Science.gov

Sample records for 3-axis stabilized spacecraft

  1. Handling Qualities Evaluation, OH-58A Helicopter Incorporating a Ministab 3-Axis Stability Augmentation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-01

    A limited handling qualities evaluation of the OH-58A helicopter incorporating the SFENA 3-axis stability augmentation system called Ministab was...Ministab stability augmentation system was manufactured by the Societe Francaise d’Equipements pour la Navigation Aerienne (SFENA) of France and made

  2. Spacecraft stability and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1992-01-01

    The Earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, slowly tumbled in orbit. The first U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, also tumbled out of control. Today, satellite stability and control has become a higher priority. For a satellite design that is to have a life expectancy of 14 years, appropriate spacecraft flight control systems will be reviewed, stability requirements investigated, and an appropriate flight control system recommended in order to see the design process. Disturbance torques, including aerodynamic, magnetic, gravity gradient, solar, micrometeorite, debris, collision, and internal torques, will be assessed to quantify the disturbance environment so that the required compensating torques can be determined. The control torques, including passive versus active, momentum control, bias momentum, spin stabilization, dual spin, gravity gradient, magnetic, reaction wheels, control moment gyros, inertia augmentation techniques, three-axis control, and reaction control systems (RCSs), will be considered. Conditions for stability will also be considered.

  3. Liapunov stability analysis of spinning flexible spacecraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbera, F. J.; Likins, P.

    1973-01-01

    The attitude stability of a class of spinning flexible spacecraft in a force-free environment is analyzed. The spacecraft is modeled as a rigid core having attached to it a flexible appendage idealized as a collection of elastically interconnected particles. Liapunov stability theorems are employed with the Hamiltonian of the system, constrained through the angular momentum integral so as to admit complete damping, used as a testing function. The Hamiltonian is written in terms of modal coordinates as interpreted by the hybrid coordinate formulation, thus allowing truncation to a level amenable to literal stability analysis. Testing functions are constructed for a spacecraft with an arbitrary (discretized) appendage, and closed form stability criteria are generated for the first mode of a restricted appendage model lying in a plane which contains the center of mass and is orthogonal to the spin axis. The criteria are (except for idealized cases on the stability boundary line in the parameter space) both necessary and sufficient for stability for any spacecraft characterized by the planar appendage model, such as a spacecraft containing solar panels and/or radial booms.

  4. Attitude Control and Orbital Dynamics Challenges of Removing the First 3-Axis Stabilized Tracking and Data Relay Satellite from the Geosynchronous ARC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benet, Charles A.; Hofman, Henry; Williams, Thomas E.; Olney, Dave; Zaleski, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Launched on April 4, 1983 onboard STS 6 (Space Shuttle Challenger), the First Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS 1) was retired above the Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) on June 27, 2010 after having provided real-time communications with a variety of low-orbiting spacecraft over a 26-year period. To meet NASA requirements limiting orbital debris 1, a team of experts was assembled to conduct an End-Of-Mission (EOM) procedure to raise the satellite 350 km above the GEO orbit. Following the orbit raising via conventional station change maneuvers, the team was confronted with having to deplete the remaining propellant and passivate all energy storage or generation sources. To accomplish these tasks within the time window, communications (telemetry and control links), electrical power, propulsion, and thermal constraints, a spacecraft originally designed as a three-axis stabilized satellite was turned into a spinner. This paper (a companion paper to Innovative Approach Enabled the Retirement of TDRS 1, paper # 1699, IEEE 2011 Aerospace Conference, March 5-12, 2011 sup 2) focuses on the challenges of maintaining an acceptable spinning dynamics, while repetitively firing thrusters. Also addressed are the effects of thruster firings on the orbit characteristics and how they were mitigated by a careful scheduling of the fuel depletion operations. Periodic thruster firings for spin rate adjustment, nutation damping, and precession of the momentum vector were also required in order to maintain effective communications with the satellite. All operations were thoroughly rehearsed and supported by simulations thus lending a high level of confidence in meeting the NASA EOM goals.

  5. Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System for Spacecraft Exercise Treadmill Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fialho, Ian; Tyer, Craig; Murphy, Bryan; Cotter, Paul; Thampi, Sreekumar

    2011-01-01

    A novel, passive system has been developed for isolating an exercise treadmill device from a spacecraft in a zero-G environment. The Treadmill 2 Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System (T2-VIS) mechanically isolates the exercise treadmill from the spacecraft/space station, thereby eliminating the detrimental effect that high impact loads generated during walking/running would have on the spacecraft structure and sensitive microgravity science experiments. This design uses a second stage spring, in series with the first stage, to achieve an order of magnitude higher exercise- frequency isolation than conventional systems have done, while maintaining desirable low-frequency stability performance. This novel isolator design, in conjunction with appropriately configured treadmill platform inertia properties, has been shown (by on-orbit zero-G testing onboard the International Space Station) to deliver exceedingly high levels of isolation/ stability performance.

  6. Attitude stabilization of a rigid spacecraft using two control torques: A nonlinear control approach based on the spacecraft attitude dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Hariharan; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; McClamroch, Harris

    1994-06-01

    The attitude stabilization problem of a rigid spacecraft using control torques supplied by gas jet actuators about only two of its principal axes is considered. If the uncontrolled principal axis of the spacecraft is not an axis of symmetry, then the complete spacecraft dynamics are small time locally controllable. However, the spacecraft cannot be asymptotically stabilized to any equilibrium attitude using time-invariant continuous feedback. A discontinuous stabilizing feedback control strategy is constructed which stabilizes the spacecraft to any equilibrium attitude. If the uncontrolled principal axis of the spacecraft is an axis of symmetry, the complete spacecraft dynamics are not even assessible. However, the spacecraft dynamics are strongly accessible and small time locally controllable in a reduced sense. The reduced spacecraft dynamics cannot be asymptotically stabilized to any equilibrium attitude using time-invariant continuous feedback, but again a discontinuous stabilizing feedback control strategy is constructed. In both cases, the discontinuous feedback controllers are constructed by switching between several feedback functions which are selected to accomplish a sequence of spacecraft maneuvers. The results of the paper show that although standard nonlinear control techniques are not applicable, it is possible to construct a nonlinear discontinuous control law based on the dynamics of the particular physical system.

  7. Nutation control during precession of a spin-stabilized spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. M.; Donner, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of precession thrust pulses and energy dissipation upon nutation of a spin-stabilized spacecraft are studied. Methods for controlling nutation during a precession maneuver are proposed and examined. A precession modulation control law is developed which uses precession thrust pulses to control nutation. Digital simulations show that precession control with separate nutation control is the fastest precessing system; however, the precession modulation method is only fractionally slower while not requiring a separate nutation control system.

  8. Orbital Stability of Spacecraft Exploring Multiple Asteroid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Keaton; Marchis, F.; Bellerose, J.

    2011-05-01

    Space missions to study the composition and formation histories of multiple asteroid systems require the identification of safe orbits for the observing spacecraft. To identify regions of orbital stability, we developed an n-body simulation and Monte Carlo scheme to test a large selection of orbits around the components of multiple asteroid systems. Our n-body program integrates the equations of motion of the spacecraft, asteroid system components, and the sun for 20 days, taking into account solar radiation pressure on the spacecraft and modeling asteroids as systems of rigid points when their shape model is known. We utilized a Monte Carlo scheme to test the stability of polar and retrograde orbits from uniformly distributed starting positions with normally distributed tangential velocities around each component. We present preliminary results of simulations testing hundreds of thousands of polar and retrograde orbits around the components of the 2001 SN263 near-earth triple asteroid system, and the (90) Antiope doublet and (45) Eugenia triple systems in the main-belt. These systems are potential targets for several space mission concepts, including: the Amor mission to visit and land on the components of 2001 SN263, Jones et al. (LPSC 42, #2695, 2011), the Diversity mission to explore several asteroid systems including (45) Eugenia and (90) Antiope, Marchis et al. (LPSC 42, #2062, 2011), and the ASTER mission to visit a NEA multiple asteroid, Sukhanov et al. (Cosmic Research 48-5, p. 443-450, 2010). Analysis of stable regions in position and velocity may assist in planning scientific orbits and instrumental specifications for such missions.

  9. Stability-based SDRE controller for spacecraft momentum management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mengping; Xu, Shijie

    2013-08-01

    Momentum management of spacecraft aims to avoid the angular momentum accumulation of control momentum gyros through real-time attitude adjustment. An attitude control/momentum management controller based on state-dependent Riccati equation is developed for attitude-stabilized spacecraft. The governing equations of the system are formulated as three-axis coupled with full moment of inertia, which fully capture the nonlinearity of the system and are valid for systems with significant products of inertia or strong pitch to roll/yaw coupling. The state-dependent Riccati equation algorithm brings the nonlinear system to a linear structure having state dependent coefficients matrices and minimizing a quadratic-like performance index. The system equations are nondimensionalized, which avoid numerical problems at the same time make the weighting matrix more predictable. To guarantee closed-loop system stability, the state-dependent Riccati equation algorithm is also modified based on pole placement technique. The state-dependent Riccati equation is online calculated through the computational-efficient θ-D technique which reaches a tradeoff between control optimality and computation load. The dynamic characteristics of the system at torque equilibrium attitude are analyzed. Constraints on moment of inertia for successful momentum management are provided. Simulations demonstrate the excellent performance of the controller.

  10. Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feoktistov, K. P.

    1974-01-01

    The task of building a spacecraft is compared to the construction of an artificial cybernetic system able to acquire and process information. Typical features for future spacecraft are outlined and the assignment of duties in spacecraft control between automatic devices and the crew is analyzed.

  11. Optimal control of spin stabilized spacecraft with telescoping appendages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, P. M.; Sellappan, R.

    1976-01-01

    The control of a spin-stabilized spacecraft consisting of a rigid central hub and one or two movable offset telescoping booms (with end masses) is considered. The equations of rotational motion are linearized about either of two desired final states. A control law for the boom and mass position is sought such that a quadratic cost functional involving the weighted components of angular velocity plus the control is minimized when the final time is unspecified and involves the solution of the matrix Riccati algebraic equation. For three-axis control more than one offset boom (orthogonal to each other) is required. For two-axis control with a single boom offset from a symmetrical hub, an analytic solution is obtained; when this system is used for nutation decay the time constant is one order of magnitude smaller than previously achieved using non-optimal control logic. For the general case results are obtained numerically.

  12. Optimal control of spin-stabilized spacecraft with telescoping appendages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, P. M.; Sellappan, R.

    1976-01-01

    The control of a spin-stabilized spacecraft consisting of a rigid central hub and one or two movable offset telescoping booms (with end masses) is considered. The equations of rotational motion are linearized about either of two desired final states. A control law for the boom end mass position is sought such that a quadratic cost functional involving the weighted components of angular velocity plus the control is minimized when the final time is unspecified and involves the solution of the matrix Riccati algebraic equation. For three axis control more than one offset boom (orthogonal to each other) is required. For two-axis control with a single boom offset from a symmetrical hub, an analytic solution is obtained; when this system is used for nutation decay the time constant is one order of magnitude smaller than previously achieved using nonoptimal control logic. For the general case results are obtained numerically.

  13. Online attitude determination of a passively magnetically stabilized spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, R.; Rock, S.; Springmann, J.; Cutler, J.

    2017-04-01

    An online attitude determination filter is developed for a nano satellite that has no onboard attitude sensors or gyros. Specifically, the attitude of NASA Ames Research Center's O/OREOS, a passively magnetically stabilized 3U CubeSat, is determined using only an estimate of the solar vector obtained from solar panel currents. The filter is based upon the existing multiplicative extended Kalman filter (MEKF) but instead of relying on gyros to drive the motion model, the filter instead incorporates a model of the spacecraft's attitude dynamics in the motion model. An attitude determination accuracy of five degrees is demonstrated, a performance verified using flight data from the University of Michigan's RAX-1. Although the filter was designed for the specific problem of a satellite without gyros or attitude determination it could also be used to provide smoothing of noisy gyro signals or to provide a backup in the event of gyro failures.

  14. Application of GPS attitude determination to gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightsey, E. G.; Cohen, Clark E.; Parkinson, Bradford W.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in the Global Positioning System (GPS) technology have initiated a new era in aerospace navigation and control. GPS receivers have become increasingly compact and affordable, and new developments have made attitude determination using subcentimeter positioning among two or more antennas feasible for real-time applications. GPS-based attitude control systems will become highly portable packages which provide time, navigation, and attitude information of sufficient accuracy for many aerospace needs. A typical spacecraft application of GPS attitude determination is a gravity gradient stabilized satellite in low Earth orbit that employs a GPS receiver and four body mounted patch antennas. The coupled, linearized equations of motion enable complete position and attitude information to be extracted from only two antennas. A discussion of the various error sources for spaceborne GPS attitude measurement systems is included. Attitude determination of better than 0.3 degrees is possible for 1 meter antenna separation. Suggestions are provided to improve the accuracy of the attitude solution.

  15. Attitude stabilization of a rigid spacecraft using gas jet actuators operating in a failure mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, Hariharan; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Mcclamroch, Harris

    1993-01-01

    The attitude stabilization of a rigid spacecraft using control torques supplied by gas jet actuators about only two of its principal axes is considered. First, the case where the uncontrolled principal axis of the spacecraft is not an axis of symmetry is considered. In this case, the complete spacecraft dynamics are small time locally controllable. However, the spacecraft cannot be asymptotically stabilized to an equilibrium attitude using time-invariant continuous feedback. A discontinuous stabilizing feedback control strategy is constructed which stabilizes the spacecraft to an equilibrium attitude. Next, the case where the uncontrolled principal axis of the spacecraft is an axis of symmetry is considered. In this case, the complete spacecraft dynamics are not even accessible. However, the spacecraft dynamics are strongly accessible and small time locally controllable in a reduced sense. The reduced spacecraft dynamics cannot be asymptotically stabilized to an equilibrium attitude using time-invariant continuous feedback, but again a discontinuous stabilizing feedback control strategy is constructed. In both cases, the discontinuous feedback controllers are constructed by switching between one of several feedback functions.

  16. Stabilization of large-scale systems - A spinning flexible spacecraft. [Skylab applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    Stabilization of high-order constant systems by multilevel control is proposed in the framework of the decomposition-aggregation method for stability analysis of large-scale systems. An 11-order linear model of a spinning flexible spacecraft is stabilized by the method using both the passive and the active stabilization devices. The method can take advantage of the special structural features of the model to provide the best estimate of the stability region for an important parameter which couples the wobble and the spin motion of the spacecraft.

  17. 3-Axis magnetic control: flight results of the TANGO satellite in the PRISMA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasset, C.; Noteborn, R.; Bodin, P.; Larsson, R.; Jakobsson, B.

    2013-09-01

    PRISMA implements guidance, navigation and control strategies for advanced formation flying and rendezvous experiments. The project is funded by the Swedish National Space Board and run by OHB-Sweden in close cooperation with DLR, CNES and the Danish Technical University. The PRISMA test bed consists of a fully manoeuvrable MANGO satellite as well as a 3-axis controlled TANGO satellite without any Δ V capability. PRISMA was launched on the 15th of June 2010 on board DNEPR. The TANGO spacecraft is the reference satellite for the experiments performed by MANGO, either with a "cooperative" or "non-cooperative" behaviour. Small, light and low-cost were the keywords for the TANGO design. The attitude determination is based on Sun sensors and magnetometers, and the active attitude control uses magnetic torque rods only. In order to perform the attitude manoeuvres required to fulfil the mission objectives, using any additional gravity gradient boom to passively stabilize the spacecraft was not allowed. After a two-month commissioning phase, TANGO separated from MANGO on the 11th of August 2010. All operational modes have been successfully tested, and the pointing performance in flight is in accordance with expectations. The robust Sun Acquisition mode reduced the initial tip-off rate and placed TANGO into a safe attitude in <30 min. The Manual Pointing mode was commissioned, and the spacecraft demonstrated the capability to follow or maintain different sets of attitudes. In Sun/Zenith Pointing mode, TANGO points its GPS antenna towards zenith with sufficient accuracy to track as many GPS satellites as MANGO. At the same time, it points its solar panel towards the Sun, and all payload equipments can be switched on without any restriction. This paper gives an overview of the TANGO Attitude Control System design. It then presents the flight results in the different operating modes. Finally, it highlights the key elements at the origin of the successful 3-axis magnetic

  18. Absolute Stability Analysis of a Phase Plane Controlled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Plummer, Michael; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark; Spanos, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Many aerospace attitude control systems utilize phase plane control schemes that include nonlinear elements such as dead zone and ideal relay. To evaluate phase plane control robustness, stability margin prediction methods must be developed. Absolute stability is extended to predict stability margins and to define an abort condition. A constrained optimization approach is also used to design flex filters for roll control. The design goal is to optimize vehicle tracking performance while maintaining adequate stability margins. Absolute stability is shown to provide satisfactory stability constraints for the optimization.

  19. Spacecraft Line-of-Sight Stabilization Using LWIR Earth Signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Piazzolla, Sabino

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of using the bright and near-uniform Earth infrared (or wavelength infrared, LWIR) signature as a stable reference for accurate (micro-rad or less) inertial pointing and tracking on-board an space vehicle, including the determination of the fundamental limits of applicability of the proposed method for space missions. We demonstrate sub-micro radian level pointing accuracy under a representative set of disturbances experienced by the spacecraft in orbit.

  20. Slosh wave excitation and stability of spacecraft fluid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.

    1990-01-01

    The instability of liquid and gas interface can be induced by the pressure of longitudinal and lateral accelerations, vehicle vibration, and rotational fields of spacecraft in a microgravity environment. Characteristics of slosh waves excited by the restoring force field of gravity jitters have been investigated. Results show that lower frequency gravity jitters excite slosh waves with higher ratio of maximum amplitude to wave length than that of the slosh waves generated by the higher frequency gravity jitters.

  1. New Materials for Spacecraft Stability and Damping - A Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    can act as sealed containers for organic polymers. The outgassing problem can thus be eliminated. The concept of hollow glass fibers containing...of resin and 50h glass microballoons seems to be the best a. candidate. IV. POTENTIALS OF NEW MATERIALS A. ompariaon y= tchg Matel ¶rials *•: Fro...of spacecrafts. Tnese included some new glasses , glass -ceramics, fibers and composites such as low expansion copper alumino- silicate glasses , hollow

  2. Analytical method for the attitude stability of partially liquid filled spacecraft with flexible appendage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yulong; Yue, Baozeng

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the attitude stability of liquid-filled spacecraft with flexible appendage is investigated. The motion of liquid sloshing is modeled as the spherical pendulum, and the flexible appendage is approached by a linear shearing beam. Nonlinear dynamic equations of the coupled system are derived from the Hamiltonian. The stability of the coupled system was analyzed by using the energy-Casimir method, and the nonlinear stability theorem of the coupled spacecraft system was also obtained. Through numerical computation, the correctness of the proposed theorem is verified and the boundary curves of the stable region are presented. The increase of the angular velocity and flexible attachment length will weaken the attitude stability, and the change of the filled ratio of liquid fuel tank has a different influence on the stability of the coupled spacecraft, depending on the different conditions. The attitude stability analysis of the coupled spacecraft system in this context is useful for selecting appropriate parameters in the complex spacecraft design.

  3. Equilibrium attitude and stability of a spacecraft on a stationary orbit around an asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Xu, Shijie

    2013-03-01

    The stationary orbits around an asteroid, if exist, can be used for communication and navigation purposes just as around the Earth. The equilibrium attitude and stability of a rigid spacecraft on a stationary orbit around a uniformly-rotating asteroid are studied. The linearized equations of attitude motion are obtained under the small motion assumption. Then, the equilibrium attitude is determined in both cases of a general and a symmetrical spacecraft. Due to the higher-order inertia integrals of the spacecraft, the equilibrium attitude is slightly away from zero Euler angles. Then necessary conditions of stability of this conservative system are analyzed based on the linearized equations of motion. The effects of different parameters, including the harmonic coefficients C20 and C22 of the asteroid and higher-order inertia integrals of the spacecraft, on the stability are assessed and compared. Due to the significantly non-spherical shape and rapid rotation of the asteroid, the effects of the harmonic coefficients C20 and C22 are very significant, while effects of the third- and fourth-order inertia integrals of the spacecraft can be neglected. Considering a spacecraft on a stationary orbit around an example asteroid, we show that the classical stability domain predicted by the Beletskii-DeBra-Delp method on a circular orbit in a central gravity field is modified due to the non-spherical mass distribution of the asteroid. Our results are confirmed by a numerical simulation.

