellites GOES-7, Meteosat-3, and Meteosat-5 are used to cover an area from roughly 160 deg W to 50 deg E. The wind fields are derived from tracking features in successive images of upper-tropospheric water vapor (WV) as depicted in the 6.5-micron absorption band. The upper-tropospheric relative humidity (UTH) is inferred from measured water vapor radiances with a physical retrieval scheme based on radiative forward calculations. Quantitative information on large-scale circulation patterns in the upper-troposphere is possible with the dense spatial coverage of the WV wind vectors. The monthly mean wind field is used to estimate the large-scale divergence; values range between about-5 x 10(exp -6) and 5 x 10(exp 6)/s when averaged over a scale length of about 1000-2000 km. The spatial patterns of the UTH field and the divergence of the wind field closely resemble one another, suggesting that UTH patterns are principally determined by the large-scale circulation. Since the upper-tropospheric humidity absorbs upwelling radiation from lower-tropospheric levels and therefore contributes significantly to the atmospheric greenhouse effect, this work implies that studies on the climate relevance of water vapor should include three-dimensional modeling of the atmospheric dynamics. The fields of UTH and WV winds are useful parameters for a climate-monitoring system based on satellite data. The results from this 1-month analysis suggest the desirability of further GOES and Meteosat studies to characterize</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160009171','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160009171"><span id="translatedtitle">Validation of Cloud Parameters Derived from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellites, AVHRR, MODIS, and VIIRS Using SatCORPS Algorithms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Bedka, K. M.; Yost, C. R.; Trepte, Q. Z.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Painemal, D.; Chen, Y.; Palikonda, R.; Dong, X.; Xi, B.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Validation is a key component of remote sensing that can take many different forms. The NASA LaRC Satellite ClOud and Radiative Property retrieval System (SatCORPS) is applied to many different imager datasets including those from the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites, Meteosat, Himiwari-8, INSAT-3D, GOES, and MTSAT, as well as from the low-Earth orbiting satellite imagers, MODIS, AVHRR, and VIIRS. While each of these imagers have similar sets of channels with wavelengths near 0.65, 3.7, 11, and 12 micrometers, many differences among them can lead to discrepancies in the retrievals. These differences include spatial resolution, spectral response functions, viewing conditions, and calibrations, among others. Even when analyzed with nearly identical algorithms, it is necessary, because of those discrepancies, to validate the results from each imager separately in order to assess the uncertainties in the individual parameters. This paper presents comparisons of various SatCORPS-retrieved cloud parameters with independent measurements and retrievals from a variety of instruments. These include surface and space-based lidar and radar data from CALIPSO and CloudSat, respectively, to assess the cloud fraction, height, base, optical depth, and ice water path; satellite and surface microwave radiometers to evaluate cloud liquid water path; surface-based radiometers to evaluate optical depth and effective particle size; and airborne in-situ data to evaluate ice water content, effective particle size, and other parameters. The results of comparisons are compared and contrasted and the factors influencing the differences are discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22270861','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22270861"><span id="translatedtitle">0.5-4 Å X-RAY BRIGHTENINGS IN THE MAGNETOSPHERE OBSERVED BY THE <span class="hlt">GEOSTATIONARY</span> OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Tetsuya T.; Miyoshi, Y.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>We found 217 X-ray brightening events in Earth's magnetosphere. These events occur in the high-energy band (0.5-4 Å) of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) X-ray light curves, although GOES X-ray light curves are frequently used as indices of solar flare magnitudes. We found that (1) brightening events are absent in the low-energy band (1-8 Å), unlike those associated with solar flares; and (2) the peak fluxes, durations, and onset times of these events depend on the magnetic local time (MLT). The events were detected in 2006, 2010, and 2011 at around 19-10 MLT, that is, from night to morning. They typically lasted for 2-3 hr. Their peak fluxes are less than 3 × 10{sup –8} W m{sup –2} in the 0.5-4 Å band and are maximized around 0-5 MLT. From these MLT dependencies, we constructed an MLT time profile of X-ray brightening events. Because 0.5-4 and 1-8 Å fluxes were observed and had the same order of magnitude when GOES 14 passed through Earth's shadow, we expected that X-ray brightening events in the 1-8 Å band are obscured by high-background X-ray fluxes coming from the Sun. We also found coincidence between X-ray brightening events and aurora substorms. In the majority of our events, the minimum geomagnetic field values (AL index) are below –400 nT. From these results and consideration of the GOES satellite orbit, we expect that these X-ray brightening events occur in the magnetosphere. We cannot, however, clarify the radiative process of the observed X-ray brightening events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.452.2185C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.452.2185C"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term analysis of clear sky at astronomical sites: a comparison between polar and <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cavazzani, S.; Zitelli, V.; Ortolani, S.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>In this paper, we analyse three sites of great astronomical importance: Mt Graham, Paranal and La Silla. In recent years, with the development of new telescopes, the study of cloud cover is getting more and more important for the selection of new sites as well as for the development of existing telescopes. At the moment there is discussion on the techniques used to study climatic conditions. We have mainly two large data sets: satellite data and ground data. The two sets have advantages and disadvantages. We study in detail the various data available and we compare these data and analyse the correlations between them. In particular, we focus on the long-term statistics for the trends in climate change. We use two satellites: GOES (<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite) and Aqua. In particular, we use the GOES camera data and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data, which is a key instrument aboard the Aqua satellite. Finally, we use the heliograph ground data of the Columbine weather station to validate the two families of satellite data. The use of such data allows a mutual validation of the results, which allows the analysis to be extended to other sites. We obtained a mean night cloud cover for the 10 yr analysed (2003-2012) of 12 per cent at Paranal, 22 per cent at La Silla and 37 per cent at Mt Graham. We also get a punctual correlation of 96 per cent between the two satellites and of 92 per cent between the satellite and the heliograph data at Mt Graham for 2009.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9881E..19D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9881E..19D"><span id="translatedtitle">Image navigation and registration performance assessment tool set for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager and <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Luccia, Frank J.; Houchin, Scott; Porter, Brian C.; Graybill, Justin; Haas, Evan; Johnson, Patrick D.; Isaacson, Peter J.; Reth, Alan D.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The GOES-R Flight Project has developed an Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for measuring Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) INR performance metrics in the post-launch period for performance evaluation and long term monitoring. For ABI, these metrics are the 3-sigma errors in navigation (NAV), channel-to-channel registration (CCR), frame-to-frame registration (FFR), swath-to-swath registration (SSR), and within frame registration (WIFR) for the Level 1B image products. For GLM, the single metric of interest is the 3-sigma error in the navigation of background images (GLM NAV) used by the system to navigate lightning strikes. 3-sigma errors are estimates of the 99. 73rd percentile of the errors accumulated over a 24 hour data collection period. IPATS utilizes a modular algorithmic design to allow user selection of data processing sequences optimized for generation of each INR metric. This novel modular approach minimizes duplication of common processing elements, thereby maximizing code efficiency and speed. Fast processing is essential given the large number of sub-image registrations required to generate INR metrics for the many images produced over a 24 hour evaluation period. Another aspect of the IPATS design that vastly reduces execution time is the off-line propagation of Landsat based truth images to the fixed grid coordinates system for each of the three GOES-R satellite locations, operational East and West and initial checkout locations. This paper describes the algorithmic design and implementation of IPATS and provides preliminary test results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AMTD....8.5809X&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AMTD....8.5809X&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulated retrievals for the remote sensing of CO2, CH4, CO, and H2O from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xi, X.; Natraj, V.; Shia, R. L.; Luo, M.; Zhang, Q.; Newman, S.; Sander, S. P.; Yung, Y. L.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is designed to measure high-resolution spectra of reflected sunlight in three near-infrared bands centered around 0.76, 1.6, and 2.3 μm and to deliver simultaneous retrievals of column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2, CH4, CO, and H2O (denoted XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XH2O, respectively) at different times of day over North America. In this study, we perform radiative transfer simulations over both clear-sky and all-sky scenes expected to be observed by GeoFTS and estimate the prospective performance of retrievals based on results from Bayesian error analysis and characterization. We find that, for simulated clear-sky retrievals, the average retrieval errors and single-measurement precisions are < 0.2% for XCO2, XCH4, and XH2O, and < 2% for XCO, when the a priori values have a bias of 3% and an uncertainty of 3%. In addition, an increase in the amount of aerosols and ice clouds leads to a notable increase in the retrieval errors and slight worsening of the retrieval precisions. Furthermore, retrieval precision is a strong function of signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution. This simulation study can help guide decisions on the design of the GeoFTS observing system, which can result in cost-effective measurement strategies while achieving satisfactory levels of retrieval precisions. The simultaneous retrievals at different times of day will be important for more accurate estimation of carbon sources and sinks on fine spatiotemporal scales and for studies to better understand the close coupling between the carbon and water cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AMT.....8.4817X&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AMT.....8.4817X&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulated retrievals for the remote sensing of CO2, CH4, CO, and H2O from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xi, X.; Natraj, V.; Shia, R. L.; Luo, M.; Zhang, Q.; Newman, S.; Sander, S. P.; Yung, Y. L.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is designed to measure high-resolution spectra of reflected sunlight in three near-infrared bands centered around 0.76, 1.6, and 2.3 μm and to deliver simultaneous retrievals of column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2, CH4, CO, and H2O (denoted XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XH2O, respectively) at different times of day over North America. In this study, we perform radiative transfer simulations over both clear-sky and all-sky scenes expected to be observed by GeoFTS and estimate the prospective performance of retrievals based on results from Bayesian error analysis and characterization. We find that, for simulated clear-sky retrievals, the average retrieval biases and single-measurement precisions are < 0.2 % for XCO2, XCH4, and XH2O, and < 2 % for XCO, when the a priori values have a bias of 3 % and an uncertainty of 3 %. In addition, an increase in the amount of aerosols and ice clouds leads to a notable increase in the retrieval biases and slight worsening of the retrieval precisions. Furthermore, retrieval precision is a strong function of signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution. This simulation study can help guide decisions on the design of the GeoFTS observing system, which can result in cost-effective measurement strategies while achieving satisfactory levels of retrieval precisions and biases. The simultaneous retrievals at different times of day will be important for more accurate estimation of carbon sources and sinks on fine spatiotemporal scales and for studies related to the atmospheric component of the water cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASTP.147...41Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASTP.147...41Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Coordinated study of scintillations recorded by Chinese FY-2 <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite and VHF coherent radar observations over south china</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zuo, Xiaomin; Yu, Tao; Xia, Chunliang; Huang, Jiang; Xu, Jie</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The first scintillation observations of Chinese FY-2 <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite (86.5°E) observed at Guangzhou (23.2°N, 113.3°E, dip 18°N) and simultaneous VHF (47.5 MHz) coherent radar measurements from Sanya (18.3°N, 109.6°E, dip 13°N) during equinoctial months of 2011 and 2012 have been presented here. The observations are used for a coordinated study for the relationship between the L-band scintillation patches on the propagation path of FY-2 satellite and the extended 3-m irregularity structures known as plumes over South China. The statistical results showed that the plumes and the scintillation patches have nearly a one-to-one correspondence. In case study, the zonal drift velocity of the irregularities was estimated by comparison of the onset times of the scintillation and plume and the irregularities were found to drift eastwards at a speed ranging about tens of meters to one hundred meters per second. From the derived value of drift speed and duration of scintillation events, the irregularity patches were found to have east-west extent about a few hundred kilometers. On the other hand, the scintillation did not always occur following the appearance of plume which might be due to the associated irregularities occurring at lower altitudes failing to reach the region of the ionosphere through which the satellite to ground link passes. In addition, weak scintillations were observed on FY-2 link without any plume structure on radar backscatter maps occasionally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ECSS..180..230L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ECSS..180..230L"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of ocean diurnal variations from the Korean <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager measurements using the DINEOF method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Menghua</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>High-frequency images of the water diffuse attenuation coefficient at the wavelength of 490 nm (Kd(490)) derived from the Korean <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) provide a unique opportunity to study diurnal variation of water turbidity in coastal regions of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea. However, there are many missing pixels in the original GOCI-derived Kd(490) images due to clouds and various other reasons. Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Function (DINEOF) is a method to reconstruct missing data in geophysical datasets based on the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF). It utilizes both temporal and spatial coherencies of data to infer a solution at the missing locations. In this study, the DINEOF is applied to GOCI-derived Kd(490) data in the Yangtze River mouth and the Yellow River mouth regions, and the DINEOF reconstructed Kd(490) data are used to fill in the missing pixels. In fact, DINEOF has been used to fill in gaps in ocean color chlorophyll-a and turbidity data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) in previous studies. Our GOCI validation results show that the bias between the reconstructed data and the original Kd(490) value is quite small (<∼5%). The standard deviation of the reconstructed/original ratio is ∼0.25 and ∼0.30 for the mouths in the Yangtze River and Yellow River, respectively. In addition, GOCI high temporal resolution measurements in Kd(490) can capture sub-diurnal variation due to the tidal forcing. The spatial patterns and temporal functions of the first three EOF modes are also examined. The first EOF mode characterizes the general mean spatial distribution of the region, while the second and third EOF modes represent the variations due to the tidal forcing in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004683','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004683"><span id="translatedtitle">Image Navigation and Registration Performance Assessment Tool Set for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager and <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>De Luccia, Frank J.; Houchin, Scott; Porter, Brian C.; Graybill, Justin; Haas, Evan; Johnson, Patrick D.; Isaacson, Peter J.; Reth, Alan D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The GOES-R Flight Project has developed an Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for measuring Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) INR performance metrics in the post-launch period for performance evaluation and long term monitoring. For ABI, these metrics are the 3-sigma errors in navigation (NAV), channel-to-channel registration (CCR), frame-to-frame registration (FFR), swath-to-swath registration (SSR), and within frame registration (WIFR) for the Level 1B image products. For GLM, the single metric of interest is the 3-sigma error in the navigation of background images (GLM NAV) used by the system to navigate lightning strikes. 3-sigma errors are estimates of the 99.73rd percentile of the errors accumulated over a 24-hour data collection period. IPATS utilizes a modular algorithmic design to allow user selection of data processing sequences optimized for generation of each INR metric. This novel modular approach minimizes duplication of common processing elements, thereby maximizing code efficiency and speed. Fast processing is essential given the large number of sub-image registrations required to generate INR metrics for the many images produced over a 24-hour evaluation period. Another aspect of the IPATS design that vastly reduces execution time is the off-line propagation of Landsat based truth images to the fixed grid coordinates system for each of the three GOES-R satellite locations, operational East and West and initial checkout locations. This paper describes the algorithmic design and implementation of IPATS and provides preliminary test results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002133','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002133"><span id="translatedtitle">A Numerical Testbed for Remote Sensing of Aerosols, and its Demonstration for Evaluating Retrieval Synergy from a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Constellation of GEO-CAPE and GOES-R</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Ding, Shouguo; Zeng, Jing; Spurr, Robert; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Mishchenko, Michael I.