Science.gov

Sample records for 3-axis stabilized geostationary

  1. Handling Qualities Evaluation, OH-58A Helicopter Incorporating a Ministab 3-Axis Stability Augmentation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-01

    A limited handling qualities evaluation of the OH-58A helicopter incorporating the SFENA 3-axis stability augmentation system called Ministab was...Ministab stability augmentation system was manufactured by the Societe Francaise d’Equipements pour la Navigation Aerienne (SFENA) of France and made

  2. Attitude determination for three-axis stabilized geostationary meteorological satellite image navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yaguang; Wang, Zhigang

    2005-11-01

    To achieve the high accuracy of attitude determination for three-axis stabilized geostationary meteorological satellite image navigation, a new approach combined gyro with star trackers is proposed, and a real-time algorithm for attitude estimation is designed. This algorithm begins with a prediction for angular rate model errors induced by gyro drifting error, and ends with the extended Kalman filtering (EKF) for attitude estimation of three-axis. A Matlab-based time domain simulation model is developed to evaluate the attitude determination performance. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has characteristics of high accuracy, rapid convergence and strong robustness.

  3. Image Stability Requirements For a Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, G. E.; Cantwell, G.; Robinson, R. C.; Revercomb, H. E.; Smith, W. L.

    2001-01-01

    A Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) has been selected for the NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) Earth Observing-3 (EO-3) mission. Our paper will discuss one of the key GIFTS measurement requirements, Field of View (FOV) stability, and its impact on required system performance. The GIFTS NMP mission is designed to demonstrate new and emerging sensor and data processing technologies with the goal of making revolutionary improvements in meteorological observational capability and forecasting accuracy. The GIFTS payload is a versatile imaging FTS with programmable spectral resolution and spatial scene selection that allows radiometric accuracy and atmospheric sounding precision to be traded in near real time for area coverage. The GIFTS sensor combines high sensitivity with a massively parallel spatial data collection scheme to allow high spatial resolution measurement of the Earth's atmosphere and rapid broad area coverage. An objective of the GIFTS mission is to demonstrate the advantages of high spatial resolution (4 km ground sample distance - gsd) on temperature and water vapor retrieval by allowing sampling in broken cloud regions. This small gsd, combined with the relatively long scan time required (approximately 10 s) to collect high resolution spectra from geostationary (GEO) orbit, may require extremely good pointing control. This paper discusses the analysis of this requirement.

  4. Attitude Control and Orbital Dynamics Challenges of Removing the First 3-Axis Stabilized Tracking and Data Relay Satellite from the Geosynchronous ARC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benet, Charles A.; Hofman, Henry; Williams, Thomas E.; Olney, Dave; Zaleski, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Launched on April 4, 1983 onboard STS 6 (Space Shuttle Challenger), the First Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS 1) was retired above the Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) on June 27, 2010 after having provided real-time communications with a variety of low-orbiting spacecraft over a 26-year period. To meet NASA requirements limiting orbital debris 1, a team of experts was assembled to conduct an End-Of-Mission (EOM) procedure to raise the satellite 350 km above the GEO orbit. Following the orbit raising via conventional station change maneuvers, the team was confronted with having to deplete the remaining propellant and passivate all energy storage or generation sources. To accomplish these tasks within the time window, communications (telemetry and control links), electrical power, propulsion, and thermal constraints, a spacecraft originally designed as a three-axis stabilized satellite was turned into a spinner. This paper (a companion paper to Innovative Approach Enabled the Retirement of TDRS 1, paper # 1699, IEEE 2011 Aerospace Conference, March 5-12, 2011 sup 2) focuses on the challenges of maintaining an acceptable spinning dynamics, while repetitively firing thrusters. Also addressed are the effects of thruster firings on the orbit characteristics and how they were mitigated by a careful scheduling of the fuel depletion operations. Periodic thruster firings for spin rate adjustment, nutation damping, and precession of the momentum vector were also required in order to maintain effective communications with the satellite. All operations were thoroughly rehearsed and supported by simulations thus lending a high level of confidence in meeting the NASA EOM goals.

  5. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Miller, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Natra, Vijay; Rider, David; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for an earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. The GeoFTS instrument is a half meter cube size instrument designed to operate in geostationary orbit as a secondary "hosted" payload on a commercial geostationary satellite mission. The advantage of GEO is the ability to continuously stare at a region of the earth, enabling frequent sampling to capture the diurnal variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental scales. The science goal is to obtain a process-based understanding of the carbon cycle from simultaneous high spatial resolution measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) many times per day in the near infrared spectral region to capture their spatial and temporal variations on diurnal, synoptic, seasonal and interannual time scales. The GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design with a number of advanced features incorporated. Two of the most important advanced features are the focal plane arrays and the optical path difference mechanism. A breadboard GeoFTS instrument has demonstrated functionality for simultaneous measurements in the visible and IR in the laboratory and subsequently in the field at the California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) observatory on Mt. Wilson overlooking the Los Angeles basin. A GeoFTS engineering model instrument is being developed which will make simultaneous visible and IR measurements under space flight like environmental conditions (thermal-vacuum at 180 K). This will demonstrate critical instrument capabilities such as optical alignment stability, interferometer modulation efficiency, and high throughput FPA signal processing. This will reduce flight instrument development risk and show that the Geo

  6. Geostationary satellite log

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, C. H.

    The present listing of current and planned geostationary satellites for the Fixed Satellite Service, Maritime Mobile Satellite Service, Broadcasting Satellite Service, and Space Research Service, are ordered along increasing East longitude orbit position; they update previously published lists through December, 1985. Also given is a key to the frequency bands used by current and planned satellites and replacement satellites; subband locations are designated by an up/down-link frequency column. Service allocations and the applicable ITU region for bands not allocated worldwide are included.

  7. Studies of soundings and imagings measurements from geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suomi, V. E.

    1973-01-01

    Soundings and imaging measurements from geostationary satellites are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) meteorological data processing techniques, (2) sun glitter, (3) cloud growth rate study, satellite stability characteristics, and (4) high resolution optics. The use of perturbation technique to obtain the motion of sensors aboard a satellite is described. The most conditions, and measurement errors. Several performance evaluation parameters are proposed.

  8. Studies of soundings and imaging measurements from geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suomi, V. E.

    1973-01-01

    Soundings and imaging measurements obtained from geostationary satellites for the period 1 Nov. 1972 to 31 Jan. 1973 are reported. The subjects discussed are: (1) investigation of meteorological data processing techniques, (2) sun glitter, (3) cloud growth rate, and (4) comparative studies in satellite stability.

  9. Advanced space system for geostationary orbit surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, N. N.; Nazarov, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The structure and orbital configuration of the advanced space system for geostationary orbit surveillance, as well as possible approaches to the development of the satellite bus and payload for the geostationary orbit surveillance, are considered.

  10. Maneuver Estimation Model for Geostationary Orbit Determination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    MODEL FOR GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT DETERMINATION THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics Graduate...FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT/GA/ENY/06-J01 MANEUVER ESTIMATION MODEL FOR GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT DETERMINATION...used to model the relative motion of a geostationary satellite about its intended location and a nonlinear least squares algorithm was developed to

  11. Earth Science Geostationary Platform Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Robert L. (Editor); Campbell, Thomas G. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the workshop was to address problems in science and in four technology areas (large space antenna technology, microwave sensor technology, electromagnetics-phased array adaptive systems technology, and optical metrology technology) related to Earth Science Geostationary Platform missions.

  12. Michelson geostationary gravitational wave observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A. J.

    Studies made during the previous year are outlined. These studies have indicated that a Michelson mm wave interferometer observatory (MGO) operating in geostationary orbit is the best configuration satisfying both current operational and design constraints. It is proposed to study the design of this space laboratory interferometer and to study the inclusion of an inertial transponder in this design.

  13. Local oscillator distribution using a geostationary satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardin, Joseph; Weinreb, Sander; Bagri, Durga

    2004-01-01

    A satellite communication system suitable for distribution of local oscillator reference signals for a widely spaced microwave array has been developed and tested experimentally. The system uses a round-trip correction method of the satellite This experiment was carried out using Telstar-5, a commercial Ku-band geostationary satellite. For this initial experiment, both earth stations were located at the same site to facilitate direct comparison of the received signals. The local oscillator reference frequency was chosen to be 300MHz and was sent as the difference between two Ku-band tones. The residual error after applying the round trip correction has been measured to be better than 3psec for integration times ranging from 1 to 2000 seconds. For integration times greater then 500 seconds, the system outperforms a pair of hydrogen masers with the limitation believed to be ground-based equipment phase stability. The idea of distributing local oscillators using a geostationary satellite is not new; several researchers experimented with this technique in the eighties, but the achieved accuracy was 3 to 100 times worse than the present results. Since substantially and the performance of various components has improved. An important factor is the leasing of small amounts of satellite communication bandwidth. We lease three 100kHz bands at approximately one hundredth the cost of a full 36 MHz transponder. Further tests of the system using terminal separated by large distances and comparison tests with two hydrogen masers and radio interferometry is needed.

  14. Geostationary Meteorological Satellite-5 (GMS-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horii, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS-5), which is being developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), is the fifth geostationary, spin stabilized, weather satellite. Its purposes are to observe cataclysmic events such as hurricanes, typhoons, and regional weather phenomena; to relay meteorological data from surface collection points to the Data Processing Center in Japan; and to transmit processing imaging data for facsimile reproduction. The satellite will be launched from the Tanegashima Space Center (TaSC) in Japan by a type H-II launch vehicle. The Deep Space Network (DSN) will support the transfer and drift orbit mission phases. The coverage will consist of the 26-m antennas as prime and the 34-m antenna at Madrid as backup support for launch through drift orbit. Maximum support will consist of two 8-hour tracks per station for a seven day period, plus 23 days of contingency support from all complexes. Information is given in tabular form for DSN support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command and tracking station responsibility.

  15. A New, Adaptable, Optical High-Resolution 3-Axis Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Buchhold, Niels; Baumgartner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a new optical, multi-functional, high-resolution 3-axis sensor which serves to navigate and can, for example, replace standard joysticks in medical devices such as electric wheelchairs, surgical robots or medical diagnosis devices. A light source, e.g., a laser diode, is affixed to a movable axis and projects a random geometric shape on an image sensor (CMOS or CCD). The downstream microcontroller’s software identifies the geometric shape’s center, distortion and size, and then calculates x, y, and z coordinates, which can be processed in attached devices. Depending on the image sensor in use (e.g., 6.41 megapixels), the 3-axis sensor features a resolution of 1544 digits from right to left and 1038 digits up and down. Through interpolation, these values rise by a factor of 100. A unique feature is the exact reproducibility (deflection to coordinates) and its precise ability to return to its neutral position. Moreover, optical signal processing provides a high level of protection against electromagnetic and radio frequency interference. The sensor is adaptive and adjustable to fit a user’s range of motion (stroke and force). This recommendation aims to optimize sensor systems such as joysticks in medical devices in terms of safety, ease of use, and adaptability. PMID:28134824

  16. A New, Adaptable, Optical High-Resolution 3-Axis Sensor.

    PubMed

    Buchhold, Niels; Baumgartner, Christian

    2017-01-27

    This article presents a new optical, multi-functional, high-resolution 3-axis sensor which serves to navigate and can, for example, replace standard joysticks in medical devices such as electric wheelchairs, surgical robots or medical diagnosis devices. A light source, e.g., a laser diode, is affixed to a movable axis and projects a random geometric shape on an image sensor (CMOS or CCD). The downstream microcontroller's software identifies the geometric shape's center, distortion and size, and then calculates x, y, and z coordinates, which can be processed in attached devices. Depending on the image sensor in use (e.g., 6.41 megapixels), the 3-axis sensor features a resolution of 1544 digits from right to left and 1038 digits up and down. Through interpolation, these values rise by a factor of 100. A unique feature is the exact reproducibility (deflection to coordinates) and its precise ability to return to its neutral position. Moreover, optical signal processing provides a high level of protection against electromagnetic and radio frequency interference. The sensor is adaptive and adjustable to fit a user's range of motion (stroke and force). This recommendation aims to optimize sensor systems such as joysticks in medical devices in terms of safety, ease of use, and adaptability.

  17. Communication architecture for large geostationary platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    Large platforms have been proposed for supporting multipurpose communication payloads to exploit economy of scale, reduce congestion in the geostationary orbit, provide interconnectivity between diverse earth stations, and obtain significant frequency reuse with large multibeam antennas. This paper addresses a specific system design, starting with traffic projections in the next two decades and discussing tradeoffs and design approaches for major components including: antennas, transponders, and switches. Other issues explored are selection of frequency bands, modulation, multiple access, switching methods, and techniques for servicing areas with nonuniform traffic demands. Three-major services are considered: a high-volume trunking system, a direct-to-user system, and a broadcast system for video distribution and similar functions. Estimates of payload weight and d.c. power requirements are presented. Other subjects treated are: considerations of equipment layout for servicing by an orbit transfer vehicle, mechanical stability requirements for the large antennas, and reliability aspects of the large number of transponders employed.

  18. Geostationary microwave imagers detection criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Geostationary orbit is investigated as a vantage point from which to sense remotely the surface features of the planet and its atmosphere, with microwave sensors. The geometrical relationships associated with geostationary altitude are developed to produce an efficient search pattern for the detection of emitting media and metal objects. Power transfer equations are derived from the roots of first principles and explain the expected values of the signal-to-clutter ratios for the detection of aircraft, ships, and buoys and for the detection of natural features where they are manifested as cold and warm eddies. The transport of microwave power is described for modeled detection where the direction of power flow is explained by the Zeroth and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. Mathematical expressions are derived that elucidate the detectability of natural emitting media and metal objects. Signal-to-clutter ratio comparisons are drawn among detectable objects that show relative detectability with a thermodynamic sensor and with a short-pulse radar.

  19. Communications payloads for geostationary platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    Trends in communication satellites show increasing reuse of the frequency spectrum through multiple spot beams and orthogonal polarization, as well as consortia operation. Current reliance on orbital arc separation for frequency reuse may be inadequate for the projected traffic growth and the orbital slotting proposals before the ITU. This paper notes that cost advantages can accrue through common use of spacecraft subsystems and multiple users' platforms aboard a common geostationary platform. The rationale for such platforms is described and potential payloads are suggested.

  20. The evolution of the geostationary platform concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burton I.; Lovell, Robert R.; Cuccia, C. Louis

    1987-01-01

    The paper will review the conceptual development over the last decade of the use of very large spacecraft, i.e., 'platforms', in geostationary orbit. Geostationary platforms were originally conceived as an efficient means of increasing the capacity at a point in the geostationary orbital arc. Also, geostationary platforms have been suggested for mounting very large antennas as will be required for mobile communications, or high power sources as will be required for broadcast services to small terminals. More recently these 'large satellite' platforms were also envisioned as including earth observation and other science payloads. The advent of the Space Station, which can provide a staging base for platform assembly and test in space at low earth orbit prior to launch to geostationary earth orbit, will introduce a new dimension to practical platform design. This paper describes the evolution of concepts for geostationary platforms over the last decade based on both communications and science user scenarios developed worldwide.

  1. 47 CFR 74.643 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.643 Interference to geostationary-satellites. Applicants and... geostationary-satellites....

  2. 47 CFR 74.643 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.643 Interference to geostationary-satellites. Applicants and... geostationary-satellites....

  3. 47 CFR 74.643 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.643 Interference to geostationary-satellites. Applicants and... geostationary-satellites....

  4. 47 CFR 74.643 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.643 Interference to geostationary-satellites. Applicants and... geostationary-satellites....

  5. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Kenneth; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung (James)

    2012-09-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (~2.7km×2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

  6. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Ken; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (2.7kmx2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

  7. The geostationary orbit and developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The geostationary orbit is becoming congested due to use by several countries throughout the world, and the request for use of this orbit is increasing. There are 188 geostationary stations in operation. An equitable distribution of stations on this orbit is requested.

  8. Geostationary Carbon Process Mapper (GCPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Miller, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Natraj, Vijay; Rider, David; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Geostationary Carbon Process Mapper (GCPM) is an earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases related to climate change and human activity.Understanding of sources and sinks of CO2 is currently limited by frequency of observations and uncertainty in vertical transport. GCPM improves this situation by making simultaneous high resolution measurements of CO2, CH4, CF, and CO in near-IR, many times per day. GCPM is able to investigate processes with time scales of minutes to hours. CO2, CH4, CF, Co selected because their combination provides information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic sources/sinks. Quasi-continuous monitoring effectively eliminates atmospheric transport uncertainties from source/sink inversion modeling. will have one instrument (GeoFTS), hosted on a commercial communications satellite, planned for two years operation. GCPM will affordably advance the understanding of observed cycle variability improving future climate projections.

  9. Multicolor Observations of Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, H.; Vrba, F.

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of B, V, R and I band observations of a sample of geostationary communications satellites with the U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station 40-inch Ritchey telescope. The observations were done in July 2015, and covered 68% of the targets observable from Flagstaff. The targets were observed with an azimuthal solar phase angle smaller than 5 degrees, in an attempt to sample the satellite properties during the period where they are likely to be at peak brightness. We present the distribution of magnitudes and colors, and interpret these results. We also discuss the application of the results presented in this contribution to the design of future optical interferometers capable of imaging these targets.

  10. 3-Axis magnetic control: flight results of the TANGO satellite in the PRISMA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasset, C.; Noteborn, R.; Bodin, P.; Larsson, R.; Jakobsson, B.

    2013-09-01

    PRISMA implements guidance, navigation and control strategies for advanced formation flying and rendezvous experiments. The project is funded by the Swedish National Space Board and run by OHB-Sweden in close cooperation with DLR, CNES and the Danish Technical University. The PRISMA test bed consists of a fully manoeuvrable MANGO satellite as well as a 3-axis controlled TANGO satellite without any Δ V capability. PRISMA was launched on the 15th of June 2010 on board DNEPR. The TANGO spacecraft is the reference satellite for the experiments performed by MANGO, either with a "cooperative" or "non-cooperative" behaviour. Small, light and low-cost were the keywords for the TANGO design. The attitude determination is based on Sun sensors and magnetometers, and the active attitude control uses magnetic torque rods only. In order to perform the attitude manoeuvres required to fulfil the mission objectives, using any additional gravity gradient boom to passively stabilize the spacecraft was not allowed. After a two-month commissioning phase, TANGO separated from MANGO on the 11th of August 2010. All operational modes have been successfully tested, and the pointing performance in flight is in accordance with expectations. The robust Sun Acquisition mode reduced the initial tip-off rate and placed TANGO into a safe attitude in <30 min. The Manual Pointing mode was commissioned, and the spacecraft demonstrated the capability to follow or maintain different sets of attitudes. In Sun/Zenith Pointing mode, TANGO points its GPS antenna towards zenith with sufficient accuracy to track as many GPS satellites as MANGO. At the same time, it points its solar panel towards the Sun, and all payload equipments can be switched on without any restriction. This paper gives an overview of the TANGO Attitude Control System design. It then presents the flight results in the different operating modes. Finally, it highlights the key elements at the origin of the successful 3-axis magnetic

  11. 47 CFR 25.278 - Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite service. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.278 Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite...

  12. 47 CFR 25.278 - Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite service. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.278 Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite...

  13. 47 CFR 25.278 - Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite service. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.278 Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite...

  14. 47 CFR 25.278 - Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite service. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.278 Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite...

  15. 47 CFR 25.278 - Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite service. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.278 Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite...

  16. Magnetic bearing momentum wheels with magnetic gimballing capability for 3-axis active attitude control and energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sindlinger, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetic bearings used for the suspension of momentum wheels provide conclusive advantages: the low friction torques and the absence of abrasion allow the realization of lightweight high speed wheels with high angular momentum and energy storage capacity and virtually unlimited lifetime. The use of actively controlled bearings provides a magnetic gimballing capability by applying the external signals to the two servo loops controlling the rotational degrees of freedom. Thus, an attitude control system can be realized by using only one rotating mass for 3-axis active satellite stabilization.

  17. Design of an Undergraduate 3-Axis Space Science Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, W. W.; France, M. E. B.

    2008-08-01

    The fundamental objectives of the capstone design project in the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy are for cadets to learn important engineering lessons by executing a real space mission on a Department of Defense-funded satellite project. FalconSAT-5 is a 153 kg, three-axis stabilized spacecraft being designed and built by cadets and scheduled for launch in December 2009 on a Minotaur- IV from Kodiak, Alaska. The satellite has a space science mission to measure the local state of the ionosphere at ambient conditions with the intelligent Miniaturized Electrostatic Analyzer (iMESA) instrument and higher energy ions with the Wafer Integrated Spectrometers (WISPERS) instrument. There is also an RF receiver that can tune in the VHF and UHF bands in order to measure RF scintillation and correlate large scale ionospheric variations with the local iMESA and WISPERS measurements. One additional science objective is to understand and measure the interaction of generated plasmas with the body of a satellite and the local magnetic fields.

  18. 47 CFR 74.643 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.643 Interference to geostationary-satellites. Applicants and... geostationary-satellites. [68 FR 12771, Mar. 17, 2003]...

  19. Safety in the geostationary orbit after 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perek, Luboš

    The recently held two sessions of the ITU Conference WARC ORB will affect the geostationary orbit for a long time to come. It was hoped that the environmental problem of space debris and nonfunctional objects in the GSO—which present hazards to active satellites—would be dealt with by the Conference. The minimum to be expected was the adoption of a few recommendations for preventive measures.

  20. Astrometry and Geostationary Satellites in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacruz, E.; Abad, C.

    2015-10-01

    We present the current status and the first results of the astrometric project CIDA - ABAE for tracking geo-stationary satellites. This project aims to determine a preliminary orbit for the Venezuelan satellite VENESAT-1, using astrometric positions obtained from an optical telescope. The results presented here are based on observations from the Luepa space tracking ground station in Venezuela, which were processed using astrometric procedures.

  1. Radio frequency interference at the geostationary orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sue, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    Growing demands on the frequency spectrum have increased the possibility of radio frequency interference (RFI). Various approaches to obtain in orbit RFI data are compared; this comparision indicates that the most practical way to obtain RFI data for a desired orbit (such as a geostationary orbit) is through the extrapolation of in orbit RFI measurements by a low orbit satellite. It is concluded that a coherent RFI program that uses both experimental data and analytical predictions provides accurate RFI data at minimal cost.

  2. Monitoring the geostationary orbit with TAROT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boer, M.; Klotz, A.; Thiebaut, C.; Alby, B.; Deguine, J.; Foliard, F.

    The observation of satellites and orbital debris in the vicinity of the geostationary orbit with optical robotic telescopes is an efficient and cost effective solution. These telescopes are cheap, have a very flexible scheduling, and are well adapted to the repetition of measures. We used the TAROT (Télescope à Action Rapide pour les Transitoires Optiques - Rapid Action Telescope for Optical Transients) telescope to study the geostationary arc, both independently, and as part of IADC campaigns. This 25cm, fully robotic telescope can monitor a 2 x 2 degrees field of view, reaching the magnitude R = 16 within 30s. The camera has a rapid readout, enabling high throughput. The scheduling algorithm is very efficient, and dynamic observations may be performed. As an example, more than 900 images per night were taken during the January IADC campaign. In this contribution we present the telescope hardware and software. The observing strategy for the geostationary arc is summarized. We present also the method used for the detection and localization of the object, as well as the performances reached. The algorithms used for efficient scheduling and dynamic scheduling are also presented.

  3. Frequent Rain Observation From Geostationary Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzarri, B.; Gomas Science Team

    The target 3-h observing cycle of GPM will meet requirements from Global NWP and, to a large extent, Regional NWP; and be supportive of VIS/IR-derived rain estimates from geostationary satellites for the purpose of Nowcasting. MW rain observation from geostationary orbit at, say, 15 min intervals, would fully meet Regional NWP requirements and have greatest impact on Nowcasting: but this implies either unprac- tically large antennas or unacceptably coarse resolution. Concepts to overcome this problem have been developed in the US within the study called GEM (Geostationary Microwave Observatory), and now there is in Europe a proposal for a demonstration satellite submitted to ESA as GOMAS (Geostationary Observatory for Microwave Atmospheric Sounding). To overcome the problem of resolution, use of Sub-mm fre- quencies is envisaged: e.g., at 425 GHz, a 10-km resolution at nadir would require a 3-m antenna. The observing principle is based on the use of absorption bands of oxygen (54, 118 and 425 GHz) and of water vapour (183 and 380 GHz). Narrow- bandwidths channels are implemented (for a total of about 40 in the five bands) so as to observe the full profile of temperature and water vapour. Profiles from different bands are differently affected by liquid and ice water of different drop size, and fi- nally by precipitation. Simultaneous retrieval of temperature/humidity profiles, cloud liquid/ice water (total-columns and gross profile) and precipitation rate is in principle possible, and partially demonstrated by several airborne MW/Sub-mm instruments. To transfer this demonstrations in the geostationary orbit, the problem of radiometric sensitivity (additional to that one of the antenna size) has to be solved. With current technology, it is feasible to get sufficient accuracy if scan is limited to about 1/12 of the Earth disk, which is sufficient to abundantly cover Europe, the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic. The imaged area can be moved everywhere within the disk

  4. 47 CFR 101.145 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... degrees of the geostationary-satellite orbit, taking into account atmospheric refraction. However...-satellite orbit, taking into account atmospheric refraction. However, exception may be made in...

  5. 47 CFR 101.145 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... degrees of the geostationary-satellite orbit, taking into account atmospheric refraction. However...-satellite orbit, taking into account atmospheric refraction. However, exception may be made in...

  6. Evaluation of ISCCP multisatellite radiance calibration for geostationary imager visible channels using the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Thomas C.; William B. Rossow,; Joseph Ferrier,; Laura M. Hinkelman,

    2013-01-01

    Since 1983, the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) has collected Earth radiance data from the succession of geostationary and polar-orbiting meteorological satellites operated by weather agencies worldwide. Meeting the ISCCP goals of global coverage and decade-length time scales requires consistent and stable calibration of the participating satellites. For the geostationary imager visible channels, ISCCP calibration provides regular periodic updates from regressions of radiances measured from coincident and collocated observations taken by Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer instruments. As an independent check of the temporal stability and intersatellite consistency of ISCCP calibrations, we have applied lunar calibration techniques to geostationary imager visible channels using images of the Moon found in the ISCCP data archive. Lunar calibration enables using the reflected light from the Moon as a stable and consistent radiometric reference. Although the technique has general applicability, limitations of the archived image data have restricted the current study to Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite and Geostationary Meteorological Satellite series. The results of this lunar analysis confirm that ISCCP calibration exhibits negligible temporal trends in sensor response but have revealed apparent relative biases between the satellites at various levels. However, these biases amount to differences of only a few percent in measured absolute reflectances. Since the lunar analysis examines only the lower end of the radiance range, the results suggest that the ISCCP calibration regression approach does not precisely determine the intercept or the zero-radiance response level. We discuss the impact of these findings on the development of consistent calibration for multisatellite global data sets.

  7. Prospects for Geostationary Doppler Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanelli, Simone; Fang, Houfei; Durden, Stephen L.; Im, Eastwood; Rhamat-Samii, Yahya

    2009-01-01

    A novel mission concept, namely NEXRAD in Space (NIS), was developed for detailed monitoring of hurricanes, cyclones, and severe storms from a geostationary orbit. This mission concept requires a space deployable 35-m diameter reflector that operates at 35-GHz with a surface figure accuracy requirement of 0.21 mm RMS. This reflector is well beyond the current state-of-the-art. To implement this mission concept, several potential technologies associated with large, lightweight, spaceborne reflectors have been investigated by this study. These spaceborne reflector technologies include mesh reflector technology, inflatable membrane reflector technology and Shape Memory Polymer reflector technology.

  8. Early recognition of regional cardiac ischemia using a 3-axis accelerometer sensor.

    PubMed

    Elle, Ole Jakob; Halvorsen, Steinar; Gulbrandsen, Martin Gunnar; Aurdal, Lars; Bakken, Andre; Samset, Eigil; Dugstad, Harald; Fosse, Erik

    2005-08-01

    Perioperative mortality in coronary artery bypass grafting is usually caused by reduced left ventricular function due to regional myocardial ischemia or infarction. Post-operative graft occlusion is a well-known problem in coronary surgery. A sensitive tool to detect graft occlusion and monitor myocardial function may give the opportunity to revise malfunctioning grafts before departure from the hospital. This paper describes how a new method can detect cardiac ischemia using a 3-axis piezoelectric accelerometer. In three anesthetized pigs, a 3-axis piezoelectric accelerometer was sutured on the lateral free wall of the left ventricle. The left anterior descending (LAD) was occluded for different time periods and the accelerometer data were sampled with a PC. Short-time Fourier transform was calculated based on the accelerometer time series. The results were visualized using a 2D color-coded time-frequency plot. In the area of occlusion, a change to stronger power of higher harmonics was observed. Consequently, a difference value between the instant frequency pattern and a reference frequency pattern showed a rise in absolute value during the occlusion period. The preliminary results indicate that early recognition of regional cardiac ischemia is possible by analyzing accelerometer data acquired from the three animal trials using the prototype 3-axis accelerometer sensor.

  9. GRIPS - The Geostationary Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackman, Ryan; Dickerson, Russell; Schoeberl, Mark; Bloom, Hal; Gordley, Larry; McHugh, Martin; Thompson, Anne; Burrows, John; Zeng, Ning; Marshall, Tom; Fish, Chad; Kim, Jhoon; Park, Rokjin; Warner, Juying; Bhartia, Pawan; Kollonige, Debra

    2013-04-01

    Climate change and air quality are the most pressing environmental issues of the 21st century for America and for the world as a whole. Despite decades of research, the sources and sinks of key greenhouse gases and other pollutants remain highly uncertain making atmospheric composition predictions difficult. The Geostationary Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder (GRIPS) will measure carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and methane (CH4). By using measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) and the O2 A-band to help correct for clouds and aerosols, GRIPS will achieve unprecedented precision. Together these gases account for about 85% of all climate forcing and they impact atmospheric ozone (O3). GRIPS, employing gas-filter correlation radiometry, uses the target gases themselves in place of dispersive elements to achieve outstanding throughput, sensitivity, and specificity. Because it uses a combination of reflected and thermal IR, GRIPS will detect trace gas concentrations right down to the Earth's surface. When flown in parallel to a UV/VIS sensor such as GEMS on GEO-KOMPSAT-2B over East Asia or the Sentinel 4 on MTG over Europe/Africa, the combination offers powerful finger-printing capabilities to distinguish and quantify diverse pollution sources such as electricity generation, biomass burning, and motor vehicles. From geostationary orbit, GRIPS will be able to focus on important targets to quantify sources, net flux, diurnal cycles, and long-range transport of these key components in the Earth's radiative balance and air quality.

  10. GRIPS - The Geostationary Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Gordley, L. L.; McHugh, M. J.; Thompson, A. M.; Burrows, J. P.; Zeng, N.; Marshall, B. T.; Fish, C. S.; Spackman, J. R.; Kim, J.; Park, R.; Warner, J. X.; Bhartia, P. K.; Kollonige, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change and air quality are the most pressing environmental issues of the 21st century - for America and for the world as a whole. Despite decades of research, the sources and sinks of key greenhouse gases and other pollutants remain highly uncertain making atmospheric composition predictions difficult. The Geostationary Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder (GRIPS) will measure carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and methane (CH4). By using measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) and the O2 A-band to help correct for clouds and aerosols, GRIPS will achieve unprecedented precision. Together these gases account for about 85% of all climate forcing and they impact atmospheric ozone (O3). GRIPS, employing gas-filter correlation radiometry, uses the target gases themselves in place of dispersive elements to achieve outstanding throughput, sensitivity, and specificity. Because it uses a combination of reflected and thermal IR, GRIPS will detect trace gas concentrations right down to the Earth's surface. When flown in parallel to a UV/VIS sensor such as GEMS on GEO-KOMPSAT-2B over East Asia or the Sentinel 4 on MTG over Europe/Africa, the combination offers powerful finger-printing capabilities to distinguish and quantify diverse pollution sources such as electricity generation, biomass burning, and motor vehicles. From geostationary orbit, GRIPS will be able to focus on important targets to quantify sources, net flux, diurnal cycles, and long-range transport of these key components in the Earth's radiative balance and air quality.

  11. Developing Geostationary Satellite Imaging at Lowell Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Belle, G.

    2016-09-01

    Lowell Observatory operates the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI), and owns & operates the Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT). This unique & necessary combination of facilities positions Lowell to develop a robust program of observing geostationary, GPS-plane, and other high-altitude (&1000mi) satellites. NPOI is a six-beam long-baseline optical interferometer, located in Flagstaff, Arizona; the facility is supported by a partnership between Lowell Observatory, the US Naval Observatory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. NPOI operates year-round in the visible with baselines between 8 and 100 meters (up to 432m is available), conducting programs of astronomical research and imaging technology development. NPOI is the only such facility as yet to directly observe geostationary satellites, enabling milliarcsecond resolution of these objects. To enhance this capability towards true imaging of geosats, an ongoing program of facility upgrades will be outlined. These upgrades include AO-assisted 1.0-m apertures feeding each beam line, and new near-infrared instrumentation on the back end. The large apertures will enable `at-will' observations of objects brighter than mK = 8:3 in the near-IR, corresponding to brighter than mV = 11:3 in the visible. At its core, the system is enabled by a `wavelength-baseline bootstrapping' approach discussed herein. A complementary pilot imaging study of visible speckle and aperture masked imaging at Lowell's 4.3-m DCT, for constraining the low-spatial frequency imaging information, is also outlined.

  12. An instrument simulator for geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, P.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Buchard, V.; Govindaraju, R.

    2015-12-01

    In the coming years several new instruments will be launched into geostationary orbits, whose prime objective will be measuring atmospheric composition. The large flux of data coming from these instruments will give unprecedented information on atmospheric chemistry and aerosol dynamics. However, they also pose a large computational burden. Thus new techniques in radiative transfer modeling, constituent retrieval algorithms, and data assimilation will be needed. This presentation will show first results of forward model calculations from the GEOS-5 Nature Run of the TEMPO and GOES-R observing system, with the goal of developing synergistic aerosol retrieval algorithms. We will show comparisons of the accuracy and computational efficiency of several radiative transfer approximations using the VLIDORT radiative transfer model.

  13. Spacecraft Charging in Geostationary Transfer Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, L. N.; Minow, J. I.

    2014-12-01

    The 700 km x 5.8 Re orbit of the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft provide a unique opportunity to investigate surface charging in geostationary transfer orbits. We use records from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) plasma spectrometer to identify candidate surface charging events based on the "ion line" charging signature in the ion records. We summarize the energetic particle environment and the conditions necessary for charging to occur in this environment. We discuss the altitude, duration, and magnitude of events observed in the Van Allen Probes from the beginning of the mission to present time. In addition, we explore what information the dual satellites provide on the spatial and temporal variations in the charging environments.

  14. Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, S. P.; Bekker, D. L.; Blavier, J. L.; Duren, R. M.; Eldering, A.; Frankenberg, C.; Key, R.; Manatt, K.; Miller, C. E.; Natraj, V.; Rider, D. M.; Wu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In order to confidently project the future evolution of climate and support efforts to mitigate the climate change, quantifying the emissions of CO2 and CH4 is a national and international priority. To accomplish this goal, new observational approaches are required that operate over spatial scales ranging from regional to global, and temporal scales from diurnal to decadal. Geostationary satellite observations of CO2, CH4 and correlative quantities such as CO and chlorophyll fluorescence provide a new measurement approach to deliver the quantity and quality of data needed for improved flux estimates and an improved understanding of the partitioning between biogenic and anthropogenic sources. GeoFTS is an exciting new concept that combines the game changing technology of imaging Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with the observational advantages of a geostationary orbit. The GeoFTS observations enable well-posed surface-atmospheric carbon exchange assessments as well as quantify the atmospheric signatures of anthropogenic CO2 and CH4 emissions. GeoFTS uses a single instrument to make measurements in the near-infrared spectral region at high spectral resolution. The imaging FTS measures atmospheric CO2, CH4, and CO to deliver high-resolution maps multiple times per day. A half-meter-sized cube, the instrument is designed to be a secondary "hosted" payload on a commercial GEO satellite. The instrument leverages recent NASA technology investments, uses a flight-proven interferometer and sensor chip assemblies, and requires no new technology development. NASA and other government agencies have adopted the hosted payload implementation approach because it substantially reduces the overall mission cost. Dense continuous mapping (4 km x 4 km pixels at 40 deg. latitude) is a transformational advance beyond, and complementary to, the capabilities of the NASA missions of record in low earth orbit, providing two to three orders of magnitude improvement in the number of

  15. Nitrogen dioxide observations from the Geostationary Trace ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument is a test bed for upcoming air quality satellite instruments that will measure backscattered ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light from geostationary orbit. GeoTASO flew on the NASA Falcon aircraft in its first intensive field measurement campaign during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) Earth Venture Mission over Houston, Texas, in September 2013. Measurements of backscattered solar radiation between 420 and 465 nm collected on 4 days during the campaign are used to determine slant column amounts of NO2 at 250 m  ×  250 m spatial resolution with a fitting precision of 2.2 × 1015 moleculescm−2. These slant columns are converted to tropospheric NO2 vertical columns using a radiative transfer model and trace gas profiles from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Total column NO2 from GeoTASO is well correlated with ground-based Pandora observations (r = 0.90 on the most polluted and cloud-free day of measurements and r = 0.74 overall), with GeoTASO NO2 slightly higher for the most polluted observations. Surface NO2 mixing ratios inferred from GeoTASO using the CMAQ model show good correlation with NO2 measured in situ at the surface during the campaign (r = 0.85). NO2 slant columns from GeoTASO also agree well with prelim

  16. Multicolour Optical Photometry of Active Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolley, A.; Wade, G.; Bedard, D.

    Although broadband photometry has been used to infer information about artificial satellites since soon after the launch of Sputnik 1, the development of photometric techniques for non-resolved space object identification or characterisation has been hampered by the large number of variables involved. Many individual studies, and some long ongoing experiments, have used costly metre-class telescopes to obtain data despite other experiments demonstrating that much more flexible and affordable small aperture telescopes may be suitable for the task. In addition, due to the highly time consuming and weather dependent nature of obtaining photometric observations, many studies have suffered from data sets of limited size, or relied upon simulations to support their claims. With this in mind, an experiment was conducted with the aim of determining the utility of small aperture telescopes for conducting broadband photometry of satellites for the purpose of non-resolved space object identification and characterisation. A 14 inch Celestron CG-14 telescope was used to gain multiple night-long, high temporal resolution data sets of six active geostationary satellites. The results of the experiment cast doubt on the efficacy of some of the previous approaches to obtaining and analysing photometric data. It was discovered that geostationary satellite lightcurves can vary to a greater degree than has generally been recognised, and colour ratios vary considerably with changes in the illumination/observation geometry, making it difficult to use colour for satellite discrimination. Evidence was also detected of variations in the spectral energy distribution of sunlight reflected off satellite surface materials, which could have implications for surface material characterisation and techniques that aim to separate satellite body and solar panel contributions to the total observed spectra.

  17. Geostationary Platforms Mission and Payload Requirements study. Volume 2: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of using geostationary platforms to provide communications and other services was examined. Detailed data on the payload and housekeeping requirements of selected communications missions and one typical noncommunications mission are presented.

  18. Geostationary communications satellite orbit utilization strategies for the 1980s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedinger, R. A.

    Orbital congestion became apparent when the number of applications filed with the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) for 6/4 GHz orbital slots exceeded the number of slots available. In order to overcome this congestion, approaches must be studied for increasing the capacity of the geostationary orbit. In connection with an identification of the factors which affect geostationary orbit capacity, three types of capacity are introduced, including site capacity, service area capacity, and total capacity of the geostationary orbit. Attention is given to approaches for increasing the number of satellites in the geostationary orbit, the phased introduction of new technology, increased interference allocations from other satellites, methods for increasing the spectral efficiency by channel equipment design, the possibility to increase the spectral efficiency by antenna design and frequency reuse, procedures for increasing the available bandwidth, and the development of techniques for optimizing the placement of satellites serving different service areas.

  19. Developing the concept of a geostationary platform. [for communication services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, W. T.; Bowman, R. M.; Stone, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    A geostationary platform concept with a proliferation of low-cost earth stations is discussed. Candidate platform concepts, servicing, life, and Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) options are considered. A Life Cycle Costing model is used to select the minimum cost concept meeting program criteria. It is concluded that the geostationary platform concept is a practical and economical approach to providing expanding communication services within the limitations imposed by the available frequency spectrum and orbital arc.

  20. Electrostatic disturbance forces on a 3-axis drag-free sensor. [for earth satellite accelerometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagstrom, T.; Sonnabend, D.; Vijayaraghavan, A.

    1982-01-01

    The electrostatic analysis of a multiple-capacitance 3-axis drag-free sensor is presented in this paper. The instrument consists of a proof-mass (a dense metallic ball) floating freely inside a spherical cavity enclosed by the sensor plates and the shield. Since the ball and the cavity are not necessarily concentric, the problem in three-dimensional potential theory for electrostatics is solved by the method of boundary perturbations and specifically in terms of spherical harmonics. The capacitance outputs of the instrument and the electrostatic forces acting on the system are derived as non-linear functions of the ball position, ball charge and the sensor plate potentials. The instrument sensitivity and cross-coupling effects are discussed. The analysis may also be useful for electrostatic gyros and suspensions.

  1. NIMROD validation using 3-axis probe data from the TCSU experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milroy, Richard; Velas, Katherine

    2013-10-01

    Recent analysis the data from a 3-axis translatable magnetic probe on the TCSU experiment has revealed new details of the magnetic structure of rotating magnetic field (RMF) sustained FRCs. This data was acquired from TCSU just prior to its shutdown in 2011. This analysis which reveals the 3D structure of the magnetic field shows the field lines are opened and relatively short with even-parity current drive, but can be much longer with odd-parity current drive. A torque analysis has revealed new details about the flow of magnetic torque due to both the RMF field and the steady component of the field. This detailed magnetic data provides a good platform for the validation of numerical simulations, and will be compared with predictions from the NIMROD code, which has been adapted to simulate the formation and sustainment of FRCs using Rotating Magnetic Fields (RMF).

  2. On orbital allotments for geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonsalvez, David J. A.; Reilly, Charles H.; Mount-Campbell, Clark A.

    1986-01-01

    The following satellite synthesis problem is addressed: communication satellites are to be allotted positions on the geostationary arc so that interference does not exceed a given acceptable level by enforcing conservative pairwise satellite separation. A desired location is specified for each satellite, and the objective is to minimize the sum of the deviations between the satellites' prescribed and desired locations. Two mixed integer programming models for the satellite synthesis problem are presented. Four solution strategies, branch-and-bound, Benders' decomposition, linear programming with restricted basis entry, and a switching heuristic, are used to find solutions to example synthesis problems. Computational results indicate the switching algorithm yields solutions of good quality in reasonable execution times when compared to the other solution methods. It is demonstrated that the switching algorithm can be applied to synthesis problems with the objective of minimizing the largest deviation between a prescribed location and the corresponding desired location. Furthermore, it is shown that the switching heuristic can use no conservative, location-dependent satellite separations in order to satisfy interference criteria.

  3. Refilling and Composition at Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, R. E.; Takahashi, K.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Here we examine the apparent long-term refilling (change in density at a particular position over days) of electron density and mass density. At solar maximum, the changes in these quantities following a period of large geomagnetic activity can be very different. For instance, for events during 2001 we used both the ion density measured by the Los Alamos National Lab (LANL) Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer (MPA) instrument and mass density inferred from Alfven wave frequencies measured by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to show that the mass density varied comparatively little while the electron density dropped down to a low value and recovered slowly. During this event, the composition changed dramatically, from a high concentration of O+ very soon after large geomagnetic activity to a very low concentration of O+ after a long quiet period. This result suggests that at solar maximum O+ is quickly distributed to the region outside the plasmasphere sometimes called the warm plasma cloak while H+ refills this region much more slowly. Here we use a large database of mass density measurements based on Alfven waves observed by GOES to examine statistically the behavior of the mass density during periods of quiet following large geomagnetic activity and to see how this behavior varies over the solar cycle. We will compare with previous results for refilling of electron density.

  4. Geostationary payload concepts for personal satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedicto, J.; Rinous, P.; Roberts, I.; Roederer, A.; Stojkovic, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews candidate satellite payload architectures for systems providing world-wide communication services to mobile users equipped with hand-held terminals based on large geostationary satellites. There are a number of problems related to the payload architecture, on-board routing and beamforming, and the design of the S-band Tx and L-band Rx antenna and front ends. A number of solutions are outlined, based on trade-offs with respect to the most significant performance parameters such as capacity, G/T, flexibility of routing traffic to beams and re-configuration of the spot-beam coverage, and payload mass and power. Candidate antenna and front-end configurations were studied, in particular direct radiating arrays, arrays magnified by a reflector and active focused reflectors with overlapping feed clusters for both transmit (multimax) and receive (beam synthesis). Regarding the on-board routing and beamforming sub-systems, analog techniques based on banks of SAW filters, FET or CMOS switches and cross-bar fixed and variable beamforming are compared with a hybrid analog/digital approach based on Chirp Fourier Transform (CFT) demultiplexer combined with digital beamforming or a fully digital processor implementation, also based on CFT demultiplexing.

  5. Downburst prediction applications of meteorological geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryor, Kenneth L.

    2014-11-01

    A suite of products has been developed and evaluated to assess hazards presented by convective storm downbursts derived from the current generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) (13-15). The existing suite of GOES downburst prediction products employs the GOES sounder to calculate risk based on conceptual models of favorable environmental profiles for convective downburst generation. A diagnostic nowcasting product, the Microburst Windspeed Potential Index (MWPI), is designed to infer attributes of a favorable downburst environment: 1) the presence of large convective available potential energy (CAPE), and 2) the presence of a surface-based or elevated mixed layer with a steep temperature lapse rate and vertical relative humidity gradient. These conditions foster intense convective downdrafts upon the interaction of sub-saturated air in the elevated or sub-cloud mixed layer with the storm precipitation core. This paper provides an updated assessment of the MWPI algorithm, presents recent case studies demonstrating effective operational use of the MWPI product over the Atlantic coastal region, and presents validation results for the United States Great Plains and Mid-Atlantic coastal region. In addition, an application of the brightness temperature difference (BTD) between GOES imager water vapor (6.5μm) and thermal infrared (11μm) channels that identifies regions where downbursts are likely to develop, due to mid-tropospheric dry air entrainment, will be outlined.

  6. Geostationary payload concepts for personal satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedicto, J.; Rinous, P.; Roberts, I.; Roederer, A.; Stojkovic, I.

    This paper reviews candidate satellite payload architectures for systems providing world-wide communication services to mobile users equipped with hand-held terminals based on large geostationary satellites. There are a number of problems related to the payload architecture, on-board routing and beamforming, and the design of the S-band Tx and L-band Rx antenna and front ends. A number of solutions are outlined, based on trade-offs with respect to the most significant performance parameters such as capacity, G/T, flexibility of routing traffic to beams and re-configuration of the spot-beam coverage, and payload mass and power. Candidate antenna and front-end configurations were studied, in particular direct radiating arrays, arrays magnified by a reflector and active focused reflectors with overlapping feed clusters for both transmit (multimax) and receive (beam synthesis). Regarding the on-board routing and beamforming sub-systems, analog techniques based on banks of SAW filters, FET or CMOS switches and cross-bar fixed and variable beamforming are compared with a hybrid analog/digital approach based on Chirp Fourier Transform (CFT) demultiplexer combined with digital beamforming or a fully digital processor implementation, also based on CFT demultiplexing.

  7. Relative orbit control of collocated geostationary spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rausch, Raoul R.

    A relative orbit control concept for collocated geostationary spacecraft is presented. One chief spacecraft, controlled from the ground, is responsible for the orbit determination and control of the remaining vehicles. Any orbit relative to the chief is described in terms of equinoctial orbit element differences and a linear mapping is employed for quick transformation from relative orbit measurements to orbit element differences. It is demonstrated that the concept is well-suited for spacecraft that are collocated using eccentricity-inclination vector separation and this formulation still allows for the continued use of well established and currently employed stationkeeping schemes, such as the Sun-pointing-perigee strategy. The relative approach allows to take determinisitc thruster cross-coupling effects in the computation of stationkeeping corrections into account. The control cost for the proposed concept is comparable to ground-based stationkeeping. A relative line-of-sight constraint between spacecraft separated in longitude is also considered and an algorithm is developed to provide enforcement options. The proposed on-board control approach maintains the deputy spacecraft relative orbit, is competitive in terms of propellant consumption, allows enforcement of a relative line-of-sight constraint and offers increased autonomy and flexibility for future missions.

  8. On orbital allotments for geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalvez, David J. A.; Reilly, Charles H.; Mount-Campbell, Clark A.

    1986-11-01

    The following satellite synthesis problem is addressed: communication satellites are to be allotted positions on the geostationary arc so that interference does not exceed a given acceptable level by enforcing conservative pairwise satellite separation. A desired location is specified for each satellite, and the objective is to minimize the sum of the deviations between the satellites' prescribed and desired locations. Two mixed integer programming models for the satellite synthesis problem are presented. Four solution strategies, branch-and-bound, Benders' decomposition, linear programming with restricted basis entry, and a switching heuristic, are used to find solutions to example synthesis problems. Computational results indicate the switching algorithm yields solutions of good quality in reasonable execution times when compared to the other solution methods. It is demonstrated that the switching algorithm can be applied to synthesis problems with the objective of minimizing the largest deviation between a prescribed location and the corresponding desired location. Furthermore, it is shown that the switching heuristic can use no conservative, location-dependent satellite separations in order to satisfy interference criteria.

  9. Analysis of Specular Reflections Off Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolley, A.

    2016-09-01

    Many photometric studies of artificial satellites have attempted to define procedures that minimise the size of datasets required to infer information about satellites. However, it is unclear whether deliberately limiting the size of datasets significantly reduces the potential for information to be derived from them. In 2013 an experiment was conducted using a 14 inch Celestron CG-14 telescope to gain multiple night-long, high temporal resolution datasets of six geostationary satellites [1]. This experiment produced evidence of complex variations in the spectral energy distribution (SED) of reflections off satellite surface materials, particularly during specular reflections. Importantly, specific features relating to the SED variations could only be detected with high temporal resolution data. An update is provided regarding the nature of SED and colour variations during specular reflections, including how some of the variables involved contribute to these variations. Results show that care must be taken when comparing observed spectra to a spectral library for the purpose of material identification; a spectral library that uses wavelength as the only variable will be unable to capture changes that occur to a material's reflected spectra with changing illumination and observation geometry. Conversely, colour variations with changing illumination and observation geometry might provide an alternative means of determining material types.

  10. Measurement of Atmospheric Composition from Geostationary Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, P. K.; Kawa, S. R.; Janz, S.; Herman, J. R.; Gleason, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite instruments flown since 1970 have had great success in elucidating the processes that control stratospheric ozone. In contrast, space-based data for tropospheric constituents that affect air quality and climate have only recently become available. While these datasets highlight the rapidly advancing capabilities of spacebased tropospheric sensors, they are also pointing to the limitations of sun-synchronous, low-earth orbiting (SSO/LEO) satellite platforms for making such measurements. In our talk we will highlight the science requirements for new missions and the technological and algorithmic approaches that we are developing to meet these requirements. From these studies a clear need for advanced atmospheric composition sensors has emerged that can be put on geostationary (GEO) platforms to provide 5 km horizontal resolution with 15-60 minutes repeat cycle. Such measurements have been high priority in the recently released Decadal Survey report by the US National Research Council. The need for GEO is driven not only by the science requirements to track rapidly changing pollution events but also by the need to provide altitude-resolved information about tropospheric constituents. Currently, with the exception of aerosols, it is not possible to derive profile information about lower tropospheric constituents from satellite measurements. New algorithmic approaches are being developed to obtain this information by combining UV and IR data, by monitoring the spatial and temporal structures of the constituents, and by using low-level clouds to separate boundary layer constituents from free troposphere. All these approaches require better spatial and temporal resolution than that provided by LEO sensors.

  11. Spacecraft flight control system design selection process for a geostationary communication satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, slowly tumbled in orbit. The first U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, also tumbled out of control. Now, as we launch the Mars observer and the Cassini spacecraft, stability and control have become higher priorities. The flight control system design selection process is reviewed using as an example a geostationary communication satellite which is to have a life expectancy of 10 to 14 years. Disturbance torques including aerodynamic, magnetic, gravity gradient, solar, micrometeorite, debris, collision, and internal torques are assessed to quantify the disturbance environment so that the required compensating torque can be determined. Then control torque options, including passive versus active, momentum control, bias momentum, spin stabilization, dual spin, gravity gradient, magnetic, reaction wheels, control moment gyros, nutation dampers, inertia augmentation techniques, three-axis control, reactions control system (RCS), and RCS sizing, are considered. A flight control system design is then selected and preliminary stability criteria are met by the control gains selection.

  12. Design and manufacturing of cranioplasty implants by 3-axis cnc milling.

    PubMed

    Hieu, L C; Bohez, E; Vander Sloten, J; Oris, P; Phien, H N; Vatcharaporn, E; Binh, P H

    2002-01-01

    Although various techniques and materials have been used for making cranioplasty implants, personalized cranioplasty implants are high in cost because of expensive materials and production technology, long design and manufacturing time, and intensive labor use. This research was a part of our research project in ASEAN countries to investigate feasible technical solutions of minimizing the implant cost based on available production technologies in the region. The use of 3-axis CNC (Computer Numerical Control) milling techniques for making molds to fabricate PMMA implants was successfully investigated. With the development of a design support program bridging between Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Medical Image Processing (MIP) system, the time for geometrical modeling of implants and molds was reduced to half a day. The machining time to complete a mold was about 5 to 6 hours; and it took maximal 2 hours to fabricate an implant with self-curing PMMA and 3 and half hours for fabricating an implant with heat-curing PMMA. The cost of implants is acceptable for the ASEAN region.

  13. CMOS Compatible 3-Axis Magnetic Field Sensor using Hall Effect Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, Joshua R.

    The purpose of this study is to design, fabricate and test a CMOS compatible 3-axis Hall effect sensor capable of detecting the earth's magnetic field, with strength's of ˜50 muT. Preliminary testing of N-well Van Der Pauw structures using strong neodymium magnets showed proof of concept for hall voltage sensing, however, poor geometry of the structures led to a high offset voltage. A 1-axis Hall effect sensor was designed, fabricated and tested with a sensitivity of 1.12x10-3 mV/Gauss using the RIT metal gate PMOS process. Poor geometry and insufficient design produced an offset voltage of 0.1238 volts in the 1-axis design; prevented sensing of the earth's magnetic field. The new design features improved geometry for sensing application, improved sensitivity and use the RIT sub-CMOS process. The completed 2-axis device showed an average sensitivity to large magnetic fields of 0.0258 muV/Gauss at 10 mA supply current.

  14. Garment-based detection of falls and activities of daily living using 3-axis MEMS accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyan, M. N.; Tay, Francis E. H.; Manimaran, M.; Seah, K. H. W.

    2006-04-01

    This paper studied the detection of falls and activities of daily living (ADL) with two objectives: (1) minimum number of sensors for a broad range of activities and (2) maximize the comfort of the wearer for long term use. We used a garment to provide long term comfort for the wearer, with a 3-axis MEMS accelerometer on the shoulder position, as a wearable platform. ADL were detected in time-frequency domain and summation of absolute peak values of 3-D acceleration signals was used as feature in fall detection. 6 male and female subjects performed approximately five-hour long experiment. Sensitivity of 94.98% and specificity of 98.83% for altogether 1495 activities were achieved. Our garment-based detection system fulfilled the objective of providing the comfort of the wearer in long term monitoring of falls and ADL with high sensitivity. In fall detection, our device can summon medical assistances via SMS (Short Message Service). This detection system can raise fall alarm (fall SMS) automatically to individuals to get a shortened interval of the arrival of assistance.

  15. Combined Space-Based Observations of Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R.; Bernard, K.; Thorsteinson, S.

    2016-09-01

    One of the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) science experiments of the NEOSSat mission is to learn the practicalities of combining space-based metric observations with the Sapphire system. To answer this question, an experiment was performed observing clustered Canadian geostationary satellites using both Sapphire and NEOSSat in early 2016. Space-based tracking data was collected during tracking intervals where both NEOSSat and Sapphire had visibility on the geostationary objects enabling astrometric (orbit determination) and photometric (object characterization) observations to be performed. We describe the orbit determination accuracies using live data collected from orbit for different collection cases; a) NEOSSat alone, b) Sapphire alone, and c) Combined observations from both platforms. We then discuss the practicalities of using space-based sensors to reduce risk of orbital collisions of Canadian geostationary satellites by proactively tasking space based sensors in response to conjunction data warnings in GEO.

  16. Local orbital debris flux study in the geostationary ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Paul V.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2013-06-01

    A local orbital debris flux analysis is performed in the geostationary (GEO) ring to investigate how frequently near-miss events occur for each longitude slot in the GEO ring. The current resident space object (RSO) environment at GEO is evaluated, and publicly-available two-line element (TLE) data are utilized in tandem with a geostationary torus configuration to simulate near-miss events incurred by the trackable RSO population at GEO. Methodology for determining near-miss events with this formulation is introduced, and the results of the analysis for a one-year time frame are provided to illustrate the need for active GEO remediation.

  17. Involvement of the P2X7-NLRP3 axis in leukemic cell proliferation and death

    PubMed Central

    Salaro, Erica; Rambaldi, Alessia; Falzoni, Simonetta; Amoroso, Francesca Saveria; Franceschini, Alessia; Sarti, Alba Clara; Bonora, Massimo; Cavazzini, Francesco; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Ciccone, Maria; Audrito, Valentina; Deaglio, Silvia; Pelegrin, Pablo; Pinton, Paolo; Cuneo, Antonio; Di Virgilio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Lymphocyte growth and differentiation are modulated by extracellular nucleotides and P2 receptors. We previously showed that the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R or P2RX7) is overexpressed in circulating lymphocytes from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. In the present study we investigated the P2X7R/NLRP3 inflammasome axis in lymphocytes from a cohort of 23 CLL patients. P2X7R, ASC and NLRP3 were investigated by Western blot, PCR and transfection techniques. P2X7R was overexpressed and correlated with chromosome 12 trisomy in CLL patients. ASC mRNA and protein were also overexpressed. On the contrary, NLRP3 was dramatically down-modulated in CLL lymphocytes relative to lymphocytes from healthy donors. To further investigate the correlation between P2X7R, NLRP3 and cell growth, NLRP3 was silenced in THP-1 cells, a leukemic cell line that natively expresses both NLRP3 and P2X7R. NLRP3 silencing enhanced P2X7R expression and promoted growth. On the contrary, NLRP3 overexpression caused accelerated apoptosis. The P2X7R was also up-modulated in hematopoietic cells from NLRP3-KO mice. In conclusion, we show that NLRP3 down-modulation stimulates P2X7R expression and promotes growth, while NLRP3 overexpression inhibits cell proliferation and stimulates apoptosis. These findings suggest that NLRP3 is a negative regulator of growth and point to a role of the P2X7R/NLRP3 axis in CLL. PMID:27221966

  18. A statistical survey of ELF waves in a geostationary orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Parrot, M.; Gaye, C.A.

    1994-11-15

    In this paper the authors summarize data taken by the wave experiment on the GEOS 2 satellite. This instrument looked at extremely low frequency emissions from a geostationary orbit. The authors do a statistical study of the observed ELF emissions, and in particular discuss chorus emissions, which with hiss and electron cyclotron emissions are the prominent low frequency wave features.

  19. Performance Analysis of the HTTP Protocol on Geostationary Satellite Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krus, Hans; Allman, Mark; Griner, Jim; Tran, Diepchi

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with HTTP protocol on geostationary satellite links are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Network reference points; 2) The HTTP 1.0 and 1.1 mechanisms; 3) Experimental setup; 4) TCP and HTTP configuration; 5) Modelling slow start and 6) Results and future work.

  20. Astrometric positioning and orbit determination of geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montojo, F. J.; López Moratalla, T.; Abad, C.

    2011-03-01

    In the project titled “Astrometric Positioning of Geostationary Satellite” (PASAGE), carried out by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA), optical observation techniques were developed to allow satellites to be located in the geostationary ring with angular accuracies of up to a few tenths of an arcsec. These techniques do not necessarily require the use of large telescopes or especially dark areas, and furthermore, because optical observation is a passive method, they could be directly applicable to the detection and monitoring of passive objects such as space debris in the geostationary ring.By using single-station angular observations, geostationary satellite orbits with positional uncertainties below 350 m (2 sigma) were reconstructed using the Orbit Determination Tool Kit software, by Analytical Graphics, Inc. This software is used in collaboration with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial.Orbit determination can be improved by taking into consideration the data from other stations, such as angular observations alone or together with ranging measurements to the satellite. Tests were carried out combining angular observations with the ranging measurements obtained from the Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer technique that is used by ROA’s Time Section to carry out time transfer with other laboratories. Results show a reduction of the 2 sigma uncertainty to less than 100 m.

  1. Mission to Planet Earth's Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V.; Beranek, R.; Herrmann, M.; Koczor, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's) are the space-based element of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program which provide the excellent temporal resolution data required for a thorough understanding of earth processes and their role in global climate change. This paper discusses the scientific rationale, required instrumentation, observatory configuration, and data system of the GEO program.

  2. 47 CFR 101.145 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... orbit, taking into account atmospheric refraction. However, exception may be made in unusual... account atmospheric refraction. However, exception may be made in unusual circumstances upon a showing... aimed within 2 degrees of the geostationary-satellite orbit, taking into account atmospheric...

  3. A Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite Model Using Easy Java Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Goh, Giam Hwee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic…

  4. Plasma propulsion for geostationary satellites for telecommunication and interplanetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudeck, M.; Doveil, F.; Arcis, N.; Zurbach, S.

    2012-02-01

    The advantages of electric propulsion for the orbit maintenance of geostationary satellites for telecommunications are described. Different types of plasma sources for space propulsion are presented. Due to its large performances, one of them, named Hall effect thruster is described in detail and two recent missions in space (Stentor and Smart1) using French Hall thrusters are briefly presented.

  5. 47 CFR 78.106 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 78.106 Section 78.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.106 Interference to...

  6. 47 CFR 78.106 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 78.106 Section 78.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.106 Interference to...

  7. 47 CFR 78.106 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 78.106 Section 78.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.106 Interference to...

  8. 47 CFR 78.106 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 78.106 Section 78.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.106 Interference to...

  9. 47 CFR 78.106 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 78.106 Section 78.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.106 Interference to...

  10. Air Quality Science and Regulatory Efforts Require Geostationary Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Allen, D. J.; Stehr, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Air quality scientists and regulatory agencies would benefit from the high spatial and temporal resolution trace gas and aerosol data that could be provided by instruments on a geostationary platform. More detailed time-resolved data from a geostationary platform could be used in tracking regional transport and in evaluating mesoscale air quality model performance in terms of photochemical evolution throughout the day. The diurnal cycle of photochemical pollutants is currently missing from the data provided by the current generation of atmospheric chemistry satellites which provide only one measurement per day. Often peak surface ozone mixing ratios are reached much earlier in the day during major regional pollution episodes than during local episodes due to downward mixing of ozone that had been transported above the boundary layer overnight. The regional air quality models often do not simulate this downward mixing well enough and underestimate surface ozone in regional episodes. Having high time-resolution geostationary data will make it possible to determine the magnitude of this lower-and mid-tropospheric transport that contributes to peak eight-hour average ozone and 24-hour average PM2.5 concentrations. We will show ozone and PM(sub 2.5) episodes from the CMAQ model and suggest ways in which geostationary satellite data would improve air quality forecasting. Current regulatory modeling is typically being performed at 12 km horizontal resolution. State and regional air quality regulators in regions with complex topography and/or land-sea breezes are anxious to move to 4-km or finer resolution simulations. Geostationary data at these or finer resolutions will be useful in evaluating such models.

  11. Magnetic bearing momentum wheels with magnetic gimballing capability for 3-axis active attitude control and energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sindlinger, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    A 3-axis active attitude control system with only one rotating part was developed using a momentum wheel with magnetic gimballing capability as a torque actuator for all three body axes. A brief description of magnetic bearing technology is given. It is concluded that based on this technology an integrated energy storage/attitude control system with one air of counterrotating rings could reduce the complexity and weight of conventional systems.

  12. Calibration of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, F. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Bingham, G. E.; Knuteson, R. O.; Tobin, D. C.; LaPorte, D. D.; Smith, W. L.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA New Millennium Program's Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) requires highly accurate radiometric and spectral calibration in order to carry out its mission to provide water vapor, wind, temperature, and trace gas profiling from geostationary orbit. A calibration concept has been developed for the GIFTS Phase A instrument design. The in-flight calibration is performed using views of two on-board blackbody sources along with cold space. A radiometric calibration uncertainty analysis has been developed and used to show that the expected performance for GIFTS exceeds its top level requirement to measure brightness temperature to better than 1 K. For the Phase A GIFTS design, the spectral calibration is established by the highly stable diode laser used as the reference for interferogram sampling, and verified with comparisons to atmospheric calculations.