  4. Control of nonlinear systems with applications to constrained robots and spacecraft attitude stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Hariharan

    1993-06-01

    This thesis is organized in two parts. In Part 1, control systems described by a class of nonlinear differential and algebraic equations are introduced. A procedure for local stabilization based on a local state realization is developed. An alternative approach to local stabilization is developed based on a classical linearization of the nonlinear differential-algebraic equations. A theoretical framework is established for solving a tracking problem associated with the differential-algebraic system. First, a simple procedure is developed for the design of a feedback control law which ensures, at least locally, that the tracking error in the closed loop system lies within any given bound if the reference inputs are sufficiently slowly varying. Next, by imposing additional assumptions, a procedure is developed for the design of a feedback control law which ensures that the tracking error in the closed loop system approaches zero exponentially for reference inputs which are not necessarily slowly varying. The control design methodologies are used for simultaneous force and position control in constrained robot systems. The differential-algebraic equations are shown to characterize the slow dynamics of a certain nonlinear control system in nonstandard singularly perturbed form. In Part 2, the attitude stabilization (reorientation) of a rigid spacecraft using only two control torques is considered. First, the case of momentum wheel actuators is considered. The complete spacecraft dynamics are not controllable. However, the spacecraft dynamics are small time locally controllable in a reduced sense. The reduced spacecraft dynamics cannot be asymptotically stabilized using continuous feedback, but a discontinuous feedback control strategy is constructed. Next, the case of gas jet actuators is considered. If the uncontrolled principal axis is not an axis of symmetry, the complete spacecraft dynamics are small time locally controllable. However, the spacecraft attitude

  5. Control of nonlinear systems with applications to constrained robots and spacecraft attitude stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, Hariharan

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is organized in two parts. In Part 1, control systems described by a class of nonlinear differential and algebraic equations are introduced. A procedure for local stabilization based on a local state realization is developed. An alternative approach to local stabilization is developed based on a classical linearization of the nonlinear differential-algebraic equations. A theoretical framework is established for solving a tracking problem associated with the differential-algebraic system. First, a simple procedure is developed for the design of a feedback control law which ensures, at least locally, that the tracking error in the closed loop system lies within any given bound if the reference inputs are sufficiently slowly varying. Next, by imposing additional assumptions, a procedure is developed for the design of a feedback control law which ensures that the tracking error in the closed loop system approaches zero exponentially for reference inputs which are not necessarily slowly varying. The control design methodologies are used for simultaneous force and position control in constrained robot systems. The differential-algebraic equations are shown to characterize the slow dynamics of a certain nonlinear control system in nonstandard singularly perturbed form. In Part 2, the attitude stabilization (reorientation) of a rigid spacecraft using only two control torques is considered. First, the case of momentum wheel actuators is considered. The complete spacecraft dynamics are not controllable. However, the spacecraft dynamics are small time locally controllable in a reduced sense. The reduced spacecraft dynamics cannot be asymptotically stabilized using continuous feedback, but a discontinuous feedback control strategy is constructed. Next, the case of gas jet actuators is considered. If the uncontrolled principal axis is not an axis of symmetry, the complete spacecraft dynamics are small time locally controllable. However, the spacecraft attitude

  6. Determining optimal parameters in magnetic spacecraft stabilization via attitude feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, Renato; Celani, Fabio

    2016-10-01

    The attitude control of a spacecraft using magnetorquers can be achieved by a feedback control law which has four design parameters. However, the practical determination of appropriate values for these parameters is a critical open issue. We propose here an innovative systematic approach for finding these values: they should be those that minimize the convergence time to the desired attitude. This a particularly diffcult optimization problem, for several reasons: 1) such time cannot be expressed in analytical form as a function of parameters and initial conditions; 2) design parameters may range over very wide intervals; 3) convergence time depends also on the initial conditions of the spacecraft, which are not known in advance. To overcome these diffculties, we present a solution approach based on derivative-free optimization. These algorithms do not need to write analytically the objective function: they only need to compute it in a number of points. We also propose a fast probing technique to identify which regions of the search space have to be explored densely. Finally, we formulate a min-max model to find robust parameters, namely design parameters that minimize convergence time under the worst initial conditions. Results are very promising.

  7. Four methods of attitude determination for spin-stabilized spacecraft with applications and comparative results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    The attitude of a spacecraft is determined by specifying independent parameters which relate the spacecraft axes to an inertial coordinate system. Sensors which measure angles between spin axis and other vectors directed to objects or fields external to the spacecraft are discussed. For the spin-stabilized spacecraft considered, the spin axis is constant over at least an orbit, but separate solutions based on sensor angle measurements are different due to propagation of errors. Sensor-angle solution methods are described which minimize the propagated errors by making use of least squares techniques over many sensor angle measurements and by solving explicitly (in closed form) for the spin axis coordinates. These methods are compared with star observation solutions to determine if satisfactory accuracy is obtained by each method.

  8. Telemetry down-link Doppler as an attitude sensor for spin stabilized spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendry, S. D.

    1995-01-01

    The communications antenna on a spin stabilized spacecraft is seldom located on the spin axis, hence, the antenna is in motion relative to the center of mass of the spacecraft. The Doppler shift observed at the ground or space relay communications receivers will include oscillations whose frequency and amplitude are functions of the motion of the antenna and the attitude of the spacecraft relative to the line of sight (LOS). This functional dependence creates the possibility of estimating attitude parameters from Doppler measurements. This paper presents mathematical models of Doppler oscillations from spinning spacecraft, including the effects of nutation. Algorithms for estimating spin rate, attitude and nutation angle are described. Results of analysis of Doppler tracking of GOES-8 and WIND are also discussed.

  9. Telemetry down-link Doppler as an attitude sensor for spin stabilized spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, S. D.

    1995-05-01

    The communications antenna on a spin stabilized spacecraft is seldom located on the spin axis, hence, the antenna is in motion relative to the center of mass of the spacecraft. The Doppler shift observed at the ground or space relay communications receivers will include oscillations whose frequency and amplitude are functions of the motion of the antenna and the attitude of the spacecraft relative to the line of sight (LOS). This functional dependence creates the possibility of estimating attitude parameters from Doppler measurements. This paper presents mathematical models of Doppler oscillations from spinning spacecraft, including the effects of nutation. Algorithms for estimating spin rate, attitude and nutation angle are described. Results of analysis of Doppler tracking of GOES-8 and WIND are also discussed.

  10. Combined control of fast attitude maneuver and stabilization for large complex spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Jing-Rui

    2013-12-01

    In remote sensing or laser communication space missions, spacecraft need fast maneuver and fast stabilization in order to accomplish agile imaging and attitude tracking tasks. However, fast attitude maneuvers can easily cause elastic deformations and vibrations in flexible appendages of the spacecraft. This paper focuses on this problem and deals with the combined control of fast attitude maneuver and stabilization for large complex spacecraft. The mathematical model of complex spacecraft with flexible appendages and momentum bias actuators on board is presented. Based on the plant model and combined with the feedback controller, modal parameters of the closed-loop system are calculated, and a multiple mode input shaper utilizing the modal information is designed to suppress vibrations. Aiming at reducing vibrations excited by attitude maneuver, a quintic polynomial form rotation path planning is proposed with constraints on the actuators and the angular velocity taken into account. Attitude maneuver simulation results of the control systems with input shaper or path planning in loop are separately analyzed, and based on the analysis, a combined control strategy is presented with both path planning and input shaper in loop. Simulation results show that the combined control strategy satisfies the complex spacecraft's requirement of fast maneuver and stabilization with the actuators' torque limitation satisfied at the same time.

  11. The dynamics of spin stabilized spacecraft with movable appendages, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, P. M.; Sellappan, R.

    1975-01-01

    The motion and stability of spin stabilized spacecraft with movable external appendages are treated both analytically and numerically. The two basic types of appendages considered are: (1) a telescoping type of varying length and (2) a hinged type of fixed length whose orientation with respect to the main part of the spacecraft can vary. Two classes of telescoping appendages are considered: (a) where an end mass is mounted at the end of an (assumed) massless boom; and (b) where the appendage is assumed to consist of a uniformly distributed homogeneous mass throughout its length. For the telescoping system Eulerian equations of motion are developed. During all deployment sequences it is assumed that the transverse component of angular momentum is much smaller than the component along the major spin axis. Closed form analytical solutions for the time response of the transverse components of angular velocities are obtained when the spacecraft hub has a nearly spherical mass distribution.

  12. Attitude-Independent Magnetometer Calibration for Spin-Stabilized Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natanson, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes a three-step estimator to calibrate a Three-Axis Magnetometer (TAM) using TAM and slit Sun or star sensor measurements. In the first step, the Calibration Utility forms a loss function from the residuals of the magnitude of the geomagnetic field. This loss function is minimized with respect to biases, scale factors, and nonorthogonality corrections. The second step minimizes residuals of the projection of the geomagnetic field onto the spin axis under the assumption that spacecraft nutation has been suppressed by a nutation damper. Minimization is done with respect to various directions of the body spin axis in the TAM frame. The direction of the spin axis in the inertial coordinate system required for the residual computation is assumed to be unchanged with time. It is either determined independently using other sensors or included in the estimation parameters. In both cases all estimation parameters can be found using simple analytical formulas derived in the paper. The last step is to minimize a third loss function formed by residuals of the dot product between the geomagnetic field and Sun or star vector with respect to the misalignment angle about the body spin axis. The method is illustrated by calibrating TAM for the Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer (FAST) using in-flight TAM and Sun sensor data. The estimated parameters include magnetic biases, scale factors, and misalignment angles of the spin axis in the TAM frame. Estimation of the misalignment angle about the spin axis was inconclusive since (at least for the selected time interval) the Sun vector was about 15 degrees from the direction of the spin axis; as a result residuals of the dot product between the geomagnetic field and Sun vectors were to a large extent minimized as a by-product of the second step.

  13. Spacecraft Stabilization and Control for Capture of Non-Cooperative Space Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Suresh; Kelkar, Atul G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses stabilization and control issues in autonomous capture and manipulation of non-cooperative space objects such as asteroids, space debris, and orbital spacecraft in need of servicing. Such objects are characterized by unknown mass-inertia properties, unknown rotational motion, and irregular shapes, which makes it a challenging control problem. The problem is further compounded by the presence of inherent nonlinearities, signi cant elastic modes with low damping, and parameter uncertainties in the spacecraft. Robust dissipativity-based control laws are presented and are shown to provide global asymptotic stability in spite of model uncertainties and nonlinearities. It is shown that robust stabilization can be accomplished via model-independent dissipativity-based controllers using thrusters alone, while stabilization with attitude and position control can be accomplished using thrusters and torque actuators.

  14. An approach to attitude determination for a spin-stabilized spacecraft (IMP 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    The analysis and the FORTRAN program are presented for the determination of attitude of a spin-stabilized spacecraft. The use of telemetry data that provide information about two reference vectors and their relation to the spin is outlined. A technique for the determination of the spin-axis orientation that employs only simple calculations is described.

  15. Nutational stability of a spinning spacecraft with internal mass motion and axial thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mingori, D. L.; Yam, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Stability conditions are developed for a spinning spacecraft with internal mass motion and axial thrust. The results show that rapid cone angle growth is possible if the thrust magnitude is sufficiently large and the moving mass is aft of the system mass center. The instability does not rely on internal or external dissipation.

  16. Nonlinear Slewing Spacecraft Control Based on Exergy, Power Flow, and Static and Dynamic Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinett, Rush D.; Wilson, David G.

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a new nonlinear control methodology for slewing spacecraft, which provides both necessary and sufficient conditions for stability by identifying the stability boundaries, rigid body modes, and limit cycles. Conservative Hamiltonian system concepts, which are equivalent to static stability of airplanes, are used to find and deal with the static stability boundaries: rigid body modes. The application of exergy and entropy thermodynamic concepts to the work-rate principle provides a natural partitioning through the second law of thermodynamics of power flows into exergy generator, dissipator, and storage for Hamiltonian systems that is employed to find the dynamic stability boundaries: limit cycles. This partitioning process enables the control system designer to directly evaluate and enhance the stability and performance of the system by balancing the power flowing into versus the power dissipated within the system subject to the Hamiltonian surface (power storage). Relationships are developed between exergy, power flow, static and dynamic stability, and Lyapunov analysis. The methodology is demonstrated with two illustrative examples: (1) a nonlinear oscillator with sinusoidal damping and (2) a multi-input-multi-output three-axis slewing spacecraft that employs proportional-integral-derivative tracking control with numerical simulation results.

  17. Maneuver reconstruction techniques for open-loop spin-stabilized spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frauenholz, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    The Pioneer missions were supported by spin-stabilized spacecraft designs using open-loop control and blow-down propulsion subsystems. Reliable estimates of the ever-changing performance inherent to these subsystems were needed to effectively design and reconstruct trajectory correction maneuver (TCM) strategies. These performance updates were obtained by adjusting model parameters to match independent telemetric and radiometric observations to define the simultaneous changes in attitude, velocity, and spin rate during a maneuver sequence.

  18. Computer simulation for time optimal or energy optimal attitude control of spin-stabilized spacecraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolley, R. D.; Werking, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    An original technique for determining the optimal magnetic torque strategy for control of the attitude of spin stabilized spacecraft is presented. By employing Lagrange multipliers and the Calculus of Variations, optimal control equations are derived which define minimum time and minimum energy attitude maneuvers. Computer program algorithms to numerically solve these optimal control equations are also described. The performance of this technique is compared with a commonly employed planning method.

  19. External stability of a resonance during the descent of a spacecraft with a small variable asymmetry in the martian atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimov, V. V.; Lashin, V. S.

    2017-03-01

    We consider the problem of a spacecraft's descent with a small asymmetry in the rarefied martian atmosphere at low values of the angle of attack. The use of the method of averaging and conditions of external stability of the main resonance make it possible for us to determine several characteristic cases of occurrence of external stability and instability during rotation of the spacecraft. It is shown, that control of the asymmetry in the above-described problem can provide stabilization of rotation of the spacecraft.

  20. Evaluation of Energy-Sink Stability Criteria for Dual-Spin Spacecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    of Dual-Spin Spacecraft," Journal of Spacecro•f and Rockets, Vol. 4, No. 12, Dec. 1967, pp . 1638-1643. 3Mingori, D. L., "Effects of Energy...Dissipation on the Attitude Stability of Dual-Spin Satellites," AIAA Journal, Vol. 7, 1969, pp . 20-27. 4Ross, I. M., "Nutational Stability and Core Energy of a...Acquisition from an Arbitrary Spinning or Tumbling State," Journal of Guidance and Control, Vol. 4, No. 2, Mar.-Apr. 1981, pp . 164-170. 6Hughes, P. C

  1. Dynamic modelling and stability parametric analysis of a flexible spacecraft with fuel slosh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasbarri, Paolo; Sabatini, Marco; Pisculli, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Modern spacecraft often contain large quantities of liquid fuel to execute station keeping and attitude manoeuvres for space missions. In general the combined liquid-structure system is very difficult to model, and the analyses are based on some assumed simplifications. A realistic representation of the liquid dynamics inside closed containers can be approximated by an equivalent mechanical system. This technique can be considered a very useful mathematical tool for solving the complete dynamics problem of a space-system containing liquid. Thus they are particularly useful when designing a control system or to study the stability margins of the coupled dynamics. The commonly used equivalent mechanical models are the mass-spring models and the pendulum models. As far as the spacecraft modelling is concerned they are usually considered rigid; i.e. no flexible appendages such as solar arrays or antennas are considered when dealing with the interaction of the attitude dynamics with the fuel slosh. In the present work the interactions among the fuel slosh, the attitude dynamics and the flexible appendages of a spacecraft are first studied via a classical multi-body approach. In particular the equations of attitude and orbit motion are first derived for the partially liquid-filled flexible spacecraft undergoing fuel slosh; then several parametric analyses will be performed to study the stability conditions of the system during some assigned manoeuvers. The present study is propaedeutic for the synthesis of advanced attitude and/or station keeping control techniques able to minimize and/or reduce an undesired excitation of the satellite flexible appendages and of the fuel sloshing mass.

  2. The dynamics of spin stabilized spacecraft with movable appendages, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    The dynamics and stability of a spin stabilized spacecraft with a hinged appendage system are treated analytically and numerically. The hinged system consists of a central hub with masses attached to (assumed) massless booms of fixed length whose orientation relative to the main part can change. The general three dimensional deployment dynamics of such a hinged system is considered without any restriction on the location of the hinge points. The equations of motion for the hinged system, with viscous damping at both hinge points, are linearized about the nominal equilibrium position where the booms are orthogonal to the nominal spin axis for the case of two dimensional and three dimensional motion. Analytic stability criteria are obtained from the necessary condition on the sign of all the coefficients in the system characteristic equation.

  3. Development of Low-Toxicity Urine Stabilization for Spacecraft Water Recovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Mitchell, Julie L.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization is an essential component of the spacecraft water cycle. The purpose of stabilizing wastewater is two-fold. First, stabilization prevents the breakdown of urea into ammonia, a toxic gas at high concentrations. Second, it prevents the growth of microorganisms, thereby mitigating hardware and water quality issues due to due biofilm and planktonic growth. Current stabilization techniques involve oxidizers and strong acids (pH=2) such as chromic and sulfuric acid, which are highly toxic and pose a risk to crew health. The purpose of this effort is to explore less toxic stabilization techniques, such as food-grade and commercial care preservatives. Additionally, certain preservatives were tested in the presence of a low-toxicity organic acid. Triplicate 300-mL volumes of urine were dosed with a predetermined quantity of stabilizer and stored for two weeks. During that time, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), ammonia, and turbidity were monitored. Those preservatives that showed the lowest visible microbial growth and stable pH were further tested in a six-month stability study. The results of the six-month study are also included in this paper.

  4. Development of Low-Toxicity Wastewater Stabilization for Spacecraft Water Recovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas; Pickering, Karen D.; Alvarez, Giraldo N.

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization was an essential component of the spacecraft water cycle. The purpose of stabilizing wastewater was two-fold. First, stabilization prevents the breakdown of urea into ammonia, a toxic gas at high concentrations. Second, it prevents the growth of microorganisms, thereby mitigating hardware and water quality issues due to due biofilm and planktonic growth. Current stabilization techniques involve oxidizers and strong acids (pH=2) such as chromic and sulfuric acid, which are highly toxic and pose a risk to crew health. The purpose of this effort was to explore less toxic stabilization techniques, such as food-grade and commercial care preservatives. Additionally, certain preservatives were tested in the presence of a low-toxicity organic acid. Triplicate 300-milliliter volumes of urine were dosed with a predetermined quantity of stabilizer and stored for two weeks. During that time, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), ammonia, and turbidity were monitored. Those preservatives that showed the lowest visible microbial growth and stable pH were further tested in a six-month stability study. The results of the six-month study are also included in this paper.

  5. Development of Low-Toxicity Wastewater Stabilization for Spacecraft Water Recovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Mitchell, Julie; Pickering, Karen; Carrier, Chris; Vega, Letty; Muirhead, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization was an essential component of the spacecraft water cycle. The purpose of stabilizing wastewater was two-fold. First, stabilization prevents the breakdown of urea into ammonia, a toxic gas at high concentrations. Second, it prevents the growth of microorganisms, thereby mitigating hardware and water quality issues due to due biofilm and planktonic growth. Current stabilization techniques involve oxidizers and strong acids (pH=2) such as chromic and sulfuric acid, which are highly toxic and pose a risk to crew health. The purpose of this effort was to explore less toxic stabilization techniques, such as food-grade and commercial care preservatives. Additionally, certain preservatives were tested in the presence of a low-toxicity organic acid. Triplicate 300-mL volumes of urine were dosed with a predetermined quantity of stabilizer and stored for two weeks. During that time, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), ammonia, and turbidity were monitored. Those preservatives that showed the lowest visible microbial growth and stable pH were further tested in a six-month stability study. The results of the six-month study are also included in this paper.