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present a numerical testbed for remote sensing of aerosols, together with a demonstration for evaluating retrieval synergy from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite constellation. The testbed combines inverse (optimal-estimation) software with a forward model containing linearized code for computing particle scattering (for both spherical and non-spherical particles), a kernel-based (land and ocean) surface bi-directional reflectance facility, and a linearized radiative transfer model for polarized radiance. Calculation of gas absorption spectra uses the HITRAN (HIgh-resolution TRANsmission molecular absorption) database of spectroscopic line parameters and other trace species cross-sections. The outputs of the testbed include not only the Stokes 4-vector elements and their sensitivities (Jacobians) with respect to the aerosol single scattering and physical parameters (such as size and shape parameters, refractive index, and plume height), but also DFS (Degree of Freedom for Signal) values for retrieval of these parameters. This testbed can be used as a tool to provide an objective assessment of aerosol information content that can be retrieved for any constellation of (planned or real) satellite sensors and for any combination of algorithm design factors (in terms of wavelengths, viewing angles, radiance and/or polarization to be measured or used). We summarize the components of the testbed, including the derivation and validation of analytical formulae for Jacobian calculations. Benchmark calculations from the forward model are documented. In the context of NASA's Decadal Survey Mission GEOCAPE (<span class="hlt">GEOstationary</span> Coastal and Air Pollution Events), we demonstrate the use of the testbed to conduct a feasibility study of using polarization measurements in and around the O2 A band for the retrieval of aerosol height information from space, as well as an to assess potential improvement in the retrieval of aerosol fine and coarse mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) through the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900020098','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900020098"><span id="translatedtitle">Data Catalog Series for Space Science and Applications Flight Missions. Volume 2B; Descriptions of Data Sets from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> and High-Altitude Scientific Spacecraft and Investigations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schofield, Norman J. (Editor); Parthasarathy, R. (Editor); Hills, H. Kent (Editor)</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and high altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8897H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8897H"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a Cloud-Top Height Estimation Method by <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Split-Window Measurements Trained with CloudSat Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamada, Atsushi; Nishi, Noriyuki; Inoue, Toshiro</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Estimation of cloud-top height and visible optical thickness of upper-tropospheric clouds by brightness temperature (TB) measurements of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite at two infrared split-window wavelengths was conducted. These cloud parameters were estimated by regressing the measurements of 94-GHz cloud radar onboard CloudSat satellite in terms of TB at 10.8 um (T11) and its difference from TB at 12 um (?T = T11 -T12) measured by <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite MTSAT-1R. Estimation by <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite measurements are fairly useful in field campaigns aiming mesoscale cloud systems, where cloud-top heights are compared with the vertical profiles of ground-based measurements such as wind and cloud condensates in a short time interval. Hamada et al. (2008) conducted the estimation of cloud-top height by T11 and ?T measured by GMS-5, using ship-borne cloud radar measurements. However, their ground-based result was limited to the non-rainy clouds, since cloud radar signal is heavily attenuated by precipitation particles. Spaceborne radar measurements enables an estimation of cloud-top height without concern for the existence of precipitation. We examined the dependences of the estimates of cloud-top height on latitude, season, satellite zenith angle, day-night, and land-sea differences. It was shown that these dependences were considered as being uniform in tropics, except for the region with large satellite zenith angle. The dependences on latitude and season were negligible in tropics, while they became the most significant factor affecting the estimates at higher latitudes. Estimation of visible optical thickness was also conducted, although limited to the non-rainy high clouds. The distributions of estimates in TB-?T space were qualitatively consistent with those expected from a simplified radiative transfer equation, although the standard deviations of measurements were slightly large. The near real-time products has already been provided on our Website (http</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890036836&hterms=leakage&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dleakage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890036836&hterms=leakage&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dleakage"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous energetic particle observations at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit and in the upstream solar wind - Evidence for leakage during the magnetospheric compression event of November 1, 1984</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baker, D. N.; Belian, R. D.; Fritz, T. A.; Higbie, P. R.; Krimigis, S. M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The issue of accelertion and transport of particles in the upstream solar wind was investigated using the energetic ion and electron observations obtained simultaneously by three fortuitously positioned <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> spececraft during a strong magnetospheric compression event of November 1, 1984. This compression event brought the subsolar magnetopause inward of the synchronous orbit. Data obtained indicate that, in the November 1 event, the process of magnetospheric ion escape was a very likely source for energetic particles both in the magnetosheath and the upstream solar wind.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866493','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866493"><span id="translatedtitle">Membrane <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Mingenbach, William A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A device is provided for <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved <span class="hlt">stability</span>. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A31C0105M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A31C0105M"><span id="translatedtitle">Weather, Climate and Air quality data acquired from quasi-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> viewing of high latitudes using highly elliptical orbits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McElroy, C. T.; Sioris, C. E.; Walker, K. A.; Buijs, H.; Trichtchenko, A.; Garand, L.; Nassar, R.; Martin, R.; Bergeron, M.; O'Neill, N. T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The Arctic multi-year ice cover is disappearing more rapidly than climate models estimate and the Arctic climate is also changing. With declining ice cover, the Arctic Ocean will likely be subject to increased shipping traffic in addition to exploration activity for natural resources with a concomitant increase in air pollution. Thus there is a multifaceted need to monitor the polar region. A number of Canadian government departments, led by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), are proposing the Polar Communications and Weather (PCW) mission to provide improved communications and critically important meteorological and air quality information for the Arctic using an operational meteorological imager. Two satellites in highly eccentric orbits with apogees at ~ 40,000 km over the Arctic would provide quasi-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> viewing over the Arctic with 24-7 coverage in the IR and measure solar reflected light in the summertime. The planned operational meteorological instrument is a 21-channel spectral imager with UV, visible, NIR and MIR channels similar to MODIS and ABI. This presentation will focus on the PHEOS-WCA (Weather, Climate and Air quality) mission, which is an atmospheric science complement to the operational PCW mission. The PHEOS-WCA instrument package consists of FTS and UVS imaging sounders with viewing range of ~4.5 degrees or a field of regard ~ 3400x3400 km2 from near apogee. The spatial resolution at apogee of each imaging sounder is targeted to be 10×10 km2 or better and the image repeat time <2 hours. The characteristics of the PHEOS-WCA measurements will be described, along with the expected retrieval accuracy of various measured constituents. The quasi-stationary viewing will provide the ability to measure the diurnal behavior of atmospheric properties under the satellites and the ability to provide data for weather forecasting and also air quality data assimilation. One of the important goals for PHEMOS-FTS is to measure changes in CO2 and CH4</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930094615','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930094615"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic <span class="hlt">stabilization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Haus, FR</p> <p>1936-01-01</p> <p>This report concerns the study of automatic <span class="hlt">stabilizers</span> and extends it to include the control of the three-control system of the airplane instead of just altitude control. Some of the topics discussed include lateral disturbed motion, static <span class="hlt">stability</span>, the mathematical theory of lateral motion, and large angles of incidence. Various mechanisms and <span class="hlt">stabilizers</span> are also discussed. The feeding of Diesel engines by injection pumps actuated by engine compression, achieves the required high speeds of injection readily and permits rigorous control of the combustible charge introduced into each cylinder and of the peak pressure in the resultant cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.2365K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.2365K"><span id="translatedtitle">Single-event and total-dose effects in <span class="hlt">geo-stationary</span> transfer orbit during solar-activity maximum period measured by the Tsubasa satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koshiishi, H.; Kimoto, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Goka, T.</p> <p></p> <p>The Tsubasa satellite developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency was launched in Feb 2002 into <span class="hlt">Geo-stationary</span> Transfer Orbit GTO Perigee 500km Apogee 36000km and had been operated well until Sep 2003 The objective of this satellite was to verify the function of commercial parts and new technologies of bus-system components in space Thus the on-board experiments were conducted in the more severe radiation environment of GTO rather than in <span class="hlt">Geo-stationary</span> Earth Orbit GEO or Low Earth Orbit LEO The Space Environment Data Acquisition equipment SEDA on board the Tsubasa satellite had the Single-event Upset Monitor SUM and the DOSimeter DOS to evaluate influences on electronic devices caused by radiation environment that was also measured by the particle detectors of the SEDA the Standard DOse Monitor SDOM for measurements of light particles and the Heavy Ion Telescope HIT for measurements of heavy ions The SUM monitored single-event upsets and single-event latch-ups occurred in the test sample of two 64-Mbit DRAMs The DOS measured accumulated radiation dose at fifty-six locations in the body of the Tsubasa satellite Using the data obtained by these instruments single-event and total-dose effects in GTO during solar-activity maximum period especially their rapid changes due to solar flares and CMEs in the region from L 1 1 through L 11 is discussed in this paper</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7022064','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7022064"><span id="translatedtitle">Membrane <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Mingenbach, W.A.</p> <p>1988-02-09</p> <p>A device is provided for <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved <span class="hlt">stability</span>. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A21C0079K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A21C0079K"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of spectral reflectance to aerosol optical properties in UV and visible wavelength range: Preparatory study for aerosol retrieval from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Lee, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Asia, with its rapid increase in industrialization and population, has been receiving great attention as one of important source regions of pollutants including aerosols and trace gases. Since the spatio-temporal distribution of the pollutants varies rapidly, demands to monitor air quality in a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite have increased recently. In these perspectives, the Ministry of Environment of Korea initiated a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite mission to launch the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) onboard the GEO-KOMPSAT in 2017-2018 timeframe. From the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements, it has been found that the low surface reflectance and strong interaction between aerosol absorption and molecular scattering in UV wavelength range can be advantageous in retrieving aerosol optical properties, such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and optical type (or single scattering albedo), over the source regions as well as ocean areas. In addition, GEMS is expected to have finer spatial resolution compared to OMI (13 x 24 km2 at nadir), thereby less affected by sub-pixel clouds. In this study, we present sensitivity of spectral reflectance to aerosol optical properties in ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelength range for a purpose to retrieve aerosol optical properties from GEMS. The so called UV-VIS algorithm plans to use spectral reflectance in 350-650 nm. The algorithm retrieves AOT and aerosol type using an inversion method, which adopts pre-calculated lookup table (LUT) for a set of assumed aerosol models. For the aerosol models optimized in Asia areas, the inversion data of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) located in the target areas are selectively used to archive aerosol optical properties. As a result, major aerosol types representing dust, polluted dust, and absorbing/non-absorbing anthropogenic aerosols are constructed and used for the LUT calculations. We analyze the effect of cloud contamination on the retrieved AOT by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010090340','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010090340"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Temperature and Material Combinations on Several Lubricants for Use in the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Mission Filter Wheel Bearings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jansen, Mark J.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Predmore, Roamer E.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A bearing test apparatus was used to investigate lubricant degradation rates and elastohydrodynamic transition temperatures for several perfluoropolyether (Krytox) formulations, a pentasilahydrocarbon, and a synthetic hydrocarbon (Pennzane 2001 A) in an MPB 1219 bearing, which is used in the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> operational environmental satellite (GOES) mission filter wheel assembly. Test conditions were the following: 1000-hr duration, 75 C, 20 lb axial load, vacuum level less than 1 x 10(exp -6) Torr, and a 600-rpm rotational speed. Baseline tests were performed using unformulated Krytox 143AB, the heritage lubricant. Krytox additive formulations showed small reductions in degradation rate. Krytox GPL-105, a higher viscosity version, yielded the least amount of degradation products. Both the silahydrocarbon and Pennzane 2001A showed no signs of lubricant degradation and had ample amounts of free oil at test conclusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820015958','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820015958"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of total electron content of midlatitude ionosphere and protonosphere via Faraday rotation and group relay techniques using transmission from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites ATS-3 and ATS-6</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Paul, M. P.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Measurement of integrated columnar electron content and total electron content for the local ionosphere and the overlying protonosphere via Faraday rotation and group delay techniques has proven very useful. A field station was established having the geographic location of 31.5 deg N latitude and 91.06 deg W longitude to accomplish these objectives. A polarimeter receiving system was set up in the beginning to measure the Faraday rotation of 137.35 MHz radio signal from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite ATS 3 to yield the integrated columnar electron content of the local ionosphere. The measurement was continued regularly, and the analysis of the data thus collected provided a synopsis of the statistical variation of the ionosphere along with the transient variations that occurred during the periods of geomagnetic and other disturbances.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.118...28F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.118...28F"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and temporal variability of trace gas columns derived from WRF/Chem regional model output: Planning for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> observations of atmospheric composition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Follette-Cook, Melanie B.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Crawford, James H.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Fried, Alan; Weinheimer, Andrew J.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We quantify both the spatial and temporal variability of column integrated O3, NO2, CO, SO2, and HCHO over the Baltimore/Washington, DC area using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting model with on-line chemistry (WRF/Chem) for the entire month of July 2011, coinciding with the first deployment of the NASA Earth Venture program mission Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ). Using structure function analyses, we find that the model reproduces the spatial variability observed during the campaign reasonably well, especially for O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument will be the first NASA mission to make atmospheric composition observations from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit and partially fulfills the goals of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission. We relate the simulated variability to the precision requirements defined by the science traceability matrices of these space-borne missions. Results for O3 from 0 to 2 km altitude indicate that the TEMPO instrument would be able to observe O3 air quality events over the Mid-Atlantic area, even on days when the violations of the air quality standard are not widespread. The results further indicated that horizontal gradients in CO from 0 to 2 km would be observable over moderate distances (≥20 km). The spatial and temporal results for tropospheric column NO2 indicate that TEMPO would be able to observe not only the large urban plumes at times of peak production, but also the weaker gradients between rush hours. This suggests that the proposed spatial and temporal resolutions for these satellites as well as their prospective precision requirements are sufficient to answer the science questions they are tasked to address.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150022424','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150022424"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and Temporal Variability of Trace Gas Columns Derived from WRF/Chem Regional Model Output: Planning for <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Observations of Atmospheric Composition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Follette-Cook, M. B.; Pickering, K.; Crawford, J.; Duncan, B.; Loughner, C.; Diskin, G.; Fried, A.; Weinheimer, A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We quantify both the spatial and temporal variability of column integrated O3, NO2, CO, SO2, and HCHO over the Baltimore / Washington, DC area using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting model with on-line chemistry (WRF/Chem) for the entire month of July 2011, coinciding with the first deployment of the NASA Earth Venture program mission Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ). Using structure function analyses, we find that the model reproduces the spatial variability observed during the campaign reasonably well, especially for O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument will be the first NASA mission to make atmospheric composition observations from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit and partially fulfills the goals of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission. We relate the simulated variability to the precision requirements defined by the science traceability matrices of these space-borne missions. Results for O3 from 0- 2 km altitude indicate that the TEMPO instrument would be able to observe O3 air quality events over the Mid-Atlantic area, even on days when the violations of the air quality standard are not widespread. The results further indicated that horizontal gradients in CO from 0-2 km would be observable over moderate distances (= 20 km). The spatial and temporal results for tropospheric column NO2 indicate that TEMPO would be able to observe not only the large urban plumes at times of peak production, but also the weaker gradients between rush hours. This suggests that the proposed spatial and temporal resolutions for these satellites as well as their prospective precision requirements are sufficient to answer the science questions they are tasked to address.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005404','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005404"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvement of Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval over Hong Kong from a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Meteorological Satellite Using Critical Reflectance with Background Optical Depth Correction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Mijin; Kim, Jhoon; Wong, Man Sing; Yoon, Jongmin; Lee, Jaehwa; Wu, Dong L.; Chan, P.W.; Nichol, Janet E.; Chung, Chu-Yong; Ou, Mi-Lim</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Despite continuous efforts to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) using a conventional 5-channelmeteorological imager in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit, the accuracy in urban areas has been poorer than other areas primarily due to complex urban surface properties and mixed aerosol types from different emission sources. The two largest error sources in aerosol retrieval have been aerosol type selection and surface reflectance. In selecting the aerosol type from a single visible channel, the season-dependent aerosol optical properties were adopted from longterm measurements of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun-photometers. With the aerosol optical properties obtained fromthe AERONET inversion data, look-up tableswere calculated by using a radiative transfer code: the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S). Surface reflectance was estimated using the clear sky composite method, awidely used technique for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> retrievals. Over East Asia, the AOD retrieved from the Meteorological Imager showed good agreement, although the values were affected by cloud contamination errors. However, the conventional retrieval of the AOD over Hong Kong was largely underestimated due to the lack of information on the aerosol type and surface properties. To detect spatial and temporal variation of aerosol type over the area, the critical reflectance method, a technique to retrieve single scattering albedo (SSA), was applied. Additionally, the background aerosol effect was corrected to improve the accuracy of the surface reflectance over Hong Kong. The AOD retrieved froma modified algorithmwas compared to the collocated data measured by AERONET in Hong Kong. The comparison showed that the new aerosol type selection using the critical reflectance and the corrected surface reflectance significantly improved the accuracy of AODs in Hong Kong areas,with a correlation coefficient increase from0.65 to 0.76 and a regression line change from tMI [basic algorithm] = 0</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMTD....813099N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMTD....813099N"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen dioxide observations from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument: retrieval algorithm and measurements during DISCOVER-AQ Texas 2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nowlan, C. R.; Liu, X.; Leitch, J. W.; Chance, K.; González Abad, G.; Liu, C.; Zoogman, P.; Cole, J.; Delker, T.; Good, W.; Murcray, F.; Ruppert, L.; Soo, D.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Janz, S. J.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Loughner, C. P.; Pickering, K. E.; Herman, J. R.; Beaver, M. R.; Long, R. W.; Szykman, J. J.; Judd, L. M.; Kelley, P.; Luke, W. T.; Ren, X.; Al-Saadi, J. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument is a testbed for upcoming air quality satellite instruments that will measure backscattered ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. GeoTASO flew on the NASA Falcon aircraft in its first intensive field measurement campaign during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) Earth Venture Mission over Houston, Texas in September 2013. Measurements of backscattered solar radiation between 420-465 nm collected on four days during the campaign are used to determine slant column amounts of NO2 at 250 m × 250 m spatial resolution with a fitting precision of 2.2 × 1015 molecules cm-2. These slant columns are converted to tropospheric NO2 vertical columns using a radiative transfer model and trace gas profiles from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Total column NO2 from GeoTASO is well correlated with ground-based Pandora observations (r = 0.90 on the most polluted and cloud-free day of measurements), with GeoTASO NO2 slightly higher for the most polluted observations. Surface NO2 mixing ratios inferred from GeoTASO using the CMAQ model show good correlation with NO2 measured in situ at the surface during the campaign (r = 0.91 for the most polluted day). NO2 slant columns from GeoTASO also agree well with preliminary retrievals from the GEO-CAPE Airborne Simulator (GCAS) which flew on the NASA King Air B200 (r = 0.84, slope = 0.94). Enhanced NO2 is resolvable over areas of traffic NOx emissions and near individual petrochemical facilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9.2647N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9.2647N"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen dioxide observations from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument: Retrieval algorithm and measurements during DISCOVER-AQ Texas 2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nowlan, Caroline R.; Liu, Xiong; Leitch, James W.; Chance, Kelly; González Abad, Gonzalo; Liu, Cheng; Zoogman, Peter; Cole, Joshua; Delker, Thomas; Good, William; Murcray, Frank; Ruppert, Lyle; Soo, Daniel; Follette-Cook, Melanie B.; Janz, Scott J.; Kowalewski, Matthew G.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Herman, Jay R.; Beaver, Melinda R.; Long, Russell W.; Szykman, James J.; Judd, Laura M.; Kelley, Paul; Luke, Winston T.; Ren, Xinrong; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument is a test bed for upcoming air quality satellite instruments that will measure backscattered ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. GeoTASO flew on the NASA Falcon aircraft in its first intensive field measurement campaign during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) Earth Venture Mission over Houston, Texas, in September 2013. Measurements of backscattered solar radiation between 420 and 465 nm collected on 4 days during the campaign are used to determine slant column amounts of NO2 at 250 m × 250 m spatial resolution with a fitting precision of 2.2 × 1015 molecules<mspace linebreak="nobreak" width="0.125em"/>cm-2. These slant columns are converted to tropospheric NO2 vertical columns using a radiative transfer model and trace gas profiles from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Total column NO2 from GeoTASO is well correlated with ground-based Pandora observations (r = 0.90 on the most polluted and cloud-free day of measurements and r = 0.74 overall), with GeoTASO NO2 slightly higher for the most polluted observations. Surface NO2 mixing ratios inferred from GeoTASO using the CMAQ model show good correlation with NO2 measured in situ at the surface during the campaign (r = 0.85). NO2 slant columns from GeoTASO also agree well with preliminary retrievals from the GEO-CAPE Airborne Simulator (GCAS) which flew on the NASA King Air B200 (r = 0.81, slope = 0.91). Enhanced NO2 is resolvable over areas of traffic NOx emissions and near individual petrochemical facilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11G0148K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11G0148K"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Aerosol Distribution over North East Asia Using a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Measurement during Filed Campaigns of DRAGON-Asia 2012 and MAPS-Seoul 2015</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Choi, M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J.; Ahn, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Considering diverse source and high concentration of aerosol, numerous manners have been applied to detect aerosol properties in North East Asia (NEA). Above all, a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit satellite, COMS has monitored atmosphere and ocean conditions over the NEA using two payloads of Meteorological Imager (MI) and <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) since 2010. By using the MI measurements, an AOD retrieval algorithm was developed (Kim et al., 2014). Additionally, a number of ground-based network such as Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), Sky Radiometer Network (SKYNET), and Mie-scattering Light Detector and Ranging (LIDAR) Network have been in operation to capture aerosol variability. And, occasionally, field campaigns were conducted. In 2012 (March to May), the DRAGON-Asia campaign was performed by AERONET science team and NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research), and 40 sun/sky-radiometer was deployed. Subsequently, MAPS-Seoul campaign for detecting air quality was performed with 8 AERONET sites and 6 Pandora instruments in Korea. Those ground-based measurements provide validation dataset for satellite retrieval algorithm, as well as detect detail of aerosol characteristics at each local point. Thus, in this study, the AODs obtained from the aforementioned campaigns were applied to assess and improve the accuracy of MI AOD. For the DRAGON-Asia 2012, the comparison between MI AOD and AERONET AOD shows correlation coefficient of 0.85, regression slope of 1.00 and RMSE of 0.18. Furthermore, AOPs obtained from those field campaign results and the MI AOD were analyzed to understand temporal and spatial variance of aerosol in NEA during spring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EGUGA..11.8413G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EGUGA..11.8413G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite imagery in optical and thermal bands for the estimation of soil moisture status and land evapotranspiration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghilain, N.; Arboleda, A.; Gellens-Meulenberghs, F.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>For water and agricultural management, there is an increasing demand to monitor the soil water status and the land evapotranspiration. In the framework of the LSA-SAF project (http://landsaf.meteo.pt), we are developing an energy balance model forced by remote sensing products, i.e. radiation components and vegetation parameters, to monitor in quasi real-time the evapotranspiration rate over land (Gellens-Meulenberghs et al, 2007; Ghilain et al, 2008). The model is applied over the full MSG disk, i.e. including Europe and Africa. Meteorological forcing, as well as the soil moisture status, is provided by the forecasts of the ECMWF model. Since soil moisture is computed by a forecast model not dedicated to the monitoring of the soil water status, inadequate soil moisture input can occur, and can cause large effects on evapotranspiration rates, especially over semi-arid or arid regions. In these regions, a remotely sensed-based method for the soil moisture retrieval can therefore be preferable, to avoid too strong dependency in ECMWF model estimates. Among different strategies, remote sensing offers the advantage of monitoring large areas. Empirical methods of soil moisture assessment exist using remotely sensed derived variables either from the microwave bands or from the thermal bands. Mainly polar orbiters are used for this purpose, and little attention has been paid to the new possibilities offered by geosynchronous satellites. In this contribution, images of the SEVIRI instrument on board of MSG geosynchronous satellites are used. Dedicated operational algorithms were developed for the LSA-SAF project and now deliver images of land surface temperature (LST) every 15-minutes (Trigo et al, 2008) and vegetations indices (leaf area index, LAI; fraction of vegetation cover, FVC; fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, FAPAR) every day (Garcia-Haro et al, 2005) over Africa and Europe. One advantage of using products derived from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4343311','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4343311"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">STABILIZED</span> OSCILLATOR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Jessen, P.L.; Price, H.J.</p> <p>1958-03-18</p> <p>This patent relates to sine-wave generators and in particular describes a generator with a novel feedback circuit resulting in improved frequency <span class="hlt">stability</span>. The generator comprises two triodes having a common cathode circuit connected to oscillate at a frequency and amplitude at which the loop galn of the circutt ls unity, and another pair of triodes having a common cathode circuit arranged as a conventional amplifier. A signal is conducted from the osciliator through a frequency selective network to the amplifier and fed back to the osciliator. The unique feature of the feedback circuit is the amplifier operates in the nonlinear portion of its tube characteristics thereby providing a relatively constant feedback voltage to the oscillator irrespective of the amplitude of its input signal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3271571','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3271571"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Stabilizing</span> brokerage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stovel, Katherine; Golub, Benjamin; Milgrom, Eva M. Meyersson</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A variety of social and economic arrangements exist to facilitate the exchange of goods, services, and information over gaps in social structure. Each of these arrangements bears some relationship to the idea of brokerage, but this brokerage is rarely like the pure and formal economic intermediation seen in some modern markets. Indeed, for reasons illuminated by existing sociological and economic models, brokerage is a fragile relationship. In this paper, we review the causes of instability in brokerage and identify three social mechanisms that can <span class="hlt">stabilize</span> fragile brokerage relationships: social isolation, broker capture, and organizational grafting. Each of these mechanisms rests on the emergence or existence of supporting institutions. We suggest that organizational grafting may be the most stable and effective resolution to the tensions inherent in brokerage, but it is also the most institutionally demanding. PMID:22198763</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22198763','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22198763"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Stabilizing</span> brokerage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stovel, Katherine; Golub, Benjamin; Milgrom, Eva M Meyersson</p> <p>2011-12-27</p> <p>A variety of social and economic arrangements exist to facilitate the exchange of goods, services, and information over gaps in social structure. Each of these arrangements bears some relationship to the idea of brokerage, but this brokerage is rarely like the pure and formal economic intermediation seen in some modern markets. Indeed, for reasons illuminated by existing sociological and economic models, brokerage is a fragile relationship. In this paper, we review the causes of instability in brokerage and identify three social mechanisms that can <span class="hlt">stabilize</span> fragile brokerage relationships: social isolation, broker capture, and organizational grafting. Each of these mechanisms rests on the emergence or existence of supporting institutions. We suggest that organizational grafting may be the most stable and effective resolution to the tensions inherent in brokerage, but it is also the most institutionally demanding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818395L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818395L"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a numerical system to improve particulate matter forecasts in South Korea using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite-retrieved aerosol optical data over Northeast Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Sojin; Song, Chul-han; Park, Rae Seol; Park, Mi Eun; Han, Kyung man; Kim, Jhoon; Choi, Myungje; Ghim, Young Sung; Woo, Jung-Hun</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>To improve short-term particulate matter (PM) forecasts in South Korea, the initial distribution of PM composition, particularly over the upwind regions, is primarily important. To prepare the initial PM composition, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) data retrieved from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> equatorial orbit (GEO) satellite sensor, GOCI (<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager) which covers a part of Northeast Asia (113-146° E; 25-47° N), were used. Although GOCI can provide a higher number of AOD data in a semicontinuous manner than low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite sensors, it still has a serious limitation in that the AOD data are not available at cloud pixels and over high-reflectance areas, such as desert and snow-covered regions. To overcome this limitation, a spatiotemporal-kriging (STK) method was used to better prepare the initial AOD distributions that were converted into the PM composition over Northeast Asia. One of the largest advantages in using the STK method in this study is that more observed AOD data can be used to prepare the best initial AOD fields compared with other methods that use single frame of observation data around the time of initialization. It is demonstrated in this study that the short-term PM forecast system developed with the application of the STK method can greatly improve PM10 predictions in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) when evaluated with ground-based observations. For example, errors and biases of PM10 predictions decreased by ˜ 60 and ˜ 70{%}, respectively, during the first 6 h of short-term PM forecasting, compared with those without the initial PM composition. In addition, the influences of several factors on the performances of the short-term PM forecast were explored in this study. The influences of the choices of the control variables on the PM chemical composition were also investigated with the composition data measured via PILS-IC (particle-into-liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography) and low air-volume sample</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013amos.confE..34H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013amos.confE..34H"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Faint Glints from <span class="hlt">Stabilized</span> GEO Satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hall, D.; Kervin, P.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Ground-based telescopes routinely acquire temporal brightness measurements of satellites in <span class="hlt">geo-stationary</span> and geo-synchronous orbit that provide valuable characterization information. For instance, GEO satellites that are not <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> tend to rotate, and produce brightnesses that vary in time with frequencies corresponding to rotation rates. Temporal brightness patterns can also be exploited to characterize <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> GEO satellites. For example, many operational GEO satellites have solar panels that glint when they reflect sunlight towards an observer in a mirror-like fashion. These well-known solar panel glints can be remarkably bright, often exceeding several stellar magnitudes in amplitude. Measured brightnesses and times of these glints can be exploited to estimate the size, segmentation, and alignment of the solar array, valuable information about the satellite's power generation and consumption capabilities. However, satellites can produce other glints in addition to those originating from solar panels. These glints can be much fainter, with amplitudes as small as 0.2 magnitudes. Several observations of GEO satellites show several such glints occurring during the span of a single night. Furthermore, many of these recur from night to night when observed from a single ground-based site, but with subtle, incremental changes in both peak times and brightnesses. These fainter glints must originate from reflective elements mounted on the satellite's main bus, solar panel structure, or other peripheral structures that might be stationary or moving with respect to the main bus. Our analysis indicates that such glints can be exploited for GEO satellite characterization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19680000055','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19680000055"><span id="translatedtitle">Thread cutting with <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">axis</span> N/C milling machine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salley, G. C.; Wood, C. H., Jr.</p> <p>1968-01-01</p> <p>TAPDIE, a generalized macro written for the APT numerical control system, cuts threads in stock too big for conventional machines or for which conventional methods are unsuitable. TAPDIE computes the machine tool path necessary and the information is passed on to a post-processor which produces a control tape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737542','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737542"><span id="translatedtitle">Disposable soft <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">axis</span> force sensor for biomedical applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chathuranga, Damith Suresh; Zhongkui Wang; Yohan Noh; Nanayakkara, Thrishantha; Hirai, Shinichi</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a new disposable soft 3D force sensor that can be used to calculate either force or displacement and vibrations. It uses three Hall Effect sensors orthogonally placed around a cylindrical beam made of silicon rubber. A niobium permanent magnet is inside the silicon. When a force is applied to the end of the cylinder, it is compressed and bent to the opposite side of the force displacing the magnet. This displacement causes change in the magnetic flux around the ratiomatric linear sensors (Hall Effect sensors). By analysing these changes, we calculate the force or displacement in three directions using a lookup table. This sensor can be used in minimal invasive surgery and haptic feedback applications. The cheap construction, bio-compatibility and ease of miniaturization are few advantages of this sensor. The sensor design, and its characterization are presented in this work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890004117','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890004117"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-life <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">axis</span> satellite attitude sensing, phase 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Arild, Tor</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The purpose was to investigate the feasibility of new, moderate-cost, high reliability navigation sensors for high-altitude satellites, using stellar sources to obviate the use of gyroscopic devices. The primary investigation focused on the need for developing a star tracker model to replace an old star tracker which is still needed for current probe and satellite programs. One innovative element of the proposed star tracker was the design, development, and testing of technology components related to a phase scrambler plate. The purpose of the phase scrambler plate is to convert the impulse response of the optical system from a point image to a uniformly bright, square, angularly large, in-focus image of the star source. A collimated star source was built and tested. A breadboard star tracker with an 8 x 8 degree field of view was designed and built. It was tested in normal quad-cell mode (without the phase scrambler plate) and with the phase scrambler plate. Although the phase scrambler plate was crudely made, the performance of the star tracker breadboard was greatly improved using the phase scrambler plate, instead of system defocus. If further developed, the phase scrambler plate may be added as a low-cost retroconversion to any objective lens to greatly improve quad-cell or CCD array tracking; applications include star trackers, laser metrology, laser machining optics, and surveying instrumentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760008091','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760008091"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">axis</span> Dynamic Motion Simulator (DMS) system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A three-axis dynamic motion simulator (DMS) consisting of a test table with three degrees of freedom and an electronics control system was designed, constructed, delivered, and tested. Documentation, as required in the Data Requirements List (DRL), was also provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737542','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737542"><span id="translatedtitle">Disposable soft <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">axis</span> force sensor for biomedical applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chathuranga, Damith Suresh; Zhongkui Wang; Yohan Noh; Nanayakkara, Thrishantha; Hirai, Shinichi</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a new disposable soft 3D force sensor that can be used to calculate either force or displacement and vibrations. It uses three Hall Effect sensors orthogonally placed around a cylindrical beam made of silicon rubber. A niobium permanent magnet is inside the silicon. When a force is applied to the end of the cylinder, it is compressed and bent to the opposite side of the force displacing the magnet. This displacement causes change in the magnetic flux around the ratiomatric linear sensors (Hall Effect sensors). By analysing these changes, we calculate the force or displacement in three directions using a lookup table. This sensor can be used in minimal invasive surgery and haptic feedback applications. The cheap construction, bio-compatibility and ease of miniaturization are few advantages of this sensor. The sensor design, and its characterization are presented in this work. PMID:26737542</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26447470','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26447470"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of the Forecasting Methods, Precipitation Character, and Satellite Resolution on the Predictability of Short-Term Quantitative Precipitation Nowcasting (QPN) from a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Yu; Xi, Du-Gang; Li, Zhao-Liang; Ji, Wei</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The prediction of the short-term quantitative precipitation nowcasting (QPN) from consecutive gestational satellite images has important implications for hydro-meteorological modeling and forecasting. However, the systematic analysis of the predictability of QPN is limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate effects of the forecasting model, precipitation character, and satellite resolution on the predictability of QPN using images of a Chinese <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite Fengyun-2F (FY-2F) which covered all intensive observation since its launch despite of only a total of approximately 10 days. In the first step, three methods were compared to evaluate the performance of the QPN methods: a pixel-based QPN using the maximum correlation method (PMC); the Horn-Schunck optical-flow scheme (PHS); and the Pyramid Lucas-Kanade Optical Flow method (PPLK), which is newly proposed here. Subsequently, the effect of the precipitation systems was indicated by 2338 imageries of 8 precipitation periods. Then, the resolution dependence was demonstrated by analyzing the QPN with six spatial resolutions (0.1atial, 0.3a, 0.4atial rand 0.6). The results show that the PPLK improves the predictability of QPN with better performance than the other comparison methods. The predictability of the QPN is significantly determined by the precipitation system, and a coarse spatial resolution of the satellite reduces the predictability of QPN. PMID:26447470</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019652','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019652"><span id="translatedtitle">Implementation of a state of the art automated system for the production of cloud/water vapor motion winds from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Velden, Christopher S.