  13. Studies of lightning data in conjunction with geostationary satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchman, D.; Auvine, B.

    1984-01-01

    The archiving of a more complete data base to perform lightning studies is outlined. This effort includes: (1) continued archiving of bureau of land management LLP, geostationary satellite, and NWS radar data; (2) expansion of the McIDAS real-time LLP access to other networks. Additional processing tools for display and analysis of lightning location data in conjunction with geostationary satellite data are developed which entails adapting existing McIDAS software to allow the production of statistical summaries and contouring of lightning characteristics over user defined areas or storms. The plotting of three dimensional displays of lightning statistics versus satellite and radar data, and the performance of an error analysis of lightning location data using overlapping regions of the BLM network are discussed.

  14. Ka-band geostationary satellite spacing requirements and access schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caron, Mario; Hindson, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Geostationary satellite systems for wideband personal communications applications have been proposed. This paper looks at the geostationary satellite spacing requirement to meet the ITU-R sharing criterion for FDMA and CDMA access schemes. CDMA capacity equation is first developed. Then the basis for the interference analysis between two systems with an overlapping coverage area is developed for the cases of identical and different access schemes and for bandwidth and power limited systems. An example of an interference analysis between two systems is fully carried out. The paper also points out the inherent problems when comparing systems with different access schemes. It is found that under certain scenarios, CDMA can allow a closer spacing between satellites.

  15. Geostationary Orbital Crowding: An Analysis of Problems and Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-16

    his famous Wireless World article of 1945, entitled ’Extraterrestrial Relays,’ Arthur C. Clarke suggested that a true broadcast service giving...following paragraph as Article 33, and titled "Rational Use of the Radio Frequency Spectrum and of the Geostationary Satellite Orbit," to the ITU Convention...Books, 1988), p. 5. Figure 3.4. Regions of the International Telecomunications Union 96 Space WARC-1979 Convening in Geneva, Switzerland on the 24th of

  16. Spectrum/orbit utilization program for geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. F.

    1984-01-01

    Mutual interferences among geostationary satellite communication systems determine the permitted spacing between satellites and the limits on the capacity of the orbit/spectrum resources available. This paper describes the computer program for analyzing the mutual interferences among communication satellite systems. Capabilities of the program are described. Inputs, models used, program operations, and program outputs are given. To show application of the program, an example scenario is analyzed for fixed satellites providing domestic service to North America.

  17. Volcanic Ash Retrieval Using a New Geostationary Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. H.; Lee, K. T.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents currently developing method of volcanic ash detection and retrieval for the Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite (GK-2A). With the launch of GK-2A, aerosol remote sensing including dust, smoke, will begin a new era of geostationary remote sensing. The Advanced Meteorological Imager (AMI) onboard GK-2A will offer capabilities for volcanic ash remote sensing similar to those currently provided by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite. Based on the physical principles for the current polar and geostationary imagers are modified in the algorithm. Volcanic ash is estimated in detection processing from visible and infrared channel radiances, and the comparison of satellite-observed radiances with those calculated from radiative transfer model. The retrievals are performed operationally every 15 min for volcanic ash for pixel sizes of 2 km. The algorithm currently under development uses a multichannel approach to estimate the effective radius, aerosol optical depth (AOD) simultaneously, both over water and land. The algorithm has been tested with proxy data generated from existing satellite observations and forward radiative transfer simulations. Operational assessment of the algorithm will be made after the launch of GK-2A scheduled in 2018.

  18. The Proposed Ku-Band Non Geostationary Communication Satellite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. V.

    2000-07-01

    At the 1997 World Radio Conference France was able to secure agreement for Alcatel-Alsthom to launch a non-geostationary satellite system (called SkyBridge) operating at Ku-band, and utilizing the same spectrum as employed by the existing Ku-band geostationary satellites. Provisional power flux density limits for the level of unwanted interference into existing satellite and ground antennas were also adopted and are presently being reviewed by an ITU-R Joint Task Group. SkyBridge subsequently petitioned the U.S. Federal Communications Commission for a license to operate in the United States, causing the FCC to open a window for others to file for such systems. Five new filings were received and this paper describes the six (including Sky-Bridge) designs that have now been proposed. The paper discusses some of the relative merits of the various designs and also the issues of a) interference with the existing geostationary satellites (which may be solvable albeit with the latter losing some capacity) and b) mutual interference among NGSO systems (which may not be solvable in a manner acceptable to their proponents).

  19. Geostationary platform systems concepts definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of a geostationary platform concept analysis are summarized. Mission and payloads definition, concept selection, the requirements of an experimental platform, supporting research and technology, and the Space Transportation System interface requirements are addressed. It is concluded that platforms represent a logical extension of current trends toward larger, more complex, multifrequency satellites. Geostationary platforms offer significant cost savings compared to individual satellites, with the majority of these economies being realized with single Shuttle launched platforms. Further cost savings can be realized, however, by having larger platforms. Platforms accommodating communications equipment that operates at multiple frequencies and which provide larger scale frequency reuse through the use of large aperture multibeam antennas and onboard switching maximize the useful capacity of the orbital arc and frequency spectrum. Projections of market demand indicate that such conservation measures are clearly essential if orderly growth is to be provided for. In addition, it is pointed out that a NASA experimental platform is required to demonstrate the technologies necessary for operational geostationary platforms of the 1990's.

  20. Static and kinematic positioning using WADGPS from geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cefalo, R.; Gatti, M.

    2003-04-01

    STATIC AND KINEMATIC POSITIONING USING WADGPS CORRECTIONS FROM GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES Cefalo R. (1), Gatti M (2) (1) Department of Civil Engineering, University of Trieste, P.le Europa 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy, cefalo@dic.univ.trieste.it, (2) Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara, Italy, mgatti@ing.unife.it ABSTRACT. Starting from February 2000, static and kinematic experiments have been performed at the Department of Civil Engineering of University of Trieste, Italy and the Department of Engineering of University of Ferrara, Italy, using the WADGPS (Wide Area Differential GPS) corrections up linked by Geostationary Satellites belonging to the American WAAS and European EGNOS. Recently, a prototypal service by ESA (European Space Agency) named SISNet (Signal In Space through Internet), has been introduced using Internet to diffuse the messages up linked through AOR-E and IOR Geostationary Satellites. This service will overcome the problems relative to the availability of the corrections in urban areas. This system is currently under tests by the authors in order to verify the latency of the message and the applicability and accuracies obtainable in particular in dynamic applications.

  1. The use of satellites in non-geostationary orbits for unloading geostationary communication satellite traffic peaks. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, K.; Turner, A.; Nguyen, T.; Doong, W.; Weyandt, C.

    1987-01-01

    The overall objective of this program was to assess the application, economic benefits, and technology and system implications of satellites in non-geostationary (non-GEO) orbits for off-loading peak traffic from GEO communications satellites. The study was organized into four technical tasks which are described in turn. They are: (1) concepts development; (2) system definition; (3) economic comparisons; and (4) technology requirements definition. Each of these tasks is defined in detail and the results of each are given.

  2. Traceable Calibration of the 3 axis Thrust Vector in the mN range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, B.; Oldfield, S.

    2004-10-01

    The possibility of measuring the three force components i.e. the main axial component and the two orthogonal radial components, generated by an electric propulsion system is important for two reasons. Firstly, to assess the impact of spacecraft/propulsion system integration issues, for example to verify the alignment of the thrust vector with the spacecraft centre-of-mass for spacecraft stability. Secondly, to operate the thruster properly during flight, for example to determine the thrust vector relative to the mechanical axis of the thruster. Furthermore, a three-axis measurement capability will be useful for the experimental performance verification of the next generation of vectored electric propulsion devices, especially regarding the many unresolved issues connected with indirect thrust measurement using electrostatic probes. The capability to monitor thrust vector drift in real time and with significant bandwidth is also important. Thus enabling vector drift during thruster warm-up, to be measured, and the response of vectored thrusters to change in vector demand can be assessed. In this paper we describe the design, construction and testing of an instrument proof of concept. The instrument was designed to accommodate a dummy thruster mass of 0.5 kg and operate in the 0 to 10 mN range. The directional resolution that has been demonstrated is better than 0.05 ° in both axes when operating at full thrust.

  3. Potential for calibration of geostationary meteorological satellite imagers using the Moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; Grant, I.F.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Solar-band imagery from geostationary meteorological satellites has been utilized in a number of important applications in Earth Science that require radiometric calibration. Because these satellite systems typically lack on-board calibrators, various techniques have been employed to establish "ground truth", including observations of stable ground sites and oceans, and cross-calibrating with coincident observations made by instruments with on-board calibration systems. The Moon appears regularly in the margins and corners of full-disk operational images of the Earth acquired by meteorological instruments with a rectangular field of regard, typically several times each month, which provides an excellent opportunity for radiometric calibration. The USGS RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) project has developed the capability for on-orbit calibration using the Moon via a model for lunar spectral irradiance that accommodates the geometries of illumination and viewing by a spacecraft. The ROLO model has been used to determine on-orbit response characteristics for several NASA EOS instruments in low Earth orbit. Relative response trending with precision approaching 0.1% per year has been achieved for SeaWiFS as a result of the long time-series of lunar observations collected by that instrument. The method has a demonstrated capability for cross-calibration of different instruments that have viewed the Moon. The Moon appears skewed in high-resolution meteorological images, primarily due to satellite orbital motion during acquisition; however, the geometric correction for this is straightforward. By integrating the lunar disk image to an equivalent irradiance, and using knowledge of the sensor's spectral response, a calibration can be developed through comparison against the ROLO lunar model. The inherent stability of the lunar surface means that lunar calibration can be applied to observations made at any time, including retroactively. Archived geostationary imager data

  4. Laser experiments in light cloudiness with the geostationary satellite ARTEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzkov, V.; Kuzkov, S.; Sodnik, Z.

    2016-08-01

    The geostationary satellite ARTEMIS was launched in July 2001. The satellite is equipped with a laser communication terminal, which was used for the world's first inter-satellite laser communication link between ARTEMIS and the low earth orbit satellite SPOT-4. Ground-to-space laser communication experiments were also conducted under various atmospheric conditions involving ESA's optical ground station. With a rapidly increasing volume of information transferred by geostationary satellites, there is a rising demand for high-speed data links between ground stations and satellites. For ground-to-space laser communications there are a number of important design parameters that need to be addressed, among them, the influence of atmospheric turbulence in different atmospheric conditions and link geometries. The Main Astronomical Observatory of NAS of Ukraine developed a precise computer tracking system for its 0.7 m AZT-2 telescope and a compact laser communication package LACES (Laser Atmosphere and Communication experiments with Satellites) for laser communication experiments with geostationary satellites. The specially developed software allows computerized tracking of the satellites using their orbital data. A number of laser experiments between MAO and ARTEMIS were conducted in partial cloudiness with some amount of laser light observed through clouds. Such conditions caused high break-up (splitting) of images from the laser beacon of ARTEMIS. One possible explanation is Raman scattering of photons on molecules of a water vapor in the atmosphere. Raman scattering causes a shift in a wavelength of the photons.In addition, a different value for the refraction index appears in the direction of the meridian for the wavelength-shifted photons. This is similar to the anomalous atmospheric refraction that appears at low angular altitudes above the horizon. We have also estimated the atmospheric attenuation and the influence of atmospheric turbulence on observed results

  5. Geostationary Enhanced Temporal Interpolation for CERES Flux Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doelling, David R.; Loeb, Norman G.; Keyes, Dennis F.; Nordeen, Michele L.; Morstad, Daniel; Nguyen, Cathy; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, David F.; Sun, Moguo

    2013-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on board the Terra and Aqua spacecraft continue to provide an unprecedented global climate record of the earth's top-of-atmosphere (TOA) energy budget since March 2000. A critical step in determining accurate daily averaged flux involves estimating the flux between CERES Terra or Aqua overpass times. CERES employs the CERES-only (CO) and the CERES geostationary (CG) temporal interpolation methods. The CO method assumes that the cloud properties at the time of the CERES observation remain constant and that it only accounts for changes in albedo with solar zenith angle and diurnal land heating, by assuming a shape for unresolved changes in the diurnal cycle. The CG method enhances the CERES data by explicitly accounting for changes in cloud and radiation between CERES observation times using 3-hourly imager data from five geostationary (GEO) satellites. To maintain calibration traceability, GEO radiances are calibrated against Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the derived GEO fluxes are normalized to the CERES measurements. While the regional (1 deg latitude x 1 deg longitude) monthly-mean difference between the CG and CO methods can exceed 25 W m(sub -2) over marine stratus and land convection, these regional biases nearly cancel in the global mean. The regional monthly CG shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) flux uncertainty is reduced by 20%, whereas the daily uncertainty is reduced by 50% and 20%, respectively, over the CO method, based on comparisons with 15-min Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) data.

  6. Small Aperture Telescope Observations of Co-located Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R.; Wallace, B.

    As geostationary orbit (GEO) continues to be populated, satellite operators are increasing usage of co-location techniques to maximize usage of fewer GEO longitude slots. Co-location is an orbital formation strategy where two or more geostationary satellites reside within one GEO stationkeeping box. The separation strategy used to prevent collision between the co-located satellites generally uses eccentricity (radial separation) and inclination (latitude separation) vector offsets. This causes the satellites to move in relative motion ellipses about each other as the relative longitude drift between the satellites is near zero. Typical separations between the satellites varies from 1 to 100 kilometers. When co-located satellites are observed by optical ground based space surveillance sensors the participants appear to be separated by a few minutes of arc or less in angular extent. Under certain viewing geometries, these satellites appear to visually conjunct even though the satellites are, in fact, well separated spatially. In situations where one of the co-located satellites is more optically reflective than the other, the reflected sunglint from the more reflective satellite can overwhelm the other. This less frequently encountered issue causes the less reflective satellite to be glint masked in the glare of the other. This paper focuses on space surveillance observations on co-located Canadian satellites using a small optical telescope operated by Defence R&D Canada - Ottawa. The two above mentioned problems (cross tagging and glint masking) are investigated and we quantify the results for Canadian operated geostationary satellites. The performance of two line element sets when making in-frame CCD image correlation between the co-located satellites is also examined. Relative visual magnitudes between the co-located members are also inspected and quantified to determine the susceptibility of automated telescopes to glint masking of co-located satellite members.

  7. CNES organization for station positioning of geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulac, Jean

    1993-01-01

    Since 1975, the Toulouse Space Centre (a technical establishment of the French Space Agency, CNES) has successfully brought 15 geostationary satellites on to station. During these 17 years of experience, an organization of human and material resources has been built up that ensures a very high level of reliability in the execution of these station positioning operations. The main characteristics of this organization are a rigourous definition of the roles and responsibilities of each person involved, very detailed operations documentation, and methodical preparation of the operations.

  8. The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Product Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, S. L.; Suggs, R. J.; Jedlovec, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Product Generation System (GPGS) is introduced and described. GPGS is a set of computer programs developed and maintained at the Global Hydrology and Climate Center and is designed to generate meteorological data products using visible and infrared measurements from the GOES-East Imager and Sounder instruments. The products that are produced by GPGS are skin temperature, total precipitable water, cloud top pressure, cloud albedo, surface albedo, and surface insolation. A robust cloud mask is also generated. The retrieval methodology for each product is described to include algorithm descriptions and required inputs and outputs for the programs. Validation is supplied where applicable.

  9. Geo-STAR: A Geostationary Microwave Sounder for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Brown, S. T.; Dinardo, S. J.; Gaier, T. C.; Kangaslahti, P. P.; Tanner, A. B.

    2007-01-01

    The Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer (GeoSTAR) is a new Earth remote sensing instrument concept that has been under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. First conceived in 1998 as a NASA New Millennium Program mission and subsequently developed in 2003-2006 as a proof-of-concept prototype under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program, it is intended to fill a serious gap in our Earth remote sensing capabilities - namely the lack of a microwave atmospheric sounder in geostationary orbit. The importance of such observations have been recognized by the National Academy of Sciences National Research Council, which recently released its report on a 'Decadal Survey' of NASA Earth Science activities1. One of the recommended missions for the next decade is a geostationary microwave sounder. GeoSTAR is well positioned to meet the requirements of such a mission, and because of the substantial investment NASA has already made in GeoSTAR technology development, this concept is fast approaching the necessary maturity for implementation in the next decade. NOAA is also keenly interested in GeoSTAR as a potential payload on its next series of geostationary weather satellites, the GOES-R series. GeoSTAR, with its ability to map out the three-dimensional structure of temperature, water vapor, clouds, precipitation and convective parameters on a continual basis, will significantly enhance our ability to observe hurricanes and other severe storms. In addition, with performance matching that of current and next generation of low-earth-orbiting microwave sounders, GeoSTAR will also provide observations important to the study of the hydrologic cycle, atmospheric processes and climate variability and trends. In particular, with GeoSTAR it will be possible to fully resolve the diurnal cycle. We discuss the GeoSTAR concept and basic design, the performance of the prototype, and a number of science applications that will be possible with GeoSTAR. The work reported

  10. Hybrid system of communication and radio determination using two geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmori, Shingo; Matsumoto, Yasushi; Morikawa, Eihisa; Wakao, Masayoshi

    1990-01-01

    A new hybrid satellite system which can provide both communications and positioning services in one system using two geostationary satellites is discussed. The distinctive feature is that location information can be provided by transmitting and receiving ranging signals over the same channel as communications through two geostationary satellites.

  11. Surface solar radiation from geostationary satellites for renewable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laszlo, Istvan; Liu, Hongqing; Heidinger, Andrew; Goldberg, Mitchell

    With the launch of the new Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, GOES-R, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will begin a new era of geostationary remote sensing. One of its flagship instruments, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), will expand frequency and coverage of multispectral remote sensing of atmospheric and surface properties. Products derived from ABI measurements will primarily be heritage meteorological products (cloud and aerosol properties, precipitation, winds, etc.), but some will be for interdisciplinary use, such as for the solar energy industry. The planned rapid observations (5-15 minutes) from ABI provide an opportunity to obtain information needed for solar energy applications where frequent observations of solar radiation reaching the surface are essential for planning and load management. In this paper we describe a physical, radiative-transfer-based algorithm for the retrieval of surface solar irradiance that uses atmospheric and surface parameters derived independently from multispectral ABI radiances. The algorithm is designed to provide basic radiation budget products (total solar irradiance at the surface), as well as products specifically needed for the solar energy industry (average, midday and clear-sky insolation, clear-sky days, diffuse and direct normal radiation, etc.). Two alternative algorithms, which require less ABI atmosphere and surface products or no explicit knowledge of the surface albedo, are also explored along with their limitations. The accuracy of surface solar radiation retrievals are assessed using long-term MODIS and GOES satellite data and surface measurements at the Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) network.

  12. The Goes-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved storm diagnostic capability with the Advanced Baseline Imager. The GLM will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lighting flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this paper we will report on new Nowcasting and storm warning applications being developed and evaluated at various NOAA Testbeds.

  13. The GOES-R Series Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), which will have just completed Critical Design Review and move forward into the construction phase of instrument development. The GLM will operate continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development (an engineering development unit and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional ground-based lightning networks are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms, test data sets, and applications, as well as improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this presentation we review the planned implementation of the instrument and suite of operational algorithms

  14. GeoSTAR - A Microwave Sounder for Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Wilson, William; Tanner, Alan; Gaier, Todd; Ruf, Chris; Piepmeier, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    GeoSTAR represents a new approach to microwave atmospheric sounding that is now under development. It has capabilities similar to sensors currently operating on low earth orbiting weather satellites but is intended for deployment in geostationary orbit - where it will complement future infrared sounders and enable all-weather temperature and humidity soundings and rain mapping. The required spatial resolution of 50 km or better dictates an aperture of 4 meters or more at a sounding frequency of 50 GHz, which is difficult to achieve with a real aperture system - this is the reason why it has until now not been possible to put a microwave sounder on a geostationary platform. GeoSTAR is instead based on a synthetic aperture imaging approach. Among the advantages of such a system are that there are no moving parts, and the size of the aperture is easily expandable to meet future needs. A ground based prototype of GeoSTAR is currently under development in an effort led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  15. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Gyro Temperature Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, J. N.; Noonan, C. H.; Garrick, J.

    1996-01-01

    The geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 1/M series of spacecraft are geostationary weather satellites that use the latest in weather imaging technology. The inertial reference unit package onboard consists of three gyroscopes measuring angular velocity along each of the spacecraft's body axes. This digital integrating rate assembly (DIRA) is calibrated and used to maintain spacecraft attitude during orbital delta-V maneuvers. During the early orbit support of GOES-8 (April 1994), the gyro drift rate biases exhibited a large dependency on gyro temperature. This complicated the calibration and introduced errors into the attitude during delta-V maneuvers. Following GOES-8, a model of the DIRA temperature and drift rate bias variation was developed for GOES-9 (May 1995). This model was used to project a value of the DIRA bias to use during the orbital delta-V maneuvers based on the bias change observed as the DIRA warmed up during the calibration. The model also optimizes the yaw reorientation necessary to achieve the correct delta-V pointing attitude. As a result, a higher accuracy was achieved on GOES-9 leading to more efficient delta-V maneuvers and a propellant savings. This paper summarizes the: Data observed on GOES-8 and the complications it caused in calibration; DIRA temperature/drift rate model; Application and results of the model on GOES-9 support.

  16. Electron flux models for different energies at geostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, R. J.; Balikhin, M. A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Walker, S. N.; Billings, S. A.; Ganushkina, N.

    2016-10-01

    Forecast models were derived for energetic electrons at all energy ranges sampled by the third-generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). These models were based on Multi-Input Single-Output Nonlinear Autoregressive Moving Average with Exogenous inputs methodologies. The model inputs include the solar wind velocity, density and pressure, the fraction of time that the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was southward, the IMF contribution of a solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function proposed by Boynton et al. (2011b), and the Dst index. As such, this study has deduced five new 1 h resolution models for the low-energy electrons measured by GOES (30-50 keV, 50-100 keV, 100-200 keV, 200-350 keV, and 350-600 keV) and extended the existing >800 keV and >2 MeV Geostationary Earth Orbit electron fluxes models to forecast at a 1 h resolution. All of these models were shown to provide accurate forecasts, with prediction efficiencies ranging between 66.9% and 82.3%.

  17. Development of the European Small Geostationary Satellite SGEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübberstedt, H.; Schneider, A.; Schuff, H.; Miesner, Th.; Winkler, A.

    2008-08-01

    The SGEO product portfolio, ranging from Satellite platform delivery up to in-orbit delivery of a turnkey system including satellite and ground control station, is designed for applications ranging from TV Broadcast to multimedia applications, Internet access, mobile or fixed services in a wide range of frequency bands. Furthermore, Data Relay missions such as the European Data Relay Satellite (EDRS) as well as other institutional missions are targeted. Key design features of the SGEO platform are high flexibility and modularity in order to accommodate a very wide range of future missions, a short development time below two years and the objective to build the system based on ITAR free subsystems and components. The system will provide a long lifetime of up to 15 years in orbit operations with high reliability. SGEO is the first European satellite to perform all orbit control tasks solely by electrical propulsion (EP). This design provides high mass efficiency and the capability for direct injection into geostationary orbit without chemical propulsion (CP). Optionally, an Apogee Engine Module based on CP will provide the perigee raising manoeuvres in case of a launch into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). This approach allows an ideal choice out of a wide range of launcher candidates in dependence of the required payload capacity. SGEO will offer to the market a versatile and high performance satellite system with low investment risk for the customer and a short development time. This paper provides an overview of the SGEO system key features and the current status of the SGEO programme.

  18. Geostationary Atmospheric Observation Satellite Plan in Japan (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, H.; Kasai, Y.; Kita, K.; Irie, H.; Sagi, K.; Hayashida, S.

    2009-12-01

    As emissions of air pollutants in Asia have increased in the past decades accompanying with rapid economic growth of developing countries, Asian regional air pollution has attracted concern from the view of inter-continental and intra-continental long-range transport as well as domestic air quality. Particularly in Japan, transboundary transport of ozone is of recent social concern as one of a cause of increasing trend of near surface ozone concentration. In order to elucidate the transport and chemical transformation processes of air pollution in East Asia, and to attain internationally common understanding on this issue, geostationary atmospheric observation satellite has been proposed in Japan. In 2006, the Japan Society of Atmospheric Chemistry (JSAC) formed Commission on the Atmospheric Environmental Observation Satellite to initiate the discussion. In 2009, Committee on Geostationary Atmospheric Observation Satellite has been formed within JAXA to promote the plan. The proposed satellite consists of a UV/VIS sensor for O3, NO2, HCHO and AOT, and a MIR sensor for O3, CO, HNO3, NO2, H2O and temperature. Targeted spatial and temporal resolutions are ca.10 km and 1-2 hrs, respectively, and focused observation area is northeast Asia potentially covering the southeast and south Asia. Sensitivity analysis and simulation have been made for both the UV/VIS and MIR sensors. Overview of user requirement and the sensitivity analysis for each species will be presented in this talk.

  19. GeoCARB design maturity and geostationary heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Kevin; Clark, Charles; Katz, Noah; Kumar, Jack; Nast, Ted; Palmer, Alice

    2013-09-01

    Our companion paper `Progress in development of Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS): geostationary greenhouse gas (GHG) application' describes geoCARB performance and science. Here we describe a geoCARB instrument design study leading to near PDR maturity. It is based on heritage geostationary (AIA and HMI on SDO, SBIRS GEO-1 and upcoming GLM on GOES-R as examples) and other (IRIS and NIRcam) flight instrumentation. Heritage work includes experience and well developed specifications for near a-thermal carbon fiber honeycomb composite optical benches and optical element mounting design forms that utilize a "family" of mounts for nearly any type of optical element. The geoCARB approach utilizes composite optical benches and bipod flexures to kinematically mount optics. Tooling for alignment and staking of all elements is integral to the design and is "removed before flight" for mass minimization. GeoCARB requires a cryogenic region for focal planes and spectrometers but front end optics and main structure are designed to run much warmer. A star tracker is used for geoCARB posteriori geolocation including pseudo-diurnal thermal distortion characterization. It is kinematically mounted by low conductance thermal isolators directly on to the low expansion high stiffness composite bench that defines the master optical surfaces including the scanning mirrors. The thermal load from the camera heads is routed away from the bench heat pipes. Use of kinematic mounting is advantageous for low thermal conduction designs. Honeycomb composites enable the design's low thermal mechanical distortions.

  20. The ELK3-GATA3 axis orchestrates invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Sun-Young; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Jiewan; Kim, Min Kyeong; Lee, Ki Hong; Lee, Je-Yong; Oh, Nuri; Park, Ji-In; Park, Ji-Hoon; Heo, Sun-Hee; Shim, Sung Han; Lee, Dong Ryul; Kim, Keun Pil; Park, Kyung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is a highly aggressive tumor subtype that lacks effective therapeutic targets. Here, we show that ELK3 is overexpressed in a subset of breast cancers, in particular basal-like and normal-like/claudin-low cell lines. Suppression of ELK3 in MDA-MB-231 cells led to transdifferentiation from an invasive mesenchymal phenotype to a non-invasive epithelial phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. Suppression of ELK3 resulted in extensive changes in genome expression profiles. Among these, GATA3, a master suppressor of metastasis, was epigenetically activated. Also, suppression of GATA3 led to the restoration of migration and invasion. These results suggest that the ELK3-GATA3 axis is a major pathway that promotes metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:27556500

  1. The GOES-R GeoStationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved capability for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The Geostationary Lighting Mapper (GLM) will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lighting flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. In parallel with the instrument development (a prototype and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms (environmental data records), cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications using GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, merged with ground-based sensors, and decision aids augmented by numerical weather prediction model forecasts. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. An international field campaign planned for 2011-2012 will produce concurrent observations from a VHF lightning mapping array, Meteosat multi-band imagery, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning

  2. Assessing the Lifetime Performance of the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS): Implications for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechler, D. E.; Christian, H. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Goodman, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite has been providing observations of total lightning over the Earth s Tropics for 13 years. This study examines the performance of the LIS throughout its time in orbit. Application of the Deep Convective Cloud Technique (DCCT) (Doelling et al., 2004) was performed on the LIS background pixels to assess the stability of the LIS instrument. The DCCT analysis indicates that the maximum deviation of the monthly mean radiance is within 2% of the overall mean, indicating stable performance over the period. In addition, an examination of the number of flashes detected over time similarly shows no significant trend (after adjusting for the orbit boost that occurred in August 2001). These and other results indicate that there has been no discernible change in LIS performance throughout its lifetime. A similar approach will used for monitoring the performance of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) onboard the next generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R). Since GLM is based on LIS design heritage, the LIS results indicate that GLM may also experience stable performance over its lifetime.

  3. Geostationary Operational Environmental Statellite(GEOS-N report)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-12-01

    The Advanced Missions Analysis Office (AMAO) of GSFC has completed a study of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-N) series. The feasibility, risks, schedules, and associated costs of advanced space and ground system concepts responsive to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) requirements were evaluated. The study is the first step in a multi-phased procurement effort that is expected to result in launch ready hardware in the post 2000 time frame. This represents the latest activity of GSFC in translating meteorological requirements of NOAA into viable space systems in geosynchronous earth orbits (GEO). GOES-N represents application of the latest spacecraft, sensor, and instrument technologies to enhance NOAA meteorological capabilities via remote and in-situ sensing from GEO. The GOES-N series, if successfully developed, could become another significant step in NOAA weather forecasting space systems, meeting increasingly complex emerging national needs for that agency's services.

  4. Differential spacecraft charging on the geostationary operational environmental satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farthing, W. H.; Brown, J. P.; Bryant, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    Subsystems aboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites 4 and 5 showed instances of anomalous changes in state corresponding to false commands. Evidence linking the anomalous changes to geomagnetic activity, and presumably static discharges generated by spacecraft differential charging induced by substorm particle injection events is presented. The anomalies are shown to be correlated with individual substorms as monitored by stations of the North American Magnetometer Chain. The relative frequency of the anomalies is shown to be a function of geomagnetic activity. Finally a least squares fit to the time delay between substorm initiation and spacecraft anomaly as a function of spacecraft local time is shown to be consistent with injected electron populations with energy in the range 10 keV to 15 keV, in agreement with present understanding of the spacecraft charging mechanism. The spacecraft elements responsible for the differential charging were not satisfactorily identified. That question is currently under investigation.

  5. Geostationary operational environmental satellite /GOES/ - A multifunctional satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallette, L. A.

    The GOES satellites are multifunctional satellites whose primary function is to provide continuous measurements of the earth's surface and atmosphere from two geostationary orbit locations: 75 deg W and 135 deg W. This objective is accomplished with the visible infrared spin scan radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VAS), and the Space Environment Monitor (SEM), which includes three instruments: a magnetometer, solar X-ray sensor, and an energetic particle sensor, which monitor the near earth space environment. The satellite's communication system provides several user oriented functions, including: (1) Transmission of VAS data; (2) Transmission of SEM data; (3) Transponder capabilities for stretched VAS (SVAS) data, weather facsimile (WEFAX) data, and trilateration signals; (4) transponder capabilities for data collection platform interrogation and data collection platform reply.

  6. A coded modulation design for the INMARSAT geostationary GLONASS augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, B.; Tsang, W.

    A cold modulation scheme is proposed to carryout the Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) geostationary augmentation which includes both integrity and navigation functions over the next generation International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) satellites. A baseline coded modulation scheme for the GLONASS augmentation broadcast proposes a forward error correction code over a differential phase shift keying (DPSK) modulation. The use of a concatenated code over the same signaling is considered. The proposed coded modulation design is more powerful and robust, yet not overly more complex in system implementation than the baseline scheme. Performance results of concatenated codes over a DPSK signaling used in the design are presented. The sensitivity analysis methodology in selecting the coded modulation scheme is also discussed.

  7. Geostationary Operational Environmental Statellite(GEOS-N report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Missions Analysis Office (AMAO) of GSFC has completed a study of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-N) series. The feasibility, risks, schedules, and associated costs of advanced space and ground system concepts responsive to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) requirements were evaluated. The study is the first step in a multi-phased procurement effort that is expected to result in launch ready hardware in the post 2000 time frame. This represents the latest activity of GSFC in translating meteorological requirements of NOAA into viable space systems in geosynchronous earth orbits (GEO). GOES-N represents application of the latest spacecraft, sensor, and instrument technologies to enhance NOAA meteorological capabilities via remote and in-situ sensing from GEO. The GOES-N series, if successfully developed, could become another significant step in NOAA weather forecasting space systems, meeting increasingly complex emerging national needs for that agency's services.

  8. Geostationary earth climate sensor: Scientific utility and feasibility, phase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, G. Garrett; Vonderharr, T. H.; Evert, T.; Kidder, Stanley Q.; Purdom, James F. W.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of accurate broad band radiation budget measurements from a GEO platform will provide a unique opportunity for viewing radiation processes in the atmosphere-ocean system. The CSU/TRW team has prepared a Phase 1 instrument design study demonstrating that measurements of radiation budget are practical from geosynchronous orbit with proven technology. This instrument concept is the Geostationary Earth Climate Sensor (GECS). A range of resolutions down to 20 km at the top of the atmosphere are possible, depending upon the scientific goals of the experiment. These tradeoffs of resolution and measurement repeat cycles are examined for scientific utility. The design of a flexible instrument is shown to be possible to meet the two goals: long-term, systematic monitoring of the diurnal cycles of radiation budget; and high time and space resolution studies of regional radiation features.

  9. Diffractive optics technology and the NASA Geostationary Earth Observatory (GEO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, G. Michael; Michaels, Robert L.; Faklis, Dean

    1992-01-01

    Diffractive (or binary) optics offers unique capabilities for the development of large-aperture, high-performance, light-weight optical systems. The Geostationary Earth Observatory (GEO) will consist of a variety of instruments to monitor the environmental conditions of the earth and its atmosphere. The aim of this investigation is to analyze the design of the GEO instrument that is being proposed and to identify the areas in which diffractive (or binary) optics technology can make a significant impact in GEO sensor design. Several potential applications where diffractive optics may indeed serve as a key technology for improving the performance and reducing the weight and cost of the GEO sensors have been identified. Applications include the use of diffractive/refractive hybrid lenses for aft-optic imagers, diffractive telescopes for narrowband imaging, subwavelength structured surfaces for anti-reflection and polarization control, and aberration compensation for reflective imaging systems and grating spectrometers.

  10. The geostationary operational environmental satellite /GOES/ imaging communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W. L.; Savides, J.

    1975-01-01

    The SMS/GOES Satellite obtains day and night weather information from synchronous geostationary orbit by means of (1) earth imaging, (2) collection of environmental data from ground based sensors, platforms, and (3) monitoring of the space environment. SMS-1 and SMS-2 have been in orbit for 17 months and 8 months, respectively, and are presently taking full earth disk images in the visible and infrared every 30 minutes. SMS-1 is positioned to cover the eastern portion of the U.S. while SMS-2 is positioned to cover the western portion. This paper provides a general overview of the imaging communication portions of the SMS/GOES, related to the image data encoding and transmission as well as the method of the data time multiplexing and the manner in which the scan line to line synchronization is achieved.

  11. MTG: resolution enhancement for MW measurements from geostationary orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, S.; di Paola, F.; Bizzarri, B.

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate image processing techniques that improve the spatial resolution of the channels already selected in the preliminary studies for "Geostationary Observatory for Microwave Atmospheric Soundings (GOMAS)". Reference high resolution multifrequency brightness temperatures scenarios have been derived by applying radiative transfer calculation to the spatially and microphysically detailed output of meteorological events simulated by the University of Wisconsin - Non-hydrostatic Model System. Two approaches, Wiener filter and SIR algorithm, have been applied to low frequency channels to enhance the resolution of antenna temperatures, exploiting the oversampling available for GOMAS channels observational strategy. Quite similar improvements have been obtained by applying the two techniques, even if SIR algorithm has provided generally better performances at computation time's expense.

  12. Image navigation and registration for the geostationary lightning mapper (GLM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bezooijen, Roel W. H.; Demroff, Howard; Burton, Gregory; Chu, Donald; Yang, Shu S.

    2016-10-01

    The Geostationary Lightning Mappers (GLM) for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) GOES-R series will, for the first time, provide hemispherical lightning information 24 hours a day from longitudes of 75 and 137 degrees west. The first GLM of a series of four is planned for launch in November, 2016. Observation of lightning patterns by GLM holds promise to improve tornado warning lead times to greater than 20 minutes while halving the present false alarm rates. In addition, GLM will improve airline traffic flow management, and provide climatology data allowing us to understand the Earth's evolving climate. The paper describes the method used for translating the pixel position of a lightning event to its corresponding geodetic longitude and latitude, using the J2000 attitude of the GLM mount frame reported by the spacecraft, the position of the spacecraft, and the alignment of the GLM coordinate frame relative to its mount frame. Because the latter alignment will experience seasonal variation, this alignment is determined daily using GLM background images collected over the previous 7 days. The process involves identification of coastlines in the background images and determination of the alignment change necessary to match the detected coastline with the coastline predicted using the GSHHS database. Registration is achieved using a variation of the Lucas-Kanade algorithm where we added a dither and average technique to improve performance significantly. An innovative water mask technique was conceived to enable self-contained detection of clear coastline sections usable for registration. Extensive simulations using accurate visible images from GOES13 and GOES15 have been used to demonstrate the performance of the coastline registration method, the results of which are presented in the paper.

  13. A mission to preserve the Geostationary Region (ROGER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D.; Martin, K. C.; Petersen, H.; Shaw, A.; Skidmore, B.; Smith, D.; Stokes, H.; Willig, A.

    The high strategic and commercial value of the geostationary region is unquestioned. It is known that many satellites are not re-orbited at the end of their mission for a number of reasons. Previous studies have investigated the possibility of rendezvous and docking with an uncontrolled target and concluded a basic technical plausibility. Thus the possibility exists that spent satellites could be removed from the operational region by one or more shuttle vehicles. This is the basis for the European Space Agency (ESA/ESTEC) study entitled Robotic Geostationary Orbit Restorer (ROGER). In full, the ROGER study will address the collision risk in GEO, identify workable economic and technical mission scenarios and propose a solution. To enable an accurate quantification of the risk in the operational GEO region a detailed assessment of the current and future status has been performed. This paper will present the results of this analysis, which includes a breakdown of the current utilisation of the GEO ring and an assessment of the satellite failures that have afflicted GEO satellites. Also considered are the general trends in the GEO market and the tendencies of satellite operators to remove their assets from the operational GEO region at the end of their useful life. All of these analyses are brought together in a GEO Simulator, which is designed to determine the collision risk in GEO and the effect that satellite failures, future launch traffic and re-orbiting trends have on this risk. Drawing on this assessment of current and future GEO utilisation, a list of potential ROGER mission scenarios has been generated. For each case the major technical issues are assessed with respect to the available technology, and cost and schedule implications are compared with economic issues such as sources of funding. In this way, cases for government and commercial funding of a ROGER mission are examined. This paper will present examples of such analyses and discuss the rationale

  14. GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper Performance Specifications and Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Petersen, William A.; Boldi, Robert A.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Bateman, Monte G.; Buchler, Dennis E.; McCaul, E. William, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a single channel, near-IR imager/optical transient event detector, used to detect, locate and measure total lightning activity over the full-disk. The next generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series will carry a GLM that will provide continuous day and night observations of lightning. The mission objectives for the GLM are to: (1) Provide continuous, full-disk lightning measurements for storm warning and nowcasting, (2) Provide early warning of tornadic activity, and (2) Accumulate a long-term database to track decadal changes of lightning. The GLM owes its heritage to the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (1997- present) and the Optical Transient Detector (1995-2000), which were developed for the Earth Observing System and have produced a combined 13 year data record of global lightning activity. GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms and applications. The science data will consist of lightning "events", "groups", and "flashes". The algorithm is being designed to be an efficient user of the computational resources. This may include parallelization of the code and the concept of sub-dividing the GLM FOV into regions to be processed in parallel. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds (e.g., Lightning Mapping Arrays in North Alabama, Oklahoma, Central Florida, and the Washington DC Metropolitan area) are being used to develop the prelaunch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution.

  15. Orbit analysis of a geostationary gravitational wave interferometer detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinto, Massimo; de Araujo, Jose C. N.; Kuga, Helio K.; Alves, Márcio E. S.; Aguiar, Odylio D.

    2015-09-01

    We analyze the trajectories of three geostationary satellites forming the geostationary gravitational wave interferometer (GEOGRAWI) [1], a space-based laser interferometer mission aiming to detect and study gravitational radiation in the (10-4-10) Hz band. The combined effects of the gravity fields of the Earth, the Sun and the Moon make the three satellites deviate from their nominally stationary, equatorial and equilateral configuration. Since changes in the satellites’s relative distances and orientations could negatively affect the precision of the laser heterodyne measurements, we have derived the time-dependence of the inter-satellite distances and velocities, the variations of the polar angles made by the constellation’s three arms with respect to a chosen reference frame and the time changes of the triangle’s enclosed angles. We find that during the time between two consecutive station-keeping maneuvers (about two weeks) the relative variations of the inter-satellite distances do not exceed a value of 0.05%, while the relative velocities between pairs of satellites remain smaller than about 0.7 m s-1. In addition, we find the angles made by the arms of the triangle with the equatorial plane to be periodic functions of time whose amplitudes grow linearly with time; the maximum variations experienced by these angles as well as by those within the triangle remain smaller than 3 arc-minutes, while the east-west angular variations of the three arms remain smaller than about 15 arc-minutes during the two-week period.

  16. Debris in the geostationary orbit ring, the endless shooting gallery: The necessity for a disposal policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suddeth, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    NASA is considering establishing a policy for the limitation of the physical crowding of the geostationary orbit. The proposed policy is intended to address the following issues: (1) deal only with geostationary altitudes; (2) illustrate the unique value and usefulness of the geostationary orbit ring; (3) describe the orbital dynamics as simply as possible; (4) describe the current spacecraft and debris situation; (5) briefly review current industry and agency policies; (6) project future trends of physical crowding with the present nonpolicy; (7) propose solutions that can be implemented in the near future; and (8) use previous work as much as desirable.

  17. Metformin represses bladder cancer progression by inhibiting stem cell repopulation via COX2/PGE2/STAT3 axis

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Dali; Liu, Gaolei; Lan, Weihua; Zhang, Dianzheng; Xiao, Hualiang; Zhang, Yao; Huang, Zaoming; Yang, Junjie; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a sub-population of tumor cells playing essential roles in initiation, differentiation, recurrence, metastasis and development of drug resistance of various cancers, including bladder cancer. Although multiple lines of evidence suggest that metformin is capable of repressing CSC repopulation in different cancers, the effect of metformin on bladder cancer CSCs remains largely unknown. Using the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced rat orthotropic bladder cancer model, we demonstrated that metformin is capable of repressing bladder cancer progression from both mild to moderate/severe dysplasia lesions and from carcinoma in situ (CIS) to invasive lesions. Metformin also can arrest bladder cancer cells in G1/S phases, which subsequently leads to apoptosis. And also metformin represses bladder cancer CSC repopulation evidenced by reducing cytokeratin 14 (CK14+) and octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (OCT3/4+) cells in both animal and cellular models. More importantly, we found that metformin exerts these anticancer effects by inhibiting COX2, subsequently PGE2 as well as the activation of STAT3. In conclusion, we are the first to systemically demonstrate in both animal and cell models that metformin inhibits bladder cancer progression by inhibiting stem cell repopulation through the COX2/PGE2/STAT3 axis. PMID:27058422

  18. Activation of the GP130-STAT3 axis and its potential implications in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hae-Ki; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Verdianelli, Aurora; Pacana, Tommy; Patel, Vaishali; Park, Chun-Geon; Choi, Aejin; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Chung-Berm; Ren, Shunlin

    2015-01-01

    The status of the GP130-STAT3 signaling pathway in humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its relevance to disease pathogenesis are unknown. The expression of the gp130-STAT3 axis and gp130 cytokine receptors were studied in subjects with varying phenotypes of NAFLD including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and compared with lean and weight-matched controls without NAFLD. Gp130 and its downstream signaling element (Tyk2 and STAT3) expression were inhibited in obese controls whereas they were increased in NAFLD. IL-6 levels were increased in NASH and correlated with gp130 expression (P < 0.01). Palmitate inhibited gp130-STAT3 expression and signaling. IL-6 and palmitate inhibited hepatic insulin signaling via STAT3-dependent and independent mechanisms, respectively. STAT3 overexpression reversed palmitate-induced lipotoxicity by increasing autophagy (ATG7) and decreasing endoplasmic reticulum stress. These data demonstrate that the STAT3 pathway is activated in NAFLD and can worsen insulin resistance while protecting against other lipotoxic mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. PMID:25747354

  19. Metformin inhibits castration-induced EMT in prostate cancer by repressing COX2/PGE2/STAT3 axis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Dali; Liu, Qiuli; Liu, Gaolei; Xu, Jing; Lan, Weihua; Jiang, Yao; Xiao, Hualiang; Zhang, Dianzheng; Jiang, Jun

    2017-03-28

    Castration is the standard therapeutic treatment for advanced prostate cancer but with limited benefit due to the profound relapse and metastasis. Activation of inflammatory signaling pathway and initiation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are closely related to drug resistance, tumor relapseas well as metastasis. In this study, we demonstrated that metformin is capable of inhibiting prostate cancer cell migration and invasion by repressing EMT evidenced by downregulating the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, Vimentin, and Twist and upregulating the epithelium E-cadherin. These effects have also been observed in our animal model as well as prostate cancer patients. In addition, we showed the effects of metformin on the expression of genes involved in EMT through repressing the levels of COX2, PGE2 and phosphorylated STAT3. Furthermore, inactivating COX2 abolishes metformin's regulatory effects and exogenously administered PGE2 is capable of enhancing STAT3 phosphorylation and expression of EMT biomarker. We propose that metformin represses prostate cancer EMT and metastasis through targeting the COX2/PGE2/STAT3 axis. These findings suggest that metformin by itself or in combination with other anticancer drugs could be used as an anti-metastasis therapy.

  20. Geostationary platform systems concepts definition study. Volume 2A: Appendixes, book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Appendixes addressing various aspects of a geostationary platform concepts definition study are given. Communication platform traffic requirements, video conferencing forecast, intersatellite link capacity requirements, link budgets, payload data, payload assignments, and platform synthesis are addressed.

  1. Remote Sensing from Geostationary Orbit: GEO TROPSAT, A New Concept for Atmospheric Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Alan D.; Neil, Doreen O.; Sachse, Glen W.; Fishman, Jack; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1997-01-01

    The Geostationary Tropospheric Pollution Satellite (GEO TROPSAT) mission is a new approach to measuring the critical constituents of tropospheric ozone chemistry: ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and aerosols. The GEO TROPSAT mission comprises a constellation of three instruments flying as secondary payloads on geostationary communications satellites around the world. This proposed approach can significantly reduce the cost of getting a science payload to geostationary orbit and also generates revenue for the satellite owners. The geostationary vantage point enables simultaneous high temporal and spatial resolution measurement of tropospheric trace gases, leading to greatly improved atmospheric ozone chemistry knowledge. The science data processing, conducted as a research (not operational) activity, will provide atmospheric trace gas data many times per day over the same region at better than 25 km ground footprint. The high temporal resolution identifies short time scale processes, diurnal variations, seasonal trends, and interannual variation.

  2. A CubeSat Mission for Mapping Spot Beams of Geostationary Communications Satellites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    Gate Array G-28 = Intelsat Galaxy 28 G-II = Geostationary Communications Satellite No. 2 GEO = Geostationary Earth Orbit GGA = Global...0.00108263). Additional perturbing forces such as aerodynamic drag and solar radiation pressure act on low-earth orbiting spacecraft as well, however...R. Hodges, B. Shah, D. Muthulingham and T. Freeman, "ISARA - Integrated Solar Array and Reflectarray Mission Overview," in AIAA/USU Conference on

  3. Geostationary platform systems concepts definition study. Volume 2: Technical, book 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The supporting research and technology, and space demonstrations required to support the 1990s operational geostationary platforms are identified. Also the requirements on and interfaces with the Space Transportation System hardware elements supporting the geostationary platform program, including the shuttle, orbital transfer vehicles, teleoperator, etc., are investigated to provide integrated support requirements. Finally, a preliminary evaluation of the practicability and capabilities of an experimental platform from the standpoint of technology, schedule, and cost is given.

  4. Comparison of winter-nocturnal geostationary satellite infrared-surface temperature with shelter-height temperature in Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, E.; Allen, L. H., Jr.; Bartholic, J. F.; Gerber, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Geostationary satellite surface temperatures derived from a Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer (VISSR) sensor (10.5 to 12.6 microns) were compared with 1.5-m air temperatures collected by a thermocouple on a traversing vehicle along rural highway transects in Florida, and with two fixed thermographs located in rural and agricultural areas. Statistical comparisons between satellite and 1.5-m observations yielded a mean correlation coefficient of 0.87 and an average sample standard deviation from regression of 1.57 C during clear nights for four winters (1978-1981). The satellite-temperature image of Lake Okeechobee was compared with its geographic outline for areal image registration. Manual overlays of temporal images were repeatable to within one pixel. Satellite-sensed water temperature of Lake Okeechobee was used as an indicator of satellite radiometer repeatability and stability.

  5. Control of geostationary spacecraft in orbital plane using a low thrust engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmin, Vadim V.; Chetverikov, Alexey S.

    2017-01-01

    The control algorithm for the parameters of the geostationary spacecraft orbit was developed using low-thrust engine. We consider only flat parameters determining the geostationary spacecraft's position in the orbit plane, namely, orbital period, eccentricity and longitude point of standing. The terminal control problem of geostationary spacecraft has been stated. It is assumed that the corrective maneuver is implemented by creating a small transversal acceleration using electric low-thruster. There is a developed discrete model of the geostationary spacecraft motion in the orbit plane under the influence of small transversal acceleration. The solution of this problem involving the use of the traditional dynamic programming method based on the use of Bellman equation is difficult to obtain, because the discrete model of geostationary spacecraft motion is a nonlinear system of equations. Therefore, the paper proposes approximate scheme for solving the problem based on the three-step algorithm of terminal control of the orbital period, eccentricity and longitude point of standing. The solution of the plane problem of the terminal control has been obtained in the analytical form. Analytical expressions for the cost estimate of characteristic speed of corrective maneuver have been obtained. When modeling the motion of a geostationary spacecraft under the influence of a small transversal acceleration the algorithm has showed high accuracy of solving the terminal control problem.

  6. Endothelial apoptosis in pulmonary hypertension is controlled by a microRNA/programmed cell death 4/caspase-3 axis.

    PubMed

    White, Kevin; Dempsie, Yvonne; Caruso, Paola; Wallace, Emma; McDonald, Robert A; Stevens, Hannah; Hatley, Mark E; Van Rooij, Eva; Morrell, Nicholas W; MacLean, Margaret R; Baker, Andrew H

    2014-07-01

    Pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis is a transient, yet defining pathogenic event integral to the onset of many pulmonary vascular diseases such as pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, there is a paucity of information concerning the molecular pathway(s) that control pulmonary arterial endothelial cell apoptosis. Here, we introduce a molecular axis that when functionally active seems to induce pulmonary arterial endothelial cell apoptosis in vitro and PH in vivo. In response to apoptotic stimuli, human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells exhibited robust induction of a programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4)/caspase-3/apoptotic pathway that was reversible by direct PDCD4 silencing. Indirectly, this pathway was also repressed by delivery of a microRNA-21 mimic. In vivo, genetic deletion of microRNA-21 in mice (miR-21(-/-) mice) resulted in functional activation of the PDCD4/caspase-3 axis in the pulmonary tissues, leading to the onset of progressive PH. Conversely, microRNA-21-overexpressing mice (CAG-microRNA-21 mice) exhibited reduced PDCD4 expression in pulmonary tissues and were partially resistant to PH in response to chronic hypoxia plus SU 5416 injury. Furthermore, direct PDCD4 knockout in mice (PDCD4(-/-) mice) potently blocked pulmonary caspase-3 activation and the development of chronic hypoxia plus SU 5416 PH, confirming its importance in disease onset. Broadly, these findings support the existence of a microRNA-21-responsive PDCD4/caspase-3 pathway in the pulmonary tissues that when active serves to promote endothelial apoptosis in vitro and PH in vivo.

  7. Transport of the plasma sheet electrons to the geostationary distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganushkina, N. Y.; Amariutei, O. A.; Shprits, Y.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    The transport and acceleration of low energy electrons (10-250 keV) from the plasma sheet to the geostationary orbit were investigated. Two moderate storm events, which occurred on November 6-7, 1997 and June 12-14, 2005, were modeled using the Inner Magnetosphere Particle Transport and Acceleration model (IMPTAM) with the boundary set at 10 RE in the plasma sheet. The output of the IMPTAM model was compared to the observed electron fluxes in four energy ranges measured onboard the LANL spacecraft by the SOPA instrument. It was found that the large-scale convection in combination with substorm-associated impulsive fields are the drivers of the transport of plasma sheet electrons from 10 RE to geostationary orbit at 6.6 RE during storm times. The addition of radial diffusion had no significant influence on the modeled electron fluxes. At the same time, comparison between the modeled electron fluxes and observed ones showed two orders of difference most likely due to inaccuracy of electron boundary conditions and omission of the important loss processes due to wave-particle interactions. This did not allow us to accuractly reproduce the dynamics of 150-225 keV electron fluxes. The choice of the large-scale convection electric field model used in simulations did not significantly influence on the modeled electron fluxes, since there is not much difference between the equipotential contours given by the Volland-Stern and Boyle et al. [1997] models at the distances from 10 to 6.6 RE in the plasma sheet. Using the TS05 model for the background magnetic field instead of the T96 model resulted in larger deviations of the modeled electron fluxes from the observed ones due to specific features of the TS05 model. The increase in the modeled electron fluxes can be as large as three orders of magnitude when substorm-associated electromagnetic fields were taken into account. The obtained model distribution of low energy electron fluxes can be used as an input to the radiation