  6. Study to define logic associated with CMGS to maneuver and stabilize an orbiting spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the logic associated with the control moment gyroscopes to maneuver and stabilize an orbiting spacecraft. The study objectives are as follows: (1) to define mission requirements and feasible attitudes for a shuttle-like vehicle that will meet mission objectives, (2) to determine the control moment gyroscope (CMG) and system configurations that will best meet overall mission requirements, (3) to define all of the software required to manage and control the selected CMG systems, and (4) to verify by computer simulation the adequacy of the selected CMG system and specified software package in meeting the overall mission requirements.

  7. Attitude stabilization of flexible spacecrafts via extended disturbance observer based controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ruidong; Wu, Zhong

    2017-04-01

    To achieve the high-precision attitude stabilization for the flexible spacecraft in the presence of space environmental disturbances, unmodeled dynamics, and the disturbances caused by the elastic vibration of flexible appendages, an extended disturbance observer (EDO) based controller is proposed. The proposed controller is formulated by combining EDO and a backstepping feedback controller. EDO is used to estimate the disturbance, which is modeled as an unknown high-order differentiable equation and the rth-order derivative of the disturbance is assumed to be bounded. Compared to the conventional first-order disturbance observer, the higher order EDO offers improvement in estimate accuracy, if the absolute values of poles for EDO transfer function are chosen larger than the frequency content of the disturbance. Then, the output of EDO plus the backstepping feedback controller are applied to stabilize the attitude with high precision by rejecting disturbances for the flexible spacecraft. Finally, numerical simulations have been conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  8. Input-to-state stability of model-based spacecraft formation control systems with communication constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xi; Kumar, K. D.

    2011-06-01

    This paper investigates the formation keeping problem for multiple spacecraft in the framework of networked control systems (NCSs). A continuous-time representation of the NCS is considered for the tracking control of relative translational motion between two spacecraft in a leader-follower formation in the presence of communication constraints and system uncertainties. Model-based control schemes are presented, which employ state feedback (when the relative position and velocity vectors are directly measurable) and output feedback (when velocity measurements are not available), respectively, to guarantee input-to-state stability (ISS) of the system. The stability conditions on network transfer intervals are derived as simple eigenvalue tests of a well-structured test matrix. The results are then extended to include network communication delay. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control scheme ensuring high formation keeping precision and robustness to nonlinearities and system uncertainties. The proposed controllers are robust not only to structured uncertainties such as system parameter perturbations but also to unstructured uncertainties such as external disturbances and measurement noises.

  9. A multimission three-axis stabilized spacecraft flight dynamics ground support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langston, J.; Krack, K.; Reupke, W.

    1993-02-01

    The Multimission Three-Axis Stabilized Spacecraft (MTASS) Flight Dynamics Support System (FDSS) has been developed in an effort to minimize the costs of ground support systems. Unlike single-purpose ground support systems, which attempt to reduce costs by reusing software specifically developed for previous missions, the multimission support system is an intermediate step in the progression to a fully generalized mission support system in which numerous missions may be served by one general system. The benefits of multimission attitude ground support systems extend not only to the software design and coding process, but to the entire system environment, from specification through testing, simulation, operations, and maintenance. This paper reports the application of an MTASS FDSS to multiple scientific satellite missions. The satellites are the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), and the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX). Both UARS and EUVE use the multimission modular spacecraft (MMS) concept. SAMPEX is part of the Small Explorer (SMEX) series and uses a much simpler set of attitude sensors. This paper centers on algorithm and design concepts for a multimission system and discusses flight experience from UARS.

  10. A multimission three-axis stabilized spacecraft flight dynamics ground support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langston, J.; Krack, K.; Reupke, W.

    1993-01-01

    The Multimission Three-Axis Stabilized Spacecraft (MTASS) Flight Dynamics Support System (FDSS) has been developed in an effort to minimize the costs of ground support systems. Unlike single-purpose ground support systems, which attempt to reduce costs by reusing software specifically developed for previous missions, the multimission support system is an intermediate step in the progression to a fully generalized mission support system in which numerous missions may be served by one general system. The benefits of multimission attitude ground support systems extend not only to the software design and coding process, but to the entire system environment, from specification through testing, simulation, operations, and maintenance. This paper reports the application of an MTASS FDSS to multiple scientific satellite missions. The satellites are the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), and the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX). Both UARS and EUVE use the multimission modular spacecraft (MMS) concept. SAMPEX is part of the Small Explorer (SMEX) series and uses a much simpler set of attitude sensors. This paper centers on algorithm and design concepts for a multimission system and discusses flight experience from UARS.

  11. Performance analysis of a GPS Interferometric attitude determination system for a gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, John C.

    1995-05-01

    The performance of an unaided attitude determination system based on GPS interferometry is examined using linear covariance analysis. The modelled system includes four GPS antennae onboard a gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft, specifically the Air Force's RADCAL satellite. The principal error sources are identified and modelled. The optimal system's sensitivities to these error sources are examined through an error budget and by varying system parameters. The effects of two satellite selection algorithms, Geometric and Attitude Dilution of Precision (GDOP and ADOP, respectively) are examined. The attitude performance of two optimal-suboptimal filters is also presented. Based on this analysis, the limiting factors in attitude accuracy are the knowledge of the relative antenna locations, the electrical path lengths from the antennae to the receiver, and the multipath environment. The performance of the system is found to be fairly insensitive to torque errors, orbital inclination, and the two satellite geometry figures-of-merit tested.

  12. Attitude stability of a spacecraft on a stationary orbit around an asteroid subjected to gravity gradient torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Xu, Shijie

    2013-04-01

    Attitude stability of spacecraft subjected to the gravity gradient torque in a central gravity field has been one of the most fundamental problems in space engineering since the beginning of the space age. Over the last two decades, the interest in asteroid missions for scientific exploration and near-Earth object hazard mitigation is increasing. In this paper, the problem of attitude stability is generalized to a rigid spacecraft on a stationary orbit around a uniformly-rotating asteroid. This generalized problem is studied via the linearized equations of motion, in which the harmonic coefficients C_{20} and C_{22} of the gravity field of the asteroid are considered. The necessary conditions of stability of this conservative system are investigated in detail with respect to three important parameters of the asteroid, which include the harmonic coefficients C_{20} and C_{22}, as well as the ratio of the mean radius to the radius of the stationary orbit. We find that, due to the significantly non-spherical shape and the rapid rotation of the asteroid, the attitude stability domain is modified significantly in comparison with the classical stability domain predicted by the Beletskii-DeBra-Delp method on a circular orbit in a central gravity field. Especially, when the spacecraft is located on the intermediate-moment principal axis of the asteroid, the stability domain can be totally different from the classical stability domain. Our results are useful for the design of attitude control system in the future asteroid missions.

  13. Mass property control of a spin stabilized spacecraft with restrictive mission and weight constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, W. E.; Ardvini, C.

    1985-01-01

    In the primary experiment of the spin stabilized San Marco D/L spacecraft, the drag effects on a light spherical shell coupled to a relatively massive center body will be measured. To achieve the precise mass property control, the centroids of both the shell and the center body must coincide with each other and with the center of pressure of the shell. Precise spin balancing is needed for launch and orbital stability, and the deployable antennas need accurate alignment. Corrective measures, developed after the preliminary mass measurements showed flaws in the mass property control, are described in detail. Inertia booms and a yo-yo despin system were developed as add-on units, spin balance measurements about all three geometric axes were used to define weight minimized correction within the outer shell envelope, and boom tip mass differentials were optimized for the most favorable inertia ratio margin achievable within the mission weight constraints. The weight versus orbital lifetime trade-offs were also considered.

  14. Automated Performance Characterization of DSN System Frequency Stability Using Spacecraft Tracking Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Timothy T.; Machuzak, Richard J.; Bedrossian, Alina; Kelly, Richard M.; Liao, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    This software provides an automated capability to measure and qualify the frequency stability performance of the Deep Space Network (DSN) ground system, using daily spacecraft tracking data. The results help to verify if the DSN performance is meeting its specification, therefore ensuring commitments to flight missions; in particular, the radio science investigations. The rich set of data also helps the DSN Operations and Maintenance team to identify the trends and patterns, allowing them to identify the antennas of lower performance and implement corrective action in a timely manner. Unlike the traditional approach where the performance can only be obtained from special calibration sessions that are both time-consuming and require manual setup, the new method taps into the daily spacecraft tracking data. This new approach significantly increases the amount of data available for analysis, roughly by two orders of magnitude, making it possible to conduct trend analysis with good confidence. The software is built with automation in mind for end-to-end processing. From the inputs gathering to computation analysis and later data visualization of the results, all steps are done automatically, making the data production at near zero cost. This allows the limited engineering resource to focus on high-level assessment and to follow up with the exceptions/deviations. To make it possible to process the continual stream of daily incoming data without much effort, and to understand the results quickly, the processing needs to be automated and the data summarized at a high level. Special attention needs to be given to data gathering, input validation, handling anomalous conditions, computation, and presenting the results in a visual form that makes it easy to spot items of exception/ deviation so that further analysis can be directed and corrective actions followed.

  15. Automated Performance Characterization of DSN System Frequency Stability Using Spacecraft Tracking Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Timothy T.; Machuzak, Richard J.; Bedrossian, Alina; Kelly, Richard M.; Liao, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    This software provides an automated capability to measure and qualify the frequency stability performance of the Deep Space Network (DSN) ground system, using daily spacecraft tracking data. The results help to verify if the DSN performance is meeting its specification, therefore ensuring commitments to flight missions; in particular, the radio science investigations. The rich set of data also helps the DSN Operations and Maintenance team to identify the trends and patterns, allowing them to identify the antennas of lower performance and implement corrective action in a timely manner. Unlike the traditional approach where the performance can only be obtained from special calibration sessions that are both time-consuming and require manual setup, the new method taps into the daily spacecraft tracking data. This new approach significantly increases the amount of data available for analysis, roughly by two orders of magnitude, making it possible to conduct trend analysis with good confidence. The software is built with automation in mind for end-to-end processing. From the inputs gathering to computation analysis and later data visualization of the results, all steps are done automatically, making the data production at near zero cost. This allows the limited engineering resource to focus on high-level assessment and to follow up with the exceptions/deviations. To make it possible to process the continual stream of daily incoming data without much effort, and to understand the results quickly, the processing needs to be automated and the data summarized at a high level. Special attention needs to be given to data gathering, input validation, handling anomalous conditions, computation, and presenting the results in a visual form that makes it easy to spot items of exception/deviation so that further analysis can be directed and corrective actions followed.

  16. The use of precession modulation for nutation control in spin-stabilized spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. M.; Donner, R. J.; Tasar, V.

    1974-01-01

    The relations which determine the nutation effects induced in a spinning spacecraft by periodic precession thrust pulses are derived analytically. By utilizing the idea that nutation need only be observed just before each precession thrust pulse, a difficult continuous-time derivation is replaced by a simple discrete-time derivation using z-transforms. The analytic results obtained are used to develop two types of modulated precession control laws which use the precession maneuver to concurrently control nutation. Results are illustrated by digital simulation of an actual spacecraft configuration.

  17. Attitude control of the LACE satellite: A gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivory, J. E.; Campion, R. E.; Bakeris, D. F.

    1993-01-01

    The Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) satellite was launched in February 1990 by the Naval Research Laboratory. The spacecraft's pitch and roll are maintained with a gravity gradient boom and a magnetic damper. There are two other booms with much smaller tip masses, one in the velocity direction (lead boom) of variable length and the other in the opposite direction (balance boom) also of variable length. In addition, the system uses a momentum wheel with its axis perpendicular to the plane of the orbit to control yaw and keep these booms in the orbital plane. The primary LACE experiment requires that the lead boom be moved to lengths varying from 4.6 m to 45.7 m. This and other onboard experiments require that the spacecraft attitude remain within tight constraints while operating. The problem confronting the satellite operators was to move the lead boom without inducing a net spacecraft attitude disturbance. A description of a method used to change the length of the lead boom while minimizing the disturbance to the attitude of the spacecraft is given. Deadbeating to dampen pitch oscillations has also been accomplished by maneuvering either the lead or balance boom and is discussed.

  18. Orbital stability during the mapping and approach phases of the MarcoPolo-R spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickhusen, K.; Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.; Luedicke, F.

    2012-09-01

    In support of the Marco-Polo-R mission we are analyzing the motion of the spacecraft in the vicinity of its primary target, the binary asteroid system 175706 (1996 FG3). We ran simulations in order to support the general mapping, the approach, and the sampling phase

  19. Attitude control of the LACE satellite: A gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivory, J. E.; Campion, R. E.; Bakeris, D. F.

    1993-02-01

    The Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) satellite was launched in February 1990 by the Naval Research Laboratory. The spacecraft's pitch and roll are maintained with a gravity gradient boom and a magnetic damper. There are two other booms with much smaller tip masses, one in the velocity direction (lead boom) of variable length and the other in the opposite direction (balance boom) also of variable length. In addition, the system uses a momentum wheel with its axis perpendicular to the plane of the orbit to control yaw and keep these booms in the orbital plane. The primary LACE experiment requires that the lead boom be moved to lengths varying from 4.6 m to 45.7 m. This and other onboard experiments require that the spacecraft attitude remain within tight constraints while operating. The problem confronting the satellite operators was to move the lead boom without inducing a net spacecraft attitude disturbance. A description of a method used to change the length of the lead boom while minimizing the disturbance to the attitude of the spacecraft is given. Deadbeating to dampen pitch oscillations has also been accomplished by maneuvering either the lead or balance boom and is discussed.

  20. Design of an Undergraduate 3-Axis Space Science Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, W. W.; France, M. E. B.

    2008-08-01

    The fundamental objectives of the capstone design project in the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy are for cadets to learn important engineering lessons by executing a real space mission on a Department of Defense-funded satellite project. FalconSAT-5 is a 153 kg, three-axis stabilized spacecraft being designed and built by cadets and scheduled for launch in December 2009 on a Minotaur- IV from Kodiak, Alaska. The satellite has a space science mission to measure the local state of the ionosphere at ambient conditions with the intelligent Miniaturized Electrostatic Analyzer (iMESA) instrument and higher energy ions with the Wafer Integrated Spectrometers (WISPERS) instrument. There is also an RF receiver that can tune in the VHF and UHF bands in order to measure RF scintillation and correlate large scale ionospheric variations with the local iMESA and WISPERS measurements. One additional science objective is to understand and measure the interaction of generated plasmas with the body of a satellite and the local magnetic fields.

  1. Analysis of Faint Glints from Stabilized GEO Satellites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    INTRODUCTION Ground-based optical and radar sites routinely acquire resolved images of satellites, yielding a great deal of knowledge about orbiting...BRF) requires knowledge of the stabilization scheme used to maintain the attitude of the satellite’s main bus [13]. Modern 3-axis stabilized...Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control”, Astrophysics and Space Sciences Library, Vol. 73., D. Reidel Publishing Co., Boston, MA, 1978. 14. Africano

  2. Increased ephemeris accuracy using attitude-dependent aerodynamic force coefficients for inertially stabilized spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Baker, David F.

    1991-01-01

    The FREEMAC program used to generate the aerodynamic coefficients, as well as associated routines that allow the results to be used in other software is described. These capabilities are applied in two numerical examples to the short-term orbit prediction of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spacecraft. Predictions using attitude-dependent aerodynamic coefficients were made on a modified version of the PC-based Ephemeris Generation Program (EPHGEN) and were compared to definitive orbit solutions obtained from actual tracking data. The numerical results show improvement in the predicted semi-major axis and along-track positions that would seem to be worth the added computational effort. Finally, other orbit and attitude analysis applications are noted that could profit from using FREEMAC-calculated aerodynamic coefficients, including orbital lifetime studies, orbit determination methods, attitude dynamics simulators, and spacecraft control system component sizing.

  3. Gyroless yaw control system for a three axis stabilized, zero-momentum spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, Jr., John B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A satellite attitude control system is usable in the absence of any inertial yaw attitude reference, such as a gyroscope, and in the absence of a pitch bias momentum. Both the roll-yaw rigid body dynamics and the roll-yaw orbit kinematics are modelled. Pitch and roll attitude control are conventional. The model receives inputs from a roll sensor, and roll and yaw torques from reaction wheel monitors. The model produces estimated yaw which controls the spacecraft yaw attitude.

  4. Disturbance Filtering and Identification on the Naval Postgraduate School 3-Axis Spacecraft Simulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    manual tuning, so a control input torque must continually counter the imbalance disturbance torque. For actuators, the TAS has three reaction wheels , which... reaction wheels shown in Fig. 4. The yaw axis (axis 2) is aligned with the vertical air bearing support structure shown in Fig. 1. / /B N B N B...as a result of actuator saturation. Our reaction wheel actuators were limited to 0.2 Nm, while our required torque was 2.13 Nm. VI. DRF and

  5. Natural modes of oscillation of rotating flexible structures about nontrivial equilibrium. [spacecraft stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meirovitch, L.; Juang, J.-N.

    1976-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the vibrational characteristics of rotating flexible structures in the neighborhood of steady rotation. It is assumed that the structure undergoes deformations during the steady rotation, so that the equilibrium is nontrivial. The object of the paper is to formulate the eigenvalue problem associated with small oscillations of the structure about the nontrivial equilibrium and to develop efficient methods to compute the system natural frequencies and modal vectors. A numerical example showing the procedure for the calculation of spacecraft modes is presented.

  6. A New, Adaptable, Optical High-Resolution 3-Axis Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Buchhold, Niels; Baumgartner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a new optical, multi-functional, high-resolution 3-axis sensor which serves to navigate and can, for example, replace standard joysticks in medical devices such as electric wheelchairs, surgical robots or medical diagnosis devices. A light source, e.g., a laser diode, is affixed to a movable axis and projects a random geometric shape on an image sensor (CMOS or CCD). The downstream microcontroller’s software identifies the geometric shape’s center, distortion and size, and then calculates x, y, and z coordinates, which can be processed in attached devices. Depending on the image sensor in use (e.g., 6.41 megapixels), the 3-axis sensor features a resolution of 1544 digits from right to left and 1038 digits up and down. Through interpolation, these values rise by a factor of 100. A unique feature is the exact reproducibility (deflection to coordinates) and its precise ability to return to its neutral position. Moreover, optical signal processing provides a high level of protection against electromagnetic and radio frequency interference. The sensor is adaptive and adjustable to fit a user’s range of motion (stroke and force). This recommendation aims to optimize sensor systems such as joysticks in medical devices in terms of safety, ease of use, and adaptability. PMID:28134824

  7. A New, Adaptable, Optical High-Resolution 3-Axis Sensor.

    PubMed

    Buchhold, Niels; Baumgartner, Christian

    2017-01-27

    This article presents a new optical, multi-functional, high-resolution 3-axis sensor which serves to navigate and can, for example, replace standard joysticks in medical devices such as electric wheelchairs, surgical robots or medical diagnosis devices. A light source, e.g., a laser diode, is affixed to a movable axis and projects a random geometric shape on an image sensor (CMOS or CCD). The downstream microcontroller's software identifies the geometric shape's center, distortion and size, and then calculates x, y, and z coordinates, which can be processed in attached devices. Depending on the image sensor in use (e.g., 6.41 megapixels), the 3-axis sensor features a resolution of 1544 digits from right to left and 1038 digits up and down. Through interpolation, these values rise by a factor of 100. A unique feature is the exact reproducibility (deflection to coordinates) and its precise ability to return to its neutral position. Moreover, optical signal processing provides a high level of protection against electromagnetic and radio frequency interference. The sensor is adaptive and adjustable to fit a user's range of motion (stroke and force). This recommendation aims to optimize sensor systems such as joysticks in medical devices in terms of safety, ease of use, and adaptability.