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The thrust of the proposed effort under this contract is aimed at improving techniques to track water vapor data in sequences of imagery from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites. In regards to this task, significant testing, evaluation, and progress was accomplished during this period. Sets of winds derived from Meteosat data were routinely produced during Atlantic hurricane events in the 1993 season. These wind sets were delivered via Internet in real time to the Hurricane Research Division in Miami for their evaluation in a track forecast model. For eighteen cases in which 72-hour forecasts were produced, thirteen resulted in track forecast improvements (some quite significant). In addition, quality-controlled Meteosat water vapor winds produced by NESDIS were validated against rawinsondes, yielding an 8 m/s RMS. This figure is comparable to upper-level cloud drift wind accuracies. Given the complementary horizontal coverage in cloud-free areas, we believe that water vapor vectors can supplement cloud-drift wind information to provide good full-disk coverage of the upper tropospheric flow. The impact of these winds on numerical analysis and forecasts will be tested in the next reporting period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26447470','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26447470"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of the Forecasting Methods, Precipitation Character, and Satellite Resolution on the Predictability of Short-Term Quantitative Precipitation Nowcasting (QPN) from a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Yu; Xi, Du-Gang; Li, Zhao-Liang; Ji, Wei</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The prediction of the short-term quantitative precipitation nowcasting (QPN) from consecutive gestational satellite images has important implications for hydro-meteorological modeling and forecasting. However, the systematic analysis of the predictability of QPN is limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate effects of the forecasting model, precipitation character, and satellite resolution on the predictability of QPN using images of a Chinese <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite Fengyun-2F (FY-2F) which covered all intensive observation since its launch despite of only a total of approximately 10 days. In the first step, three methods were compared to evaluate the performance of the QPN methods: a pixel-based QPN using the maximum correlation method (PMC); the Horn-Schunck optical-flow scheme (PHS); and the Pyramid Lucas-Kanade Optical Flow method (PPLK), which is newly proposed here. Subsequently, the effect of the precipitation systems was indicated by 2338 imageries of 8 precipitation periods. Then, the resolution dependence was demonstrated by analyzing the QPN with six spatial resolutions (0.1atial, 0.3a, 0.4atial rand 0.6). The results show that the PPLK improves the predictability of QPN with better performance than the other comparison methods. The predictability of the QPN is significantly determined by the precipitation system, and a coarse spatial resolution of the satellite reduces the predictability of QPN.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1100..521B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1100..521B"><span id="translatedtitle">The Direct Cloud-free Longwave Radiative Effect of Saharan Dust as observed by the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brindley, Helen E.; Russell, Jacqueline E.</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instruments flying on the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) series of satellites provide a unique tool with which to monitor the diurnally resolved evolution of the top of atmosphere broad-band radiation fields. In addition, coincident narrow band observations from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) instruments, also flying on the MSG platforms, can be used to provide information about the key atmospheric parameters that influence these broad-band radiative fluxes. One such parameter which can cause a large radiative perturbation, and is commonly seen within the GERB field of view is airborne Saharan dust. In this paper we briefly recap the algorithms that we have developed to identify and quantify Saharan dust loading over North Africa and Arabia using the SEVIRI observations, and to simultaneously diagnose the cloud-free longwave dust direct radiative effect (LW DRE) from GERB. Focussing on spring and early summer 2006, we obtain initial estimates of the regional mean aerosol optical depth at 0.67 μm (τ067) and LW DRE of 0.5±0.1 and 12±4 W m-2 respectively. The corresponding dust longwave radiative efficiency is calculated to be 24±4 W m-2 per unit τ067.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A22B..03B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A22B..03B"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of local and non-local sources of pollution on background US Ozone: synergy of a low-earth orbiting and <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> sounder constellation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bowman, K. W.; Lee, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Dramatic changes in the global distribution of emissions over the last decade have fundamentally altered source-receptor pollution impacts. A new generation of low-earth orbiting (LEO) sounders complimented by <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> sounders over North America, Europe, and Asia providing a unique opportunity to quantify the current and future trajectory of emissions and their impact on global pollution. We examine the potential of this constellation of air quality sounders to quantify the role of local and non-local sources of pollution on background ozone in the US. Based upon an adjoint sensitivity method, we quantify the role synoptic scale transport of non-US pollution on US background ozone over months representative of different source-receptor relationships. This analysis allows us distinguish emission trajectories from megacities, e.g. Beijing, or regions, e.g., western China, from natural trends on downwind ozone. We subsequently explore how a combination of LEO and GEO observations could help quantify the balance of local emissions against changes in distant sources . These results show how this unprecedented new international ozone observing system can monitor the changing structure of emissions and their impact on global pollution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15619842','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15619842"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of the static in-flight telescope-detector response by deconvolution applied to point-spread function for the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> earth radiation budget experiment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matthews, Grant</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) experiment is a broadband satellite radiometer instrument program intended to resolve remaining uncertainties surrounding the effect of cloud radiative feedback on future climate change. By use of a custom-designed diffraction-aberration telescope model, the GERB detector spatial response is recovered by deconvolution applied to the ground calibration point-spread function (PSF) measurements. An ensemble of randomly generated white-noise test scenes, combined with the measured telescope transfer function results in the effect of noise on the deconvolution being significantly reduced. With the recovered detector response as a base, the same model is applied in construction of the predicted in-flight field-of-view response of each GERB pixel to both short- and long-wave Earth radiance. The results of this study can now be used to simulate and investigate the instantaneous sampling errors incurred by GERB. Also, the developed deconvolution method may be highly applicable in enhancing images or PSF data for any telescope system for which a wave-front error measurement is available. PMID:15619842</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.4600D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.4600D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> satellite-based 6.7 μm band best water vapor information layer analysis over the Tibetan Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Di, Di; Ai, Yufei; Li, Jun; Shi, Wenjing; Lu, Naimeng</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The best water vapor information layer (BWIL) of the 6.7 μm water vapor absorption infrared (IR) band for the FengYun-2E is investigated over the Tibetan Plateau with standard atmospheric profile and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational model analysis data. The sensitivity tests show that surface characteristics over the Tibetan Plateau have a significant influence on the BWIL. To be specific, topographic elevation, colder skin temperature, and lower emissivity tend to lift the altitude of the BWIL, decrease its magnitude, and narrow the half-width range. The results from statistical analysis indicate that the altitude of the BWIL reaches the highest in summer and the lowest in winter. Meanwhile, the altitude of the BWIL is highly correlated with the water vapor amount above 500 hPa over the Tibetan Plateau and above 300 hPa over the East China Plain, respectively. The diurnal variation in the BWIL is synchronous with the diurnal variation in the surface skin temperature. It can be concluded from the study that surface characteristics over high terrain in dry and cold atmospheres have more significant impacts on the BWIL. With multiple water vapor absorption IR bands, the imagers on board the new generation of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites will provide crucial improvement in water vapor remote sensing over the current single water vapor band on board the FY-2 series according to the analysis in this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4598110','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4598110"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of the Forecasting Methods, Precipitation Character, and Satellite Resolution on the Predictability of Short-Term Quantitative Precipitation Nowcasting (QPN) from a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Yu; Xi, Du-Gang; Li, Zhao-Liang; Ji, Wei</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The prediction of the short-term quantitative precipitation nowcasting (QPN) from consecutive gestational satellite images has important implications for hydro-meteorological modeling and forecasting. However, the systematic analysis of the predictability of QPN is limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate effects of the forecasting model, precipitation character, and satellite resolution on the predictability of QPN usingimages of a Chinese <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite Fengyun-2F (FY-2F) which covered all intensive observation since its launch despite of only a total of approximately 10 days. In the first step, three methods were compared to evaluate the performance of the QPN methods: a pixel-based QPN using the maximum correlation method (PMC); the Horn-Schunck optical-flow scheme (PHS); and the Pyramid Lucas-Kanade Optical Flow method (PPLK), which is newly proposed here. Subsequently, the effect of the precipitation systems was indicated by 2338 imageries of 8 precipitation periods. Then, the resolution dependence was demonstrated by analyzing the QPN with six spatial resolutions (0.1atial, 0.3a, 0.4atial rand 0.6). The results show that the PPLK improves the predictability of QPN with better performance than the other comparison methods. The predictability of the QPN is significantly determined by the precipitation system, and a coarse spatial resolution of the satellite reduces the predictability of QPN. PMID:26447470</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OSJ....47..377L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OSJ....47..377L"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced biological activity by an anticyclonic warm eddy during early spring in the East Sea (Japan Sea) detected by the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> ocean color satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lim, Jae-Hyun; Son, Seunghyun; Park, Jung-Woo; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Son, Young Baek; Kwon, Jung-No; Lee, Sang Heon</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The high primary production enhanced by anticyclonic eddies and hourly variation pattern in the productivity during the spring season in the East Sea were first investigated using the first Korean <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI). Even though the stratification for a seasonal spring bloom is not well developed in the water column in early April in the East Sea, a physical upward water flux movement at the periphery of the anticyclonic eddies could remain the phytoplankton in euphotic zone to sustain high chlorophyll-a concentration conditions in the Ulleung Basin. At this time, nutrients were no major controlling factor for phytoplankton growth since concentrations of major nutrients (nitrate, silicate, and phosphate) were relatively high in the observed eddy sites based on the observation data from the Korean Oceanographic Data Center (KODC). The estimated mixed layer depth (MLD) significantly shallower at the periphery supports for this mechanism. The hourly primary productivity estimation based on a Carbon-based Productivity Model (CbPM) provides a bimodal pattern along the time especially in L1 with an approximately one order magnitude difference between the lowest and highest values of productivities on 5 April, 2011. Potential possibilities for this large discrepancy in the hourly productivity and some thoughts on a short time in situ incubation method were discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2210...83L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2210...83L"><span id="translatedtitle">High-<span class="hlt">stability</span> optical components for semiconductor laser intersatellite link experiment (SILEX) project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lepretre, Francois</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>Within the framework of a MATRA MARCONI SPACE FRANC contract for the European Space Agency, MATRA DEFENSE - DOD/UAO have developed, produced and tested 9 laser diode collimators, 52 optical components (anamorphoser, mirrors, dichroic splitters, redundancy module) and 9 interferential filters. All these space equipments must be integrated into the optical head of the SILEX (Semi-conductor Laser Intersatellite Link Experiment) bench. The SILEX experiment consists in transferring data from a low altitude satellite (SPOT 4) to a satellite in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit (ARTEMIS) via beam generated by a laser diode (60 mW Cw). Very low emitted flux and long distance between the two satellites gives rise to the following technical difficulties: high angular (1 (mu) rad) and transverse <span class="hlt">stability</span> requirements, requirement for high transmission and high rejection narrow band filters, in order to differentiate the transmit and receive channels, necessity of a very good optical wavefront, wavelength range 815-825 nm, 843-853 nm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868517','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868517"><span id="translatedtitle">Composite <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> unit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Ebaugh, Larry R.; Sadler, Collin P.; Carter, Gary D.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An improved fin <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> projectile including multiple <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> fins upon a <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> unit situated at the aft end of the projectile is provided, the improvement wherein the <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> fins are joined into the <span class="hlt">stabillizer</span> unit by an injection molded engineering grade polymer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A31B0021M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A31B0021M"><span id="translatedtitle">Quasi-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> viewing of high latitudes for Weather, Climate and Air quality data using highly elliptical orbits: PCW/PHEOS-WCA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McConnell, J. C.; McElroy, C. T.; Sioris, C. E.; Walker, K. A.; Buijs, H.; Rahnama, P.; Trishchenko, A. P.; Garand, L.; Nassar, R.; Martin, R. V.; Bergeron, M.; O'Neill, N. T.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Arctic climate is changing and the multi-year sea-ice cover is disappearing more rapidly that climate models estimate. With declining ice cover, the Arctic Ocean will likely be subject to increased shipping traffic in addition to exploration activity for natural resources with a concomitant increase in air pollution. Thus there is a need to monitor the polar region and an important method that can address many of the atmospheric issues is by quasi-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> viewing at high temporal resolution. For this reason, several Canadian government departments led by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) are proposing the PCW (Polar Communications and Weather) mission to provide improved communications and critically important meteorological and air quality information for the Arctic, in particular wind information using an operational meteorological imager. Two satellites are planned to be in a highly eccentric orbit with apogee at ~ 40,000 km over the Arctic in order to have both quasi-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> viewing over the Arctic and environs and 24x7 coverage in the MIR and solar reflected light (UV-Vis-NIR) in the summer period. The planned operational meteorological instrument is a 21-channel spectral imager with UV, visible, NIR and MIR channels similar to MODIS or ABI. This presentation will focus on PHEOS WCA (Polar Highly Elliptical Orbital Science Weather, Climate and Air quality) mission, which is an atmospheric science complement to the operational PCW mission. The PHEOS WCA instrument package consists of FTS and UVS imaging sounders with viewing range of ~4.5 degrees or a FoR ~ 3400x3400 km2 from near apogee. The spatial resolution at apogee of each imaging sounder is targeted to be 10×10 km2 or better and the image repeat time is targeted at ~ 1-2 hours or better. The FTS has 4 bands that span the MIR and NIR. The MIR bands cover 700-1500 cm-1 and 1800-2700 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 0.25 cm-1 i.e., a similar spectral resolution to IASI. They should provide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AAS...21914410S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AAS...21914410S"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of the Neupert Effect with the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, and <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schonfeld, Sam J.; Chamberlin, P. C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Neupert Effect is an empirically observed correlation between the hard X-rays (HXR) and the time derivative of soft X-rays (SXR) emitted during the impulsive phase of a solar flare. According to standard models of magnetic reconnection driven flares, accelerated electron beams are responsible for creating the HXR Bremsstrahlung radiation in the Transition Region and upper Chromosphere. This energy input should also heat the relatively low-temperature Chromospheric plasma, increasing the intensity of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission lines. The launch of the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics observatory (SDO) has for the first time provided measurements of the solar irradiance spectra with 0.1 nm spectral resolution over the range 6.5-37 nm at 10-second cadence and nearly 100% duty cycle. Comparisons were made using the EUV spectral data from EVE, SXR measured by the X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) on the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), and HXR recorded with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The first focus of the investigation looked at the timing of the HXR, time derivative of soft X-ray, and the Helium-II 304Å doublet. The second focus compared He II images taken by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) (also on SDO) to x-ray images taken by RHESSI to compare the spatial location and area of the lower atmospheric energy emissions. We investigated all M class and above flares between May 1st 2010 and June 1st 2011 with complete coverage by all three instruments totaling 31 events. Of these, 77% (24) showed the expected Neupert Effect with 70% (17) of these events also displaying He-II profiles consistent with the electron beam heating model. This collaboration was organized through the SESI internship program at GSFC and funded by the Catholic University of America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015IJAEO..39...28V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015IJAEO..39...28V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A combined deficit index for regional agricultural drought assessment over semi-arid tract of India using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vyas, Swapnil S.; Bhattacharya, Bimal K.; Nigam, Rahul; Guhathakurta, Pulak; Ghosh, Kripan; Chattopadhyay, N.; Gairola, R. M.