  8. Transport of the plasma sheet electrons to the geostationary distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganushkina, N. Y.; Amariutei, O. A.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<p label="1">The transport and acceleration of low-energy electrons (50-250 keV) from the plasma sheet to the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit were investigated. Two moderate storm events, which occurred on 6-7 November 1997 and 12-14 June 2005, were modeled using the Inner Magnetosphere Particle Transport and Acceleration model (IMPTAM) with the boundary set at 10 RE in the plasma sheet. The output of the IMPTAM was compared to the observed electron fluxes in four energy ranges (50-225 keV) measured by the Synchronous Orbit Particle Analyzer instrument onboard the Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft. It was found that the large-scale convection in combination with substorm-associated impulsive fields is the drivers of the transport of plasma sheet electrons from 10 RE to <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit at 6.6 RE during storm times. The addition of radial diffusion had no significant influence on the modeled electron fluxes. At the same time, the modeled electron fluxes are one (two) order(s) smaller than the observed ones for 50-150 keV (150-225 keV) electrons, respectively, most likely due to inaccuracy of electron boundary conditions. The loss processes due to wave-particle interactions were not considered. The choice of the large-scale convection electric field model used in simulations did not have a significant influence on the modeled electron fluxes, since there is not much difference between the equipotential contours given by the Volland-Stern and the Boyle et al. (1997) models at distances from 10 to 6.6 RE in the plasma sheet. Using the TS05 model for the background magnetic field instead of the T96 model resulted in larger deviations of the modeled electron fluxes from the observed ones due to specific features of the TS05 model. The increase in the modeled electron fluxes can be as large as two orders of magnitude when substorm-associated electromagnetic fields were taken into account. The obtained model distribution of low-energy electron</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.128..262W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.128..262W"><span>Dynamical modeling and lifetime analysis of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> transfer orbits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yue; Gurfil, Pini</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The dynamics and lifetime reduction of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> transfer orbits (GTOs) are of great importance to space debris mitigation. The orbital dynamics, subjected to a complex interplay of multiple perturbations, are complicated and sensitive to the initial conditions and model parameters. In this paper, a simple but effective non-singular orbital dynamics model in terms of Milankovitch elements is derived. The orbital dynamics, which include the Earth oblateness, luni-solar perturbations, and atmospheric drag, are averaged over the orbital motion of the GTO object, or, as needed, also over the orbital motions of the Moon and Sun, to eliminate the short-period terms. After the averaging process, the effect of the atmospheric drag assumes a simple analytical form. The averaged orbital model is verified through a numerical simulation compared with commercial orbit propagators. GTO lifetime reduction by using the luni-solar perturbations is studied. It is shown that the long-period luni-solar perturbation is induced by the precession of the GTO orbital plane and apsidal line, whereas the short-period perturbation is induced by the periodic luni-solar orbital motions. The long- and short-period perturbations are isolated and studied separately, and their global distribution with respect to the orbital geometry is given. The desired initial orbital geometry with a short orbital lifetime is found and verified by a numerical simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.3085R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.3085R"><span>Monitoring Snow Using <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Retrievals During the SAAWSO Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rabin, Robert M.; Gultepe, Ismail; Kuligowski, Robert J.; Heidinger, Andrew K.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The SAAWSO (Satellite Applications for Arctic Weather and SAR (Search And Rescue) Operations) field programs were conducted by Environment Canada near St. Johns, NL and Goose Bay, NL in the winters of 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively. The goals of these programs were to validate satellite-based nowcasting products, including snow amount, wind intensity, and cloud physical parameters (e.g., cloud cover), over northern latitudes with potential applications to Search And Rescue (SAR) operations. Ground-based in situ sensors and remote sensing platforms were used to measure microphysical properties of precipitation, clouds and fog, radiation, temperature, moisture and wind profiles. Multi-spectral infrared observations obtained from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-13 provided estimates of cloud top temperature and height, phase (water, ice), hydrometer size, extinction, optical depth, and horizontal wind patterns at 15 min intervals. In this work, a technique developed for identifying clouds capable of producing high snowfall rates and incorporating wind information from the satellite observations is described. The cloud top physical properties retrieved from operational satellite observations are validated using measurements obtained from the ground-based in situ and remote sensing platforms collected during two precipitation events: a blizzard heavy snow storm case and a moderate snow event. The retrieved snow precipitation rates are found to be comparable to those of ground-based platform measurements in the heavy snow event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080012643','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080012643"><span>A General Approach to the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Transfer Orbit Mission Recovery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Faber, Nicolas; Aresini, Andrea; Wauthier, Pascal; Francken, Philippe</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This paper discusses recovery scenarios for geosynchronous satellites injected in a non-nominal orbit due to a launcher underperformance. The theory on minimum-fuel orbital transfers is applied to develop an operational tool capable to design a recovery mission. To obtain promising initial guesses for the recovery three complementary techniques are used: p-optimized impulse function contouring, a numerical impulse function minimization and the solutions to the switching equations. The tool evaluates the feasibility of a recovery with the on-board propellant of the spacecraft and performs the complete mission design. This design takes into account for various mission operational constraints such as e.g., the requirement of multiple finite-duration burns, third-body orbital perturbations, spacecraft attitude constraints and ground station visibility. In a final case study, we analyze the consequences of a premature breakdown of an upper rocket stage engine during injection on a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> transfer orbit, as well as the possible recovery solution with the satellite on-board propellant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JASS...14..136Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JASS...14..136Y"><span>Precise Orbit Propagation of <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Using Cowell's Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoon, Jae-Cheol; Choi, Kyu-Hong; Kim, Eun-Kyou</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>To calculate the position and velocity of the artificial satellite precisely, one has to broil a mathematical model concerning the perturbations by understanding and analysing the space environment correctly and then quantifying. Due to these space environment model, the total acceleration of the artificial satellite can be expressed as the 2nd order differential equation and we build an orbit propagation algorithm by integrating twice this equation by using the Cowell's method which gives the position arid velocity of th artificial satellite at any given time. Perturbations important for the orbits of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> spacecraft are the Earth's gravitational potential, the gravitational influence of the sun and moon, and the solar radiation pressure. For precise orbit propagation in Cowell' method, 40 x 40 spherical harmonic coefficients cal be applied and the JPL DE403 ephemeris files were used to generate the range from earth to sun and moo and 8th order Runge-Kutta single step method with variable step-size control is use to integrate the orbit propagation equations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950021377','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950021377"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 mission flight experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Noonan, C. H.; Mcintosh, R. J.; Rowe, J. N.; Defazio, R. L.; Galal, K. F.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 spacecraft was launched on April 13, 1994, at 06:04:02 coordinated universal time (UTC), with separation from the Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle occurring at 06:33:05 UTC. The launch was followed by a series of complex, intense operations to maneuver the spacecraft into its geosynchronous mission orbit. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) was responsible for GOES-8 attitude, orbit maneuver, orbit determination, and station acquisition support during the ascent phase. This paper summarizes the efforts of the FDF support teams and highlights some of the unique challenges the launch team faced during critical GOES-8 mission support. FDF operations experience discussed includes: (1) The abort of apogee maneuver firing-1 (AMF-1), cancellation of AMF-3, and the subsequent replans of the maneuver profile; (2) The unexpectedly large temperature dependence of the digital integrating rate assembly (DIRA) and its effect on GOES-8 attitude targeting in support of perigee raising maneuvers; (3) The significant effect of attitude control thrusting on GOES-8 orbit determination solutions; (4) Adjustment of the trim tab to minimize torque due to solar radiation pressure; and (5) Postlaunch analysis performed to estimate the GOES-8 separation attitude. The paper also discusses some key FDF GOES-8 lessons learned to be considered for the GOES-J launch which is currently scheduled for May 19, 1995.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015amos.confE..30V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015amos.confE..30V"><span>Developing <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Imaging at the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Belle, G.; von Braun, K.; Armstrong, J. T.; Baines, E. K.; Schmitt, H. R.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Elias, N.; Mozurkewich, D.; Oppenheimer, R.; Restaino, S.</p> <p></p> <p>The Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI) is a six-beam long-baseline optical interferometer, located in Flagstaff, Arizona; the facility is operated by a partnership between Lowell Observatory, the US Naval Observatory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. NPOI operates every night of the year (except holidays) in the visible with baselines between 8 and 100 meters (up to 432m is available), conducting programs of astronomical research and technology development for the partners. NPOI is the only such facility as yet to directly observe <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites, enabling milliarcsecond resolution of these objects. To enhance this capability towards true imaging of geosats, a program of facility upgrades will be outlined. These upgrades include AO-assisted large apertures feeding each beam line, new visible and near-infrared instrumentation on the back end, and infrastructure supporting baseline-wavelength bootstrapping which takes advantage of the spectral and morphological features of geosats. The large apertures will enable year-round observations of objects brighter than 10th magnitude in the near-IR. At its core, the system is enabled by a approach that tracks the low-resolution (and thus, high signal-to-noise), bright near-IR fringes between aperture pairs, allowing multi-aperture phasing for high-resolution visible light imaging. A complementary program of visible speckle and aperture masked imaging at Lowell's 4.3-m Discovery Channel Telescope, for constraining the low-spatial frequency imaging information, will also be outlined, including results from a pilot imaging study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3509L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3509L"><span>The Development of <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Microwave Observation in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>LU, Naimeng; GUO, Yang; GU, Songyan; WU, Xuebao; LI, Xiaoqing</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Great achievements have been made in the regime of microwave observation from polar orbiting meteorological satellites and their microwave data have been successfully used in the retrieval of precipitation and temperature/humidity profile, as well as data assimilation. But right now, there is no microwave observation in GEO due to its technical difficulty even through some plans such as GEM, GOMAS were proposed. The plan to develop microwave instruments for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellites have been approved by Chinese government and this presentation will introduce the status of its development, including the requirement consideration, microwave forward model simulation, the retrieval of precipitation, instrument specification, potential data application.. The followings are concluded in this presentation, •Microwave observation on GEO will greatly improve the capacity of current meteorological satellites •The 54GHz and 183GHz bands are on the top of the priority for temperature and humidity profiling, followed by 118, 425 and 325,380 GHz respectively. •Combined the 54 and 183 band together, better precipitation retrieval results could be expected •Regarding the strong convective precipitation retrieval, the 54GHz and 183GHz bands can provide basic information for precipitation retrieval and the improvement with additional window channels is not very significant. •The satisfied resolution for precipitation estimation is 5 to 10 Km and the tolerant value is 50km.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120008940','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120008940"><span>Crew Transfer Options for Servicing of <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cerro, Jeffrey A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In 2011, NASA and DARPA undertook a study to examine capabilities and system architecture options which could be used to provide manned servicing of satellites in <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Earth Orbit (GEO). The study focused on understanding the generic nature of the problem and examining technology requirements, it was not for the purpose of proposing or justifying particular solutions. A portion of this study focused on assessing possible capabilities to efficiently transfer crew between Earth, Low Earth Orbit (LEO), and GEO satellite servicing locations. This report summarizes the crew transfer aspects of manned GEO satellite servicing. Direct placement of crew via capsule vehicles was compared to concepts of operation which divided crew transfer into multiple legs, first between earth and LEO and second between LEO and GEO. In space maneuvering via purely propulsive means was compared to in-space maneuvering which utilized aerobraking maneuvers for return to LEO from GEO. LEO waypoint locations such as equatorial, Kennedy Space Center, and International Space Station inclinations were compared. A discussion of operational concepts is followed by a discussion of appropriate areas for technology development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940026152','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940026152"><span>Time transfer using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites: Implementation of a Kalman filter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meyer, F.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Since 1988, various experiments have shown that the TV signals transmitted by direct TV satellites may easily be used to perform time transfers at the level of a few tens of nanoseconds, the main source of error being the uncertainty on the satellite position. We first present the two methods used in our experiment to reduce the effects of the satellite residual motion: the first one consists in estimating the longitude variations of the satellite and then using this information to improve other measurements. This allows reducing the uncertainty to values between 9 and 50 nanoseconds according to the position of the involved stations. In the second method we determine the satellite position by using the data collected by three calibrated stations. Time transfer between each of these stations and a fourth one has been shown to be achievable at the precision level of ten nanoseconds. A new approach based on the use of a Kalman filter is proposed in order to take into account the dynamics of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite. The precisions on orbital elements and clock differences and rates determination given by the first simulated applications of the Kalman filter are presented and compared to those obtained by the other methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E.537E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E.537E"><span>Effect of Ionosphere on <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Communication Satellite Signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erdem, Esra; Arikan, Feza; Gulgonul, Senol</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> orbit (GEO) communications satellites allow radio, television, and telephone transmissions to be sent live anywhere in the world. They are extremely important in daily life and also for military applications. Since, satellite communication is an expensive technology addressing crowd of people, it is critical to improve the performance of this technology. GEO satellites are at 35,786 kilometres from Earth's surface situated directly over the equator. A satellite in a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit (GEO) appears to stand still in the sky, in a fixed position with respect to an observer on the earth, because the satellite's orbital period is the same as the rotation rate of the Earth. The advantage of this orbit is that ground antennas can be fixed to point towards to satellite without their having to track the satellite's motion. Radio frequency ranges used in satellite communications are C, X, Ku, Ka and even EHG and V-band. Satellite signals are disturbed by atmospheric effects on the path between the satellite and the receiver antenna. These effects are mostly rain, cloud and gaseous attenuation. It is expected that ionosphere has a minor effect on the satellite signals when the ionosphere is quiet. But there are anomalies and perturbations on the structure of ionosphere with respect to geomagnetic field and solar activity and these conditions may cause further affects on the satellite signals. In this study IONOLAB-RAY algorithm is adopted to examine the effect of ionosphere on satellite signals. IONOLAB-RAY is developed to calculate propagation path and characteristics of high frequency signals. The algorithm does not have any frequency limitation and models the plasmasphere up to 20,200 km altitude, so that propagation between a GEO satellite and antenna on Earth can be simulated. The algorithm models inhomogeneous, anisotropic and time dependent structure of the ionosphere with a 3-D spherical grid geometry and calculates physical parameters of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSpR..56..388C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSpR..56..388C"><span>A study of the main resonances outside the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> ring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Celletti, Alessandra; Galeş, Cătălin</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We investigate the dynamics of satellites and space debris in external resonances, namely in the region outside the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> ring. Precisely, we focus on the 1:2, 1:3, 2:3 resonances, which are located at about 66 931.4 km, 87 705.0 km, 55 250.7 km, respectively. Some of these resonances have been already exploited in space missions, like XMM-Newton and Integral. Our study is mainly based on a Hamiltonian approach, which allows us to get fast and reliable information on the dynamics in the resonant regions. Significative results are obtained even by considering just the effect of the geopotential in the Hamiltonian formulation. For objects (typically space debris) with high area-to-mass ratio the Hamiltonian includes also the effect of the solar radiation pressure. In addition, we perform a comparison with the numerical integration in Cartesian variables, including the geopotential, the gravitational attraction of Sun and Moon, and the solar radiation pressure. We implement some simple mathematical tools that allows us to get information on the terms which are dominant in the Fourier series expansion of the Hamiltonian around a given resonance, on the amplitude of the resonant islands and on the location of the equilibrium points. We also compute the Fast Lyapunov Indicators, which provide a cartography of the resonant regions, yielding the main dynamical features associated to the external resonances. We apply these techniques to analyze the 1:2, 1:3, 2:3 resonances; we consider also the case of objects with large area-to-mass ratio and we provide an application to the case studies given by XMM-Newton and Integral.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.777E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.777E"><span>Time Resolved Atmospheric Carbon Satellite Observations from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edwards, David; Worden, Helen</p> <p></p> <p>This presentation describes proposed satellite carbon measurements from CHRONOS (Commercially Hosted spectroRadiometer Observations and New Opportunities for Science). The primary goal of this mission is to measure the atmospheric pollutants carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit, with hourly observations of North America at high spatial resolution. Carbon monoxide is produced by combustion processes such as urban activity and wildfires, and serves as a proxy for other combustion pollutants that are not easily measured. Both CO and CH4 are chemical precursors of tropospheric ozone pollution. Methane has diverse anthropogenic sources ranging from fossil fuel production, animal husbandry, agriculture and waste management. The impact of gas exploration in the Western States of the USA and oil extraction from the Canadian tar sands will be particular foci of the mission, as will the poorly-quantified natural CH4 emissions from wetlands and thawing permafrost. In addition to characterizing pollutant sources, improved understanding of the domestic CH4 budget is a priority for policy decisions related to short-lived climate forcers. A primary motivation for targeting CO is its value as a tracer of atmospheric pollution. The CHRONOS measurements will provide insight into local and long-range transport across the North American continent, as well as the processes governing the entrainment and venting of pollution in and out of the planetary boundary layer. As a result of significantly improved characterization of diurnal changes in atmospheric composition, CHRONOS observations will find direct societal applications for air quality regulation and forecasting. We present a quantification of this expected improvement in the prediction of near-surface concentrations when CHRONOS measurements are used in Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). If CHRONOS and the planned NASA Earth Venture TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11A0023L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11A0023L"><span>Icing detection from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite data using machine learning approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, J.; Ha, S.; Sim, S.; Im, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Icing can cause a significant structural damage to aircraft during flight, resulting in various aviation accidents. Icing studies have been typically performed using two approaches: one is a numerical model-based approach and the other is a remote sensing-based approach. The model based approach diagnoses aircraft icing using numerical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, and vertical thermodynamic structure. This approach tends to over-estimate icing according to the literature. The remote sensing-based approach typically uses meteorological satellite/ground sensor data such as <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and Dual-Polarization radar data. This approach detects icing areas by applying thresholds to parameters such as liquid water path and cloud optical thickness derived from remote sensing data. In this study, we propose an aircraft icing detection approach which optimizes thresholds for L1B bands and/or Cloud Optical Thickness (COT) from Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite-Meteorological Imager (COMS MI) and newly launched Himawari-8 Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) over East Asia. The proposed approach uses machine learning algorithms including decision trees (DT) and random forest (RF) for optimizing thresholds of L1B data and/or COT. Pilot Reports (PIREPs) from South Korea and Japan were used as icing reference data. Results show that RF produced a lower false alarm rate (1.5%) and a higher overall accuracy (98.8%) than DT (8.5% and 75.3%), respectively. The RF-based approach was also compared with the existing COMS MI and GOES-R icing mask algorithms. The agreements of the proposed approach with the existing two algorithms were 89.2% and 45.5%, respectively. The lower agreement with the GOES-R algorithm was possibly due to the high uncertainty of the cloud phase product from COMS MI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A12C..04E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A12C..04E"><span>Time Resolved Atmospheric Carbon Satellite Observations from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edwards, D. P.; Worden, H. M.; Deeter, M. N.; Worden, H. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>This presentation describes proposed satellite carbon measurements from CHRONOS (Commercially Hosted spectroRadiometer Observations and New Opportunities for Science). The primary goal of this mission is to measure the atmospheric pollutants carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit, with hourly observations of North America at high spatial resolution. Carbon monoxide is produced by combustion processes such as urban activity and wildfires, and serves as a proxy for other combustion pollutants that are not easily measured. Both CO and CH4 are chemical precursors of tropospheric ozone pollution. Methane has diverse anthropogenic sources ranging from fossil fuel production, animal husbandry, agriculture and waste management. The impact of gas exploration in the Western States of the USA and oil extraction from the Canadian tar sands will be particular foci of the mission, as will the poorly-quantified natural CH4 emissions from wetlands and thawing permafrost. In addition to characterizing pollutant sources, improved understanding of the domestic CH4 budget is a priority for policy decisions related to short-lived climate forcers. A primary motivation for targeting CO is its value as a tracer of atmospheric pollution. The CHRONOS measurements will provide insight into local and long-range transport across the North American continent, as well as the processes governing the entrainment and venting of pollution in and out of the planetary boundary layer. As a result of significantly improved characterization of diurnal changes in atmospheric composition, CHRONOS observations will find direct societal applications for air quality regulation and forecasting. We present a quantification of this expected improvement in the prediction of near-surface concentrations when CHRONOS measurements are used in Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). If CHRONOS and the planned NASA Earth Venture TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960008976','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960008976"><span>Investigation of water vapor motion winds from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Velden, Christopher S.; Nieman, Steven J.; Wanzong, Steven</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Water vapor imagery from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites has been available for over a decade. These data are used extensively by operational analysts and forecasters, mainly in a qualitative mode (Weldon and Holmes 1991). In addition to qualitative applications, motions deduced in animated water vapor imagery can be used to infer wind fields in cloudless regimes, thereby augmenting the information provided by cloud-drift wind vectors. Early attempts at quantifying the data by tracking features in water vapor imagery met with modest success (Stewart et al. 1985; Hayden and Stewart 1987). More recently, automated techniques have been developed and refined, and have resulted in upper-level wind observations comparable in quality to current operational cloud-tracked winds (Laurent 1993). In a recent study by Velden et al. (1993) it was demonstrated that wind sets derived from Meteosat-3 (M-3) water vapor imagery can provide important environmental wind information in data void areas surrounding tropical cyclones, and can positively impact objective track forecasts. M-3 was repositioned to 75W by the European Space Agency in 1992 in order to provide complete coverage of the Atlantic Ocean. Data from this satellite are being transmitted to the U.S. for operational use. Compared with the current GOES-7 (G-7) satellite (positioned near 112W), the M-3 water vapor channel contains a superior horizontal resolution (5 km vs. 16 km ). In this paper, we examine wind sets derived using automated procedures from both GOES-7 and Meteosat-3 full disk water vapor imagery in order to assess this data as a potentially important source of large-scale wind information. As part of a product demonstration wind sets were produced twice a day at CIMSS during a six-week period in March and April (1994). These data sets are assessed in terms of geographic coverage, statistical accuracy, and meteorological impact through preliminary results of numerical model forecast studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.2962D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.2962D"><span>Mass density at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit and apparent mass refilling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Denton, R. E.; Takahashi, Kazue; Amoh, Justice; Singer, H. J.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We used the inferred equatorial mass density ρm,eq based on measurements of Alfvén wave frequencies measured by the GOES satellites during 1980-1991 in order to construct a number of different models of varying complexity for the equatorial mass density at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. The most complicated models are able to account for 66% of the variance with a typical variation from actual values of a factor of 1.56. The factors that influenced ρm,eq in the models were, in order of decreasing importance, the F10.7 EUV index, magnetic local time, the solar wind dynamic pressure Pdyn, the phase of the year, and the solar wind BZ (GSM Z direction). During some intervals, some of which were especially geomagnetically quiet, ρm,eq rose to values that were significantly higher than those predicted by our models. For 10 especially quiet intervals, we examined long-term (>1 day) apparent refilling, the increase in ρm,eq at a fixed location. We found that the behavior of ρm,eq varies for different events. In some cases, there is significant apparent refilling, whereas in other cases ρm,eq stays the same or even decreases slightly. Nevertheless, we showed that on average, ρm,eq increases exponentially during quiet intervals. There is variation of apparent refilling with respect to the phase of the solar cycle. On the third day of apparent refilling, ρm,eq has on average a similar value at solar maximum or solar minimum, but at solar maximum, ρm,eq begins with a larger value and rises relatively less than at solar minimum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23A0894H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23A0894H"><span>A uniform <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> visible calibration approach to achieve a climate quality dataset</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haney, C.; Doelling, D.; Bhatt, R.; Scarino, B. R.; Gopalan, A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) weather satellite visible and IR image record has surpassed 30 years. They have been preserved in the ISCCP-B1U 3-hourly dataset and other archives such as McIDAS, EUMETSAT, and NOAA CLASS. Since they were designed to aid in weather forecasting, long-term calibration <span class="hlt">stability</span> was not a high priority. All GEO imagers lack onboard visible calibration and suffer from optical degradation after they are launched. In order to piece together the 35+ GEO satellite record both in time and space, a uniform calibration approach is desired to remove individual GEO temporal trends, as well as GEO spectral band differences. Otherwise, any artificial discontinuities caused by sequential GEO satellite records or spurious temporal trends caused by optical degradation may be interpreted as a change in climate. The approach relies on multiple independent methods to reduce the overall uncertainty of the GEO calibration coefficients. Consistency among methods validates the approach. During the MODIS record (2000 to the present) the GEO satellites are inter-calibrated against MODIS using ray-matched or bore-sighted radiance pairs. The MODIS and the VIIRS follow on instruments are equipped with onboard calibration thereby providing a stable calibration reference. The GEO spectral band differences are accounted for using a Spectral Band Adjustment Factor (SBAF) based on hyper-spectral SCIAMACHY data. During the pre-MODIS era, invariant earth targets of deserts and deep convective clouds (DCC) are used. Since GEO imagers have maintained their imaging scan schedules, GEO desert and DCC bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) can be constructed and validated during the MODIS era. The BRDF models can then be applied to historical GEO imagers. Consistency among desert and DCC GEO calibration gains validates the approach. This approach has been applied to the GEO record beginning in 1985 and the results will be presented at the meeting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA474388','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA474388"><span>Characterization, Optimization, and Test of the NPSAT1 MEMS <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">Axis</span> Rate Sensor Suite for Use in Small Satellite Attitude Control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>conceived of as a low- cost , low-mass augmentation to the magnetometer for use by the Attitude Control System (ACS). The experiment is to test the...rate sensor suite is fully tested and characterized. Experimental testing proves the sensor suite’s effectiveness as a low- cost , low-mass...MEMS sensors together makes a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">axis</span> rate sensor suite. The MEMS experiment was originally conceived of as a low- cost , low-mass augmentation to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018264','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018264"><span>ESA personal communications and digital audio broadcasting systems based on non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Logalbo, P.; Benedicto, J.; Viola, R.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Personal Communications and Digital Audio Broadcasting are two new services that the European Space Agency (ESA) is investigating for future European and Global Mobile Satellite systems. ESA is active in promoting these services in their various mission options including non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite systems. A Medium Altitude Global Satellite System (MAGSS) for global personal communications at L and S-band, and a Multiregional Highly inclined Elliptical Orbit (M-HEO) system for multiregional digital audio broadcasting at L-band are described. Both systems are being investigated by ESA in the context of future programs, such as Archimedes, which are intended to demonstrate the new services and to develop the technology for future non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile communication and broadcasting satellites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970022136','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970022136"><span>Advanced Propulsion for <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Orbit Insertion and North-South Station Keeping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Oleson, Steven R.; Myers, Roger M.; Kluever, Craig A.; Riehl, John P.; Curran, Francis M.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Solar electric propulsion technology is currently being used for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite station keeping. Analyses show that electric propulsion technologies can be used to obtain additional increases in payload mass by using them to perform part of the orbit transfer. Three electric propulsion technologies are examined at two power levels for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> insertion of an Atlas IIAS class spacecraft. The onboard chemical propulsion apogee engine fuel is reduced in this analysis to allow the use of electric propulsion. A numerical optimizer is used to determine the chemical burns that will minimize the electric propulsion transfer times. For a 1550-kg Atlas IIAS class payload, increases in net mass (<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite mass less wet propulsion system mass) of 150-800 kg are enabled by using electric propulsion for station keeping, advanced chemical engines for part of the transfer, and electric propulsion for the remainder of the transfer. Trip times are between one and four months.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830007056','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830007056"><span>Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 2A: Descriptions of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and high-altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hills, H. K. (Editor); Littlefield, R. G. (Editor); Schofield, N. J. (Editor); Vetts, J. I. (Editor)</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Data from Earth-orbiting spacecraft at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and higher altitudes was cataloged. Three lunar-orbiting spacecraft and some others whose apogees did not attain the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> altitude are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf"><span>47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.4409D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.4409D"><span>Field line distribution of mass density at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Denton, R. E.; Takahashi, Kazue; Lee, Jimyoung; Zeitler, C. K.; Wimer, N. T.; Litscher, L. E.; Singer, H. J.; Min, Kyungguk</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The distribution of mass density along the field lines affects the ratios of toroidal (azimuthally oscillating) Alfvén frequencies, and given the ratios of these frequencies, we can get information about that distribution. Here we assume the commonly used power law form for the field line distribution, ρm = ρm,eq(LRE/R)α, where ρm,eq is the value of the mass density ρm at the magnetic equator, L is the L shell, RE is the Earth's radius, R is the geocentric distance to a point on the field line, and α is the power law coefficient. Positive values of α indicate that ρm increases away from the magnetic equator, zero value indicates that ρm is constant along the magnetic field line, and negative α indicates that there is a local peak in ρm at the magnetic equator. Using 12 years of observations of toroidal Alfvén frequencies by the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellites, we study the typical dependence of inferred values of α on the magnetic local time (MLT), the phase of the solar cycle as specified by the F10.7 extreme ultraviolet solar flux, and geomagnetic activity as specified by the auroral electrojet (AE) index. Over the mostly dayside range of the observations, we find that α decreases with respect to increasing MLT and F10.7, but increases with respect to increasing AE. We develop a formula that depends on all three parameters, α3Dmodel=2.2+1.3·cos(MLT·15°)+0.0026·AE·cos((MLT-0.8)·15°)+2.1·10-5·AE·F10.7-0.010·F10.7, that models the binned values of α within a standard deviation of 0.3. While we do not yet have a complete theoretical understanding of why α should depend on these parameters in such a way, we do make some observations and speculations about the causes. At least part of the dependence is related to that of ρm,eq; higher α, corresponding to steeper variation with respect to magnetic latitude, occurs when ρm,eq is lower.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A53A0240P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A53A0240P"><span>Options for a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Science Demonstration Mission (GSDM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pougatchev, N. S.; Bingham, G. E.; Zollinger, L.; Hancock, J. J.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> ultraspectral imager with spectral resolution comparable with the ones of the current advanced LEO sounders such as AIRS and IASI brings the potential for significant new products to improve our lives and protect property. These include: improved severe weather warnings and hurricane track prediction, troposphere wind profiles at 2 Km vertical resolution, and pollutant and water vapor flux profiles. The GSDM data combined with OCO and GOSAT data can provide local and regional CO, CO2 emissions. The potential value of a GSDM is so great that the resent NASA/NOAA Decadal Survey recommended they “Complete the GIFTS instrument, deliver it to orbit via a cost-effective launch and spacecraft opportunity, and evaluate its potential to be a prototype for the HES instrument…”. GOES-R mission costs led to the cancellation of the HES program. Development of an entirely new instrument and flying it as an operational payload is clearly outside of the NOAA budget profile. However a joint NASA/NOAA An out-of-the-box, Venture Class style, PI-led mission to satisfy the NASA/NOAA Decadal Survey recommendation can be funded and managed with today’s budgets. An ideal NASA/NOAA mission would combine NOAA’s spare “Q” Imager and the upgraded GIFTS EDU hardware on a free flyer, launched in 2014 to the GOES East position and using the developing GOES-R downlink and communications system. Because the Ultraspectral Imager/Sounder data pixels are independent, GSDM data can be easily segmented into subimages, processed by massively parallel Linux computers, and analyzed by NASA and NOAA Algorithm working groups and science teams. A well calibrated Ultraspectral Imager/Sounder in a Geo orbit would also become the ultimate calibration transfer standard to support the WMO Global Space-based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS) effort. This poster reviews the science payoff of a GSDM, the measured GIFTS EDU hardware performance, and suggests an affordable mission strategy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988AcAau..17..607B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988AcAau..17..607B"><span>The role of the ITU in the use of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Butler, R. E.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper presents salient aspects of the work of the International Telecommunication Union in regard to the use of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite orbit. The aspects covered include technical studies and the development of appropriate regulations to ensure equitable access to and efficient and economic use of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite orbit. The decisions of the first session of the Orbit Conference, 1985, as well as preparatory activities for the second session in 1988, are outlined. A brief description of the essential duties associated with the orderly recording of orbital assignments is given. Some typical examples of technical cooperation and information exchange activities are also provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSA51A2383K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSA51A2383K"><span>Ionospheric TEC Estimations with the Signals of Various <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Navigational Satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kurbatov, G. A.; Padokhin, A. M.; Kunitsyn, V.; Yasyukevich, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The development of GNSS and SBAS systems provides the possibility to retrieve ionospheric TEC from the dual frequency observations from a number of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites using the same approach as for dual frequency GPS/GLONASS observations. In this connection, the quality of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> data, first of all the level of noise in TEC estimations is of great interest and importance. In this work we present the results of the comparison of the noise patterns in TEC estimations using signals of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites of augumentation systems - indian GAGAN, european EGNOS and american WAAS, as well as the signals of chinees COMPASS/Beidou navigational system. We show that among above mentioned systems <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> COMPASS/Beidou satellites provide best noise level in TEC estimations (RMS~0.1TECU), which corresponds to those of GPS/GLONASS, while GAGAN and WAAS TEC RMS could reach up to 1.5 TECU with typical values of 0.25-0.5 TECU which is up to one order greater than for common GPS/GLONASS observations. EGNOS TEC estimations being even more noisy (TEC RMS up to 10TECU) than WAAS and GAGAN ones at present time are not suitable for ionospheric studies. We also present <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> TEC response to increasing solar X-Ray and EUV ionizing radiation during several recent X-class flares. Good correlation was found between TEC and EUV flux for the stations at the sunlit hemisphere. We also present <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> TEC response to geomagnetic field variations during strong and moderate geomagnetic storms (including G4 St. Patricks Day Storm of 2015) showing examples of both positive and negative TEC anomalies of order of tens of TECU during main storm phase. Our results show the capability of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> GNSS and SBAS observations for continuous monitoring of ionospheric TEC. Intensively growing networks of dedicated receivers (for example MGEX network) and increasing number of dual-frequency <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites in SBAS and GNSS constellations potentially make it a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720038764&hterms=sikdar&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsikdar','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720038764&hterms=sikdar&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsikdar"><span>On the remote sensing of mesoscale tropical convection intensity from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sikdar, D. N.; Suomi, V. E.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>This paper develops an objective technique for estimating the mass and energy exchange in convection systems corresponding to altocumulus cumulogenitus and cumulonimbus intensities using measurements of the area change of the cirrus outflow on a sequence of satellite cloud photographs obtained at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> altitude. The data clearly show that: (1) the technique is able to isolate vigorous and moderate convection regimes on the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite cloud photos; and (2) the model-estimated mass and energy are consistent with ground-based measurements such as those of Braham and Brown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JASS...18..101L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JASS...18..101L"><span>Spectroscopic Observations of <span class="hlt">Geo-Stationary</span> Satellites Over the Korean Peninsula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, D. K.; Kim, S. J.; Han, W. Y.; Park, J. S.; Min, S. W.</p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p>Low resolution spectroscopic observations of <span class="hlt">geo-stationary</span> satellites over the Korean peninsula have been carried out at the KyungHee Optical Satellite Observing Facility (KOSOF) with a 40cm telescope. We have observed 9 telecommunication satellites and 1 weather satellite of 6 countries. The obtained spectral data showed that satellites could be classified and grouped with similar basic spectral feature. We divided the 10 satellites into 4 groups based on spectral slop and reflectance. It is suggested that the material types of the satellites can be determined through spectral comparisons with the ground laboratory data. We will continuously observe additional <span class="hlt">geo-stationary</span> satellites for the accurate classification of spectral features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7184600','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7184600"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span>-satellite beacon-receiver array for studies of ionospheric irregularities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carlos, R.C.; Jacobson, A.R.; Wu, Guanghui.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Ionospheric irregularities can be studied by various techniques. These include widely spaced Doppler sounders or ionosondes, Faraday rotation polarimetry, and two-frequency differential Doppler, and radio interferometry. With <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites, one usually uses Faraday rotation of the beacon signal to measure the ionospheric TEC. With a network of polarimeters, the horizontal wave parameters of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDS) can be deduced, but the shortcoming of this technique is its poor sensitivity. This paper describes a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span>-satellite beacon-receiver array at Los Alamos, New Mexico, which will be employed for the studying of ionospheric irregularities, especially the fine-scale TIDS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10170106','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10170106"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span>-satellite beacon-receiver array for studies of ionospheric irregularities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carlos, R.C.; Jacobson, A.R.; Wu, Guanghui</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>Ionospheric irregularities can be studied by various techniques. These include widely spaced Doppler sounders or ionosondes, Faraday rotation polarimetry, and two-frequency differential Doppler, and radio interferometry. With <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites, one usually uses Faraday rotation of the beacon signal to measure the ionospheric TEC. With a network of polarimeters, the horizontal wave parameters of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDS) can be deduced, but the shortcoming of this technique is its poor sensitivity. This paper describes a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span>-satellite beacon-receiver array at Los Alamos, New Mexico, which will be employed for the studying of ionospheric irregularities, especially the fine-scale TIDS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870011780','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870011780"><span>The use of satellites in non-goestationary orbits for unloading <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communication satellite traffic peaks. Volume 2: Technical report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Price, K.; Turner, A.; Nguyen, T.; Doong, W.; Weyandt, C.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The part of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) orbital arc used for United States domestic fixed, communications service is rapidly becoming filled with satellites. One of the factors currently limiting its utilization is that communications satellites must be designed to have sufficient capacity to handle peak traffic leads, and thus are under utilized most of the time. A solution is to use satellites in suitable non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbits to unload the traffic peaks. Three different designs for a non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit communications satellite system are presented for the 1995 time frame. The economic performance is analyzed and compared with <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites for two classes of service, trunking and customer premise service. The result is that the larger payload of the non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite offsets the burdens of increased complexity and worse radiation environment to give improved economic performance. Depending on ground terminal configuration, the improved economic performance of the space segment may be offset by increased ground terminal expenses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APJAS..50..239C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APJAS..50..239C"><span>Climatological assessment of desert targets over East Asia — Australian region for the solar channel calibration of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chun, Hyoung-Wook; Sohn, B. J.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Desert targets for solar channel calibration of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites in the East Asia — Australian region were selected and their qualities were assessed with aid of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data (i.e., white-sky surface albedo, aerosol optical thickness, and cloud fraction) from 2002 to 2008. The magnitude, spatial uniformity, and temporal <span class="hlt">stability</span> of the white-sky surface albedo are examined in order to select bright and stable targets. Subsequently those selected targets over China, India, and Australia are further checked for their qualities in terms of data yielding ratio, aerosol optical thickness, cloud fraction, satellite viewing angle, and solar zenith angle. Results indicate that Chinese targets are found to be not adequate as calibration targets in spite of excellent surface conditions because of high percentage of cloud, possibly heavy aerosol loading, and lower solar elevation angle in particular during winter time. Indian site should be take care about relatively high temporal variation of surface condition and heavy aerosol loading. On the other hand, Australian desert targets are considered to be best when surface brightness, spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">stability</span>, data yielding ratio, aerosol, and cloud are counted.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810009553','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810009553"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> platform systems concepts definition study. Volume 2A: Appendixes, book 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Various investigations and support data concerning <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform feasibility are presented. Servicing flight analyses, platform cost model runs, and funding spread analyses are included. In addition, investigations of the radiation environment at synchronous altitude and its effects on satellite communication are reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830015766&hterms=quantitative+qualitative+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dquantitative%2Bqualitative%2Bdata','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830015766&hterms=quantitative+qualitative+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dquantitative%2Bqualitative%2Bdata"><span>Specifying heights and velocities of cloud motion from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> sounding data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Menzel, P.; Stewart, T. R.; Smith, W. L.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Data from the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Visible Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) for assigning simultaneous heights and velocities of cloud motion winds were processed. The following two techniques are discussed: The technique which delivers qualitative height assignments from imagery; and which uses the radiometric information contained in the VAS data to calculate quantitative heights.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.9188S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.9188S"><span>Assimilation of next generation <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> aerosol optical depth retrievals to improve air quality simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saide, Pablo E.; Kim, Jhoon; Song, Chul H.; Choi, Myungje; Cheng, Yafang; Carmichael, Gregory R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Planned <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites will provide aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals at high temporal and spatial resolution which will be incorporated into current assimilation systems that use low-Earth orbiting (e.g., Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) AOD. The impacts of such additions are explored in a real case scenario using AOD from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) on board of the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite, a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite observing northeast Asia. The addition of GOCI AOD into the assimilation system generated positive impacts, which were found to be substantial in comparison to only assimilating MODIS AOD. We found that GOCI AOD can help significantly to improve surface air quality simulations in Korea for dust, biomass burning smoke, and anthropogenic pollution episodes when the model represents the extent of the pollution episodes and retrievals are not contaminated by clouds. We anticipate future <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> missions to considerably contribute to air quality forecasting and provide better reanalyses for health assessments and climate studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/70539','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/70539"><span>Energetic particle dropouts observed in the morning sector by the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite GEOS-2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kopanyi, V.; Korth, A.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The authors report the obervation of particle flux dropout events by the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite GEOS-2 in the local dawn sector during the recovery phase of a series of magnetic storms. These dropouts manifested themselves both in ion and electron fluxes. During the events reported, the spacecraft remained in the magnetosphere, so they cannot be interpreted as due to maganetopause crossings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810009549','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810009549"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> platform systems concepts definition study. Volume 2: Technical, book 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The initial selection and definition of operational <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform concepts is discussed. Candidate <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform missions and payloads were identified from COMSAT, Aerospace, and NASA studies. These missions and payloads were cataloged; classified with to communications, military, or scientific uses; screened for application and compatibility with <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platforms; and analyzed to identify platform requirements. Two platform locations were then selected (Western Hemisphere - 110 deg W, and Atlantic - 15 deg W), and payloads allocated based on nominal and high traffic models. Trade studies were performed leading to recommendation of selected concepts. Of 30 Orbit Transfer Vehicle (0TV) configuration and operating mode options identified, 18 viable candidates compatible with the operational <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform missions were selected for analysis. Each was considered using four platform operational modes - 8 or 16 year life, and serviced or nonserviced, providing a total of 72 OTV/platform-mode options. For final trade study concept selection, a cost program was developed considering payload and platform costs and weight; transportation unit and total costs for the shuttle and OTV; and operational costs such as assembly or construction time, mating time, and loiter time. Servicing costs were added for final analysis and recommended selection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950010802','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950010802"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> satellite positioning by DLR/GSOC operations and management methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brittinger, Peter</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Starting with a short description of the GSOC (German Space Operations Center) and its role within the wider framework of the research institute DLR, this paper provides a review of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> telecommunications satellites positioned by the GSOC. The paper then proceeds to describe the evolution of the operations and management structures and methods which have been effectively used to accomplish these missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMIN41B1499A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMIN41B1499A"><span>McIDAS-V: A powerful visualization and data analysis tool for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> environmental satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Achtor, T. H.; Rink, T.; Straka, W.; Feltz, J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The University of Wisconsin's Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) has been at the forefront in developing data analysis and visualization tools for environmental satellite and other geophysical data. The fifth generation of the Man-computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS-V) is a java-based, open-source, freely available system for researchers and algorithm developers that is being adapted and expanded for use with advanced <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> environmental satellite observations. A key attribute of analysis and visualization systems is access to and display of a large variety of geophysical data. Providing these capabilities for numerous data types provides users with powerful tools for merging information, comparison of products and evaluation. McIDAS-V provides unique capabilities that support creative techniques for developing and evaluating algorithms, visualizing data and products in 4 dimensions, and validating results. For <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> applications, McIDAS-V provides visualization and analysis support for GOES, MSG, MTSAT and FY2 data. NOAA is supporting the McIDAS-V development program for ABI imagery and products for the GOES-R/S series, which will bring an advanced multi-spectral imager into <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. Used together, the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> environmental satellites provide the user community with detailed global coverage with rapid update cycles. This poster and demonstration will provide an overview of McIDAS-V with demonstrations of the data acquisition, visualization and analysis tools to support the international <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> environmental satellite programs. It will also present results from several research projects involving current and future environmental satellites, demonstrating how the McIDAS-V software can be used to acquire satellite and ancillary data, create multi--spectral products using both scripting and interactive data manipulation tools, and evaluate output through on-board validation techniques.;</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E.319A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E.319A"><span>Status of CNES optical observations of space debris in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alby, F.; Deguine, B.; Escane, I.</p> <p></p> <p>Ground observation of space debris in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit (GEO) or close to it is not feasible with radar facilities. Optical systems using a telescope and a CCD camera are effective solutions for such a GEO survey because objects remain fixed with report to the Earth. The photons can be cumulated during the exposure time, thus allowing observing faint objects. CNES has been studying and developing such systems for several years with two main objectives: first to develop systems able to detect debris in the vicinity of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit for statistical evaluation of the population, secondly to develop a tool to accurately determine the orbits: these activities are led in the frame of two projects called Tarot and Rosace. On one hand, the capability of detecting small objects in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit was demonstrated during previous studies using a large Schmidt telescope. Now, the software has been transferred on a smaller telescope called Tarot. This telescope has the advantage to be automatic with a real time processing capability and can be remotely controlled. Moreover, its large field of view enables a systematic survey of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> region to detect uncatalogued objects. Beside the detection function, a step by step orbit determination function is implemented. This function is necessary to find again the same object a few minutes or a few hours later. On the other hand, Rosace was designed as a low cost accurate orbit determination system for on-station <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites. The main application is the calibration of the classical tracking systems. The other objectives are to provide redundancy to existing facilities, to track failed satellites or to monitor co-located satellites. The first operational use is now foreseen in the frame of the Stentor project. This paper presents the main characteristics of both systems, the principle of their image processing software, their development status and the main results obtained. Finally, perspectives</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JARS....3a3514S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JARS....3a3514S"><span>Many uses of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> operational environmental satellite-10 sounder and imager during a high inclination state</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmit, Timothy J.; Rabin, Robert M.; Bachmeier, A. Scott; Li, Jun; Gunshor, Mathew M.; Steigerwaldt, Henry; Schreiner, Anthony J.; Aune, Robert M.; Wade, Gary S.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-10 was the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) operational GOES-West satellite for approximately eight years until it was retired as an operational satellite due to an ever increasing inclination in its orbit. Since its retirement, GOES-10 has been used for a number of applications, such as, special 1-minute imagery over parts of North America during its move to 60° West longitude, routine imagery of the Southern Hemisphere, the first operational Sounder coverage over South America, initialization of regional numerical weather prediction models, and even temporary recalled as the operational GOES-East satellite during a major GOES-12 anomaly. Products from the GOES-10 Sounder and/or Imager include: imagery, cloud-top parameters, atmospheric <span class="hlt">stability</span> indices, total precipitable water vapor, motion vector winds, volcanic ash detection, fire detection and characterization, and precipitation. As the mission of GOES-10 has continued beyond its retirement as an official operational US satellite, already lasting more than double its five-year life expectancy, many countries have been afforded the opportunity to benefit from on-going GOES-10 measurements. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the history of GOES-10, especially the unique situation of GOES-10 operating in support of central and South America after its operational use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA281342','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA281342"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Space Launch Vehicles and the U.S. Dilemma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-06-17</p> <p>solar panels for power generation and no attitude control system for orbit <span class="hlt">stabilization</span>. The communications circuits were underpowered because the... solar panels were small compared to the ones used on GEO satellites today. Although the lack of attitude control systems greatly reduced the weight of...to ten year useful life has been realized using good fuel management techniques. The size of the solar panels on GEO satellites have been the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810003623','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810003623"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> platform systems concepts definition follow-on study. Volume 2A: Technical Task 2 LSST special emphasis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The results of the Large Space Systems Technology special emphasis task are presented. The task was an analysis of structural requirements deriving from the initial Phase A Operational <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Platform study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.5886Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.5886Y"><span>Aerosol data assimilation using data from Himawari-8, a next-generation <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yumimoto, K.; Nagao, T. M.; Kikuchi, M.; Sekiyama, T. T.; Murakami, H.; Tanaka, T. Y.; Ogi, A.; Irie, H.; Khatri, P.; Okumura, H.; Arai, K.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Maki, T.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Himawari-8, a next-generation <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite, was launched on 7 October 2014 and became operational on 7 July 2015. The advanced imager on board Himawari-8 is equipped with 16 observational bands (including three visible and three near-infrared bands) that enable retrieval of full-disk aerosol optical properties at 10 min intervals from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) orbit. Here we show the first application of aerosol optical properties (AOPs) derived from Himawari-8 data to aerosol data assimilation. Validation of the assimilation experiment by comparison with independent observations demonstrated successful modeling of continental pollution that was not predicted by simulation without assimilation and reduced overestimates of dust front concentrations. These promising results suggest that AOPs derived from Himawari-8/9 and other planned GEO satellites will considerably improve forecasts of air quality, inverse modeling of emissions, and aerosol reanalysis through assimilation techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080017922&hterms=alan+williams&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dalan%2Bwilliams','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080017922&hterms=alan+williams&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dalan%2Bwilliams"><span>Prototype Development of a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer, GeoSTAR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tanner, Alan B.; Wilson, William J.; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Lambrigsten, Bjorn H.; Dinardo, Steven J.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Ruf, Christopher S.; Rogacki, Steven; Gross, S. M.; Musko, Steve</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Preliminary details of a 2-D synthetic aperture radiometer prototype operating from 50 to 58 GHz will be presented. The instrument is being developed as a laboratory testbed, and the goal of this work is to demonstrate the technologies needed to do atmospheric soundings with high spatial resolution from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> orbit. The concept is to deploy a large sparse aperture Y-array from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite, and to use aperture synthesis to obtain images of the earth without the need for a large mechanically scanned antenna. The laboratory prototype consists of a Y-array of 24 horn antennas, MMIC receivers, and a digital cross-correlation sub-system. System studies are discussed, including an error budget which has been derived from numerical simulations. The error budget defines key requirements, such as null offsets, phase calibration, and antenna pattern knowledge. Details of the instrument design are discussed in the context of these requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070036042&hterms=alan+williams&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dalan%2Bwilliams','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070036042&hterms=alan+williams&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dalan%2Bwilliams"><span>GeoSTAR - A Synthetic Aperture Microwave Sounder for <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Missions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Wilson, William; Tanner, Alan; Kangaslahti, Pekka</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer (GeoSTAR) is a new microwave atmospheric sounder under development. It will bring capabilities similar to those now available on low-earth orbiting environmental satellites to <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit - where such capabilities have not been available. GeoSTAR will synthesize the multimeter aperture needed to achieve the required spatial resolution, which will overcome the obstacle that has prevented a GEO microwave sounder from being implemented until now. The synthetic aperture approach has until recently not been feasible, due to the high power needed to operate the on-board high-speed massively parallel processing system required for 2D-synthesis, as well as a number of system and calibration obstacles. The development effort under way at JPL, with important contributions from the Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Michigan, is intended to demonstrate the measurement concept and retire much of the technology risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019455','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019455"><span>HISPASAT launch and early operations phases: Computation and monitoring of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite positioning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brousse, Pascal; Desprairies, Arnaud</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Since 1974, CNES, the French National Space Agency, has been involved in the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> launch and early operations phases (LEOP) of moving satellites from a transfer orbit delivered by a launcher to a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> point. During the operations and their preparation, the Flight Dynamics Center (FDC), part of CNES LEOP facilities, is in charge of the space mechanics aspects. What is noteworthy about the Spanish HISPASAT satellite positioning is that all the operations were performed on the customer's premises, and consequently the FDC was duplicated in Madrid, Spain. The first part of this paper is the FDC presentation: its role, its hardware configuration, and its space dynamics ground control system called MERCATOR. The second part of this paper details the preparation used by the FDC for the HISPASAT mission: hardware and software installation in Madrid, integration with the other entities, and technical and operational qualifications. The third part gives results concerning flight dynamics aspects and operational activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981STIA...8147276B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981STIA...8147276B"><span>Calibration of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites infrared radiometers using the vertical sounder of a polar orbiting satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beriot, N.</p> <p>1981-09-01</p> <p>A method for the calibration of infrared radiometers of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites using calibrated infrared radiometers of an orbiting satellite is presented. This method relies upon similarities between the weighting functions corresponding to the radiometers on <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites like Meteosat or the GOES series and the weighting functions of some of the channels of the TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS). It makes use of iso-secant observations of the same scene from both satellites. Many such observations are available every day resulting in a possibly daily calibration curve defined by several hundred of points. This calibration method is shown to be very sensitive, accurate and tractable. This method does not require to collect radiosonde data nor any kind of in-situ experiments and may be completely automatized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760026032','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760026032"><span>Preliminary analysis of the implications of natural radiations on <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, J. W.; Denn, F. M.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The natural radiations present at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit are discussed. Low-level galactic cosmic rays are important for careers spending a year or more at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> altitude. Trapped radiation will on occasion require interruption of extravehicular activity (EVA). The spacesuit shield requirements are strongly affected by the number of interruptions allowed. EVA cannot proceed during a large solar event and maximum allowable doses are exceeded in a few hours unless a heavily shielded area is provided. A shelter of 10 g/sq cm with personal shielding for the eyes and testes would contain exposure to within the presently accepted exposure constraints. Since radiation levels can increase unexpectedly to serious levels, an onboard radiation monitoring system with rate and integration capabilities is required for both surface-dose and depth-dose monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016755','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016755"><span>Adaptive Array for Weak Interfering Signals: <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Experiments. M.S. Thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Steadman, Karl</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The performance of an experimental adaptive array is evaluated using signals from an existing <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite interference environment. To do this, an earth station antenna was built to receive signals from various <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites. In these experiments the received signals have a frequency of approximately 4 GHz (C-band) and have a bandwidth of over 35 MHz. These signals are downconverted to a 69 MHz intermediate frequency in the experimental system. Using the downconverted signals, the performance of the experimental system for various signal scenarios is evaluated. In this situation, due to the inherent thermal noise, qualitative instead of quantitative test results are presented. It is shown that the experimental system can null up to two interfering signals well below the noise level. However, to avoid the cancellation of the desired signal, the use a steering vector is needed. Various methods to obtain an estimate of the steering vector are proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/535160','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/535160"><span>Monitoring biomass burning and aerosol loading and transport from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Prins, E.M.; Menzel, W.P.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The topic of this paper is the use of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> operational environmental satellites (GOES) to monitor trends in biomass burning and aerosol production and transport in South America and through the Western Hemisphere. The GOES Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (ABBA) was developed to provide diurnal information concerning fires in South America; applications demonstrating the ability to document long-term trends in fire activity are described. Analyses of imagery collected by GOES-8 is described; six biomass burning seasons in South America revealed many examples of large-scale smoke transport extending over several million square kilometers. Four major transport regimes were identified. Case studies throughout South America, Canada, the United States, Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala have successfully demonstrated the improved capability of GOES-8 for fire and smoke monitoring in various ecosystems. Global <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> fire monitoring will be possible with the launch of new satellites. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920002341','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920002341"><span>The science benefits of and the antenna requirements for microwave remote sensing from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stutzman, Warren L. (Editor); Brown, Gary S. (Editor)</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The primary objective of the Large Space Antenna (LSA) Science Panel was to evaluate the science benefits that can be realized with a 25-meter class antenna in a microwave/millimeter wave remote sensing system in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. The panel concluded that a 25-meter or larger antenna in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit can serve significant passive remote sensing needs in the 10 to 60 GHz frequency range, including measurements of precipitation, water vapor, atmospheric temperature profile, ocean surface wind speed, oceanic cloud liquid water content, and snow cover. In addition, cloud base height, atmospheric wind profile, and ocean currents can potentially be measured using active sensors with the 25-meter antenna. Other environmental parameters, particularly those that do not require high temporal resolution, are better served by low Earth orbit based sensors.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM23B4219L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM23B4219L"><span>Van Allen Probes Empirical Model of the Plasma Environment Inside <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Larsen, B.; Reeves, G. D.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Thomsen, M. F.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.; MacDonald, E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>With the Van Allen probes nearing a full precession around the Earth we present a parameterized empirical model of the plasma properties in the inner magnetosphere. Data from the Los Alamos National Laboratory built Helium-Oxygen-Proton-Electron (HOPE) spectrometer on this this unparalleled two-satellite mission provides excellent coverage of the equatorial magnetosphere inside of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span>, albeit over a limited range of geomagnetic activity. Fusing data and derived products from the two spacecraft a specification of the state of the inner magnetosphere has been created providing species resolved fluxes, partial densities, temperatures, anisotropies, and ratios. This full coverage model reproduces some well know phenomenology and presents some lesser know behaviors providing new insights into details of plasma dynamics inside <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20168763','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20168763"><span>Ground mapping resolution accuracy of a scanning radiometer from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stremler, F G; Khalil, M A; Parent, R J</p> <p>1977-06-01</p> <p>Measures of the spatial and spatial rate (frequency) mapping of scanned visual imagery from an earth reference system to a spin-scan <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite are examined. Mapping distortions and coordinate inversions to correct for these distortions are formulated in terms of geometric transformations between earth and satellite frames of reference. Probabilistic methods are used to develop relations for obtainable mapping resolution when coordinate inversions are employed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010016101','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010016101"><span>EHL Transition Temperature Measurements on a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Filter Wheel Bearing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jansen, Mark J.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Predmore, Roamer E.; Shogrin, Bradley A.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) transition temperature was measured for a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) sounder filter wheel bearing in a vacuum tribometer. Conditions included both an 89 N (20 lb.) hard and soft load, 600 rpm, temperatures between 23 C (73 F) and 85 C (185 F), and a vacuum of approximately 1.3 x 10(exp -5) Pa. Elastohydrodynamic to mixed lubrication started to occur at approximately 70 C (158 F).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA621928','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA621928"><span>Multiple-Baseline Detection of a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite with the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>interferometric detection of a satellite. Keywords: <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites, optical interferometry, imaging, telescope arrays 1. INTRODUCTION Developing the...and thereby adjust the internal optical paths in the interferometer, particularly because atmospheric turbulence over the array elements forces us to...toward the target by the east-west and north-south components of the baseline. Since 2009, the NPOI has brought several new array stations into operation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000092072','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000092072"><span>Earth-to-<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Orbit Transportation for Space Solar Power System Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Martin, James A.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Lawrence, Schuyler C.; McClanahan, James A.; Carrington, Connie K. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Space solar power satellites have the potential to provide abundant quantities of electricity for use on Earth. One concept, the Sun Tower, can be assembled in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit from pieces transferred from Earth. The cost of transportation is one of the major hurdles to space solar power. This study found that autonomous solar-electric transfer is a good choice for the transportation from LEO to GEO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920073169&hterms=digital+comunications&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddigital%2Bcomunications','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920073169&hterms=digital+comunications&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddigital%2Bcomunications"><span>Destination directed packet switch architecture for a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communication satellite network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ivancic, W. D.; Shalkhauser, M. J.; Bobinsky, E. A.; Soni, N. J.; Quintana, J. A.; Kim, H.; Wagner, P.; Vanderaar, M.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A major effort at NASA/Lewis is to identify and develop critical digital technologies and components that enable new commercial missions or significantly improve the performance, cost efficiency, and/or reliability of existing and planned space comunications systems. NASA envisions the need for low data rate, direct to the user communications services, for data, facsimile, voice, and video conferencing. A report that focuses on destination directed packet switching architectures for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communication satellites is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992wadc.iafcR....I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992wadc.iafcR....I"><span>Destination directed packet switch architecture for a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communication satellite network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivancic, W. D.; Shalkhauser, M. J.; Bobinsky, E. A.; Soni, N. J.; Quintana, J. A.; Kim, H.; Wagner, P.; Vanderaar, M.</p> <p>1992-08-01</p> <p>A major effort at NASA/Lewis is to identify and develop critical digital technologies and components that enable new commercial missions or significantly improve the performance, cost efficiency, and/or reliability of existing and planned space comunications systems. NASA envisions the need for low data rate, direct to the user communications services, for data, facsimile, voice, and video conferencing. A report that focuses on destination directed packet switching architectures for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communication satellites is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A51A0001K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A51A0001K"><span>Developments of aerosol retrieval algorithm for <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) and the retrieval accuracy test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Ahn, C.; Bhartia, P. K.; Torres, O.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A scanning UV-Visible spectrometer, the GEMS (<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) onboard the GEO-KOMPSAT2B (<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite) is planned to be launched in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit in 2018. The GEMS employs hyper-spectral imaging with 0.6 nm resolution to observe solar backscatter radiation in the UV and Visible range. In the UV range, the low surface contribution to the backscattered radiation and strong interaction between aerosol absorption and molecular scattering can be advantageous in retrieving aerosol optical properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA). By taking the advantage, the OMI UV aerosol algorithm has provided information on the absorbing aerosol (Torres et al., 2007; Ahn et al., 2008). This study presents a UV-VIS algorithm to retrieve AOD and SSA from GEMS. The algorithm is based on the general inversion method, which uses pre-calculated look-up table with assumed aerosol properties and measurement condition. To obtain the retrieval accuracy, the error of the look-up table method occurred by the interpolation of pre-calculated radiances is estimated by using the reference dataset, and the uncertainties about aerosol type and height are evaluated. Also, the GEMS aerosol algorithm is tested with measured normalized radiance from OMI, a provisional data set for GEMS measurement, and the results are compared with the values from AERONET measurements over Asia. Additionally, the method for simultaneous retrieve of the AOD and aerosol height is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6723E..51F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6723E..51F"><span>Feature extraction of fog from multi-spectral infrared images of FY-2C <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fan, Hong; Liu, Tang-you; Xu, Wu-jun</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>FY-2C is <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite which is researched and developed by China. The primary advantage of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite is the ability to characterize the radiance by obtaining numerous views of a specific earth location at any time of a day. This allows the production of a composite image to monitor short-term weather better. This paper describes a technique that uses multi-spectral infrared composite images of FY-2C to estimate particles emission and recognize fog at night. Radiations of particles detected by FY-2C at different wavelengths are analyzed combined with solar spectral irradiance. Having several spectral bands makes the analysis algorithms more complex and inefficient, thus it is important to choose the most respective bands. By applying Karhunen-Loeve transform to raw data of FY-2C, the infrared images are analyzed. By comparing Eigen image of these infrared images with visible image in the same batch, it is concluded that data of IR3 contribute to the first Eigen image mostly, which shows that the newly added IR3 channel of FY-2C has greatly improved the ability of distinguishing short time weather phenomena. Producing composite images by calculation and analysis at sequential period of time can clearly show changes of fog coverage. The improvement of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite instruments that have come to pass will encourage more widespread use of these derived products in the coming years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7595L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7595L"><span>Plan of Korean <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environment Satellite over Asia-Pacific region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Sukjo; Hong, Youdeog; Song, Chang-Keun; Lee, Joonsuk; Choi, Won-Jun; Kim, Dukrae; Moon, Kyung-Jung; Kim, Jhoon</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>National Institute of Environmental Research(NIER/Ministry of Environment Korea) is planning GEMS (<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) program to be launched in 2017-2018 onboard a MP-GEOSAT(Multi-Purpose <span class="hlt">GEOstationary</span> SATellite) which is supposed to be the successive mission of COMS(Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite). GEMS is a scanning UV-Visible Spectrometer to monitor trans-boundary pollution events in Asia-Pacific region, together with ABI(Advanced Baseline Imager) and GOCI-2 (<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager). The objective of GEMS is to provide high resolution atmospheric chemistry measurements, to monitor regional and transboundary events, to understand on interactions between atmospheric chemistry and climate, and to improve chemical weather forecast with constraining hourly emissions and data assimilation of chemical observations. Opportunity of international collaboration with NASA and ESA, for the constellation with the GEMS of Korea, Japanese air quality mission, GEO-CAPE of U.S.A and Sentennial-4 of Europe planned to be launched in 2017- 2020 time frame, which can make great synergistic outcomes for better understanding in global air quality and climate change issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4927997','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4927997"><span>Qingchang Wenzhong Decoction Ameliorates Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats by Downregulating the IP10/CXCR<span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">Axis</span>-Mediated Inflammatory Response</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mao, Tang-you; Shi, Rui; Zhao, Wei-han; Guo, Yi; Gao, Kang-li; Chen, Chen; Xie, Tian-hong; Li, Jun-xiang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Qingchang Wenzhong Decoction (QCWZD) is an effective traditional Chinese medicine prescription. Our previous studies have shown that QCWZD has significant efficacy in patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis (UC) and in colonic mucosa repair in UC rat models. However, the exact underlying mechanism remains unknown. Thus, this study was conducted to determine QCWZD's efficacy and mechanism in dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced UC rat models, which were established by 7-day administration of 4.5% DSS solution. QCWZD was administered daily for 7 days, after which the rats were euthanized. Disease activity index (DAI), histological score (HS), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) level were determined to evaluate UC severity. Serum interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP10) levels were determined using ELISA kits. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction were, respectively, used to determine colonic protein and gene expression of IP10, chemokine (cys-x-cys motif) receptor (CXCR)3, and nuclear factor- (NF-) κB p65. Intragastric QCWZD administration ameliorated DSS-induced UC, as evidenced by decreased DAI, HS, and MPO levels. Furthermore, QCWZD decreased the protein and gene expression of IP10, CXCR3, and NF-κB p65. Overall, these results suggest that QCWZD ameliorates DSS-induced UC in rats by downregulating the IP10/CXCR<span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">axis</span>-mediated inflammatory response and may be a novel UC therapy. PMID:27413386</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5368562','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5368562"><span>Enteric glial cells counteract Clostridium difficile Toxin B through a NADPH oxidase/ROS/JNK/caspase-<span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">axis</span>, without involving mitochondrial pathways</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Macchioni, Lara; Davidescu, Magdalena; Fettucciari, Katia; Petricciuolo, Maya; Gatticchi, Leonardo; Gioè, Davide; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Bellini, Massimo; Marconi, Pierfrancesco; Roberti, Rita; Bassotti, Gabrio; Corazzi, Lanfranco</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Enteric glial cells (EGCs) are components of the intestinal epithelial barrier essential for regulating the enteric nervous system. Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated colitis, toxin B (TcdB) being the major virulence factor, due to its ability to breach the intestinal epithelial barrier and to act on other cell types. Here we investigated TcdB effects on EGCs and the activated molecular mechanisms. Already at 2 hours, TcdB triggered ROS formation originating from NADPH-oxidase, as demonstrated by their reduction in the presence of the NADPH-oxidase inhibitor ML171. Although EGCs mitochondria support almost completely the cellular ATP need, TcdB exerted weak effects on EGCs in terms of ATP and mitochondrial functionality, mitochondrial ROS production occurring as a late event. ROS activated the JNK signalling and overexpression of the proapoptotic Bim not followed by cytochrome c or AIF release to activate the downstream apoptotic cascade. EGCs underwent DNA fragmentation through activation of the ROS/JNK/caspase-<span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">axis</span>, evidenced by the ability of ML171, N-acetylcysteine, and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 to inhibit caspase-3 or to contrast apoptosis. Therefore, TcdB aggressiveness towards EGCs is mainly restricted to the cytosolic compartment, which represents a peculiar feature, since TcdB primarily influences mitochondria in other cellular types. PMID:28349972</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27470388','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27470388"><span>CXCL10/CXCR<span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">axis</span> promotes the invasion of gastric cancer via PI3K/AKT pathway-dependent MMPs production.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Hongfeng; Wu, Jin; Wang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Xufeng; Liu, Dan</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>CXCR3, a G-protein coupled chemokine receptor, has been found to be overexpressed in many tumors and act as an independent prognostic marker. However, it is still unclear whether CXCR3 is involved in gastric cancer progression. In this study, we found that CXCR3 was markedly expressed in gastric cancer cells and tissues. High CXCR3 expression correlated with advanced tumor stage, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis and poor survival of gastric cancer patients. Activation of CXCR3 by one of its ligands CXCL10 promoted the invasion and migration of gastric cancer BGC-823 and MGC-803 cells, and increased the secretion and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9. However, the effects of CXCL10 on gastric cancer cells were attenuated by CXCR3 siRNA transfection. Furthermore, overexpression of CXCR3 enhanced CXCL10-mediated cell invasion and migration of gastric cancer MKN28 cells. In addition, CXCR3 time-dependently induced activation of AKT. PI3K/AKT pathway was required for CXCR3-mediated gastric cancer cell invasion, migration and MMP-2/9 production. Together, our findings suggest that CXCL10/CXCR<span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">axis</span> promotes gastric cancer cell invasion and migration by upregulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 production via PI3K/AKT pathway. Thus, CXCR3 could be a potential target for the gastric cancer treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMIN33C..05Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMIN33C..05Z"><span>Near-real Time Monitoring of Global Biomass Burning Emissions from Multiple <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Instruments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, X.; Kondragunta, S.; Ram, J.; Schmidt, C. C.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Biomass burning from wildland fires releases a significant amount of trace gases and aerosols into the atmosphere. These emissions and their long-range transports significantly affect air quality, climate change, and carbon budget. We present the use of fire radiative power (FRP) to derive biomass burning emissions in near-real time. The instantaneous FRP at an interval of 15-30 minutes is retrieved using WF_ABBA_V65 (Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm) from a network of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites. This network consists of two <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operation Environmental Satellites (GOES) which are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration(NOAA), the Meteosat Second Generation satellites (MET-09) operated by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT-1R) operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The spatial consistence of FRP values retrieved from different <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> instruments are investigated and compared with MODIS FRP retrievals. Further, the consistency of temporal pattern in instantaneous FRP is simulated because the continuous observations from satellites are impeded by sensor saturation, cloud cover, and background surface effects. The gaps in observations are filled using simulated values which are calculated by combing the observed instantaneous FRP values within a day and a set of representative diurnal patterns of half-hourly FRPs for various ecosystems. Furthermore, the diurnal variation in FRP is applied to quantify emissions of PM2.5 (particulate mass for particles with diameter < 2.5 µm), CH4, CO2, N2O, NH3, NOX, and TNMHC. This algorithm has been applied to produce global biomass emissions with one-day latency since January 2010. Results from the analysis of global patterns in hourly biomass burning emissions for 2009-2010 will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110004347','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110004347"><span>The Goes-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM): Algorithm and Instrument Status</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved capability for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lighting Mapper (GLM) will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lighting flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development (a prototype and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. A joint field campaign with Brazilian researchers in 2010-2011 will produce concurrent observations from a VHF lightning mapping array, Meteosat multi-band imagery, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) overpasses, and related ground and in-situ lightning and meteorological measurements in the vicinity of Sao Paulo. These data will provide a new comprehensive proxy data set for algorithm and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A51A3003L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A51A3003L"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (gems) Over the Korea Peninsula and Asia-Pacific Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lasnik, J.; Stephens, M.; Baker, B.; Randall, C.; Ko, D. H.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, E. S.; Chang, S.; Park, J. M.; SEO, S. B.; Youk, Y.; Kong, J. P.; Lee, D.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Introduction: The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) is one of two instruments manifested aboard the South Korean <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Earth Orbit KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite-2B (GEO-KOMPSAT-2B or GK2B), which is scheduled to launch in 2018. Jointly developed/built by KARI and Ball Aerospace, GEMS is a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> UV-Vis hyperspectral imager designed to monitor trans-boundary tropospheric pollution events over the Korean peninsula and Asia-Pacific region. The spectrometer provides high temporal and spatial resolution (3.5 km N/S by 7.2 km E/W) measurements of ozone, its precursors, and aerosols. Over the short-term, hourly measurements by GEMS will improve early warnings for potentially dangerous pollution events and monitor population exposure. Over the 10-year mission-life, GEMS will serve to enhance our understanding of long-term climate change and broader air quality issues on both a regional and global scale. The GEMS sensor design and performance are discussed, which includes an overview of measurement capabilities and the on-orbit concept of operations. GEMS Sensor Overview: The GEMS hyperspectral imaging system consists of a telescope and Offner grating spectrometer that feeds a single CCD detector array. A spectral range of 300-500 nm and sampling of 0.2 nm enables NO2, SO2, HCHO, O3, and aerosol retrieval. The GEMS field of regard (FOR), which extends from 5°S to 45°N in latitude and 75°E to 145°E in longitude, is operationally achieved using an onboard two-axis scan mirror. On-orbit, the radiometric calibration is maintained using solar measurements, which are performed using two onboard diffusers: a working diffuser that is deployed routinely for the purpose of solar calibration, and a reference diffuser that is deployed sparingly for the purpose of monitoring working diffuser performance degradation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11714201Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11714201Z"><span>Near-real-time global biomass burning emissions product from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite constellation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha; Ram, Jessica; Schmidt, Christopher; Huang, Ho-Chun</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Near-real-time estimates of biomass burning emissions are crucial for air quality monitoring and forecasting. We present here the first near-real-time global biomass burning emission product from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites (GBBEP-Geo) produced from satellite-derived fire radiative power (FRP) for individual fire pixels. Specifically, the FRP is retrieved using WF_ABBA V65 (wildfire automated biomass burning algorithm) from a network of multiple <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites. The network consists of two <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) which are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Meteosat second-generation satellites (Meteosat-09) operated by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, and the Multifunctional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency. These satellites observe wildfires at an interval of 15-30 min. Because of the impacts from sensor saturation, cloud cover, and background surface, the FRP values are generally not continuously observed. The missing observations are simulated by combining the available instantaneous FRP observations within a day and a set of representative climatological diurnal patterns of FRP for various ecosystems. Finally, the simulated diurnal variation in FRP is applied to quantify biomass combustion and emissions in individual fire pixels with a latency of 1 day. By analyzing global patterns in hourly biomass burning emissions in 2010, we find that peak fire season varied greatly and that annual wildfires burned 1.33 × 1012 kg dry mass, released 1.27 × 1010 kg of PM2.5 (particulate mass for particles with diameter <2.5 μm) and 1.18 × 1011kg of CO globally (excluding most parts of boreal Asia, the Middle East, and India because of no coverage from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites). The biomass burning emissions were mostly released from forest and savanna fires in Africa, South America, and North America. Evaluation of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SciIn..13...95K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SciIn..13...95K"><span>Direct Measurements of Laser Communication Point-Ahead Angles from the ARTEMIS <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Through Clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuzkov, V.; Sodnik, Z.; Kuzkov, S.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Laser experiments with ARTEMIS <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite have been performed in partly cloudy weather using the developed system for the telescope. It has been found that the part of the laser beam is observed simultaneously at the points in direction of the velocity vector where the satellite would arrive at when the laser light reaches the telescope. These results agree with the theory of relativity for light aberration in transition from fixed to moving coordinate system.Observation results open the way for research and development of systems to compensate atmospheric turbulence in laser communications between ground stations and satellites through the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080013204&hterms=alan+williams&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dalan%2Bwilliams','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080013204&hterms=alan+williams&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dalan%2Bwilliams"><span>Performance Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Synthetic Thinned Array Radiometer (GeoSTAR) Demonstrator Instrument</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tanner, Alan B.; Wilson, William J.; Lambrigsten, Bjorn H.; Dinardo, Steven J.; Brown, Shannon T.; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Gaier, Todd C.; Ruf, C. S.; Gross, S. M.; Lim, B. H.; Musko, S.; Rogacki, S.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The design, error budget, and preliminary test results of a 50-56 GHz synthetic aperture radiometer demonstration system are presented. The instrument consists of a fixed 24-element array of correlation interferometers, and is capable of producing calibrated images with 0.8 degree spatial resolution within a 17 degree wide field of view. This system has been built to demonstrate performance and a design which can be scaled to a much larger <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> earth imager. As a baseline, such a system would consist of about 300 elements, and would be capable of providing contiguous, full hemispheric images of the earth with 1 Kelvin of radiometric precision and 50 km spatial resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.5435H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.5435H"><span>Convective cloud top vertical velocity estimated from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite rapid-scan measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamada, Atsushi; Takayabu, Yukari N.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We demonstrate that the rate of development of cumulus clouds, as inferred from the so-called <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite "rapid-scan" measurements, is a good proxy for convective cloud top vertical velocity related to deep convective clouds. Convective cloud top vertical velocity is estimated from the decreasing rate of infrared brightness temperature observed by the Multi-functional Transport SATellite-1R (MTSAT-1R) over the ocean south of Japan during boreal summer. The frequency distribution of the estimated convective cloud top vertical velocity at each height is shown to distribute lognormally, and it is consistent with the statistical characteristics of direct measurements acquired in previous studies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSM.A31D..03M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSM.A31D..03M"><span>An Overview of Recent <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Fire Monitoring Activities and Applications in the Western Hemisphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McRae, D. J.; Conard, S. G.; Ivanova, G. A.; Sukhinin, A. I.; Hao, W. M.; Koutzenogii, K. P.; Prins, E. M.; Schmidt, C. C.; Feltz, J. M.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>-ESE Fire Locating And Mapping of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) project. Furthermore, the dissemination and use of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> imagery and derived fire products in the Western Hemisphere provide a glimpse of future global <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> fire monitoring capabilities. Global <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> active fire monitoring will be possible with the launch of the European METEOSAT (METEOrological SATellite) Second Generation (MSG) and the replacement Japanese Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT-1R) over the next two years. This global network of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites will complement the U.S. and international suite of environmental polar-orbiting satellites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B53C0563L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B53C0563L"><span>Minimizing Gaps of Daily Ndvi Map with <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Remote Sensing Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, S.; Ryu, Y.; Jiang, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Satellite based remote sensing has been used to monitor plant phenology. Numerous studies have generally utilized normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to quantify phenological patterns and changes in regional to the global scales. Obtaining the NDVI values during summer in East Asian Monsoon regions is important because most plants grow vigorously in this season. However, satellite derived NDVI data are error prone to clouds during most of the period. Various methods have attempted to reduce the effect of cloud in temporal and spatial NDVI monitoring; the fundamental solution is to have a large data pool that includes multiple images in short period and supplements NDVI values in same period. Multiple images of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite in a day can be a method to expand the pool. In this study, we suggest an approach that minimizes data gaps in NDVI of the day through <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite derived NDVI composition. We acquired data from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) which is a satellite that was launched to monitor ocean around the Korean peninsula, China, Japan and Russia. The satellite observes eight times per day (09:00 - 16:00, every hour) at 500 x 500 m resolution from 2011 to 2015. GOCI red- and near infrared radiance was converted into surface reflectance by using 6S Radiative Transfer Model (6S). We calculated NDVI tiles for each of observed eight tiles per day and made one day NDVI through maximum-value composite method. We evaluated the composite GOCI derived NDVI by comparing with daily MODIS-derived NDVI (composited from MOD09GA and MYD09GA), 16-day Landsat 8-derived NDVI, and in-situ light emitting diode (LED) NDVI measurements at a homogeneous deciduous forest and rice paddy sites. We found that GOCI-derived NDVI maps revealed little data gaps compared to MODIS and Landsat, and GOCI derived NDVI time series were smoother than MODIS derived NDVI time series in summer. GOCI-derived NDVI agreed well with in-situ observations of NDVI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780006589','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780006589"><span>Potential applications of digital, visible, and infrared data from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> environmental satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, D. B.; Waters, M. P., III; Tarpley, J. D.; Green, R. N.; Dismachek, D. C.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>An hourly, digital data base from the Visible/Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) instrument on the GOES-1 and SMS-2 <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites is described. Several examples of developmental applications of these quantitative digital data are presented. These include a review of recent attempts to develop products that are of use to meteorologists who provide services to aviation, agriculture, forestry, hydrology, oceanography, and climatology. The sample products include high resolution thermal gradients of land and ocean surfaces, thermal change analyses, fruit frost/freeze application, cloud-top altitude analysis, analysis of hurricane characteristics, and analyses of solar insolation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980045090&hterms=mobile+technology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dmobile%2Btechnology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980045090&hterms=mobile+technology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dmobile%2Btechnology"><span>A <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite system for mobile multimedia applications using portable, aeronautical and mobile terminals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Losquadro, G.; Luglio, M.; Vatalaro, F.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite system for mobile multimedia services via portable, aeronautical and mobile terminals was developed within the framework of the Advanced Communications Technology Service (ACTS) programs. The architecture of the system developed under the 'satellite extremely high frequency communications for multimedia mobile services (SECOMS)/ACTS broadband aeronautical terminal experiment' (ABATE) project is presented. The system will be composed of a Ka band system component, and an extremely high frequency band component. The major characteristics of the space segment, the ground control station and the portable, aeronautical and mobile user terminals are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=321652&keyword=Solar+AND+energy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78773819&CFTOKEN=81566672','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=321652&keyword=Solar+AND+energy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78773819&CFTOKEN=81566672"><span>Nitrogen dioxide observations from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument: Retrieval algorithm and measurements during DISCOVER-AQ Texas 2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument is a test bed for upcoming air quality satellite instruments that will measure backscattered ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. GeoTASO flew on the NASA F...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27564404','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27564404"><span>An IL-27/Stat<span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">axis</span> induces expression of programmed cell death 1 ligands (PD-L1/2) on infiltrating macrophages in lymphoma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Horlad, Hasita; Ma, Chaoya; Yano, Hiromu; Pan, Cheng; Ohnishi, Koji; Fujiwara, Yukio; Endo, Shinya; Kikukawa, Yoshitaka; Okuno, Yutaka; Matsuoka, Masao; Takeya, Motohiro; Komohara, Yoshihiro</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Immune escape and tolerance in the tumor microenvironment are closely involved in tumor progression, and are caused by T-cell exhaustion and mediated by the inhibitory signaling of immune checkpoint molecules including programmed death-1 (PD-1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4, and T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domaincontaining molecule-3. In the present study, we investigated the expression of the PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) in a lymphoma microenvironment using paraffin-embedded tissue samples, and subsequently studied the detailed mechanism of upregulation of PD-L1 on macrophages using cultured human macrophages and lymphoma cell lines. We found that macrophages in lymphoma tissues of almost all cases of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma expressed PD-L1. Cell culture studies showed that the conditioned medium of ATL-T and SLVL cell lines induced increased expression of PD-L1/2 on macrophages, and that this PD-L1/2 overexpression was dependent on activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3). In vitro studies including cytokine array analysis showed that IL-27 (heterodimer of p28 and EBI3) induced overexpression of PD-L1/2 on macrophages via Stat3 activation. Because lymphoma cell lines produced IL-27B (EBI3) but not IL-27p28, it was proposed that the IL-27p28 derived from macrophages and the IL-27B (EBI3) derived from lymphoma cells formed an IL-27 (heterodimer) that induced PD-L1/2 overexpression. Although the significance of PD-L1/2 expressions on macrophages in lymphoma progression has never been clarified, an IL-27-Stat<span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">axis</span> might be a target for immunotherapy for lymphoma patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810009550','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810009550"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> platform systems concepts definition study. Volume 2: Technical, book 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A selected concept for a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform is defined in sufficient detail to identify requirements for supporting research and technology, space demonstrations, GFE interfaces, costs, and schedules. This system consists of six platforms in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit (GEO) over the Western Hemisphere and six over the Atlantic, to satisfy the total payload set associated with the nominal traffic model. Each platform is delivered to low Earth orbit (LEO) in a single shuttle flight, already mated to its LEO to GEO transfer vehicle and ready for deployment and transfer to GEO. An alternative concept is looked at briefly for comparison of configuration and technology requirements. This alternative consists of two large platforms, one over the Western Hemisphere consisting of three docked modules, and one over the Atlantic (two docked modules), to satisfy a high traffic model. The modules are full length orbiter cargo bay payloads, mated at LEO to orbital transfer vehicles (OTVs) delivered in other shuttle flights, for transfer to GEO, rendezvous, and docking. A preliminary feasibility study of an experimental platform is also performed to demonstrate communications and platform technologies required for the operational platforms of the 1990s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950026496','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950026496"><span>Advanced Propulsion for <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Orbit Insertion and North-South Station Keeping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Oleson, Steven R.; Myers, Roger M.; Kluever, Craig A.; Riehl, John P.; Curran, Francis M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology is currently being used for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite station keeping to increase payload mass. Analyses show that advanced electric propulsion technologies can be used to obtain additional increases in payload mass by using these same technologies to perform part of the orbit transfer. In this work three electric propulsion technologies are examined at two power levels for an Atlas 2AS class spacecraft. The on-board chemical propulsion apogee engine fuel is reduced to allow the use of electric propulsion. A numerical optimizer is used to determine the chemical burns which will minimize the electric propulsion transfer time. Results show that for a 1550 kg Atlas 2AS class payload, increases in net mass (<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite mass less wet propulsion system mass) of 150 to 800 kg are possible using electric propulsion for station keeping, advanced chemical engines for part of the transfer, and electric propulsion for the remainder of the transfer. Trip times are between one and four months.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160001773','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160001773"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Sensitivity Analysis Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Meemong; Bowman, Kevin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal and Air pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) is a NASA decadal survey mission to be designed to provide surface reflectance at high spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit necessary for studying regional-scale air quality issues and their impact on global atmospheric composition processes. GEO-CAPE's Atmospheric Science Questions explore the influence of both gases and particles on air quality, atmospheric composition, and climate. The objective of the GEO-CAPE Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is to analyze the sensitivity of ozone to the global and regional NOx emissions and improve the science impact of GEO-CAPE with respect to the global air quality. The GEO-CAPE OSSE team at Jet propulsion Laboratory has developed a comprehensive OSSE framework that can perform adjoint-sensitivity analysis for a wide range of observation scenarios and measurement qualities. This report discusses the OSSE framework and presents the sensitivity analysis results obtained from the GEO-CAPE OSSE framework for seven observation scenarios and three instrument systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8866E..02S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8866E..02S"><span>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder (GRIPS): measurement of the carbon gases from space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schoeberl, M.; Dickerson, R.; Marshall, B. T.; McHugh, M.; Fish, C.; Bloom, H.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Climate change and air quality are the most pressing environmental issues of the 21st century. Despite decades of research, the sources and sinks of key greenhouse gases remain highly uncertain [IPCC1] making quantitative predictions of atmospheric composition and their impacts. The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder (GRIPS) is a multi-purpose instrument designed to reduce uncertainty associated with atmospheric radiative forcing. GRIPS will measure will measure greenhouse gases and aerosols - two of the most important elements in the earth's radiation budget. GRIPS will observe carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), - the carbon gases, nitrous oxide (N2O), water vapor and aerosols with unprecedented precision through the atmosphere. The GRIPS instrument uses gas filter correlation radiometry (GFCR) to detect reflected and thermal IR radiation to detect the gases and the reflected solar radiation in the visible and short-wave infrared bands for aerosols. GRIPS is designed to have sensitivity down to the Earth's surface at ~2-8km nadir resolution. GRIPS can resolve CO2, CO, and CH4 anomalies in the planetary boundary layer and the free troposphere to quantify lofting, diurnal variations and longrange transport. With repeated measurements throughout the day GRIPS can maximize the number of cloud free measurements determining biogenic and anthropogenic sources, sinks, and fluxes. GRIPS is highly complementary to the Orbiting Carbon Observatory, OCO-2, the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and other existing and planned missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001501','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001501"><span>High Impact Weather Forecasts and Warnings with the GOES-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, Steven; Blakeslee, Richard; Koshak, William; Mach, Douglas</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. A major advancement over the current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM). The GLM will operate continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Science Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop cal/val performance monitoring tools and new applications using the GLM alone, in conjunction with other instruments, and merged or blended integrated observing system products combining satellite, radar, in-situ and numerical models. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional ground-based lightning networks are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms, test data sets, and applications, as well as improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this presentation we review the planned implementation of the instrument and suite of operational algorithms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950020965','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950020965"><span>Fuzzy logic techniques for rendezvous and docking of two <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ortega, Guillermo</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Large assemblings in space require the ability to manage rendezvous and docking operations. In future these techniques will be required for the gradual build up of big telecommunication platforms in the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. The paper discusses the use of fuzzy logic to model and implement a control system for the docking/berthing of two satellites in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. The system mounted in a chaser vehicle determines the actual state of both satellites and generates torques to execute maneuvers to establish the structural latching. The paper describes the proximity operations to collocate the two satellites in the same orbital window, the fuzzy guidance and navigation of the chaser approaching the target and the final Fuzzy berthing. The fuzzy logic system represents a knowledge based controller that realizes the close loop operations autonomously replacing the conventional control algorithms. The goal is to produce smooth control actions in the proximity of the target and during the docking to avoid disturbance torques in the final assembly orbit. The knowledge of the fuzzy controller consists of a data base of rules and the definitions of the fuzzy sets. The knowledge of an experienced spacecraft controller is captured into a set of rules forming the Rules Data Base.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A12C..03X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A12C..03X"><span>CO2, CH4, CO and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Retrievals for the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Carbon Process Investigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xi, X.; Natraj, V.; Luo, M.; Shia, R.; Sander, S. P.; Yung, Y. L.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Carbon Process Investigation (GCPI) combines an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer instrument with a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Earth orbit vantage point to realize a transformational advance in carbon monitoring beyond the synoptic capabilities of Low Earth Orbit instruments such as SCIAMACHY, GOSAT and OCO-2. GCPI follows the paradigm of numerical weather prediction and aims to provide orders of magnitude improvement in observational density for atmospheric CO2, CH4, CO, and new measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF). These new observations could be used to drive and constrain Earth system models, improve our understanding of the underlying carbon cycle processes and evaluate model forecasting capabilities. GCPI is designed to deliver simultaneous measurements of CF and column averaged CO2, CH4 and CO dry air mole fractions to disentangle biogenic and anthropogenic sources of carbon. Here, we perform radiative transfer simulations over a range of conditions expected to be observed by GCPI and estimate prospective performance of retrievals based on results from Bayesian error analysis and characterizations. The potential benefits from the measurements of CF are also investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.1402S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.1402S"><span>Spacecraft plume interactions with the magnetosphere plasma environment in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Earth orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stephani, K. A.; Boyd, I. D.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Particle-based kinetic simulations of steady and unsteady hydrazine chemical rocket plumes are presented in a study of plume interactions with the ambient magnetosphere in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Earth orbit. The hydrazine chemical rocket plume expands into a near-vacuum plasma environment, requiring the use of a combined direct simulation Monte Carlo/particle-in-cell methodology for the rarefied plasma conditions. Detailed total and differential cross sections are employed to characterize the charge exchange reactions between the neutral hydrazine plume mixture and the ambient hydrogen ions, and ion production is also modeled for photoionization processes. These ionization processes lead to an increase in local plasma density surrounding the spacecraft owing to a partial ionization of the relatively high-density hydrazine plume. Results from the steady plume simulations indicate that the formation of the hydrazine ion plume are driven by several competing mechanisms, including (1) local depletion and (2) replenishing of ambient H+ ions by charge exchange and thermal motion of 1 keV H+ from the ambient reservoir, respectively, and (3) photoionization processes. The self-consistent electrostatic field forces and the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> magnetic field have only a small influence on the dynamics of the ion plume. The unsteady plume simulations show a variation in neutral and ion plume dissipation times consistent with the variation in relative diffusion rates of the chemical species, with full H2 dissipation (below the ambient number density levels) approximately 33 s after a 2 s thruster burn.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980018993','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980018993"><span>Upper-Tropospheric Winds Derived from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Water Vapor Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Velden, Christopher S.; Hayden, Christopher M.; Nieman, Steven J.; Menzel, W. Paul; Wanzong, Steven; Goerss, James S.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The coverage and quality of remotely sensed upper-tropospheric moisture parameters have improved considerably with the deployment of a new generation of operational <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellites: GOES-8/9 and GMS-5. The GOES-8/9 water vapor imaging capabilities have increased as a result of improved radiometric sensitivity and higher spatial resolution. The addition of a water vapor sensing channel on the latest GMS permits nearly global viewing of upper-tropospheric water vapor (when joined with GOES and Meteosat) and enhances the commonality of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite observing capabilities. Upper-tropospheric motions derived from sequential water vapor imagery provided by these satellites can be objectively extracted by automated techniques. Wind fields can be deduced in both cloudy and cloud-free environments. In addition to the spatially coherent nature of these vector fields, the GOES-8/9 multispectral water vapor sensing capabilities allow for determination of wind fields over multiple tropospheric layers in cloud-free environments. This article provides an update on the latest efforts to extract water vapor motion displacements over meteorological scales ranging from subsynoptic to global. The potential applications of these data to impact operations, numerical assimilation and prediction, and research studies are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940008638','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940008638"><span>Destination-directed, packet-switched architecture for a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communications satellite network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ivancic, William D.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Bobinsky, Eric A.; Soni, Nitin J.; Quintana, Jorge A.; Kim, Heechul; Wager, Paul; Vanderaar, Mark</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A major goal of the Digital Systems Technology Branch at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to identify and develop critical digital components and technologies that either enable new commercial missions or significantly enhance the performance, cost efficiency, and/or reliability of existing and planned space communications systems. NASA envisions a need for low-data-rate, interactive, direct-to-the-user communications services for data, voice, facsimile, and video conferencing. The network would provide enhanced very-small-aperture terminal (VSAT) communications services and be capable of handling data rates of 64 kbps through 2.048 Mbps in 64-kbps increments. Efforts have concentrated heavily on the space segment; however, the ground segment has been considered concurrently to ensure cost efficiency and realistic operational constraints. The focus of current space segment developments is a flexible, high-throughput, fault-tolerant onboard information-switching processor (ISP) for a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite communications network. The Digital Systems Technology Branch is investigating both circuit and packet architectures for the ISP. Destination-directed, packet-switched architectures for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communications satellites are addressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910001728','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910001728"><span>Thermal-distortion analysis of a spacecraft box truss in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cosgrove, Patrick A.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Rowell, Lawrence F.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The Mission to Planet Earth enlists the use of a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform to support Earth science monitoring instruments. The strongback for a proposed <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform is a deployable box truss that supports two large diameter passive microwave radiometer (PMR) and several other science instruments. A study was performed to estimate the north-south and east-west pointing errors at the mounting locations of the two PMRs due to on-orbit thermal distortions of the main truss. The baseline configuration indicated that the east-west pointing error greatly exceeded the required limits. Primary origins of the pointing errors were identified, and methods for their reduction were discussed. Thermal performance enhancements to the truss structure were modeled and analyzed, including state-of-the-art surface coatings and insulation techniques. Comparisons of the thermal enhancements to the baseline were performed. Results demonstrated that using a thermal enclosure insulating technique reduced external heat fluxes, and distributed those heat fluxes more evenly throughout the structure, sufficiently reducing the pointing error to satisfy pointing accuracy requirements for the PMR's.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.127..296Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.127..296Z"><span>Minimum-fuel station-change for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites using low-thrust considering perturbations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, ShuGe; Zhang, JingRui</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The objective of this paper is to find the minimum-fuel station change for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites with low-thrust while considering significant perturbation forces for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Earth orbit (GEO). The effect of Earth's triaxiality, lunisolar perturbations, and solar radiation pressure on the terminal conditions of a long duration GEO transfer is derived and used for establishing the station change model with consideration of significant perturbation forces. A method is presented for analytically evaluating the effect of Earth's triaxiality on the semimajor axis and longitude during a station change. The minimum-fuel problem is solved by the indirect optimization method. The easier and related minimum-energy problem is first addressed and then the energy-to-fuel homotopy is employed to finally obtain the solution of the minimum-fuel problem. Several effective techniques are employed in solving the two-point boundary-value problem with a shooting method to overcome the problem of the small convergence radius and the sensitivity of the initial costate variables. These methods include normalization of the initial costate vector, computation of the analytic Jacobians matrix, and switching detection. The simulation results show that the solution of the minimum-fuel station change with low-thrust considering significant perturbation forces can be obtained by applying these preceding techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22089853','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22089853"><span>A TEMPORAL MAP IN <span class="hlt">GEOSTATIONARY</span> ORBIT: THE COVER ETCHING ON THE EchoStar XVI ARTIFACT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Weisberg, Joel M.; Paglen, Trevor</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> satellites are unique among orbital spacecraft in that they experience no appreciable atmospheric drag. After concluding their respective missions, <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> spacecraft remain in orbit virtually in perpetuity. As such, they represent some of human civilization's longest lasting artifacts. With this in mind, the EchoStar XVI satellite, to be launched in fall 2012, will play host to a time capsule intended as a message for the deep future. Inspired in part by the Pioneer Plaque and Voyager Golden Records, the EchoStar XVI Artifact is a pair of gold-plated aluminum jackets housing a small silicon disk containing 100 photographs. The Cover Etching, the subject of this paper, is etched onto one of the two jackets. It is a temporal map consisting of a star chart, pulsar timings, and other information describing the epoch from which EchoStar XVI came. The pulsar sample consists of 13 rapidly rotating objects, 5 of which are especially stable, having spin periods <10 ms and extremely small spin-down rates. In this paper, we discuss our approach to the time map etched onto the cover and the scientific data shown on it, and we speculate on the uses that future scientists may have for its data. The other portions of the EchoStar XVI Artifact will be discussed elsewhere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998eati.symp..307B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998eati.symp..307B"><span>Displacement and dissipation under the rotating tidal potential, in contrast to Love's <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bostrom, R. C.</p> <p></p> <p>The Earth rotates relative to the solunar gravity field. In consequence the M2, S2 tides are represented by permanent bulges, travelling westward around the Earth as distortion waves. The associated tidal stress ellipsoid progresses perpetually by rotation, without reversal. It is shown that under imperfect elasticity, in lieu of the body forces induced by Love's <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> time-variant potential a rotating potential induces internal body couples, equally pervasive. Displacement is cumulative, and in the vortical mode formulated by Helmholtz (1858). Whereas in the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> formulation of Love cumulative distortion is nil, in actuality this motion is primary, and dimensionally capable of coupling with extant mantle convection. Unlike the marine tides, the bodily wave-tides proceed unhindered around the Earth unhindered by continental margins. Corrected for oceanic effects the complex Love numbers measure dissipation, as commonly supposed. However dissipation is the result of unmapped cumulative vortical displacement (a circulation component), rather than oscillatory forces having the form of a geographically stationary spheroidal eigenvibration. The characteristic period of the loss factor 1/Q is infinity rather than the period pertinent to seismicity or wobble, to which it is dimensionally unrelated. Although primary vorticity-induction is required by the existence of the rotating tidal potential, its tectonic consequences are a matter of speculation, treated elsewhere [1]. --- [1] Bostrom, R.C., 1998. Tectonic Consequences of the Earth's Rotation. Oxfo rd University Press.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA593369','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA593369"><span>Analysis of Faint Glints from <span class="hlt">Stabilized</span> GEO Satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTION Ground-based optical and radar sites routinely acquire resolved images of satellites, yielding a great deal of knowledge about orbiting...BRF) requires knowledge of the <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> scheme used to maintain the attitude of the satellite’s main bus [13]. Modern <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">axis</span> <span class="hlt">stabilized</span>...Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control”, Astrophysics and Space Sciences Library, Vol. 73., D. Reidel Publishing Co., Boston, MA, 1978. 14. Africano</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920010520','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920010520"><span>Destination-directed, packet-switching architecture for 30/20-GHz FDMA/TDM <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communications satellite network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ivancic, William D.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A destination-directed packet switching architecture for a 30/20-GHz frequency division multiple access/time division multiplexed (FDMA/TDM) <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite communications network is discussed. Critical subsystems and problem areas are identified and addressed. Efforts have concentrated heavily on the space segment; however, the ground segment has been considered concurrently to ensure cost efficiency and realistic operational constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec25-142.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec25-142.pdf"><span>47 CFR 25.142 - Licensing provisions for the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Mobile-Satellite Service.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>...) Space station application requirements. (1) Each application for a space station system authorization in... operate. (2) Applicants for a non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Mobile-Satellite Service space station license must identify the power flux density produced at the Earth's surface by each space station of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf"><span>47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec25-261.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec25-261.pdf"><span>47 CFR 25.261 - Procedures for avoidance of in-line interference events for Non <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Orbit...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... interference events for Non <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Orbit (NGSO) Satellite Network Operations in the Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) Bands. 25.261 Section 25.261 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.261 Procedures...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SpWea...6.7003S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SpWea...6.7003S"><span>A new international <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> electron model: IGE-2006, from 1 keV to 5.2 MeV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sicard-Piet, A.; Bourdarie, S.; Boscher, D.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Thomsen, M.; Goka, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Koshiishi, H.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Département Environnement Spatial, Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA) has been developing a model for the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> electron environment since 2003. Until now, this model was called Particle ONERA-LANL Environment (POLE), and it is valid from 30 keV up to 5.2 MeV. POLE is based on the full complement of Los Alamos National Laboratory <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites, covers the period 1976-2005, and takes into account the solar cycle variation. Over the period 1976 to present, four different detectors were flown: charged particle analyzer (CPA), synchronous orbit particle analyzer (SOPA), energetic spectra for particles (ESP), and magnetospheric plasma analyzer (MPA). Only the first three were used to develop the POLE model. Here we extend the energy coverage of the model to low energies using MPA measurements. We further include the data from the Japanese <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> spacecraft, Data Relay Test Satellite (DRTS). These data are now combined into an extended <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> electron model which we call IGE-2006.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf"><span>47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Licensing provisions for earth station networks... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.135 Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf"><span>47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Licensing provisions for earth station networks... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.135 Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol2-sec25-135.pdf"><span>47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Mobile...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Licensing provisions for earth station networks... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.135 Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Mobile-Satellite Service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920004986','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920004986"><span>Destination directed packet switch architecture for a 30/20 GHz FDMA/TDM <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communication satellite network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ivancic, William D.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Emphasis is on a destination directed packet switching architecture for a 30/20 GHz frequency division multiplex access/time division multiplex (FDMA/TDM) <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite communication network. Critical subsystems and problem areas are identified and addressed. Efforts have concentrated heavily on the space segment; however, the ground segment was considered concurrently to ensure cost efficiency and realistic operational constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920005891','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920005891"><span>Circuit-switch architecture for a 30/20-GHz FDMA/TDM <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite communications network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ivancic, William D.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A circuit switching architecture is described for a 30/20 GHz frequency division, multiple access uplink/time division multiplexed downlink (FDMA/TDM) <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite communications network. Critical subsystems and problem areas are identified and addressed. Work was concentrated primarily on the space segment; however, the ground segment was considered concurrently to ensure cost efficiency and realistic operational constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920047300&hterms=FDMA&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DFDMA','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920047300&hterms=FDMA&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DFDMA"><span>Circuit-switch architecture for a 30/20-GHz FDMA/TDM <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite communications network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ivancic, William D.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A circuit-switching architecture is described for a 30/20-GHz frequency-division, multiple-access uplink/time-division-multiplexed downlink (FDMA/TDM) <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite communications network. Critical subsystems and problem areas are identified and addressed. Work was concentrated primarily on the space segment; however, the ground segment was considered concurrently to ensure cost efficiency and realistic operational constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ihy..workE.131R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ihy..workE.131R"><span>Our Understanding of Space Weather features responsible for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite anamolies (P39)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rajaram, G.; et al.</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>girija60@yahoo.com The topic of space weather effects on operational anomalies on spacecraft is one of considerable research investigation, with both pure and applied aspects. This is because of the very high costs involved in fabricating and operating spacecraft, and in insuring them against the harmful effects of space weather. This is more true for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites than of low-orbiting spacecraft, as the former operate in the high-risk environment of the Earth’s outer radiation belts, with its large vagaries in spatial and time variations of high- energy electron and proton distributions (BAKER 2003). Without doubt, plasma and magnetic field emissions from active regions on the Sun are the root cause for spacecraft anomalies. Our study for 2005 shows that over 95% of anomalies can be related to some definite activity on the Sun, ranging from high-speed solar wind streams with their 27-day recurrence patterns/coronal holes/coronal mass ejections preceded by X or M type of flares/and magnetic cloud events. The most energetic solar activity events are generally accompanied by a large rise in solar MeV proton densities at <span class="hlt">geo-stationary</span> orbit (WILKINSON 1994), and they account for definite anomalies classified as SEU (Single Event Upsets which most often are reversible through resetting commands). Any particles in the low energy ranges (eV and keV, and these could be of magnetospheric or ionospheric origin), are believed to cause external charging effects in exposed parts of the spacecraft such as solar power arrays and power cables. These mainly result in power losses which are debilitating over a period of time. The most dangerous and often irrecoverable damage is due to electronics in the 1-5 MeV range which cause deep dielectric discharge of arc type in semi-conductors comprising spacecraft instruments. Following major solar activity, the populations of these rise to more than (5x103) particles/cm2.ster.sec, with large spatial and time variations (LOVE</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.6175B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.6175B"><span>Constraints on methane emissions in North America from future <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> remote-sensing measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bousserez, Nicolas; Henze, Daven K.; Rooney, Brigitte; Perkins, Andre; Wecht, Kevin J.; Turner, Alexander J.; Natraj, Vijay; Worden, John R.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The success of future <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) satellite observation missions depends on our ability to design instruments that address their key scientific objectives. In this study, an Observation System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is performed to quantify the constraints on methane (CH4) emissions in North America obtained from shortwave infrared (SWIR), thermal infrared (TIR), and multi-spectral (SWIR+TIR) measurements in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit and from future SWIR low-Earth orbit (LEO) measurements. An efficient stochastic algorithm is used to compute the information content of the inverted emissions at high spatial resolution (0.5° × 0.7°) in a variational framework using the GEOS-Chem chemistry-transport model and its adjoint. Our results show that at sub-weekly timescales, SWIR measurements in GEO orbit can constrain about twice as many independent flux patterns than in LEO orbit, with a degree of freedom for signal (DOF) for the inversion of 266 and 115, respectively. Comparisons between TIR GEO and SWIR LEO configurations reveal that poor boundary layer sensitivities for the TIR measurements cannot be compensated for by the high spatiotemporal sampling of a GEO orbit. The benefit of a multi-spectral instrument compared to current SWIR products in a GEO context is shown for sub-weekly timescale constraints, with an increase in the DOF of about 50 % for a 3-day inversion. Our results further suggest that both the SWIR and multi-spectral measurements on GEO orbits could almost fully resolve CH4 fluxes at a spatial resolution of at least 100 km × 100 km over source hotspots (emissions > 4 × 105 kg day-1). The sensitivity of the optimized emission scaling factors to typical errors in boundary and initial conditions can reach 30 and 50 % for the SWIR GEO or SWIR LEO configurations, respectively, while it is smaller than 5 % in the case of a multi-spectral GEO system. Overall, our results demonstrate that multi-spectral measurements from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B41C0315O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B41C0315O"><span>Land surface thermal characterization of Asian-pacific region with Japanese <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oyoshi, K.; Tamura, M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a significant indicator of energy balance at the Earth's surface. It is required for a wide variety of climate, hydrological, ecological, and biogeochemical studies. Although LST is highly variable both temporally and spatially, it is impossible for polar-orbiting satellite to detect hourly changes in LST, because the satellite is able to only collect data of the same area at most twice a day. On the other hand, <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite is able to collect hourly data and has a possibility to monitor hourly changes in LST, therefore hourly measurements of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite enables us to characterize detailed thermal conditions of the Earth's surface and improve our understanding of the surface energy balance. Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) is a Japanese <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite launched in 2005 and covers Asia-Pacific region. MTSAT provides hourly data with 5 bands including two thermal infrared (TIR) bands in the 10.5-12.5 micron region. In this research, we have developed a methodology to retrieve hourly LST from thermal infrared data of MTSAT. We applied Generalized Split-window (GSW) equation to estimate LST from TIR data. First, the brightness temperatures measured at sensor on MTSAT was simulated by radiative transfer code (MODTRAN), and the numerical coefficients of GSW equation were optimized based on the simulation results with non-linear minimization algorithm. The standard deviation of derived GSW equation was less than or equal to 1.09K in the case of viewing zenith angle lower than 40 degree and 1.73K in 60 degree. Then, spatial distributions of LST have been mapped optimized GSW equation with brightness temperatures of MTSAT IR1 and IR2 and emissivity map from MODIS product. Finally, these maps were validated with MODIS LST product (MOD11A1) over four Asian-pacific regions such as Bangkok, Tokyo, UlanBator and Jakarta , It is found that RMSE of these regions were 4.57K, 2.22K, 2.71K and 3.92K</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMT.....8.4719B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMT.....8.4719B"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E): mission concept and initial performance assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Butz, A.; Orphal, J.; Checa-Garcia, R.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; von Clarmann, T.; Bovensmann, H.; Hasekamp, O.; Landgraf, J.; Knigge, T.; Weise, D.; Sqalli-Houssini, O.; Kemper, D.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E) is a concept for a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite sounder that aims to constrain the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) for continental-scale regions. Its primary focus is on central Europe. G3E carries a spectrometer system that collects sunlight backscattered from the Earth's surface and atmosphere in the near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) spectral range. Solar absorption spectra allow for spatiotemporally dense observations of the column-average concentrations of carbon dioxide (XCO2), methane (XCH4), and carbon monoxide (XCO). The mission concept in particular facilitates sampling of the diurnal variation with several measurements per day during summer. Here, we present the mission concept and carry out an initial performance assessment of the retrieval capabilities. The radiometric performance of the 4 grating spectrometers is tuned to reconcile small ground-pixel sizes (~2 km × 3 km at 50° latitude) with short single-shot exposures (~2.9 s) that allow for sampling continental regions such as central Europe within 2 h while providing a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. The noise errors to be expected for XCO2, XCH4, and XCO are assessed through retrieval simulations for a European trial ensemble. Generally, single-shot precision for the targeted XCO2 and XCH4 is better than 0.5 % with some exception for scenes with low infrared surface albedo observed under low sun conditions in winter. For XCO, precision is generally better than 10 %. Performance for aerosol and cirrus loaded atmospheres is assessed by mimicking G3E's slant view on Europe for an ensemble of atmospheric scattering properties used previously for evaluating nadir-viewing low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. While retrieval concepts developed for LEO configurations generally succeed in mitigating aerosol- and cirrus-induced retrieval errors for G3E's setup, residual errors are somewhat greater in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMTD....8.6949B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMTD....8.6949B"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E): mission concept and initial performance assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Butz, A.; Orphal, J.; Checa-Garcia, R.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; von Clarmann, T.; Bovensmann, H.; Hasekamp, O.; Landgraf, J.; Knigge, T.; Weise, D.; Sqalli-Houssini, O.; Kemper, D.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E) is a concept for a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite sounder that targets at constraining the sources and sinks of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) for continental-scale regions. Thereby, its primary focus is on Central Europe. G3E carries a spectrometer system that collects sunlight backscattered from the Earth's surface and atmosphere in the near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) spectral range. Solar absorption spectra allow for spatiotemporally dense observations of the column-average concentrations of carbon dioxide (XCO2), methane (XCH4), and carbon monoxide (XCO) including sampling of the diurnal variation with several measurements per day during summer. Here, we present the mission concept and carry out an initial performance assessment of the retrieval capabilities. The radiometric performance of the 4 grating spectrometers is tuned to reconcile small ground-pixel sizes (~ 2 km × 3 km at 50° latitude) with short single-shot exposures (∼ 2.9 s) that allow for sampling continental regions such as Central Europe within 2 h while providing sufficient signal-to-noise. The noise errors to be expected for XCO2, XCH4, and XCO are assessed through retrieval simulations for a European trial ensemble. Generally, single-shot precision for the targeted XCO2 and XCH4 is better than 0.5 % with some exception for scenes with low infrared surface albedo observed under low sun conditions in winter. For XCO, precision is generally better than 10 %. Performance for aerosol and cirrus loaded atmospheres is assessed by mimicking G3E's slant view on Europe for an ensemble of atmospheric scattering properties used previously for evaluating nadir-viewing low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. While retrieval concepts developed for LEO configurations generally succeed in mitigating aerosol and cirrus induced retrieval errors for G3E's setup, residual errors are somewhat greater in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23481840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23481840"><span>Ocean color products from the Korean <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Menghua; Ahn, Jae-Hyun; Jiang, Lide; Shi, Wei; Son, SeungHyun; Park, Young-Je; Ryu, Joo-Hyung</p> <p>2013-02-11</p> <p>The first <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> ocean color satellite sensor, <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), which is onboard South Korean Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), was successfully launched in June of 2010. GOCI has a local area coverage of the western Pacific region centered at around 36°N and 130°E and covers ~2500 × 2500 km(2). GOCI has eight spectral bands from 412 to 865 nm with an hourly measurement during daytime from 9:00 to 16:00 local time, i.e., eight images per day. In a collaboration between NOAA Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) and Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST), we have been working on deriving and improving GOCI ocean color products, e.g., normalized water-leaving radiance spectra (nLw(λ)), chlorophyll-a concentration, diffuse attenuation coefficient at the wavelength of 490 nm (Kd(490)), etc. The GOCI-covered ocean region includes one of the world's most turbid and optically complex waters. To improve the GOCI-derived nLw(λ) spectra, a new atmospheric correction algorithm was developed and implemented in the GOCI ocean color data processing. The new algorithm was developed specifically for GOCI-like ocean color data processing for this highly turbid western Pacific region. In this paper, we show GOCI ocean color results from our collaboration effort. From in situ validation analyses, ocean color products derived from the new GOCI ocean color data processing have been significantly improved. Generally, the new GOCI ocean color products have a comparable data quality as those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the satellite Aqua. We show that GOCI-derived ocean color data can provide an effective tool to monitor ocean phenomenon in the region such as tide-induced re-suspension of sediments, diurnal variation of ocean optical and biogeochemical properties, and horizontal advection of river discharge. In particular, we show some examples of ocean</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcAau.112...56S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcAau.112...56S"><span>An approach to ground based space surveillance of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> on-orbit servicing operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scott, Robert (Lauchie); Ellery, Alex</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>On Orbit Servicing (OOS) is a class of dual-use robotic space missions that could potentially extend the life of orbiting satellites by fuel replenishment, repair, inspection, orbital maintenance or satellite repurposing, and possibly reduce the rate of space debris generation. OOS performed in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit poses a unique challenge for the optical space surveillance community. Both satellites would be performing proximity operations in tight formation flight with separations less than 500 m making atmospheric seeing (turbulence) a challenge to resolving a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite pair when viewed from the ground. The two objects would appear merged in an image as the resolving power of the telescope and detector, coupled with atmospheric seeing, limits the ability to resolve the two objects. This poses an issue for obtaining orbital data for conjunction flight safety or, in matters pertaining to space security, inferring the intent and trajectory of an unexpected object perched very close to one's satellite asset on orbit. In order to overcome this problem speckle interferometry using a cross spectrum approach is examined as a means to optically resolve the client and servicer's relative positions to enable a means to perform relative orbit determination of the two spacecraft. This paper explores cases where client and servicing satellites are in unforced relative motion flight and examines the observability of the objects. Tools are described that exploit cross-spectrum speckle interferometry to (1) determine the presence of a secondary in the vicinity of the client satellite and (2) estimate the servicing satellite's motion relative to the client. Experimental observations performed with the Mont Mégantic 1.6 m telescope on co-located <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites (acting as OOS proxy objects) are described. Apparent angular separations between Anik G1 and Anik F1R from 5 to 1 arcsec were observed as the two satellites appeared to graze one another. Data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960008982','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960008982"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite water vapor channel data on weather analysis and forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Velden, Christopher S.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Preliminary results from NWP impact studies are indicating that upper-tropospheric wind information provided by tracking motions in sequences of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite water vapor imagery can positively influence forecasts on regional scales, and possibly on global scales as well. The data are complimentary to cloud-tracked winds by providing data in cloud-free regions, as well as comparable in quality. First results from GOES-8 winds are encouraging, and further efforts and model impacts will be directed towards optimizing these data in numerical weather prediction (NWP). Assuming successful launches of GOES-J and GMS-5 satellites in 1995, high quality and resolution water vapor imagers will be available to provide nearly complete global upper-tropospheric wind coverage.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1771S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1771S"><span>Passive correlation ranging of a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite using DVB-S payload signals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shakun, Leonid; Shulga, Alexandr; Sybiryakova, Yevgeniya; Bushuev, Felix; Kaliuzhnyi, Mykola; Bezrukovs, Vladislavs; Moskalenko, Sergiy; Kulishenko, Vladislav; Balagura, Oleg</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Passive correlation ranging (PaCoRa) for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites is now considered as an alternate to tone-ranging (https://artes.esa.int/search/node/PaCoRa). The PaCoRa method has been employed in the Research Institute "Nikolaev astronomical observatory" since the first experiment in August 2011 with two stations spatially separated on 150 km. The PaCoRa has been considered as an independent method for tracking the future Ukrainian <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite "Lybid'. Now a radio engineering complex (RC) for passive ranging consists of five spatially separated stations of receiving digital satellite television and a data processing center located in Mykolaiv. The stations are located in Kyiv, Kharkiv, Mukacheve, Mykolaiv (Ukraine) and in Ventspils (Latvia). Each station has identical equipment. The equipment allows making synchronous recording of fragments of the DVB-S signal from the quadrature detector output of a satellite television receiver. The fragments are recorded every second. Synchronization of the stations is performed using GPS receivers. Samples of the complex signal obtained in this way are archived and are sent to the data processing center over the Internet. Here the time differences of arrival (TDOA) for pairs of the stations are determined as a result of correlation processing of received signals. The values of the TDOA that measured every second are used for orbit determination (OD) of the satellite. The results of orbit determination of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> telecommunication satellite "Eutelsat-13B" (13º East) obtained during about four months of observations in 2015 are presented in the report. The TDOA and OD accuracies are also given. Single-measurement error (1 sigma) of the TDOA is equal about 8.7 ns for all pairs of the stations. Standard deviations and average values of the residuals between the observed TDOA and the TDOA computed using the orbit elements obtained from optical measurements are estimated for the pairs Kharkiv-Mykolaiv and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860042405&hterms=noise+environment&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnoise%2Benvironment','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860042405&hterms=noise+environment&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnoise%2Benvironment"><span>The microwave noise environment at a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite caused by the brightness of the earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, E. K.; Njoku, E. G.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The microwave antenna temperature due to the earth in the satellite antenna beam has been computed for a series of longitudes for a satellite in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit and for frequencies of 1 to 50 GHz. An earth-coverage beam is assumed for simplicity, but the technique is applicable to arbitrary beam shapes. Detailed calculations have been performed to account for varying land-ocean fractions within the field of view. Emission characteristics of the earth's atmosphere and surface are used with an accurate radiation transfer program to compute observed brightness temperatures. The value of 290 K commonly used for antenna temperature in satellite communication noise calculations is overly conservative, with more realistic values lying in the 60 to 240 K range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044163&hterms=alan+williams&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dalan%2Bwilliams','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044163&hterms=alan+williams&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dalan%2Bwilliams"><span>Prototype development of a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer (GeoSTAR)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kangaslahti, Pekka; Tanner, Alan; Wilson, William; Dinardo, Steve; Lambrigsten, Bjorn</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Weather prediction and hurricane tracking would greatly benefit of a continuous imaging capability of a hemisphere at millimeter wave frequencies. We are developing a synthetic thinned aperture radiometer (STAR) prototype operating from 50 to 56 GHz as a ground-based testbed to demonstrate the technologies needed to do full earth disk atmospheric temperature soundings from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> orbit with very high spatial resolution. The prototype consists of a Y-array of 24 MMIC receivers that are compact units implemented with low noise InP MMIC LNAs, second harmonic I-Q mixers, low power IF amplifiers and include internal digital bias control with serial line communication to enable low cost testing and system integration. Furthermore, this prototype STAR includes independent LO and noise calibration signal phase switching circuitry for each arm of the Y-array to verify the operation and calibration of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..52.1072U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..52.1072U"><span>Practical method to identify orbital anomaly as spacecraft breakup in the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uetsuhara, Masahiko; Hanada, Toshiya</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Identifying spacecraft breakup events is an essential issue for better understanding of the current orbital debris environment. This paper proposes an observation planning approach to identify an orbital anomaly, which appears as a significant discontinuity in archived orbital history, as a spacecraft breakup. The proposed approach is applicable to orbital anomalies in the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> region. The proposed approach selects a spacecraft that experienced an orbital anomaly, and then predicts trajectories of possible fragments of the spacecraft at an observation epoch. This paper theoretically demonstrates that observation planning for the possible fragments can be conducted. To do this, long-term behaviors of the possible fragments are evaluated. It is concluded that intersections of their trajectories will converge into several corresponding regions in the celestial sphere even if the breakup epoch is not specified and it has uncertainty of the order of several weeks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993imsc.conf...85B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993imsc.conf...85B"><span>The provision of spectrum for feeder links of non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bowen, Robert R.</p> <p></p> <p>The possibility of sharing spectrum in the 30/20 GHz band between <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> fixed-satellite systems and feeder-links of low-earth orbit (LEO) mobile-satellite systems is addressed, taking into account that International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Radio Regulation 2613 would be a factor in such sharing. Interference into each network in both the uplink at 30 GHz and the downlink at 20 GHz is considered. It is determined that if sharing were to take place the mobile-satellite may have to cease transmission often for intervals up to 10 seconds, may have to use high-gain tracking antennas on its spacecraft, and may find it an advantage to use code-division multiple access. An alternate solution suggested is to designate a band 50 to 100 MHz wide at 28 and 18 GHz to be used primarily for feeder links to LEO systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920012971','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920012971"><span>Inflated concepts for the earth science <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform and an associated flight experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Friese, G.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Large parabolic reflectors and solar concentrators are of great interest for microwave transmission, solar powered rockets, and Earth observations. Collector subsystems have been under slow development for a decade. Inflated paraboloids have a great weight and package volume advantage over mechanically erected systems and, therefore, have been receiving greater attention recently. The objective of this program was to produce a 'conceptual definition of an experiment to assess in-space structural damping characteristics and effects of the space meteoroid environment upon structural integrity and service life of large inflatable structures.' The flight experiment was to have been based upon an inflated solar concentration, but much of that was being done on other programs. To avoid redundancy, the Earth Science <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Platform (ESGP) was selected as a focus mission for the experiment. Three major areas were studied: the ESGP reflector configuration; flight experiment; and meteoroids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150005618&hterms=Vijay&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DVijay','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150005618&hterms=Vijay&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DVijay"><span>JPL Developments in Retrieval Algorithms for <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Observations - Applications to H2CO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kurosu, Thomas P.; Kulawik, Susan; Natraj, Vijay</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>JPL has strong expertise in atmospheric retrievals from UV and thermal IR, and a wide range of tools to apply to observations and instrument characterization. Radiative Transfer, AMF, Inversion, Fitting, Assimilation. Tools were applied for a preliminary study of H2CO sensitivities from GEO. Results show promise for moderate/strong H2CO lading but also that low background conditions will prove a challenge. H2CO DOF are not too strongly dependent on FWHM. GEMS (<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer) choice of 0.6 nm FWHM (?) spectral resolution is adequate for H2CO retrievals. Case study can easily be adapted to GEMS observations/instrument model for more in-depth sensitivity characterization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986ESASP.255..467G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986ESASP.255..467G"><span>CARTEL: A method to calibrate S-band ranges with <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guitart, A.; Mesnard, R.; Nouel, F.</p> <p>1986-12-01</p> <p>An intersite tracking campaign was organized, with 4 S-band stations, for a period of 1 wk to show how the most precise orbit can be computed with the operational software. This precise orbit served as a reference in order to evaluate what can be achieved with one single station with range and angular measurements (a typical configuration used for stationkeeping of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites). Orbit computation implied numerical integration with gravitational (Earth, Moon, and Sun) and solar radiation pressure as forces acting on the satellite. Arc lengths of 2 days gave initial state vectors which were compared every day. A precision of 10 m is achieved. However, an analysis of the influence of several parameters entering the orbit computations reveals that the absolute accuracy is of the order of 100 m, since modeling perturbations were neglected in the operational software (polar motion for example). This reference orbit allows estimation of systematic errors for other tracking antennas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9521E..1QW','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9521E..1QW"><span>Research on space-based optical surveillance's observation strategy of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span>-orbit's pitch point region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Xue-ying; An, Wei; Wu, Yu-hao; Li, Jun</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>In order to surveillance the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) objects, including man-made satellites and space debris, more efficiently, a space-based optical surveillance system was designed in this paper. A strategy to observe the pinch point region was selected because of the GEO objects' dynamics features. That strategy affects the surveillance satellites orbital type and sensor pointing strategy. In order to minimize total surveillance satellites and the revisit time for GEO objects, a equation was set. More than 700 GEO objects' TLE from NASA's website are used for simulation. Results indicate that the revisit time of the surveillance system designed in this paper is less than 24 hours, more than 95% GEO objects can be observed by the designed system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.1234K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.1234K"><span>Sea surface temperature from the new Japanese <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological Himawari-8 satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kurihara, Yukio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kachi, Misako</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Himawari-8 is a new <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The Earth Observation Research Center of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in collaboration with the JMA produces skin sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from Himawari-8 data. A new quasi-physical algorithm was used to calculate SSTs. Cloud screening based on the Bayesian inference method was used to detect cloudy pixels. Himawari-8 SSTs from June to September 2015 were compared with drifting and tropical moored buoy data. This comparison showed a root-mean-square difference of ˜0.59 K and a bias of ˜-0.16 K against the buoy data. Positive and variable biases were found in seas along the viewing boundaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OAP....29..203K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OAP....29..203K"><span>International Network of Passive Correlation Ranging for Orbit Determination of a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaliuzhnyi, Mykola; Bushuev, Felix; Shulga, Oleksandr; Sybiryakova, Yevgeniya; Shakun, Leonid; Bezrukovs, Vladislavs; Moskalenko, Sergiy; Kulishenko, Vladislav; Malynovskyi, Yevgen</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>An international network of passive correlation ranging of a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> telecommunication satellite is considered in the article. The network is developed by the RI "MAO". The network consists of five spatially separated stations of synchronized reception of DVB-S signals of digital satellite TV. The stations are located in Ukraine and Latvia. The time difference of arrival (TDOA) on the network stations of the DVB-S signals, radiated by the satellite, is a measured parameter. The results of TDOA estimation obtained by the network in May-August 2016 are presented in the article. Orbital parameters of the tracked satellite are determined using measured values of the TDOA and two models of satellite motion: the analytical model SGP4/SDP4 and the model of numerical integration of the equations of satellite motion. Both models are realized using the free low-level space dynamics library OREKIT (ORbit Extrapolation KIT).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESASP.740E.287S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESASP.740E.287S"><span>Developing Fire Detection Algorithms by <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Orbiting Platforms and Machine Learning Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salvador, Pablo; Sanz, Julia; Garcia, Miguel; Casanova, Jose Luis</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Fires in general and forest fires specific are a major concern in terms of economical and biological loses. Remote sensing technologies have been focusing on developing several algorithms, adapted to a large kind of sensors, platforms and regions in order to obtain hotspots as faster as possible. The aim of this study is to establish an automatic methodology to develop hotspots detection algorithms with Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor on board Meteosat Second Generation platform (MSG) based on machine learning techniques that can be exportable to others <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platforms and sensors and to any area of the Earth. The sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP) and accuracy (AC) parameters have been analyzed in order to develop the final machine learning algorithm taking into account the preferences and final use of the predicted data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018278','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018278"><span>The provision of spectrum for feeder links of non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bowen, Robert R.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The possibility of sharing spectrum in the 30/20 GHz band between <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> fixed-satellite systems and feeder-links of low-earth orbit (LEO) mobile-satellite systems is addressed, taking into account that International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Radio Regulation 2613 would be a factor in such sharing. Interference into each network in both the uplink at 30 GHz and the downlink at 20 GHz is considered. It is determined that if sharing were to take place the mobile-satellite may have to cease transmission often for intervals up to 10 seconds, may have to use high-gain tracking antennas on its spacecraft, and may find it an advantage to use code-division multiple access. An alternate solution suggested is to designate a band 50 to 100 MHz wide at 28 and 18 GHz to be used primarily for feeder links to LEO systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080014146','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080014146"><span>Using Satellite Measurements to Investigate Regional-scale Chemistry: The Case for <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fishman, Jack; Wozniak, Amy; Creilson, Jack</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>One of the recommendations of the Decadal Survey that was recently released by the National Academy of Science was that of a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform from which to obtain trace gas measurements. The use of such a platform is particularly advantageous when applied to understanding the formation of regional air pollution. This study demonstrates the challenges of trying to utilize information from instruments on satellites in low-earth orbit (LEO). We also demonstrate the advantage gained through a simulation that would provide hourly observations. In this case study, we take advantage of the high resolution Level-2 orbital data available from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), in conjunction with assimilated stratospheric column ozone fields, to evaluate if meaningful tropospheric ozone information can be obtained on a regional scale. We focus on a period on late June 2005 when a widespread pollution episode enveloped the Houston metropolitan area as well as a large region in southeast Texas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A52C..02O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A52C..02O"><span>Tropospheric ozone measured in the thermal infrared: from polar orbiting satellites towards <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platforms (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orphal, J.; Flaud, J.; Dufour, G.; Eremenko, M.; Keim, C.; Bergametti, G.; Foret, G.; Beekmann, M.; Höpfner, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Kleinert, A.; Attie, J.; Claeyman, M.; Peuch, V.; El Amroui, L.; Massart, S.; Piacentini, A.; Cantie, R.; Pasternak, F.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Monitoring atmospheric composition from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit (GEO) in the thermal infrared (TIR) will provide data for a wide variety of users, from meteorology and climate to air quality applications. This talk will present results from a French-German consortium (LISA Creteil, CNRS - Meteo France Toulouse, KIT - IMK Karlsruhe) concerning air quality monitoring from GEO, with particular emphasis on instrument requirements and on the impact of such data on chemical models (MOCAGE, CHIMERE), based on a dedicated Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) for CO and tropospheric O3. We will demonstrate the potential of TIR measurements for monitoring tropospheric O3 using data from the IASI instrument (focusing on Europe and megacities in China), and discuss some technical aspects based on instrument development at IMK, in particular concerning 2D-array detectors for passive atmospheric sounding in the TIR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9881E..2ER','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9881E..2ER"><span>Post launch calibration and testing of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper on GOES-R satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rafal, Marc; Clarke, Jared T.; Cholvibul, Ruth W.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is procuring the GOES-R spacecraft and instruments with the first launch of the GOES-R series planned for October 2016. Included in the GOES-R Instrument suite is the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM). GLM is a single-channel, near-infrared optical detector that can sense extremely brief (800 μs) transient changes in the atmosphere, indicating the presence of lightning. GLM will measure total lightning activity continuously over the Americas and adjacent ocean regions with near-uniform spatial resolution of approximately 10 km. Due to its large CCD (1372x1300 pixels), high frame rate, sensitivity and onboard event filtering, GLM will require extensive post launch characterization and calibration. Daytime and nighttime images will be used to characterize both image quality criteria inherent to GLM as a space-based optic system (focus, stray light, crosstalk, solar glint) and programmable image processing criteria (dark offsets, gain, noise, linearity, dynamic range). In addition ground data filtering will be adjusted based on lightning-specific phenomenology (coherence) to isolate real from false transients with their own characteristics. These parameters will be updated, as needed, on orbit in an iterative process guided by pre-launch testing. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on GLM over the six-month Post Launch Test period to optimize and demonstrate GLM performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004688','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004688"><span>Post Launch Calibration and Testing of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper on the GOES-R Satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rafal, Marc D.; Clarke, Jared T.; Cholvibul, Ruth W.