  8. Performance analysis of a GPS Interferometric attitude determination system for a gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoll, John C.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of an unaided attitude determination system based on GPS interferometry is examined using linear covariance analysis. The modelled system includes four GPS antennae onboard a gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft, specifically the Air Force's RADCAL satellite. The principal error sources are identified and modelled. The optimal system's sensitivities to these error sources are examined through an error budget and by varying system parameters. The effects of two satellite selection algorithms, Geometric and Attitude Dilution of Precision (GDOP and ADOP, respectively) are examined. The attitude performance of two optimal-suboptimal filters is also presented. Based on this analysis, the limiting factors in attitude accuracy are the knowledge of the relative antenna locations, the electrical path lengths from the antennae to the receiver, and the multipath environment. The performance of the system is found to be fairly insensitive to torque errors, orbital inclination, and the two satellite geometry figures-of-merit tested.

  9. Attitude control of an underactuated spacecraft using quaternion feedback regulator and tube-based MPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirshams, M.; Khosrojerdi, M.

    2017-03-01

    Feasibility of achieving 3-axis stabilization of an asymmetric spacecraft for cases where there is no control available in one axis (underactuated spacecraft) is explored in this paper. A novel control design methodology is presented which can stabilize the underactuated spacecraft and steer it to the origin. A passive fault tolerant control (FTC) is defined which controls and maintains the attitude of the spacecraft near the desired point in presence of uncertainties, disturbances, control constraints and actuator faults. Considering the general conditions of the underactuated spacecraft, a hybrid controller combining a quaternion feedback regulator (QFR) with a tube-based model predictive controller (MPC) is developed based on the nonlinear kinematic and dynamic equations of the spacecraft motion. The hybrid controller is composed of two control stages. At the first stage, QFR decreases the angular velocities and brings the state vector to an acceptable region for the next stage. Then, tube-based MPC solves two optimal control problems, a standard problem for the nominal system to define a central guide path, and an ancillary problem to steer the state vector towards the central path with semi-optimal control effort. Numerical simulation results obtained for the underactuated spacecraft merely indicate effectiveness of the proposed attitude control method.

  10. Spacecraft Charge as a Source of Electrical Power for Spacecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics.47: Spacecraft Charging by3Maanetospheric Plasmas : 15-30, 1976. Nicholson, Dwight R...34 Spacecraft Charging Investigation: A Joint Research and Technology Program," Progress in Astronautics and Astronautics . 47: Spacecraft Charging by... Magnetospheric Plasmas : 3-14, 1976. l Massaro, N.J. and others. "A Charging Model for Three-Axis Stabilized Spacecraft ,"

  11. Moisture interaction and stability of ZOT (Zinc Orthotitanate) thermal control spacecraft coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, Gordon R.; Gonzalez, Charles C.; Ross, Ronald G., Jr.; Wen, Liang C.; Odonnell, Timothy

    1988-01-01

    Two of the many performance requirements of the zinc orthotitanate (ZOT) ceramic thermal control paint covering parts of the Jupiter-bound Galileo spacecraft are that it be sufficiently electrically conductive so as to prevent electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage to onboard electronics and that it adhere to and protect the substrate from corrosion in terrestrial environments. The bulk electrical resistivity of ZOT on an aluminum substrate was measured over the ranges 22 C to 90 C and 0 percent RH to 100 percent RH, and also in soft (10 (minus 2) Torr) and hard (10 (minus 7) Torr) vacuums. No significant temperature dependence was evident, but measured resistivity values ranged over 9 orders of magnitude: 10 to the 5th power ohm-cm at 100 percent RH greater than 10 to the 12th power ohm-cm in a hard vacuum. The latter value violates the ESD criterion for a typical 0.019 cm thick coating. The corrosion study involved exposing typical ZOT substrate combinations to two moisture environments - 30 C/85 percent RH and 85 C/85 percent RH - for 2000 hours, during which time the samples were periodically removed for front-to-back electrical resistance and scratch/peel test measurements. It was determined that the ZOT/Al and ZOT/Mg systems are stable (no ZOT delamination), although some corrosion (oxide formation) and resistivity increases observed among the ZOT/Mg samples warrant that exposure of some parts to humid environments be minimized.

  12. Spacecraft stability, dynamics and control near the triangular Lagrange points influenced by multiple Trojan asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivailo, Olga

    2007-04-01

    In view of the importance of Lagrange points to the exploration and development of space, the dynamics and stability of a satellite were studied under multiple Trojan asteroids influence. Through the use of a numerical simulator developed in MATLAB, consideration was given to the effects of gravitational forces exerted by the asteroids themselves, simulating the resulting insignificant influence of the Trojan asteroids on a satellite placed at the triangular Lagrange points. The study of optimized satellite transfers between triangular Lagrange points allowed the enforcement of multiple, specific, non-linear constraints on critical mission parameters of maximum thrust, mission duration, propellant consumption and accelerations. The optimized transfer trajectory between the two triangular Lagrange points was direction sensitive. That is, the minimum thrust optimized transfer trajectory for a satellite from L4 to L5 was unique and vastly different to that from L5 to L4. A further exciting discovery highlighted that superposition of the latter trajectories formed a perfectly smooth, uninterrupted kidney-shaped loop, fused at the two relevant points of connection. Implications for this phenomenon extend directly to future mission planning.

  13. Semi-globally input-to-state stable controller design for flexible spacecraft attitude stabilization under bounded disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qinglei

    2010-02-01

    Semi-globally input-to-state stable (ISS) control law is derived for flexible spacecraft attitude maneuvers in the presence of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. The modified rodrigues parameters (MRP) are used as the kinematic variables since they are nonsingular for all possible rotations. This novel simple control is a proportional-plus-derivative (PD) type controller plus a sign function through a special Lyapunov function construction involving the sum of quadratic terms in the angular velocities, kinematic parameters, modal variables and the cross state weighting. A sufficient condition under which this nonlinear PD-type control law can render the system semi-globally input-to-state stable is provided such that the closed-loop system is robust with respect to any disturbance within a quantifiable restriction on the amplitude, as well as the set of initial conditions, if the control gains are designed appropriately. In addition to detailed derivations of the new controllers design and a rigorous sketch of all the associated stability and attitude convergence proofs, extensive simulation studies have been conducted to validate the design and the results are presented to highlight the ensuring closed-loop performance benefits when compared with the conventional control schemes.

  14. Computer program system for dynamic simulation and stability analysis of passive and actively controlled spacecraft. Volume 1. Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodley, C. S.; Devers, D. A.; Park, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical development and associated digital computer program system is presented. The dynamic system (spacecraft) is modeled as an assembly of rigid and/or flexible bodies not necessarily in a topological tree configuration. The computer program system may be used to investigate total system dynamic characteristics including interaction effects between rigid and/or flexible bodies, control systems, and a wide range of environmental loadings. Additionally, the program system may be used for design of attitude control systems and for evaluation of total dynamic system performance including time domain response and frequency domain stability analyses. Volume 1 presents the theoretical developments including a description of the physical system, the equations of dynamic equilibrium, discussion of kinematics and system topology, a complete treatment of momentum wheel coupling, and a discussion of gravity gradient and environmental effects. Volume 2, is a program users' guide and includes a description of the overall digital program code, individual subroutines and a description of required program input and generated program output. Volume 3 presents the results of selected demonstration problems that illustrate all program system capabilities.

  15. CHIPSat spacecraft design: significant science on a low budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicik, Jeffrey; Wolff, Jonathan

    2003-12-01

    The Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer satellite (CHIPSat) was launched on January 12, 2003 and is successfully accomplishing its mission. CHIPS is NASA"s first-ever University-Class Explorer (UNEX) project, and is performed through a grant to the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). As a small start-up aerospace company, SpaceDev was awarded responsibility for a low-cost spacecraft and mission design, build, integration and test, and mission operations. The company leveraged past small satellite mission experiences to help design a robust small spacecraft system architecture. In addition, they utilized common industry hardware and software standards to facilitate design implementation, integration, and test of the bus, including the use of TCP/IP protocols and the Internet for end-to-end satellite communications. The approach called for a single-string design except in critical areas, the use of COTS parts to incorporate the latest proven technologies in commercial electronics, and the establishment of a working system as quickly as possible in order to maximize test hours prior to launch. Furthermore, automated ground systems were combined with table-configured onboard software to allow for "hands-off" mission operations. During nominal operations, the CHIPSat spacecraft uses a 3-axis stabilized zero-momentum bias "Nominal" mode. The secondary mode is a "Safehold" mode where fixed "keep-alive" arrays maintain enough power to operate the essential spacecraft bus in any attitude and spin condition, and no a-priori attitude knowledge is required to recover. Due to the omnidirectional antenna design, communications are robust in "Safehold" mode, including the transmission of basic housekeeping data at a duty cycle that is adjusted based on available solar power. This design enables the entire mission to be spent in "Observation Mode" with timed pointing files mapping the sky as desired unless an anomalous event upsets

  16. Contingency Operations during Failure of Inertial Attitude Acquisition Due to Star Tracker Blinding for Three-Axes-Stabilized Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Joachim; Herfort, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The three interplanetary ESA missions Mars-Express, Rosetta and Venus-Express (launched 2003, 2004 and 2005 resp.) are three-axes stabilized spacecraft (s/c) that estimate their inertial attitude (i.e. the attitude of the s/c w.r.t. the inertial frame) using measurements from a redundant set of star trackers (STR). Each s/c is equipped with four reaction wheels, a reaction control system based on thrusters and a redundant set of ring laser gyroscopes (gyros). The STR h/w layout of the three s/c is identical whereas there is a difference in the star pattern recognition algorithm of Rosetta which uses five neighbouring stars around a central star instead of star triads. The Rosetta algorithm has been implemented to cope with the presence of false stars which are expected to be seen during operations around the comet. The attitude acquisition capability from lost in space is different also in terms of AOCMS: The survival mode of Rosetta which is entered upon STR failure is presented. The AOCMS of Mars- and Venus-Express manages temporary STR outages during sky occultation by the planet not even by using redundancy. Though, a blinding of both STR during cruise lasting for the order of days confronts the ground operators with the limits of the AOCMS design. The operations and analyses that have been planned and partially been performed to compensate for the outage of the STR are demonstrated for Mars-Express. The caution measures taken before Venus orbit insertion of Venus-Express are detailed.

  17. Magnetic bearing momentum wheels with magnetic gimballing capability for 3-axis active attitude control and energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sindlinger, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetic bearings used for the suspension of momentum wheels provide conclusive advantages: the low friction torques and the absence of abrasion allow the realization of lightweight high speed wheels with high angular momentum and energy storage capacity and virtually unlimited lifetime. The use of actively controlled bearings provides a magnetic gimballing capability by applying the external signals to the two servo loops controlling the rotational degrees of freedom. Thus, an attitude control system can be realized by using only one rotating mass for 3-axis active satellite stabilization.

  18. GNC system scheme for lunar soft landing spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dayi; Huang, Xiangyu; Guan, Yifeng

    2008-07-01

    A pinpoint autonomous GNC system scheme for lunar soft landing is proposed. First, the descriptions of the mission outline for lunar soft landing are provided. Second, the GNC system design of the spacecraft is proposed. The baseline is a 3-axis stabilized system during all the phases of the mission. Orbit maneuvers are achieved by an assembled constant thrust or a throttleable main engine. The attitude control actuators are thrusters. The attitude and orbit determination is performed by sun sensors, star sensors, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), altimeter, velocimeter and lunar imaging sensors. Third, some proposed autonomous navigation and guidance methods including hazard detection and avoidance for lunar soft landing are analyzed. Finally, we draw some conclusions.

  19. Study of 1980 Comet Encke-asteroid missions using a spin-stabilized spacecraft. Volume 2: Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bursnall, W. J.; Howard, E. G.; Mcminimy, W. R.; Shaffer, R. G.; Vanpelt, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The data and analyses that support the conclusions and recommendations of a space mission to intercept comets and asteroids are presented. The scientific basis for the Encke missions is discussed and includes a summary of the physical characteristics of Encke, a statement of scientific objectives and priorities, a definition of the spacecraft payload, and a rationale for utilization and instrumentation of coma probes. Data are included for the reference mission selected as the baseline for science analysis and design studies. Alternate spacecraft configurations are compared in terms of their capability in meeting the science and mission requirements.

  20. Traceable Calibration of the 3 axis Thrust Vector in the mN range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, B.; Oldfield, S.

    2004-10-01

    The possibility of measuring the three force components i.e. the main axial component and the two orthogonal radial components, generated by an electric propulsion system is important for two reasons. Firstly, to assess the impact of spacecraft/propulsion system integration issues, for example to verify the alignment of the thrust vector with the spacecraft centre-of-mass for spacecraft stability. Secondly, to operate the thruster properly during flight, for example to determine the thrust vector relative to the mechanical axis of the thruster. Furthermore, a three-axis measurement capability will be useful for the experimental performance verification of the next generation of vectored electric propulsion devices, especially regarding the many unresolved issues connected with indirect thrust measurement using electrostatic probes. The capability to monitor thrust vector drift in real time and with significant bandwidth is also important. Thus enabling vector drift during thruster warm-up, to be measured, and the response of vectored thrusters to change in vector demand can be assessed. In this paper we describe the design, construction and testing of an instrument proof of concept. The instrument was designed to accommodate a dummy thruster mass of 0.5 kg and operate in the 0 to 10 mN range. The directional resolution that has been demonstrated is better than 0.05 ° in both axes when operating at full thrust.

  1. Study of 1980 Comet Encke-asteroid missions using a spin-stabilized spacecraft. Volume 1: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bursnall, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    As a contribution to improved understanding of early comet exploration options, independent studies were undertaken which resulted in the identification of a number of fast flyby mission options for the 1980 apparition of Encke. The primary impetus for this approach was the prospect of utilizing existing launch vehicles and conventional spacecraft technology. In addition, timely experience and scientific data gained through an early fast flyby could prove valuable in implementing more ambitious succeeding missions, including a flyby of Comet Halley in 1986.

  2. Simulating Flexible-Spacecraft Dynamics and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Versatile program applies to many types of spacecraft and dynamical problems. Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics and Control program (FSD) developed to aid in simulation of large class of flexible and rigid spacecraft. Extremely versatile and used in attitude dynamics and control analysis as well as in-orbit support of deployment and control of spacecraft. Applicable to inertially oriented spinning, Earth-oriented, or gravity-gradient-stabilized spacecraft. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  3. Spacecraft 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the Workshop was to focus on the key technology area for 21st century spacecraft and the programs needed to facilitate technology development and validation. Topics addressed include: spacecraft systems; system development; structures and materials; thermal control; electrical power; telemetry, tracking, and control; data management; propulsion; and attitude control.

  4. Overview of the Miniature Sensor Technology Integration (MSTI) spacecraft attitude control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, Rob

    1994-05-01

    Msti2 is a small, 164 kg (362 lb), 3-axis stabilized, low-Earth-orbiting satellite whose mission is missile booster tracking. The spacecraft is actuated by 3 reaction wheels and 12 hot gas thrusters. It carries enough fuel for a projected life of 6 months. The sensor complement consists of a Horizon Sensor, a Sun Sensor, low-rate gyros, and a high rate gyro for despin. The total pointing control error allocation is 6 mRad (.34 Deg), and this is while tracking a target on the Earth's surface. This paper describes the Attitude Control System (ACS) algorithms which include the following: attitude acquisition (despin, Sun and Earth acquisition), attitude determination, attitude control, and linear stability analysis.

  5. Overview of the Miniature Sensor Technology Integration (MSTI) spacecraft attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, Rob

    1994-01-01

    Msti2 is a small, 164 kg (362 lb), 3-axis stabilized, low-Earth-orbiting satellite whose mission is missile booster tracking. The spacecraft is actuated by 3 reaction wheels and 12 hot gas thrusters. It carries enough fuel for a projected life of 6 months. The sensor complement consists of a Horizon Sensor, a Sun Sensor, low-rate gyros, and a high rate gyro for despin. The total pointing control error allocation is 6 mRad (.34 Deg), and this is while tracking a target on the Earth's surface. This paper describes the Attitude Control System (ACS) algorithms which include the following: attitude acquisition (despin, Sun and Earth acquisition), attitude determination, attitude control, and linear stability analysis.

  6. Addressing Stability Robustness, Period Uncertainties, and Startup of Multiple-Period Repetitive Control for Spacecraft Jitter Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Edwin S.

    Repetitive Control (RC) is a relatively new form of control that seeks to converge to zero tracking error when executing a periodic command, or when executing a constant command in the presence of a periodic disturbance. The design makes use of knowledge of the period of the disturbance or command, and makes use of the error observed in the previous period to update the command in the present period. The usual RC approaches address one period, and this means that potentially they can simultaneously address DC or constant error, the fundamental frequency for that period, and all harmonics up to Nyquist frequency. Spacecraft often have multiple sources of periodic excitation. Slight imbalance in reaction wheels used for attitude control creates three disturbance periods. A special RC structure was developed to allow one to address multiple unrelated periods which is referred to as Multiple-Period Repetitive Control (MPRC). MPRC in practice faces three main challenges for hardware implementation. One is instability due to model errors or parasitic high frequency modes, the second is degradation of the final error level due to period uncertainties or fluctuations, and the third is bad transients due to issues in startup. Regarding these three challenges, the thesis develops a series of methods to enhance the performance of MPRC or to assist in analyzing its performance for mitigating optical jitter induced by mechanical vibration within the structure of a spacecraft testbed. Experimental analysis of MPRC shows contrasting advantages over existing adaptive control algorithms, such as Filtered-X LMS, Adaptive Model Predictive Control, and Adaptive Basis Method, for mitigating jitter within the transmitting beam of Laser Communication (LaserCom) satellites.

  7. Cassini Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Research Lab (JPL) workers use a borescope to verify the pressure relief device bellow's integrity on a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that has been installed on the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The activity is part of the mechanical and electrical verification testing of RTGs during prelaunch processing. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electrical power. The three RTGs on Cassini will enable the spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. They will provide electrical power to Cassini on it seven year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four year mission at Saturn.

  8. Fault tolerant control of spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard

    Autonomous multiple spacecraft formation flying space missions demand the development of reliable control systems to ensure rapid, accurate, and effective response to various attitude and formation reconfiguration commands. Keeping in mind the complexities involved in the technology development to enable spacecraft formation flying, this thesis presents the development and validation of a fault tolerant control algorithm that augments the AOCS on-board a spacecraft to ensure that these challenging formation flying missions will fly successfully. Taking inspiration from the existing theory of nonlinear control, a fault-tolerant control system for the RyePicoSat missions is designed to cope with actuator faults whilst maintaining the desirable degree of overall stability and performance. Autonomous fault tolerant adaptive control scheme for spacecraft equipped with redundant actuators and robust control of spacecraft in underactuated configuration, represent the two central themes of this thesis. The developed algorithms are validated using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. A reaction wheel testbed is used to validate the proposed fault tolerant attitude control scheme. A spacecraft formation flying experimental testbed is used to verify the performance of the proposed robust control scheme for underactuated spacecraft configurations. The proposed underactuated formation flying concept leads to more than 60% savings in fuel consumption when compared to a fully actuated spacecraft formation configuration. We also developed a novel attitude control methodology that requires only a single thruster to stabilize three axis attitude and angular velocity components of a spacecraft. Numerical simulations and hardware-in-the-loop experimental results along with rigorous analytical stability analysis shows that the proposed methodology will greatly enhance the reliability of the spacecraft, while allowing for potentially significant overall mission cost reduction.