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The untimely onset and uneven distribution of south-west monsoon rainfall lead to agricultural drought causing reduction in food-grain production with high vulnerability over semi-arid tract (SAT) of India. A combined deficit index (CDI) has been developed from tri-monthly sum of deficit in antecedent rainfall and deficit in monthly vegetation vigor with a lag period of one month between the two. The formulation of CDI used a core biophysical (e.g., NDVI) and a hydro-meteorological (e.g., rainfall) variables derived using observation from Indian <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites. The CDI was tested and evaluated in two drought years (2009 and 2012) within a span of five years (2009-2013) over SAT. The index was found to have good correlation (0.49-0.68) with standardized precipitation index (SPI) computed from rain-gauge measurements but showed lower correlation with anomaly in monthly land surface temperature (LST). Significant correlations were found between CDI and reduction in agricultural carbon productivity (0.67-0.83), evapotranspiration (0.64-0.73), agricultural grain yield (0.70-0.85). Inconsistent correlation between CDI and ET reduction was noticed in 2012 in contrast to consistent correlation between CDI and reduction in carbon productivity both in 2009 and 2012. The comparison of CDI-based drought-affected area with those from existing operational approach showed 75% overlapping regions though class-to-class matching was only 40-45%. The results demonstrated that CDI is a potential indicator for assessment of late-season regional agricultural drought based on lag-response between water supply and crop vigor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.4119W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.4119W"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatially resolving methane emissions in California: constraints from the CalNex aircraft campaign and from present (GOSAT, TES) and future (TROPOMI, <span class="hlt">geostationary</span>) satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wecht, K. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Parker, R.; Bösch, H.; Worden, J.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>We apply a continental-scale inverse modeling system for North America based on the GEOS-Chem model to optimize California methane emissions at 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution using atmospheric observations from the CalNex aircraft campaign (May-June 2010) and from satellites. Inversion of the CalNex data yields a best estimate for total California methane emissions of 2.86 ± 0.21 Tg yr-1, compared with 1.92 Tg yr-1 in the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory used as a priori and 1.51 Tg yr-1 in the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory used for state regulations of greenhouse gas emissions. These results are consistent with a previous Lagrangian inversion of the CalNex data. Our inversion provides 12 independent pieces of information to constrain the geographical distribution of emissions within California. Attribution to individual source types indicates dominant contributions to emissions from landfills/wastewater (1.1 Tg yr-1), livestock (0.87 Tg yr-1), and gas/oil (0.64 Tg yr-1). EDGAR v4.2 underestimates emissions from livestock while CARB underestimates emissions from landfills/wastewater and gas/oil. Current satellite observations from GOSAT can constrain methane emissions in the Los Angeles Basin but are too sparse to constrain emissions quantitatively elsewhere in California (they can still be qualitatively useful to diagnose inventory biases). Los Angeles Basin emissions derived from CalNex and GOSAT inversions are 0.42 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.08, respectively. An observation system simulation experiment (OSSE) shows that the future TROPOMI satellite instrument (2015 launch) will be able to constrain California methane emissions at a detail comparable to the CalNex aircraft campaign. <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> satellite observations offer even greater potential for constraining methane emissions in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.8173W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.8173W"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatially resolving methane emissions in California: constraints from the CalNex aircraft campaign and from present (GOSAT, TES) and future (TROPOMI, <span class="hlt">geostationary</span>) satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wecht, K. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Parker, R.; Bösch, H.; Worden, J.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>We apply a continental-scale inverse modeling system for North America based on the GEOS-Chem model to optimize California methane emissions at 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution using atmospheric observations from the CalNex aircraft campaign (May-June 2010) and from satellites. Inversion of the CalNex data yields a best estimate for total California methane emissions of 2.86 ± 0.21 Tg a-1, compared with 1.92 Tg a-1 in the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory used as a priori and 1.51 Tg a-1 in the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory used for state regulations of greenhouse gas emissions. These results are consistent with a previous Lagrangian inversion of the CalNex data. Our inversion provides 12 independent pieces of information to constrain the geographical distribution of emissions within California. Attribution to individual source types indicates dominant contributions to emissions from landfills/wastewater (1.1 Tg a-1), livestock (0.87 Tg a-1), and gas/oil (0.64 Tg a-1). EDGAR v4.2 underestimates emissions from livestock, while CARB underestimates emissions from landfills/wastewater and gas/oil. Current satellite observations from GOSAT can constrain methane emissions in the Los Angeles Basin but are too sparse to constrain emissions quantitatively elsewhere in California (they can still be qualitatively useful to diagnose inventory biases). Los Angeles Basin emissions derived from CalNex and GOSAT inversions are 0.42 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.08 Tg a-1 that the future TROPOMI satellite instrument (2015 launch) will be able to constrain California methane emissions at a detail comparable to the CalNex aircraft campaign. <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> satellite observations offer even greater potential for constraining methane emissions in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31B0047L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31B0047L"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on Anthropogenic NOx Emissions from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Observations in a Regional Chemical Data Assimilation System: Evaluation Using Observing System Simulation Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, X.; Mizzi, A. P.; Anderson, J. L.; Fung, I. Y.; Cohen, R. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2) control the tropospheric ozone (O3) budget, the abundance of the hydroxyl radical (OH), the formation of organic and inorganic nitrate aerosol, and therefore affect air quality and climate. There remain significant uncertainties in the processes responsible for NOx emissions and subsequent mixing and chemical removal. NOx has a short lifetime and its emissions show high spatiotemporal variability at urban scale. Future <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite instruments including TEMPO, GEMS and Sentinel-4 will provide hourly time resolution and high spatial resolution observations providing maps of NO2 on diurnal and local scales. Here we determine the extent to which a TEMPO like instrument can quantify urban-scale NOx emissions using a regional data assimilation (DA) system comprising of a chemical transport model, WRF-Chem, a TEMPO simulator and the DART Ensemble Adjustment Kalman Filter. We generate synthetic TEMPO observations by sampling from a nature run on an urban scale domain. We consider the effect of albedo, surface pressure, solar and viewing angles and a priori NO2 profiles on the TEMPO NO2 averaging kernel to achieve scene-dependent instrument sensitivity. We estimate NOx emissions using DART in a state augmentation approach by including NOx emissions in the state vector being analyzed. The ensemble-based statistical estimation of error correlations between concentrations and emissions are critical as they determine the impact of assimilated observations. We describe observing system simulation experiments to explore the optimal approach in the ensemble-based DA system to estimate hourly-resolved NOx emissions from TEMPO NO2 observations. Several case studies will be presented examining the role of covariance localization length and chemical perturbations on the success of the approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.140..188B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.140..188B"><span id="translatedtitle">On the feasibility of monitoring carbon monoxide in the lower troposphere from a constellation of northern hemisphere <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites: Global scale assimilation experiments (Part II)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barré, Jérôme; Edwards, David; Worden, Helen; Arellano, Avelino; Gaubert, Benjamin; Da Silva, Arlindo; Lahoz, William; Anderson, Jeffrey</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>This paper describes the second phase of an Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) that utilizes the synthetic measurements from a constellation of satellites measuring atmospheric composition from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) Earth orbit presented in part I of the study. Our OSSE is focused on carbon monoxide observations over North America, East Asia and Europe where most of the anthropogenic sources are located. Here we assess the impact of a potential GEO constellation on constraining northern hemisphere (NH) carbon monoxide (CO) using data assimilation. We show how cloud cover affects the GEO constellation data density with the largest cloud cover (i.e., lowest data density) occurring during Asian summer. We compare the modeled state of the atmosphere (Control Run), before CO data assimilation, with the known "true" state of the atmosphere (Nature Run) and show that our setup provides realistic atmospheric CO fields and emission budgets. Overall, the Control Run underestimates CO concentrations in the northern hemisphere, especially in areas close to CO sources. Assimilation experiments show that constraining CO close to the main anthropogenic sources significantly reduces errors in NH CO compared to the Control Run. We assess the changes in error reduction when only single satellite instruments are available as compared to the full constellation. We find large differences in how measurements for each continental scale observation system affect the hemispherical improvement in long-range transport patterns, especially due to seasonal cloud cover. A GEO constellation will provide the most efficient constraint on NH CO during winter when CO lifetime is longer and increments from data assimilation associated with source regions are advected further around the globe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/420671','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/420671"><span id="translatedtitle">Plutonium inventories for <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> and <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Williams, A.K.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to <span class="hlt">stabilize</span> these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> activities. All current <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> problem materials within 3 years, and <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. <span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> activities to meet these criteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE12A..01K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE12A..01K"><span id="translatedtitle">Looking Forward to the GOES-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper: Use of Total Lightning Information within Short-Term Forecasts and Hazardous Weather Warnings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuhlman, K. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Total lightning data, such as that provided by the GOES-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM), provides a particularly attractive addition to the current, radar-only analyses and subsequent forecasts of severe convective storms. The connection between total lightning rates and severe weather has been well documented, but until recently, the detection and monitoring of total lightning has been primarily utilized only within research activity or for unique events such as space missions. Satellite-based lightning data from the GLM has the potential to provide information for convective storms across large territories, including typically data sparse regions such as offshore and within mountainous terrain. Additionally, lightning data may be able to provide extra lead-time over traditional radar data, highlighting which storms are electrically active and growing quickly as opposed to those that are not. Since 2010, the Hazardous Weather Testbed (HWT) has been successfully utilized to provide forecasters with a first-hand look at the latest research concepts and products integrating total lightning data while also educating lightning research scientists on the challenges, needs, and constraints of National Weather Service (NWS) warning forecasters. During the live spring experiments, one to five-minute grids of total lightning density and subsequent lightning-derived algorithms, such as the lightning jump, have been incorporated by NWS forecasters within their real-time warning-decision process for various storm modes over multiple regions of the US. Both formal and informal research protocols were used to collect observations, data, and feedback and included online surveys, live blogging and post-event discussions. In their evaluations, forecasters have noted that total lightning data and algorithms could be an incredibly useful situational awareness tool and may be able to provide additional guidance during a warning decision. Additionally, total lightning data shows</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSA24A..04C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSA24A..04C"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of the Strong Scatter Theory to the Interpretation of Ionospheric Scintillation Measurements along <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Links at VHF and L-band</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carrano, C. S.; Groves, K. M.; Basu, S.; Mackenzie, E.; Sheehan, R. E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In a previous work, we demonstrated that ionospheric turbulence parameters may be inferred from amplitude scintillations well into in the strong scatter regime [Carrano et al., International Journal of Geophysics, 2012]. This technique, called Iterative Parameter Estimation (IPE), uses the strong scatter theory and numerical inversion to estimate the parameters of an ionospheric phase screen (turbulent intensity, phase spectral index, and irregularity zonal drift) consistent with the observed scintillations. The optimal screen parameters are determined such that the theoretical intensity spectrum on the ground best matches the measured intensity spectrum in a least squares sense. We use this technique to interpret scintillation measurements collected during a campaign at Ascension Island (7.96°S, 14.41°W) in March 2000, led by Santimay Basu and his collaborators from Air Force Research Laboratory. <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> satellites broadcasting radio signals at VHF and L-band were monitored along nearly co-linear links, enabling a multi-frequency analysis of scintillations with the same propagation geometry. The VHF data were acquired using antennas spaced in the magnetic east-west direction, which enabled direct measurement of the zonal irregularity drift. We show that IPE analysis of the VHF and L-Band scintillations, which exhibited very different statistics due to the wide frequency separation, yields similar estimates of the phase screen parameters that specify the disturbed ionospheric medium. This agreement provides confidence in our phase screen parameter estimates. It also suggests a technique for extrapolating scintillation measurements to frequencies other than those observed that is valid in the case of strong scatter. We find that IPE estimates of the zonal irregularity drift, made using scintillation observations along single space-to-ground link, are consistent with those measured independently using the spaced antenna technique. This encouraging result</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A11B3014M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A11B3014M"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability of the SPCZ as detected by a statistical model using thirty years of 3-hrly <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> IR images in Nov-Apr</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Magnusdottir, G.; Haffke, C. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The mean state, interannual variability, seasonal evolution, intraseasonal and diurnal variability of the SPCZ are quantified using a data set of 3-hourly SPCZ labels, available from 1980 to 2012, Nov-Apr. The SPCZ label is a binary field indicating presence or absence of the SPCZ at each horizontal grid point (½º lon by ½º lat) as a function of time and is based on output of a Bayesian spatiotemporal statistical model that takes in instantaneous data from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites. The statistical model is specifically designed to emulate the way a human observer identifies the SPCZ. Results show two distinct parts to the SPCZ, the western tropical part and the eastern subtropical part. For certain time periods, the two parts do not connect. They are oriented quite differently, such that the subtropical part has a steeper meridional slope. The SPCZ is present 50-70% of the time in the tropics from Jan-Mar and is usually anchored to the warm SST distribution of the equatorial west Pacific. The subtropical part of the SPCZ does not have the same sensitivity to the underlying SST distribution and is present more often in Nov-Dec and April than in Jan-Mar when the SST is highest. Diurnal variability in cloud top height within the SPCZ also highlights the two distinct parts of the SPCZ. The tropical part has a diurnal cycle of cloudiness typical of that for the boreal summer ITCZ in the east Pacific whereas that is not the case for the subtropical part. Interannual variability in SPCZ location is strongly associated with ENSO, however no change in overall SPCZ area is associated with ENSO. On the intraseasonal timescale, the MJO has a strong and direct signature in SPCZ location. Panels in the figure below show composites of SPCZ labels, in units of fraction of time present, during each season after the seasonal cycle has been removed. Red (blue) shading indicates areas where the SPCZ is more (less) frequently present in each season compared to the mean. Bold black</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A13L0350F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A13L0350F"><span id="translatedtitle">Tropical convective systems life cycle characteristics from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite and precipitating estimates derived from TRMM and ground weather radar observations for the West African and South American regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fiolleau, T.; Roca, R.; Angelis, F. C.; Viltard, N.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>In the tropics most of the rainfall comes in the form of individual storm events embedded in the synoptic circulations (e.g., monsoons). Understanding the rainfall and its variability hence requires to document these highly contributing tropical convective systems (MCS). Our knowledge of the MCS life cycle, from a physical point of view mainly arises from individual observational campaigns heavily based on ground radar observations. While this large part of observations enabled the creation of conceptual models of MCS life cycle, it nevertheless does not reach any statistically significant integrated perspective yet. To overcome this limitation, a composite technique, that will serve as a Day-1 algorithm for the Megha-Tropiques mission, is considered in this study. this method is based on a collocation in space and time of the level-2 rainfall estimates (BRAIN) derived from the TMI radiometer onboard TRMM with the cloud systems identified by a new MCS tracking algorithm called TOOCAN and based on a 3-dimensional segmentation (image + time) of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> IR imagery. To complete this study, a similar method is also developed collocating the cloud systems with the precipitating features derived from the ground weather radar which has been deployed during the CHUVA campaign over several Brazilian regions from 2010 up to now. A comparison of the MCSs life cycle is then performed for the 2010-2012 summer seasons over the West African, and South American regions. On the whole region of study, the results show that the temporal evolution of the cold cloud shield associated to MCSs describes a symmetry between the growth and the decay phases. It is also shown that the parameters of the conceptual model of MCSs are strongly correlated, reducing thereby the problem to a single degree of freedom. At the system scale, over both land and oceanic regions, rainfall is described by an increase at the beginning (the first third) of the life cycle and then smoothly decreases</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1986jpha.confR....O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1986jpha.confR....O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Propellant gaging for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orazietti, A. J.; Orton, G. F.; Schreib, R.</p> <p>1986-06-01</p> <p>Evaluations were performed to select four gaging concepts for ground tests and low-g tests in the NASA KC-135 aircraft. The selected concepts were an ultrasonic point sensor system, a nucleonic gaging system, an ultrasonic torsional wave guide, and an ultrasonic flowmeter. The first three systems provide a direct measurement of propellant quantity remaining, while the fourth system integrates (totalizes) the propellant flow to the engines and infers propellant remaining based on a known initial propellant load. As a result of successful ground and KC-135 tests, two concepts (the ultrasonic point sensor and nucleonic systems) were selected for orbital test in a Shuttle Get-Away-Special experiment. These systems offer high end-of-life accuracy potential, are nonintrusive (external to the tanks and feedlines), and are low in risk because of their good technology base. The Shuttle Get-Away-Special experiment has been assembled and passed flight certification testing in late April 1986.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8385E..0DA','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8385E..0DA"><span id="translatedtitle">Interferometric imaging of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Armstrong, J. T.; Baines, E. K.; Hindsley, R. B.; Schmitt, H. R.; Restaino, S. R.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Mozurkewich, D.