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is procuring the GOES-R spacecraft and instruments with the first launch of the GOES-R series planned for October 2016. Included in the GOES-R Instrument suite is the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM). GLM is a single-channel, near-infrared optical detector that can sense extremely brief (800 microseconds) transient changes in the atmosphere, indicating the presence of lightning. GLM will measure total lightning activity continuously over the Americas and adjacent ocean regions with near-uniform spatial resolution of approximately 10 km. Due to its large CCD (1372x1300 pixels), high frame rate, sensitivity and onboard event filtering, GLM will require extensive post launch characterization and calibration. Daytime and nighttime images will be used to characterize both image quality criteria inherent to GLM as a space-based optic system (focus, stray light, crosstalk, solar glint) and programmable image processing criteria (dark offsets, gain, noise, linearity, dynamic range). In addition ground data filtering will be adjusted based on lightning-specific phenomenology (coherence) to isolate real from false transients with their own characteristics. These parameters will be updated, as needed, on orbit in an iterative process guided by pre-launch testing. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on GLM over the six-month Post Launch Test period to optimize and demonstrate GLM performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150006611&hterms=hurricane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dhurricane','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150006611&hterms=hurricane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dhurricane"><span>NEXRAD-In-Space: A <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Orbiting Doppler Radar for Hurricane Monitoring and Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Im, Eastwood; Durden, Stephen L.; Tanelli, Simone; Fang, Houfei; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Under NASA's Earth Science Technology Program, a novel mission concept has been developed for detailed monitoring of hurricanes, cyclones, and severe storms from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit: "NEXRAD in Space" (NIS). By operating in the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Earth Orbit (GEO), NIS would enable rapid-update sampling (less than or equal to 1 hour cadence) of three dimenional fields of 35 GHz (Ka-band) radar reflectivity factor (Z) and line-of-sight Doppler velocity (VD) profiles, at mesoscale horizontal resolutions (approx. 10 km) over a circular Earth region of approximately 5300 km in diameter (equivalent to much of an oceanic basin, such as the Atlantic). NIS GEO-radar concept was chosen as one of only four potential post-2020 missions for the Weather Focus area in the 2007-2016 NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Plan. The results of the first project aiming at developing the NIS concept highlighted the enormous potential of such mission, and the technological challenges presented by it. In essence, it is because of its rapid-cadence capability that NIS science planning is focusing on hurricane monitoring and prediction. Hurricanes, or generically tropical cyclones (TCs), have always been among the most devastating natural phenomena. This has been painfully reiterated in recent years with a number of powerful TCs landfalling in North America and elsewhere. In April 2007, the first NIS Science Workshop was convened at the University of Miami to galvanize the scientific community's interest in NIS's measurement capabilities for improved TC monitoring and prediction. The general consensus of the workshop was that a GEO Doppler radar would provide a major breakthrough in regards to the observation of TCs, and, when combined with cloud-resolving numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. This paper presents brief summaries of the instrument concept, the current technology status, the anticipated impacts on hurricane monitoring and model prediction, and the future science</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010100545&hterms=Fourier&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DFourier','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010100545&hterms=Fourier&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DFourier"><span>Demonstration of Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Performance for Planetary and <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Earth Observing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Revercomb, Henry E.; Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Fry, Patrick M.; Best, Fred A.; LaPorte, Daniel D.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The combination of massively parallel spatial sampling and accurate spectral radiometry offered by imaging FTS makes it extremely attractive for earth and planetary remote sensing. We constructed a breadboard instrument to help assess the potential for planetary applications of small imaging FTS instruments in the 1 - 5 micrometer range. The results also support definition of the NASA <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Imaging FTS (GIFTS) instrument that will make key meteorological and climate observations from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> earth orbit. The Planetary Imaging FTS (PIFTS) breadboard is based on a custom miniaturized Bomen interferometer that uses corner cube reflectors, a wishbone pivoting voice-coil delay scan mechanism, and a laser diode metrology system. The interferometer optical output is measured by a commercial infrared camera procured from Santa Barbara Focalplane. It uses an InSb 128x128 detector array that covers the entire FOV of the instrument when coupled with a 25 mm focal length commercial camera lens. With appropriate lenses and cold filters the instrument can be used from the visible to 5 micrometers. The delay scan is continuous, but slow, covering the maximum range of +/- 0.4 cm in 37.56 sec at a rate of 500 image frames per second. Image exposures are timed to be centered around predicted zero crossings. The design allows for prediction algorithms that account for the most recent fringe rate so that timing jitter produced by scan speed variations can be minimized. Response to a fixed source is linear with exposure time nearly to the point of saturation. Linearity with respect to input variations was demonstrated to within 0.16% using a 3-point blackbody calibration. Imaging of external complex scenes was carried out at low and high spectral resolution. These require full complex calibration to remove background contributions that vary dramatically over the instrument FOV. Testing is continuing to demonstrate the precise radiometric accuracy and noise characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A23A0272J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A23A0272J"><span>Expected trace gas and aerosol retrieval accuracy of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environment Monitoring Spectrometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jeong, U.; Kim, J.; Liu, X.; Lee, K. H.; Chance, K.; Song, C. H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The predicted accuracy of the trace gases and aerosol retrievals from the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> environment monitoring spectrometer (GEMS) was investigated. The GEMS is one of the first sensors to monitor NO2, SO2, HCHO, O3, and aerosols onboard <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> earth orbit (GEO) over Asia. Since the GEMS is not launched yet, the simulated measurements and its precision were used in this study. The random and systematic component of the measurement error was estimated based on the instrument design. The atmospheric profiles were obtained from Model for Ozone And Related chemical Tracers (MOZART) simulations and surface reflectances were obtained from climatology of OMI Lambertian equivalent reflectance. The uncertainties of the GEMS trace gas and aerosol products were estimated based on the OE method using the atmospheric profile and surface reflectance. Most of the estimated uncertainties of NO2, HCHO, stratospheric and total O3 products satisfied the user's requirements with sufficient margin. However, about 26% of the estimated uncertainties of SO2 and about 30% of the estimated uncertainties of tropospheric O3 do not meet the required precision. Particularly the estimated uncertainty of SO2 is high in winter, when the emission is strong in East Asia. Further efforts are necessary in order to improve the retrieval accuracy of SO2 and tropospheric O3 in order to reach the scientific goal of GEMS. Random measurement error of GEMS was important for the NO2, SO2, and HCHO retrieval, while both the random and systematic measurement errors were important for the O3 retrievals. The degree of freedom for signal of tropospheric O3 was 0.8 ± 0.2 and that for stratospheric O3 was 2.9 ± 0.5. The estimated uncertainties of the aerosol retrieval from GEMS measurements were predicted to be lower than the required precision for the SZA range of the trace gas retrievals.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4563R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4563R"><span>True Color Images of the Earth created with the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Instrument MSG SEVIRI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reuter, Maximilian</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>One of the most famous pictures ever taken was by the crew of Apollo 17 in 1972, showing our Earth from a distance of about 45000km. This picture was named 'Blue Marble' and it reminds us of the beauty and uniqueness of our home planet. With <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites, such views of the Earth are possible without the need to have a photographer in space. However, up to the present, the production of such Blue Marble type images from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite data has been impaired by the lack of channels in the visible spectral region. A method for the generation of full disk MSG (METEOSAT Second Generation) SEVIRI (Scanning-Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) true colour composite images will be presented. The algorithm mainly uses the SEVIRI channels VIS006 (0.6μm), NIR008 (0.8μm) and NIR016 (1.6μm). The lack of information in the blue and green parts of the visible spectrum is compensated by using data from NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration's) Blue Marble next generation (BMNG) project to fill a look-up table (LUT) transforming RGB (red/green/blue) false colour composite images of VIS006/NIR008/NIR016 into true colour images. Tabulated radiative transfer calculations of a pure Rayleigh atmosphere are used to add an impression of Rayleigh scattering towards the sunlit horizon. The resulting images satisfy naive expectations: clouds are white or transparent, vegetated surfaces are greenish, deserts are sandy-coloured, the ocean is dark blue to black and a narrow halo due to Rayleigh scattering is visible at the sunlit horizon. Therefore, such images are easily interpretable also for inexperienced users not familiar with the characteristics of typical MSG false colour composite images. The images can be used for scientific applications to illustrate specific meteorological conditions or for non-scientific purposes, for example, for raising awareness in the public of the Earth's worthiness of protection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004686','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004686"><span>Post Launch Calibration and Testing of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper on GOES-R Satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rafal, Marc; Cholvibul, Ruth; Clarke, Jared</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is procuring the GOES-R spacecraft and instruments with the first launch of the GOES-R series planned for October 2016. Included in the GOES-R Instrument suite is the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM). GLM is a single-channel, near-infrared optical detector that can sense extremely brief (800 s) transient changes in the atmosphere, indicating the presence of lightning. GLM will measure total lightning activity continuously over the Americas and adjacent ocean regions with near-uniform spatial resolution of approximately 10 km. Due to its large CCD (1372x1300 pixels), high frame rate, sensitivity and onboard event filtering, GLM will require extensive post launch characterization and calibration. Daytime and nighttime images will be used to characterize both image quality criteria inherent to GLM as a space-based optic system (focus, stray light, crosstalk, solar glint) and programmable image processing criteria (dark offsets, gain, noise, linearity, dynamic range). In addition ground data filtering will be adjusted based on lightning-specific phenomenology (coherence) to isolate real from false transients with their own characteristics. These parameters will be updated, as needed, on orbit in an iterative process guided by pre-launch testing. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on GLM over the six-month Post Launch Test period to optimize and demonstrate GLM performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcSci..12..703K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcSci..12..703K"><span>Ocean colour opportunities from Meteosat Second and Third Generation <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kwiatkowska, Ewa J.; Ruddick, Kevin; Ramon, Didier; Vanhellemont, Quinten; Brockmann, Carsten; Lebreton, Carole; Bonekamp, Hans G.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Ocean colour applications from medium-resolution polar-orbiting satellite sensors have now matured and evolved into operational services. These applications are enabled by the Sentinel-3 OLCI space sensors of the European Earth Observation Copernicus programme and the VIIRS sensors of the US Joint Polar Satellite System programme. Key drivers for the Copernicus ocean colour services are the national obligations of the EU member states to report on the quality of marine, coastal and inland waters for the EU Water Framework Directive and Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Further applications include CO2 sequestration, carbon cycle and climate, fisheries and aquaculture management, near-real-time alerting to harmful algae blooms, environmental monitoring and forecasting, and assessment of sediment transport in coastal waters. Ocean colour data from polar-orbiting satellite platforms, however, suffer from fractional coverage, primarily due to clouds, and inadequate resolution of quickly varying processes. Ocean colour remote sensing from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platforms can provide significant improvements in coverage and sampling frequency and support new applications and services. EUMETSAT's SEVIRI instrument on the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Meteosat Second Generation platforms (MSG) is not designed to meet ocean colour mission requirements, however, it has been demonstrated to provide valuable contribution, particularly in combination with dedicated ocean colour polar observations. This paper describes the ongoing effort to develop operational ocean colour water turbidity and related products and user services from SEVIRI. SEVIRI's multi-temporal capabilities can benefit users requiring improved local-area coverage and frequent diurnal observations. A survey of user requirements and a study of technical capabilities and limitations of the SEVIRI instruments are the basis for this development and are described in this paper. The products will support monitoring of sediment transport</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcScD..12.3143K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcScD..12.3143K"><span>Ocean colour products from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platforms, opportunities with Meteosat Second and Third Generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kwiatkowska, E. J.; Ruddick, K.; Ramon, D.; Vanhellemont, Q.; Brockmann, C.; Lebreton, C.; Bonekamp, H. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Ocean colour applications from medium-resolution polar-orbiting satellite sensors have now matured and evolved into operational services. The examples include the Sentinel-3 OLCI missions of the European Earth Observation Copernicus programme and the VIIRS missions of the US Joint Polar Satellite System programme. Key drivers for Copernicus ocean colour services are the national obligations of the EU member states to report on the quality of marine, coastal and inland waters for the EU Water Framework Directive and Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Further applications include CO2 sequestration, carbon cycle and climate, fisheries and aquaculture management, near-real-time alerting to harmful algae blooms, environmental monitoring and forecasting, and assessment of sediment transport in coastal waters. Ocean colour data from polar-orbiting satellite platforms, however, suffer from fractional coverage, primarily due to clouds, and inadequate resolution of quickly varying processes. Ocean colour remote sensing from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platforms can provide significant improvements in coverage and sampling frequency and support new applications and services. EUMETSAT's SEVIRI instrument on the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Meteosat Second Generation platforms (MSG) is not designed to meet ocean colour mission requirements, however, it has been demonstrated to provide valuable contribution, particularly in combination with dedicated ocean colour polar observations. This paper describes the ongoing effort to develop operational ocean colour water turbidity and related products and user services from SEVIRI. A survey of user requirements and a study of technical capabilities and limitations of the SEVIRI instruments are the basis for this development and are described in this paper. The products will support monitoring of sediment transport, water clarity, and tidal dynamics. Further products and services are anticipated from EUMETSAT's FCI instruments on Meteosat Third Generation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AcAau..56..231G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AcAau..56..231G"><span>Design and testing of magnetic controllers for Satellite <span class="hlt">stabilization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guelman, M.; Waller, R.; Shiryaev, A.; Psiaki, M.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A study was carried out of attitude control algorithms that are able to provide <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">axis</span> <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> of a satellite equipped with a magnetometer as the only sensor, and magnetic torquers as the only actuators. Two different solutions to the problem were developed, namely Linear Quadratic Regulator and No Wheel controllers. Their aptitude to achieve the required performance was confirmed by multiple numerical simulations under different initial conditions and various scenarios. The new algorithms were tested onboard the Israeli Gurwin-TechSAT micro-satellite, nominally momentum-biased, <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> within 2- 2.5∘ precision by the proportion-plus-derivative magnetic controller. In the flight tests of the new controllers, some valuable results were obtained, such as revealing the possibility to effectively maintain the satellite <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">axis</span> <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> even with a very small momentum bias, and the implementation and efficient performance of the properly modified extended and linear Kalman filters in the onboard computer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT........97F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT........97F"><span>Aviation utilization of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites for the augmentation to GPS: Ranging and data link</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fuller, Richard Andrew, II</p> <p>2000-08-01</p> <p>The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is a GPS-based navigation aid currently under development by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). WAAS will provide corrections to aviation users for the GPS clock, its ephemeris, and for the delay in its signal as it passes through the ionosphere. These corrections will be broadcast to users throughout the United States via <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites. A master station that combines data from a continental network of reference GPS receivers will create these messages. The <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites serve both as wide-area differential GPS data links as well as additional ranging sources. The data message stream of WAAS enhances the accuracy and integrity of the GPS signal for aviation. Simultaneously, the satellite ranging-source increases the percentage of time that the precise signal is available. In this way, WAAS provides needed improvements in four metrics over the standard GPS signal: accuracy, integrity, availability, and continuity. The ranging function, described above, requires an estimate of the position of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite. This dissertation presents a novel technique for generating this position estimate. This technique is designed to provide high integrity performance in the user position domain and operates in real-time. As such, it contrasts classical orbit determination techniques that have no integrity requirement, are not designed to optimize performance in the user position domain, and usually have no real-time requirement. Our estimator is evaluated using real data from the FAA's National Satellite Test Bed (NSTB). The WAAS Signal-In-Space (SIS) has a limited data message bandwidth of 250 bits-per-second. This data bandwidth was chosen to balance two concerns. First, the power of the signal must not be so strong that it jams GPS. Second, the signal must provide the minimum amount of information necessary to ensure adequate accuracy and integrity for aviation users over the entire</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8764C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8764C"><span>Diurnal variation of aerosol optical depth and angstrom exponent from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) Yonsei AErosol Retrieval (YAER) algorithm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Myungje; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Over the East Asia, aerosol optical properties (AOPs) can be changed very quickly and diversely during a day because mineral dust or heavy anthropogenic aerosol events occur sporadically and frequently. When severe aerosol event occurs from source region, long-range transported can be appeared over East Asia within one day so that multi-temporal satellite observation during a day is essential to detect aerosol diurnal variation in East Asia. Although it has been possible from previous meteorological sensors in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> earth orbit, only aerosol optical depth (AOD) at one channel can be retrieved and accuracy of retrieved AOD is worse than those of multi-channel sensors such as MODIS, SeaWiFS, or VIIRS because appropriate aerosol model selection is difficult using single channel information. The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) is one of sensor onboard COMS <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite. It has 8 channels in visible, which are similar with SeaWiFS and MODIS ocean color channels. It observes East Asia, including East China, Korean Peninsula, and Japan, hourly during the daytime (8 times observation in daytime). Because of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and multi-channel characteristics, accurate AOPs such as AOD and Angstrom exponent (AE) can be retrieved from GOCI Yonsei Aerosol retrieval (YAER) algorithm as high spatial (6 km x 6 km) and temporal (1 hour) resolution. In this study, GOCI YAER AOD and AE are compared with those from AERONET (ground-based observation) and MODIS Collection 6 Dark Target and Deep Blue algorithm (satellite-based observation) as high frequency time series during a day and few days over AERONET sites. This can show the accuracy of GOCI YAER algorithm in compare with AERONET. In specific transport cases such as dust or haze, instantaneous increase of AOD and change of aerosol size from AE can be also detect from GOCI. These GOCI YEAR products can be used effectively as input observation data of air-quality monitoring and forecasting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980AcAau...7.1287H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980AcAau...7.1287H"><span>Propagation characteristics for millimeter and quasi-millimeter waves by using three Japanese <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hayashi, R.; Furuhama, Y.; Fugono, N.; Otsu, Y.</p> <p>1980-11-01</p> <p>Propagation experiments using the following <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites, Engineering Test Satellite-II (ETS-II), Medium-Capacity Communication Satellite for Experimental Purposes (CS), Medium-Scale Broadcasting Satellite for Experimental Purposes (BSE) and Experimental Communication Satellite (ECS), are being conducted by Radio Research Laboratories (RRL) with the co-operation of National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporations (NNT) and Japan Broadcasting Corporations (NHK).The Experimental Communication Satellite (ECS) will be launched into the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit in February 1980. This satellite will then be used for further propagation experiments.The various and numerous propagation data obtained by using these satellites is being collected from many places all over Japan.The summary of the propagation experiments conducted at the main station is as follows. (a) Experimental periods covered in this paper are about 1 year for ETS-II and CS, and six months for BSE.(b) The percentages of time in which measured attenuation exceed 5, 10 and 15 dB are 0.7, 0.3 and 0.15% respectively at 34.5 GHz (ETS-II), 0.08, 0.016 and 0.008% respectively at 19.45 GHz (CS), 0.025, 0.0025 and 0.0009% respectively at 11.7125 GHz (BSE), and 0.02, 0.0023 and 0.001% respectively at 11.5 GHz (ETS-II).(c) Duration of attenuation exceeding 30 dB at 34.5 GHz is less than 50 min with the occurrence probability of 0.013% for a one year period. Attenuation exceeding 6 dB at 11.5 GHz and the one exceeding 10 dB at 19.45 GHz are 0.0025% (8 min in a year) and 0.015% (10 min in three months).(d) In the cumulative distributions of XPD (Cross Polarization Discrimination), values of XPD exceeding the percentages of time, 0.3, 0.1, 0.03 and 0.01% are 25, 22, 19 and 17 dB respectively at 34.5 GHz, 28, 23, 20 and 16.5 dB respectively at 19.45 GHz and 33, 29, 26 and 24 dB respectively at 11.5 GHz.This paper presents an outline of the propagation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007287','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007287"><span>Assessment of the Pseudo <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper Products at the Spring Program and Summer Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stano, Geoffrey T.; Calhoun, Kristin K.; Terborg, Amanda M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Since 2010, the de facto <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) demonstration product has been the Pseudo-<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (PGLM) product suite. Originally prepared for the Hazardous Weather Testbed's Spring Program (specifically the Experimental Warning Program) when only four ground-based lightning mapping arrays were available, the effort now spans collaborations with several institutions and eight collaborative networks. For 2013, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center and NOAA's National Severe Storms Laboratory have worked to collaborate with each network to obtain data in real-time. This has gone into producing the SPoRT variant of the PGLM that was demonstrated in AWIPS II for the 2013 Spring Program. Alongside the PGLM products, the SPoRT / Meteorological Development Laboratory's total lightning tracking tool also was evaluated to assess not just another visualization of future GLM data but how to best extract more information while in the operational environment. Specifically, this tool addressed the leading request by forecasters during evaluations; provide a time series trend of total lightning in real-time. In addition to the Spring Program, SPoRT is providing the PGLM "mosaic" to the Aviation Weather Center (AWC) and Storm Prediction Center. This is the same as what is used at the Hazardous Weather Testbed, but combines all available networks into one display for use at the national centers. This year, the mosaic was evaluated during the AWC's Summer Experiment. An important distinction between this and the Spring Program is that the Summer Experiment focuses on the national center perspective and not at the local forecast office level. Specifically, the Summer Experiment focuses on aviation needs and concerns and brings together operational forecaster, developers, and FAA representatives. This presentation will focus on the evaluation of SPoRT's pseudo-GLM products in these separate test beds. The emphasis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040171575&hterms=satellites+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dsatellites%2Bspace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040171575&hterms=satellites+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dsatellites%2Bspace"><span>Next Generation <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R Series): A Space Segment Overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Krimchansky, Alexander; Machi, Dino; Cauffman, Sandra A.; Davis, Martin A.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The next-generation National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R series) is currently being developed by NOAA in cooperation with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The GOES-R series satellites represents a significant improvement in spatial, temporal, and spectral observations (several orders of magnitude) over the capabilities of the currently operational GOES-1 series and the about to be launched GOES-N series satellite. The GOES-R series will incorporate technically advanced third-generation instruments and spacecraft enhancements to meet evolving observational requirements of forecasting for the era 2012-2025. The GOES-R instrument complement being developed includes a Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), a Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES), a GEO Lighting Mapper (GLM), a Solar Imaging Suite (SIS) and a Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS). Also, candidates for a number of GOES-R Pre-Planned Product Improvements (P(sup 3)Is) includes a Geo microwave Sounder, a Coronograph, a Hyperspectral Imager, and a Solar Irradiance Sensor. Currently, the GOES-R Space Segment architecture is being evaluated as part of a GOES-R system end-to-end architecture study. The GOES-R notional baseline architecture is a constellation of two satellites (A-sat and B-sat) each nominally located at 75 degrees west longitude and at 135 degrees west longitude at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> altitude, 0 degrees inclination. The primary mission of the A-sat is to provide imaging from the ABI. The A-sat will also contain the SIS and the GLM. The primary mission of the B-sat is to provide sounding of the hemispherical disk of the earth from the HES. The B-sat also contains the SEISS. Both satellites have mesoscale capabilities for severe weather sounding or imaging. This paper overviews the GOES-R Space Segment development including satellite constellation trade-off, improvements and differences between the current</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9653I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9653I"><span>Coastal water quality estimation from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) satellite data using machine learning approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Im, Jungho; Ha, Sunghyun; Kim, Yong Hoon; Ha, Hokyung; Choi, Jongkuk; Kim, Miae</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>It is important to monitor coastal water quality using key parameters such as chlorophyll-a concentration and suspended sediment to better manage coastal areas as well as to better understand the nature of biophysical processes in coastal seawater. Remote sensing technology has been commonly used to monitor coastal water quality due to its ability of covering vast areas at high temporal resolution. While it is relatively straightforward to estimate water quality in open ocean (i.e., Case I water) using remote sensing, coastal water quality estimation is still challenging as many factors can influence water quality, including various materials coming from inland water systems and tidal circulation. There are continued efforts to accurately estimate water quality parameters in coastal seawater from remote sensing data in a timely manner. In this study, two major water quality indicators, chlorophyll-a concentration and the amount of suspended sediment, were estimated using <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) satellite data. GOCI, launched in June 2010, is the first <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> ocean color observation satellite in the world. GOCI collects data hourly for 8 hours a day at 6 visible and 2 near-infrared bands at a 500 m resolution with 2,500 x 2,500 km square around Korean peninsula. Along with conventional statistical methods (i.e., various linear and non-linear regression), three machine learning approaches such as random forest, Cubist, and support vector regression were evaluated for coastal water quality estimation. In situ measurements (63 samples; including location, two water quality parameters, and the spectra of surface water using a hand-held spectroradiometer) collected during four days between 2011 and 2012 were used as reference data. Due to the small sample size, leave-one-out cross validation was used to assess the performance of the water quality estimation models. Atmospherically corrected radiance data and selected band-ratioed images were used</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1519017B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1519017B"><span>Constraints on methane emissions in North America from future <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> remote sensing measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bousserez, N.; Henze, D. K.; Rooney, B.; Perkins, A.; Wecht, K. J.; Turner, A. J.; Natraj, V.; Worden, J. R.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The success of future <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) satellite observation missions depends on our ability to design instruments that address their key scientific objectives. In this study, an Observation System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is performed to quantify the constraints on methane (CH4) emissions in North America obtained from Short Wave Infrared (SWIR), Thermal Infrared (TIR) and multi-spectral measurements in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit compared to existing SWIR low earth (LEO) measurements. A stochastic algorithm is used to compute the information content of a variational inversion at high spatial resolution (0.5° × 0.7°) using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint. Both the SWIR LEO and TIR GEO configurations generally provide poor constraints on CH4 emissions (error reduction <30 %), with the exception of a few hotspots (e.g., Los Angeles, Toronto urban areas and Appalachian Mountains) where the error reduction is greater than 50 %. On weekly time scales and for a GEO orbit, the degree of freedom for signal (DOFs) of the inversion from multi-spectral observations (500) is a factor of two higher than that obtained from a SWIR instrument (255) due to the increase in measurement sensitivity to boundary layer concentrations in the multi-spectral case. On a monthly time scale and for a GEO orbit, a SWIR instrument would reduce error in emission estimates by more than 70 % for hotspots of CH4 sources (emissions > 4 × 105 kg day-1 grid-1) at model grid scale, while a TIR instrument would provide a relative error reduction of 25-60 % over those areas. While performing similarly for monthly inversions, a multi-spectral instrument would allow for more than 70 % error reduction for these emissions for 7 or 3 day inversions. Sensitivity of the inversions to error in boundary conditions are found to be negligible. Moreover, estimates of the model resolution matrix over significant emitting regions (CH4 emissions > 2 × 105 kg day-1 grid-1) show that for all</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1728S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1728S"><span>The super-low frequency resonances at magnetospheric boundaries versus <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and ionospheric data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savin, Sergey; Surjalal Sharma, A.; Pilipenko, Viacheslav; Marcucci, Maria Federica; Nemecek, Zdenek; Safrankova, Jana; Consolini, Giuseppe; Belakhovsky, Vladimir; Kozak, Ludmila; Blecki, Jan; Kronberg, Elena</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We do a multi-point study of the influence of the lowest frequency resonances (0.02-10 mHz) at the outer magnetospheric boundaries on the fluctuations inside the magnetosphere and ionosphere presented. The correlations of the dynamic pressure data from CLUSTER, DOUBLE STAR, GEOTAIL, ACE/ WIND, particle data from LANL, GOES with the magnetic data from polar ionospheric stations on March 27, 2005, show that: i) the waves generated by boundary resonances and their harmonics penetrate inside the magnetosphere and reach the ionosphere; ii) correlations between the dynamic pressure fluctuations at the magnetospheric boundaries and magnetospheric/ ionospheric disturbances, including indices such as AE and SYM-H, can exceed 80%; iii) the new resonance frequencies are lower by an order of magnitude compared with our previous studies, which are as low as 0.02 mHz. Furthermore, such resonances are characteristic also for the night-side <span class="hlt">geostationary</span>/ionospheric data and for the middle tail, i.e., they are global magnetospheric features. Analysis of different types of correlations yields the unexpected result that in ~48% of the cases with pronounced maximum in the correlation function the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span>/ ionospheric response is seen before the magnetosheath (MSH) response. We propose that some global magnetospheric resonances (e.g. membrane bow shock surface (0.2-0.5 mHz) and/or magnetopause (0.5-0.9 mHz) modes along with the cavity MHS/ cusp (3-10 mHz) and magnetospheric global modes (0.02-0.09mHz)) can account for the data presented. The multiple jets at the sampled MSH locations can be a consequence of the resonances, while an initial disturbance (e.g. through the interplanetary shocks, Hot Flow Anomalies, foreshock irregularities etc., were not observed by particular spacecraft in MSH because they were localized in the plane perpendicular to the Sun-Earth line. So, in the explorations of the solar wind - magnetosphere interactions one should take into account these</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSA13B2357C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSA13B2357C"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Communications Satellites as Sensors for the Space Weather Environment: Telemetry Event Identification Algorithms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carlton, A.; Cahoy, K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Reliability of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communication satellites (GEO ComSats) is critical to many industries worldwide. The space radiation environment poses a significant threat and manufacturers and operators expend considerable effort to maintain reliability for users. Knowledge of the space radiation environment at the orbital location of a satellite is of critical importance for diagnosing and resolving issues resulting from space weather, for optimizing cost and reliability, and for space situational awareness. For decades, operators and manufacturers have collected large amounts of telemetry from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) communications satellites to monitor system health and performance, yet this data is rarely mined for scientific purposes. The goal of this work is to acquire and analyze archived data from commercial operators using new algorithms that can detect when a space weather (or non-space weather) event of interest has occurred or is in progress. We have developed algorithms, collectively called SEER (System Event Evaluation Routine), to statistically analyze power amplifier current and temperature telemetry by identifying deviations from nominal operations or other events and trends of interest. This paper focuses on our work in progress, which currently includes methods for detection of jumps ("spikes", outliers) and step changes (changes in the local mean) in the telemetry. We then examine available space weather data from the NOAA GOES and the NOAA-computed Kp index and sunspot numbers to see what role, if any, it might have played. By combining the results of the algorithm for many components, the spacecraft can be used as a "sensor" for the space radiation environment. Similar events occurring at one time across many component telemetry streams may be indicative of a space radiation event or system-wide health and safety concern. Using SEER on representative datasets of telemetry from Inmarsat and Intelsat, we find events that occur across all or many of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JARS....7.3462S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JARS....7.3462S"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-14 super rapid scan operations to prepare for GOES-R</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmit, Timothy J.; Goodman, Steven J.; Lindsey, Daniel T.; Rabin, Robert M.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Gunshor, Mathew M.; Cintineo, John L.; Velden, Christopher S.; Scott Bachmeier, A.; Lindstrom, Scott S.; Schmidt, Christopher C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-14 imager was operated by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in an experimental rapid scan 1-min mode that emulates the high-temporal resolution sampling of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on the next generation GOES-R series. Imagery with a refresh rate of 1 min of many phenomena were acquired, including clouds, convection, fires, smoke, and hurricanes, including 6 days of Hurricane Sandy through landfall. NOAA had never before operated a GOES in a nearly continuous 1-min mode for such an extended period of time, thereby making these unique datasets to explore the future capabilities possible with GOES-R. The next generation GOES-R imager will be able to routinely take mesoscale (1000 km×1000 km) images every 30 s (or two separate locations every minute). These images can be acquired even while scanning continental United States and full disk images. These high time-resolution images from the GOES-14 imager are being used to prepare for the GOES-R era and its advanced imager. This includes both the imagery and quantitative derived products such as cloud-top cooling. Several animations are included to showcase the rapid change of the many phenomena observed during super rapid scan operations for GOES-R (SRSOR).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012856','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012856"><span>The GOES-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) and the Global Observing System for Total Lightning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Koshak, W.; Buechler, D.; Carey, L.; Chronis, T.; Mach, D.; Bateman, M.; Peterson, H.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.; Stano, G. T.; Bitzer, P. M.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Cummins, K. L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>for the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. New and improved instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution for the next generation Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product latency of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. The GLM will help address the National Weather Service requirement for total lightning observations globally to support warning decision-making and forecast services. Science and application development along with pre-operational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS national centers, forecast offices, and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and check-out of GOES-R in 2016. New applications will use GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, or integrated (fused) with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks, nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160011366&hterms=hyperspectral&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dhyperspectral','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160011366&hterms=hyperspectral&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dhyperspectral"><span>The Intercalibration of <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Visible Imagers Using Operational Hyperspectral SCIAMACHY Radiances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Doelling, David R.; Scarino, Benjamin R.; Morstad, Daniel; Gopalan, Arun; Bhatt, Rajendra; Lukashin, Constantine; Minnis, Patrick</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Spectral band differences between sensors can complicate the process of intercalibration of a visible sensor against a reference sensor. This can be best addressed by using a hyperspectral reference sensor whenever possible because they can be used to accurately mitigate the band differences. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using operational Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) large-footprint hyperspectral radiances to calibrate <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Earth-observing (GEO) sensors. Near simultaneous nadir overpass measurements were used to compare the temporal calibration of SCIAMACHY with Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer band radiances, which were found to be consistent to within 0.44% over seven years. An operational SCIAMACHY/GEO ray-matching technique was presented, along with enhancements to improve radiance pair sampling. These enhancements did not bias the underlying intercalibration and provided enough sampling to allow up to monthly monitoring of the GEO sensor degradation. The results of the SCIAMACHY/GEO intercalibration were compared with other operational four-year Meteosat-9 0.65-µm calibration coefficients and were found to be within 1% of the gain, and more importantly, it had one of the lowest temporal standard errors of all the methods. This is more than likely that the GEO spectral response function could be directly applied to the SCIAMACHY radiances, whereas the other operational methods inferred a spectral correction factor. This method allows the validation of the spectral corrections required by other methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSpR..56.1139V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSpR..56.1139V"><span>Rainfall estimation for real time flood monitoring using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Veerakachen, Watcharee; Raksapatcharawong, Mongkol</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Rainfall estimation by <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite data provides good spatial and temporal resolutions. This is advantageous for real time flood monitoring and warning systems. However, a rainfall estimation algorithm developed in one region needs to be adjusted for another climatic region. This work proposes computationally-efficient rainfall estimation algorithms based on an Infrared Threshold Rainfall (ITR) method calibrated with regional ground truth. Hourly rain gauge data collected from 70 stations around the Chao-Phraya river basin were used for calibration and validation of the algorithms. The algorithm inputs were derived from FY-2E satellite observations consisting of infrared and water vapor imagery. The results were compared with the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) near real time product (GSMaP_NRT) using the probability of detection (POD), root mean square error (RMSE) and linear correlation coefficient (CC) as performance indices. Comparison with the GSMaP_NRT product for real time monitoring purpose shows that hourly rain estimates from the proposed algorithm with the error adjustment technique (ITR_EA) offers higher POD and approximately the same RMSE and CC with less data latency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AdSpR..48...95X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AdSpR..48...95X"><span>A universal on-orbit servicing system used in the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Wenfu; Liang, Bin; Li, Bing; Xu, Yangsheng</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit (GEO), a unique satellite orbit of the human beings, is a very precious orbit resource. However, the continuous increasing of GEO debris makes the GEO orbit more and more crowded. Moreover, the failures of GEO spacecrafts will result in large economic cost and other bad impacts. In this paper, we proposed a space robotic servicing system, and developed key pose (position and orientation) measurement and control algorithm. Firstly, the necessity of orbit service in GEO was analyzed. Then, a servicing concept for GEO non-cooperative targets was presented and a universal space robotic servicing system was designed. The system has a 2-DOF docking mechanism, a 7-DOF redundant manipulator and a set of stereo vision, in addition to the traditional subsystems of a spacecraft. This system can serve most existing satellites in GEO, not requiring specially designed objects for grappling and measuring on the target. The servicing contents include: (a) visual inspecting; (b) target tracking, approaching and docking; (c) ORUs (Orbital Replacement Units) replacement; (d) Malfunctioned mechanism deploying; (e) satellites life extension by taking over its control, or re-orbiting the abandoned satellites. As an example, the servicing mission of a malfunctioned GEO satellite with three severe mechanical failures was designed and simulated. The results showed the validity and flexibility of the proposed system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900018422','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900018422"><span>Thermal-distortion analysis of an antenna strongback for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> high-frequency microwave applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Farmer, Jeffrey T.; Wahls, Deborah M.; Wright, Robert L.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The global change technology initiative calls for a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform for Earth science monitoring. One of the major science instruments is the high frequency microwave sounder (HFMS) which uses a large diameter, high resolution, high frequency microwave antenna. This antenna's size and required accuracy dictates the need for a segmented reflector. On-orbit disturbances may be a significant factor in its design. A study was performed to examine the effects of the geosynchronous thermal environment on the performance of the strongback structure for a proposed antenna concept for this application. The study included definition of the strongback and a corresponding numerical model to be used in the thermal and structural analyses definition of the thermal environment, determination of structural element temperature throughout potential orbits, estimation of resulting thermal distortions, and assessment of the structure's capability to meet surface accuracy requirements. Analyses show that shadows produced by the antenna reflector surface play a major role in increasing thermal distortions. Through customization of surface coating and element expansion characteristics, the segmented reflector concept can meet the tight surface accuracy requirements.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999AdSpR..24..915H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999AdSpR..24..915H"><span>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Earth Radiation Budget Experiment on MSG-1 and its Potential Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harries, J.; Crommelynck, D.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (GERB) is in development for launch on the first Meteosat Second Generation Satellite (MSG1) and is described here with its main characteristics. GERB is designed to determine top of the atmosphere reflected Solar and Earth emitted fluxes, sampled every five minutes with a nadir foot print of about 50×50 km2. The measured radiances will be translated into fluxes with improved spatial resolution based on the information extracted from the SEVIRI<cross-ref refid="fn1">1</cross-ref> instrument also flying on MSG. The applications of GERB data will be multiple. They will provide the behaviour of the real diurnal cycle radiation fields, and thus enable quantification of the cloud diurnal cycle. Together with the SEVIRI information, GERB will allow unique new insight for atmospheric energy budget research.<fn id="fn1"><no>1</no>Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager, the prime instrument on MSG</fn</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988AcAau..17..599J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988AcAau..17..599J"><span>The current legal regime of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit and prospects for the future</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jasentuliyana, N.; Chipman, R.</p> <p></p> <p>The legal status of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit is defined by the 1967 UN Outer Space Treaty, which provides that space is "free for use by all countries", and the ITU Convention and Radio Regulations, which give priority to existing satellite systems, thus arguably limiting the right of other countries to access. Thus arises a conflict between space powers, which favour pragmatic technical co-ordination through the ITU, and developing countries, which look to the United Nations for general political and legal principles based on the equality of all States. A process of compromise is underway in the ITU WARC-ORB conference. While the results of the 1985 session were encouraging, ongoing negotiations will be necessary, with compromises involving both general legal principles and pragmatic mechanisms for co-ordinating existing satellites. While the ITU will be the main negotiating forum, the UN can incorporate general principles into international space law. An Appendix contains the main provisions of international law relating to the orbit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986STIN...8910108G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986STIN...8910108G"><span>CARTEL: A method to calibrate S-band ranges with <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites. Results of orbit determination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guitart, A.; Mesnard, B.</p> <p>1986-05-01</p> <p>A satellite tracking campaign was organized, with 4 S-band stations, for 1 wk. The relative geometry of the network with respect to the satellites was an opportunity to show how the most precise orbit can be computed with the operational software. This precise orbit served as a reference to evaluate what can be achieved with one station with range and angular measurements, a typical configuration used for stationkeeping of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites. Orbit computation implied numerical integration with gravitational (Earth, Moon, and Sun) and solar radiation pressure forces acting on the satellite. Arc lengths of 2 days gave initial state vectors which were compared every day. Precision of 10 m is achieved. However, an analysis of the influence of parameters in the orbit computations reveals that the absolute accuracy is of the order of 100 m, since modeling perturbations were neglected in the operational software (e.g., polar motion). In a relative sense, the reference orbit allows estimation of systematic errors for other tracking antennas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5888285','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5888285"><span>Los Alamos <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit synoptic data set: a compilation of energetic particle data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baker, D.N.; Higbie, P.R.; Belian, R.D.; Aiello, W.P.; Hones, E.W. Jr.; Tech, E.R.; Halbig, M.F.; Payne, J.B.; Robinson, R.; Kedge, S.</p> <p>1981-08-01</p> <p>Energetic electron (30 to 2000 keV) and proton (145 keV to 150 MeV) measurements made by Los Alamos National Laboratory sensors at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit 6.6 R/sub E/ are summarized. The data are plotted in terms of daily average spectra, 3-h local time averages, and in a variety of statistical formats. The data summarize conditions from mid-1976 through 1978 (S/C 1976-059) and from early 1977 through 1978 (S/C 1977-007). The compilations correspond to measurements at 35/sup 0/W, 70/sup 0/W, and 135/sup 0/W geographic longitude and, thus, are indicative of conditions at 9/sup 0/, 11/sup 0/, and 4.8/sup 0/ geomagnetic latitude, respectively. Most of this report is comprised of data plots that are organized according to Carrington solar rotations so that the data can be easily compared to solar rotation-dependent interplanetary data. As shown in prior studies, variations in solar wind conditions modulate particle intensity within the terrestrial magnetosphere. The effects of these variations are demonstrated and discussed. Potential uses of the Synoptic Data Set by the scientific and applications-oriented communities are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........17B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........17B"><span>Investigating cirrus cloud behavior using A-Train and <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berry, Elizabeth</p> <p></p> <p>Knowledge of how the large-scale dynamics are coupled with microphysical properties is necessary for parameterizing cirrus in climate models. In this study, the synergy of the CloudSat and CALIPSO instruments is exploited for identifying cirrus. Mesoscale-size cirrus events are defined using a combined CloudSat-CALIPSO cloud mask and temperature data for one year in the Atlantic basin. In order to characterize the tendencies of cirrus, the instantaneous view of A-Train satellites is augmented with the temporal view from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite. Cirrus events are tracked using an algorithm, which follows patterns of 6.2μm brightness temperature in consecutive water vapor images. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data is used to determine the environments in which the cirrus events exist. The cirrus events are sorted based on pressure- radar reflectivity patterns using a k-means cluster algorithm. The six clusters that are identified include Single-Layer Cirrus, Thick Cirrus and Low Cloud, High Cirrus, Deep Cirrus, Mixed Cloud and Thin Cirrus, and Low Cloud. A cluster algorithm is also applied to the large-scale dynamics to determine the basic synoptic states for cirrus. This analysis results in six dynamic clusters including Deep Wave Cirrus, Developing Tropical Cirrus, Subtropical Jet Cirrus, Zonal Jet/Stationary Front Cirrus, Dissipating Tropical Cirrus, and Ridge Crest Cirrus. We find that large-scale dynamic types do not necessarily predetermine the cirrus cloud properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160012694','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160012694"><span>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Satellite R Series SpaceWire Based Data System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, William; Birmingham, Michael; Krimchansky, Alexander; Lombardi, Matthew</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series Program (GOES-R, S, T, and U) mission is a joint program between National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). SpaceWire was selected as the science data bus as well as command and telemetry for the GOES instruments. GOES-R, S, T, and U spacecraft have a mission data loss requirement for all data transfers between the instruments and spacecraft requiring error detection and correction at the packet level. The GOES-R Reliable Data Delivery Protocol (GRDDP) [1] was developed in house to provide a means of reliably delivering data among various on board sources and sinks. The GRDDP was presented to and accepted by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS) and is part of the ECSS Protocol Identification Standard [2]. GOES-R development and integration is complete and the observatory is scheduled for launch November 2016. Now that instrument to spacecraft integration is complete, GOES-R Project reviewed lessons learned to determine how the GRDDP could be revised to improve the integration process. Based on knowledge gained during the instrument to spacecraft integration process the following is presented to help potential GRDDP users improve their system designs and implementation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdSpR..59..212B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdSpR..59..212B"><span>Time-resolved visible/near-infrared spectrometric observations of the Galaxy 11 <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bédard, Donald; Wade, Gregg A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Time-resolved spectrometric measurements of the Galaxy 11 <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite were collected on three consecutive nights in July 2014 with the 1.6-m telescope at the Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic in Québec, Canada. Approximately 300 low-resolution spectra (R ≈ 700 , where R = λ / Δλ) of the satellite were collected each night, covering a spectral range between 425 and 850 nm. The two objectives of the experiment were to conduct material-type identification from the spectra and to study how the spectral energy distribution inferred from these measurements varied as the illumination and observation geometry changed on nightly timescales. We present results that indicate the presence of a highly reflective aluminized surface corresponding to the solar concentrator arrays of the Galaxy 11 spacecraft. Although other material types could not be identified using the spectra, the results showed that the spectral energy distribution of the reflected sunlight from the Galaxy 11 spacecraft varied significantly, in a systematic manner, over each night of observation. The variations were quantified using colour indices calculated from the time-resolved spectrometric measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120008704','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120008704"><span>Global Assessment of Land Surface Temperature From <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellites and Model Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reichle, Rolf H.; Liu, Q.; Minnis, P.; daSilva, A. M., Jr.; Palikonda, R.; Yost, C. R.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Land surface (or 'skin') temperature (LST) lies at the heart of the surface energy balance and is a key variable in weather and climate models. In this research we compare two global and independent data sets: (i) LST retrievals from five <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites generated at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and (ii) LST estimates from the quasi-operational NASA GEOS-5 global modeling and assimilation system. The objective is to thoroughly understand both data sets and their systematic differences in preparation for the assimilation of the LaRC LST retrievals into GEOS-5. As expected, mean differences (MD) and root-mean-square differences (RMSD) between modeled and retrieved LST vary tremendously by region and time of day. Typical (absolute) MD values range from 1-3 K in Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude regions to near 10 K in regions where modeled clouds are unrealistic, for example in north-eastern Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and southern Brazil. Typically, model estimates of LST are higher than satellite retrievals during the night and lower during the day. RMSD values range from 1-3 K during the night to 2-5 K during the day, but are larger over the 50-120 W longitude band where the LST retrievals are derived from the FY2E platform</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27437491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27437491"><span>Lifetime Estimation of the Upper Stage of GSAT-14 in <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Transfer Orbit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jeyakodi David, Jim Fletcher; Sharma, Ram Krishan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The combination of atmospheric drag and lunar and solar perturbations in addition to Earth's oblateness influences the orbital lifetime of an upper stage in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> transfer orbit (GTO). These high eccentric orbits undergo fluctuations in both perturbations and velocity and are very sensitive to the initial conditions. The main objective of this paper is to predict the reentry time of the upper stage of the Indian geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle, GSLV-D5, which inserted the satellite GSAT-14 into a GTO on January 05, 2014, with mean perigee and apogee altitudes of 170 km and 35975 km. Four intervals of near linear variation of the mean apogee altitude observed were used in predicting the orbital lifetime. For these four intervals, optimal values of the initial osculating eccentricity and ballistic coefficient for matching the mean apogee altitudes were estimated with the response surface methodology using a genetic algorithm. It was found that the orbital lifetime from these four time spans was between 144 and 148 days.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25835299','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25835299"><span>Coarse initial orbit determination for a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite using single-epoch GPS measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Ghangho; Kim, Chongwon; Kee, Changdon</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>A practical algorithm is proposed for determining the orbit of a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit (GEO) satellite using single-epoch measurements from a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver under the sparse visibility of the GPS satellites. The algorithm uses three components of a state vector to determine the satellite's state, even when it is impossible to apply the classical single-point solutions (SPS). Through consideration of the characteristics of the GEO orbital elements and GPS measurements, the components of the state vector are reduced to three. However, the algorithm remains sufficiently accurate for a GEO satellite. The developed algorithm was tested on simulated measurements from two or three GPS satellites, and the calculated maximum position error was found to be less than approximately 40 km or even several kilometers within the geometric range, even when the classical SPS solution was unattainable. In addition, extended Kalman filter (EKF) tests of a GEO satellite with the estimated initial state were performed to validate the algorithm. In the EKF, a reliable dynamic model was adapted to reduce the probability of divergence that can be caused by large errors in the initial state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008RaSc...43.6001D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008RaSc...43.6001D"><span>Resolution enhancement for microwave-based atmospheric sounding from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>di Paola, F.; Dietrich, S.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate techniques that improve the spatial resolution of the channels already selected in the preliminary studies for <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Observatory for Microwave Atmospheric Soundings (GOMAS). Reference high resolution multifrequency brightness temperatures scenarios have been derived by applying radiative transfer calculation to the spatially and microphysically detailed output of meteorological events simulated by the University of Wisconsin-Nonhydrostatic Model System. Three approaches, Wiener filter, Super-resolution and Image-fusion have been applied to some representative GOMAS frequency channels to enhance the resolution of antenna temperatures. The Wiener filter improved resolution of the largely oversampled images by a factor 1.5-2.0 without introducing any penalty in the radiometric accuracy. Super-resolution, suitable for not largely oversampled images, improved resolution by a factor ˜1.5 but introducing an increased radiometric noise by a factor 1.4-2.5. The Image-fusion allows finally to further increase the spatial frequency of the images obtained by the Wiener filter increasing the total resolution up to a factor 5.0 with an increased radiometric noise closely linked to the radiometric frequency and to the examined case study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E2316N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E2316N"><span>First results of measurements of extreme ultraviolet radiation onboard a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite "ELECTRO-L"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nusinov, Anatoliy; Kazachevskaya, Tamara; Gonjukh, David</p> <p></p> <p>Measurements of the intensity of EUV emission in the hydrogen Lyman-alpha line were conducted by a broadband photometer VUSS-E onboard <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Hydrometeorological satellite "Electro" since March 2011. The solar hydrogen Lyman-alpha line (lambda = 121.6 nm) was monitored. The photomultiplier with LiF window used as a detector insensitive to visible light. Long-wavelength limit of the spectral band sensitivity of the instrument is about 200 nm, so the signal of the device is defined as the flux of solar radiation in the region of 123-200 nm. Its exclusion was carried out by calculation. Since the satellite "Electro" designed for remote sensing of the Earth, its line of sight focused on Earth. Alignment of instrument in the Sun direction was achieved by installing it on the solar panel, periodically moved in the solar direction. Correction of instrument readings, reduced due to the deviation of its axis from the Sun direction, carried out by calculation. Measurements were carried out every second. The first results of the measurements are presented. The difference in absolute calibration Electro-L/VUSS-E is within 5% of corresponding values for measurements TIMED satellite in those days, that is in agreement with laboratory calibrations. It is useful to measure the temperature of the instrument, as its variation on a small interval of time makes change the value of the output signal about 1-2 %. During first year of operation, the sensitivity of the apparatus remained within ± 2% of measured value, significant degradation of sensitivity was not observed. Over time of observation there have been several large flares of X class. The increase of the signal in the ultraviolet range does not exceed a few percent during these flares.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090019654','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090019654"><span>Satellite Proving Ground for the GOES-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, Steven J.; Gurka, James; Bruning, E. C.; Blakeslee, J. R.; Rabin, Robert; Buechler, D.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The key mission of the Satellite Proving Ground is to demonstrate new satellite observing data, products and capabilities in the operational environment to be ready on Day 1 to use the GOES-R suite of measurements. Algorithms, tools, and techniques must be tested, validated, and assessed by end users for their utility before they are finalized and incorporated into forecast operations. The GOES-R Proving Ground for the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) focuses on evaluating how the infusion of the new technology, algorithms, decision aids, or tailored products integrate with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks; nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing forecasts and warning products. Additionally, the testing concept fosters operation and development staff interactions which will improve training materials and support documentation development. Real-time proxy total lightning data from regional VHF lightning mapping arrays (LMA) in Northern Alabama, Central Oklahoma, Cape Canaveral Florida, and the Washington, DC Greater Metropolitan Area are the cornerstone for the GLM Proving Ground. The proxy data will simulate the 8 km Event, Group and Flash data that will be generated by GLM. Tailored products such as total flash density at 1-2 minute intervals will be provided for display in AWIPS-2 to select NWS forecast offices and national centers such as the Storm Prediction Center. Additional temporal / spatial combinations are being investigated in coordination with operational needs and case-study proxy data and prototype visualizations may also be generated from the NASA heritage Lightning Imaging Sensor and Optical Transient Detector data. End users will provide feedback on the utility of products in their operational environment, identify use cases and spatial/temporal scales of interest, and provide feedback to the developers for adjusted or</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140008582','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140008582"><span>Lightning Jump Algorithm Development for the GOES·R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schultz. E.; Schultz. C.; Chronis, T.; Stough, S.; Carey, L.; Calhoun, K.; Ortega, K.; Stano, G.; Cecil, D.; Bateman, M.; Goodman, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Current work on the lightning jump algorithm to be used in GOES-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM)'s data stream is multifaceted due to the intricate interplay between the storm tracking, GLM proxy data, and the performance of the lightning jump itself. This work outlines the progress of the last year, where analysis and performance of the lightning jump algorithm with automated storm tracking and GLM proxy data were assessed using over 700 storms from North Alabama. The cases analyzed coincide with previous semi-objective work performed using total lightning mapping array (LMA) measurements in Schultz et al. (2011). Analysis shows that key components of the algorithm (flash rate and sigma thresholds) have the greatest influence on the performance of the algorithm when validating using severe storm reports. Automated objective analysis using the GLM proxy data has shown probability of detection (POD) values around 60% with false alarm rates (FAR) around 73% using similar methodology to Schultz et al. (2011). However, when applying verification methods similar to those employed by the National Weather Service, POD values increase slightly (69%) and FAR values decrease (63%). The relationship between storm tracking and lightning jump has also been tested in a real-time framework at NSSL. This system includes fully automated tracking by radar alone, real-time LMA and radar observations and the lightning jump. Results indicate that the POD is strong at 65%. However, the FAR is significantly higher than in Schultz et al. (2011) (50-80% depending on various tracking/lightning jump parameters) when using storm reports for verification. Given known issues with Storm Data, the performance of the real-time jump algorithm is also being tested with high density radar and surface observations from the NSSL Severe Hazards Analysis & Verification Experiment (SHAVE).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC41A0985S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC41A0985S"><span>Land and Ocean Surface Skin Temperature from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> and Low Earth Orbit Satellite Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scarino, B. R.; Minnis, P.; Palikonda, R.; Heck, P.; Bedka, K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Observations from imagers aboard <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Earth Orbit (GEO) and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites allow for spatially detailed, near-real-time retrievals of cloud and surface radiation properties. Validating and improving the quality of these observations is important for the advancement of climate studies. Compared to GEO sensors, LEO-based instruments can typically provide higher-spatial-resolution datasets, but at the cost of limited areal coverage and reduced sampling frequency at any given location. Conversely, the persistence and coverage of GEO-based imagers offer the opportunity for more frequent retrievals of near-instantaneous, near-global surface properties. Among other cloud and clear-sky retrieval parameters, NASA Langley provides pixel-level land and ocean skin temperature datasets by comparing clear-pixel top-of-atmosphere infrared temperature observations with modeled, atmospheric-absorption-corrected surface temperature values. Depending on cloud-cover thresholds, this method yields surface temperature values that are within 0.5 to 2.0 K of measurements from ground-based networks including the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, the U.S. Climate Reference Network, and the global Baseline Surface Radiation Network. Furthermore, monthly mean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are within 0.5 to 2.0 K of NOAA-based SST climatology records, and have an uncertainty of less than 1 K. These data will be useful for assimilation into atmospheric models, which offer improved performance when high-accuracy, high-resolution initial radiometric and surface conditions are included. Modelers should find the immediate availability and broad coverage of these skin temperature observations valuable, which can lead to improved forecasting and more advanced global climate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL8..561G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL8..561G"><span>Assessment of net primary productivity over India using Indian <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite (INSAT-3A) data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goroshi, S. K.; Singh, R. P.; Pradhan, R.; Parihar, J. S.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Polar orbiting satellites (MODIS and SPOT) have been commonly used to measure terrestrial Net Primary Productivity (NPP) at regional/global scale. Charge Coupled Device (CCD) instrument on <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> INSAT-3A platform provides a unique opportunity for continuous monitoring of ecosystem pattern and process study. An improved Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (iCASA) model is one of the most expedient and precise ecosystem models to estimate terrestrial NPP. In this paper, an assessment of terrestrial NPP over India was carried out using the iCASA ecosystem model based on the INSAT CCD derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) with multisource meteorological data for the year 2009. NPP estimated from the INSAT CCD followed the characteristic growth profile of most of the vegetation types in the country. NPP attained maximum during August and September, while minimum in April. Annual NPP for different vegetation types varied from 1104.55 gC m-2 year-1 (evergreen broadleaf forest) to 231.9 gC m-2 year-1 (grassland) with an average NPP of 590 gC m-2 year-1. We estimated 1.9 PgC of net carbon fixation over Indian landmass in 2009. Biome level comparison between INSAT derived NPP and MODIS NPP indicated a good agreement with the Willmott's index of agreement (d) ranging from 0.61 (Mixed forest) to 0.99 (Open Shrubland). Our findings are consistent with the earlier NPP studies in India and indicate that INSAT derived NPP has the capability to detect spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial NPP over a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems in India. Thus INSAT-3A data can be used as one of the potential satellite data source for accurate biome level carbon estimation in India.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CeMDA.tmp...74G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CeMDA.tmp...74G"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> secular dynamics revisited: application to high area-to-mass ratio objects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gachet, Fabien; Celletti, Alessandra; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Efthymiopoulos, Christos</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The long-term dynamics of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Earth orbits (GEO) is revisited through the application of canonical perturbation theory. We consider a Hamiltonian model accounting for all major perturbations: geopotential at order and degree two, lunisolar perturbations with a realistic model for the Sun and Moon orbits, and solar radiation pressure. The long-term dynamics of the GEO region has been studied both numerically and analytically, in view of the relevance of such studies to the issue of space debris or to the disposal of GEO satellites. Past studies focused on the orbital evolution of objects around a nominal solution, hereafter called the forced equilibrium solution, which shows a particularly strong dependence on the area-to-mass ratio. Here, we (i) give theoretical estimates for the long-term behavior of such orbits, and (ii) we examine the nature of the forced equilibrium itself. In the lowest approximation, the forced equilibrium implies motion with a constant non-zero average `forced eccentricity', as well as a constant non-zero average inclination, otherwise known in satellite dynamics as the inclination of the invariant `Laplace plane'. Using a higher order normal form, we demonstrate that this equilibrium actually represents not a point in phase space, but a trajectory taking place on a lower-dimensional torus. We give analytical expressions for this special trajectory, and we compare our results to those found by numerical orbit propagation. We finally discuss the use of proper elements, i.e., approximate integrals of motion for the GEO orbits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/266983','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/266983"><span>A versatile system for processing <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite data with run-time visualization capability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Landsfeld, M.; Gautier, C.; Figel, T.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>To better predict global climate change, scientists are developing climate models that require interdisciplinary and collaborative efforts in their building. The authors are currently involved in several such projects but will briefly discuss activities in support of two such complementary projects: the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program of the Department of Energy and Sequoia 2000, a joint venture of the University of California, the private sector, and government. The author`s contribution to the ARM program is to investigate the role of clouds on the top of the atmosphere and on surface radiance fields through the data analysis of surface and satellite observations and complex modeling of the interaction of radiation with clouds. One of the first ARM research activities involves the computation of the broadband shortwave surface irradiance from satellite observations. <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> satellite images centered over the first ARM observation site are received hourly over the Internet network and processed in real time to compute hourly and daily composite shortwave irradiance fields. The images and the results are transferred via a high-speed network to the Sequoia 2000 storage facility in Berkeley, where they are archived. These satellite-derived results are compared with the surface observations to evaluate the accuracy of the satellite estimate and the spatial representation of the surface observations. In developing the software involved in calculating the surface shortwave irradiance, the authors have produced an environment whereby they can easily modify and monitor the data processing as required. Through the principles of modular programming, they have developed software that is easily modified as new algorithms for computation are developed or input data availability changes. In addition, the software was designed so that it could be run from an interactive, icon-driven, graphical interface, TCL-TK, developed by Sequoia 2000 participants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMAE21A0312F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMAE21A0312F"><span>Artificial lightning data as proxy data for the algorithm development for the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> lightning imager</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Finke, U.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) will carry the Lightning Imager (LI) for the detection and location of the total lightning by optical means. The Lightning Imager will continuously observe the full visible disk and provide lightning data with high uniformity over land and ocean during day and night. Its main operational applications are the nowcasting of severe storms and the warning of lightning strike threat. For the development of the data processor prototype a proxy data set is necessary as a reference data set in order to prove the function of the algorithms under the expected observation conditions. Additionally, a set of proxy data simulating the optical pulses originating from lightning can be used to optimize the performance of the detecting instrument. This contribution presents the methodology and the results of the generation of artificial lightning data. The artificial data set is created by random number generators which produces data obeying the same statistical distribution characteristics as real data. The generator bases on the empirical distribution density functions of the lightning characteristics which were derived from optical lightning observations by low orbit satellites (LIS) and ground based observations of lightning. The resulting artificial data represent optical lightning pulses as seen on the upper cloud surface. They are characterized by their distribution on three scales: the distribution of photons in a single lightning pulse, the distribution of lightning flashes in a single storm and the distribution of storms on the globe. The artificial data are used as input for the data processing and product generating algorithms. The elementary product of the lightning imager are the detected lightning pulses with their time, location and optical energy. These data are the basis for the generation of the various meteorological products such as lightning densities in geographical areas, storm cells with their motion</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21K..06E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21K..06E"><span>Carbon Observations from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Earth Orbit as Part of an Integrated Observing System for Atmospheric Composition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edwards, D. P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This presentation describes proposed satellite carbon measurements from the CHRONOS mission. The primary goal of this experiment is to measure the atmospheric pollutants carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit, with hourly observations of North America at high spatial resolution. CHRONOS observations would provide measurements not currently available or planned as part of a surface, suborbital and satellite integrated observing system for atmospheric composition over North America. Carbon monoxide is produced by combustion processes such as urban activity and wildfires, and serves as a proxy for other combustion pollutants that are not easily measured. Methane has diverse anthropogenic sources ranging from fossil fuel production, animal husbandry, agriculture and waste management. The impact of gas exploration in the Western States of the USA and oil extraction from the Canadian tar sands will be particular foci of the mission, as will the poorly-quantified natural CH4 emissions from wetlands and thawing permafrost. In addition to characterizing pollutant sources, improved understanding of the domestic CH4 budget is a priority for policy decisions related to short-lived climate forcers. A primary motivation for targeting CO is its value as a tracer of atmospheric pollution, and CHRONOS measurements will provide insight into local and long-range transport across the North American continent, as well as the processes governing the entrainment and venting of pollution in and out of the planetary boundary layer. As a result of significantly improved characterization of diurnal changes in atmospheric composition, CHRONOS observations will find direct societal applications for air quality regulation and forecasting. We present a quantification of this expected improvement in the prediction of near-surface concentrations when CHRONOS measurements are used in Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). If CHRONOS and the planned NASA Earth</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdSpR..59.2101W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdSpR..59.2101W"><span>The role of solar apsidal resonance in the evolution of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> transfer orbits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yue; Gurfil, Pini</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Subjected to multiple perturbations and their complex interplay, the dynamical evolution of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> transfer orbits (GTOs) is sensitive to initial conditions and model parameters. As one of the most remarkable outcomes of multiple perturbations, the solar apsidal resonance, i.e., the 1:1 resonance between the solar orbital motion and the rotation of the orbital apsidal line caused by Earth's oblateness, is an important feature of the GTO evolution. It occurs when the semi-major axis is reduced by the atmospheric drag to the critical value, with which the rotation of the orbital apsidal line is commensurate with the solar orbital motion. In the present paper, we show that the solar apsidal resonance plays an important role in the evolution and decay of GTOs. To do so, we first explain the underlying dynamical mechanism of the solar apsidal resonance, which is the U-turn of the solar azimuth with respect to the orbital apsidal line and the resulting monotonic increase or decrease of the eccentricity. The resonance is then classified into three kinds, and their causes and effects are analyzed. Previous studies have regarded the solar apsidal resonance as a mechanism extending the orbital lifetime. However, we find that in most cases the GTO will re-enter Earth's atmosphere soon or only several years after the resonance, and so the solar apsidal resonance can be regarded as the prelude to the GTO final re-entry. Finally, the sensitivity of orbital dynamics is studied through numerical simulations. It is shown that the high sensitivity of the dynamics can be attributed to the resonance, which is difficult to predict or manage. With the initial state, it is possible to predict the orbit evolution of GTO only before the solar apsidal resonance. To predict the lifetime of GTO, new measurements on the orbit after the resonance are required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900009935','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900009935"><span>Science requirements for passive microwave sensors on earth science <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gasiewski, A. J.; Staelin, D. H.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>It is suggested that the science requirements for passive <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> microwave observations be met by near- and far-term sensors for each of two overlapping bands, with each band covering no more than a decade in frequency. The low-frequency band includes channels near 6, 10, 18, 22, 31 to 37, and possibly 50 to 60 GHz. The high-frequency band includes channels near 220 to 230, 183, 166, 118, 90 to 110, and possibly 50 to 60 and 31 to 37 GHz. The precise channel specifications will have to comply with international frequency allocations. The near-term goal is a high-frequency sensor based on a filled-aperture solid reflector antenna, which should rely on currently existing technology. The most critical issues for the near-term sensor are momentum compensation and the design of the feed assembly; these issues are coupled through the desired scan rate. The successful demonstration of the near-term (high-frequency) sensor will be essential for the continued development of far-term sensors satisfying the ideal science requirements. The far-term goal includes both a high-frequency sensor which meets the ideal science requirements, and a low-frequency sensor whose design will depend on advances in large antenna technology. The low-frequency (far-term) sensor might be based on one of several concepts: a deployable mesh reflector antenna of diameter at least 20 m, which shows promise for use at frequencies up to 30-GHz, a synthetic aperture interferometer of maximum baseline from 100 to 300 m, or a deployable phased-array bootlace lens, of diameter from 100 to 300 m. The first of these, a deployable mesh reflector antenna, will satisfy only the adequate spatial resolution requirements. The last two concepts meet the ideal spatial resolution science requirements, although they present significant structural and meteorological challenges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10004E..1SK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10004E..1SK"><span>Development of image processing method to detect noise in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khlopenkov, Konstantin V.; Doelling, David R.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) has incorporated imagery from 16 individual <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) satellites across five contiguous domains since March 2000. In order to derive broadband fluxes uniform across satellite platforms it is important to ensure a good quality of the input raw count data. GEO data obtained by older GOES imagers (such as MTSAT-1, Meteosat-5, Meteosat-7, GMS-5, and GOES-9) are known to frequently contain various types of noise caused by transmission errors, sync errors, stray light contamination, and others. This work presents an image processing methodology designed to detect most kinds of noise and corrupt data in all bands of raw imagery from modern and historic GEO satellites. The algorithm is based on a set of different approaches to detect abnormal image patterns, including inter-line and inter-pixel differences within a scanline, correlation between scanlines, analysis of spatial variance, and also a 2D Fourier analysis of the image spatial frequencies. In spite of computational complexity, the described method is highly optimized for performance to facilitate volume processing of multi-year data and runs in fully automated mode. Reliability of this noise detection technique has been assessed by human supervision for each GEO dataset obtained during selected time periods in 2005 and 2006. This assessment has demonstrated the overall detection accuracy of over 99.5% and the false alarm rate of under 0.3%. The described noise detection routine is currently used in volume processing of historical GEO imagery for subsequent production of global gridded data products and for cross-platform calibration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JHyd..356..283W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JHyd..356..283W"><span>Use of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite images in convective rain estimation for flash-flood forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wardah, T.; Abu Bakar, S. H.; Bardossy, A.; Maznorizan, M.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>SummaryFrequent flash-floods causing immense devastation in the Klang River Basin of Malaysia necessitate an improvement in the real-time forecasting systems being used. The use of meteorological satellite images in estimating rainfall has become an attractive option for improving the performance of flood forecasting-and-warning systems. In this study, a rainfall estimation algorithm using the infrared (IR) information from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Meteorological Satellite-5 (GMS-5) is developed for potential input in a flood forecasting system. Data from the records of GMS-5 IR images have been retrieved for selected convective cells to be trained with the radar rain rate in a back-propagation neural network. The selected data as inputs to the neural network, are five parameters having a significant correlation with the radar rain rate: namely, the cloud-top brightness-temperature of the pixel of interest, the mean and the standard deviation of the temperatures of the surrounding five by five pixels, the rate of temperature change, and the sobel operator that indicates the temperature gradient. In addition, three numerical weather prediction (NWP) products, namely the precipitable water content, relative humidity, and vertical wind, are also included as inputs. The algorithm is applied for the areal rainfall estimation in the upper Klang River Basin and compared with another technique that uses power-law regression between the cloud-top brightness-temperature and radar rain rate. Results from both techniques are validated against previously recorded Thiessen areal-averaged rainfall values with coefficient correlation values of 0.77 and 0.91 for the power-law regression and the artificial neural network (ANN) technique, respectively. An extra lead time of around 2 h is gained when the satellite-based ANN rainfall estimation is coupled with a rainfall-runoff model to forecast a flash-flood event in the upper Klang River Basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040015290&hterms=earth+ocean+sciences&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dearth%2Bocean%2Bsciences','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040015290&hterms=earth+ocean+sciences&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dearth%2Bocean%2Bsciences"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Spectrograph (GeoSpec) for Earth and Atmospheric Science Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Janz, Scott J.