  9. Early recognition of regional cardiac ischemia using a 3-axis accelerometer sensor.

    PubMed

    Elle, Ole Jakob; Halvorsen, Steinar; Gulbrandsen, Martin Gunnar; Aurdal, Lars; Bakken, Andre; Samset, Eigil; Dugstad, Harald; Fosse, Erik

    2005-08-01

    Perioperative mortality in coronary artery bypass grafting is usually caused by reduced left ventricular function due to regional myocardial ischemia or infarction. Post-operative graft occlusion is a well-known problem in coronary surgery. A sensitive tool to detect graft occlusion and monitor myocardial function may give the opportunity to revise malfunctioning grafts before departure from the hospital. This paper describes how a new method can detect cardiac ischemia using a 3-axis piezoelectric accelerometer. In three anesthetized pigs, a 3-axis piezoelectric accelerometer was sutured on the lateral free wall of the left ventricle. The left anterior descending (LAD) was occluded for different time periods and the accelerometer data were sampled with a PC. Short-time Fourier transform was calculated based on the accelerometer time series. The results were visualized using a 2D color-coded time-frequency plot. In the area of occlusion, a change to stronger power of higher harmonics was observed. Consequently, a difference value between the instant frequency pattern and a reference frequency pattern showed a rise in absolute value during the occlusion period. The preliminary results indicate that early recognition of regional cardiac ischemia is possible by analyzing accelerometer data acquired from the three animal trials using the prototype 3-axis accelerometer sensor.

  10. Spacecraft architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zefeld, V. V.

    1986-01-01

    Three requirements for a spacecraft interior are considered. Adequate motor activity in the anatomical-physiological sense results from attention to the anthropometric characteristics of humans. Analysis of work requirements is a prerequisite for the planning of adequate performance space. The requirements for cognitive activity are also elucidated. The importance of a well-designed interior during a long space flight is discussed.

  11. Gaia Spacecraft Mechanical Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebranchu, C.; Blender, F.; Touzeau, S.; Escolar, D.

    2012-07-01

    Gaia is the European Space Agency's cornerstone mission for global space astrometry. Its goal is to make the largest, most precise three-dimensional map of our Galaxy by surveying an unprecedented number of stars. This paper gives an overview of the mechanical system engineering and verification of the spacecraft. This development includes several technical challenges. First of all, the very high stability performance as required for the mission is a key driver for the design; which incurs a high degree of stability. This is achieved through decoupling between payload and service module, and the use of high-performance engineering tools and of Silicon Carbide (Boostec® SiC) for the Payload. Compliance of spacecraft mass and volume with launcher capability is another key challenge, as well as the development of the 10.3 meter diameter deployable sunshield. The spacecraft mechanical verification follows an innovative approach, with direct testing on the flight model, without dedicated structural model. Gaia mechanical development is the fruit of a successful international cooperation.

  12. Spacecraft instrument calibration and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, J. C.; Feldman, P.; Hudson, R.; Lean, J.; Madden, R.; Mcmaster, L.; Mount, G.; Rottman, G.; Simon, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The following topics are covered: instrument degradation; the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) Experiment; the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS); the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 1 (SAGE-1) and SAGE-2 instruments; the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV ozone and near infrared airglow instruments; and the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS).

  13. Spacecraft attitude dynamics and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chobotov, Vladimir A.

    This overview of spacecraft dynamics encompasses the fundamentals of kinematics, rigid-body dynamics, linear control theory, orbital environmental effects, and the stability of motion. The theoretical treatment of each issue is complemented by specific references to spacecraft control systems based on spin, dual-spin, three-axis-active, and reaction-wheel methodologies. Also examined are control-moment-gyro, gravity-gradient, and magnetic control systems with attention given to key issues such as nutation damping, separation dynamics of spinning bodies, and tethers. Environmental effects that impinge on the application of spacecraft-attitude dynamics are shown to be important, and consideration is given to gravitation, solar radiation, aerodynamics, and geomagnetics. The publication gives analytical methods for examining the practical implementation of the control techniques as they apply to spacecraft.

  14. Electrostatic disturbance forces on a 3-axis drag-free sensor. [for earth satellite accelerometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagstrom, T.; Sonnabend, D.; Vijayaraghavan, A.

    1982-01-01

    The electrostatic analysis of a multiple-capacitance 3-axis drag-free sensor is presented in this paper. The instrument consists of a proof-mass (a dense metallic ball) floating freely inside a spherical cavity enclosed by the sensor plates and the shield. Since the ball and the cavity are not necessarily concentric, the problem in three-dimensional potential theory for electrostatics is solved by the method of boundary perturbations and specifically in terms of spherical harmonics. The capacitance outputs of the instrument and the electrostatic forces acting on the system are derived as non-linear functions of the ball position, ball charge and the sensor plate potentials. The instrument sensitivity and cross-coupling effects are discussed. The analysis may also be useful for electrostatic gyros and suspensions.

  15. NIMROD validation using 3-axis probe data from the TCSU experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milroy, Richard; Velas, Katherine

    2013-10-01

    Recent analysis the data from a 3-axis translatable magnetic probe on the TCSU experiment has revealed new details of the magnetic structure of rotating magnetic field (RMF) sustained FRCs. This data was acquired from TCSU just prior to its shutdown in 2011. This analysis which reveals the 3D structure of the magnetic field shows the field lines are opened and relatively short with even-parity current drive, but can be much longer with odd-parity current drive. A torque analysis has revealed new details about the flow of magnetic torque due to both the RMF field and the steady component of the field. This detailed magnetic data provides a good platform for the validation of numerical simulations, and will be compared with predictions from the NIMROD code, which has been adapted to simulate the formation and sustainment of FRCs using Rotating Magnetic Fields (RMF).

  16. TERRA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD, is the centerpiece of the Earth Science Enterprise (formerly called 'Mission to Planet Earth'), a long-term coordinated research effort to study the Earth as a global system. Terra was launched on December 18, 1999 aboard an ATLAS-IIAS launch vehicle from Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA. Terra is a near-polar orbiting spacecraft that will cross the equator at 10:30 am local time. Terra will collect data simultaneously from a complement of five instruments: CERES, MISR, and MODIS are proved by the US; MOPITT by Canada; and ASTER by Japan. Researchers around the world will use data from these instruments to study how the atmosphere, land, ocean, and life interact with each other on a global scale.

  17. UK-4 flight spacecraft magnetic tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruett, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic tests conducted on the UK-4 spacecraft are discussed. The objectives of the test are: (1) to determine the permanent, induced, and stray magnetic moments of the spacecraft, (2) to assess its magnetic stability, (3) to determine the dipole moment produced by energizing the magnetorquer coil, (4) to measure the despin torque due to eddy current and magnetic hysteresis, and (5) to deperm, compensate, and make other adjustments necessary to achieve satisfactory magnetic characteristics for the spacecraft.

  18. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The third Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference proceedings contain 66 papers on the geosynchronous plasma environment, spacecraft modeling, charged particle environment interactions with spacecraft, spacecraft materials characterization, and satellite design and testing. The proceedings is a compilation of the state of the art of spacecraft charging and environmental interaction phenomena.

  19. Missile and Spacecraft Coning Instabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    181-192. "Mingori, D. L., and Yam, T., " Nutational Stability of a Spinning Space- craft with Internal Mass Motion and Axial Thrust," AIAA Paper 86...Nomenclature 1 Introduction 1 Equations of Motion 2 Yaw Moment Damping or Undamping 2 Spacecraft Precession Damper 3 Vehicle Coning with Axial ...with Axial Thrust and Variable Mass The variable mass accompanying thrust from a spin-stabilized rocket motor or PAM produces a destabilizing effect

  20. TERRA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland, is the centerpiece of the Earth Science Enterprise (formerly called "Mission to Planet Earth"), a long-term coordinated research effort to study the Earth as a global system. Terra was launched on December 18, 1999 aboard an ATLAS-IIAS launch vehicle from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Terra is a near-polar orbiting spacecraft that will cross the equator at 10:30 AM local time. Terra will collect data simultaneously from a complement of five instruments: CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System), MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) and MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) are provided by the United States; MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) by Canada; and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer) by Japan. Researchers around the world will use data from these instruments to study how the atmosphere, land, ocean, and life interact with each other on a global scale. This interactive CD introduces Terra's overall objectives and its instruments, the new technologies developed for Terra, the launch of Terra, and its flight dynamics.

  1. Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation animation

    This animation shows the return capsule separating from the Stardust spacecraft.

  2. Design and manufacturing of cranioplasty implants by 3-axis cnc milling.

    PubMed

    Hieu, L C; Bohez, E; Vander Sloten, J; Oris, P; Phien, H N; Vatcharaporn, E; Binh, P H

    2002-01-01

    Although various techniques and materials have been used for making cranioplasty implants, personalized cranioplasty implants are high in cost because of expensive materials and production technology, long design and manufacturing time, and intensive labor use. This research was a part of our research project in ASEAN countries to investigate feasible technical solutions of minimizing the implant cost based on available production technologies in the region. The use of 3-axis CNC (Computer Numerical Control) milling techniques for making molds to fabricate PMMA implants was successfully investigated. With the development of a design support program bridging between Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Medical Image Processing (MIP) system, the time for geometrical modeling of implants and molds was reduced to half a day. The machining time to complete a mold was about 5 to 6 hours; and it took maximal 2 hours to fabricate an implant with self-curing PMMA and 3 and half hours for fabricating an implant with heat-curing PMMA. The cost of implants is acceptable for the ASEAN region.

  3. CMOS Compatible 3-Axis Magnetic Field Sensor using Hall Effect Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, Joshua R.

    The purpose of this study is to design, fabricate and test a CMOS compatible 3-axis Hall effect sensor capable of detecting the earth's magnetic field, with strength's of ˜50 muT. Preliminary testing of N-well Van Der Pauw structures using strong neodymium magnets showed proof of concept for hall voltage sensing, however, poor geometry of the structures led to a high offset voltage. A 1-axis Hall effect sensor was designed, fabricated and tested with a sensitivity of 1.12x10-3 mV/Gauss using the RIT metal gate PMOS process. Poor geometry and insufficient design produced an offset voltage of 0.1238 volts in the 1-axis design; prevented sensing of the earth's magnetic field. The new design features improved geometry for sensing application, improved sensitivity and use the RIT sub-CMOS process. The completed 2-axis device showed an average sensitivity to large magnetic fields of 0.0258 muV/Gauss at 10 mA supply current.

  4. Garment-based detection of falls and activities of daily living using 3-axis MEMS accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyan, M. N.; Tay, Francis E. H.; Manimaran, M.; Seah, K. H. W.

    2006-04-01

    This paper studied the detection of falls and activities of daily living (ADL) with two objectives: (1) minimum number of sensors for a broad range of activities and (2) maximize the comfort of the wearer for long term use. We used a garment to provide long term comfort for the wearer, with a 3-axis MEMS accelerometer on the shoulder position, as a wearable platform. ADL were detected in time-frequency domain and summation of absolute peak values of 3-D acceleration signals was used as feature in fall detection. 6 male and female subjects performed approximately five-hour long experiment. Sensitivity of 94.98% and specificity of 98.83% for altogether 1495 activities were achieved. Our garment-based detection system fulfilled the objective of providing the comfort of the wearer in long term monitoring of falls and ADL with high sensitivity. In fall detection, our device can summon medical assistances via SMS (Short Message Service). This detection system can raise fall alarm (fall SMS) automatically to individuals to get a shortened interval of the arrival of assistance.

  5. Spacecraft radiator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Grant A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A spacecraft radiator system designed to provide structural support to the spacecraft. Structural support is provided by the geometric "crescent" form of the panels of the spacecraft radiator. This integration of radiator and structural support provides spacecraft with a semi-monocoque design.

  6. Involvement of the P2X7-NLRP3 axis in leukemic cell proliferation and death

    PubMed Central

    Salaro, Erica; Rambaldi, Alessia; Falzoni, Simonetta; Amoroso, Francesca Saveria; Franceschini, Alessia; Sarti, Alba Clara; Bonora, Massimo; Cavazzini, Francesco; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Ciccone, Maria; Audrito, Valentina; Deaglio, Silvia; Pelegrin, Pablo; Pinton, Paolo; Cuneo, Antonio; Di Virgilio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Lymphocyte growth and differentiation are modulated by extracellular nucleotides and P2 receptors. We previously showed that the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R or P2RX7) is overexpressed in circulating lymphocytes from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. In the present study we investigated the P2X7R/NLRP3 inflammasome axis in lymphocytes from a cohort of 23 CLL patients. P2X7R, ASC and NLRP3 were investigated by Western blot, PCR and transfection techniques. P2X7R was overexpressed and correlated with chromosome 12 trisomy in CLL patients. ASC mRNA and protein were also overexpressed. On the contrary, NLRP3 was dramatically down-modulated in CLL lymphocytes relative to lymphocytes from healthy donors. To further investigate the correlation between P2X7R, NLRP3 and cell growth, NLRP3 was silenced in THP-1 cells, a leukemic cell line that natively expresses both NLRP3 and P2X7R. NLRP3 silencing enhanced P2X7R expression and promoted growth. On the contrary, NLRP3 overexpression caused accelerated apoptosis. The P2X7R was also up-modulated in hematopoietic cells from NLRP3-KO mice. In conclusion, we show that NLRP3 down-modulation stimulates P2X7R expression and promotes growth, while NLRP3 overexpression inhibits cell proliferation and stimulates apoptosis. These findings suggest that NLRP3 is a negative regulator of growth and point to a role of the P2X7R/NLRP3 axis in CLL. PMID:27221966

  7. Spacecraft propulsion: new methods.

    PubMed

    Alfvén, H

    1972-04-14

    Cosmic plasmas contain energy which may be tapped and used for spacecraft propulsion. The energy needed for launching a spacecraft could be supplied to it from the ground through a plasma channel in the atmosphere.

  8. Variable structure controller design for spacecraft nutation damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sira-Ramirez, Hebertt; Dwyer, Thomas A. W., III

    1987-01-01

    Variable structure systems theory is used to design an automatic controller for active nutation damping in momentum biased stabilized spacecraft. Robust feedback stabilization of roll and yaw angular dynamics is achieved with prescribed qualitative characteristics which are totally independent of the spacecraft defining parameters.

  9. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of the aerospace environment with spacecraft surfaces and onboard, high voltage spacecraft systems operating over a wide range of altitudes from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit is considered. Emphasis is placed on control of spacecraft electric potential. Electron and ion beams, plasma neutralizers material selection, and magnetic shielding are among the topics discussed.

  10. Magnetic bearing momentum wheels with magnetic gimballing capability for 3-axis active attitude control and energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sindlinger, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    A 3-axis active attitude control system with only one rotating part was developed using a momentum wheel with magnetic gimballing capability as a torque actuator for all three body axes. A brief description of magnetic bearing technology is given. It is concluded that based on this technology an integrated energy storage/attitude control system with one air of counterrotating rings could reduce the complexity and weight of conventional systems.

  11. An Empirical Comparison between Two Recursive Filters for Attitude and Rate Estimation of Spinning Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Richard R.

    2006-01-01

    The advantages of inducing a constant spin rate on a spacecraft are well known. A variety of science missions have used this technique as a relatively low cost method for conducting science. Starting in the late 1970s, NASA focused on building spacecraft using 3-axis control as opposed to the single-axis control mentioned above. Considerable effort was expended toward sensor and control system development, as well as the development of ground systems to independently process the data. As a result, spinning spacecraft development and their resulting ground system development stagnated. In the 1990s, shrinking budgets made spinning spacecraft an attractive option for science. The attitude requirements for recent spinning spacecraft are more stringent and the ground systems must be enhanced in order to provide the necessary attitude estimation accuracy. Since spinning spacecraft (SC) typically have no gyroscopes for measuring attitude rate, any new estimator would need to rely on the spacecraft dynamics equations. One estimation technique that utilized the SC dynamics and has been used successfully in 3-axis gyro-less spacecraft ground systems is the pseudo-linear Kalman filter algorithm. Consequently, a pseudo-linear Kalman filter has been developed which directly estimates the spacecraft attitude quaternion and rate for a spinning SC. Recently, a filter using Markley variables was developed specifically for spinning spacecraft. The pseudo-linear Kalman filter has the advantage of being easier to implement but estimates the quaternion which, due to the relatively high spinning rate, changes rapidly for a spinning spacecraft. The Markley variable filter is more complicated to implement but, being based on the SC angular momentum, estimates parameters which vary slowly. This paper presents a comparison of the performance of these two filters. Monte-Carlo simulation runs will be presented which demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of both filters.

  12. UK-4 prototype spacecraft magnetic tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruett, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    The spacecraft was tested in a magnetic test facility which uses a 42 ft. diameter coil system to produce a controlled magnetic field of high uniformity over a large central volume. The primary objectives of the tests were: (1) to determine the permanent, induced, and stray magnetic moments of the spacecraft and to assess its magnetic stability; (2) to evaluate the magnetorquer coil system; and (3) to deperm, compensate, and make other adjustments necessary to achieve satisfactory magnetic characteristics for the spacecraft. The test facility and procedures are described together with the results obtained. In addition, the problems encountered during the tests and the significance of the test findings are discussed.

  13. Docking structure for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, R. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A docking structure for a pair of spacecraft is described comprising a conical receptacle on the docking end of a first spacecraft that receives a mating conical projection on the docking end of the second spacecraft. The conical receptacle of the first spacecraft constitutes an exterior portion of a sealed gas-tight compartment. Pressurization of the sealed compartment causes the conical receptacle to extend toward the incoming conical projection of the second spacecraft. When the mating conical portions are latched together, the docking energy is absorbed by the compressed gas in the sealed compartment. Rebound forces are countered by a plurality of actuator cylinders supporting the conical receptacle.

  14. A Jupiter Orbiter mother/daughter spacecraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of a tandem launch of a mother/daughter spacecraft pair with a single launch vehicle for a 1981 Mariner Jupiter Orbiter mission is described. The mother is a close derivative of the three-axis stabilized Mariner Jupiter Saturn 1977 spacecraft with the addition of a Viking-type propulsion module for orbit capture; it concentrates on the planetology and satellite science objectives. The daughter is a small, simple spin-stabilized spacecraft taking advantage of the mother's transit and delivery capabilities; it obtains in-situ measurements of the surrounding planetary environment. A conceptual design of the daughter spacecraft is presented.

  15. The SORCE Spacecraft and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparn, Thomas P.; Rottman, Gary; Woods, Thomas N.; Boyle, Brian D.; Kohnert, Richard; Ryan, Sean; Davis, Randall; Fulton, Robert; Ochs, William

    2005-08-01

    The Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment, SORCE, is a satellite carrying four scientific instruments that measure the total solar irradiance and the spectral irradiance from the ultraviolet to the infrared. The instruments were all developed by the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The spacecraft carrying and accommodating the instruments was developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation in Dulles, Virginia. It is three-axis stabilized with a control system to point the instruments at the Sun, as well as the stars for calibration. SORCE was successfully launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida on 25 January 2003 aboard a Pegasus XL rocket. The anticipated lifetime is 5 years, with a goal of 6 years. SORCE is operated from the Mission Operations Center at LASP where all data are collected, processed, and distributed. This paper describes the SORCE spacecraft, integration and test, mission operations, and ground data system.

  16. Dynamics and control of underactuated multibody spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sangbum

    In this dissertation, we develop equations of motion for a class of multibody spacecraft consisting of a rigid base body and multiple rigid appendages connected to the base body. There has been much prior research on this topic; however, much of this research is not appropriate for nonlinear control design purposes. The motion of a multibody spacecraft is described by the position and attitude of a base body in an inertial frame and by the relative position and attitude of the attached bodies with respect to the base body; these latter quantities define the shape of the multibody spacecraft. Our aim is to develop equations of motion that reveal important nonlinear coupling effects between the translation, rotation and shape dynamics, but are simple enough for control design purposes. A rotation matrix is used to represent the attitude of the spacecraft. This allows us to avoid complexity related to the use of parameter representations such as Euler angles. Hamilton's variational principle gives three sets of nonlinear equations of motion. The latter part of this dissertation presents results of control problems for several underactuated multibody spacecraft examples. These include spacecraft with an unactuated internal sliding mass, spacecraft with unactuated fuel slosh dynamics, tethered spacecraft with attachment point actuation and the triaxial attitude control testbed with two proof mass actuation devices. These examples illustrate important features related to the dynamics and control of various underactuated multibody spacecraft. Differences in geometries of the spacecraft and gravitational assumptions require adoption of different types of control schemes. We use the multibody equations in this dissertation to formulate control equations for the models and to construct feedback controllers that achieves asymptotic stability (or convergence) to the desired (relative) equilibrium manifolds. Computer simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers.