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Even the longest geosatellite, at 40 m, subtends only 0.2 arcsec (1 microradian). Determining structure and orientation with 10 cm resolution requires a 90 m telescope at visual wavelengths, or an interferometer. We de- scribe the application of optical interferometry to observations of complex extended targets such as geosatellites, and discuss some of its challenges. We brie y describe our Navy Optical Interferometer (NOI) group's eorts toward interferometric observations of geosatellites, including the rst interferometric detection of a geosatellite. The NOI observes in 16 spectral channels (550{850 nm) using up to six 12-cm apertures, with baselines (separa- tions between apertures) of 16 to 79 m. We detected the geosatellite DirecTV-9S during glint seasons in March 2008 and March 2009, using a single 16 m baseline (resolution 1:6 m). Fringes on a longer baseline were too weak because the large-scale structure was over-resolved. The fringe strengths are consistent with a combination of two size scales, 1:3 m and & 3:5 m. Our near term NOI work is directed toward observing geosatellites with three or more 10 to 15 m baselines, using closure phase measurements to remove atmospheric turbulence eects and coherent data averaging to increase the SNR. Beyond the two- to three-year time frame, we plan to install larger apertures (1.4 and 1.8 m), allowing observations outside glint season, and to develop baseline bootstrap- ping, building long baselines from chains of short baselines, to avoid over-resolution while increasing maximum resolution. Our ultimate goal is to develop the design parameters for dedicated satellite imaging interferometry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AcAau..68..802S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AcAau..68..802S"><span id="translatedtitle">European small <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communications satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Wei, , Dr.; Ellmers, Frank; Winkler, Andreas; Schuff, Herbert; Sansegundo Chamarro, Manuel Julián</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Hispasat Advanced Generation 1 (HAG1) is the first satellite using the SGEO platform, which is under the development in the ESA Artes-11 program. Since the last presentation in the IAC 2007, a European industrial consortium led by OHB has completed the mission and spacecraft design. The platform Preliminary Design Review has been carried out in May 2008. The customer for the first mission is a commercial operator—Hispasat. The contract was signed in December 2008 and the satellite will be launched in 2012. To give confidence to the customer, SGEO platform will use up to date flight proven technologies. HAG1 carries 20/24 Ku-band and 3/5 Ka-band transponders to provide commercial services. Some innovative payload technologies will also be flown on board of HAG1 to gain in-orbit heritage. SGEO has also been selected as the baseline platform for the ESA Data Relay Satellite (EDRS). Phase-A study has just kicked off in January 2009. The targeted launch date is 2013. Heinrich Hertz will also use the SGEO platform. Heinrich Hertz is funded by the German Space Agency (DLR) and provides flight opportunities for technologies and components developed by the German Space Industry. With the HAG1 contract in hand, and EDRS and Heinrich Hertz in the line, OHB with its partners has the confidence that it will be able to speed up the product development of the SGEO platform for potential customers in the commercial market. This paper will first present the updated platform design and the status of the product development will be followed with the introduction of innovative payload technologies on board the first mission—HAG1 and ended with the mission concepts of EDRS and Heinrich Hertz missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=International+AND+ecological&id=EJ996819','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=International+AND+ecological&id=EJ996819"><span id="translatedtitle">Limits to <span class="hlt">Stability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cottey, Alan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The author reflects briefly on what limited degree of global ecological <span class="hlt">stability</span> and human cultural <span class="hlt">stability</span> may be achieved, provided that humanity retains hope and does not give way to despair or hide in denial. These thoughts were triggered by a recent conference on International <span class="hlt">Stability</span> and Systems Engineering. (Contains 5 notes.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930094721','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930094721"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic <span class="hlt">Stability</span> of Airplanes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Haus, FR</p> <p>1932-01-01</p> <p>It is endeavored in this report to give a full outline of the problem of airplane <span class="hlt">stability</span> and to classify the proposed solutions systematically. Longitudinal <span class="hlt">stability</span>, which can be studied separately, is considered first. The combination of lateral and directional <span class="hlt">stabilities</span>, which cannot be separated, will be dealt with later.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/304154','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/304154"><span id="translatedtitle">Feedback <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> initiative</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback <span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback <span class="hlt">stabilization</span>. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback <span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> schemes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvA..90d2326G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvA..90d2326G"><span id="translatedtitle">Parafermion <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Güngördü, Utkan; Nepal, Rabindra; Kovalev, Alexey A.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We define and study parafermion <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes, which can be viewed as generalizations of Kitaev's one-dimensional (1D) model of unpaired Majorana fermions. Parafermion <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes can protect against low-weight errors acting on a small subset of parafermion modes in analogy to qudit <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes. Examples of several smallest parafermion <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes are given. A locality-preserving embedding of qudit operators into parafermion operators is established that allows one to map known qudit <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes to parafermion codes. We also present a local 2D parafermion construction that combines topological protection of Kitaev's toric code with additional protection relying on parity conservation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610297B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610297B"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards high temporal and moderate spatial resolutions in the remote sensing retrieval of evapotranspiration by combining <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and polar orbit satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrios, José Miguel; Ghilain, Nicolas; Arboleda, Alirio; Gellens-Meulenberghs, Françoise</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Evapotranspiration (ET) is the water flux going from the surface into the atmosphere as result of soil and surface water evaporation and plant transpiration. It constitutes a key component of the water cycle and its quantification is of crucial importance for a number of applications like water management, climatic modelling, agriculture monitoring and planning, etc. Estimating ET is not an easy task; specially if large areas are envisaged and various spatio-temporal patterns of ET are present as result of heterogeneity in land cover, land use and climatic conditions. In this respect, spaceborne remote sensing (RS) provides the only alternative to continuously measure surface parameters related to ET over large areas. The Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) of Belgium, in the framework of EUMETSAT's "Land Surface Analysis-Satellite Application Facility" (LSA-SAF), has developed a model for the estimation of ET. The model is forced by RS data, numerical weather predictions and land cover information. The RS forcing is derived from measurements by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. This ET model is operational and delivers ET estimations over the whole field of view of the MSG satellite (Europe, Africa and Eastern South America) (http://landsaf.meteo.pt) every 30 minutes. The spatial resolution of MSG is 3 x 3 km at subsatellite point and about 4 x 5 km in continental Europe. The spatial resolution of this product may constrain its full exploitation as the interest of potential users (farmers and natural resources scientists) may lie on smaller spatial units. This study aimed at testing methodological alternatives to combine RS imagery (<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and polar orbit satellites) for the estimation of ET such that the spatial resolution of the final product is improved. In particular, the study consisted in the implementation of two approaches for combining the current ET estimations with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21432437','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21432437"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Stability</span> of holographic superconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro</p> <p>2010-10-15</p> <p>We study the dynamical <span class="hlt">stability</span> of holographic superconductors. We first classify perturbations around black hole background solutions into vector and scalar sectors by means of a 2-dimensional rotational symmetry. We prove the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of the vector sector by explicitly constructing the positive definite Hamiltonian. To reveal a mechanism for the <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> of a superconducting phase, we construct a quadratic action for the scalar sector. From the action, we see the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of black holes near a critical point is determined by the equation of motion for a charged scalar field. We show the effective mass of the charged scalar field in hairy black holes is always above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound near the critical point due to the backreaction of a gauge field. It implies the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of the superconducting phase. We also argue that the <span class="hlt">stability</span> continues away from the critical point.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=internet+AND+addiction&pg=2&id=EJ897484','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=internet+AND+addiction&pg=2&id=EJ897484"><span id="translatedtitle">Internet Addiction: <span class="hlt">Stability</span> and Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Huang, Chiungjung</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This longitudinal study examined five indices of <span class="hlt">stability</span> and change in Internet addiction: structural <span class="hlt">stability</span>, mean-level <span class="hlt">stability</span>, differential <span class="hlt">stability</span>, individual-level <span class="hlt">stability</span>, and ipsative <span class="hlt">stability</span>. The study sample was 351 undergraduate students from end of freshman year to end of junior year. Convergent findings revealed stability…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/824422','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/824422"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Stabilizing</span> Grout Compatibility Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>HARBOUR, JOHNR.</p> <p>2004-05-19</p> <p>This report provides data that will be used to formulate the <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> grout and includes experimental results for Tc-99 <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> by two reagents, (1) ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and (2) surface treated hydroxyapatite (HA). One or both of these reagents are being considered by CH2M HILL for incorporation in the binder portion (matrix portion without sand) of the <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> grout. The technical basis for identifying the grout ingredient(s) for <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> technetium (Tc-99) will be provided by researchers at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in a subsequent report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11G0129J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11G0129J"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of ground based NO2 (Pandora network), the GeoCAPE Airborne Simulator (GCAS), and <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Trace Gas and Aerosol Optimization (GeoTASO) instruments during Discover-AQ deployments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Janz, S. J.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Nowlan, C. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We will present comparisons between measurements of NO2 abundance in the troposphere using both ground and airborne instruments developed for air quality research, focusing on the high spatial resolution requirements of next generation <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> sensors. The GCAS and GeoTASO aircraft sensors are capable of retrieving NO2 at sub-1km spatial sampling that meets the sensitivity requirements of the TEMPO and GEMS science products. These instruments were flown simultaneously during a portion of both the Houston and Denver Discover-AQ deployments and GeoTASO will be flown during the KORUS-AQ deployment. An assessment will be made of the absolute agreement between these instruments at various spatial scales and under a variety of viewing and surface conditions. The ground based PANDORA network measurements will be used to assess consistency between the instruments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130010171','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130010171"><span id="translatedtitle">The Use of the Deep Convective Cloud Technique (DCCT) to Monitor On-Orbit Performance of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM): Use of Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) Data as Proxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buechler, Dennis E.; Christian, H. J.; Koshak, William J.; Goodman, Steve J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) on the next generation <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R) will not have onboard calibration capability to monitor its performance. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite has been providing observations of total lightning over the Earth's Tropics since 1997. The GLM design is based on LIS heritage, making it a good proxy dataset. This study examines the performance of LIS throughout its time in orbit. This was accomplished through application of the Deep Convective Cloud Technique (DCCT) (Doelling et al., 2004) to LIS background pixel radiance data. The DCCT identifies deep convective clouds by their cold Infrared (IR) brightness temperatures and using them as invariant targets in the solar reflective portion of the solar spectrum. The GLM and LIS operate in the near-IR at a wavelength of 777.4 nm. In the present study the IR data is obtained from the Visible Infrared Sensor (VIRS) which is collocated with LIS onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The DCCT is applied to LIS observations for July and August of each year from 1998-2010. The resulting distributions of LIS background DCC pixel radiance for each July August are very similar, indicating stable performance. The mean radiance of the DCCT analysis does not show a long term trend and the maximum deviation of the July August mean radiance for each year is within 0.7% of the overall mean. These results demonstrate that there has been no discernible change in LIS performance throughout its lifetime. A similar approach will used for monitoring the performance of GLM, with cold clouds identified using IR data from the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) which will also be located on GOES-R. Since GLM is based on LIS design heritage, the LIS results indicate that GLM should also experience stable performance over its lifetime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006cosp...36.1784R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006cosp...36.1784R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Plasmaspheric electron content variation in the magnetic equatorial region during space weather events: Results from the CRABEX (Coherent Radio Beacon Experiment) using the beacon onboard the Indian <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite (GSAT - 2)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ravindran, Sudha; Manju, G.; Devasia, C. V.; Sridharan, R.; Thampi, S. V.; Sreelatha, P.; Sreeja, V.; Pant, T. K.; Raghava Reddi, C.</p> <p></p> <p>CRABEX is a national scientific program for the investigation of the unique features associated with the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere in the Indian zone using the technique of ionospheric tomography It consists of a beacon transmitter onboard the Indian <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite GSAT-2 which transmits four coherently generated frequencies - 150 012MHz 400 032MHz along with 1 MHz modulation of these frequencies i e 149 01192 MHz and 399 03192 MHz and a unique ground receiver system designed and set up at Trivandrum dip 0 3 r N to receive these beacon transmissions The data obtained from the measurement of the differential phase between 400 MHz and 150 MHz gives the relative Total Electron Content TEC along the line of sight between the satellite and the ground receiver and the measurement of modulation phase delay of 1 MHz on the above frequencies provides a coarse estimate of TEC These two measurements together give an accurate estimate of TEC along the line of sight from the satellite to the ground receiver and the Faraday rotation measurements give a reliable estimate of electron content upto sim 2000 km i e the ionospheric content IEC The simultaneous measurements of IEC and TEC upto the <span class="hlt">geo-stationary</span> altitude of 36000 km is used to determine the plasmaspheric electron content PEC The CRABEX program with its another segment consisting of a network of 6 receiver stations over the Indian subcontinent established along 77-78 r E meridian also makes use of the data obtained by receiving the 150 and 400 MHz</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24846139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24846139"><span id="translatedtitle">Forces <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nick Pace, C; Scholtz, J Martin; Grimsley, Gerald R</p> <p>2014-06-27</p> <p>The goal of this article is to summarize what has been learned about the major forces <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> proteins since the late 1980s when site-directed mutagenesis became possible. The following conclusions are derived from experimental studies of hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding variants. (1) Based on studies of 138 hydrophobic interaction variants in 11 proteins, burying a -CH2- group on folding contributes 1.1±0.5 kcal/mol to protein <span class="hlt">stability</span>. (2) The burial of non-polar side chains contributes to protein <span class="hlt">stability</span> in two ways: first, a term that depends on the removal of the side chains from water and, more importantly, the enhanced London dispersion forces that result from the tight packing in the protein interior. (3) Based on studies of 151 hydrogen bonding variants in 15 proteins, forming a hydrogen bond on folding contributes 1.1±0.8 kcal/mol to protein <span class="hlt">stability</span>. (4) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein <span class="hlt">stability</span> is strongly context dependent. (5) Hydrogen bonds by side chains and peptide groups make similar contributions to protein <span class="hlt">stability</span>. (6) Polar group burial can make a favorable contribution to protein <span class="hlt">stability</span> even if the polar group is not hydrogen bonded. (7) Hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds both make large contributions to protein <span class="hlt">stability</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6525E..0KD','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6525E..0KD"><span id="translatedtitle">Ornithopter flight <span class="hlt">stabilization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>The quasi-steady aerodynamics model and the vehicle dynamics model of ornithopter flight are explained, and numerical methods are described to capture limit cycle behavior in ornithopter flight. The Floquet method is used to determine <span class="hlt">stability</span> in forward flight, and a linear discrete-time state-space model is developed. This is used to calculate <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> and disturbance-rejecting controllers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22157076','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22157076"><span id="translatedtitle">Homological <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Anderson, Jonas T.</p> <p>2013-03-15</p> <p>In this paper we define homological <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7243952','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7243952"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Stabilized</span> radio frequency quadrupole</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Lancaster, H.D.; Fugitt, J.A.; Howard, D.R.</p> <p>1984-12-25</p> <p>Disclosed is a long-vane <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> the resonator. 5 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865296','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865296"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Stabilized</span> radio frequency quadrupole</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Lancaster, Henry D.; Fugitt, Jock A.; Howard, Donald R.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A long-vane <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> the resonator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4116631','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4116631"><span id="translatedtitle">Forces <span class="hlt">Stabilizing</span> Proteins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pace, C. Nick; Scholtz, J. Martin; Grimsley, Gerald R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this article is to summarize what has been learned about the major forces <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> proteins since the late 1980s when site-directed mutagenesis became possible. The following conclusions are derived from experimental studies of hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding variants. 1. Based on studies of 138 hydrophobic interaction variants in 11 proteins, burying a –CH2– group on folding contributes 1.1 ± 0.5 kcal/mol to protein <span class="hlt">stability</span>. 2. The burial of nonpolar side chains contributes to protein <span class="hlt">stability</span> in two ways: first, a term that depends on the removal of the side chains from water and, more importantly, the enhanced London dispersion forces that result from the tight packing in the protein interior. 3. Based on studies of 151 hydrogen bonding variants in 15 proteins, forming a hydrogen bond on folding contributes 1.1 ± 0.8 kcal/mol to protein <span class="hlt">stability</span>. 4. The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein <span class="hlt">stability</span> is strongly context dependent. 