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>GeoSpec will support several possible future mission concepts in the Atmospheric Sciences and in Land and Ocean Sciences by measurement of both chemically linked atmospheric trace gas concentrations and profiles of important molecules such as OS, N02, CH20 and SO2 and at the same time coastal and ocean pollution events, tidal effects, and the origin and evolution of aerosol plumes. The instrument design concept we will describe is a dual spectrograph covering the WMS wavelength region of 310- 481 nm and the VIS/NIR wavelength region of 500-900 nm. A third channel in the short- wave infrared (SWIR) region between 2.2 p and 2.4 pn for total column measurements of CO, CH4, and N20 will also be described. The goal is to design a system capable of making moderate spatial resolution (750 meters at nadir) hyperspectral measurements (0.2 to 1.2 nm resolution) from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. This would enable studies of time- varying pollution and coastal change processes with a temporal resolution of 5 minutes on a regional scale to 1 hour on a continental scale. Technological advances in the design and fabrication of convex holographic gratings and large format, high dynamic range PIN/CMOS detectors at the focal plane will be exploited. By simply changing the focal length of the front-end telescope GeoSpec can accommodate different orbital altitudes, including low Earth orbit, the Sun-side Lagrangian point L1, and/or different spatial resolutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........50F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........50F"><span>Derivation and evaluation of land surface temperature from the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> operational environmental satellite series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fang, Li</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have been continuously monitoring the earth surface since 1970, providing valuable and intensive data from a very broad range of wavelengths, day and night. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) is currently operating GOES-15 and GOES-13. The design of the GOES series is now heading to the 4 th generation. GOES-R, as a representative of the new generation of the GOES series, is scheduled to be launched in 2015 with higher spatial and temporal resolution images and full-time soundings. These frequent observations provided by GOES Image make them attractive for deriving information on the diurnal land surface temperature (LST) cycle and diurnal temperature range (DTR). These parameters are of great value for research on the Earth's diurnal variability and climate change. Accurate derivation of satellite-based LSTs from thermal infrared data has long been an interesting and challenging research area. To better support the research on climate change, the generation of consistent GOES LST products for both GOES-East and GOES-West from operational dataset as well as historical archive is in great demand. The derivation of GOES LST products and the evaluation of proposed retrieval methods are two major objectives of this study. Literature relevant to satellite-based LST retrieval techniques was reviewed. Specifically, the evolution of two LST algorithm families and LST retrieval methods for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites were summarized in this dissertation. Literature relevant to the evaluation of satellite-based LSTs was also reviewed. All the existing methods are a valuable reference to develop the GOES LST product. The primary objective of this dissertation is the development of models for deriving consistent GOES LSTs with high spatial and high temporal coverage. Proper LST retrieval algorithms were studied</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9264E..1UL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9264E..1UL"><span>Analysis of signal to noise ratio for atmospheric ultraviolet remote sensing on <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit with variations of solar incident angles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lyu, Chun-guang; Yang, Wen-bo; Tian, Qing-jiu; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Zong-ming; Zhang, Han-mo</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Ultraviolet (UV) sensors on a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit (GEO) have important potential value in atmospheric remote sensing, but the satellites orbit mode of it is quit different from sun-synchronous orbit satellites, which result in the significant diurnal and seasonal variations in radiation environment of earth observation and radiation signal of sensors, therefore, the effect to sensor radiometric performance, such as signal to noise ratio for atmospheric ultraviolet remote sensing caused by variations of solar angle is significant in the performance design of sensors. The synthetic ultraviolet sensor is set at the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit, 36000 km away from the sea level of the Equator with 8.75 degree field of view, and the subsatellite track point of which is located at 90 degrees east longitude and Equator. The Satellite scanning angles (SA) from 0 to 8.648 degree that cover the earth surface are selected corresponding to the 10 degrees equal interval view zenith angle, and the SA from 8.648 to 8.785 degree cover the earth lamb 100 km far away from earth tangent point. Based on the MODTRAN4 model, on normal atmospheric conditions, the distributions of the UV upwelling radiance from surface or limb viewing path of the earth could be simulated with the change of sun's right ascension. Moreover, the average signal to noise ratio to the atmospheric sounding is obtained in different UV spectra using the Sensor signal to noise ratio model. The results show that the thresholds range, tendency and shape of signal to noise ratio have a variety of features affected by variation of Sun hour angles and declinations. These result and conclusions could contribute to performance design of UV sensors on the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100017069','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100017069"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (GEO CEDI) for the GEO Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Mission. Concept Presentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Janz, Scott; Smith, James C.; Mannino, Antonio</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This slide presentation reviews the concepts of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (GEO CEDI) which will be used on the GEO Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Mission. The primary science requirements require scans of the U.S. Coastal waters 3 times per day during the daylight hours. Included in the overview are presentations about the systems, the optics, the detectors, the mechanical systems, the electromechanical systems, the electrical design, the flight software, the thermal systems, and the contamination prevention requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA620076','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA620076"><span>Estimate of Solar Maximum Using the 1-8 Angstrom <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellites X-Ray Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-12-12</p> <p>Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 2 cys Official Record Copy AFRL /RVBXS/Dr. K. S..Balasubramaniam 1 cy 5... AFRL -RV-PS- AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2015-0005 TR-2015-0005 ESTIMATE OF SOLAR MAXIMUM USING THE 1–8 Å <span class="hlt">GEOSTATIONARY</span> OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITES X...AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY Space Vehicles Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE, NM 87117-5776</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA531722','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA531722"><span>First Resolved Images of a Spacecraft in <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Orbit with the Keck-II 10 m Telescope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>2009, with the adaptive optics on the largest telescope on the planet, the 10 m Keck-II on the 14000 foot summit of Mauna Kea . 1. Observations As...part of an engineering run at the Keck-II 10 m telescope on Mauna Kea , several adaptive optics images were obtained of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite GE-23, a...largest telescope on the planet, the 10 m Keck-II on the 14000 foot summit of Mauna Kea . 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820024824','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820024824"><span>Visible infrared spin-scan radiometers (VISSR) for the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) B and C application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Two visible infrared spin scan radiometer (VISSR) instruments provided for the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite B and C (GOES B and C) spacecrafts are described. The instruments are identical to those supplied previously are summarized. A significant number of changes primarily involving corrections of drawing errors and omissions were also performed. All electrical changes were breadboarded (where complexity required this), were incorporated into the test module, and subjected to verification of proper operation throughout fall instrument temperature range. Evaluation of the changes also included design operating safety margins to account for component variations and life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.A53C0280L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.A53C0280L"><span>Online Visualization and Analysis of Merged Global <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Infrared Dataset</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Z.; Ostrenga, D.; Leptoukh, G.; Mehta, A.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC) is home of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data archive. The global merged IR product, also known as, the NCEP/CPC 4-km Global (60°N - 60°S) IR Dataset, is one of TRMM ancillary datasets. They are globally-merged (60°N-60°S) pixel-resolution (4 km) IR brightness temperature data (equivalent blackbody temperatures), merged from all available <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites (GOES-8/10, METEOSAT-7/5 & GMS). The availability of data from METEOSAT-5, which is located at 63E at the present time, yields a unique opportunity for total global (60°N-60°S) coverage. The GES DISC has collected over 8 years of the data beginning from February of 2000. This high temporal resolution dataset can not only provide additional background information to TRMM and other satellite missions, but also allow observing a wide range of meteorological phenomena from space, such as, mesoscale convection system, tropical cyclones, hurricanes, etc. The dataset can also be used to verify model simulations. Despite that the data can be downloaded via ftp, however, its large volume poses a challenge for many users. A single file occupies about 70 MB disk space and there is a total of ~73,000 files (~4.5 TB) for the past 8 years. Because there is a lack of data subsetting service, one has to download the entire file, which could be time consuming and require a lot of disk space. In order to facilitate data access, we have developed a web prototype, the Global Image ViewER (GIVER), to allow users to conduct online visualization and analysis of this dataset. With a web browser and few mouse clicks, users can have a full access to over 8 year and over 4.5 TB data and generate black and white IR imagery and animation without downloading any software and data. Basic functions include selection of area of interest, single imagery or animation, a time skip capability for different temporal resolution and image size. Users</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150006549&hterms=Air+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAir%2Bpollution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150006549&hterms=Air+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAir%2Bpollution"><span>A Panchromatic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer for the NASA <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal and Air Pollution Events Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Yen-Hung; Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Rider, David</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper summarizes the design and development of the Panchromatic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) for the NASA <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission. The PanFTS instrument will advance the understanding of the global climate and atmospheric chemistry by measuring spectrally resolved outgoing thermal and reflected solar radiation. With continuous spectral coverage from the near-ultraviolet through the thermal infrared, this instrument is designed to measure pollutants, greenhouse gases, and aerosols as called for by the U.S. National Research Council Decadal Survey; Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond1. The PanFTS instrument is a hybrid instrument based on spectrometers like the Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES) that measures thermal emission, and those like the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) that measure scattered solar radiation. Simultaneous measurements over the broad spectral range from IR to UV is accomplished by a two sided interferometer with separate optical trains and detectors for the ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectral domains. This allows each side of the instrument to be independently optimized for its respective spectral domain. The overall interferometer design is compact because the two sides share a single high precision cryogenic optical path difference mechanism (OPDM) and metrology laser as well as a number of other instrument systems including the line-of-sight pointing mirror, the data management system, thermal control system, electrical system, and the mechanical structure. The PanFTS breadboard instrument has been tested in the laboratory and demonstrated the basic functionality for simultaneous measurements in the visible and infrared. It is set to begin operations in the field at the California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) observatory on Mt. Wilson</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmRe.122..504H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmRe.122..504H"><span>Patterns of fire activity over Indonesia and Malaysia from polar and <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Prins, Elaine M.; Hoffman, Jay P.; Schmidt, Christopher C.; Miettinen, Jukka I.; Giglio, Louis</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Biomass burning patterns over the Maritime Continent of Southeast Asia are examined using a new active fire detection product based on application of the Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) to data from the imagers on the MTSAT <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites operated by the Japanese space agency JAXA. Data from MTSAT-1R and MTSAT-2 covering 34 months from September 2008 to July 2011 are examined for a study region consisting of Indonesia, Malaysia, and nearby environs. The spatial and temporal distributions of fires detected in the MTSAT WF_ABBA product are described and compared with active fire observations from MODIS MOD14 data. Land cover distributions for the two instruments are examined using a new 250 m land cover product from the National University of Singapore. The two products show broadly similar patterns of fire activity, land cover distribution of fires, and pixel fire radiative power (FRP). However, the MTSAT WF_ABBA data differ from MOD14 in important ways. Relative to MODIS, the MTSAT WF_ABBA product has lower overall detection efficiency, but more fires detected due to more frequent looks, a greater relative fraction of fires in forest and a lower relative fraction of fires in open areas, and significantly higher single-pixel retrieved FRP. The differences in land cover distribution and FRP between the MTSAT and MODIS products are shown to be qualitatively consistent with expectations based on pixel size and diurnal sampling. The MTSAT WF_ABBA data are used to calculate coverage-corrected diurnal cycles of fire for different regions within the study area. These diurnal cycles are preliminary but demonstrate that the fraction of diurnal fire activity sampled by the two MODIS sensors varies significantly by region and vegetation type. Based on the results from comparison of the two fire products, a series of steps is outlined to account for some of the systematic biases in each of these satellite products in order to produce a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960022585&hterms=sequoia&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsequoia','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960022585&hterms=sequoia&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsequoia"><span>A versatile system for processing <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite data with run-time visualization capability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Landsfeld, M.; Gautier, C.; Figel, T.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>To better predict global climate change, scientists are developing climate models that require interdisciplinary and collaborative efforts in their building. We are currently involved in several such projects but will briefly discuss activities in support of two such complementary projects: the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program of the Department of Energy and Sequoia 2000, a joint venture of the University of California, the private sector, and government agencies. Our contribution to the ARM program is to investigate the role of clouds on the top of the atmosphere and on surface radiance fields through the data analysis of surface and satellite observations and complex modeling of the interaction of radiation with clouds. One of our first ARM research activities involves the computation of the broadband shortwave surface irradiance from satellite observations. <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> satellite images centered over the first ARM observation site are received hourly over the Internet network and processed in real time to compute hourly and daily composite shortwave irradiance fields. The images and the results are transferred via a high-speed network to the Sequoia 2000 storage facility in Berkeley, where they are archived These satellite-derived results are compared with the surface observations to evaluate the accuracy of the satellite estimate and the spatial representation of the surface observations. In developing the software involved in calculating the surface shortwave irradiance, we have produced an environment whereby we can easily modify and monitor the data processing as required. Through the principles of modular programming, we have developed software that is easily modified as new algorithms for computation are developed or input data availability changes. In addition, the software was designed so that it could be run from an interactive, icon-driven, graphical interface, TCL-TK, developed by Sequoia 2000 participants. In this way, the data flow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050237927&hterms=lightning+strikes+power&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlightning%2Bstrikes%2Bpower','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050237927&hterms=lightning+strikes+power&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlightning%2Bstrikes%2Bpower"><span>Pre-Launch GOES-R Risk Reduction Activities for the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Boccippio, D. J.; Christian, H. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Petersen, W. A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The GOES-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a new instrument planned for GOES-R that will greatly improve storm hazard nowcasting and increase warning lead time day and night. Daytime detection of lightning is a particularly significant technological advance given the fact that the solar illuminated cloud-top signal can exceed the intensity of the lightning signal by a factor of one hundred. Our approach is detailed across three broad themes which include: Data Processing Algorithm Readiness, Forecast Applications, and Radiance Data Mining. These themes address how the data will be processed and distributed, and the algorithms and models for developing, producing, and using the data products. These pre-launch risk reduction activities will accelerate the operational and research use of the GLM data once GOES-R begins on-orbit operations. The GLM will provide unprecedented capabilities for tracking thunderstorms and earlier warning of impending severe and hazardous weather threats. By providing direct information on lightning initiation, propagation, extent, and rate, the GLM will also capture the updraft dynamics and life cycle of convective storms, as well as internal ice precipitation processes. The GLM provides information directly from the heart of the thunderstorm as opposed to cloud-top only. Nowcasting applications enabled by the GLM data will expedite the warning and response time of emergency management systems, improve the dispatch of electric power utility repair crews, and improve airline routing around thunderstorms thereby improving safety and efficiency, saving fuel and reducing delays. The use of GLM data will assist the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Forest Service in quickly detecting lightning ground strikes that have a high probability of causing fires. Finally, GLM data will help assess the role of thunderstorms and deep convection in global climate, and will improve regional air quality and global chemistry/climate modeling</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960014818','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960014818"><span>Investigation of biomass burning and aerosol loading and transport in South America utilizing <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Menzel, Paul; Prins, Elaine</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This study attempts to assess the extent of burning and associated aerosol transport regimes in South America and the South Atlantic using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite observations, in order to explore the possible roles of biomass burning in climate change and more directly in atmospheric chemistry and radiative transfer processes. Modeling and analysis efforts have suggested that the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols from biomass burning may play a major role in the radiative balance of the earth and are an important factor in climate change calculations. One of the most active regions of biomass burning is located in South America, associated with deforestation in the selva (forest), grassland management, and other agricultural practices. As part of the NASA Aerosol Interdisciplinary Program, we are utilizing GOES-7 (1988) and GOES-8 (1995) visible and multispectral infrared data (4, 11, and 12 microns) to document daily biomass burning activity in South America and to distinguish smoke/aerosols from other multi-level clouds and low-level moisture. This study catalogues the areal extent and transport of smoke/aerosols throughout the region and over the Atlantic Ocean for the 1988 (July-September) and 1995 (June-October) biomass burning seasons. The smoke/haze cover estimates are compared to the locations of fires to determine the source and verify the haze is actually associated with biomass burning activities. The temporal resolution of the GOES data (half-hourly in South America) makes it possible to determine the prevailing circulation and transport of aerosols by considering a series of visible and infrared images and tracking the motion of smoke, haze and adjacent clouds. The study area extends from 40 to 70 deg W and 0 to 40 deg S with aerosol coverage extending over the Atlantic Ocean when necessary. Fire activity is estimated with the GOES Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (ABBA). To date, our efforts have focused on GOES-7 and GOES-8 ABBA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMIN23B..04I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMIN23B..04I"><span>Nexrad-In-Space - A <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Doppler Weather Radar for Hurricane Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Im, E.; Chandrasekar, V.; Chen, S. S.; Holland, G. J.; Kakar, R.; Lewis, W. E.; Marks, F. D.; Smith, E. A.; Tanelli, S.; Tripoli, G. J.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The Nexrad-In-Space (NIS) is a revolutionary atmospheric radar observation concept from the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbiting platform. It was developed over the last 4 years under the auspices of NASA's Earth Science Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). The NIS radar would provide Ka-band (35 GHz) reflectivity and line-of-sight Doppler velocity profiles over a circular Earth region of approximately 5200 km in diameter with a 12-km horizontal resolution, and a minimum detectable signal of 5 dBZ. The NIS radar achieves its superb sampling capabilities by use of a 35-m diameter, deployable antenna made from lightweight membrane material. The antenna has two transmit-receive array pairs that create a dual-beam, spiral-feed combined profile image of both reflectivity and Doppler velocity approximately every 60 minutes. This sampling time can be shortened even further by increasing the number of transmit-receive array pairs. It is generally recognized that the processes important in governing hurricane intensity and structure span a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The environmental forcing considerations require a large domain. The vortex response to the environmental forcing ultimately involves convection on small horizontal scales in the eyewall and rainband regions. Resolving this environment-vortex-convection feedback in a numerical model requires observations on the space and time scales necessary to unambiguously define these structures within and surrounding the tropical cyclone. Because the time and space scales of these processes are small, continuous 3-dimensional independent observations of the 3-dimensional wind and precipitation structures will be needed to initialize numerical models critical for this purpose. The proposed NIS Doppler radar would be the first instrument capable of accomplishing this feat at time scales less than hours, and would create the opportunity for hurricane science to enter a new era of understanding and improved prediction. This</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14..871P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14..871P"><span>The validation service of the hydrological SAF <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and polar satellite precipitation products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Puca, S.; Porcu, F.; Rinollo, A.; Vulpiani, G.; Baguis, P.; Balabanova, S.; Campione, E.; Ertürk, A.; Gabellani, S.; Iwanski, R.; Jurašek, M.; Kaňák, J.; Kerényi, J.; Koshinchanov, G.; Kozinarova, G.; Krahe, P.; Lapeta, B.; Lábó, E.; Milani, L.; Okon, L'.; Öztopal, A.; Pagliara, P.; Pignone, F.; Rachimow, C.; Rebora, N.; Roulin, E.; Sönmez, I.; Toniazzo, A.; Biron, D.; Casella, D.; Cattani, E.; Dietrich, S.; Di Paola, F.; Laviola, S.; Levizzani, V.; Melfi, D.; Mugnai, A.; Panegrossi, G.; Petracca, M.; Sanò, P.; Zauli, F.; Rosci, P.; De Leonibus, L.; Agosta, E.; Gattari, F.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The development phase (DP) of the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility for Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF) led to the design and implementation of several precipitation products, after 5 yr (2005-2010) of activity. Presently, five precipitation estimation algorithms based on data from passive microwave and infrared sensors, on board <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and sun-synchronous platforms, function in operational mode at the H-SAF hosting institute to provide near real-time precipitation products at different spatial and temporal resolutions. In order to evaluate the precipitation product accuracy, a validation activity has been established since the beginning of the project. A Precipitation Product Validation Group (PPVG) works in parallel with the development of the estimation algorithms with two aims: to provide the algorithm developers with indications to refine algorithms and products, and to evaluate the error structure to be associated with the operational products. In this paper, the framework of the PPVG is presented: (a) the characteristics of the ground reference data available to H-SAF (i.e. radar and rain gauge networks), (b) the agreed upon validation strategy settled among the eight European countries participating in the PPVG, and (c) the steps of the validation procedures. The quality of the reference data is discussed, and the efforts for its improvement are outlined, with special emphasis on the definition of a ground radar quality map and on the implementation of a suitable rain gauge interpolation algorithm. The work done during the H-SAF development phase has led the PPVG to converge into a common validation procedure among the members, taking advantage of the experience acquired by each one of them in the validation of H-SAF products. The methodology is presented here, indicating the main steps of the validation procedure (ground data quality control, spatial interpolation, up-scaling of radar data vs. satellite grid</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A33P..08L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A33P..08L"><span>Value-added Impact from Future <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Hyperspectral Infrared Sounder Observations on Hurricane Forecasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, J.; Schmit, T. J.; Li, Z.; Zhu, F.; Lim, A.; Atlas, R. M.; John, P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Future <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (Geo) advanced InfraRed (IR) sounders have finer spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions compared with the existing GOES sounders, providing much improved resolving power of atmospheric thermodynamic information. When quantitatively assessing the value-added impact from such instruments over the current sounding systems onboard the Low Earth Orbit (Leo) satellites, the real question is what is the optimal impact using the current assimilation/forecast systems. More specifically, will assimilation of more observations from Geo IR sounders with the current assimilation/forecast systems yield improved forecast as expected? And if so, how to assimilate the high temporal resolution Geo sounding information and what is the impact on forecasts? Taken tropical cyclone (TC) forecasting as an example, this study tries to address these questions through a quick regional Observing System Simulation Experiments (r-OSSE) study. The synthetic observations are simulated from the sample ECMWF T1279 nature run (NR) for Hurricane Sandy (2012), including RAOB, the Leo AIRS, and Geo AIRS. Various experiments were carried out using WRF 3.6.1 and GSI 3.3 to study the impact on Sandy track forecast. And the study shows that a) it is critical to assign an appropriate observational error (observation error covariance matrix - O matrix) in order to show improved positive impacts from Geo AIRS over Leo AIRS; b) cycling of 3/6-hourly shows improved positive impacts over none cycling, but hourly cycling does not show further improvement on forecasts among all experiments, and c) with thinning (120 ~ 240 km), the impacts have the following order: hourly > 3-hourly > 6-hourly > none cycling. These experiments indicate that while more observations may improve forecasts, much more observations are difficult to show further improvement with the current assimilation/forecast system configurations. There exists a tradeoff between the number of observations to be assimilated</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090027668','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090027668"><span>Online Visualization and Analysis of Merged Global <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Infrared Dataset</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Leptoukh, G.; Mehta, A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC) is home of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data archive. The global merged IR product also known as the NCEP/CPC 4-km Global (60 degrees N - 60 degrees S) IR Dataset, is one of TRMM ancillary datasets. They are globally merged (60 degrees N - 60 degrees S) pixel-resolution (4 km) IR brightness temperature data (equivalent blackbody temperatures), merged from all available <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites (GOES-8/10, METEOSAT-7/5 and GMS). The availability of data from METEOSAT-5, which is located at 63E at the present time, yields a unique opportunity for total global (60 degrees N- 60 degrees S) coverage. The GES DISC has collected over 8 years of the data beginning from February of 2000. This high temporal resolution dataset can not only provide additional background information to TRMM and other satellite missions, but also allow observing a wide range of meteorological phenomena from space, such as, mesoscale convection systems, tropical cyclones, hurricanes, etc. The dataset can also be used to verify model simulations. Despite that the data can be downloaded via ftp, however, its large volume poses a challenge for many users. A single file occupies about 70 MB disk space and there is a total of approximately 73,000 files (approximately 4.5 TB) for the past 8 years. In order to facilitate data access, we have developed a web prototype to allow users to conduct online visualization and analysis of this dataset. With a web browser and few mouse clicks, users can have a full access to over 8 year and over 4.5 TB data and generate black and white IR imagery and animation without downloading any software and data. In short, you can make your own images! Basic functions include selection of area of interest, single imagery or animation, a time skip capability for different temporal resolution and image size. Users can save an animation as a file (animated gif) and import it in other</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8150E..0OW','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8150E..0OW"><span>A Panchromatic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer for the NASA <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal and Air Pollution Events Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Yen-Hung; Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Rider, David</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>This paper summarizes the design and development of the Panchromatic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) for the NASA <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission. The PanFTS instrument will advance the understanding of the global climate and atmospheric chemistry by measuring spectrally resolved outgoing thermal and reflected solar radiation. With continuous spectral coverage from the near-ultraviolet through the thermal infrared, this instrument is designed to measure pollutants, greenhouse gases, and aerosols as called for by the U.S. National Research Council Decadal Survey; Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond1. The PanFTS instrument is a hybrid based on spectrometers like the Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES) that measures thermal emission, and those like the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) that measure scattered solar radiation. Simultaneous measurements over the broad spectral range from IR to UV is accomplished by a two sided interferometer with separate optical trains and detectors for the UV-visible and IR spectral domains. This allows each side of the instrument to be independently optimized for its respective spectral domain. The overall interferometer design is compact because the two sides share a single high precision cryogenic optical path difference mechanism (OPDM) and metrology laser as well as a number of other instrument systems including the line-of-sight pointing mirror, the data management system, thermal control system, electrical system, and the mechanical structure. The PanFTS breadboard instrument has been tested in the laboratory and demonstrated the basic functionality for simultaneous measurements in the visible and IR. It is set to begin operations in the field at the California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) observatory on Mt. Wilson measuring the atmospheric chemistry</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013927','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013927"><span>Investigating the Use of Deep Convective Clouds (DCCT) to Monitor On-orbit Performance of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) using Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buechler, Dennis E.; Christian, Hugh J.; Koshak, William J.; Goodman, Steven J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>There is a need to monitor the on-orbit performance of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) on the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) for changes in instrument calibration that will affect GLM's lightning detection efficiency. GLM has no onboard calibration so GLM background radiance observations (available every 2.5 min) of Deep Convective Clouds (DCCs) are investigated as invariant targets to monitor GLM performance. Observations from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite are used as proxy datasets for GLM and ABI 11 m measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A21C0063S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A21C0063S"><span>Effects of Surface Albedo on Smoke Detection Through <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Imagery in the Hazard Mapping System (HMS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salemi, A.; Ruminski, M. G.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) of NOAA/NESDIS uses <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and polar orbiting satellite imagery to identify fires and smoke throughout the continental United States. The fires and smoke are analyzed daily on the Hazard Mapping System (HMS) and made available via the internet in various formats. Analysis of smoke plumes generated from wildfires, agricultural and prescribe burns is performed with single channel visible imagery primarily from NOAA's <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) animations. Identification of smoke in visible imagery is complicated by the presence of clouds, the viewing angle produced by the sun, smoke, satellite geometry, and the surface albedo of the ground below the smoke among other factors. This study investigates the role of surface albedo in smoke detection. LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) instruments are capable of detecting smoke and other aerosols. Through the use of ground and space based LIDAR systems in areas of varying albedo a relationship between the subjective analyst drawn smoke plumes versus those detected by LIDAR is established. The ability to detect smoke over regions of higher albedo (brighter surface, such as grassland, scrub and desert) is diminished compared to regions of lower albedo (darker surface, such as forest and water). Users of the HMS smoke product need to be aware of this limitation in smoke detection in areas of higher albedo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.1563H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.1563H"><span>Mapping surface tidal currents and Changjiang plume in the East China Sea from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Zifeng; Wang, Dong-Ping; Pan, Delu; He, Xianqiang; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Bai, Yan; Wang, Difeng; Gong, Fang</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The spatial pattern of the semidiurnal M2 tidal currents in the East China Sea (ECS) is mapped from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), taking advantage of the satellite's unique 8 hourly local daytime sequential images. The GOCI-derived surface M2 tidal currents are validated with a comprehensive set of twenty-eight surface drifters and four mooring observations. The agreement is outstanding with the error variance less than 10% of the total variance. The gridded GOCI-derived tidal currents are also in good agreement with the Oregon State University (OSU) high-resolution regional tidal model of the China Seas. The detided mean flow shows a strong Changjiang plume extending hundreds of kilometers offshore, in agreement with the concurrent satellite sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) distributions. The observed surface currents are compared with the daily mean flows derived from the Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment (JCOPE2). The model results are consistent with the observations, showing the sensitivity of Changjiang plume to wind forcing. The study clearly demonstrates the utility of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite in mapping the surface currents over a wide (˜400 km), tidally dominated continental shelf.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8664S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8664S"><span>Performance assessment of future thermal infrared <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> instruments to monitor air quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sellitto, P.; Dauphin, P.; Dufour, G.; Eremenko, M.; Cuesta, J.; Coman, A.; Forêt, G.; Beekmann, M.; Gaubert, B.; Flaud, J.-M.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Air quality (AQ) has a recognized onerous impact on human health and the environment, and then on society. It is more and more clear that constantly and efficiently monitoring AQ from space is a valuable step forward towards a more thorough comprehension of pollution processes that can have a relevant impact on the biosphere. In recent years, important progresses in this field have been made, e.g., reliable observations of several pollutants have been obtained, proving the feasibility of monitoring atmospheric composition from space. In this sense, low Earth orbit (LEO) thermal infrared (TIR) space-borne instruments are widely regarded as a useful tool to observe targeted AQ parameters like tropospheric ozone concentrations [1]. However, limitations remain with the current observation systems in particular to observe ozone in the lowermost troposphere (LmT) with a spatial and temporal resolution relevant for monitoring pollution processes at the regional scale. Indeed, LEO instruments are not well adapted to monitor small scale and short term phenomena, owing to their unsatisfactory revisit time. From this point of view, a more satisfactory concept might be based on <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) platforms. Current and planned GEO missions are mainly tailored on meteorological parameters retrieval and do not have sufficient spectral resolutions and signal to noise ratios (SNR) to infer information on trace gases in the LmT. New satellite missions are currently proposed that can partly overcome these limitations. Here we present a group of simulation exercises and sensitivity analyses to set-up future TIR GEO missions adapted to monitor and forecast AQ over Europe, and to evaluate their technical requirements. At this aim, we have developed a general simulator to produce pseudo-observations for different platform/instrument configurations. The core of this simulator is the KOPRA radiative transfer model, including the KOPRAfit inversion module [2]. Note that to assess the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5570..173M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5570..173M"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES): R series hyperspectral environmental suite (HES) overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, Gene; Criscione, Joseph C.; Cauffman, Sandra A.; Davis, Martin A.</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p> the Implementation Phase scheduled to begin FY05 for a resultant FY12 launch. The magnitude of complexity of the HES development requires an appreciation of the technologies required to achieve the functional objectives. To this end, the GOES-R project team is making available all NASA developed technologies to potential HES vendors, including, the NASA New Millennium Program"s (NMP) Earth Observing-3, <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) instrument developed technologies, as applicable. It is anticipated that the instrument(s) meeting the HES requirements will be either a dispersive spectrometer or an interferometric spectrometer or perhaps a combination. No instrument configuration is preferred or favored by the Government. This paper outlines the HES development plan; including an overview of current requirements, existing partnerships and the GOES-R project methodologies to achieve the advanced functional objectives of the GOES Program partnership.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811216C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811216C"><span>Multi-day convective-environmental evolution prior to tropical cyclone formation from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Minhee; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Park, Myung-Sook</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Tropical cyclones (TCs) are developed through persistent latent heating taken from deep convective process. By analyzing aircraft and polar-orbit satellite observations, distinct upper-level warm-core induced by strong updraft was found in pre-TCs while vertically uniform temperature profile is found in non-developers. Precipitation is also broader and more frequent in developing disturbances than in nondeveloping ones. However, large uncertainties remain in determining which disturbance will develop into TC by using observation snap-shots. Here, five-day systematic evolution of deep convection and environments in developing (80) and non-developing (491) disturbances are examined over the western North Pacific for 20072009 by using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite observation. Daily, positive tendencies in the hourly time series of the area of the MTSAT-1R infrared (IR) and water vapor (WV) brightness temperature difference < 0 are used to define single diurnal convective burst (CB) event. In terms of single CB properties (duration, expanded convective area, maximum convective area, and expanding rate), developing and nondeveloping disturbances shows significantly different mean values in the statistics, but it is not effective to estimate TC genesis. The presence of continuous CB events more than two days (i.e. multi-day CB; mCB), however, is generally found in developing disturbances. Based on the presence and absence mCB in the IR-WV time series, two different evolutions from Day 1 to Day 5 of TC formation (non-development) are explored, in which Day 6 is set to be a TC formation day (Day5 as non-development vortex decaying day). The majority of developing disturbances with mCB (83 %) initially have stronger large-scale vorticity with low-level maxima, tend to have gradually increasing deep convective area and vorticities at low-to-upper troposphere. By contrast, few developing disturbances (17 %) without mCB are pre-conditioned by much weaker large-scale vorticity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec25-260.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec25-260.pdf"><span>47 CFR 25.260 - Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>..., non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service system licensee (“NVNG licensee”) time-sharing spectrum in... spectrum in the 400.15-401 MHz band shall establish a 24-hour per day contact person and telephone number... paragraph (b). The Commission will not hesitate to impose sanctions on a NVNG licensee time-sharing...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec25-260.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec25-260.pdf"><span>47 CFR 25.260 - Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>..., non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service system licensee (“NVNG licensee”) time-sharing spectrum in... spectrum in the 400.15-401 MHz band shall establish a 24-hour per day contact person and telephone number... paragraph (b). The Commission will not hesitate to impose sanctions on a NVNG licensee time-sharing...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec25-260.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec25-260.pdf"><span>47 CFR 25.260 - Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>..., non-<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> mobile-satellite service system licensee (“NVNG licensee”) time-sharing spectrum in... spectrum in the 400.15-401 MHz band shall establish a 24-hour per day contact person and telephone number... paragraph (b). The Commission will not hesitate to impose sanctions on a NVNG licensee time-sharing...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A21D3073C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A21D3073C"><span>High Temperal Resolution AOD Retrieval of Northern China in 2014 Winter Based on <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Remote Sensing Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, X.; Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, H.; Ma, Y.; Li, D.; Lv, Y.; Qie, L.; Zhang, Y.; Li, L.; Liu, Y.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Observations from satellite can provide large region, fast and dynamic monitoring of aerosol properties. Polar Satellites provide once a day of observations at most, which is difficult to monitor aerosol temporal variabilities clearly. Only <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit satellites have the ability to provide both high temporal and spatial resolution observations. The Korea <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) onboard COMs-1 (Communication、Ocean & Meteorological Satellite-1) mainly designed for ocean observation, but it has a good potential for land monitoring. Cross calibration between GOCI and the US Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) can improve the land radiation characteristics of GOCI, which can expand its ability in land observation.Cross calibration results show that the simulated TOA (Top Of Atmosphere) radiance from MODIS and GOCI measured TOA radiance agrees well. The <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit satellite observing characteristics of the nearly constant view geometry and the high temporal resolution were used in aerosol retrieval algorithm. For images of two adjacent time points, the difference of TOA radiance mostly comes from the change caused by aerosol. AOD retrievals were accomplished using a Look-Up Table (LUT) strategy with assumptions of quickly varied aerosol and slowly varied surface with time. The AOD retrieval algorithm calculates AOD by minimizing the surface reflectance variations of series observations in a short period of time, e.g. several days. GOCI data from January 1, 2014 to April 1, 2014 were used to retrieve AOD, when the haze was very heavy. The monitoring of hourly AOD variations were implemented during this period and the retrieved AOD agrees well with AREONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based measurements. The result was also compared with MODIS AOD products. In conclusion, GOCI was calibrated using MODIS data firstly in order to improve the radiation characteristics of land; then, the AOD retrieval algorithm was developed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100020902&hterms=satellite+spot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dsatellite%2Bspot','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100020902&hterms=satellite+spot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dsatellite%2Bspot"><span>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) for the GOES-R Series Next Generation Operational Environmental Satellite Constellation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard; Koshak, William; Petersen, Walter; Carey, Larry; Mach, Douglas; Buechler, Dennis; Bateman, Monte; McCaul, Eugene; Bruning, Eric; Albrecht, Rachel; MacGorman, Donald</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The next generation <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series with a planned launch in 2015 is a follow on to the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. The system will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. The system provides products including lightning, cloud properties, rainfall rate, volcanic ash, air quality, hurricane intensity, and fire/hot spot characterization. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution for the 16-channel Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM), an optical transient detector will map total (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground) lightning flashes continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions, from the west coast of Africa (GOES-E) to New Zealand (GOES-W) when the constellation is fully operational. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the higher level algorithms and applications using the GLM alone and decision aids incorporating information from the ABI, ground-based weather radar, and numerical models. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional lightning networks are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. Real time total lightning mapping data are also being provided in an experimental mode to selected National Weather Service (NWS) national centers and forecast offices via</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160001366','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160001366"><span>On the Feasibility of Monitoring Carbon Monoxide in the Lower Troposphere from a Constellation of Northern Hemisphere <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellites (PART 1)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barre, Jerome; Edwards, David; Worden, Helen; Da Silva, Arlindo; Lahoz, William</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>By the end of the current decade, there are plans to deploy several <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> Earth orbit (GEO) satellite missions for atmospheric composition over North America, East Asia and Europe with additional missions proposed. Together, these present the possibility of a constellation of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platforms to achieve continuous time-resolved high-density observations over continental domains for mapping pollutant sources and variability at diurnal and local scales. In this paper, we use a novel approach to sample a very high global resolution model (GEOS-5 at 7 km horizontal resolution) to produce a dataset of synthetic carbon monoxide pollution observations representative of those potentially obtainable from a GEO satellite constellation with predicted measurement sensitivities based on current remote sensing capabilities. Part 1 of this study focuses on the production of simulated synthetic measurements for air quality OSSEs (Observing System Simulation Experiments). We simulate carbon monoxide nadir retrievals using a technique that provides realistic measurements with very low computational cost. We discuss the sampling methodology: the projection of footprints and areas of regard for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> geometries over each of the North America, East Asia and Europe regions; the regression method to simulate measurement sensitivity; and the measurement error simulation. A detailed analysis of the simulated observation sensitivity is performed, and limitations of the method are discussed. We also describe impacts from clouds, showing that the efficiency of an instrument making atmospheric composition measurements on a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform is dependent on the dominant weather regime over a given region and the pixel size resolution. These results demonstrate the viability of the "instrument simulator" step for an OSSE to assess the performance of a constellation of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites for air quality measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.9801Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.9801Y"><span>Evolution of submesoscale coastal frontal waves in the East China Sea based on <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> ocean color imager observational data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yin, Wenbin; Huang, Daji</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Oceanic frontal waves are frequently observed, but their life cycles are poorly understood because of the lack of time series data. In this study, the data of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> ocean color imager was used to explore the complete evolutionary process of submesoscale frontal waves off the southeast coast of China. Their evolution was analyzed in terms of both wave outline and ridge lines. The process lasted approximately 10 days as the waves propagated southward along the isobaths, accompanied by tidal oscillations. The life cycle comprised three stages: development, maturation, and decay. Scale estimation suggested that the onset of this process is caused by the collective effect of forced motion and unforced instability which is triggered by the passage of a tropical storm. The observed life cycle of frontal waves will provide an empirical basis for future theoretical investigations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SciIn..13a..45K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SciIn..13a..45K"><span>Monitoring of the orbital position of a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite by the spatially separated reception of signals of digital satellite television</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaliuzny, M. P.; Bushuev, F. I.; Sibiriakova, Ye. S.; Shulga, O. V.; Shakun, L. S.; Bezrukovs, V.; Kulishenko, V. F.; Moskalenko, S. S.; Malynovsky, Ye. V.; Balagura, O. A.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The results of the determination of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite "Eutelsat-13B" orbital position obtained during 2015-2016 years using European stations' network for reception of DVB-S signals from the satellite are presented. The network consists of five stations located in Ukraine and Latvia. The stations are equipped with a radio engineering complex developed by the RI "MAO". The measured parameter is a time difference of arrival (TDOA) of the DVB-S signals to the stations of the network. The errors of TDOA determination and satellite coordinates, obtained using a numerical model of satellite motion, are equal ±2.6 m and ±35 m respectively. Software implementation of the numerical model is taken from the free space dynamics library OREKIT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830015779','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830015779"><span>A method for diagnosing surface parameters using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite imagery and a boundary-layer model. M.S. Thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Polansky, A. C.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A method for diagnosing surface parameters on a regional scale via geosynchronous satellite imagery is presented. Moisture availability, thermal inertia, atmospheric heat flux, and total evaporation are determined from three infrared images obtained from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Three GOES images (early morning, midafternoon, and night) are obtained from computer tape. Two temperature-difference images are then created. The boundary-layer model is run, and its output is inverted via cubic regression equations. The satellite imagery is efficiently converted into output-variable fields. All computations are executed on a PDP 11/34 minicomputer. Output fields can be produced within one hour of the availability of aligned satellite subimages of a target area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364954','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364954"><span>ESTIMATE OF SOLAR MAXIMUM USING THE 1-8 Å <span class="hlt">GEOSTATIONARY</span> OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITES X-RAY MEASUREMENTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Winter, L. M.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We present an alternate method of determining the progression of the solar cycle through an analysis of the solar X-ray background. Our results are based on the NOAA <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) X-ray data in the 1-8 Å band from 1986 to the present, covering solar cycles 22, 23, and 24. The X-ray background level tracks the progression of the solar cycle through its maximum and minimum. Using the X-ray data, we can therefore make estimates of the solar cycle progression and the date of solar maximum. Based upon our analysis, we conclude that the Sun reached its hemisphere-averaged maximum in solar cycle 24 in late 2013. This is within six months of the NOAA prediction of a maximum in spring 2013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A21D0081C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A21D0081C"><span>Improvement in AOD retrieval from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> measurement over the ASIA with obtained AOP from DRAGON-2012 campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, M.; KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Lee, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The long-term aerosol monitoring from ground-based sun photometer such as AERONET has variously used to obtain optimized aerosol optical properties (AOPs) for assumed aerosol type and to validate aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from satellite. Additionally, the meso-scale network campaign such as DRAGON ASIA-2012 is suitable to monitor the aerosol characteristic over localized area. Thus, this study focused on the improvement of AOPs over the East Asia by using the DRAGON ASIA-2012 campaign dataset for two <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> AOD retrieval algorithms. The algorithms were developed for <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Meteorological Imager (MI) onboarding the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), which was launched in June, 2010. GOCI has 8 channels in visible and near IR. Using these multi-spectral bands, we retrieved aerosol optical properties such as AOD, fine-mode fraction (FMF), single scattering albedo (SSA) and aerosol type. In this study, we consider dynamic aerosol models categorized by FMF and SSA from East Asia AERONET data including DRAGON campaign data. Using these aerosol data, AOPs are upgraded for LUT calculation and re-retrieved from GOCI. The validation with AERONET shows the improved results after AOP upgrade. On the other hand, a single channel algorithm developed for MI assumed seasonal aerosol property variation due the algorithm has limitation in select aerosol type. The seasonally analyzed SSAs at 675 nm from the AERONET measurement over the East Asia including the campaign data are 0.92, 0.94, 0.92, and 0.91 for spring (MAM), summer (JJA), autumn (SON), and winter (DJF), respectively, and slightly higher then the originally used values. By using those newly analyzed AOP, the comparison result between retrieved AOD and measured value from AERONET shows the increase of correlation coefficient from 0.551 to 0.702 and the increase of regression slope from 0.538 to 0.615 during months from May to Dec. in 2011.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997AcAau..41..847U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997AcAau..41..847U"><span>The development of a Russian communication satellite of small class, operating in the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and high-elliptical orbits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ukhabin, Yu.; Asiushkin, V.; Karutin, N.; Serebrennikov, V.</p> <p></p> <p>In 1994-1995 Lavochkin Association (Russia) together with the other enterprises in accordance with technical requirements of the Russian Space agency, developed a new Russian communication satellite of a small class that will operate in both the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GSO) and high-elliptical (HEO) orbits. This satellite may be injected into operational orbits using a SOYUZ-2 launch vehicle (LV) and a FREGAT upper stage (US) from Plesetsk and Baykonur space launch sites (SLS). The main reason for creating such a satellite was to decrease the cost of the support and development of the Russian communication <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites group. Russian satellites Horizont, Express, Ekran and Gals, which operate in GSO, are the basis of the space segment for communications, radio and TV broadcasting. All of these satellites are injected into GSO by the PROTON LV. PROTON is a launch vehicle of a heavy class. The use of a middle class LV instead of a heavy class will allow to reduce considerably the launch cost. The change of a heavy class LV to a LV of middle class determined one economic reason for this project. Besides, the opportunity to launch S/C into GSO from Russian Plesetsk SLS increases the independence of Russia in the domain of space communications, despite the presence of the contract with Kazachstan about the rent of Baykonur SLS. Finally, use of small satellites with a rather small number of transponders is more effective than the use of big satellites. It will allow also to increase a satellite group (by the launch of additional satellites) precisely in accordance to the development of the ground segment.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.6374M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.6374M"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite observations and the development of a 1-2 h prediction model for future storm intensity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mecikalski, John R.; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Manzato, Agostino</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>A study was conducted to gain insights into the use of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite-based indicators for characterizing and identifying growing cumulus clouds that evolve into severe weather producing convective storms. Eleven convective initiation (CI), 41 cloud top temperature-effective radius (T-re), and 9 additional fields were formed for 340 growing cumulus clouds that were manually tracked for 2 h and checked for association with severe weather to 2-3 h into the future. The <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite data were at 5 min resolution from Meteosat-8 on six convectively active days in 2010, 2012, and 2013. The study's goals were to determine which satellite fields are useful to forecasting severe storms and to form a simple model for predicting future storm intensity. The CI fields were applied on 3 × 3 pixel regions, and the T-re fields were analyzed on 9 × 9 and 51 × 51 pixel domains (needed when forming T-re vertical profiles). Of the 340 growing cumulus clouds examined, 34 were later associated with severe weather (using European Severe Weather Database reports), with the remaining being nonsevere storms. Using a multivariate analysis, transforming predictors into their empirical posterior probability, and maximizing the Peirce skill score, the best predictors were T1451 (51 × 51 pixel T, where re exceeds 14 µm), TG9 (9 × 9 pixel glaciation T surrounding a growing cloud), and ReBRTG51 (51 × 51 pixel re at the breakpoint T in the T-re profile). Rapid cloud growth prior to severe storm formation leads to delayed particle growth, colder temperatures of the first 14 µm particles, and lower TG values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080048262','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080048262"><span>Radiometric Modeling and Calibration of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS)Ground Based Measurement Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere s thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The GIFTS calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts, therefore, enhancing the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is applied to data collected during the GIFTS Ground Based Measurement (GBM) experiment, together with simultaneous observations by the accurately calibrated AERI (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer), both simultaneously zenith viewing the sky through the same external scene mirror at ten-minute intervals throughout a cloudless day at Logan Utah on September 13, 2006. The accurately calibrated GIFTS radiances are produced using the first four PC scores in the GIFTS-AERI regression model. Temperature and moisture profiles retrieved from the PC-calibrated GIFTS radiances are verified against radiosonde measurements collected throughout the GIFTS sky measurement period. Using the GIFTS GBM calibration model, we compute the calibrated radiances from data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100004877&hterms=lighting&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dlighting','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100004877&hterms=lighting&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dlighting"><span>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lighting Mapper (GLM) for GOES-R: A New Operational Capability to Improve Storm Forecasts and Warnings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, R.; Koshak, William J.; Petersen, W. A.; Carey, L.; Mah, D.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The next generation <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series is a follow on to the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved spectral (3x), spatial (4x), and temporal (5x) resolution for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM, an optical transient detector and imager operating in the near-IR at 777.4 nm will map all (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground) lighting flashes continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions, from the west coast of Africa (GOES-E) to New Zealand (GOES-W) when the constellation is fully operational. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development (a prototype and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms and applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. Real time lightning mapping data are being provided in an experimental mode to selected National Weather Service (NWS) national centers and forecast offices via the GOES-R Proving Ground to help improve our understanding of the application of these data in operational settings and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B33C0190Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B33C0190Y"><span>The estimation of rice paddy yield with GRAMI crop model and <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) image over South Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yeom, J. M.; Kim, H. O.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In this study, we estimated the rice paddy yield with moderate <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite based vegetation products and GRAMI model over South Korea. Rice is the most popular staple food for Asian people. In addition, the effects of climate change are getting stronger especially in Asian region, where the most of rice are cultivated. Therefore, accurate and timely prediction of rice yield is one of the most important to accomplish food security and to prepare natural disasters such as crop defoliation, drought, and pest infestation. In the present study, GOCI, which is world first <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Image, was used for estimating temporal vegetation indices of the rice paddy by adopting atmospheric correction BRDF modeling. For the atmospheric correction with LUT method based on Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S), MODIS atmospheric products such as MOD04, MOD05, MOD07 from NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) were used. In order to correct the surface anisotropy effect, Ross-Thick Li-Sparse Reciprocal (RTLSR) BRDF model was performed at daily basis with 16day composite period. The estimated multi-temporal vegetation images was used for crop classification by using high resolution satellite images such as Rapideye, KOMPSAT-2 and KOMPSAT-3 to extract the proportional rice paddy area in corresponding a pixel of GOCI. In the case of GRAMI crop model, initial conditions are determined by performing every 2 weeks field works at Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea. The corrected GOCI vegetation products were incorporated with GRAMI model to predict rice yield estimation. The predicted rice yield was compared with field measurement of rice yield.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19654812','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19654812"><span>Mapping total suspended matter from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites: a feasibility study with SEVIRI in the Southern North Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neukermans, Griet; Ruddick, Kevin; Bernard, Emilien; Ramon, Didier; Nechad, Bouchra; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves</p> <p>2009-08-03</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> ocean colour sensors have not yet been launched into space, but are under consideration by a number of space agencies. This study provides a proof of concept for mapping of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) in turbid coastal waters from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platforms with the existing SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) meteorological sensor on the METEOSAT Second Generation platform. Data are available in near real time every 15 minutes. SEVIRI lacks sufficient bands for chlorophyll remote sensing but its spectral resolution is sufficient for quantification of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) in turbid waters, using a single broad red band, combined with a suitable near infrared band. A test data set for mapping of TSM in the Southern North Sea was obtained covering 35 consecutive days from June 28 until July 31 2006. Atmospheric correction of SEVIRI images includes corrections for Rayleigh and aerosol scattering, absorption by atmospheric gases and atmospheric transmittances. The aerosol correction uses assumptions on the ratio of marine reflectances and aerosol reflectances in the red and near-infrared bands. A single band TSM retrieval algorithm, calibrated by non-linear regression of seaborne measurements of TSM and marine reflectance was applied. The effect of the above assumptions on the uncertainty of the marine reflectance and TSM products was analysed. Results show that (1) mapping of TSM in the Southern North Sea is feasible with SEVIRI for turbid waters, though with considerable uncertainties in clearer waters, (2) TSM maps are well correlated with TSM maps obtained from MODIS AQUA and (3) during cloud-free days, high frequency dynamics of TSM are detected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27960090','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27960090"><span>Critical Role of the CXCL10/C-X-C Chemokine Receptor <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">Axis</span> in Promoting Leukocyte Recruitment and Neuronal Injury during Traumatic Optic Neuropathy Induced by Optic Nerve Crush.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ha, Yonju; Liu, Hua; Zhu, Shuang; Yi, Panpan; Liu, Wei; Nathanson, Jared; Kayed, Rakez; Loucas, Bradford; Sun, Jiaren; Frishman, Laura J; Motamedi, Massoud; Zhang, Wenbo</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is an acute injury of the optic nerve secondary to trauma. Loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is a key pathological process in TON, yet mechanisms responsible for RGC death remain unclear. In a mouse model of TON, real-time noninvasive imaging revealed a dramatic increase in leukocyte rolling and adhesion in veins near the optic nerve (ON) head at 9 hours after ON injury. Although RGC dysfunction and loss were not detected at 24 hours after injury, massive leukocyte infiltration was observed in the superficial retina. These cells were identified as T cells, microglia/monocytes, and neutrophils but not B cells. CXCL10 is a chemokine that recruits leukocytes after binding to its receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor (CXCR) 3. The levels of CXCL10 and CXCR3 were markedly elevated in TON, and up-regulation of CXCL10 was mediated by STAT1/3. Deleting CXCR3 in leukocytes significantly reduced leukocyte recruitment, and prevented RGC death at 7 days after ON injury. Treatment with CXCR3 antagonist attenuated TON-induced RGC dysfunction and cell loss. In vitro co-culture of primary RGCs with leukocytes resulted in increased RGC apoptosis, which was exaggerated in the presence of CXCL10. These results indicate that leukocyte recruitment in retinal vessels near the ON head is an early event in TON and the CXCL10/CXCR<span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">axis</span> has a critical role in recruiting leukocytes and inducing RGC death.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3916529','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3916529"><span>Glucocorticoids Recruit Tgfbr3 and Smad1 to Shift Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling from the Tgfbr1/Smad2/<span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">Axis</span> to the Acvrl1/Smad1 Axis in Lung Fibroblasts*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schwartze, Julian T.; Becker, Simone; Sakkas, Elpidoforos; Wujak, Łukasz A.; Niess, Gero; Usemann, Jakob; Reichenberger, Frank; Herold, Susanne; Vadász, István; Mayer, Konstantin; Seeger, Werner; Morty, Rory E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Glucocorticoids represent the mainstay therapy for many lung diseases, providing outstanding management of asthma but performing surprisingly poorly in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung fibrosis, and blunted lung development associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. TGF-β is a pathogenic mediator of all four of these diseases, prompting us to explore glucocorticoid/TGF-β signaling cross-talk. Glucocorticoids, including dexamethasone, methylprednisolone, budesonide, and fluticasone, potentiated TGF-β signaling by the Acvrl1/Smad1/5/8 signaling axis and blunted signaling by the Tgfbr1/Smad2/<span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">axis</span> in NIH/3T3 cells, as well as primary lung fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. Dexamethasone drove expression of the accessory type III TGF-β receptor Tgfbr3, also called betaglycan. Tgfbr3 was demonstrated to be a “switch” that blunted Tgfbr1/Smad2/3 and potentiated Acvrl1/Smad1 signaling in lung fibroblasts. The Acvrl1/Smad1 axis, which was stimulated by dexamethasone, was active in lung fibroblasts and antagonized Tgfbr1/Smad2/3 signaling. Dexamethasone acted synergistically with TGF-β to drive differentiation of primary lung fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, revealed by acquisition of smooth muscle actin and smooth muscle myosin, which are exclusively Smad1-dependent processes in fibroblasts. Administration of dexamethasone to live mice recapitulated these observations and revealed a lung-specific impact of dexamethasone on lung Tgfbr3 expression and phospho-Smad1 levels in vivo. These data point to an interesting and hitherto unknown impact of glucocorticoids on TGF-β signaling in lung fibroblasts and other constituent cell types of the lung that may be relevant to lung physiology, as well as lung pathophysiology, in terms of drug/disease interactions. PMID:24347165</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080023315','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080023315"><span>Potential Use of a Bayesian Network for Discriminating Flash Type from Future GOES-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Solakiewiz, Richard; Koshak, William</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Continuous monitoring of the ratio of cloud flashes to ground flashes may provide a better understanding of thunderstorm dynamics, intensification, and evolution, and it may be useful in severe weather warning. The National Lighting Detection Network TM (NLDN) senses ground flashes with exceptional detection efficiency and accuracy over most of the continental United States. A proposed <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) aboard the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) will look at the western hemisphere, and among the lightning data products to be made available will be the fundamental optical flash parameters for both cloud and ground flashes: radiance, area, duration, number of optical groups, and number of optical events. Previous studies have demonstrated that the optical flash parameter statistics of ground and cloud lightning, which are observable from space, are significantly different. This study investigates a Bayesian network methodology for discriminating lightning flash type (ground or cloud) using the lightning optical data and ancillary GOES-R data. A Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) is set up with lightning as a "root" and data observed by GLM as the "leaves." This allows for a direct calculation of the joint probability distribution function for the lighting type and radiance, area, etc. Initially, the conditional probabilities that will be required can be estimated from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) together with NLDN data. Directly manipulating the joint distribution will yield the conditional probability that a lightning flash is a ground flash given the evidence, which consists of the observed lightning optical data [and possibly cloud data retrieved from the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) in a more mature Bayesian network configuration]. Later, actual GLM and NLDN data can be used to refine the estimates of the conditional probabilities used in the model; i.e., the Bayesian</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960008489','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960008489"><span>Implementation of a state of the art automated system for the production of cloud/water vapor motion winds from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Velden, Christopher</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The research objectives in this proposal were part of a continuing program at UW-CIMSS to develop and refine an automated <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite winds processing system which can be utilized in both research and operational environments. The majority of the originally proposed tasks were successfully accomplished, and in some cases the progress exceeded the original goals. Much of the research and development supported by this grant resulted in upgrades and modifications to the existing automated satellite winds tracking algorithm. These modifications were put to the test through case study demonstrations and numerical model impact studies. After being successfully demonstrated, the modifications and upgrades were implemented into the NESDIS algorithms in Washington DC, and have become part of the operational support. A major focus of the research supported under this grant attended to the continued development of water vapor tracked winds from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> observations. The fully automated UW-CIMSS tracking algorithm has been tuned to provide complete upper-tropospheric coverage from this data source, with data set quality close to that of operational cloud motion winds. Multispectral water vapor observations were collected and processed from several different <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites. The tracking and quality control algorithms were tuned and refined based on ground-truth comparisons and case studies involving impact on numerical model analyses and forecasts. The results have shown the water vapor motion winds are of good quality, complement the cloud motion wind data, and can have a positive impact in NWP on many meteorological scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009991','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009991"><span>The United States' Next Generation of Atmospheric Composition and Coastal Ecosystem Measurements: NASA's <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fishman, J.; Iraci, Laura T.; Al-Saddi, J.; Chance, K.; Chavez, F.; Chin, M.; Coble, P.; Davis, C.; DiGiacomo, P. M.; Edwards, D.; Eldering, A.; Goes, J.; Herman, J.; Hu, C.; Jacob, D. J.; Jordan, C.; Kawa, S. R.; Key, R.; Liu, X.; Lohrenz, S.; Mannino, A.; Natraj, V.; Neil, D.; Neu, J.; Newchurch, M.; Pickering, K.; Salisbury, J.; Sosik, H.; Subramaniam, A.; Tzortziou, M; Wang, J.; Wang, M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission was recommended by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Earth Science Decadal Survey to measure tropospheric trace gases and aerosols and coastal ocean phytoplankton, water quality, and biogeochemistry from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit, providing continuous observations within the field of view. To fulfill the mandate and address the challenge put forth by the NRC, two GEO-CAPE Science Working Groups (SWGs), representing the atmospheric composition and ocean color disciplines, have developed realistic science objectives using input drawn from several community workshops. The GEO-CAPE mission will take advantage of this revolutionary advance in temporal frequency for both of these disciplines. Multiple observations per day are required to explore the physical, chemical, and dynamical processes that determine tropospheric composition and air quality over spatial scales ranging from urban to continental, and over temporal scales ranging from diurnal to seasonal. Likewise, high-frequency satellite observations are critical to studying and quantifying biological, chemical, and physical processes within the coastal ocean. These observations are to be achieved from a vantage point near 95deg-100degW, providing a complete view of North America as well as the adjacent oceans. The SWGs have also endorsed the concept of phased implementation using commercial satellites to reduce mission risk and cost. GEO-CAPE will join the global constellation of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> atmospheric chemistry and coastal ocean color sensors planned to be in orbit in the 2020 time frame.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014298','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014298"><span>Analysing the Advantages of High Temporal Resolution <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> MSG SEVIRI Data Compared to Polar Operational Environmental Satellite Data for Land Surface Monitoring in Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fensholt, R.; Anyamba, A.; Huber, S.; Proud, S. R.; Tucker, C. J.; Small, J.; Pak, E.; Rasmussen, M. O.; Sandholt, I.; Shisanya, C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Since 1972, satellite remote sensing of the environment has been dominated by polar-orbiting sensors providing useful data for monitoring the earth s natural resources. However their observation and monitoring capacity are inhibited by daily to monthly looks for any given ground surface which often is obscured by frequent and persistent cloud cover creating large gaps in time series measurements. The launch of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite into <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit has opened new opportunities for land surface monitoring. The Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) instrument on-board MSG with an imaging capability every 15 minutes which is substantially greater than any temporal resolution that can be obtained from existing polar operational environmental satellites (POES) systems currently in use for environmental monitoring. Different areas of the African continent were affected by droughts and floods in 2008 caused by periods of abnormally low and high rainfall, respectively. Based on the effectiveness of monitoring these events from Earth Observation (EO) data the current analyses show that the new generation of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> remote sensing data can provide higher temporal resolution cloud-free (less than 5 days) measurements of the environment as compared to existing POES systems. SEVIRI MSG 5-day continental scale composites will enable rapid assessment of environmental conditions and improved early warning of disasters for the African continent such as flooding or droughts. The high temporal resolution <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> data will complement existing higher spatial resolution polar-orbiting satellite data for various dynamic environmental and natural resource applications of terrestrial ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820026628&hterms=Radiation+Belts&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DRadiation%2BBelts','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820026628&hterms=Radiation+Belts&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DRadiation%2BBelts"><span>Dynamics of the outer radiation belts in relation to polar substorms and hot plasma injections at <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> altitude</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sauvaud, J. A.; Winckler, J. R.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> satellite and ground measurements of dynamic variations of the outer radiation belts and their relations with the development of auroral structures during magnetospheric substorms are analyzed. A comparison of measurements of the H or X geomagnetic field components made by seven auroral stations with ATS-6 low-energy and high-energy particle measurements during the multiple-onset substorm of Aug. 16, 1974 is presented which demonstrates that while the decrease in energetic particle fluxed ends only at the time of a strong substorm onset, rapid motions of the outer radiation belts may occur during the flux decrease. All-sky photographs of auroral phenomena taken at Fort Yukon and College, Alaska are then compared with ATS-1 energetic particle flux measurements in order to demonstrate the relation between flux decreases and increases and distinct substorm phases. Results support the hypothesis of a magnetospheric substorm precursor which appears to be an instability growing at the inner boundary of the plasma layer and approaching the earth, and underline the importance of current and magnetic field variations in charged particle dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.4891..144L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.4891..144L"><span>Boundary layer moisture retrieval from Indian Ocean METOC Imaging (IOMI) mission for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (GIFTS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Jun; Huang, Hung-Lung</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The Navy Indian Ocean METOC Imaging (IOMI) mission for the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) will begin in early 2006 for a period of five years. The IOMI-GIFTS will measure Earth's outgoing infrared radiation with spatial (~4 km), temporal (~half hour), and spectral (~0.625 cm-1) resolutions and spectral coverages from longwave (LW, 685 - 1150 cm-1) for temperature profiles and short midwave (SMW, 1650 - 2250 cm-1) for moisture profiles. Retrieval of boundary layer moisture from IOMI-GIFTS with high vertical resolution and accuracy, is a special interest of the Navy, can provide water vapor wind information over the ocean. The characteristics of boundary layer moisture retrievals from IOMI-GIFTS are demonstrated. Both theoretical analysis and a simulation study with a GIFTS forward model developed at UW-Madison show that the contrast between surface air temperature and surface skin temperature has significant impact on the accuracy of boundary layer moisture retrievals. A large contrast (> 5 K) will result in noticeable boundary layer moisture improvement over that with less contrast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAnIII7....3M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAnIII7....3M"><span>Bidirectional Reflectance Modeling of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Sensor HIMAWARI-8/AHI Using a Kernel-Driven BRDF Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsuoka, M.; Takagi, M.; Akatsuka, S.; Honda, R.; Nonomura, A.; Moriya, H.; Yoshioka, H.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Himawari-8/AHI is a new <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> sensor that can observe the land surface with high temporal frequency. Bidirectional reflectance derived by the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) includes information regarding land surface properties such as albedo, vegetation condition, and forest structure. This information can be extracted by modeling bidirectional reflectance using a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). In this study, a kernel-driven BRDF model was applied to the red and near infrared reflectance observed over 8 hours during daytime to express intraday changes in reflectance. We compared the goodness of fit for six combinations of model kernels. The Ross-Thin and Ross-Thick kernels were selected as the best volume kernels for the red and near infrared bands, respectively. For the geometric kernel, the Li-sparse-Reciprocal and Li-Dense kernels displayed similar goodness of fit. The coefficient of determination and regression residuals showed a strong dependency on the azimuth angle of land surface slopes and the time of day that observations were made. Atmospheric correction and model adjustment of the terrain were the main issues encountered. These results will help to improve the BRDF model and to extract surface properties from bidirectional reflectance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMTD....7.1645H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMTD....7.1645H"><span>The added value of a visible channel to a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> thermal infrared instrument to monitor ozone for air quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hache, E.; Attié, J.-L.; Tourneur, C.; Ricaud, P.; Coret, L.; Lahoz, W. A.; El Amraoui, L.; Josse, B.; Hamer, P.; Warner, J.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Höpfner, M.; Spurr, R.; Natraj, V.; Kulawik, S.; Eldering, A.; Orphal, J.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Ozone is a tropospheric pollutant and plays a key role in determining the air quality that affects human wellbeing. In this study, we compare the capability of two hypothetical grating spectrometers onboard a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) satellite to sense ozone in the lowermost troposphere (surface and the 0-1 km column). We consider one week during the Northern Hemisphere summer simulated by a chemical transport model, and use the two GEO instrument configurations to measure ozone concentration (1) in the thermal infrared (GEO TIR) and (2) in the thermal infrared and the visible (GEO TIR+VIS). These configurations are compared against each other, and also against an ozone reference state and a priori ozone information. In a first approximation, we assume clear sky conditions neglecting the influence of aerosols and clouds. A number of statistical tests are used to assess the performance of the two GEO configurations. We consider land and sea pixels and whether differences between the two in the performance are significant. Results show that the GEO TIR+VIS configuration provides a better representation of the ozone field both for surface ozone and the 0-1 km ozone column during the daytime especially over land.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMT.....7.2185H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMT.....7.2185H"><span>The added value of a visible channel to a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> thermal infrared instrument to monitor ozone for air quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hache, E.; Attié, J.-L.; Tourneur, C.; Ricaud, P.; Coret, L.; Lahoz, W. A.; El Amraoui, L.; Josse, B.; Hamer, P.; Warner, J.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Höpfner, M.; Spurr, R.; Natraj, V.; Kulawik, S.; Eldering, A.; Orphal, J.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Ozone is a tropospheric pollutant and plays a key role in determining the air quality that affects human wellbeing. In this study, we compare the capability of two hypothetical grating spectrometers onboard a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) satellite to sense ozone in the lowermost troposphere (surface and the 0-1 km column). We consider 1 week during the Northern Hemisphere summer simulated by a chemical transport model, and use the two GEO instrument configurations to measure ozone concentration (1) in the thermal infrared (GEO TIR) and (2) in the thermal infrared and the visible (GEO TIR+VIS). These configurations are compared against each other, and also against an ozone reference state and a priori ozone information. In a first approximation, we assume clear sky conditions neglecting the influence of aerosols and clouds. A number of statistical tests are used to assess the performance of the two GEO configurations. We consider land and sea pixels and whether differences between the two in the performance are significant. Results show that the GEO TIR+VIS configuration provides a better representation of the ozone field both for surface ozone and the 0-1 km ozone column during the daytime especially over land.