  17. Spacecraft camera image registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamel, Ahmed A. (Inventor); Graul, Donald W. (Inventor); Chan, Fred N. T. (Inventor); Gamble, Donald W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A system for achieving spacecraft camera (1, 2) image registration comprises a portion external to the spacecraft and an image motion compensation system (IMCS) portion onboard the spacecraft. Within the IMCS, a computer (38) calculates an image registration compensation signal (60) which is sent to the scan control loops (84, 88, 94, 98) of the onboard cameras (1, 2). At the location external to the spacecraft, the long-term orbital and attitude perturbations on the spacecraft are modeled. Coefficients (K, A) from this model are periodically sent to the onboard computer (38) by means of a command unit (39). The coefficients (K, A) take into account observations of stars and landmarks made by the spacecraft cameras (1, 2) themselves. The computer (38) takes as inputs the updated coefficients (K, A) plus synchronization information indicating the mirror position (AZ, EL) of each of the spacecraft cameras (1, 2), operating mode, and starting and stopping status of the scan lines generated by these cameras (1, 2), and generates in response thereto the image registration compensation signal (60). The sources of periodic thermal errors on the spacecraft are discussed. The system is checked by calculating measurement residuals, the difference between the landmark and star locations predicted at the external location and the landmark and star locations as measured by the spacecraft cameras (1, 2).

  18. Spacecraft nonlinear control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheen, Jyh-Jong; Bishop, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    The feedback linearization technique is applied to the problem of spacecraft attitude control and momentum management with control moment gyros (CMGs). The feedback linearization consists of a coordinate transformation, which transforms the system to a companion form, and a nonlinear feedback control law to cancel the nonlinear dynamics resulting in a linear equivalent model. Pole placement techniques are then used to place the closed-loop poles. The coordinate transformation proposed here evolves from three output functions of relative degree four, three, and two, respectively. The nonlinear feedback control law is presented. Stability in a neighborhood of a controllable torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is guaranteed and this fact is demonstrated by the simulation results. An investigation of the nonlinear control law shows that singularities exist in the state space outside the neighborhood of the controllable TEA. The nonlinear control law is simplified by a standard linearization technique and it is shown that the linearized nonlinear controller provides a natural way to select control gains for the multiple-input, multiple-output system. Simulation results using the linearized nonlinear controller show good performance relative to the nonlinear controller in the neighborhood of the TEA.

  19. Discussion meeting on Gossamer spacecraft (ultralightweight spacecraft)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brereton, R. G. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Concepts, technology, and application of ultralightweight structures in space are examined. Gossamer spacecraft represented a generic class of space vehicles or structures characterized by a low mass per unit area (approximately 50g/m2). Gossamer concepts include the solar sail, the space tether, and various two and three dimensional large lightweight structures that were deployed or assembled in space. The Gossamer Spacecraft had a high potential for use as a transportation device (solar sail), as a science instrument (reflecting or occulting antenna), or as a large structural component for an enclosure, manned platform, or other human habitats. Inflatable structures were one possible building element for large ultralightweight structures in space.

  20. Spacecraft Thermal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gajanana C.; Siebes, Georg; Swanson, Theodore D.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal control of the spacecraft is typically achieved by removing heat from the spacecraft parts that tend to overheat and adding heat to the parts that tend get too cold. The equipment on the spacecraft can get very hot if it is exposed to the sun or have internal heat generation. The pans also can get very cold if they are exposed to the cold of deep space. The spacecraft and instruments must be designed to achieve proper thermal balance. The combination of the spacecraft's external thermal environment, its internal heat generation (i.e., waste heat from the operation of electrical equipment), and radiative heat rejection will determine this thermal balance. It should also be noted that this is seldom a static situation, external environmental influences and internal heat generation are normally dynamic variables which change with time. Topics discussed include thermal control system components, spacecraft mission categories, spacecraft thermal requirements, space thermal environments, thermal control hardware, launch and flight operations, advanced technologies for future spacecraft,

  1. The electrification of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akishin, A. I.; Novikov, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    Physical and applied aspects of the electrification of space vehicles and natural celestial objects are discussed, the factors resulting in electrification of spacecraft are analyzed, and methods of investigating various phenomena associated with this electrification and ways of protecting spacecraft against the influence of static electricity are described. The booklet is intended for the general reader interested in present day questions of space technology.

  2. Docking system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A mechanism is disclosed for the docking of a spacecraft to a space station where a connection for transfer of personnel and equipment is desired. The invention comprises an active docking structure on a spacecraft and a passive docking structure on the station. The passive structure includes a docking ring mounted on a tunnel structure fixed to the space station. The active structure includes a docking ring carried by an actuator-attenuator devices, each attached at one end to the ring and at its other end in the spacecraft payload bay. The devices respond to command signals for moving the docking ring between a stowed position in the spacecraft to a deployed position suitable for engagement with the docking ring. The devices comprise means responsive to signals of sensed loadings to absorb impact energy and retraction means for drawing the coupled spacecraft and station into final docked configuration and moving the tunnel structure to a berthed position in the spacecraft. Latches couple the spacecraft and space station upon contact of the docking rings and latches establish a structural tie between the spacecraft when retracted.

  3. Miniature Robotic Spacecraft for Inspecting Other Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven; Abbott, Larry; Duran, Steve; Goode, Robert; Howard, Nathan; Jochim, David; Rickman, Steve; Straube, Tim; Studak, Bill; Wagenknecht, Jennifer; Lemke, Matthew; Wade, Randall; Wheeler, Scott; Baggerman, Clinton

    2004-01-01

    A report discusses the Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam)-- a compact robotic spacecraft intended to be released from a larger spacecraft for exterior visual inspection of the larger spacecraft. The Mini AERCam is a successor to the AERCam Sprint -- a prior miniature robotic inspection spacecraft that was demonstrated in a space-shuttle flight experiment in 1997. The prototype of the Mini AERCam is a demonstration unit having approximately the form and function of a flight system. The Mini AERCam is approximately spherical with a diameter of about 7.5 in. (.19 cm) and a weight of about 10 lb (.4.5 kg), yet it has significant additional capabilities, relative to the 14-in. (36-cm), 35-lb (16-kg) AERCam Sprint. The Mini AERCam includes miniaturized avionics, instrumentation, communications, navigation, imaging, power, and propulsion subsystems, including two digital video cameras and a high-resolution still camera. The Mini AERCam is designed for either remote piloting or supervised autonomous operations, including station keeping and point-to-point maneuvering. The prototype has been tested on an air-bearing table and in a hardware-in-the-loop orbital simulation of the dynamics of maneuvering in proximity to the International Space Station.

  4. Surviving Atmospheric Spacecraft Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Conley, Catharine A.

    2003-01-01

    In essence, to survival a spacecraft breakup an animal must not experience a lethal event. Much as with surviving aircraft breakup, dissipation of lethal forces via breakup of the craft around the organism is likely to greatly increase the odds of survival. As spacecraft can travel higher and faster than aircraft, it is often assumed that spacecraft breakup is not a survivable event. Similarly, the belief that aircraft breakup or crashes are not survivable events is still prevalent in the general population. As those of us involved in search and rescue know, it is possible to survive both aircraft breakup and crashes. Here we make the first report of an animal, C. elegans, surviving atmospheric breakup of the spacecraft supporting it and discuss both the lethal events these animals had to escape and the implications implied for search and rescue following spacecraft breakup.

  5. Current LISA Spacecraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Castellucci, K. E.; Depalo, S. V.; Generie, J. A.; Maghami, P. G.; Peabody, H. L.

    2009-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. a space based gravitational wave detector. uses laser metrology to measure distance fluctuations between proof masses aboard three spacecraft. LISA is unique from a mission design perspective in that the three spacecraft and their associated operations form one distributed science instrument. unlike more conventional missions where an instrument is a component of an individual spacecraft. The design of the LISA spacecraft is also tightly coupled to the design and requirements of the scientific payload; for this reason it is often referred to as a "sciencecraft." Here we describe some of the unique features of the LISA spacecraft design that help create the quiet environment necessary for gravitational wave observations.

  6. Technology for small spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report gives the results of a study by the National Research Council's Panel on Small Spacecraft Technology that reviewed NASA's technology development program for small spacecraft and assessed technology within the U.S. government and industry that is applicable to small spacecraft. The panel found that there is a considerable body of advanced technology currently available for application by NASA and the small spacecraft industry that could provide substantial improvement in capability and cost over those technologies used for current NASA small spacecraft. These technologies are the result of developments by commercial companies, Department of Defense agencies, and to a lesser degree NASA. The panel also found that additional technologies are being developed by these same entities that could provide additional substantial improvement if development is successfully completed. Recommendations for future technology development efforts by NASA across a broad technological spectrum are made.

  7. Current LISA Spacecraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission, a space based gravitational wave detector, uses laser metrology to measure distance fluctuations between proof masses aboard three spacecraft. LISA is unique from a mission design perspective in that three spacecraft and their associated operations form one distributed science instrument, unlike more conventional missions where an instrument is a component of an individual spacecraft. The design of the LiSA spacecraft is also tightly coupled to the design and requirements of the scientific payload; for this reason it is often referred to as a "sciencecraft." A detailed discussion will be presented that describes the current spacecraft design and mission architecture needed to meet the LISA science requirements.

  8. Design and Testing of Three-Axis Satellite Attitude Determination and Stabilization Systems That Are Based on Magnetic Sensing and Actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psiaki, Mark L.; Guelman, Moshe

    2002-11-01

    Three-axis satellite attitude determination and active stabilization systems have been designed and tested using both flight experiments and simulation studies. These are being developed for use on low-Earth-orbiting name- satellites. Such satellites can be used as elements of constellations that implement synthetic aperture radar or that serve as nudes in a communications network. The research has addressed the problems of under-sensing and under-actuation that are present in magnetic-based systems. Magnetometer outputs are insensitive to rotation about the local Earth magnetic field, and magnetic torque coils cannot produce torque slump the field direction. A new attitude representation and a special globally-convergent extended Kalman filter have been used to solve the 3-axis attitude estimation problem. The efficacy of this system has been demonstrated using data from the missions, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. Semi-active global 3-axis stabilization has been demonstrated using a simplified magnetometer output feedback control law in combination with weak passive stabilization of the axes. The passive stabilization can come from a very small momentum wheel or from a new aerodynamic system. The momentum-wheel-based concept has been successfully tested on the TechSat Gurwin II spacecraft.

  9. Analytical Investigation of Pumped Fluid Loop Radiators for Orion Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reavis, Gretchen

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the history of pumped fluid loop radiators used in Apollo spacecraft, and the problems and challenges for using them in the Orion Spacecraft. Included in this presentation are the issues of Flow stagnation, flow stability, for single panels and multi-panels.

  10. Attitude dynamics and control of spacecraft using geomagnetic Lorentz force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aziz, Yehia A.; Shoaib, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Attitude stabilization of a charged rigid spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit using torques due to Lorentz force in pitch and roll directions is considered. A spacecraft that generates an electrostatic charge on its surface in the Earth's magnetic field will be subject to perturbations from the Lorentz force. The Lorentz force acting on an electrostatically charged spacecraft may provide a useful thrust for controlling a spacecraft's orientation. We assume that the spacecraft is moving in the Earth's magnetic field in an elliptical orbit under the effects of gravitational, geomagnetic and Lorentz torques. The magnetic field of the Earth is modeled as a non-tilted dipole. A model incorporating all Lorentz torques as a function of orbital elements has been developed on the basis of electric and magnetic fields. The stability of the spacecraft orientation is investigated both analytically and numerically. The existence and stability of equilibrium positions is investigated for different values of the charge to mass ratio (α*). Stable orbits are identified for various values of α*. The main parameters for stabilization of the spacecraft are α* and the difference between the components of the moment of inertia for the spacecraft.

  11. Parameter Estimation of Lateral Spacecraft Fuel Slosh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudermann, James E.; Schlee, Keith L.

    2008-01-01

    Predicting the effect of fuel slosh on the attitude control system of a spacecraft or launch vehicle is a very important and challenging task. Whether the spacecraft is spinning or moving laterally, the dynamic effect of the fuel slosh helps determine whether the spacecraft will remain on its intended trajectory. Three categories of slosh can be caused by launch vehicle or spacecraft maneuvers when the fuel is in the presence of an acceleration field. These are bulk-fluid motion, subsurface wave motion (currents), and free-surface slosh. Each of these slosh types has a periodic component defined by either a spinning or a lateral motion. For spinning spacecraft, all three types of slosh can greatly affect stability. Bulk-fluid motion and free-surface slosh can affect the lateral-slosh characteristics. For either condition, an unpredicted coupled resonance between the spacecraft and its onboard fuel could threaten a mission. This ongoing research effort seeks to improve the accuracy and efficiency of modeling techniques used to predict these types of fluid motions for lateral motion. Particular efforts focus on analyzing the effects of viscoelastic diaphragms on slosh dynamics.

  12. Spacecraft Docking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghofranian, Siamak (Inventor); Chuang, Li-Ping Christopher (Inventor); Motaghedi, Pejmun (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method and apparatus for docking a spacecraft. The apparatus comprises elongate members, movement systems, and force management systems. The elongate members are associated with a docking structure for a spacecraft. The movement systems are configured to move the elongate members axially such that the docking structure for the spacecraft moves. Each of the elongate members is configured to move independently. The force management systems connect the movement systems to the elongate members and are configured to limit a force applied by the each of the elongate members to a desired threshold during movement of the elongate members.

  13. The ELK3-GATA3 axis orchestrates invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Sun-Young; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Jiewan; Kim, Min Kyeong; Lee, Ki Hong; Lee, Je-Yong; Oh, Nuri; Park, Ji-In; Park, Ji-Hoon; Heo, Sun-Hee; Shim, Sung Han; Lee, Dong Ryul; Kim, Keun Pil; Park, Kyung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is a highly aggressive tumor subtype that lacks effective therapeutic targets. Here, we show that ELK3 is overexpressed in a subset of breast cancers, in particular basal-like and normal-like/claudin-low cell lines. Suppression of ELK3 in MDA-MB-231 cells led to transdifferentiation from an invasive mesenchymal phenotype to a non-invasive epithelial phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. Suppression of ELK3 resulted in extensive changes in genome expression profiles. Among these, GATA3, a master suppressor of metastasis, was epigenetically activated. Also, suppression of GATA3 led to the restoration of migration and invasion. These results suggest that the ELK3-GATA3 axis is a major pathway that promotes metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:27556500

  14. Spacecraft dielectric material properties and spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Wall, J. A.; Cotts, D. B.; Bouquet, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of spacecraft charging is reviewed, and criteria for selecting and testing semiinsulating polymers (SIPs) to avoid charging are discussed and illustrated. Chapters are devoted to the required properties of dielectric materials, the charging process, discharge-pulse phenomena, design for minimum pulse size, design to prevent pulses, conduction in polymers, evaluation of SIPs that might prevent spacecraft charging, and the general response of dielectrics to space radiation. SIPs characterized include polyimides, fluorocarbons, thermoplastic polyesters, poly(alkanes), vinyl polymers and acrylates, polymers containing phthalocyanine, polyacene quinones, coordination polymers containing metal ions, conjugated-backbone polymers, and 'metallic' conducting polymers. Tables summarizing the results of SIP radiation tests (such as those performed for the NASA Galileo Project) are included.

  15. Backup nutation damping strategy for the Galileo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eke, Fidelis O.; Eke, Estelle M.

    1989-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the design and testing of remedial measures that can be taken to achieve reasonable nutation damping of the Galileo spacecraft in the event of failure of its boom damper in flight. One scheme exploits the effects of payload motion on the nutational stability of a spinning spacecraft. However, the spacecraft-motion-compensation algorithm can only be used if the scan platform bore sight is pointed in a direction chosen to produce rapid damping of spacecraft nutation. A second method suggested for nutation damping is a thruster-based open-loop control algorithm, utilizing a pair of thrusters as actuators.

  16. Unusual spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Jonathan V.

    1990-01-01

    For particularly innovative space exploration missions, unusual requirements are levied on the structural components of the spacecraft. In many cases, the preferred solution is the utilization of unusual materials. This trend is forecast to continue. Several hypothetic examples are discussed.

  17. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  18. Surviving atmospheric spacecraft breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; McLamb, William

    2005-01-01

    Spacecraft travel higher and faster than aircraft, making breakup potentially less survivable. As with aircraft breakup, the dissipation of lethal forces via spacecraft breakup around an organism is likely to greatly increase the odds of survival. By employing a knowledge of space and aviation physiology, comparative physiology, and search-and-rescue techniques, we were able to correctly predict and execute the recovery of live animals following the breakup of the space shuttle Columbia. In this study, we make what is, to our knowledge, the first report of an animal, Caenorhabditis elegans, surviving the atmospheric breakup of the spacecraft that was supporting it and discuss both the lethal events these animals had to escape and the implications for search and rescue following spacecraft breakup.

  19. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-03-12

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  20. Viking lander spacecraft battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking Lander was the first spacecraft to fly a sterilized nickel-cadmium battery on a mission to explore the surface of a planet. The significant results of the battery development program from its inception through the design, manufacture, and test of the flight batteries which were flown on the two Lander spacecraft are documented. The flight performance during the early phase of the mission is also presented.

  1. Internet Access to Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Jackson, Chris; Price, Harold; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project at NASA's Goddard Space flight Center (GSFC), is demonstrating the use of standard Internet protocols for spacecraft communication systems. This year, demonstrations of Internet access to a flying spacecraft have been performed with the UoSAT-12 spacecraft owned and operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL). Previously, demonstrations were performed using a ground satellite simulator and NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). These activities are part of NASA's Space Operations Management Office (SOMO) Technology Program, The work is focused on defining the communication architecture for future NASA missions to support both NASA's "faster, better, cheaper" concept and to enable new types of collaborative science. The use of standard Internet communication technology for spacecraft simplifies design, supports initial integration and test across an IP based network, and enables direct communication between scientists and instruments as well as between different spacecraft, The most recent demonstrations consisted of uploading an Internet Protocol (IP) software stack to the UoSAT- 12 spacecraft, simple modifications to the SSTL ground station, and a series of tests to measure performance of various Internet applications. The spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 3 months. The tests included basic network connectivity (PING), automated clock synchronization (NTP), and reliable file transfers (FTP). Future tests are planned to include additional protocols such as Mobile IP, e-mail, and virtual private networks (VPN) to enable automated, operational spacecraft communication networks. The work performed and results of the initial phase of tests are summarized in this paper. This work is funded and directed by NASA/GSFC with technical leadership by CSC in arrangement with SSTL, and Vytek Wireless.

  2. Orbital spacecraft resupply technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Tracey, T. R.; Bailey, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    The resupplying of orbital spacecraft using the Space Shuttle, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle, Orbital Transfer Vehicle or a depot supply at a Space Station is studied. The governing factor in fluid resupply designs is the system size with respect to fluid resupply quantities. Spacecraft propellant management for tankage via diaphragm or surface tension configurations is examined. The capabilities, operation, and application of adiabatic ullage compression, ullage exchange, vent/fill/repressurize, and drain/vent/no-vent fill/repressurize, which are proposed transfer methods for spacecraft utilizing tankage configurations, are described. Selection of the appropriate resupply method is dependent on the spacecraft design features. Hydrazine adiabatic compression/detonation, liquid-free vapor venting to prevent freezing, and a method for no-vent liquid filling are analyzed. Various procedures for accurate measurements of propellant mass in low gravity are evaluated; a system of flowmeters with a PVT system was selected as the pressurant solubility and quantity gaging technique. Monopropellant and bipropellant orbital spacecraft consumable resupply system tanks which resupply 3000 lb of hydrazine and 7000 lb of MMH/NTO to spacecraft on orbit are presented.