5. Hydrogen bonds by side chains and peptide groups make similar contributions to protein <span class="hlt">stability</span>. 6. Polar group burial can make a favorable contribution to protein <span class="hlt">stability</span> even if the polar group is not hydrogen bonded. 7. Hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds both make large contributions to protein <span class="hlt">stability</span>. PMID:24846139</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780038968&hterms=Kepler+Laws&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528Kepler%2Bs%2529%2BLaws%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780038968&hterms=Kepler+Laws&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528Kepler%2Bs%2529%2BLaws%2529"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> of Kepler's problem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stokes, A.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A regularization of Kepler's problem due to Moser (1970) is used to <span class="hlt">stabilize</span> the equations of motion. In other words, a particular solution of Kepler's problem is imbedded in a Liapunov stable system. Perturbations can be introduced into the <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> equations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARB37012G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARB37012G"><span id="translatedtitle">Parafermion <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gungordu, Utkan; Nepal, Rabindra; Kovalev, Alexey</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We define and study parafermion <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes [Phys. Rev. A 90, 042326 (2014)] which can be viewed as generalizations of Kitaev's one dimensional model of unpaired Majorana fermions. Parafermion <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes can protect against low-weight errors acting on a small subset of parafermion modes in analogy to qudit <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes. Examples of several smallest parafermion <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes are given. Our results show that parafermions can achieve a better encoding rate than Majorana fermions. A locality preserving embedding of qudit operators into parafermion operators is established which allows one to map known qudit <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> codes to parafermion codes. We also present a local 2D parafermion construction that combines topological protection of Kitaev's toric code with additional protection relying on parity conservation. This work was supported in part by the NSF under Grants No. Phy-1415600 and No. NSF-EPSCoR 1004094.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880007248','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880007248"><span id="translatedtitle">Rotorcraft aeroelastic <span class="hlt">stability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ormiston, Robert A.; Warmbrodt, William G.; Hodges, Dewey H.; Peters, David A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Theoretical and experimental developments in the aeroelastic and aeromechanical <span class="hlt">stability</span> of helicopters and tilt-rotor aircraft are addressed. Included are the underlying nonlinear structural mechanics of slender rotating beams, necessary for accurate modeling of elastic cantilever rotor blades, and the development of dynamic inflow, an unsteady aerodynamic theory for low-frequency aeroelastic <span class="hlt">stability</span> applications. Analytical treatment of isolated rotor <span class="hlt">stability</span> in hover and forward flight, coupled rotor-fuselage <span class="hlt">stability</span> in hover and forward flight, and analysis of tilt-rotor dynamic <span class="hlt">stability</span> are considered. Results of parametric investigations of system behavior are presented, and correlation between theoretical results and experimental data from small and large scale wind tunnel and flight testing are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26557427','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26557427"><span id="translatedtitle">Dispersal and metapopulation <span class="hlt">stability</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Shaopeng; Haegeman, Bart; Loreau, Michel</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Metapopulation dynamics are jointly regulated by local and spatial factors. These factors may affect the dynamics of local populations and of the entire metapopulation differently. Previous studies have shown that dispersal can <span class="hlt">stabilize</span> local populations; however, as dispersal also tends to increase spatial synchrony, its net effect on metapopulation <span class="hlt">stability</span> has been controversial. Here we present a simple metapopulation model to study how dispersal, in interaction with other spatial and local processes, affects the temporal variability of metapopulations in a stochastic environment. Our results show that in homogeneous metapopulations, the local <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> and spatial synchronizing effects of dispersal cancel each other out, such that dispersal has no effect on metapopulation variability. This result is robust to moderate heterogeneities in local and spatial parameters. When local and spatial dynamics exhibit high heterogeneities, however, dispersal can either <span class="hlt">stabilize</span> or destabilize metapopulation dynamics through various mechanisms. Our findings have important theoretical and practical implications. We show that dispersal functions as a form of spatial intraspecific mutualism in metapopulation dynamics and that its effect on metapopulation <span class="hlt">stability</span> is opposite to that of interspecific competition on local community <span class="hlt">stability</span>. Our results also suggest that conservation corridors should be designed with appreciation of spatial heterogeneities in population dynamics in order to maximize metapopulation <span class="hlt">stability</span>. PMID:26557427</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4014504','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4014504"><span id="translatedtitle">Subtype <span class="hlt">stability</span> in schizophrenia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kendler, K S; Gruenberg, A M; Tsuang, M T</p> <p>1985-07-01</p> <p>The authors examine the long-term <span class="hlt">stability</span> of the subtypes of schizophrenia defined by four diagnostic systems. When all patients were considered, agreement between subtype assigned at index and follow-up was modest. This agreement increased considerably when only patients diagnosed as paranoid, hebephrenic, or catatonic at both index and follow-up were considered. As for individual subtypes, <span class="hlt">stability</span> was highest for paranoid schizophrenia, intermediate for hebephrenia, and virtually absent for undifferentiated schizophrenia. The <span class="hlt">stability</span> of paranoid schizophrenia was greatest when onset occurred after age 30. As length of follow-up increased, a larger proportion of patients were diagnosed as undifferentiated or residual.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120010545','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120010545"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerodynamically <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> instrument platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bland, Geoffrey L. (Inventor); Miles, Ted K. (Inventor)</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A suspension apparatus for suspending instrumentation from an airborne platform may include a generally longitudinal boom having a payload end and a tail end. Yaw and pitch <span class="hlt">stabilizers</span> may be disposed at the tail end of the boom. A mast that may be selectively translatable on the boom may connect the boom to a tether line of the airborne platform. The payload may be attached to the payload end of the boom. The mast may be positioned axially along the boom at the center of gravity of the combination of the payload, boom, pitch <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span>, and yaw <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750009879&hterms=psychics&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpsychics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750009879&hterms=psychics&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpsychics"><span id="translatedtitle">The operator's emotional <span class="hlt">stability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zilberman, P. B.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>An attempt is made to provide a psychological interpretation of the concept of emotional <span class="hlt">stability</span> in connection with other psychics qualities of an operator's personality. Emotional <span class="hlt">stability</span> is understood as a person's capacity to control his emotional state for the purpose of maintaining the necessary level of work performance under extreme stress conditions. By modeling the operator's sensorimotor activity and by comparing the productivity indicators under ordinary conditions with those obtained during work involving an emotional load, the level of emotional <span class="hlt">stability</span> can be determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864717','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864717"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface controlled blade <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Russell, Larry R.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Drill string <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> apparatus, controllable to expand and retract entirely from the surface by control of drill string pressure, wherein increase of drill string pressure from the surface closes a valve to create a piston means which is moved down by drill string pressure to expand the <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> blades, said valve being opened and the piston moving upward upon reduction of drill string pressure to retract the <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> blades. Upward and downward movements of the piston and an actuator sleeve therebelow are controlled by a barrel cam acting between the housing and the actuator sleeve.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870016851','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870016851"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Stability</span> of streamwise vortices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Khorrami, M. K.; Grosch, C. E.; Ash, R. L.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A brief overview of some theoretical and computational studies of the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of streamwise vortices is given. The local induction model and classical hydrodynamic vortex <span class="hlt">stability</span> theories are discussed in some detail. The importance of the three-dimensionality of the mean velocity profile to the results of <span class="hlt">stability</span> calculations is discussed briefly. The mean velocity profile is provided by employing the similarity solution of Donaldson and Sullivan. The global method of Bridges and Morris was chosen for the spatial <span class="hlt">stability</span> calculations for the nonlinear eigenvalue problem. In order to test the numerical method, a second order accurate central difference scheme was used to obtain the coefficient matrices. It was shown that a second order finite difference method lacks the required accuracy for global eigenvalue calculations. Finally the problem was formulated using spectral methods and a truncated Chebyshev series.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920022767&hterms=Sputnik&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSputnik','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920022767&hterms=Sputnik&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSputnik"><span id="translatedtitle">Spacecraft <span class="hlt">stability</span> and control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barret, Chris</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The Earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, slowly tumbled in orbit. The first U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, also tumbled out of control. Today, satellite <span class="hlt">stability</span> and control has become a higher priority. For a satellite design that is to have a life expectancy of 14 years, appropriate spacecraft flight control systems will be reviewed, <span class="hlt">stability</span> requirements investigated, and an appropriate flight control system recommended in order to see the design process. Disturbance torques, including aerodynamic, magnetic, gravity gradient, solar, micrometeorite, debris, collision, and internal torques, will be assessed to quantify the disturbance environment so that the required compensating torques can be determined. The control torques, including passive versus active, momentum control, bias momentum, spin <span class="hlt">stabilization</span>, dual spin, gravity gradient, magnetic, reaction wheels, control moment gyros, inertia augmentation techniques, three-axis control, and reaction control systems (RCSs), will be considered. Conditions for <span class="hlt">stability</span> will also be considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870008536','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870008536"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequency <span class="hlt">stability</span> review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Greenhall, C. A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Certain aspects of the description and measurement of oscillator <span class="hlt">stability</span> are treated. Topics covered are time and frequency deviations, Allan variance, the zero-crossing counter measurement technique, frequency drift removal, and the three-cornered hat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090034394','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090034394"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Stability</span> of Detached Solidification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.; Croell, A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Bridgman crystal growth can be conducted in the so-called "detached" solidification regime, where the growing crystal is detached from the crucible wall. A small gap between the growing crystal and the crucible wall, of the order of 100 micrometers or less, can be maintained during the process. A meniscus is formed at the bottom of the melt between the crystal and crucible wall. Under proper conditions, growth can proceed without collapsing the meniscus. The meniscus shape plays a key role in <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> the process. Thermal and other process parameters can also affect the geometrical steady-state <span class="hlt">stability</span> conditions of solidification. The dynamic <span class="hlt">stability</span> theory of the shaped crystal growth process has been developed by Tatarchenko. It consists of finding a simplified autonomous set of differential equations for the radius, height, and possibly other process parameters. The problem then reduces to analyzing a system of first order linear differential equations for <span class="hlt">stability</span>. Here we apply a modified version of this theory for a particular case of detached solidification. Approximate analytical formulas as well as accurate numerical values for the capillary <span class="hlt">stability</span> coefficients are presented. They display an unexpected singularity as a function of pressure differential. A novel approach to study the thermal field effects on the crystal shape <span class="hlt">stability</span> has been proposed. In essence, it rectifies the unphysical assumption of the model that utilizes a perturbation of the crystal radius along the axis as being instantaneous. It consists of introducing time delay effects into the mathematical description and leads, in general, to <span class="hlt">stability</span> over a broader parameter range. We believe that this novel treatment can be advantageously implemented in <span class="hlt">stability</span> analyses of other crystal growth techniques such as Czochralski and float zone methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/362484','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/362484"><span id="translatedtitle">PFP solution <span class="hlt">stabilization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aftanas, B.L.</p> <p>1996-04-30</p> <p>This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to <span class="hlt">stabilize</span> the solutions prior to packaging for storage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4241171','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4241171"><span id="translatedtitle">METHOD FOR <span class="hlt">STABILIZING</span> KLYSTRONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Magnuson, D.W.; Smith, D.F.</p> <p>1959-04-14</p> <p>High-frequency oscillators for the generation of microwaves, particularly a system for <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> frequency-modulated klystron oscillators of the reflex type, are described. The system takos advantage of the fact that a change in oscillator frequency will alter the normal phase displacement between the cavity and its modulator, creating an error voltage which is utilized to regulate the frequency of the oscillator and <span class="hlt">stabilize</span> it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/626458','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/626458"><span id="translatedtitle">Tetraphenylborate Solids <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Tests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Walker, D.D.</p> <p>1997-06-25</p> <p>Tetraphenylborate solids are a potentially large source of benzene in the slurries produced in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. The <span class="hlt">stability</span> of the solids is an important consideration in the safety analysis of the process and we desire an understanding of the factors that influence the rate of conversion of the solids to benzene. This report discusses current testing of the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of tetraphenylborate solids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003100','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003100"><span id="translatedtitle">Food Fortification <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sirmons, T. A.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study aims to assess the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of vitamin content, sensory acceptability and color variation in fortified spaceflight foods over a period of 2 years. Findings will identify optimal formulation, processing, and storage conditions to maintain <span class="hlt">stability</span> and acceptability of commercially available fortification nutrients. Changes in food quality are being monitored to indicate whether fortification affects quality over time (compared to the unfortified control), thus indicating their potential for use on long-duration missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840012629','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840012629"><span id="translatedtitle">Shearing <span class="hlt">stability</span> of lubricants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shiba, Y.; Gijyutsu, G.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Shearing <span class="hlt">stabilities</span> of lubricating oils containing a high mol. wt. polymer as a viscosity index improver were studied by use of ultrasound. The oils were degraded by cavitation and the degradation generally followed first order kinetics with the rate of degradation increasing with the intensity of the ultrasonic irradiation and the cumulative energy applied. The shear <span class="hlt">stability</span> was mainly affected by the mol. wt. of the polymer additive and could be determined in a short time by mechanical shearing with ultrasound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/983433','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/983433"><span id="translatedtitle">Uncertainties in climate <span class="hlt">stabilization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wigley, T. M.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Jacoby, H. D.; Paltsev, S.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Reilly, J. M.; Richels, Richard G.; Sarofim, M. C.; Smith, Steven J.</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>We explore the atmospheric composition, temperature and sea level implications of new reference and cost-optimized <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> emissions scenarios produced using three different Integrated Assessment (IA) models for U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.1a. We also consider an extension of one of these sets of scenarios out to 2300. <span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> is defined in terms of radiative forcing targets for the sum of gases potentially controlled under the Kyoto Protocol. For the most stringent <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> case (“Level 1” with CO2 concentration <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> at about 450 ppm), peak CO2 emissions occur close to today, implying a need for immediate CO2 emissions abatement if we wish to <span class="hlt">stabilize</span> at this level. In the extended reference case, CO2 <span class="hlt">stabilizes</span> at 1000 ppm in 2200 – but even to achieve this target requires large and rapid CO2 emissions reductions over the 22nd century. Future temperature changes for the Level 1 <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> case show considerable uncertainty even when a common set of climate model parameters is used (a result of different assumptions for non-Kyoto gases). Uncertainties are about a factor of three when climate sensitivity uncertainties are accounted for. We estimate the probability that warming from pre-industrial times will be less than 2oC to be about 50%. For one of the IA models, warming in the Level 1 case is greater out to 2050 than in the reference case, due to the effect of decreasing SO2 emissions that occur as a side effect of the policy-driven reduction in CO2 emissions. Sea level rise uncertainties for the Level 1 case are very large, with increases ranging from 12 to 100 cm over 2000 to 2300.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5963689','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5963689"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> of compactible waste</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.