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010021327&hterms=Data+Base+Technique&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DData%2BBase%2BTechnique','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010021327&hterms=Data+Base+Technique&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DData%2BBase%2BTechnique"><span>Use of <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Data to Force Land Surface Schemes within Atmospheric Mesoscale Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lapenta, William M.; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard T.; Jedlovec, Gary; Dembek, Scott R.; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite-observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface <span class="hlt">stability</span> problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The technique has been employed on a semi-operational basis at the GHCC within the PSU/NCAR MM5. Assimilation has been performed on a grid centered over the Southeastern US since November 1998. Results from the past year show that assimilation of the satellite data reduces both the bias and RMSE for simulations of surface air temperature and relative humidity. These findings are based on comparison of assimilation runs with a control using the simple 5-layer soil model available in MM5. A significant development in the past several months was the inclusion of the detailed Oregon State University land surface model (OSU/LSM) as an option within MM5. One of our working hypotheses has been that the assimilation technique, although simple, may provide better short-term forecasts than a detailed LSM that requires significant number initialized parameters. Preliminary results indicate that the assimilation out performs the OSU</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003989','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003989"><span>Evaluation of NASA SPoRT's Pseudo-<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper Products in the 2011 Spring Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stano, Geoffrey T.; Carcione, Brian; Siewert, Christopher; Kuhlman, Kristin M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program is a contributing partner with the GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) preparing forecasters to understand and utilize the unique products that will be available in the GOES-R era. This presentation emphasizes SPoRT s actions to prepare the end user community for the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM). This preparation is a collaborative effort with SPoRT's National Weather Service partners, the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL), and the Hazardous Weather Testbed s Spring Program. SPoRT continues to use its effective paradigm of matching capabilities to forecast problems through collaborations with our end users and working with the developers at NSSL to create effective evaluations and visualizations. Furthermore, SPoRT continues to develop software plug-ins so that these products will be available to forecasters in their own decision support system, AWIPS and eventually AWIPS II. In 2009, the SPoRT program developed the original pseudo <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> lightning mapper (PGLM) flash extent product to demonstrate what forecasters may see with GLM. The PGLM replaced the previous GLM product and serves as a stepping-stone until the AWG s official GLM proxy is ready. The PGLM algorithm is simple and can be applied to any ground-based total lightning network. For 2011, the PGLM used observations from four ground-based networks (North Alabama, Kennedy Space Center, Oklahoma, and Washington D.C.). While the PGLM is not a true proxy product, it is intended as a tool to train forecasters about total lightning as well as foster discussions on product visualizations and incorporating GLM-resolution data into forecast operations. The PGLM has been used in 2010 and 2011 and is likely to remain the primary lightning training tool for the GOES-R program for the near future. This presentation will emphasize the feedback received during the 2011 Spring Program. This will discuss several topics. Based on feedback</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9881E..19D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9881E..19D"><span>Image navigation and registration performance assessment tool set for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager and <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Luccia, Frank J.; Houchin, Scott; Porter, Brian C.; Graybill, Justin; Haas, Evan; Johnson, Patrick D.; Isaacson, Peter J.; Reth, Alan D.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The GOES-R Flight Project has developed an Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for measuring Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) INR performance metrics in the post-launch period for performance evaluation and long term monitoring. For ABI, these metrics are the 3-sigma errors in navigation (NAV), channel-to-channel registration (CCR), frame-to-frame registration (FFR), swath-to-swath registration (SSR), and within frame registration (WIFR) for the Level 1B image products. For GLM, the single metric of interest is the 3-sigma error in the navigation of background images (GLM NAV) used by the system to navigate lightning strikes. 3-sigma errors are estimates of the 99. 73rd percentile of the errors accumulated over a 24 hour data collection period. IPATS utilizes a modular algorithmic design to allow user selection of data processing sequences optimized for generation of each INR metric. This novel modular approach minimizes duplication of common processing elements, thereby maximizing code efficiency and speed. Fast processing is essential given the large number of sub-image registrations required to generate INR metrics for the many images produced over a 24 hour evaluation period. Another aspect of the IPATS design that vastly reduces execution time is the off-line propagation of Landsat based truth images to the fixed grid coordinates system for each of the three GOES-R satellite locations, operational East and West and initial checkout locations. This paper describes the algorithmic design and implementation of IPATS and provides preliminary test results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ECSS..180..230L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ECSS..180..230L"><span>Analysis of ocean diurnal variations from the Korean <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager measurements using the DINEOF method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Menghua</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>High-frequency images of the water diffuse attenuation coefficient at the wavelength of 490 nm (Kd(490)) derived from the Korean <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) provide a unique opportunity to study diurnal variation of water turbidity in coastal regions of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea. However, there are many missing pixels in the original GOCI-derived Kd(490) images due to clouds and various other reasons. Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Function (DINEOF) is a method to reconstruct missing data in geophysical datasets based on the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF). It utilizes both temporal and spatial coherencies of data to infer a solution at the missing locations. In this study, the DINEOF is applied to GOCI-derived Kd(490) data in the Yangtze River mouth and the Yellow River mouth regions, and the DINEOF reconstructed Kd(490) data are used to fill in the missing pixels. In fact, DINEOF has been used to fill in gaps in ocean color chlorophyll-a and turbidity data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) in previous studies. Our GOCI validation results show that the bias between the reconstructed data and the original Kd(490) value is quite small (<∼5%). The standard deviation of the reconstructed/original ratio is ∼0.25 and ∼0.30 for the mouths in the Yangtze River and Yellow River, respectively. In addition, GOCI high temporal resolution measurements in Kd(490) can capture sub-diurnal variation due to the tidal forcing. The spatial patterns and temporal functions of the first three EOF modes are also examined. The first EOF mode characterizes the general mean spatial distribution of the region, while the second and third EOF modes represent the variations due to the tidal forcing in the region.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/171731','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/171731"><span>Monthly mean large-scale analyses of upper-tropospheric humidity and wind field divergence derived from three <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schmetz, J.; Menzel, W.P.; Hayden, C.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>This paper describes the results from a collaborative study between the European Space Operations Center, the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Cooperative Institute for Meterological Satellite Studies investigating the relationship between satellite-derived monthly mean fields of wind and humidity in the upper troposphere for March 1994. Three <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellites GOES-7, Meteosat-3, and Meteosat-5 are used to cover an area from roughly 160{degrees}W to 50{degrees}E. The wind fields are derived from tracking features in successive images of upper-tropospheric water vapor (WV) as depicted in the 6.5-{mu} absorption band. The upper-tropospheric relative humidity (UTH) is inferred from measured water vapor radiances with a physical retrieval scheme based on radiative forward calculations. Quantitative information on large-scale circulation patterns in the upper troposphere is possible with the dense spatial coverage of the WV wind vectors. The monthly mean wind field is used to estimate the large-scale divergence; values range between about -5 x 10{sup -6} and 5 x 10{sup -6} sec{sup -1} when averaged over a scale length of about 1000-2000 km. The spatial patterns of the UTH field and the divergence of the wind field closely resemble one another, suggesting that UTH patterns are principally determined by the large-scale circulation. Since the upper-tropospheric humidity absorbs upwelling radiation from lower-tropospheric levels and therefore contributes significantly to the atmospheric greenhouse effect, this work implies that studies on the climate relevance of water vapor should include three-dimensional modeling of the atmospheric dynamics. The fields of UTH and WV winds are useful parameters for a climate-monitoring system based on satellite data. 21 refs., 5 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.1635C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.1635C"><span>Multiday evolution of convective bursts during western North Pacific tropical cyclone development and nondevelopment using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Minhee; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jinwon; Ahn, Myoung-Hwan</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Tropical cyclones (TCs) develop through latent heating from a series of deep convection. To investigate the evolution of diurnal convective burst (CB) activities prior to TC formation, we analyzed 463 tropical disturbances that developed (80) or not developed (383) into TCs over the western North Pacific during the 2007-2009 period. <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> satellite data allowed defining deep convection where infrared (IR) brightness temperature is lower than that of water vapor (WV). Diurnal expansions from time series of IR minus WV < 0 areas near disturbance vortex centers for 5 days are defined as CB events. Combined analysis with the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis shows that the multiday convective-environmental evolution for TC formation is entirely different from nonformation processes in terms of the occurrence of two consecutive diurnal CB events. Multiday CBs (mCB) are observed in 67.5% of the 80 TC formation cases and in 13.8% of the 383 nonformation cases. Intensities of the middle-to-low tropospheric relative vorticity of these two groups are comparable on 4 to 5 days prior to TC formation. However, vorticity intensification is weak for nondeveloping disturbances in environments of strong vertical wind shear; these disturbances eventually decay. The vorticity of developing disturbances continuously intensifies to TC strengths. The remaining 32.5% of the TC cases without mCB show weaker initial vorticity, but rapid intensification over 3 day periods before TC formation. The present results reveal that mCB is a common feature in pre-TC stages, and large-scale environments of weak vertical wind shear are critical for the formation of TC-strength circulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004683','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004683"><span>Image Navigation and Registration Performance Assessment Tool Set for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager and <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>De Luccia, Frank J.; Houchin, Scott; Porter, Brian C.; Graybill, Justin; Haas, Evan; Johnson, Patrick D.; Isaacson, Peter J.; Reth, Alan D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The GOES-R Flight Project has developed an Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for measuring Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) INR performance metrics in the post-launch period for performance evaluation and long term monitoring. For ABI, these metrics are the 3-sigma errors in navigation (NAV), channel-to-channel registration (CCR), frame-to-frame registration (FFR), swath-to-swath registration (SSR), and within frame registration (WIFR) for the Level 1B image products. For GLM, the single metric of interest is the 3-sigma error in the navigation of background images (GLM NAV) used by the system to navigate lightning strikes. 3-sigma errors are estimates of the 99.73rd percentile of the errors accumulated over a 24-hour data collection period. IPATS utilizes a modular algorithmic design to allow user selection of data processing sequences optimized for generation of each INR metric. This novel modular approach minimizes duplication of common processing elements, thereby maximizing code efficiency and speed. Fast processing is essential given the large number of sub-image registrations required to generate INR metrics for the many images produced over a 24-hour evaluation period. Another aspect of the IPATS design that vastly reduces execution time is the off-line propagation of Landsat based truth images to the fixed grid coordinates system for each of the three GOES-R satellite locations, operational East and West and initial checkout locations. This paper describes the algorithmic design and implementation of IPATS and provides preliminary test results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.452.2185C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.452.2185C"><span>Long-term analysis of clear sky at astronomical sites: a comparison between polar and <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cavazzani, S.; Zitelli, V.; Ortolani, S.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>In this paper, we analyse three sites of great astronomical importance: Mt Graham, Paranal and La Silla. In recent years, with the development of new telescopes, the study of cloud cover is getting more and more important for the selection of new sites as well as for the development of existing telescopes. At the moment there is discussion on the techniques used to study climatic conditions. We have mainly two large data sets: satellite data and ground data. The two sets have advantages and disadvantages. We study in detail the various data available and we compare these data and analyse the correlations between them. In particular, we focus on the long-term statistics for the trends in climate change. We use two satellites: GOES (<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite) and Aqua. In particular, we use the GOES camera data and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data, which is a key instrument aboard the Aqua satellite. Finally, we use the heliograph ground data of the Columbine weather station to validate the two families of satellite data. The use of such data allows a mutual validation of the results, which allows the analysis to be extended to other sites. We obtained a mean night cloud cover for the 10 yr analysed (2003-2012) of 12 per cent at Paranal, 22 per cent at La Silla and 37 per cent at Mt Graham. We also get a punctual correlation of 96 per cent between the two satellites and of 92 per cent between the satellite and the heliograph data at Mt Graham for 2009.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160009171','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160009171"><span>Validation of Cloud Parameters Derived from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellites, AVHRR, MODIS, and VIIRS Using SatCORPS Algorithms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Bedka, K. M.; Yost, C. R.; Trepte, Q. Z.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Painemal, D.; Chen, Y.; Palikonda, R.; Dong, X.; Xi, B.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Validation is a key component of remote sensing that can take many different forms. The NASA LaRC Satellite ClOud and Radiative Property retrieval System (SatCORPS) is applied to many different imager datasets including those from the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites, Meteosat, Himiwari-8, INSAT-3D, GOES, and MTSAT, as well as from the low-Earth orbiting satellite imagers, MODIS, AVHRR, and VIIRS. While each of these imagers have similar sets of channels with wavelengths near 0.65, 3.7, 11, and 12 micrometers, many differences among them can lead to discrepancies in the retrievals. These differences include spatial resolution, spectral response functions, viewing conditions, and calibrations, among others. Even when analyzed with nearly identical algorithms, it is necessary, because of those discrepancies, to validate the results from each imager separately in order to assess the uncertainties in the individual parameters. This paper presents comparisons of various SatCORPS-retrieved cloud parameters with independent measurements and retrievals from a variety of instruments. These include surface and space-based lidar and radar data from CALIPSO and CloudSat, respectively, to assess the cloud fraction, height, base, optical depth, and ice water path; satellite and surface microwave radiometers to evaluate cloud liquid water path; surface-based radiometers to evaluate optical depth and effective particle size; and airborne in-situ data to evaluate ice water content, effective particle size, and other parameters. The results of comparisons are compared and contrasted and the factors influencing the differences are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC54B..06T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC54B..06T"><span>Quasi-real-time monitoring of SW radiation budget using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite for Climate study and Renewable energy. (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takenaka, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Kuze, H.; Takamura, T.; Pinker, R. T.; Nakajima, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Solar radiation is the only source of energy that drives the weather and climate of the Earth's surface. Earth is warmed by incoming solar radiation, and emitted energy to space by terrestrial radiation due to its temperature. It has been kept to the organisms viable environment by the effect of heating and cooling. Clouds can cool the Earth by reflecting solar radiation and also can keep the Earth warm by absorbing and emitting terrestrial radiation. They are important in the energy balance at the Earth surface and the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) and are connected complicatedly into the Earth system as well as other climate feedback processes. Thus it is important to estimate Earth's radiation budget for better understanding of climate and environmental change. We have shared several topics related to climate change. Energy issues close to the climate change, it is an environmental problems. Photovoltaics is one of the power generation method to converts from solar radiation to electric power directly. It does not emit greenhouse gases during power generation. Similarly, drainage, exhaust, vibration does not emit. PV system can be distributed as a small power supply in urban areas and it can installed to near the power demand points. Also solar thermal is heat generator with high efficiency. Therefor it is an effective energy source that the solar power is expected as one of the mitigation of climate change (IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation). It is necessary to real-time-monitoring of the surface solar radiation for safety operation of electric power system. We introduce a fusion analysis of renewable energy and Quasi-real-time analysis of SW radiation budget. Sample of estimated PV power mapping using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC43C0747N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC43C0747N"><span>Towards High Spa-Temporal Resolution Estimates of Surface Radiative Fluxes from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Observations for the Tibetan Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Niu, X.; Yang, K.; Tang, W.; Qin, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) plays an important role of the hydrological and land process modeling, which particularly contributes more than 90% to the total melt energy for the Tibetan Plateau (TP) ice melting. Neither surface measurement nor existing remote sensing products can meet that requirement in TP. The well-known satellite products (i.e. ISCCP-FD and GEWEX-SRB) are in relatively low spatial resolution (0.5º-2.5º) and temporal resolution (3-hourly, daily, or monthly). The objective of this study is to develop capabilities to improved estimates of SSR in TP based on <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite observations from the Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) with high spatial (0.05º) and temporal (hourly) resolution. An existing physical model, the UMD-SRB (University of Maryland Surface Radiation Budget) which is the basis of the GEWEX-SRB model, is re-visited to improve SSR estimates in TP. The UMD-SRB algorithm transforms TOA radiances into broadband albedos in order to infer atmospheric transmissivity which finally determines the SSR. Specifically, main updates introduced in this study are: implementation at 0.05º spatial resolution at hourly intervals integrated to daily and monthly time scales; and improvement of surface albedo model by introducing the most recently developed Global Land Surface Broadband Albedo Product (GLASS) based on MODIS data. This updated inference scheme will be evaluated against ground observations from China Meteorological Administration (CMA) radiation stations and three TP radiation stations contributed from the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960008510','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960008510"><span>Monthly mean large-scale analyses of upper-tropospheric humidity and wind field divergence derived from three <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schmetz, Johannes; Menzel, W. Paul; Velden, Christopher; Wu, Xiangqian; Vandeberg, Leo; Nieman, Steve; Hayden, Christopher; Holmlund, Kenneth; Geijo, Carlos</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes the results from a collaborative study between the European Space Operations Center, the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies investigating the relationship between satellite-derived monthly mean fields of wind and humidity in the upper troposphere for March 1994. Three <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellites GOES-7, Meteosat-3, and Meteosat-5 are used to cover an area from roughly 160 deg W to 50 deg E. The wind fields are derived from tracking features in successive images of upper-tropospheric water vapor (WV) as depicted in the 6.5-micron absorption band. The upper-tropospheric relative humidity (UTH) is inferred from measured water vapor radiances with a physical retrieval scheme based on radiative forward calculations. Quantitative information on large-scale circulation patterns in the upper-troposphere is possible with the dense spatial coverage of the WV wind vectors. The monthly mean wind field is used to estimate the large-scale divergence; values range between about-5 x 10(exp -6) and 5 x 10(exp 6)/s when averaged over a scale length of about 1000-2000 km. The spatial patterns of the UTH field and the divergence of the wind field closely resemble one another, suggesting that UTH patterns are principally determined by the large-scale circulation. Since the upper-tropospheric humidity absorbs upwelling radiation from lower-tropospheric levels and therefore contributes significantly to the atmospheric greenhouse effect, this work implies that studies on the climate relevance of water vapor should include three-dimensional modeling of the atmospheric dynamics. The fields of UTH and WV winds are useful parameters for a climate-monitoring system based on satellite data. The results from this 1-month analysis suggest the desirability of further GOES and Meteosat studies to characterize</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22270861','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22270861"><span>0.5-4 Å X-RAY BRIGHTENINGS IN THE MAGNETOSPHERE OBSERVED BY THE <span class="hlt">GEOSTATIONARY</span> OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Tetsuya T.; Miyoshi, Y.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>We found 217 X-ray brightening events in Earth's magnetosphere. These events occur in the high-energy band (0.5-4 Å) of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) X-ray light curves, although GOES X-ray light curves are frequently used as indices of solar flare magnitudes. We found that (1) brightening events are absent in the low-energy band (1-8 Å), unlike those associated with solar flares; and (2) the peak fluxes, durations, and onset times of these events depend on the magnetic local time (MLT). The events were detected in 2006, 2010, and 2011 at around 19-10 MLT, that is, from night to morning. They typically lasted for 2-3 hr. Their peak fluxes are less than 3 × 10{sup –8} W m{sup –2} in the 0.5-4 Å band and are maximized around 0-5 MLT. From these MLT dependencies, we constructed an MLT time profile of X-ray brightening events. Because 0.5-4 and 1-8 Å fluxes were observed and had the same order of magnitude when GOES 14 passed through Earth's shadow, we expected that X-ray brightening events in the 1-8 Å band are obscured by high-background X-ray fluxes coming from the Sun. We also found coincidence between X-ray brightening events and aurora substorms. In the majority of our events, the minimum geomagnetic field values (AL index) are below –400 nT. From these results and consideration of the GOES satellite orbit, we expect that these X-ray brightening events occur in the magnetosphere. We cannot, however, clarify the radiative process of the observed X-ray brightening events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B33D0420O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B33D0420O"><span>Characterization of urban heat island effects over Asian megacities with hourly LST maps derived from Japanese <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oyoshi, K.; Tamura, M.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Asian countries are expected to continue economic growth with high rate and urban structure can be transformed dramatically. Urbanization and increase in anthropogenic energy consumption cause urban heat island effect. And, Heat island effect increases cooling cost in summer and induces health problem such as heat stroke. Remotely sensed data can be powerful tool to characterize urban area and measure urban thermal conditions, because it is able to capture spatio-temporal variations in urban environments. Japanese <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite, MTSAT which covers east Asia and the western Pacific region from 140 degrees East above the equator was launched in February 2005. MTSAT provides hourly visible and thermal infrared image, and hourly Land Surface Temperature (LST) can be retrieved. Therefore, compared to polar orbiting satellites such as MODIS or AVHRR, MTSAT is expected to characterize urban thermal conditions in much detailed temporal scale. In this study, in order to evaluate thermal conditions over Asian megacities with MTSAT data, we investigated methodology for monitoring urban LST with satellite data and characterize thermal conditions by using hourly LST data. Firstly, LST were retrieved from MTSAT thermal infrared data with split-window algorithm, and it was confirmed that MTSAT is able to capture hourly spatio-temporal changes and detect urban heat island effects. Then, we constructed LST database of Asian megacities and the database was open to public on the WWW (http://eiserv.uee.kyoto-u.ac.jp/MTSAT/LST/index_e.php). Finally, by using developed LST database, characteristics of hourly temperature changes of Asian megacities were compared and categorized. And it is found that these characteristics were depend on urban structure of each city. Near-real time land surface temperature (LST) monitoring system on the WWW. Latest LST images of Asian megacities are displayed on the top page.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRC..116.9031S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRC..116.9031S"><span>Estimation of net surface shortwave radiation over the tropical Indian Ocean using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite observations: Algorithm and validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shahi, Naveen R.; Thapliyal, Pradeep K.; Sharma, Rashmi; Pal, Pradip K.; Sarkar, Abhijit</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>This paper presents the development of a methodology to estimate the net surface shortwave radiation (SWR) over tropical oceans using half-hourly <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite estimates of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). The collocated data set of SWR measured at 13 buoy locations over the Indian Ocean and a Meteosat-derived OLR for the period of 2002-2009 have been used to derive an empirical relationship. The information from the solar zenith angle that determines the amount of solar radiation received at a particular location is used to normalize the SWR to nadir observation in order to make the empirical relationship location independent. As the relationship between SWR and OLR is valid mostly over the warm-pool regions, the present study restricts SWR estimation in the tropical Indian Ocean domain (30°E-110°E, 30°S-30°N). The SWR estimates are validated with an independent collocated data set and subsequently compared with the SWR estimates from the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment-Surface Radiation Budget V3.0 (GEWEX-SRB), International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project-Flux Data (ISCCP-FD), and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis for the year 2007. The present algorithm provides significantly better accuracy of SWR estimates, with a root-mean-square error of 27.3 W m-2 as compared with the values of 32.7, 37.5, and 59.6 W m-2 obtained from GEWEX-SRB, ISCCP-FD, and NCEP, respectively. The present algorithm also provides consistently better SWR compared with other available products under different sky conditions and seasons over Indian Ocean warm-pool regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPRS..125...63W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPRS..125...63W"><span>On-orbit geometric calibration and geometric quality assessment for the high-resolution <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> optical satellite GaoFen4</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Mi; Cheng, Yufeng; Chang, Xueli; Jin, Shuying; Zhu, Ying</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The Chinese GaoFen4 (GF4) remote sensing satellite, launched at the end of December 2015, is China's first civilian high-resolution <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> optical satellite and has the world's highest resolution from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. High accuracy geometric calibration is the key factor in the geometrical quality of satellite imagery. This paper proposes an on-orbit geometric calibration approach for the high-resolution <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> optical satellite GF4 in which a stepwise calibration is performed, external parameters are estimated, and internal parameters are then estimated in a generalized camera frame determined by external parameters. First, the correlation of the imaging error sources and the rigorous imaging model of GF4 are introduced. Second, the geometric calibration model based on the two-dimensional detector directional angle and the parameters estimation method for the planar array camera are presented. LandSat 8 digital orthophoto maps (DOM) and GDEM2 digital elevation models (DEM) are used to validate the efficiency of the proposed method and to make a geometric quality assessment of GF4. The results indicate that changing imaging time and imaging area will dramatically affect the absolute positioning accuracy because of the change of the camera's installation angles caused by thermal environment changes around the satellite in a high orbit. After calibration, the internal distortion is well-compensated, and the positioning accuracy with relatively few ground control points (GCPs) is demonstrated to be better than 1.0 pixels for both the panchromatic and near-infrared sensor and the intermediate infrared sensor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JQSRT.146..510W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JQSRT.146..510W"><span>A numerical testbed for remote sensing of aerosols, and its demonstration for evaluating retrieval synergy from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite constellation of GEO-CAPE and GOES-R</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Ding, Shouguo; Zeng, Jing; Spurr, Robert; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Mishchenko, Michael</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We present a numerical testbed for remote sensing of aerosols, together with a demonstration for evaluating retrieval synergy from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite constellation. The testbed combines inverse (optimal-estimation) software with a forward model containing linearized code for computing particle scattering (for both spherical and non-spherical particles), a kernel-based (land and ocean) surface bi-directional reflectance facility, and a linearized radiative transfer model for polarized radiance. Calculation of gas absorption spectra uses the HITRAN (HIgh-resolution TRANsmission molecular absorption) database of spectroscopic line parameters and other trace species cross-sections. The outputs of the testbed include not only the Stokes 4-vector elements and their sensitivities (Jacobians) with respect to the aerosol single scattering and physical parameters (such as size and shape parameters, refractive index, and plume height), but also DFS (Degree of Freedom for Signal) values for retrieval of these parameters. This testbed can be used as a tool to provide an objective assessment of aerosol information content that can be retrieved for any constellation of (planned or real) satellite sensors and for any combination of algorithm design factors (in terms of wavelengths, viewing angles, radiance and/or polarization to be measured or used). We summarize the components of the testbed, including the derivation and validation of analytical formulae for Jacobian calculations. Benchmark calculations from the forward model are documented. In the context of NASAs Decadal Survey Mission GEO-CAPE (<span class="hlt">GEOstationary</span> Coastal and Air Pollution Events), we demonstrate the use of the testbed to conduct a feasibility study of using polarization measurements in and around the O2A band for the retrieval of aerosol height information from space, as well as an to assess potential improvement in the retrieval of aerosol fine and coarse mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) through the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900020098','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900020098"><span>Data Catalog Series for Space Science and Applications Flight Missions. Volume 2B; Descriptions of Data Sets from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> and High-Altitude Scientific Spacecraft and Investigations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schofield, Norman J. (Editor); Parthasarathy, R. (Editor); Hills, H. Kent (Editor)</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and high altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002133','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002133"><span>A Numerical Testbed for Remote Sensing of Aerosols, and its Demonstration for Evaluating Retrieval Synergy from a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Constellation of GEO-CAPE and GOES-R</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Ding, Shouguo; Zeng, Jing; Spurr, Robert; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Mishchenko, Michael I.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present a numerical testbed for remote sensing of aerosols, together with a demonstration for evaluating retrieval synergy from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite constellation. The testbed combines inverse (optimal-estimation) software with a forward model containing linearized code for computing particle scattering (for both spherical and non-spherical particles), a kernel-based (land and ocean) surface bi-directional reflectance facility, and a linearized radiative transfer model for polarized radiance. Calculation of gas absorption spectra uses the HITRAN (HIgh-resolution TRANsmission molecular absorption) database of spectroscopic line parameters and other trace species cross-sections. The outputs of the testbed include not only the Stokes 4-vector elements and their sensitivities (Jacobians) with respect to the aerosol single scattering and physical parameters (such as size and shape parameters, refractive index, and plume height), but also DFS (Degree of Freedom for Signal) values for retrieval of these parameters. This testbed can be used as a tool to provide an objective assessment of aerosol information content that can be retrieved for any constellation of (planned or real) satellite sensors and for any combination of algorithm design factors (in terms of wavelengths, viewing angles, radiance and/or polarization to be measured or used). We summarize the components of the testbed, including the derivation and validation of analytical formulae for Jacobian calculations. Benchmark calculations from the forward model are documented. In the context of NASA's Decadal Survey Mission GEOCAPE (<span class="hlt">GEOstationary</span> Coastal and Air Pollution Events), we demonstrate the use of the testbed to conduct a feasibility study of using polarization measurements in and around the O2 A band for the retrieval of aerosol height information from space, as well as an to assess potential improvement in the retrieval of aerosol fine and coarse mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) through the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866493','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866493"><span>Membrane <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Mingenbach, William A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A device is provided for <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved <span class="hlt">stability</span>. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A22B..05L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A22B..05L"><span>Development of a Numerical System to Improve Particulate Matter Forecasts in South Korea Using <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite-retrieved Aerosol Optical Data over Northeast Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, S.; Song, C. H.; Park, R.; Park, M. E.; Han, K. M.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; Ghim, Y. S.; Woo, J. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>To improve short-term particulate matter (PM) forecasts in South Korea, the initial distribution of PM composition, particularly over the upwind regions, is primarily important. To prepare the initial PM composition, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) data retrieved from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> equatorial orbit (GEO) satellite sensor, GOCI (<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager) which covers Northeast Asia (113°E-146°E; 25°N-47°N), were used. A spatio-temporal (ST) kriging method was used to better prepare the initial AOD distributions that were converted into the PM composition over Northeast Asia. One of the largest advantages to using the ST-kriging method in this study is that more observed AOD data can be used to prepare the best initial AOD fields. It is demonstrated in this study that the short-term PM forecast system developed with the application of the ST-kriging method can greatly improve PM10 predictions in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), when evaluated with ground-based observations. For example, errors and biases of PM10 predictions decreased by ~60% and ~70%, respectively, during the first 6 h of short-term PM forecasting, compared with those without the initial PM composition. In addition, The influences of several factors (such as choices of observation operators and control variables) on the performances of the short-term PM forecast were also explored in this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5134518','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5134518"><span>A Method to Estimate Sunshine Duration Using Cloud Classification Data from a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Meteorological Satellite (FY-2D) over the Heihe River Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Bingfang; Liu, Shufu; Zhu, Weiwei; Yu, Mingzhao; Yan, Nana; Xing, Qiang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Sunshine duration is an important variable that is widely used in atmospheric energy balance studies, analysis of the thermal loadings on buildings, climate research, and the evaluation of agricultural resources. In most cases, it is calculated using an interpolation method based on regional-scale meteorological data from field stations. Accurate values in the field are difficult to obtain without ground measurements. In this paper, a satellite-based method to estimate sunshine duration is introduced and applied over the Heihe River Basin. This method is based on hourly cloud classification product data from the FY-2D <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite (FY-2D). A new index—FY-2D cloud type sunshine factor—is proposed, and the Shuffled Complex Evolution Algorithm (SCE-UA) was used to calibrate sunshine factors from different coverage types based on ground measurement data from the Heihe River Basin in 2007. The estimated sunshine duration from the proposed new algorithm was validated with ground observation data for 12 months in 2008, and the spatial distribution was compared with the results of an interpolation method over the Heihe River Basin. The study demonstrates that <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite data can be used to successfully estimate sunshine duration. Potential applications include climate research, energy balance studies, and global estimations of evapotranspiration. PMID:27827935</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.2365K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.2365K"><span>Single-event and total-dose effects in <span class="hlt">geo-stationary</span> transfer orbit during solar-activity maximum period measured by the Tsubasa satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koshiishi, H.; Kimoto, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Goka, T.</p> <p></p> <p>The Tsubasa satellite developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency was launched in Feb 2002 into <span class="hlt">Geo-stationary</span> Transfer Orbit GTO Perigee 500km Apogee 36000km and had been operated well until Sep 2003 The objective of this satellite was to verify the function of commercial parts and new technologies of bus-system components in space Thus the on-board experiments were conducted in the more severe radiation environment of GTO rather than in <span class="hlt">Geo-stationary</span> Earth Orbit GEO or Low Earth Orbit LEO The Space Environment Data Acquisition equipment SEDA on board the Tsubasa satellite had the Single-event Upset Monitor SUM and the DOSimeter DOS to evaluate influences on electronic devices caused by radiation environment that was also measured by the particle detectors of the SEDA the Standard DOse Monitor SDOM for measurements of light particles and the Heavy Ion Telescope HIT for measurements of heavy ions The SUM monitored single-event upsets and single-event latch-ups occurred in the test sample of two 64-Mbit DRAMs The DOS measured accumulated radiation dose at fifty-six locations in the body of the Tsubasa satellite Using the data obtained by these instruments single-event and total-dose effects in GTO during solar-activity maximum period especially their rapid changes due to solar flares and CMEs in the region from L 1 1 through L 11 is discussed in this paper</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LatJP..53e...5B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LatJP..53e...5B"><span>Results of the Ongoing Monitoring of the Position of a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Telecommunication Satellite by the Method of Spatially Separated Basis Receiving of Digital Satellite Television Signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bushuev, F.; Kaliuzhnyi, M.; Sybiryakova, Y.; Shulga, O.; Moskalenko, S.; Balagura, O.; Kulishenko, V.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The results of the ongoing monitoring of the position of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> telecommunication satellite Eutelsat-13B (13° East) are presented in the article. The results were obtained using a radio engineering complex (RC) of four stations receiving digital satellite television and a data processing centre. The stations are located in Kyiv, Mukachevo, Kharkiv and Mykolaiv. The equipment of each station allows synchronous recording (by the GPS) of fragments of DVB-S signal from the quadrature detector output of the satellite television receiver. Samples of the complex signal are archived and sent to the data processing center through the Internet. Here three linearly independent slant range differences (Δr) for three pairs of the stations are determined as a result of correlation processing of received signals. Every second measured values of Δr are used to calculate Cartesian coordinates (XYZ) of the satellite in the coordinate system WGS84 by multilateration method. The time series of Δr, X, Y and Z obtained during continuous observations from March to May 2015 are presented in the article. Single-measurement errors of Δr, X, Y and Z are equal to 2.6 m, 3540 m, 705 m and 455 m, respectively. The complex is compared with known analogues. Ways of reduction of measurement errors of satellite coordinates are considered. The radio engineering complex could be considered a prototype of a system of independent ongoing monitoring of the position of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> telecommunication satellites.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7022064','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7022064"><span>Membrane <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Mingenbach, W.A.</p> <p>1988-02-09</p> <p>A device is provided for <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved <span class="hlt">stability</span>. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMIN43E..03K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMIN43E..03K"><span>Future Plan and Recent Activities for the Japanese Follow-on <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Meteorological Satellite Himawari-8/9</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kurino, T.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>In 1977, Japan launched the first <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite " Himawari-1 (GMS-1)" onto the geo-synchronous orbit at 140°E mainly to cover the western Pacific and the east part of Asia as part of a space segment of the Global Observation System (GOS) of the WMO World Weather Watch (WWW) programme up to the present. JMA plans to launch Himawari-8 in summer 2014 and commence its operation in 2015, when Himawari-7 (MTSAT-2) is scheduled to complete its period of operation. The Agency also plans to launch Himawari-9 in 2016. Himawari-8 and -9 carry Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) units comparable to the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on board GOES-R with the following functions: - Multi-channel capacity (16 channels in visible and infrared bands) - High spatial resolution (0.5 - 1.0 km for visible and 1.0 - 2.0 km for infrared) - High temporal resolution (within 10 minutes for full disk) - Rapid scanning with flexible area selection and scheduling The follow-on satellites will offer high observation potential, which will enable users to analyze cloud properties and extract other meteorological parameters. To make the most of these functions as well as to provide users with effective information from the start of Himawari-8's operation, JMA has set up an environment for the development of new products from the follow-on satellites in collaboration with its Meteorological Satellite Center (MSC) and other internal related divisions in JMA. The Agency also plans to start the development of related products, and is interested in pursuing scientific and prototyping activities in collaboration with Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS) members. This is particularly the case with EUMETSAT and NOAA/NESDIS, which already operate or are preparing to use a new generation of multi-channel imaging instruments (e.g. MSG/MTG, GOES-R). To support these developments, Himawari-8/9 simulated images are generated in two ways - one involving the accumulation of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213939P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213939P"><span>The effect of observation geometry on single-channel aerosol retrievals from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites in the Mediterranean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paronis, Dimitris; Hatzopoulos, John; Dulac, Francois</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Satellite remote sensing is nowadays used for aerosol monitoring on an operational basis via specially designed algorithms which are based on multidimensional data. The development of sensors suitable for aerosol monitoring, has given way to the implementation of algorithms for multispectral (e.g. MODIS, MERIS and SEVIRI sensors), hyper-spectral (e.g. CHRIS sensor), multi-angle (e.g. MISR and CHRIS sensors) and multi-polarization observations (e.g. POLDER sensor) both over ocean and land. These sensors have been providing data on a continuous basis for less than two decades (e.g. MODIS archived aerosol data are available since 2001), a period which cannot be considered adequate for studies related to global climate change. On the other hand, archived data from the first generation meteorological sensors such as AVHRR and MVIRI (aboard the NOAA and METEOSAT series satellites respectively) span a period of almost thirty years a fact that is challenging as regards re-processing of such data. In the past, single channel algorithms developed for operational AOD retrievals over oceans have been successfully applied with METEOSAT data (Moulin et al. 1997) and are still used on an operational basis in several cases for AVHRR (Ignatov et al. 2004), SEVIRI (Bridley & Ignatov 2006) and MODIS (Ignatov et al. 2006).One of the main limitations of such algorithms affecting the accuracy of the AOD retrievals is the need for a universal aerosol model. Such an approach although have led to accurate results in open oceanic areas it can be problematic in more complex environments such as the Mediterranean where multiple types of aerosol particles (i.e. desert dust, pollution aerosol and oceanic particles) are encountered (Myhre et al. 2005). In the present paper the expected accuracy of a single channel algorithm developed for the visible MVIRI band is assessed as a function of the aerosol model and the geometry of observation of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> METEOSAT satellite. Two different</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12293723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12293723"><span><span class="hlt">Stabilizing</span> population.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, L; Mitchell, J</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>This article is a reprint of the Worldwatch Institute's "State of the World Report," Chapter 10: "Building a New Economy." 16 countries reached zero population growth by 1997. 33 countries have <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> population, which amounts to 14% of world population. It is estimated that by 2050 population will include an additional 3.6 billion people beyond the present 6 billion. About 60% of the added population will be in Asia, an increase from 3.4 billion in 1995 to 5.4 billion in 2050. China's current population of 1.2 billion will reach 1.5 billion. India's population is expected to rapidly rise from 930 million to 1.53 billion. Populations in the Middle East and North Africa are expected to double in size. Sub-Saharan population is expected to triple in size. By 2050, Nigeria will have 339 million people, which was the entire population of Africa in 1960. There is a great need to <span class="hlt">stabilize</span> population in a number of currently unstabilized countries. In 1971, Bangladesh and Pakistan had the same population; however, by 2050, Pakistan, without a strong commitment to reducing population growth, will have 70 million more people than Bangladesh. Population <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> will depend on removal of physical and social barriers that prevent women from using family planning services and thereby help them control their own unwanted fertility. <span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> will require poverty alleviation and removal of the need for large families. Family size is reduced with lower infant and child mortality risk, increased education, a higher legal age of marriage, and investment in <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> programs. Solutions to global population growth cannot wait for health reform and budget deficit reductions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010090340','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010090340"><span>Evaluation of Temperature and Material Combinations on Several Lubricants for Use in the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Mission Filter Wheel Bearings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jansen, Mark J.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Predmore, Roamer E.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A bearing test apparatus was used to investigate lubricant degradation rates and elastohydrodynamic transition temperatures for several perfluoropolyether (Krytox) formulations, a pentasilahydrocarbon, and a synthetic hydrocarbon (Pennzane 2001 A) in an MPB 1219 bearing, which is used in the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> operational environmental satellite (GOES) mission filter wheel assembly. Test conditions were the following: 1000-hr duration, 75 C, 20 lb axial load, vacuum level less than 1 x 10(exp -6) Torr, and a 600-rpm rotational speed. Baseline tests were performed using unformulated Krytox 143AB, the heritage lubricant. Krytox additive formulations showed small reductions in degradation rate. Krytox GPL-105, a higher viscosity version, yielded the least amount of degradation products. Both the silahydrocarbon and Pennzane 2001A showed no signs of lubricant degradation and had ample amounts of free oil at test conclusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870048934&hterms=ISEE-3&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DISEE-3','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870048934&hterms=ISEE-3&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DISEE-3"><span>Simultaneous observations of the near-earth and distant geomagnetic tail during a substorm by ISEE-1, ISEE-3 and <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> spacecraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, I. G.; Scholer, M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Daly, P. W.; Baker, D. N.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The structure of the geomagnetic tail during a substorm is investigated by combining plasma, magnetic field, and energetic particle data from the ISEE-3 spacecraft in the deep tail with similar near-earth observations from ISEE-1 and <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> spacecraft. The observations can be interpreted in terms of the neutral-line model of substorms and indicate the formation of a closed-loop field region (plasmoid) following substorm onset, which is ejected down the tail. The plasmoid is observed to have a double-loop field strucure. This may be the result of a second substorm onset occurring about 25 min after the first, producing a further near-earth neutral line and closed field loop. During the substorm recovery phase, the substorm neutral line moves tailward to beyond 130 earth radii from earth by some 3 h after substorm onset.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820015958','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820015958"><span>Measurement of total electron content of midlatitude ionosphere and protonosphere via Faraday rotation and group relay techniques using transmission from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites ATS-3 and ATS-6</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Paul, M. P.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Measurement of integrated columnar electron content and total electron content for the local ionosphere and the overlying protonosphere via Faraday rotation and group delay techniques has proven very useful. A field station was established having the geographic location of 31.5 deg N latitude and 91.06 deg W longitude to accomplish these objectives. A polarimeter receiving system was set up in the beginning to measure the Faraday rotation of 137.35 MHz radio signal from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite ATS 3 to yield the integrated columnar electron content of the local ionosphere. The measurement was continued regularly, and the analysis of the data thus collected provided a synopsis of the statistical variation of the ionosphere along with the transient variations that occurred during the periods of geomagnetic and other disturbances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMTD....813099N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMTD....813099N"><span>Nitrogen dioxide observations from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument: retrieval algorithm and measurements during DISCOVER-AQ Texas 2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nowlan, C. R.; Liu, X.; Leitch, J. W.; Chance, K.; González Abad, G.; Liu, C.; Zoogman, P.; Cole, J.; Delker, T.; Good, W.; Murcray, F.; Ruppert, L.; Soo, D.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Janz, S. J.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Loughner, C. P.; Pickering, K. E.; Herman, J. R.; Beaver, M. R.; Long, R. W.; Szykman, J. J.; Judd, L. M.; Kelley, P.; Luke, W. T.; Ren, X.; Al-Saadi, J. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument is a testbed for upcoming air quality satellite instruments that will measure backscattered ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. GeoTASO flew on the NASA Falcon aircraft in its first intensive field measurement campaign during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) Earth Venture Mission over Houston, Texas in September 2013. Measurements of backscattered solar radiation between 420-465 nm collected on four days during the campaign are used to determine slant column amounts of NO2 at 250 m × 250 m spatial resolution with a fitting precision of 2.2 × 1015 molecules cm-2. These slant columns are converted to tropospheric NO2 vertical columns using a radiative transfer model and trace gas profiles from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Total column NO2 from GeoTASO is well correlated with ground-based Pandora observations (r = 0.90 on the most polluted and cloud-free day of measurements), with GeoTASO NO2 slightly higher for the most polluted observations. Surface NO2 mixing ratios inferred from GeoTASO using the CMAQ model show good correlation with NO2 measured in situ at the surface during the campaign (r = 0.91 for the most polluted day). NO2 slant columns from GeoTASO also agree well with preliminary retrievals from the GEO-CAPE Airborne Simulator (GCAS) which flew on the NASA King Air B200 (r = 0.84, slope = 0.94). Enhanced NO2 is resolvable over areas of traffic NOx emissions and near individual petrochemical facilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150022424','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150022424"><span>Spatial and Temporal Variability of Trace Gas Columns Derived from WRF/Chem Regional Model Output: Planning for <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Observations of Atmospheric Composition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Follette-Cook, M. B.; Pickering, K.; Crawford, J.; Duncan, B.; Loughner, C.; Diskin, G.; Fried, A.; Weinheimer, A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We quantify both the spatial and temporal variability of column integrated O3, NO2, CO, SO2, and HCHO over the Baltimore / Washington, DC area using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting model with on-line chemistry (WRF/Chem) for the entire month of July 2011, coinciding with the first deployment of the NASA Earth Venture program mission Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ). Using structure function analyses, we find that the model reproduces the spatial variability observed during the campaign reasonably well, especially for O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument will be the first NASA mission to make atmospheric composition observations from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit and partially fulfills the goals of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission. We relate the simulated variability to the precision requirements defined by the science traceability matrices of these space-borne missions. Results for O3 from 0- 2 km altitude indicate that the TEMPO instrument would be able to observe O3 air quality events over the Mid-Atlantic area, even on days when the violations of the air quality standard are not widespread. The results further indicated that horizontal gradients in CO from 0-2 km would be observable over moderate distances (= 20 km). The spatial and temporal results for tropospheric column NO2 indicate that TEMPO would be able to observe not only the large urban plumes at times of peak production, but also the weaker gradients between rush hours. This suggests that the proposed spatial and temporal resolutions for these satellites as well as their prospective precision requirements are sufficient to answer the science questions they are tasked to address.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005404','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005404"><span>Improvement of Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval over Hong Kong from a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Meteorological Satellite Using Critical Reflectance with Background Optical Depth Correction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Mijin; Kim, Jhoon; Wong, Man Sing; Yoon, Jongmin; Lee, Jaehwa; Wu, Dong L.; Chan, P.W.; Nichol, Janet E.; Chung, Chu-Yong; Ou, Mi-Lim</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Despite continuous efforts to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) using a conventional 5-channelmeteorological imager in <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit, the accuracy in urban areas has been poorer than other areas primarily due to complex urban surface properties and mixed aerosol types from different emission sources. The two largest error sources in aerosol retrieval have been aerosol type selection and surface reflectance. In selecting the aerosol type from a single visible channel, the season-dependent aerosol optical properties were adopted from longterm measurements of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun-photometers. With the aerosol optical properties obtained fromthe AERONET inversion data, look-up tableswere calculated by using a radiative transfer code: the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S). Surface reflectance was estimated using the clear sky composite method, awidely used technique for <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> retrievals. Over East Asia, the AOD retrieved from the Meteorological Imager showed good agreement, although the values were affected by cloud contamination errors. However, the conventional retrieval of the AOD over Hong Kong was largely underestimated due to the lack of information on the aerosol type and surface properties. To detect spatial and temporal variation of aerosol type over the area, the critical reflectance method, a technique to retrieve single scattering albedo (SSA), was applied. Additionally, the background aerosol effect was corrected to improve the accuracy of the surface reflectance over Hong Kong. The AOD retrieved froma modified algorithmwas compared to the collocated data measured by AERONET in Hong Kong. The comparison showed that the new aerosol type selection using the critical reflectance and the corrected surface reflectance significantly improved the accuracy of AODs in Hong Kong areas,with a correlation coefficient increase from0.65 to 0.76 and a regression line change from tMI [basic algorithm] = 0</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9.2647N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9.2647N"><span>Nitrogen dioxide observations from the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument: Retrieval algorithm and measurements during DISCOVER-AQ Texas 2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nowlan, Caroline R.; Liu, Xiong; Leitch, James W.; Chance, Kelly; González Abad, Gonzalo; Liu, Cheng; Zoogman, Peter; Cole, Joshua; Delker, Thomas; Good, William; Murcray, Frank; Ruppert, Lyle; Soo, Daniel; Follette-Cook, Melanie B.; Janz, Scott J.; Kowalewski, Matthew G.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Herman, Jay R.; Beaver, Melinda R.; Long, Russell W.; Szykman, James J.; Judd, Laura M.; Kelley, Paul; Luke, Winston T.; Ren, Xinrong; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument is a test bed for upcoming air quality satellite instruments that will measure backscattered ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit. GeoTASO flew on the NASA Falcon aircraft in its first intensive field measurement campaign during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) Earth Venture Mission over Houston, Texas, in September 2013. Measurements of backscattered solar radiation between 420 and 465 nm collected on 4 days during the campaign are used to determine slant column amounts of NO2 at 250 m × 250 m spatial resolution with a fitting precision of 2.2 × 1015 molecules<mspace linebreak="nobreak" width="0.125em"/>cm-2. These slant columns are converted to tropospheric NO2 vertical columns using a radiative transfer model and trace gas profiles from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Total column NO2 from GeoTASO is well correlated with ground-based Pandora observations (r = 0.90 on the most polluted and cloud-free day of measurements and r = 0.74 overall), with GeoTASO NO2 slightly higher for the most polluted observations. Surface NO2 mixing ratios inferred from GeoTASO using the CMAQ model show good correlation with NO2 measured in situ at the surface during the campaign (r = 0.85). NO2 slant columns from GeoTASO also agree well with preliminary retrievals from the GEO-CAPE Airborne Simulator (GCAS) which flew on the NASA King Air B200 (r = 0.81, slope = 0.91). Enhanced NO2 is resolvable over areas of traffic NOx emissions and near individual petrochemical facilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11G0148K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11G0148K"><span>Analysis of Aerosol Distribution over North East Asia Using a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Measurement during Filed Campaigns of DRAGON-Asia 2012 and MAPS-Seoul 2015</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Choi, M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J.; Ahn, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Considering diverse source and high concentration of aerosol, numerous manners have been applied to detect aerosol properties in North East Asia (NEA). Above all, a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> orbit satellite, COMS has monitored atmosphere and ocean conditions over the NEA using two payloads of Meteorological Imager (MI) and <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) since 2010. By using the MI measurements, an AOD retrieval algorithm was developed (Kim et al., 2014). Additionally, a number of ground-based network such as Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), Sky Radiometer Network (SKYNET), and Mie-scattering Light Detector and Ranging (LIDAR) Network have been in operation to capture aerosol variability. And, occasionally, field campaigns were conducted. In 2012 (March to May), the DRAGON-Asia campaign was performed by AERONET science team and NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research), and 40 sun/sky-radiometer was deployed. Subsequently, MAPS-Seoul campaign for detecting air quality was performed with 8 AERONET sites and 6 Pandora instruments in Korea. Those ground-based measurements provide validation dataset for satellite retrieval algorithm, as well as detect detail of aerosol characteristics at each local point. Thus, in this study, the AODs obtained from the aforementioned campaigns were applied to assess and improve the accuracy of MI AOD. For the DRAGON-Asia 2012, the comparison between MI AOD and AERONET AOD shows correlation coefficient of 0.85, regression slope of 1.00 and RMSE of 0.18. Furthermore, AOPs obtained from those field campaign results and the MI AOD were analyzed to understand temporal and spatial variance of aerosol in NEA during spring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.8413G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.8413G"><span>Use of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite imagery in optical and thermal bands for the estimation of soil moisture status and land evapotranspiration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghilain, N.; Arboleda, A.; Gellens-Meulenberghs, F.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>For water and agricultural management, there is an increasing demand to monitor the soil water status and the land evapotranspiration. In the framework of the LSA-SAF project (http://landsaf.meteo.pt), we are developing an energy balance model forced by remote sensing products, i.e. radiation components and vegetation parameters, to monitor in quasi real-time the evapotranspiration rate over land (Gellens-Meulenberghs et al, 2007; Ghilain et al, 2008). The model is applied over the full MSG disk, i.e. including Europe and Africa. Meteorological forcing, as well as the soil moisture status, is provided by the forecasts of the ECMWF model. Since soil moisture is computed by a forecast model not dedicated to the monitoring of the soil water status, inadequate soil moisture input can occur, and can cause large effects on evapotranspiration rates, especially over semi-arid or arid regions. In these regions, a remotely sensed-based method for the soil moisture retrieval can therefore be preferable, to avoid too strong dependency in ECMWF model estimates. Among different strategies, remote sensing offers the advantage of monitoring large areas. Empirical methods of soil moisture assessment exist using remotely sensed derived variables either from the microwave bands or from the thermal bands. Mainly polar orbiters are used for this purpose, and little attention has been paid to the new possibilities offered by geosynchronous satellites. In this contribution, images of the SEVIRI instrument on board of MSG geosynchronous satellites are used. Dedicated operational algorithms were developed for the LSA-SAF project and now deliver images of land surface temperature (LST) every 15-minutes (Trigo et al, 2008) and vegetations indices (leaf area index, LAI; fraction of vegetation cover, FVC; fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, FAPAR) every day (Garcia-Haro et al, 2005) over Africa and Europe. One advantage of using products derived from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3271571','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3271571"><span><span class="hlt">Stabilizing</span> brokerage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stovel, Katherine; Golub, Benjamin; Milgrom, Eva M. Meyersson</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A variety of social and economic arrangements exist to facilitate the exchange of goods, services, and information over gaps in social structure. Each of these arrangements bears some relationship to the idea of brokerage, but this brokerage is rarely like the pure and formal economic intermediation seen in some modern markets. Indeed, for reasons illuminated by existing sociological and economic models, brokerage is a fragile relationship. In this paper, we review the causes of instability in brokerage and identify three social mechanisms that can <span class="hlt">stabilize</span> fragile brokerage relationships: social isolation, broker capture, and organizational grafting. Each of these mechanisms rests on the emergence or existence of supporting institutions. We suggest that organizational grafting may be the most stable and effective resolution to the tensions inherent in brokerage, but it is also the most institutionally demanding. PMID:22198763</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4343311','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4343311"><span><span class="hlt">STABILIZED</span> OSCILLATOR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Jessen, P.L.; Price, H.J.</p> <p>1958-03-18</p> <p>This patent relates to sine-wave generators and in particular describes a generator with a novel feedback circuit resulting in improved frequency <span class="hlt">stability</span>. The generator comprises two triodes having a common cathode circuit connected to oscillate at a frequency and amplitude at which the loop galn of the circutt ls unity, and another pair of triodes having a common cathode circuit arranged as a conventional amplifier. A signal is conducted from the osciliator through a frequency selective network to the amplifier and fed back to the osciliator. The unique feature of the feedback circuit is the amplifier operates in the nonlinear portion of its tube characteristics thereby providing a relatively constant feedback voltage to the oscillator irrespective of the amplitude of its input signal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7852N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7852N"><span>Cloud-top Height Esimation Method by <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Split-Window Measurements Trained with CALIPSO and CloudSat data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nishi, Noriyuki; Hamada, Atsushi; Hirose, Hitoshi</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We released a database of cloud top height and visible optical thickness (CTOP) with one-hour resolution over the tropical western Pacific and Maritime Continent, by using infrared split-window data of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites (MTSAT) (http://database.rish.kyoto-u.ac.jp/arch/ctop/). We made lookup tables for estimating cloud top height only with <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> infrared observations by comparing them with the direct cloud observation by CloudSat (Hamada and Nishi, 2010, JAMC). We picked out the same-time observations by MTSAT and CloudSat and regressed the cloud top height observation of CloudSat back onto 11 micro m brightness temperature (Tb) and the difference between the 11 micro m Tb and 12 micro m Tb of MTSAT. The database contains digital data and quick look images from Jul 2005 to real time and the area in 85E-155W (MTSAT2) and 20S-20N. Though the CTOP dataset is particularly useful for the upper tropospheric clouds, it has one serious problem. The cloud radar onboard CloudSat cannot well detect the optically thin cirrus clouds composed of small ice crystals and misses a certain part of cirriform clouds in the upper troposphere. In order to overcome this weakness, we are now making next version of the CTOP by using the lidar data (CALIOP) onboard CALIPSO satellite. One problem on the use of lidar observation is that they observe very thin cirrus formed around the tropopause. The main purpose of CTOP dataset is to provide the top height of clouds that originate from cloud clusters including cumulonimbus and nimbostratus, not of in-situ cirrus clouds formed near the tropopause. To exclude the very thin tropopause cirrus, we define cloud-top height of CALIOP observation as the height at which the optical depth accumulated from the cloud top is 0.2, instead of the CALIOP cloud top itself. With this criterion we can succeed in estimating the top height of cirruiform clouds, but it has another problem for thick clouds like cumulonimbus. For such clouds, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013amos.confE..34H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013amos.confE..34H"><span>Analysis of Faint Glints from <span class="hlt">Stabilized</span> GEO Satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hall, D.; Kervin, P.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Ground-based telescopes routinely acquire temporal brightness measurements of satellites in <span class="hlt">geo-stationary</span> and geo-synchronous orbit that provide valuable characterization information. For instance, GEO satellites that are not <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> tend to rotate, and produce brightnesses that vary in time with frequencies corresponding to rotation rates. Temporal brightness patterns can also be exploited to characterize <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> GEO satellites. For example, many operational GEO satellites have solar panels that glint when they reflect sunlight towards an observer in a mirror-like fashion. These well-known solar panel glints can be remarkably bright, often exceeding several stellar magnitudes in amplitude. Measured brightnesses and times of these glints can be exploited to estimate the size, segmentation, and alignment of the solar array, valuable information about the satellite's power generation and consumption capabilities. However, satellites can produce other glints in addition to those originating from solar panels. These glints can be much fainter, with amplitudes as small as 0.2 magnitudes. Several observations of GEO satellites show several such glints occurring during the span of a single night. Furthermore, many of these recur from night to night when observed from a single ground-based site, but with subtle, incremental changes in both peak times and brightnesses. These fainter glints must originate from reflective elements mounted on the satellite's main bus, solar panel structure, or other peripheral structures that might be stationary or moving with respect to the main bus. Our analysis indicates that such glints can be exploited for GEO satellite characterization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4598110','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4598110"><span>Effects of the Forecasting Methods, Precipitation Character, and Satellite Resolution on the Predictability of Short-Term Quantitative Precipitation Nowcasting (QPN) from a <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Yu; Xi, Du-Gang; Li, Zhao-Liang; Ji, Wei</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The prediction of the short-term quantitative precipitation nowcasting (QPN) from consecutive gestational satellite images has important implications for hydro-meteorological modeling and forecasting. However, the systematic analysis of the predictability of QPN is limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate effects of the forecasting model, precipitation character, and satellite resolution on the predictability of QPN usingimages of a Chinese <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite Fengyun-2F (FY-2F) which covered all intensive observation since its launch despite of only a total of approximately 10 days. In the first step, three methods were compared to evaluate the performance of the QPN methods: a pixel-based QPN using the maximum correlation method (PMC); the Horn-Schunck optical-flow scheme (PHS); and the Pyramid Lucas-Kanade Optical Flow method (PPLK), which is newly proposed here. Subsequently, the effect of the precipitation systems was indicated by 2338 imageries of 8 precipitation periods. Then, the resolution dependence was demonstrated by analyzing the QPN with six spatial resolutions (0.1atial, 0.3a, 0.4atial rand 0.6). The results show that the PPLK improves the predictability of QPN with better performance than the other comparison methods. The predictability of the QPN is significantly determined by the precipitation system, and a coarse spatial resolution of the satellite reduces the predictability of QPN. PMID:26447470</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019652','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019652"><span>Implementation of a state of the art automated system for the production of cloud/water vapor motion winds from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Velden, Christopher S.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The thrust of the proposed effort under this contract is aimed at improving techniques to track water vapor data in sequences of imagery from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites. In regards to this task, significant testing, evaluation, and progress was accomplished during this period. Sets of winds derived from Meteosat data were routinely produced during Atlantic hurricane events in the 1993 season. These wind sets were delivered via Internet in real time to the Hurricane Research Division in Miami for their evaluation in a track forecast model. For eighteen cases in which 72-hour forecasts were produced, thirteen resulted in track forecast improvements (some quite significant). In addition, quality-controlled Meteosat water vapor winds produced by NESDIS were validated against rawinsondes, yielding an 8 m/s RMS. This figure is comparable to upper-level cloud drift wind accuracies. Given the complementary horizontal coverage in cloud-free areas, we believe that water vapor vectors can supplement cloud-drift wind information to provide good full-disk coverage of the upper tropospheric flow. The impact of these winds on numerical analysis and forecasts will be tested in the next reporting period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.4600D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.4600D"><span><span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> satellite-based 6.7 μm band best water vapor information layer analysis over the Tibetan Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Di, Di; Ai, Yufei; Li, Jun; Shi, Wenjing; Lu, Naimeng</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The best water vapor information layer (BWIL) of the 6.7 μm water vapor absorption infrared (IR) band for the FengYun-2E is investigated over the Tibetan Plateau with standard atmospheric profile and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational model analysis data. The sensitivity tests show that surface characteristics over the Tibetan Plateau have a significant influence on the BWIL. To be specific, topographic elevation, colder skin temperature, and lower emissivity tend to lift the altitude of the BWIL, decrease its magnitude, and narrow the half-width range. The results from statistical analysis indicate that the altitude of the BWIL reaches the highest in summer and the lowest in winter. Meanwhile, the altitude of the BWIL is highly correlated with the water vapor amount above 500 hPa over the Tibetan Plateau and above 300 hPa over the East China Plain, respectively. The diurnal variation in the BWIL is synchronous with the diurnal variation in the surface skin temperature. It can be concluded from the study that surface characteristics over high terrain in dry and cold atmospheres have more significant impacts on the BWIL. With multiple water vapor absorption IR bands, the imagers on board the new generation of <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites will provide crucial improvement in water vapor remote sensing over the current single water vapor band on board the FY-2 series according to the analysis in this study.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19680000055','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19680000055"><span>Thread cutting with <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">axis</span> N/C milling machine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salley, G. C.; Wood, C. H., Jr.</p> <p>1968-01-01</p> <p>TAPDIE, a generalized macro written for the APT numerical control system, cuts threads in stock too big for conventional machines or for which conventional methods are unsuitable. TAPDIE computes the machine tool path necessary and the information is passed on to a post-processor which produces a control tape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890004117','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890004117"><span>Long-life <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">axis</span> satellite attitude sensing, phase 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Arild, Tor</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The purpose was to investigate the feasibility of new, moderate-cost, high reliability navigation sensors for high-altitude satellites, using stellar sources to obviate the use of gyroscopic devices. The primary investigation focused on the need for developing a star tracker model to replace an old star tracker which is still needed for current probe and satellite programs. One innovative element of the proposed star tracker was the design, development, and testing of technology components related to a phase scrambler plate. The purpose of the phase scrambler plate is to convert the impulse response of the optical system from a point image to a uniformly bright, square, angularly large, in-focus image of the star source. A collimated star source was built and tested. A breadboard star tracker with an 8 x 8 degree field of view was designed and built. It was tested in normal quad-cell mode (without the phase scrambler plate) and with the phase scrambler plate. Although the phase scrambler plate was crudely made, the performance of the star tracker breadboard was greatly improved using the phase scrambler plate, instead of system defocus. If further developed, the phase scrambler plate may be added as a low-cost retroconversion to any objective lens to greatly improve quad-cell or CCD array tracking; applications include star trackers, laser metrology, laser machining optics, and surveying instrumentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760008091','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760008091"><span>The <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">axis</span> Dynamic Motion Simulator (DMS) system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A three-axis dynamic motion simulator (DMS) consisting of a test table with three degrees of freedom and an electronics control system was designed, constructed, delivered, and tested. Documentation, as required in the Data Requirements List (DRL), was also provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737542','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737542"><span>Disposable soft <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">axis</span> force sensor for biomedical applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chathuranga, Damith Suresh; Zhongkui Wang; Yohan Noh; Nanayakkara, Thrishantha; Hirai, Shinichi</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a new disposable soft 3D force sensor that can be used to calculate either force or displacement and vibrations. It uses three Hall Effect sensors orthogonally placed around a cylindrical beam made of silicon rubber. A niobium permanent magnet is inside the silicon. When a force is applied to the end of the cylinder, it is compressed and bent to the opposite side of the force displacing the magnet. This displacement causes change in the magnetic flux around the ratiomatric linear sensors (Hall Effect sensors). By analysing these changes, we calculate the force or displacement in three directions using a lookup table. This sensor can be used in minimal invasive surgery and haptic feedback applications. The cheap construction, bio-compatibility and ease of miniaturization are few advantages of this sensor. The sensor design, and its characterization are presented in this work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10158946','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10158946"><span>Composite <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> unit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ebaugh, L.R.; Sadler, C.P.; Carter, G.D.</p> <p>1990-12-31</p> <p>This invention is comprised of an improved fin <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> projectile including multiple <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> fins upon a <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> unit situated at the aft end of the projectile is provided, the improvement wherein the <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> fins are joined into the <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> unit by an injection molded engineering grade polymer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868517','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868517"><span>Composite <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> unit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Ebaugh, Larry R.; Sadler, Collin P.; Carter, Gary D.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An improved fin <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> projectile including multiple <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> fins upon a <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> unit situated at the aft end of the projectile is provided, the improvement wherein the <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> fins are joined into the <span class="hlt">stabillizer</span> unit by an injection molded engineering grade polymer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002STIN...0305661P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002STIN...0305661P"><span>Design and Testing of Three-Axis Satellite Attitude Determination and <span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> Systems That Are Based on Magnetic Sensing and Actuation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Psiaki, Mark L.; Guelman, Moshe</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>Three-axis satellite attitude determination and active <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> systems have been designed and tested using both flight experiments and simulation studies. These are being developed for use on low-Earth-orbiting name- satellites. Such satellites can be used as elements of constellations that implement synthetic aperture radar or that serve as nudes in a communications network. The research has addressed the problems of under-sensing and under-actuation that are present in magnetic-based systems. Magnetometer outputs are insensitive to rotation about the local Earth magnetic field, and magnetic torque coils cannot produce torque slump the field direction. A new attitude representation and a special globally-convergent extended Kalman filter have been used to solve the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">axis</span> attitude estimation problem. The efficacy of this system has been demonstrated using data from the missions, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. Semi-active global <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">axis</span> <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> has been demonstrated using a simplified magnetometer output feedback control law in combination with weak passive <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> of the axes. The passive <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> can come from a very small momentum wheel or from a new aerodynamic system. The momentum-wheel-based concept has been successfully tested on the TechSat Gurwin II spacecraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..39...28V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..39...28V"><span>A combined deficit index for regional agricultural drought assessment over semi-arid tract of India using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vyas, Swapnil S.; Bhattacharya, Bimal K.; Nigam, Rahul; Guhathakurta, Pulak; Ghosh, Kripan; Chattopadhyay, N.; Gairola, R. M.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The untimely onset and uneven distribution of south-west monsoon rainfall lead to agricultural drought causing reduction in food-grain production with high vulnerability over semi-arid tract (SAT) of India. A combined deficit index (CDI) has been developed from tri-monthly sum of deficit in antecedent rainfall and deficit in monthly vegetation vigor with a lag period of one month between the two. The formulation of CDI used a core biophysical (e.g., NDVI) and a hydro-meteorological (e.g., rainfall) variables derived using observation from Indian <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites. The CDI was tested and evaluated in two drought years (2009 and 2012) within a span of five years (2009-2013) over SAT. The index was found to have good correlation (0.49-0.68) with standardized precipitation index (SPI) computed from rain-gauge measurements but showed lower correlation with anomaly in monthly land surface temperature (LST). Significant correlations were found between CDI and reduction in agricultural carbon productivity (0.67-0.83), evapotranspiration (0.64-0.73), agricultural grain yield (0.70-0.85). Inconsistent correlation between CDI and ET reduction was noticed in 2012 in contrast to consistent correlation between CDI and reduction in carbon productivity both in 2009 and 2012. The comparison of CDI-based drought-affected area with those from existing operational approach showed 75% overlapping regions though class-to-class matching was only 40-45%. The results demonstrated that CDI is a potential indicator for assessment of late-season regional agricultural drought based on lag-response between water supply and crop vigor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.140..188B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.140..188B"><span>On the feasibility of monitoring carbon monoxide in the lower troposphere from a constellation of northern hemisphere <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites: Global scale assimilation experiments (Part II)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barré, Jérôme; Edwards, David; Worden, Helen; Arellano, Avelino; Gaubert, Benjamin; Da Silva, Arlindo; Lahoz, William; Anderson, Jeffrey</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>This paper describes the second phase of an Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) that utilizes the synthetic measurements from a constellation of satellites measuring atmospheric composition from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> (GEO) Earth orbit presented in part I of the study. Our OSSE is focused on carbon monoxide observations over North America, East Asia and Europe where most of the anthropogenic sources are located. Here we assess the impact of a potential GEO constellation on constraining northern hemisphere (NH) carbon monoxide (CO) using data assimilation. We show how cloud cover affects the GEO constellation data density with the largest cloud cover (i.e., lowest data density) occurring during Asian summer. We compare the modeled state of the atmosphere (Control Run), before CO data assimilation, with the known "true" state of the atmosphere (Nature Run) and show that our setup provides realistic atmospheric CO fields and emission budgets. Overall, the Control Run underestimates CO concentrations in the northern hemisphere, especially in areas close to CO sources. Assimilation experiments show that constraining CO close to the main anthropogenic sources significantly reduces errors in NH CO compared to the Control Run. We assess the changes in error reduction when only single satellite instruments are available as compared to the full constellation. We find large differences in how measurements for each continental scale observation system affect the hemispherical improvement in long-range transport patterns, especially due to seasonal cloud cover. A GEO constellation will provide the most efficient constraint on NH CO during winter when CO lifetime is longer and increments from data assimilation associated with source regions are advected further around the globe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.6993W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.6993W"><span>Estimation of ocean surface currents from maximum cross correlation applied to GOCI <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite remote sensing data over the Tsushima (Korea) Straits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Warren, M. A.; Quartly, G. D.; Shutler, J. D.; Miller, P. I.; Yoshikawa, Y.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Attempts to automatically estimate surface current velocities from satellite-derived thermal or visible imagery face the limitations of data occlusion due to cloud cover, the complex evolution of features and the degradation of their surface signature. The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) provides a chance to reappraise such techniques due to its multiyear record of hourly high-resolution visible spectrum data. Here we present the results of applying a Maximum Cross Correlation (MCC) technique to GOCI data. Using a combination of simulated and real data we derive suitable processing parameters and examine the robustness of different satellite products, those being water-leaving radiance and chlorophyll concentration. These estimates of surface currents are evaluated using High Frequency (HF) radar systems located in the Tsushima (Korea) Strait. We show the performance of the MCC approach varies depending on the amount of missing data and the presence of strong optical contrasts. Using simulated data it was found that patchy cloud cover occupying 25% of the image pair reduces the number of vectors by 20% compared to using perfect images. Root mean square errors between the MCC and HF radar velocities are of the order of 20 cm s-1. Performance varies depending on the wavelength of the data with the blue-green products out-performing the red and near infra-red products. Application of MCC to GOCI chlorophyll data results in similar performance to radiances in the blue-green bands. The technique has been demonstrated using specific examples of an eddy feature and tidal induced features in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31B0047L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31B0047L"><span>Constraints on Anthropogenic NOx Emissions from <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Observations in a Regional Chemical Data Assimilation System: Evaluation Using Observing System Simulation Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, X.; Mizzi, A. P.; Anderson, J. L.; Fung, I. Y.; Cohen, R. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2) control the tropospheric ozone (O3) budget, the abundance of the hydroxyl radical (OH), the formation of organic and inorganic nitrate aerosol, and therefore affect air quality and climate. There remain significant uncertainties in the processes responsible for NOx emissions and subsequent mixing and chemical removal. NOx has a short lifetime and its emissions show high spatiotemporal variability at urban scale. Future <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite instruments including TEMPO, GEMS and Sentinel-4 will provide hourly time resolution and high spatial resolution observations providing maps of NO2 on diurnal and local scales. Here we determine the extent to which a TEMPO like instrument can quantify urban-scale NOx emissions using a regional data assimilation (DA) system comprising of a chemical transport model, WRF-Chem, a TEMPO simulator and the DART Ensemble Adjustment Kalman Filter. We generate synthetic TEMPO observations by sampling from a nature run on an urban scale domain. We consider the effect of albedo, surface pressure, solar and viewing angles and a priori NO2 profiles on the TEMPO NO2 averaging kernel to achieve scene-dependent instrument sensitivity. We estimate NOx emissions using DART in a state augmentation approach by including NOx emissions in the state vector being analyzed. The ensemble-based statistical estimation of error correlations between concentrations and emissions are critical as they determine the impact of assimilated observations. We describe observing system simulation experiments to explore the optimal approach in the ensemble-based DA system to estimate hourly-resolved NOx emissions from TEMPO NO2 observations. Several case studies will be presented examining the role of covariance localization length and chemical perturbations on the success of the approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.4119W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.4119W"><span>Spatially resolving methane emissions in California: constraints from the CalNex aircraft campaign and from present (GOSAT, TES) and future (TROPOMI, <span class="hlt">geostationary</span>) satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wecht, K. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Parker, R.; Bösch, H.; Worden, J.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>We apply a continental-scale inverse modeling system for North America based on the GEOS-Chem model to optimize California methane emissions at 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution using atmospheric observations from the CalNex aircraft campaign (May-June 2010) and from satellites. Inversion of the CalNex data yields a best estimate for total California methane emissions of 2.86 ± 0.21 Tg yr-1, compared with 1.92 Tg yr-1 in the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory used as a priori and 1.51 Tg yr-1 in the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory used for state regulations of greenhouse gas emissions. These results are consistent with a previous Lagrangian inversion of the CalNex data. Our inversion provides 12 independent pieces of information to constrain the geographical distribution of emissions within California. Attribution to individual source types indicates dominant contributions to emissions from landfills/wastewater (1.1 Tg yr-1), livestock (0.87 Tg yr-1), and gas/oil (0.64 Tg yr-1). EDGAR v4.2 underestimates emissions from livestock while CARB underestimates emissions from landfills/wastewater and gas/oil. Current satellite observations from GOSAT can constrain methane emissions in the Los Angeles Basin but are too sparse to constrain emissions quantitatively elsewhere in California (they can still be qualitatively useful to diagnose inventory biases). Los Angeles Basin emissions derived from CalNex and GOSAT inversions are 0.42 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.08, respectively. An observation system simulation experiment (OSSE) shows that the future TROPOMI satellite instrument (2015 launch) will be able to constrain California methane emissions at a detail comparable to the CalNex aircraft campaign. <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> satellite observations offer even greater potential for constraining methane emissions in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.8173W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.8173W"><span>Spatially resolving methane emissions in California: constraints from the CalNex aircraft campaign and from present (GOSAT, TES) and future (TROPOMI, <span class="hlt">geostationary</span>) satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wecht, K. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Parker, R.; Bösch, H.; Worden, J.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>We apply a continental-scale inverse modeling system for North America based on the GEOS-Chem model to optimize California methane emissions at 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution using atmospheric observations from the CalNex aircraft campaign (May-June 2010) and from satellites. Inversion of the CalNex data yields a best estimate for total California methane emissions of 2.86 ± 0.21 Tg a-1, compared with 1.92 Tg a-1 in the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory used as a priori and 1.51 Tg a-1 in the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory used for state regulations of greenhouse gas emissions. These results are consistent with a previous Lagrangian inversion of the CalNex data. Our inversion provides 12 independent pieces of information to constrain the geographical distribution of emissions within California. Attribution to individual source types indicates dominant contributions to emissions from landfills/wastewater (1.1 Tg a-1), livestock (0.87 Tg a-1), and gas/oil (0.64 Tg a-1). EDGAR v4.2 underestimates emissions from livestock, while CARB underestimates emissions from landfills/wastewater and gas/oil. Current satellite observations from GOSAT can constrain methane emissions in the Los Angeles Basin but are too sparse to constrain emissions quantitatively elsewhere in California (they can still be qualitatively useful to diagnose inventory biases). Los Angeles Basin emissions derived from CalNex and GOSAT inversions are 0.42 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.08 Tg a-1 that the future TROPOMI satellite instrument (2015 launch) will be able to constrain California methane emissions at a detail comparable to the CalNex aircraft campaign. <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> satellite observations offer even greater potential for constraining methane emissions in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AMTD....4..815C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AMTD....4..815C"><span>A thermal infrared instrument onboard a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform for CO and O3 measurements in the lowermost troposphere: observing system simulation experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Claeyman, M.; Attié, J.-L.; Peuch, V.-H.; El Amraoui, L.; Lahoz, W. A.; Josse, B.; Joly, M.; Barré, J.; Ricaud, P.; Massart, S.; Piacentini, A.; von Clarmann, T.; Höpfner, M.; Orphal, J.; Flaud, J.-M.; Edwards, D. P.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>This paper presents observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) to compare the relative capabilities of two <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> thermal infrared (TIR) instruments to monitor ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) for air quality (AQ) purposes over Europe. The originality of this study is to use OSSEs to assess how these infrared instruments can constrain different errors affecting AQ hindcasts and forecasts (emissions, meteorology, initial condition and the 3 parameters together). The first instrument (GEO-TIR) has a configuration optimized to monitor O3 and CO in the lowermost tr posphere (LmT; defined to be the atmosphere between the surface and 3 km), and the second instrument (GEO-TIR2) is designed to monitor temperature and humidity. Both instruments measure radiances in the same spectral TIR band. Results show that GEO-TIR could have a significant impact (GEO-TIR is closer to the reference atmosphere than GEO-TIR2) on the analyses of O3 and CO LmT column. The value of the measurements for both instruments is mainly over the Mediterranean Basin and some impact can be found over the Atlantic Ocean and Northern Europe. The impact of GEO-TIR is mainly above 1 km for O3 and CO but can also improve the surface analyses for CO. The analyses of GEO-TIR2 show low impact for O3 LmT column but a significant impact (but lower than for GEO-TIR) for CO above 1 km. The results of this study indicate the beneficial impact from an infrared instrument (GEO-TIR) dedicated to monitoring O3 and CO concentrations in the LmT, and quantify the value of this information for constraining AQ models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AMT.....4.1637C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AMT.....4.1637C"><span>A thermal infrared instrument onboard a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> platform for CO and O3 measurements in the lowermost troposphere: Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Claeyman, M.; Attié, J.-L.; Peuch, V.-H.; El Amraoui, L.; Lahoz, W. A.; Josse, B.; Joly, M.; Barré, J.; Ricaud, P.; Massart, S.; Piacentini, A.; von Clarmann, T.; Höpfner, M.; Orphal, J.; Flaud, J.-M.; Edwards, D. P.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>This paper presents observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) to compare the relative capabilities of two <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> thermal infrared (TIR) instruments to measure ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) for monitoring air quality (AQ) over Europe. The primary motivation of this study is to use OSSEs to assess how these infrared instruments can constrain different errors affecting AQ hindcasts and forecasts (emissions, meteorology, initial condition and the 3 parameters together). The first instrument (GEO-TIR) has a configuration optimized to monitor O3 and CO in the lowermost troposphere (LmT; defined to be the atmosphere between the surface and 3 km), and the second instrument (GEO-TIR2) is designed to monitor temperature and humidity. Both instruments measure radiances in the same spectral TIR band. Results show that GEO-TIR could have a significant impact (GEO-TIR is closer to the reference atmosphere than GEO-TIR2) on the analyses of O3 and CO LmT column. The information added by the measurements for both instruments is mainly over the Mediterranean Basin and some impact can be found over the Atlantic Ocean and Northern Europe. The impact of GEO-TIR is mainly above 1 km for O3 and CO but can also improve the surface analyses for CO. The analyses of GEO-TIR2 show low impact for O3 LmT column but a significant impact (although still lower than for GEO-TIR) for CO above 1 km. The results of this study indicate the beneficial impact from an infrared instrument (GEO-TIR) with a capability for monitoring O3 and CO concentrations in the LmT, and quantify the value of this information for constraining AQ models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/420671','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/420671"><span>Plutonium inventories for <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> and <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Williams, A.K.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to <span class="hlt">stabilize</span> these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> activities. All current <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> problem materials within 3 years, and <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. <span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> activities to meet these criteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE12A..01K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE12A..01K"><span>Looking Forward to the GOES-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper: Use of Total Lightning Information within Short-Term Forecasts and Hazardous Weather Warnings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuhlman, K. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Total lightning data, such as that provided by the GOES-R <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM), provides a particularly attractive addition to the current, radar-only analyses and subsequent forecasts of severe convective storms. The connection between total lightning rates and severe weather has been well documented, but until recently, the detection and monitoring of total lightning has been primarily utilized only within research activity or for unique events such as space missions. Satellite-based lightning data from the GLM has the potential to provide information for convective storms across large territories, including typically data sparse regions such as offshore and within mountainous terrain. Additionally, lightning data may be able to provide extra lead-time over traditional radar data, highlighting which storms are electrically active and growing quickly as opposed to those that are not. Since 2010, the Hazardous Weather Testbed (HWT) has been successfully utilized to provide forecasters with a first-hand look at the latest research concepts and products integrating total lightning data while also educating lightning research scientists on the challenges, needs, and constraints of National Weather Service (NWS) warning forecasters. During the live spring experiments, one to five-minute grids of total lightning density and subsequent lightning-derived algorithms, such as the lightning jump, have been incorporated by NWS forecasters within their real-time warning-decision process for various storm modes over multiple regions of the US. Both formal and informal research protocols were used to collect observations, data, and feedback and included online surveys, live blogging and post-event discussions. In their evaluations, forecasters have noted that total lightning data and algorithms could be an incredibly useful situational awareness tool and may be able to provide additional guidance during a warning decision. Additionally, total lightning data shows</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSA24A..04C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSA24A..04C"><span>Application of the Strong Scatter Theory to the Interpretation of Ionospheric Scintillation Measurements along <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Satellite Links at VHF and L-band</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carrano, C. S.; Groves, K. M.; Basu, S.; Mackenzie, E.; Sheehan, R. E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In a previous work, we demonstrated that ionospheric turbulence parameters may be inferred from amplitude scintillations well into in the strong scatter regime [Carrano et al., International Journal of Geophysics, 2012]. This technique, called Iterative Parameter Estimation (IPE), uses the strong scatter theory and numerical inversion to estimate the parameters of an ionospheric phase screen (turbulent intensity, phase spectral index, and irregularity zonal drift) consistent with the observed scintillations. The optimal screen parameters are determined such that the theoretical intensity spectrum on the ground best matches the measured intensity spectrum in a least squares sense. We use this technique to interpret scintillation measurements collected during a campaign at Ascension Island (7.96°S, 14.41°W) in March 2000, led by Santimay Basu and his collaborators from Air Force Research Laboratory. <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> satellites broadcasting radio signals at VHF and L-band were monitored along nearly co-linear links, enabling a multi-frequency analysis of scintillations with the same propagation geometry. The VHF data were acquired using antennas spaced in the magnetic east-west direction, which enabled direct measurement of the zonal irregularity drift. We show that IPE analysis of the VHF and L-Band scintillations, which exhibited very different statistics due to the wide frequency separation, yields similar estimates of the phase screen parameters that specify the disturbed ionospheric medium. This agreement provides confidence in our phase screen parameter estimates. It also suggests a technique for extrapolating scintillation measurements to frequencies other than those observed that is valid in the case of strong scatter. We find that IPE estimates of the zonal irregularity drift, made using scintillation observations along single space-to-ground link, are consistent with those measured independently using the spaced antenna technique. This encouraging result</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A13L0350F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A13L0350F"><span>Tropical convective systems life cycle characteristics from <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite and precipitating estimates derived from TRMM and ground weather radar observations for the West African and South American regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fiolleau, T.; Roca, R.; Angelis, F. C.; Viltard, N.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>In the tropics most of the rainfall comes in the form of individual storm events embedded in the synoptic circulations (e.g., monsoons). Understanding the rainfall and its variability hence requires to document these highly contributing tropical convective systems (MCS). Our knowledge of the MCS life cycle, from a physical point of view mainly arises from individual observational campaigns heavily based on ground radar observations. While this large part of observations enabled the creation of conceptual models of MCS life cycle, it nevertheless does not reach any statistically significant integrated perspective yet. To overcome this limitation, a composite technique, that will serve as a Day-1 algorithm for the Megha-Tropiques mission, is considered in this study. this method is based on a collocation in space and time of the level-2 rainfall estimates (BRAIN) derived from the TMI radiometer onboard TRMM with the cloud systems identified by a new MCS tracking algorithm called TOOCAN and based on a 3-dimensional segmentation (image + time) of the <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> IR imagery. To complete this study, a similar method is also developed collocating the cloud systems with the precipitating features derived from the ground weather radar which has been deployed during the CHUVA campaign over several Brazilian regions from 2010 up to now. A comparison of the MCSs life cycle is then performed for the 2010-2012 summer seasons over the West African, and South American regions. On the whole region of study, the results show that the temporal evolution of the cold cloud shield associated to MCSs describes a symmetry between the growth and the decay phases. It is also shown that the parameters of the conceptual model of MCSs are strongly correlated, reducing thereby the problem to a single degree of freedom. At the system scale, over both land and oceanic regions, rainfall is described by an increase at the beginning (the first third) of the life cycle and then smoothly decreases</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AcAau..68..802S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AcAau..68..802S"><span>European small <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> communications satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Wei, , Dr.; Ellmers, Frank; Winkler, Andreas; Schuff, Herbert; Sansegundo Chamarro, Manuel Julián</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Hispasat Advanced Generation 1 (HAG1) is the first satellite using the SGEO platform, which is under the development in the ESA Artes-11 program. Since the last presentation in the IAC 2007, a European industrial consortium led by OHB has completed the mission and spacecraft design. The platform Preliminary Design Review has been carried out in May 2008. The customer for the first mission is a commercial operator—Hispasat. The contract was signed in December 2008 and the satellite will be launched in 2012. To give confidence to the customer, SGEO platform will use up to date flight proven technologies. HAG1 carries 20/24 Ku-band and 3/5 Ka-band transponders to provide commercial services. Some innovative payload technologies will also be flown on board of HAG1 to gain in-orbit heritage. SGEO has also been selected as the baseline platform for the ESA Data Relay Satellite (EDRS). Phase-A study has just kicked off in January 2009. The targeted launch date is 2013. Heinrich Hertz will also use the SGEO platform. Heinrich Hertz is funded by the German Space Agency (DLR) and provides flight opportunities for technologies and components developed by the German Space Industry. With the HAG1 contract in hand, and EDRS and Heinrich Hertz in the line, OHB with its partners has the confidence that it will be able to speed up the product development of the SGEO platform for potential customers in the commercial market. This paper will first present the updated platform design and the status of the product development will be followed with the introduction of innovative payload technologies on board the first mission—HAG1 and ended with the mission concepts of EDRS and Heinrich Hertz missions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA535679','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA535679"><span>District <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Framework (DSF)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>systemic causes for the SOI. • Monitoring and Evaluation . Measure change in the <span class="hlt">stability</span> environment with respect to specific SOI as well as overall...conditions and operating environments  Better <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> planning  Better <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> execution • More effective/thorough Monitoring and Evaluation (IMPACT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+stability&pg=2&id=EJ996819','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+stability&pg=2&id=EJ996819"><span>Limits to <span class="hlt">Stability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cottey, Alan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The author reflects briefly on what limited degree of global ecological <span class="hlt">stability</span> and human cultural <span class="hlt">stability</span> may be achieved, provided that humanity retains hope and does not give way to despair or hide in denial. These thoughts were triggered by a recent conference on International <span class="hlt">Stability</span> and Systems Engineering. (Contains 5 notes.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/946777','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/946777"><span>Longitudinal <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Blaskiewicz,M.</p> <p>2009-01-02</p> <p>Coupled bunch longitudinal <span class="hlt">stability</span> in the presence of high frequency impedances is considered. A frequency domain technique is developed and compared with simulations. The frequency domain technique allows for absolute <span class="hlt">stability</span> tests and is applied to the problem of longitudinal <span class="hlt">stability</span> in RHIC with the new 56 MHz RF system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/304154','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/304154"><span>Feedback <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> initiative</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback <span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback <span class="hlt">stabilization</span>. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback <span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> schemes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0639460','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0639460"><span>THERMAL <span class="hlt">STABILITY</span> OF GLASS PLASTICS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>COMPOSITE MATERIALS, THERMAL <span class="hlt">STABILITY</span>), (* GLASS TEXTILES, THERMAL <span class="hlt">STABILITY</span>), (*LAMINATED PLASTICS , THERMAL <span class="hlt">STABILITY</span>), HEATING, COOLING, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, FATIGUE(MECHANICS), FLEXURAL STRENGTH, THERMAL STRESSES, USSR</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610297B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610297B"><span>Towards high temporal and moderate spatial resolutions in the remote sensing retrieval of evapotranspiration by combining <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and polar orbit satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrios, José Miguel; Ghilain, Nicolas; Arboleda, Alirio; Gellens-Meulenberghs, Françoise</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Evapotranspiration (ET) is the water flux going from the surface into the atmosphere as result of soil and surface water evaporation and plant transpiration. It constitutes a key component of the water cycle and its quantification is of crucial importance for a number of applications like water management, climatic modelling, agriculture monitoring and planning, etc. Estimating ET is not an easy task; specially if large areas are envisaged and various spatio-temporal patterns of ET are present as result of heterogeneity in land cover, land use and climatic conditions. In this respect, spaceborne remote sensing (RS) provides the only alternative to continuously measure surface parameters related to ET over large areas. The Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) of Belgium, in the framework of EUMETSAT's "Land Surface Analysis-Satellite Application Facility" (LSA-SAF), has developed a model for the estimation of ET. The model is forced by RS data, numerical weather predictions and land cover information. The RS forcing is derived from measurements by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. This ET model is operational and delivers ET estimations over the whole field of view of the MSG satellite (Europe, Africa and Eastern South America) (http://landsaf.meteo.pt) every 30 minutes. The spatial resolution of MSG is 3 x 3 km at subsatellite point and about 4 x 5 km in continental Europe. The spatial resolution of this product may constrain its full exploitation as the interest of potential users (farmers and natural resources scientists) may lie on smaller spatial units. This study aimed at testing methodological alternatives to combine RS imagery (<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> and polar orbit satellites) for the estimation of ET such that the spatial resolution of the final product is improved. In particular, the study consisted in the implementation of two approaches for combining the current ET estimations with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21432437','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21432437"><span><span class="hlt">Stability</span> of holographic superconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro</p> <p>2010-10-15</p> <p>We study the dynamical <span class="hlt">stability</span> of holographic superconductors. We first classify perturbations around black hole background solutions into vector and scalar sectors by means of a 2-dimensional rotational symmetry. We prove the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of the vector sector by explicitly constructing the positive definite Hamiltonian. To reveal a mechanism for the <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> of a superconducting phase, we construct a quadratic action for the scalar sector. From the action, we see the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of black holes near a critical point is determined by the equation of motion for a charged scalar field. We show the effective mass of the charged scalar field in hairy black holes is always above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound near the critical point due to the backreaction of a gauge field. It implies the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of the superconducting phase. We also argue that the <span class="hlt">stability</span> continues away from the critical point.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvD..82h6003K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvD..82h6003K"><span><span class="hlt">Stability</span> of holographic superconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>We study the dynamical <span class="hlt">stability</span> of holographic superconductors. We first classify perturbations around black hole background solutions into vector and scalar sectors by means of a 2-dimensional rotational symmetry. We prove the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of the vector sector by explicitly constructing the positive definite Hamiltonian. To reveal a mechanism for the <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> of a superconducting phase, we construct a quadratic action for the scalar sector. From the action, we see the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of black holes near a critical point is determined by the equation of motion for a charged scalar field. We show the effective mass of the charged scalar field in hairy black holes is always above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound near the critical point due to the backreaction of a gauge field. It implies the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of the superconducting phase. We also argue that the <span class="hlt">stability</span> continues away from the critical point.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA038902','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA038902"><span><span class="hlt">Stabilized</span> Laser Gravimeter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1976-11-01</p> <p>McMullen, "<span class="hlt">Stabilized</span> Laser Gravim- eter," Proceedings of the 20th International Instrumentations Symposium, Albuquerque, New Mexico , May 1974. N.D...and N.D. McMullen, "<span class="hlt">Stabilized</span> Laser Gravimeter," Proceedings of the 20th International Instrumentations Symposium, Albuquerque, New Mexico , May 1974...International Instrumentations *i, Albuquerque, New Mexico , May 1974. 3. J. Levine and J.L. Hall, "Design and Operation of a Methane Absorp- tion <span class="hlt">Stabilized</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=internet+AND+addiction+AND+effects&id=EJ897484','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=internet+AND+addiction+AND+effects&id=EJ897484"><span>Internet Addiction: <span class="hlt">Stability</span> and Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Huang, Chiungjung</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This longitudinal study examined five indices of <span class="hlt">stability</span> and change in Internet addiction: structural <span class="hlt">stability</span>, mean-level <span class="hlt">stability</span>, differential <span class="hlt">stability</span>, individual-level <span class="hlt">stability</span>, and ipsative <span class="hlt">stability</span>. The study sample was 351 undergraduate students from end of freshman year to end of junior year. Convergent findings revealed stability…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/824422','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/824422"><span><span class="hlt">Stabilizing</span> Grout Compatibility Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>HARBOUR, JOHNR.</p> <p>2004-05-19</p> <p>This report provides data that will be used to formulate the <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> grout and includes experimental results for Tc-99 <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> by two reagents, (1) ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and (2) surface treated hydroxyapatite (HA). One or both of these reagents are being considered by CH2M HILL for incorporation in the binder portion (matrix portion without sand) of the <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> grout. The technical basis for identifying the grout ingredient(s) for <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> technetium (Tc-99) will be provided by researchers at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in a subsequent report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130010171','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130010171"><span>The Use of the Deep Convective Cloud Technique (DCCT) to Monitor On-Orbit Performance of the <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM): Use of Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) Data as Proxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buechler, Dennis E.; Christian, H. J.; Koshak, William J.; Goodman, Steve J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Lightning Mapper (GLM) on the next generation <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R) will not have onboard calibration capability to monitor its performance. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite has been providing observations of total lightning over the Earth's Tropics since 1997. The GLM design is based on LIS heritage, making it a good proxy dataset. This study examines the performance of LIS throughout its time in orbit. This was accomplished through application of the Deep Convective Cloud Technique (DCCT) (Doelling et al., 2004) to LIS background pixel radiance data. The DCCT identifies deep convective clouds by their cold Infrared (IR) brightness temperatures and using them as invariant targets in the solar reflective portion of the solar spectrum. The GLM and LIS operate in the near-IR at a wavelength of 777.4 nm. In the present study the IR data is obtained from the Visible Infrared Sensor (VIRS) which is collocated with LIS onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The DCCT is applied to LIS observations for July and August of each year from 1998-2010. The resulting distributions of LIS background DCC pixel radiance for each July August are very similar, indicating stable performance. The mean radiance of the DCCT analysis does not show a long term trend and the maximum deviation of the July August mean radiance for each year is within 0.7% of the overall mean. These results demonstrate that there has been no discernible change in LIS performance throughout its lifetime. A similar approach will used for monitoring the performance of GLM, with cold clouds identified using IR data from the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) which will also be located on GOES-R. Since GLM is based on LIS design heritage, the LIS results indicate that GLM should also experience stable performance over its lifetime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865296','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865296"><span><span class="hlt">Stabilized</span> radio frequency quadrupole</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Lancaster, Henry D.; Fugitt, Jock A.; Howard, Donald R.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A long-vane <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> the resonator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7243952','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7243952"><span><span class="hlt">Stabilized</span> radio frequency quadrupole</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Lancaster, H.D.; Fugitt, J.A.; Howard, D.R.</p> <p>1984-12-25</p> <p>Disclosed is a long-vane <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> the resonator. 5 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1345503','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1345503"><span>Electrode <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Odom, Susan A.</p> <p>2015-11-03</p> <p>An electrolyte includes a polar aprotic solvent; an alkali metal salt; and an electrode <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> compound that is a monomer, which when polymerized forms an electrically conductive polymer. The electrode <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> compound is a thiophene, a imidazole, a anilines, a benzene, a azulene, a carbazole, or a thiol. Electrochemical devices may incorporate such electrolytes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850024096','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850024096"><span>Interfacial bonding <span class="hlt">stability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Boerio, J.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Interfacial bonding <span class="hlt">stability</span> by in situ ellipsometry was investigated. It is found that: (1) gamma MPS is an effective primer for bonding ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) to aluminum; (2) ellipsometry is an effective in situ technique for monitoring the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of polymer/metal interfaces; (3) the aluminized back surface of silicon wafers contain significant amounts of silicon and may have glass like properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780038968&hterms=Kepler+Laws&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DKepler%2527s%2BLaws','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780038968&hterms=Kepler+Laws&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DKepler%2527s%2BLaws"><span><span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> of Kepler's problem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stokes, A.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A regularization of Kepler's problem due to Moser (1970) is used to <span class="hlt">stabilize</span> the equations of motion. In other words, a particular solution of Kepler's problem is imbedded in a Liapunov stable system. Perturbations can be introduced into the <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> equations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19720547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19720547"><span>Basic principles of <span class="hlt">stability</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Egan, William; Schofield, Timothy</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>An understanding of the principles of degradation, as well as the statistical tools for measuring product <span class="hlt">stability</span>, is essential to management of product quality. Key to this is management of vaccine potency. Vaccine shelf life is best managed through determination of a minimum potency release requirement, which helps assure adequate potency throughout expiry. Use of statistical tools such a least squares regression analysis should be employed to model potency decay. The use of such tools provides incentive to properly design vaccine <span class="hlt">stability</span> studies, while holding <span class="hlt">stability</span> measurements to specification presents a disincentive for collecting valuable data. The laws of kinetics such as Arrhenius behavior help practitioners design effective accelerated <span class="hlt">stability</span> programs, which can be utilized to manage <span class="hlt">stability</span> after a process change. Design of <span class="hlt">stability</span> studies should be carefully considered, with an eye to minimizing the variability of the <span class="hlt">stability</span> parameter. In the case of measuring the degradation rate, testing at the beginning and the end of the study improves the precision of this estimate. Additional design considerations such as bracketing and matrixing improve the efficiency of <span class="hlt">stability</span> evaluation of vaccines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880007248','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880007248"><span>Rotorcraft aeroelastic <span class="hlt">stability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ormiston, Robert A.; Warmbrodt, William G.; Hodges, Dewey H.; Peters, David A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Theoretical and experimental developments in the aeroelastic and aeromechanical <span class="hlt">stability</span> of helicopters and tilt-rotor aircraft are addressed. Included are the underlying nonlinear structural mechanics of slender rotating beams, necessary for accurate modeling of elastic cantilever rotor blades, and the development of dynamic inflow, an unsteady aerodynamic theory for low-frequency aeroelastic <span class="hlt">stability</span> applications. Analytical treatment of isolated rotor <span class="hlt">stability</span> in hover and forward flight, coupled rotor-fuselage <span class="hlt">stability</span> in hover and forward flight, and analysis of tilt-rotor dynamic <span class="hlt">stability</span> are considered. Results of parametric investigations of system behavior are presented, and correlation between theoretical results and experimental data from small and large scale wind tunnel and flight testing are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864717','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864717"><span>Surface controlled blade <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Russell, Larry R.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Drill string <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> apparatus, controllable to expand and retract entirely from the surface by control of drill string pressure, wherein increase of drill string pressure from the surface closes a valve to create a piston means which is moved down by drill string pressure to expand the <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> blades, said valve being opened and the piston moving upward upon reduction of drill string pressure to retract the <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> blades. Upward and downward movements of the piston and an actuator sleeve therebelow are controlled by a barrel cam acting between the housing and the actuator sleeve.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730017279','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730017279"><span>Life raft <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Radnofsky, M. I.; Barnett, J. H., Jr.; Harrison, F. L.; Marak, R. J. (Inventor)</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>An improved life raft <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> for reducing rocking and substantially precluding capsizing is discussed. The <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> may be removably attached to the raft and is defined by flexible side walls which extend a considerable depth downwardly to one another in the water. The side walls, in conjunction with the floor of the raft, form a ballast enclosure. A weight is placed in the bottom of the enclosure and water port means are provided in the walls. Placement of the <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> in the water allows the weighted bottom to sink, producing submerged deployment thereof and permitting water to enter the enclosure through the port means, thus forming a ballast for the raft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2430060','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2430060"><span>Evolutionary <span class="hlt">stability</span> on graphs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Nowak, Martin A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Evolutionary <span class="hlt">stability</span> is a fundamental concept in evolutionary game theory. A strategy is called an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS), if its monomorphic population rejects the invasion of any other mutant strategy. Recent studies have revealed that population structure can considerably affect evolutionary dynamics. Here we derive the conditions of evolutionary <span class="hlt">stability</span> for games on graphs. We obtain analytical conditions for regular graphs of degree k > 2. Those theoretical predictions are compared with computer simulations for random regular graphs and for lattices. We study three different update rules: birth-death (BD), death-birth (DB), and imitation (IM) updating. Evolutionary <span class="hlt">stability</span> on sparse graphs does not imply evolutionary <span class="hlt">stability</span> in a well-mixed population, nor vice versa. We provide a geometrical interpretation of the ESS condition on graphs. PMID:18295801</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26599118','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26599118"><span><span class="hlt">Stability</span> and Retention.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Will, Leslie A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Stability</span> of tooth position in the broader sense considers all the forces that may act on the tooth. Reitan reported that significant forces remained in the periodontium after tooth movement, and he carried out research that demonstrated residual stretching of the crestal periodontal fibers more than 7 months after tooth movement. Brain demonstrated that severing the fibers reduced the relapse in tooth position in dogs. Edwards published a series of papers exploring the effects of surgical transection of the gingival fibers on tooth <span class="hlt">stability</span>, recommending that circumferential fiberotomy be performed in order to increase posttreatment tooth <span class="hlt">stability</span>. Other researchers have suggested ways to increase the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of the incisors, which are typically most prone to relapse. Peck and Peck recommended that interproximal reduction be done to broaden the contact point. Boese also recommended interproximal reduction as part of a four-pronged approach to retention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/803706','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/803706"><span>Thermal <span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> Blend Plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>RISENMAY, H.R.</p> <p>2000-05-02</p> <p>This Blend Plan documents the feed material items that are stored in 2736-2 vaults, the 2736-ZB 638 cage, the 192C vault, and the 225 vault that will be processed through the thermal <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> furnaces. The purpose of thermal <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> is to heat the material to 1000 degrees Celsius to drive off all water and leave the plutonium and/or uranium as oxides. The <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> material will be sampled to determine the Loss On Ignition (LOI) or percent water. The <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> material must meet water content or LOI of less than 0.5% to be acceptable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99 specifications. Out of specification material will be recycled through the furnaces until the water or LOI limits are met.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920022767&hterms=Sputnik&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSputnik','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920022767&hterms=Sputnik&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSputnik"><span>Spacecraft <span class="hlt">stability</span> and control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barret, Chris</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The Earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, slowly tumbled in orbit. The first U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, also tumbled out of control. Today, satellite <span class="hlt">stability</span> and control has become a higher priority. For a satellite design that is to have a life expectancy of 14 years, appropriate spacecraft flight control systems will be reviewed, <span class="hlt">stability</span> requirements investigated, and an appropriate flight control system recommended in order to see the design process. Disturbance torques, including aerodynamic, magnetic, gravity gradient, solar, micrometeorite, debris, collision, and internal torques, will be assessed to quantify the disturbance environment so that the required compensating torques can be determined. The control torques, including passive versus active, momentum control, bias momentum, spin <span class="hlt">stabilization</span>, dual spin, gravity gradient, magnetic, reaction wheels, control moment gyros, inertia augmentation techniques, three-axis control, and reaction control systems (RCSs), will be considered. Conditions for <span class="hlt">stability</span> will also be considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830010489','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830010489"><span>Metallic alloy <span class="hlt">stability</span> studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Firth, G. C.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The dimensional <span class="hlt">stability</span> of candidate cryogenic wind tunnel model materials was investigated. Flat specimens of candidate materials were fabricated and cryo-cycled to assess relative dimensional <span class="hlt">stability</span>. Existing 2-dimensional airfoil models as well as models in various stages of manufacture were also cryo-cycled. The tests indicate that 18 Ni maraging steel offers the greatest dimensional <span class="hlt">stability</span> and that PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel is the most stable of the stainless steels. Dimensional <span class="hlt">stability</span> is influenced primarily by metallurgical transformations (austenitic to martensitic) and manufacturing-induced stresses. These factors can be minimized by utilization of stable alloys, refinement of existing manufacturing techniques, and incorporation of new manufacturing technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4241171','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4241171"><span>METHOD FOR <span class="hlt">STABILIZING</span> KLYSTRONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Magnuson, D.W.; Smith, D.F.</p> <p>1959-04-14</p> <p>High-frequency oscillators for the generation of microwaves, particularly a system for <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> frequency-modulated klystron oscillators of the reflex type, are described. The system takos advantage of the fact that a change in oscillator frequency will alter the normal phase displacement between the cavity and its modulator, creating an error voltage which is utilized to regulate the frequency of the oscillator and <span class="hlt">stabilize</span> it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA165032','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA165032"><span>Factors Influencing Carboxyhemoglobin <span class="hlt">Stability</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-03-26</p> <p>Medical Center, St. Louis, MO. 11. Dennis, R.C., and C.R. Valeri, 1980. Measuring Percent Oxygen Saturation of Hemoglobin, Percent Carboxyhemoglobin and... Carboxyhemoglobin <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Technical Report 1983 - 1984 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(e) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a) George M. Goldstein...identify by block number) Carboxyhemoglobin Temperature <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Co-Oxcimieter Heparin Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid G. 0 ABSTRACT (Ctlze</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003100','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003100"><span>Food Fortification <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sirmons, T. A.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study aims to assess the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of vitamin content, sensory acceptability and color variation in fortified spaceflight foods over a period of 2 years. Findings will identify optimal formulation, processing, and storage conditions to maintain <span class="hlt">stability</span> and acceptability of commercially available fortification nutrients. Changes in food quality are being monitored to indicate whether fortification affects quality over time (compared to the unfortified control), thus indicating their potential for use on long-duration missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170000366','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170000366"><span>Food Fortification <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sirmons, T. A.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This study aimed to assess the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of vitamin content, sensory acceptability and color variation in fortified spaceflight foods over a period of two years. Findings will help to identify optimal formulation, processing, and storage conditions to maintain <span class="hlt">stability</span> and acceptability of commercially available fortification nutrients. Changes in food quality were monitored to indicate whether fortification affects quality over time (compared to the unfortified control), thus indicating their potential for use on long-duration missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840012629','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840012629"><span>Shearing <span class="hlt">stability</span> of lubricants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shiba, Y.; Gijyutsu, G.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Shearing <span class="hlt">stabilities</span> of lubricating oils containing a high mol. wt. polymer as a viscosity index improver were studied by use of ultrasound. The oils were degraded by cavitation and the degradation generally followed first order kinetics with the rate of degradation increasing with the intensity of the ultrasonic irradiation and the cumulative energy applied. The shear <span class="hlt">stability</span> was mainly affected by the mol. wt. of the polymer additive and could be determined in a short time by mechanical shearing with ultrasound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016amos.confE..88J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016amos.confE..88J"><span>Automated RSO <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, T.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>A methodology for assessing the attitude <span class="hlt">stability</span> of a Resident Space Object (RSO) using visual magnitude data is presented and then scaled to run in an automated fashion across the entire satellite catalog. Results obtained by applying the methodology to the Commercial Space Operations Center (COMSpOC) catalog are presented and summarized, identifying objects that have changed <span class="hlt">stability</span>. We also examine the timeline for detecting the transition from stable to unstable attitude</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/626458','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/626458"><span>Tetraphenylborate Solids <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Tests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Walker, D.D.</p> <p>1997-06-25</p> <p>Tetraphenylborate solids are a potentially large source of benzene in the slurries produced in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. The <span class="hlt">stability</span> of the solids is an important consideration in the safety analysis of the process and we desire an understanding of the factors that influence the rate of conversion of the solids to benzene. This report discusses current testing of the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of tetraphenylborate solids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090034394','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090034394"><span><span class="hlt">Stability</span> of Detached Solidification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.; Croell, A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Bridgman crystal growth can be conducted in the so-called "detached" solidification regime, where the growing crystal is detached from the crucible wall. A small gap between the growing crystal and the crucible wall, of the order of 100 micrometers or less, can be maintained during the process. A meniscus is formed at the bottom of the melt between the crystal and crucible wall. Under proper conditions, growth can proceed without collapsing the meniscus. The meniscus shape plays a key role in <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> the process. Thermal and other process parameters can also affect the geometrical steady-state <span class="hlt">stability</span> conditions of solidification. The dynamic <span class="hlt">stability</span> theory of the shaped crystal growth process has been developed by Tatarchenko. It consists of finding a simplified autonomous set of differential equations for the radius, height, and possibly other process parameters. The problem then reduces to analyzing a system of first order linear differential equations for <span class="hlt">stability</span>. Here we apply a modified version of this theory for a particular case of detached solidification. Approximate analytical formulas as well as accurate numerical values for the capillary <span class="hlt">stability</span> coefficients are presented. They display an unexpected singularity as a function of pressure differential. A novel approach to study the thermal field effects on the crystal shape <span class="hlt">stability</span> has been proposed. In essence, it rectifies the unphysical assumption of the model that utilizes a perturbation of the crystal radius along the axis as being instantaneous. It consists of introducing time delay effects into the mathematical description and leads, in general, to <span class="hlt">stability</span> over a broader parameter range. We believe that this novel treatment can be advantageously implemented in <span class="hlt">stability</span> analyses of other crystal growth techniques such as Czochralski and float zone methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=393049','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=393049"><span><span class="hlt">Stability</span> in dynamical astronomy*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Szebehely, Victor</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Hill's concept of <span class="hlt">stability</span> is generalized and its relation to bifurcation theory is shown. A quantitative measure of <span class="hlt">stability</span> is introduced that allows the comparison of the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of different astronomical systems. Theoretical <span class="hlt">stability</span> limits for triple stellar systems, for planetary systems, and for satellite systems are established. The measure of <span class="hlt">stability</span> is evaluated for several known triple stellar systems as well as for the planets and for the natural satellites of the solar system. The model of the restricted problem of three bodies and values of the Jacobian constant are used to study planetary and satellite systems. The model of the general problem of three bodies is used to establish criteria for triple stellar systems. In general, the results show a hierarchy of <span class="hlt">stability</span>: the existing triple systems are more stable than the planetary orbits of the solar system. The satellites of the solar system are least stable; in fact, some of the satellites are close to the line of instability (the Earth's Moon) and some are actually unstable (the four outermost satellites of Jupiter). PMID:16592589</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999LNES...78..169H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999LNES...78..169H"><span>Local slope <span class="hlt">stability</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hattendorf, I.; Hergarten, St.; Neugebauer, H. J.</p> <p></p> <p>Mass movements under the influence of gravity occur as result of diverse disturbing and destabilizing processes, for example of climatic or anthropological origin. The <span class="hlt">stability</span> of slopes is mainly determined by the geometry of the land-surface and designated slip-horizon. Further contributions are supplied by the pore water pressure, cohesion and friction. All relevant factors have to be integrated in a slope <span class="hlt">stability</span> model, either by measurements and estimations (like phenomenological laws) or derived from physical equations. As result of <span class="hlt">stability</span> calculations, it's suitable to introduce an expectation value, the factor-of-safety, for the slip-risk. Here, we present a model based on coupled physical equations to simulate hardly measurable phenomenons, like lateral forces and fluid flow. For the displacements of the soil-matrix we use a modified poroelasticity-equation with a Biot-coupling (Biot 1941) for the water pressure. Latter is described by a generalized Boussinesq equation for saturated-unsaturated porous media (Blendinger 1998). One aim of the calculations is to improve the knowledge about <span class="hlt">stability</span>-distributions and their temporal variations. This requires the introduction of a local factor-of-safety which is the main difference to common <span class="hlt">stability</span> models with global <span class="hlt">stability</span> estimations. The reduction of immediate danger is still the emergent task of the most slope and landslide investigations, but this model is also useful with respect to understand the governing processes of landform evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptCo.351..115S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptCo.351..115S"><span><span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> precision control methods of photoelectric aim-<span class="hlt">stabilized</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, Xiaoru; Chen, Hua; Xue, Yonggang</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>To solve the question that photoelectric aim-<span class="hlt">stabilized</span> system can be controlled with high precision and <span class="hlt">stability</span>, this paper researches a new photoelectric aim-<span class="hlt">stabilized</span> control algorithm, analyzes the photoelectric aim-<span class="hlt">stabilized</span> system architecture, sets up <span class="hlt">stability</span> control system mathematical model, designs the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of the photoelectric aim-<span class="hlt">stabilized</span> LSSVM identification and control system, discusses uncertain factors and calculates the LSSVM parameters by the Chaos theory, gives the predictive controller model by the LSSVM and designs new photoelectric aim-<span class="hlt">stabilized</span> system. Through the simulation calculation and experimental analysis, new photoelectric aim-<span class="hlt">stabilized</span> control algorithm was verified; the results show the new photoelectric aim-<span class="hlt">stabilized</span> control method can meet the demand of high precision control in photoelectric aim-<span class="hlt">stabilized</span> system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/983433','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/983433"><span>Uncertainties in climate <span class="hlt">stabilization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wigley, T. M.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Jacoby, H. D.; Paltsev, S.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Reilly, J. M.; Richels, Richard G.; Sarofim, M. C.; Smith, Steven J.</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>We explore the atmospheric composition, temperature and sea level implications of new reference and cost-optimized <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> emissions scenarios produced using three different Integrated Assessment (IA) models for U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.1a. We also consider an extension of one of these sets of scenarios out to 2300. <span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> is defined in terms of radiative forcing targets for the sum of gases potentially controlled under the Kyoto Protocol. For the most stringent <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> case (“Level 1” with CO2 concentration <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> at about 450 ppm), peak CO2 emissions occur close to today, implying a need for immediate CO2 emissions abatement if we wish to <span class="hlt">stabilize</span> at this level. In the extended reference case, CO2 <span class="hlt">stabilizes</span> at 1000 ppm in 2200 – but even to achieve this target requires large and rapid CO2 emissions reductions over the 22nd century. Future temperature changes for the Level 1 <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> case show considerable uncertainty even when a common set of climate model parameters is used (a result of different assumptions for non-Kyoto gases). Uncertainties are about a factor of three when climate sensitivity uncertainties are accounted for. We estimate the probability that warming from pre-industrial times will be less than 2oC to be about 50%. For one of the IA models, warming in the Level 1 case is greater out to 2050 than in the reference case, due to the effect of decreasing SO2 emissions that occur as a side effect of the policy-driven reduction in CO2 emissions. Sea level rise uncertainties for the Level 1 case are very large, with increases ranging from 12 to 100 cm over 2000 to 2300.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5963689','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5963689"><span><span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> of compactible waste</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.</p> <p>1990-09-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the results of series of experiments performed to determine the feasibility of <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> compacted or compactible waste with polymers. The need for this work arose from problems encountered at disposal sites attributed to the instability of this waste in disposal. These studies are part of an experimental program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) investigating methods for the improved solidification/<span class="hlt">stabilization</span> of DOE low-level wastes. The approach taken in this study was to perform a series of survey type experiments using various polymerization systems to find the most economical and practical method for further in-depth studies. Compactible dry bulk waste was <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> with two different monomer systems: styrene-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and polyester-styrene, in laboratory-scale experiments. <span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> was accomplished by wetting or soaking compactible waste (before or after compaction) with monomers, which were subsequently polymerized. Three <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> methods are described. One involves the in-situ treatment of compacted waste with monomers in which a vacuum technique is used to introduce the binder into the waste. The second method involves the alternate placement and compaction of waste and binder into a disposal container. In the third method, the waste is treated before compaction by wetting the waste with the binder using a spraying technique. A series of samples <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> at various binder-to-waste ratios were evaluated through water immersion and compression testing. Full-scale studies were conducted by <span class="hlt">stabilizing</span> two 55-gallon drums of real compacted waste. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the integrity of compacted waste forms can be readily improved to ensure their long-term durability in disposal environments. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6017690','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6017690"><span>Aquifer <span class="hlt">stability</span> investigations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.</p> <p>1981-09-01</p> <p>The study of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous rock reservoirs is carried out within the Reservoir <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Studies Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The goal of the study is to establish criteria for long-term <span class="hlt">stability</span> of aquifer CAES reservoirs. These criteria are intended to be guidelines and check lists that utilities and architect-engineering firms may use to evaluate reservoir <span class="hlt">stability</span> at candidate CAES sites. These criteria will be quantitative where possible, qualitative where necessary, and will provide a focal point for CAES relevant geotechnical knowledge, whether developed within this study or available from petroleum, mining or other geotechnical practices using rock materials. The Reservoir <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Studies Program had four major activities: a state-of-the-art survey to establish preliminary <span class="hlt">stability</span> criteria and identify areas requiring research and development; numerical modeling; laboratory testing to provide data for use in numerical models and to investigate fundamental rock mechanics, thermal, fluid, and geochemical response of aquifer materials; and field studies to verify the feasibility of air injection and recovery under CAES conditions in an aquifer, to validate and refine the <span class="hlt">stability</span> criteria, and to evaluate the accuracy and adequacy of the numerical and experimental methodologies developed in previous work. Three phases of study, including preliminary criteria formulation, numerical model development, and experimental assessment of CAES reservoir materials have been completed. Present activity consists of construction and operation of the aquifer field test, and associated numerical and experimental work in support of that activity. Work is presently planned to be complete by 1983 at the end of the field test. At that time the final <span class="hlt">stability</span> criteria for aquifers will be issued. Attached here also are preliminary criteria for aquifers.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5413M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5413M"><span>Modeling water and heat balance components of large territory for vegetation season using information from polar-orbital and <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> meteorological satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>To date, physical-mathematical modeling processes of land surface-atmosphere interaction is considered to be the most appropriate tool for obtaining reliable estimates of water and heat balance components of large territories. The model of these processes (Land Surface Model, LSM) developed for vegetation period is destined for simulating soil water content W, evapotranspiration Ev, vertical latent LE and heat fluxes from land surface as well as vertically distributed soil temperature and moisture, soil surface Tg and foliage Tf temperatures, and land surface skin temperature (LST) Ts. The model is suitable for utilizing remote sensing data on land surface and meteorological conditions. In the study these data have been obtained from measurements by scanning radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/<span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellites Meteosat-9, -10 (MSG-2, -3). The heterogeneity of the land surface and meteorological conditions has been taken into account in the model by using soil and vegetation characteristics as parameters and meteorological characteristics as input variables. Values of these characteristics have been determined from ground observations and remote sensing information. So, AVHRR data have been used to build the estimates of effective land surface temperature (LST) Ts.eff and emissivity E, vegetation-air temperature (temperature at the vegetation level) Ta, normalized vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, the leaf area index LAI, and precipitation. From MODIS data the values of LST Tls, Å, NDVI, LAI have been derived. From SEVIRI data there have been retrieved Tls, E, Ta, NDVI, LAI and precipitation. All named retrievals covered the vast territory of the part of the agricultural Central Black Earth Region located in the steppe-forest zone of European Russia. This territory with coordinates 49°30'-54°N, 31°-43°E and a total area of 227,300 km2 has been chosen for investigation. It has been carried out for years 2009</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GMD.....9...17L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GMD.....9...17L"><span>GIST-PM-Asia v1: development of a numerical system to improve particulate matter forecasts in South Korea using <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> satellite-retrieved aerosol optical data over Northeast Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, S.; Song, C. H.; Park, R. S.; Park, M. E.; Han, K. M.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; Ghim, Y. S.; Woo, J.-H.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>To improve short-term particulate matter (PM) forecasts in South Korea, the initial distribution of PM composition, particularly over the upwind regions, is primarily important. To prepare the initial PM composition, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) data retrieved from a <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> equatorial orbit (GEO) satellite sensor, GOCI (<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Ocean Color Imager) which covers a part of Northeast Asia (113-146° E; 25-47° N), were used. Although GOCI can provide a higher number of AOD data in a semicontinuous manner than low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite sensors, it still has a serious limitation in that the AOD data are not available at cloud pixels and over high-reflectance areas, such as desert and snow-covered regions. To overcome this limitation, a spatiotemporal-kriging (STK) method was used to better prepare the initial AOD distributions that were converted into the PM composition over Northeast Asia. One of the largest advantages in using the STK method in this study is that more observed AOD data can be used to prepare the best initial AOD fields compared with other methods that use single frame of observation data around the time of initialization. It is demonstrated in this study that the short-term PM forecast system developed with the application of the STK method can greatly improve PM10 predictions in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) when evaluated with ground-based observations. For example, errors and biases of PM10 predictions decreased by ˜ 60 and ˜ 70 %, respectively, during the first 6 h of short-term PM forecasting, compared with those without the initial PM composition. In addition, the influences of several factors on the performances of the short-term PM forecast were explored in this study. The influences of the choices of the control variables on the PM chemical composition were also investigated with the composition data measured via PILS-IC (particle-into-liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography) and low air-volume sample</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21K..02H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21K..02H"><span>A New Era of Air Quality Monitoring from Space in East Asia: Korea's <span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) and an Integrated Korea-US Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hong, J.; Hong, Y.; Song, C. K.; Kim, S. K.; Chang, L. S.; Lim, J.; Ahn, J.; Park, J. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Han, Y. J.; Kim, J.; Park, R.; Lee, G.; Lefer, B. L.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Crawford, J. H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Due to remarkable economic growth over the last two decades, East Asia has become a region experiencing some of the poorest air quality in the world. In addition to local sources of pollution, the Korea peninsula is downwind of the largest emission sources in East Asia, complicating the understanding of air quality over Korea. Thus, knowing the factors controlling changes in air pollution across urban-rural and marine-continental interfaces, in addition to the contributions from local emissions and transboundary transport, is important for building effective management strategies and improving air quality in East Asia. GEMS (<span class="hlt">Geostationary</span> Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer) is a satellite instrument planned for launch in 2019 by the Republic of Korea. The instrument will observe East Asia and the western Pacific region, providing real-time monitoring of air quality (e.g. O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, AOD, etc.) and enabling better scientific understanding of the transboundary transport of air pollutants. The KORUS-AQ (the Korea and U.S. Air Quality) field campaign will take place in May - June 2016 and will employ an integrated observing strategy including multiplatform observations (i.e. ground stations, aircraft, ships, and satellites) and chemical transport models. This mission aims to not only strengthen our knowledge of atmospheric chemistry but also provide important data sets for validating GEMS retrieval algorithms. In preparation for KORUS-AQ, a pre-campaign has been successfully conducted in Korea during early summer 2015 with observations from multiple ground sites and a small aircraft. A brief summary of pre-field campaign results will be presented. Moving forward, the GEMS mission and KORUS-AQ study will lead to a new era of air quality monitoring in East Asia. GEMS will also make critical contributions to the global air quality perspective working in concert with <span class="hlt">geostationary</span> missions launched by the U.S. (TEMPO: Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790025165','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790025165"><span>Jet Fuel Thermal <span class="hlt">Stability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, W. F. (Editor)</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Various aspects of the thermal <span class="hlt">stability</span> problem associated with the use of broadened-specification and nonpetroleum-derived turbine fuels are addressed. The state of the art is reviewed and the status of the research being conducted at various laboratories is presented. Discussions among representatives from universities, refineries, engine and airframe manufacturers, airlines, the Government, and others are presented along with conclusions and both broad and specific recommendations for future <span class="hlt">stability</span> research and development. It is concluded that significant additional effort is required to cope with the fuel <span class="hlt">stability</span> problems which will be associated with the potentially poorer quality fuels of the future such as broadened specification petroleum fuels or fuels produced from synthetic sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040086572','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040086572"><span><span class="hlt">Stability</span> of Lobed Balloons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ball, Danny (Technical Monitor); Pagitz, M.; Pellegrino, Xu S.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a computational study of the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of simple lobed balloon structures. Two approaches are presented, one based on a wrinkled material model and one based on a variable Poisson s ratio model that eliminates compressive stresses iteratively. The first approach is used to investigate the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of both a single isotensoid and a stack of four isotensoids, for perturbations of in.nitesimally small amplitude. It is found that both structures are stable for global deformation modes, but unstable for local modes at su.ciently large pressure. Both structures are stable if an isotropic model is assumed. The second approach is used to investigate the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of the isotensoid stack for large shape perturbations, taking into account contact between di.erent surfaces. For this structure a distorted, stable configuration is found. It is also found that the volume enclosed by this con.guration is smaller than that enclosed by the undistorted structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3004284','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3004284"><span><span class="hlt">Stability</span> of open pathways</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Flach, Edward H.; Schnell, Santiago</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We consider the steady state of an open biochemical pathway, with controlled flow. Previously we have shown that the steady state of open enzyme catalysed reactions may be unstable, which discourages the application of the quasi-steady-state approximation (QSSA) (IEE Proc. Syst. Biol. 153 (2006) 187). Here we examine basic open biochemical pathway structures, to see the <span class="hlt">stability</span> of their steady states. Following De Leenheer et al. (J. Math. Chem. 41 (2007) 295), we employ the Gershgorin circle theorem, which elegantly assesses <span class="hlt">stability</span>. This is the key tool for our analysis. Once we have the linear <span class="hlt">stability</span> matrix laid out in a suitable form, the application of the method is straightforward. We find that in open biochemical pathways, simple chains, branches and loops always have stable steady states. We conclude that simple open pathways are stable. PMID:20875827</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-2000-00226&hterms=Wiley+Sons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DWiley%2BSons','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-2000-00226&hterms=Wiley+Sons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DWiley%2BSons"><span>The <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Tunnel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1943-01-01</p> <p>Engineers operate the controls of the <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Tunnel: Plans for a new tunnel to study <span class="hlt">stability</span> problems began in the late thirties. The <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Tunnel was authorized in 1939 and began operations in June 1941. The installation was completed in December that year with the completion of a new 10,000 Horsepower Diesel-electric generating plant. It was a single return, closed jet tunnel with a 6-foot square test section. The tunnel was disassembled and shipped to Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in 1958. The tunnel had two separate test sections: one for curved flow, the other for rolling flow. 'The facility...simulates the motion of the aircraft in curved or rolling flight. This is done by actually curving or rolling the airstream as it passes over the model and at the same time providing the proper velocity distribution.' (From AIAA-80-0309) >From Alan Pope, Wind-Tunnel Testing: 'The only tunnel directly designed for dynamic <span class="hlt">stability</span> work is located at the Langley Field branch of the NACA. Its most vital feature is its ability to subject the models to curving air streams that simulate those actually encountered when an airplane rolls, pitches, or yaws. the rotating airstream for simulating roll is produced by a motor-driven paddle just ahead of the test section. Curved air of properly varying velocity for simulating pitch and yaw is produced by a combination of a curved test section and velocity screens. The proper use of this apparatus makes possible the determination of the <span class="hlt">stability</span> derivatives.' Published in F.H. Lutze, 'Experimental Determination of Pure Rotary <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Derivatives using a Curved and Rolling Flow Wind Tunnel,' AIAA-80-0309, AIAA 18th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Pasadena, CA, January 14-16, 1980; Alan Pope, Wind-Tunnel Testing (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1947).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA103764','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA103764"><span>Dynamic <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-05-01</p> <p>was tested at either a canard or tail position. The slightly larger numerical value of dCm /dn for the aft tail is accounted for by the 10% longer tail...4 6 ( Phantom ) at M = 0.6 , and at M = 0.9 where the slat is not so successful. Also shown is the combined rolling moment due to aileron and spoiler...ory alt) is easily presented (Fig. 3.2). 3.1 Static and dynamic longitudinal <span class="hlt">stability</span> The criterion for the longitudinal <span class="hlt">stability</span> is (ref. 7) ( dCm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790016836','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790016836"><span>Lean <span class="hlt">Stability</span> augmentation study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcvey, J. B.; Kennedy, J. B.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>An analytical and experimental program was conducted to investigate techniques and develop technology for improving the lean combustion limits of premixing, prevaporizing combustors applicable to gas turbine engine main burners. Three concepts for improving lean <span class="hlt">stability</span> limits were selected for experimental evaluation among twelve approaches considered. Concepts were selected on the basis of the potential for improving <span class="hlt">stability</span> limits and achieving emission goals, the technological risks associated with development of practical burners employing the concepts, and the penalties to airline direct operating costs resulting from decreased combustor performance, increased engine cost, increased maintenance cost and increased engine weight associated with implementation of the concepts. Tests of flameholders embodying the selected concepts were conducted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/420643','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/420643"><span>Progress on plutonium <span class="hlt">stabilization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hurt, D.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> and has has a considerable influence on DOE`s <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013798','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013798"><span><span class="hlt">Stability</span> of loess</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lutenegger, A.J.; Hallberg, G.R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Lutenegger, A.J. and Hallberg, G.R., 1988. <span class="hlt">Stability</span> of loess. Eng. Geol., 25: 247-261. The natural <span class="hlt">stability</span> of loess soils can be related to fundamental geotechnical properties such as Atterberg limits, water content and void ratio. Field observations of unstable conditions in loess deposits in the upper midwest, U.S.A. show relationships between instability and the in situ moisture content and the liquidity index of the loess. Unstable loess can attain natural moisture contents equal to, or greater than, its liquid limit. Implications of these observations for applied engineering works are described. ?? 1988.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810008892','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810008892"><span><span class="hlt">Stabilized</span> Zeeman split laser</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The development of a stablized Zeeman split laser for use in a polarization profilometer is discussed. A Hewlett-Packard laser was modified to <span class="hlt">stabilize</span> the Zeeman split beat frequency thereby increasing the phase measurement accuracy from the Hewlett-Packard 3 degrees to an accuracy of .01 degrees. The addition of a two layered inductive winding converts the laser to a current controlled oscillator whose frequency is linearly related to coil current. This linear relationship between coil current and laser frequency permits phase locking the laser frequency to a stable crystal controlled reference frequency. The <span class="hlt">stability</span> of the system is examined and the equipment operation procedures are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.774a2087K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.774a2087K"><span>Premixed conical flame <span class="hlt">stabilization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krikunova, A. I.; Son, E. E.; Saveliev, A. S.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>In the current work, <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> of premixed laminar and lean turbulent flames for wide range of flow rates and equivalence ratios was performed. Methane-air mixture was ignited after passing through premixed chamber with beads and grids, and conical nozzle (Bunsen-type burner). On the edge of the nozzle a <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> body-ring was mounted. Ring geometry was varied to get the widest stable flame parameters. This work was performed as part of the project on experimental investigation of premixed flames under microgravity conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5181840','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5181840"><span>Increasing entropy for colloidal <span class="hlt">stabilization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mo, Songping; Shao, Xuefeng; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Zhengdong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Stability</span> is of paramount importance in colloidal applications. Attraction between colloidal particles is believed to lead to particle aggregation and phase separation; hence, <span class="hlt">stability</span> improvement can be achieved through either increasing repulsion or reducing attraction by modifying the fluid medium or by using additives. Two traditional mechanisms for colloidal <span class="hlt">stability</span> are electrostatic <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> and steric <span class="hlt">stabilization</span>. However, <span class="hlt">stability</span> improvement by mixing attractive and unstable particles has rarely been considered. Here, we emphasize the function of mixing entropy in colloidal <span class="hlt">stabilization</span>. Dispersion <span class="hlt">stability</span> improvement is demonstrated by mixing suspensions of attractive nanosized titania spheres and platelets. A three-dimensional phase diagram is proposed to illustrate the collaborative effects of particle mixing and particle attraction on colloidal <span class="hlt">stability</span>. This discovery provides a novel method for enhancing colloidal <span class="hlt">stability</span> and opens a novel opportunity for engineering applications. PMID:27872473</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...636836M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...636836M"><span>Increasing entropy for colloidal <span class="hlt">stabilization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mo, Songping; Shao, Xuefeng; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Zhengdong</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Stability</span> is of paramount importance in colloidal applications. Attraction between colloidal particles is believed to lead to particle aggregation and phase separation; hence, <span class="hlt">stability</span> improvement can be achieved through either increasing repulsion or reducing attraction by modifying the fluid medium or by using additives. Two traditional mechanisms for colloidal <span class="hlt">stability</span> are electrostatic <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> and steric <span class="hlt">stabilization</span>. However, <span class="hlt">stability</span> improvement by mixing attractive and unstable particles has rarely been considered. Here, we emphasize the function of mixing entropy in colloidal <span class="hlt">stabilization</span>. Dispersion <span class="hlt">stability</span> improvement is demonstrated by mixing suspensions of attractive nanosized titania spheres and platelets. A three-dimensional phase diagram is proposed to illustrate the collaborative effects of particle mixing and particle attraction on colloidal <span class="hlt">stability</span>. This discovery provides a novel method for enhancing colloidal <span class="hlt">stability</span> and opens a novel opportunity for engineering applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED168861.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED168861.pdf"><span>Waste <span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> Ponds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Koundakjian, Philip</p> <p></p> <p>This self-paced course contains reading assignments from a waste <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> ponds operating manual, supportive text, example problems, and review questions, and a final examination. The course covers calculation of pond surface area, pond volume, organic load, detention time, drawdown, storage capacity, efficiency, and discharge. In addition,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6650231','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6650231"><span><span class="hlt">Stabilizer</span> for mixed fuels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yamamura, M.; Igarashi, T.; Ukigai, T.</p> <p>1984-03-13</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">stabilizer</span> for mixed fuels containing a reaction product obtained by reacting (1) a polyol having at least 3 hydroxyl groups in the molecule and a molecular weight of 400-10,000 with (2) an epihalohydrin, as the principal component.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT........20E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT........20E"><span><span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> of autoionizing states</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ereifej, Heider Naim</p> <p>2000-09-01</p> <p>In the first experiment, the <span class="hlt">stabilization</span> process of doubly excited states in Barium was examined for the case when a laser field was used to induce stimulated emission of the excited core electron. <span class="hlt">Stabilization</span> is referred to all the atoms that form a singly excited neutral state after being in a doubly excited autoionizing state. Relative to pure fluorescence, the application of a laser pulse which was long relative to the autoionization lifetime was found to increase the number of atoms that were <span class="hlt">stabilized</span>. Shake-up spectra in which the principal quantum number of both electrons changes during the stimulated emission process was also clearly demonstrated. In the second experiment, a short laser pulse (short relative to the autoionization lifetime) was used to stimulate doubly excited Calcium atoms to form a stable configuration. Because the stimulated emission process happens on a fast time scale, more atoms were <span class="hlt">stabilized</span> before they had a chance to autoionize. As a result, much larger enhancement factors were achieved. In the third and final experiment, a direct measurement of the oscillations between degenerate bound state configurations in a rapidly autoionizing system was clearly demonstrated. Because of the short pulse excitation, the atom was prepared in one of many accessible two-electron configurations. This state of the atom was not an energy eigenstate but a non-stationary wavepacket. The evolution of these wavepackets was monitored by changing the timing between the exciting ``pump'' laser and the stimulating ``probe'' laser.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6169474','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6169474"><span>Reservoir <span class="hlt">stability</span> studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Doherty, T.J.</p> <p>1981-07-01</p> <p>The objective of the reservoir <span class="hlt">stability</span> studies project is to develop <span class="hlt">stability</span> criteria for large underground reservoirs in salt domes, hard rock caverns, and porous rock structures for air storage in utility applications. Because reservoir <span class="hlt">stability</span> was deemed crucial to commercialization of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems this project has received major emphasis in the early phases of the overall CAES program. A long term plan, including state-of-the-art assessment, numerical model development and experimental studies culminating in field research, as necessary, was formulated. This plan, initiated in 1977, has been completed during FY-1981 to the stage of specific experimental studies and field research. Activities within this project during FY-1981 have included completion of site specific geotechnical design evaluations using methodologies developed to assess hard rock cavern <span class="hlt">stability</span>, implementation of in-mine research to evaluate numerical and laboratory study conclusions on the response of domal salt, and preparation of integrated laboratory and field study facilities to assess developed predictive methods and determine in situ response of a porous media reservoir to air injection. The major activity in the project has been the field study component of the porous media studies. Accomplishments there have included completion of exploration, permitting and leasing, operation contractor selection and negotiation, and initiation of procurement and construction for an FY-1982 test initiation. A major program milestone, drilling of the injection withdrawal well for this test, was completed ahead of schedule.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021637&hterms=Gist&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGist','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021637&hterms=Gist&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGist"><span>Spray combustion <span class="hlt">stability</span> project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion <span class="hlt">Stability</span> Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort to date so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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