  3. Parallel Estimators and Communication in Spacecraft Formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Roy S.; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the closed-loop dynamics of systems controlled via parallel estimators. This structure arises in formation flying problems when each spacecraft bases its control action on an internal estimate of the complete formation state. For LTI systems a separation principle shows that the necessary and sufficient conditions for overall system stability are more stringent than the single controller case; the controllers' open-loop dynamics necessarily appear in the closed-loop dynamics. Communication amongst the spacecraft can be used to specify the complete system dynamics and a framework for integrating the design of the communication links into the formation flying control design problem is presented.

  4. Free-flying solar reflector spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Results of investigations of requirements and design concepts for large solar-reflecting spacecraft are given. The emphasis is on the one kilometer diameter self contained spacecraft that can be packaged and launched in the space shuttle. The configuration consists of a compression rim stabilized by stays coming from each end of the central compression hub. The stays are stowed on reels on the ends of the hub. The hub consists of two Astromasts which are deployed after launch. The reflector membrane is a two micron thick Kapton film with a vapor deposited aluminum coating.

  5. A study of structural concepts for ultralightweight spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. K.; Knapp, K.; Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Structural concepts for ultralightweight spacecraft were studied. Concepts for ultralightweight space structures were identified and the validity of heir potential application in advanced spacecraft was assessed. The following topics were investigated: (1) membrane wrinkling under pretensioning; (2) load-carrying capability of pressurized tubes; (3) equilibrium of a precompressed rim; (4) design of an inflated reflector spacecraft; (5) general instability of a rim; and (6) structural analysis of a pressurized isotensoid column. The design approaches for a paraboloidal reflector spacecraft included a spin-stiffened design, both inflated and truss central columns, and to include both deep truss and rim-stiffened geodesic designs. The spinning spacecraft analysis is included, and the two truss designs are covered. The performances of four different approaches to the structural design of a paraboloidal reflector spacecraft are compared. The spinning and inflated configurations result in very low total masses and some concerns about their performance due to unresolved questions about dynamic stability and lifetimes, respectively.

  6. Internet Technology on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project has shown that Internet technology works in space missions through a demonstration using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. An Internet Protocol (IP) stack was installed on the orbiting UoSAT-12 spacecraft and tests were run to demonstrate Internet connectivity and measure performance. This also forms the basis for demonstrating subsequent scenarios. This approach provides capabilities heretofore either too expensive or simply not feasible such as reconfiguration on orbit. The OMNI project recognized the need to reduce the risk perceived by mission managers and did this with a multi-phase strategy. In the initial phase, the concepts were implemented in a prototype system that includes space similar components communicating over the TDRS (space network) and the terrestrial Internet. The demonstration system includes a simulated spacecraft with sample instruments. Over 25 demonstrations have been given to mission and project managers, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Department of Defense (DoD), contractor technologists and other decisions makers, This initial phase reached a high point with an OMNI demonstration given from a booth at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Inspection Day 99 exhibition. The proof to mission managers is provided during this second phase with year 2000 accomplishments: testing the use of Internet technologies onboard an actual spacecraft. This was done with a series of tests performed using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. This spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 6 months! On board software was modified to add an IP stack to support basic IP communications. Also added was support for ping, traceroute and network timing protocol (NTP) tests. These tests show that basic Internet functionality can be used onboard spacecraft. The performance of data was measured to show no degradation from current

  7. Mechanical Design of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    In the spring of 1962, engineers from the Engineering Mechanics Division of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory gave a series of lectures on spacecraft design at the Engineering Design seminars conducted at the California Institute of Technology. Several of these lectures were subsequently given at Stanford University as part of the Space Technology seminar series sponsored by the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Presented here are notes taken from these lectures. The lectures were conceived with the intent of providing the audience with a glimpse of the activities of a few mechanical engineers who are involved in designing, building, and testing spacecraft. Engineering courses generally consist of heavily idealized problems in order to allow the more efficient teaching of mathematical technique. Students, therefore, receive a somewhat limited exposure to actual engineering problems, which are typified by more unknowns than equations. For this reason it was considered valuable to demonstrate some of the problems faced by spacecraft designers, the processes used to arrive at solutions, and the interactions between the engineer and the remainder of the organization in which he is constrained to operate. These lecture notes are not so much a compilation of sophisticated techniques of analysis as they are a collection of examples of spacecraft hardware and associated problems. They will be of interest not so much to the experienced spacecraft designer as to those who wonder what part the mechanical engineer plays in an effort such as the exploration of space.

  8. Docking mechanism for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Gregory A. (Inventor); Mcmanamen, John P. (Inventor); Schliesing, John A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A system is presented for docking a space vehicle to a space station where a connecting tunnel for in-flight transfer of personnel is required. Cooperable coupling mechanisms include docking rings on the space vehicle and space station. The space station is provided with a tunnel structure, a retraction mechanism, and a docking ring. The vehicle coupling mechanism is designed to capture the station coupling mechanism, arrest relative spacecraft motions while limiting loads to acceptable levels, and then realign the spacecraft for final docking and tunnel interconnection. The docking ring of the space vehicle coupling mechanism is supported by linear attentuator actuator devices, each of which is controlled by a control system which receives loading information signals and attenuator stroke information signals from each device and supplies output signals for controlling its linear actuation to attenuate impact loading or to realign the spacecraft for final docking and tunnel interconnection. The retraction mechanism is used to draw the spacecraft together after initial contact and coupling. Tunnel trunnions, cooperative with the latches on the space vehicle constitute the primary structural tie between the spacecraft in final docked configuration.

  9. A Novel Spacecraft Charge Monitor for LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goembel, Luke

    2004-01-01

    Five years ago we introduced a new method for measuring spacecraft chassis floating potential relative to the space plasma (absolute spacecraft potential) in low Earth orbit. The method, based on a straightforward interpretation of photoelectron spectra, shows promise for numerous applications, but has not yet been tried. In the interest of testing the method, and ultimately supplying another tool for measuring absolute spacecraft charge, we are producing a flight prototype Spacecraft Charge Monitor (SCM) with support from NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Although insight into the technique came from data collected in space over two decades ago, very little data are available. The data indicate that it may be possible to determine spacecraft floating potential to within 0.1 volt each with the SCM second under certain conditions. It is debatable that spacecraft floating potential has ever been measured with such accuracy. The compact, easily deployed SCM also offers the advantage of long-term stability in calibration. Accurate floating potential determinations from the SCM could be used to correct biases in space plasma measurements and evaluate charge mitigation and/or sensing devices. Although this paper focuses on the device's use in low Earth orbit (LEO), the device may also be able to measure spacecraft charge at higher altitudes, in the solar wind, and in orbits around other planets. The flight prototype SCM we are producing for delivery to NASA in the third quarter of 2004 will measure floating potential from 0 to -150 volts with 0.1 volt precision, weigh approximately 600-700 grams, consume approximately 2 watts, and will measure approximately 8 x 10 x 17 cm.

  10. An LDEF follow-on spacecraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Vernon; Breazeale, Larry; Perkinson, Don; Kinard, William H.

    1995-01-01

    The successful flight, retrieval, and analyses of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiments demonstrated the value of long duration space exposure for a broad spectrum of science and engineering investigations. The original LDEF was an excellent gravity gradient spacecraft, but because of its 9 m length and 9,700 kg mass it was difficult to manifest on the Shuttle, for either launch or retrieval, in conjunction with other payloads. This paper discusses an LDEF follow-on spacecraft concept whose short stowed length (approximately 3 m) greatly improves Shuttle manifesting opportunities while still providing very large surface area exposure for experiments. Deployable 'wings' on each end of the short, 'cylindrical' main body of this new spacecraft provide the means for gravity gradient stabilization while greatly increasing the spacecraft surface area. The center section of the spacecraft is oriented with the end faces of the twelve sided, 4.2 m diameter 'cylinder' perpendicular to the velocity vector thus providing large areas for experiments in both the ram and anti-ram directions as well as additional exposure area around the periphery of the cylinder. When deployed and properly oriented with the Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (RMS), both wings of the spacecraft are oriented edge on to the direction of motion and lie in the plane which contains the local gravity vector. The relatively thin wings readily accommodate dual side exposure of glass plate stacks for cosmic ray detection. Flat surfaces mounted normal to and on the periphery of the wings provide additional areas in both the ram and anti-ram directions for cosmic dust, micrometeoroid, and orbital debris collection free of contamination from 'splatter' off secondary surfaces. The baseline concept provides enhancements not available on the original LDEF such as solar array generated electrical power and data telemetry. Status of the efforts to promote support for and ultimately space flight

  11. Metformin represses bladder cancer progression by inhibiting stem cell repopulation via COX2/PGE2/STAT3 axis

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Dali; Liu, Gaolei; Lan, Weihua; Zhang, Dianzheng; Xiao, Hualiang; Zhang, Yao; Huang, Zaoming; Yang, Junjie; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a sub-population of tumor cells playing essential roles in initiation, differentiation, recurrence, metastasis and development of drug resistance of various cancers, including bladder cancer. Although multiple lines of evidence suggest that metformin is capable of repressing CSC repopulation in different cancers, the effect of metformin on bladder cancer CSCs remains largely unknown. Using the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced rat orthotropic bladder cancer model, we demonstrated that metformin is capable of repressing bladder cancer progression from both mild to moderate/severe dysplasia lesions and from carcinoma in situ (CIS) to invasive lesions. Metformin also can arrest bladder cancer cells in G1/S phases, which subsequently leads to apoptosis. And also metformin represses bladder cancer CSC repopulation evidenced by reducing cytokeratin 14 (CK14+) and octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (OCT3/4+) cells in both animal and cellular models. More importantly, we found that metformin exerts these anticancer effects by inhibiting COX2, subsequently PGE2 as well as the activation of STAT3. In conclusion, we are the first to systemically demonstrate in both animal and cell models that metformin inhibits bladder cancer progression by inhibiting stem cell repopulation through the COX2/PGE2/STAT3 axis. PMID:27058422

  12. Activation of the GP130-STAT3 axis and its potential implications in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hae-Ki; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Verdianelli, Aurora; Pacana, Tommy; Patel, Vaishali; Park, Chun-Geon; Choi, Aejin; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Chung-Berm; Ren, Shunlin

    2015-01-01

    The status of the GP130-STAT3 signaling pathway in humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its relevance to disease pathogenesis are unknown. The expression of the gp130-STAT3 axis and gp130 cytokine receptors were studied in subjects with varying phenotypes of NAFLD including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and compared with lean and weight-matched controls without NAFLD. Gp130 and its downstream signaling element (Tyk2 and STAT3) expression were inhibited in obese controls whereas they were increased in NAFLD. IL-6 levels were increased in NASH and correlated with gp130 expression (P < 0.01). Palmitate inhibited gp130-STAT3 expression and signaling. IL-6 and palmitate inhibited hepatic insulin signaling via STAT3-dependent and independent mechanisms, respectively. STAT3 overexpression reversed palmitate-induced lipotoxicity by increasing autophagy (ATG7) and decreasing endoplasmic reticulum stress. These data demonstrate that the STAT3 pathway is activated in NAFLD and can worsen insulin resistance while protecting against other lipotoxic mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. PMID:25747354

  13. Metformin inhibits castration-induced EMT in prostate cancer by repressing COX2/PGE2/STAT3 axis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Dali; Liu, Qiuli; Liu, Gaolei; Xu, Jing; Lan, Weihua; Jiang, Yao; Xiao, Hualiang; Zhang, Dianzheng; Jiang, Jun

    2017-03-28

    Castration is the standard therapeutic treatment for advanced prostate cancer but with limited benefit due to the profound relapse and metastasis. Activation of inflammatory signaling pathway and initiation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are closely related to drug resistance, tumor relapseas well as metastasis. In this study, we demonstrated that metformin is capable of inhibiting prostate cancer cell migration and invasion by repressing EMT evidenced by downregulating the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, Vimentin, and Twist and upregulating the epithelium E-cadherin. These effects have also been observed in our animal model as well as prostate cancer patients. In addition, we showed the effects of metformin on the expression of genes involved in EMT through repressing the levels of COX2, PGE2 and phosphorylated STAT3. Furthermore, inactivating COX2 abolishes metformin's regulatory effects and exogenously administered PGE2 is capable of enhancing STAT3 phosphorylation and expression of EMT biomarker. We propose that metformin represses prostate cancer EMT and metastasis through targeting the COX2/PGE2/STAT3 axis. These findings suggest that metformin by itself or in combination with other anticancer drugs could be used as an anti-metastasis therapy.

  14. Degradation of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce; Banks, Bruce; deGroh, Kim; Miller, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of specific space environmental threats to exterior spacecraft materials. The scope will be confined to effects on exterior spacecraft surfaces, and will not, therefore, address environmental effects on interior spacecraft systems, such as electronics. Space exposure studies and laboratory simulations of individual and combined space environemntal threats will be summarized. A significant emphasis is placed on effects of Earth orbit environments, because the majority of space missions have been flown in Earth orbits which have provided a significant amount of data on materials effects. Issues associated with interpreting materials degradation results will be discussed, and deficiencies of ground testing will be identified. Recommendations are provided on reducing or preventing space environmental degradation through appropriate materials selection.

  15. Spacecraft servicing demonstration plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergonz, F. H.; Bulboaca, M. A.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary spacecraft servicing demonstration plan is prepared which leads to a fully verified operational on-orbit servicing system based on the module exchange, refueling, and resupply technologies. The resulting system can be applied at the space station, in low Earth orbit with an orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), or be carried with an OMV to geosynchronous orbit by an orbital transfer vehicle. The three phase plan includes ground demonstrations, cargo bay demonstrations, and free flight verifications. The plan emphasizes the exchange of multimission modular spacecraft (MMS) modules which involves space repairable satellites. Three servicer mechanism configurations are the engineering test unit, a protoflight quality unit, and two fully operational units that have been qualified and documented for use in free flight verification activity. The plan balances costs and risks by overlapping study phases, utilizing existing equipment for ground demonstrations, maximizing use of existing MMS equipment, and rental of a spacecraft bus.

  16. Standardized Spacecraft Onboard Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph F.; Plummer, Chris; Plancke, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), an international organization of national space agencies, is branching out to provide new standards to enhanced reuse of onboard spacecraft equipment and software. These Spacecraft Onboard Interface (SOIF) standards will be, in part, based on the well-known Internet protocols. This paper will provide a description of the SOIF work by describing three orthogonal views: the Services View that describes data communications services, the Interoperability view shows how to exchange data and messages between different spacecraft elements, and the Protocol view, that describes the SOIF protocols and services. We will also provide a description of the present state of the services that will be provided to SOIF users, and are the basis of the utility of these standards.

  17. A user's guide to the Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics and Control Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    A guide to the use of the Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics Program (FSD) is presented covering input requirements, control words, orbit generation, spacecraft description and simulation options, and output definition. The program can be used in dynamics and control analysis as well as in orbit support of deployment and control of spacecraft. The program is applicable to inertially oriented spinning, Earth oriented or gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft. Internal and external environmental effects can be simulated.

  18. Revamping Spacecraft Operational Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The EPOXI flight mission has been testing a new commercial system, Splunk, which employs data mining techniques to organize and present spacecraft telemetry data in a high-level manner. By abstracting away data-source specific details, Splunk unifies arbitrary data formats into one uniform system. This not only reduces the time and effort for retrieving relevant data, but it also increases operational visibility by allowing a spacecraft team to correlate data across many different sources. Splunk's scalable architecture coupled with its graphing modules also provide a solid toolset for generating data visualizations and building real-time applications such as browser-based telemetry displays.

  19. Unmanned spacecraft for research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    The applications of unmanned spacecraft for research purposes are discussed. Specific applications of the Communication and Navigation satellites and the Earth Observations satellites are described. Diagrams of communications on world-wide basis using synchronous satellites are developed. Photographs of earth resources and geology obtained from space vehicles are included.

  20. Spacecraft Environmental Anomalies Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    engineering solutions for mitigating the effects of environmental anomalies have been developed. Among the causes o, spacecraft anomalies are surface...have been discovered after years of investig!:tion, and engineering solutions for mitigating the effccts of environmental anomalies have been developed...23 * 6.4.3 Fauth Tolerant Solutions .............................................................................. 23 6.4.4. Methods

  1. Microbial contamination of spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Pierson, D L

    2001-06-01

    Spacecraft and space habitats supporting human exploration contain a diverse population of microorganisms. Microorganisms may threaten human habitation in many ways that directly or indirectly impact the health, safety, or performance of astronauts. The ability to produce and maintain spacecraft and space stations with environments suitable for human habitation has been established over 40 years of human space flight. An extensive database of environmental microbiological parameters has been provided for short-term (< 20 days) space flight by more than 100 missions aboard the Space Shuttle. The NASA Mir Program provided similar data for long-duration missions. Interestingly, the major bacterial and fungal species found in the Space Shuttle are similar to those encountered in the nearly 15-year-old Mir. Lessons learned from both the US and Russian space programs have been incorporated into the habitability plan for the International Space Station. The focus is on preventive measures developed for spacecraft, cargo, and crews. On-orbit regular housekeeping practices complete with visual inspections are essential, along with microbiological monitoring. Risks associated with extended stays on the Moon or a Mars exploration mission will be much greater than previous experiences because of additional unknown variables. The current knowledge base is insufficient for exploration missions, and research is essential to understand the effects of space flight on biological functions and population dynamics of microorganisms in spacecraft. Equally important is a better understanding of the immune response and of human-microorganism-environment interactions during long-term space habitation.

  2. Analysis of spacecraft data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Support was provided for the maintenance and modifications of software for the production and detailed analysis of data from the DE-A spacecraft and new software developed for this end. Software for the analysis of the data from the Spacelab Experimental Particle Accelerator (SEPAC) was also developed.

  3. Spacecraft attitude sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, A. C.; Grant, M. M. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system for sensing the attitude of a spacecraft includes a pair of optical scanners having a relatively narrow field of view rotating about the spacecraft x-y plane. The spacecraft rotates about its z axis at a relatively high angular velocity while one scanner rotates at low velocity, whereby a panoramic sweep of the entire celestial sphere is derived from the scanner. In the alternative, the scanner rotates at a relatively high angular velocity about the x-y plane while the spacecraft rotates at an extremely low rate or at zero angular velocity relative to its z axis to provide a rotating horizon scan. The positions of the scanners about the x-y plane are read out to assist in a determination of attitude. While the satellite is spinning at a relatively high angular velocity, the angular positions of the bodies detected by the scanners are determined relative to the sun by providing a sun detector having a field of view different from the scanners.

  4. Spacecraft attitude determination accuracy from mission experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasoveanu, D.; Hashmall, J.; Baker, D.

    1994-10-01

    This document presents a compilation of the attitude accuracy attained by a number of satellites that have been supported by the Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). It starts with a general description of the factors that influence spacecraft attitude accuracy. After brief descriptions of the missions supported, it presents the attitude accuracy results for currently active and older missions, including both three-axis stabilized and spin-stabilized spacecraft. The attitude accuracy results are grouped by the sensor pair used to determine the attitudes. A supplementary section is also included, containing the results of theoretical computations of the effects of variation of sensor accuracy on overall attitude accuracy.

  5. Spacecraft attitude determination accuracy from mission experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasoveanu, D.; Hashmall, J.; Baker, D.

    1994-01-01

    This document presents a compilation of the attitude accuracy attained by a number of satellites that have been supported by the Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). It starts with a general description of the factors that influence spacecraft attitude accuracy. After brief descriptions of the missions supported, it presents the attitude accuracy results for currently active and older missions, including both three-axis stabilized and spin-stabilized spacecraft. The attitude accuracy results are grouped by the sensor pair used to determine the attitudes. A supplementary section is also included, containing the results of theoretical computations of the effects of variation of sensor accuracy on overall attitude accuracy.