</p> <p>1990-09-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the results of series of experiments performed to determine the feasibility of <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> compacted or compactible waste with polymers. The need for this work arose from problems encountered at disposal sites attributed to the instability of this waste in disposal. These studies are part of an experimental program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) investigating methods for the improved solidification/<span class="hlt">stabilization</span> of DOE low-level wastes. The approach taken in this study was to perform a series of survey type experiments using various polymerization systems to find the most economical and practical method for further in-depth studies. Compactible dry bulk waste was <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> with two different monomer systems: styrene-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and polyester-styrene, in laboratory-scale experiments. <span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> was accomplished by wetting or soaking compactible waste (before or after compaction) with monomers, which were subsequently polymerized. Three <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> methods are described. One involves the in-situ treatment of compacted waste with monomers in which a vacuum technique is used to introduce the binder into the waste. The second method involves the alternate placement and compaction of waste and binder into a disposal container. In the third method, the waste is treated before compaction by wetting the waste with the binder using a spraying technique. A series of samples <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> at various binder-to-waste ratios were evaluated through water immersion and compression testing. Full-scale studies were conducted by <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> two 55-gallon drums of real compacted waste. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the integrity of compacted waste forms can be readily improved to ensure their long-term durability in disposal environments. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5413M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5413M"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling water and heat balance components of large territory for vegetation season using information from polar-orbital and <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>To date, physical-mathematical modeling processes of land surface-atmosphere interaction is considered to be the most appropriate tool for obtaining reliable estimates of water and heat balance components of large territories. The model of these processes (Land Surface Model, LSM) developed for vegetation period is destined for simulating soil water content W, evapotranspiration Ev, vertical latent LE and heat fluxes from land surface as well as vertically distributed soil temperature and moisture, soil surface Tg and foliage Tf temperatures, and land surface skin temperature (LST) Ts. The model is suitable for utilizing remote sensing data on land surface and meteorological conditions. In the study these data have been obtained from measurements by scanning radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites Meteosat-9, -10 (MSG-2, -3). The heterogeneity of the land surface and meteorological conditions has been taken into account in the model by using soil and vegetation characteristics as parameters and meteorological characteristics as input variables. Values of these characteristics have been determined from ground observations and remote sensing information. So, AVHRR data have been used to build the estimates of effective land surface temperature (LST) Ts.eff and emissivity E, vegetation-air temperature (temperature at the vegetation level) Ta, normalized vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, the leaf area index LAI, and precipitation. From MODIS data the values of LST Tls, Å, NDVI, LAI have been derived. From SEVIRI data there have been retrieved Tls, E, Ta, NDVI, LAI and precipitation. All named retrievals covered the vast territory of the part of the agricultural Central Black Earth Region located in the steppe-forest zone of European Russia. This territory with coordinates 49°30'-54°N, 31°-43°E and a total area of 227,300 km2 has been chosen for investigation. It has been carried out for years 2009</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GMD.....9...17L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GMD.....9...17L"><span id="translatedtitle">GIST-PM-Asia v1: development of a numerical system to improve particulate matter forecasts in South Korea using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite-retrieved aerosol optical data over Northeast Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, S.; Song, C. H.; Park, R. S.; Park, M. E.; Han, K. M.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; Ghim, Y. S.; Woo, J.-H.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>To improve short-term particulate matter (PM) forecasts in South Korea, the initial distribution of PM composition, particularly over the upwind regions, is primarily important. To prepare the initial PM composition, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) data retrieved from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> equatorial orbit (GEO) satellite sensor, GOCI (<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager) which covers a part of Northeast Asia (113-146° E; 25-47° N), were used. Although GOCI can provide a higher number of AOD data in a semicontinuous manner than low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite sensors, it still has a serious limitation in that the AOD data are not available at cloud pixels and over high-reflectance areas, such as desert and snow-covered regions. To overcome this limitation, a spatiotemporal-kriging (STK) method was used to better prepare the initial AOD distributions that were converted into the PM composition over Northeast Asia. One of the largest advantages in using the STK method in this study is that more observed AOD data can be used to prepare the best initial AOD fields compared with other methods that use single frame of observation data around the time of initialization. It is demonstrated in this study that the short-term PM forecast system developed with the application of the STK method can greatly improve PM10 predictions in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) when evaluated with ground-based observations. For example, errors and biases of PM10 predictions decreased by ˜ 60 and ˜ 70 %, respectively, during the first 6 h of short-term PM forecasting, compared with those without the initial PM composition. In addition, the influences of several factors on the performances of the short-term PM forecast were explored in this study. The influences of the choices of the control variables on the PM chemical composition were also investigated with the composition data measured via PILS-IC (particle-into-liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography) and low air-volume sample</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21K..02H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21K..02H"><span id="translatedtitle">A New Era of Air Quality Monitoring from Space in East Asia: Korea's <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) and an Integrated Korea-US Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hong, J.; Hong, Y.; Song, C. K.; Kim, S. K.; Chang, L. S.; Lim, J.; Ahn, J.; Park, J. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Han, Y. J.; Kim, J.; Park, R.; Lee, G.; Lefer, B. L.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Crawford, J. H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Due to remarkable economic growth over the last two decades, East Asia has become a region experiencing some of the poorest air quality in the world. In addition to local sources of pollution, the Korea peninsula is downwind of the largest emission sources in East Asia, complicating the understanding of air quality over Korea. Thus, knowing the factors controlling changes in air pollution across urban-rural and marine-continental interfaces, in addition to the contributions from local emissions and transboundary transport, is important for building effective management strategies and improving air quality in East Asia. GEMS (<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer) is a satellite instrument planned for launch in 2019 by the Republic of Korea. The instrument will observe East Asia and the western Pacific region, providing real-time monitoring of air quality (e.g. O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, AOD, etc.) and enabling better scientific understanding of the transboundary transport of air pollutants. The KORUS-AQ (the Korea and U.S. Air Quality) field campaign will take place in May - June 2016 and will employ an integrated observing strategy including multiplatform observations (i.e. ground stations, aircraft, ships, and satellites) and chemical transport models. This mission aims to not only strengthen our knowledge of atmospheric chemistry but also provide important data sets for validating GEMS retrieval algorithms. In preparation for KORUS-AQ, a pre-campaign has been successfully conducted in Korea during early summer 2015 with observations from multiple ground sites and a small aircraft. A brief summary of pre-field campaign results will be presented. Moving forward, the GEMS mission and KORUS-AQ study will lead to a new era of air quality monitoring in East Asia. GEMS will also make critical contributions to the global air quality perspective working in concert with <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> missions launched by the U.S. (TEMPO: Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120002008','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120002008"><span id="translatedtitle">Laser Frequency <span class="hlt">Stabilization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Donelan, Darsa; Mueller, Guido; Thorpe, James; Livas, Jeffrey</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Laser ranging and interferometry are essential technologies allowing for many astounding new spacebased missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) to measure gravitational radiation emitted from distant super massive black hole mergers or distributed aperture telescopes with unprecedented angular resolution in the NIR or visible regime. The requirements on laser frequency noise depend on the residual motion and the distances between the spacecraft forming the interferometer. The intrinsic frequency <span class="hlt">stability</span> of commercial lasers is several orders of magnitude above these requirements. Therefore, it is necessary for lasers to be <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> to an ultrastable frequency reference so that they can be used to sense and control distances between spacecraft. Various optical frequency references and frequency <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> schemes are considered and investigated for the applicability and usefulness for space-based interferometry missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040086572','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040086572"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Stability</span> of Lobed Balloons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ball, Danny (Technical Monitor); Pagitz, M.; Pellegrino, Xu S.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a computational study of the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of simple lobed balloon structures. Two approaches are presented, one based on a wrinkled material model and one based on a variable Poisson s ratio model that eliminates compressive stresses iteratively. The first approach is used to investigate the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of both a single isotensoid and a stack of four isotensoids, for perturbations of in.nitesimally small amplitude. It is found that both structures are stable for global deformation modes, but unstable for local modes at su.ciently large pressure. Both structures are stable if an isotropic model is assumed. The second approach is used to investigate the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of the isotensoid stack for large shape perturbations, taking into account contact between di.erent surfaces. For this structure a distorted, stable configuration is found. It is also found that the volume enclosed by this con.guration is smaller than that enclosed by the undistorted structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25998604','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25998604"><span id="translatedtitle">Generalized Lotka <span class="hlt">stability</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, J D H; Zhang, C</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The recently developed macroscopic approach to demography describes the age distribution of mothers and the net maternity function for a given human population entirely in terms of five parameters. Tracking of these parameters provides a number of new tools for analyzing populations and predicting their future states. Within the macroscopic approach, the new concept of generalized Lotka <span class="hlt">stability</span> is presented in this paper, as an extension of a strong version of classic Lotka <span class="hlt">stability</span>. The two leading parameters of the macroscopic approach, the Malthusian parameter r and the perturbation s, are computed from population data and plotted in two-dimensional parameter space. Generalized Lotka <span class="hlt">stability</span> is then defined in terms of the movement of the (r,s)-vector over time. It may be observed in a number of human populations at specific periods of their history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790025165','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790025165"><span id="translatedtitle">Jet Fuel Thermal <span class="hlt">Stability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, W. F. (Editor)</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Various aspects of the thermal <span class="hlt">stability</span> problem associated with the use of broadened-specification and nonpetroleum-derived turbine fuels are addressed. The state of the art is reviewed and the status of the research being conducted at various laboratories is presented. Discussions among representatives from universities, refineries, engine and airframe manufacturers, airlines, the Government, and others are presented along with conclusions and both broad and specific recommendations for future <span class="hlt">stability</span> research and development. It is concluded that significant additional effort is required to cope with the fuel <span class="hlt">stability</span> problems which will be associated with the potentially poorer quality fuels of the future such as broadened specification petroleum fuels or fuels produced from synthetic sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810008892','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810008892"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Stabilized</span> Zeeman split laser</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The development of a stablized Zeeman split laser for use in a polarization profilometer is discussed. A Hewlett-Packard laser was modified to <span class="hlt">stabilize</span> the Zeeman split beat frequency thereby increasing the phase measurement accuracy from the Hewlett-Packard 3 degrees to an accuracy of .01 degrees. The addition of a two layered inductive winding converts the laser to a current controlled oscillator whose frequency is linearly related to coil current. This linear relationship between coil current and laser frequency permits phase locking the laser frequency to a stable crystal controlled reference frequency. The <span class="hlt">stability</span> of the system is examined and the equipment operation procedures are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/420643','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/420643"><span id="translatedtitle">Progress on plutonium <span class="hlt">stabilization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hurt, D.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> and has has a considerable influence on DOE`s <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013798','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013798"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Stability</span> of loess</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lutenegger, A.J.; Hallberg, G.R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Lutenegger, A.J. and Hallberg, G.R., 1988. <span class="hlt">Stability</span> of loess. Eng. Geol., 25: 247-261. The natural <span class="hlt">stability</span> of loess soils can be related to fundamental geotechnical properties such as Atterberg limits, water content and void ratio. Field observations of unstable conditions in loess deposits in the upper midwest, U.S.A. show relationships between instability and the in situ moisture content and the liquidity index of the loess. Unstable loess can attain natural moisture contents equal to, or greater than, its liquid limit. Implications of these observations for applied engineering works are described. ?? 1988.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=diazo+AND+microfilm&id=ED156191','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=diazo+AND+microfilm&id=ED156191"><span id="translatedtitle">Archival <span class="hlt">Stability</span> of Microfilm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Materazzi, Albert R.</p> <p></p> <p>This report is in response to complaints and criticism by the library community on the Superintendent of Documents' decision to furnish third generation diazo microfiche for the Depository Library program. It reviews some of the basic photographic chemistry of both silver halides and diazos which have an influence on dark <span class="hlt">stability</span>. A review of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/301975','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/301975"><span id="translatedtitle">Tetraphenylborate Solids <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Tests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Walker, D.D.; Edwards, T.B.</p> <p>1997-12-19</p> <p>Tetraphenylborate solids provide a potentially large source of benzene in the slurries produced in the In-Tank Precipitation process. The <span class="hlt">stability</span> of the solids is an important consideration in the safety analysis of the process and we desire an understanding of the factors that influence the rate of conversion of the solids to benzene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770000348&hterms=LEDs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DLEDs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770000348&hterms=LEDs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DLEDs"><span id="translatedtitle">Diodes <span class="hlt">stabilize</span> LED output</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Deters, R. A.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Small-signal diodes are placed in series with light-emitting diodes (LED's) to <span class="hlt">stabilize</span> LED output against temperature fluctuations. Simple inexpensive method compensates for thermal fluctuations over a broad temperature range. Requiring few components, technique is particularly useful where circuit-board space is limited.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866475','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866475"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Stabilized</span> chromium oxide film</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Garwin, Edward L.; Nyaiesh, Ali R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Stabilized</span> air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bifurcations&id=EJ971024','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bifurcations&id=EJ971024"><span id="translatedtitle">Sprinkler Bifurcations and <span class="hlt">Stability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sorensen, Jody; Rykken, Elyn</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>After discussing common bifurcations of a one-parameter family of single variable functions, we introduce sprinkler bifurcations, in which any number of new fixed points emanate from a single point. Based on observations of these and other bifurcations, we then prove a number of general results about the <span class="hlt">stabilities</span> of fixed points near a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6650231','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6650231"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Stabilizer</span> for mixed fuels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yamamura, M.; Igarashi, T.; Ukigai, T.</p> <p>1984-03-13</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> for mixed fuels containing a reaction product obtained by reacting (1) a polyol having at least 3 hydroxyl groups in the molecule and a molecular weight of 400-10,000 with (2) an epihalohydrin, as the principal component.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4785591','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4785591"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">STABILIZED</span> PINCH MACHINE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Anderson, O.A.</p> <p>1962-04-24</p> <p>A device for heating and confining a high temperature gas or plasma utilizing the linear pinch effect is described. The pinch discharge produced is the form of an elongated cylinder. The electrical discharge current is returned in parallel along an axial and a concentric conductor whereby the magnetic field of the conductors compresses and <span class="hlt">stabilizes</span> the pinch discharge against lateral instability. (AEC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED229131.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED229131.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Stability</span> of Aggressive Behavior.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell</p> <p></p> <p>As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), <span class="hlt">stability</span> of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6710757','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6710757"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Stabilized</span> chromium oxide film</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.</p> <p>1986-08-04</p> <p><span class="hlt">Stabilized</span> air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED168861.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED168861.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Waste <span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> Ponds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Koundakjian, Philip</p> <p></p> <p>This self-paced course contains reading assignments from a waste <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> ponds operating manual, supportive text, example problems, and review questions, and a final examination. The course covers calculation of pond surface area, pond volume, organic load, detention time, drawdown, storage capacity, efficiency, and discharge. In addition,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21432995','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21432995"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Stability</span> of the aether</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Donnelly, William; Jacobson, Ted</p> <p>2010-10-15</p> <p>The requirements for <span class="hlt">stability</span> of a Lorentz violating theory are analyzed. In particular we conclude that Einstein-aether theory can be stable when its modes have any phase velocity, rather than only the speed of light as was argued in a recent paper.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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