  6. Wild2 approach maneuver strategy used for Stardust spacecraft (extended abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhar, Ramachandra S.; Williams, Kenneth E.; Helfrich, Clifford E.; Kennedy, Brian M.; Carranza, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Stardust, NASA's first dedicated sample return mission to a comet, successfully flew through the comet dust around Wold2 on January 2, 2004. The spacecraft flew within 236 km of the comet, meeting the mission requirement of 250+/- 50 km on flyby distance. Stardust collected dust particles and took several images of the comet while flying close to Wild2. The spacecraft will return to earth with the comet samples on January 15, 2006. To accomplish the above objective, a large Deep Space Maneuver (DSM#) was implemented during June 17 and 18, 2003 and a series of Trajectory Correction Maneuvers (TCMs) were also implemented during the 30 days prior to encounter. Both maneuver design and executions were influenced by number of factors including the small body ephemeris uncertainty, predictability of small forces arising from 3-axis attitude limit cycling and spacecraft slews. Maneuver design processes, including contingency plans, and maneuver performance characteristics, are discussed in this paper.

  7. Endothelial apoptosis in pulmonary hypertension is controlled by a microRNA/programmed cell death 4/caspase-3 axis.

    PubMed

    White, Kevin; Dempsie, Yvonne; Caruso, Paola; Wallace, Emma; McDonald, Robert A; Stevens, Hannah; Hatley, Mark E; Van Rooij, Eva; Morrell, Nicholas W; MacLean, Margaret R; Baker, Andrew H

    2014-07-01

    Pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis is a transient, yet defining pathogenic event integral to the onset of many pulmonary vascular diseases such as pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, there is a paucity of information concerning the molecular pathway(s) that control pulmonary arterial endothelial cell apoptosis. Here, we introduce a molecular axis that when functionally active seems to induce pulmonary arterial endothelial cell apoptosis in vitro and PH in vivo. In response to apoptotic stimuli, human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells exhibited robust induction of a programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4)/caspase-3/apoptotic pathway that was reversible by direct PDCD4 silencing. Indirectly, this pathway was also repressed by delivery of a microRNA-21 mimic. In vivo, genetic deletion of microRNA-21 in mice (miR-21(-/-) mice) resulted in functional activation of the PDCD4/caspase-3 axis in the pulmonary tissues, leading to the onset of progressive PH. Conversely, microRNA-21-overexpressing mice (CAG-microRNA-21 mice) exhibited reduced PDCD4 expression in pulmonary tissues and were partially resistant to PH in response to chronic hypoxia plus SU 5416 injury. Furthermore, direct PDCD4 knockout in mice (PDCD4(-/-) mice) potently blocked pulmonary caspase-3 activation and the development of chronic hypoxia plus SU 5416 PH, confirming its importance in disease onset. Broadly, these findings support the existence of a microRNA-21-responsive PDCD4/caspase-3 pathway in the pulmonary tissues that when active serves to promote endothelial apoptosis in vitro and PH in vivo.

  8. Thermal balance testing of the MSAT spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, Serge; Choueiry, Elie; Pang, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on the recently completed thermal balance/thermal vacuum testing of an MSAT satellite, the first satellite to provide mobile communications service for all of continental North America. MSAT is a two-spacecraft program, using a three-axis-stabilized HUGHES HS-601 series bus as the vehicle for the Canadian-designed payload. The thermal tests performed at the Canadian Space Agency's David Florida Laboratory in Ottawa, Canada, lasted approximately 32 days.

  9. Method for deploying multiple spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharer, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method for deploying multiple spacecraft is disclosed. The method can be used in a situation where a first celestial body is being orbited by a second celestial body. The spacecraft are loaded onto a single spaceship that contains the multiple spacecraft and the spacecraft is launched from the second celestial body towards a third celestial body. The spacecraft are separated from each other while in route to the third celestial body. Each of the spacecraft is then subjected to the gravitational field of the third celestial body and each of the spacecraft assumes a different, independent orbit about the first celestial body. In those situations where the spacecraft are launched from Earth, the Sun can act as the first celestial body, the Earth can act as the second celestial body and the Moon can act as the third celestial body.

  10. NASA Now: EPOXI Flyby Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    Close Encounters of the Comet Kind: In this installment of NASA Now, you’ll meet spacecraft pilot and engineer Steven Wissler, who talks about the challenges of flying a spacecraft remotely from ...

  11. Spacecraft Images Comet Target's Jets

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Deep Impact spacecraft's High- and Medium-Resolution Imagers (HRI and MRI) have captured multiple jets turning on and off while the spacecraft is 8 million kilometers (5 million miles) away fro...

  12. Fine Pointing of Military Spacecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    better spacecraft control . In the early 1990s, researchers introduced nonlinear adaptive control techniques to estimate on- orbit spacecraft inertia...general form, the resulting regression model used in the control signal requires several pages to express for three-dimensional spacecraft rotational...a reference trajectory that addresses system lead/lag when applying the assumed control to a spacecraft with modeling errors, disturbances and

  13. Effects of arcing due to spacecraft charging on spacecraft survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, A.; Sanders, N. L.; Ellen, J. M., Jr.; Inouye, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of the hazard associated with spacecraft charging and arcing on spacecraft systems is presented. A literature survey on arc discharge thresholds and characteristics was done and gaps in the data and requirements for additional experiments were identified. Calculations of coupling of arc discharges into typical spacecraft systems were made and the susceptibility of typical spacecraft to disruption by arc discharges was investigated. Design guidelines and recommended practices to reduce or eliminate the threat of malfunction and failures due to spacecraft charging/arcing were summarized.

  14. Spacecraft nonlinear multilooped electric motor actuator simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Lean, David N.

    1989-01-01

    The servomechanism used to raise satellites from the shuttle bay was simulated. The model will be used to study runaway fault scenarios and was used to evaluate system changes for their effects on stability. These analyses were carried out on the electronic circuit analysis computer program MSPICE. Electronic circuits, electromechanical machinery, and mechanical spacecraft loads were simulated by use of analog circuits. The nonlinearities involved included saturation, piece-wise linear transfer gains, backlash, and Coulomb friction. The AC analysis was accomplished by using a series of piece-wise linear models. The system's stability was assessed applying Nyquist's criterion.

  15. Habitability design for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    Habitability is understood to mean those spacecraft design elements that involve a degree of comfort, quality or necessities to support man in space. These elements are environment, architecture, mobility, clothing, housekeeping, food and drink, personal hygiene, off-duty activities, each of which plays a substantial part in the success of a mission. Habitability design for past space flights is discussed relative to the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab spacecraft, with special emphasis on an examination of the Shuttle Orbiter cabin design from a habitability standpoint. Future projects must consider the duration and mission objectives to meet their habitability requirements. Larger ward rooms, improved sleeping quarters and more complete hygiene facilities must be provided for future prolonged space flights

  16. Radiation Environment Inside Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Patrick O'Neill, NASA Johnson Space Center, will present a detailed description of the radiation environment inside spacecraft. The free space (outside) solar and galactic cosmic ray and trapped Van Allen belt proton spectra are significantly modified as these ions propagate through various thicknesses of spacecraft structure and shielding material. In addition to energy loss, secondary ions are created as the ions interact with the structure materials. Nuclear interaction codes (FLUKA, GEANT4, HZTRAN, MCNPX, CEM03, and PHITS) transport free space spectra through different thicknesses of various materials. These "inside" energy spectra are then converted to Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra and dose rate - that's what's needed by electronics systems designers. Model predictions are compared to radiation measurements made by instruments such as the Intra-Vehicular Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (IV-CPDS) used inside the Space Station, Orion, and Space Shuttle.

  17. Autonomous spacecraft design methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Divita, E.L.; Turner, P.R.

    1984-08-01

    A methodology for autonomous spacecraft design blends autonomy requirements with traditional mission requirements and assesses the impact of autonomy upon the total system resources available to support faulttolerance and automation. A baseline functional design can be examined for autonomy implementation impacts, and the costs, risk, and benefits of various options can be assessed. The result of the process is a baseline design that includes autonomous control functions.

  18. Spacecraft transmitter reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A workshop on spacecraft transmitter reliability was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on September 25 and 26, 1979, to discuss present knowledge and to plan future research areas. Since formal papers were not submitted, this synopsis was derived from audio tapes of the workshop. The following subjects were covered: users' experience with space transmitters; cathodes; power supplies and interfaces; and specifications and quality assurance. A panel discussion ended the workshop.

  19. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  20. Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine, the China National Space Administration, and many other organizations representing spacefaring nations shall continue or newly implement robust space programs. Additionally, business corporations are pursuing commercialization of space for enabling space tourism and capital business ventures. Future space missions are likely to include orbiting satellites, orbiting platforms, space stations, interplanetary vehicles, planetary surface missions, and planetary research probes. Many of these missions will include humans to conduct research for scientific and terrestrial benefits and for space tourism, and this century will therefore establish a permanent human presence beyond Earth s confines. Other missions will not include humans, but will be autonomous (e.g., satellites, robotic exploration), and will also serve to support the goals of exploring space and providing benefits to Earth s populace. This section focuses on thermal management systems for human space exploration, although the guiding principles can be applied to unmanned space vehicles as well. All spacecraft require a thermal management system to maintain a tolerable thermal environment for the spacecraft crew and/or equipment. The requirements for human rating and the specified controlled temperature range (approximately 275 K - 310 K) for crewed spacecraft are unique, and key design criteria stem from overall vehicle and operational/programatic considerations. These criteria include high reliability, low mass, minimal power requirements, low development and operational costs, and high confidence for mission success and safety. This section describes the four major subsystems for crewed spacecraft thermal management systems, and design considerations for each. Additionally, some examples of specialized or advanced thermal system technologies are presented

  1. Impulsive control for angular momentum management of tumbling spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Shoji; Yamada, Katsuhiko

    2007-05-01

    We discuss an angular momentum control of a tumbling spacecraft. The proposed control method is to apply an impulse by a space robot arm, to measure and control the relative position and attitude between the target spacecraft, and then to apply another impulse until the rotational motion of the target spacecraft is well damped. A discrete controller is designed using the simplified equations of rotational motion through appropriate coordinate transformation. The stationary response under contact model uncertainty is investigated and stability condition is analytically derived. Numerical simulations are given to validate the proposed approach.

  2. SPASIM: A Spacecraft Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liceaga, Carlos A.

    1997-01-01

    The SPAcecraft SIMulator (SPASIM) simulates the functions and resources of a spacecraft to quickly perform conceptual design (Phase A) trade-off and sensitivity analyses and uncover any operational bottlenecks during any part of the mission. Failure modes and operational contingencies can be evaluated allowing operational planning (what-if scenarios) and optimization for a range of mission scenarios. The payloads and subsystems are simulated, using a hierarchy of graphical models, in terms of how their functions affect resources such as propellant, power, and data. Any of the inputs and outputs of the payloads and subsystems can be plotted during the simulation or stored in a file so they can be used by other programs. Most trade-off analyses, including those that compare current versus advanced technology, can be performed by changing values in the parameter menus. However, when a component is replaced by one with a different functional architecture, its graphical model can also be modified or replaced by drawing from a component library. SPASIM has been validated using several spacecraft designs that were at least at the Critical Design Review level. The user and programmer guide, including figures, is available on line as a hypertext document. This is an easy-to-use and expandable tool which is based on MATLAB(R) and SIMULINK(R). It runs on Silicon Graphics Inc. workstations and personal computers with Windows 95(TM) or NT(TM).

  3. Proceedings of the Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, C. P. (Editor); Lovell, R. R. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Over 50 papers from the spacecraft charging conference are included on subjects such as: (1) geosynchronous plasma environment, (2) spacecraft modeling, (3) spacecraft materials characterization, (4) spacecraft materials development, and (5) satellite design and test.

  4. Solar array/spacecraft biasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Biasing techniques and their application to the control of spacecraft potential is discussed. Normally when a spacecraft is operated with ion thrusters, the spacecraft will be 10-20 volts negative of the surrounding plasma. This will affect scientific measurements and will allow ions from the charge-exchange plasma to bombard the spacecraft surfaces with a few tens of volts of energy. This condition may not be tolerable. A proper bias system is described that can bring the spacecraft to or near the potential of the surrounding plasma.

  5. Handling Qualities Implications for Crewed Spacecraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Arthur, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Handling qualities embody those qualities or characteristics of an aircraft that govern the ease and precision with which a pilot is able to perform the tasks required in support of an aircraft role. These same qualities are as critical, if not more so, in the operation of spacecraft. A research, development, test, and evaluation process was put into effect to identify, understand, and interpret the engineering and human factors principles which govern the pilot-vehicle dynamic system as they pertain to space exploration missions and tasks. Toward this objective, piloted simulations were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center and Ames Research Center for earth-orbit proximity operations and docking and lunar landing. These works provide broad guidelines for the design of spacecraft to exhibit excellent handling characteristics. In particular, this work demonstrates how handling qualities include much more than just stability and control characteristics of a spacecraft or aircraft. Handling qualities are affected by all aspects of the pilot-vehicle dynamic system, including the motion, visual and aural cues of the vehicle response as the pilot performs the required operation or task. A holistic approach to spacecraft design, including the use of manual control, automatic control, and pilot intervention/supervision is described. The handling qualities implications of design decisions are demonstrated using these pilot-in-the-loop evaluations of docking operations and lunar landings.

  6. Parameter Estimation of Spacecraft Fuel Slosh Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangadharan, Sathya; Sudermann, James; Marlowe, Andrea; Njengam Charles

    2004-01-01

    Fuel slosh in the upper stages of a spinning spacecraft during launch has been a long standing concern for the success of a space mission. Energy loss through the movement of the liquid fuel in the fuel tank affects the gyroscopic stability of the spacecraft and leads to nutation (wobble) which can cause devastating control issues. The rate at which nutation develops (defined by Nutation Time Constant (NTC can be tedious to calculate and largely inaccurate if done during the early stages of spacecraft design. Pure analytical means of predicting the influence of onboard liquids have generally failed. A strong need exists to identify and model the conditions of resonance between nutation motion and liquid modes and to understand the general characteristics of the liquid motion that causes the problem in spinning spacecraft. A 3-D computerized model of the fuel slosh that accounts for any resonant modes found in the experimental testing will allow for increased accuracy in the overall modeling process. Development of a more accurate model of the fuel slosh currently lies in a more generalized 3-D computerized model incorporating masses, springs and dampers. Parameters describing the model include the inertia tensor of the fuel, spring constants, and damper coefficients. Refinement and understanding the effects of these parameters allow for a more accurate simulation of fuel slosh. The current research will focus on developing models of different complexity and estimating the model parameters that will ultimately provide a more realistic prediction of Nutation Time Constant obtained through simulation.

  7. Spacecraft Solar Sails Containing Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Matloff, Greg

    2005-01-01

    A report discusses a proposal to use large, lightweight solar sails embedded with electrodynamic tethers (essentially, networks of wires) to (1) propel robotic spacecraft to distant planets, then (2) exploit the planetary magnetic fields to capture the spacecraft into orbits around the planets. The purpose of the proposal is, of course, to make it possible to undertake long interplanetary missions without incurring the large cost and weight penalties of conventional rocket-type propulsion systems. Through transfer of momentum from reflected solar photons, a sail would generate thrust outward from the Sun. Upon arrival in the vicinity of a planet, the electrodynamic tethers would be put to use: Motion of the spacecraft across the planetary magnetic field would induce electric currents in the tether wires, giving rise to an electromagnetic drag force that would be exploited to brake the spacecraft for capture into orbit. The sail with embedded tethers would be made to spin to provide stability during capture. Depending upon the requirements of a particular application, it could be necessary to extend the tether to a diameter greater than that of the sail.

  8. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Ritter, Bob; Reed, Benjamin; Cepollina, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft modularity has been a topic of interest at NASA since the 1970s, when the Multi-­-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then, modular concepts have been employed for a variety of spacecraft and, as in the case of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the International Space Station (ISS), have been critical to the success of on-­- orbit servicing. Modularity is even more important for future robotic servicing. Robotic satellite servicing technologies under development by NASA can extend mission life and reduce lifecycle cost and risk. These are optimized when the target spacecraft is designed for servicing, including advanced modularity. This paper will explore how spacecraft design, as demonstrated by the Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) spacecraft architecture, and servicing technologies can be developed in parallel to fully take advantage of the promise of both.

  9. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Cepollina, Frank; Ritter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft modularity has been a topic of interest at NASA since the 1970s, when the Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then, modular concepts have been employed for a variety of spacecraft and, as in the case of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the International Space Station (ISS), have been critical to the success of on-orbit servicing. Modularity is even more important for future robotic servicing. Robotic satellite servicing technologies under development by NASA can extend mission life and reduce life-cycle cost and risk. These are optimized when the target spacecraft is designed for servicing, including advanced modularity. This paper will explore how spacecraft design, as demonstrated by the Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) spacecraft architecture, and servicing technologies can be developed in parallel to fully take advantage of the promise of both.

  10. Interactions between SAS-C spacecraft nutations and spin control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tossman, B. E.; Thayer, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    The SAS-C spacecraft is stabilized by a momentum biased reaction wheel and passive nutation damper. A closed-loop low-speed spacecraft spin rate control system is included which uses a single-axis gyro and a variable speed range on the reaction wheel. Dynamic instability can result from interactions among the gyro, damper, and spacecraft dynamic unbalance. This instability may be aggravated by gyro angular misalignment, gyro error signals, and spacecraft nutations. Analytic eigenvector, and digital computer analyses of the coupled systems are presented. Mechanisms for instability are described as well as the effects that gyro error signal, tilt, and spacecraft dynamic unbalance produce on control system performance.

  11. Cluster Inter-Spacecraft Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian

    2008-01-01

    A document describes a radio communication system being developed for exchanging data and sharing data-processing capabilities among spacecraft flying in formation. The system would establish a high-speed, low-latency, deterministic loop communication path connecting all the spacecraft in a cluster. The system would be a wireless version of a ring bus that complies with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard 1393 (which pertains to a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus enhancement to the IEEE standard developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Every spacecraft in the cluster would be equipped with a ring-bus radio transceiver. The identity of a spacecraft would be established upon connection into the ring bus, and the spacecraft could be at any location in the ring communication sequence. In the event of failure of a spacecraft, the ring bus would reconfigure itself, bypassing a failed spacecraft. Similarly, the ring bus would reconfigure itself to accommodate a spacecraft newly added to the cluster or newly enabled or re-enabled. Thus, the ring bus would be scalable and robust. Reliability could be increased by launching, into the cluster, spare spacecraft to be activated in the event of failure of other spacecraft.

  12. Spacecraft Electrostatic Radiation Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This project analyzed the feasibility of placing an electrostatic field around a spacecraft to provide a shield against radiation. The concept was originally proposed in the 1960s and tested on a spacecraft by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. Such tests and analyses showed that this concept is not only feasible but operational. The problem though is that most of this work was aimed at protection from 10- to 100-MeV radiation. We now appreciate that the real problem is 1- to 2-GeV radiation. So, the question is one of scaling, in both energy and size. Can electrostatic shielding be made to work at these high energy levels and can it protect an entire vehicle? After significant analysis and consideration, an electrostatic shield configuration was proposed. The selected architecture was a torus, charged to a high negative voltage, surrounding the vehicle, and a set of positively charged spheres. Van de Graaff generators were proposed as the mechanism to move charge from the vehicle to the torus to generate the fields necessary to protect the spacecraft. This design minimized complexity, residual charge, and structural forces and resolved several concerns raised during the internal critical review. But, it still is not clear if such a system is costeffective or feasible, even though several studies have indicated usefulness for radiation protection at energies lower than that of the galactic cosmic rays. Constructing such a system will require power supplies that can generate voltages 10 times that of the state of the art. Of more concern is the difficulty of maintaining the proper net charge on the entire structure and ensuring that its interaction with solar wind will not cause rapid discharge. Yet, if these concerns can be resolved, such a scheme may provide significant radiation shielding to future vehicles, without the excessive weight or complexity of other active shielding techniques.

  13. Toward autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogel, L. J.; Calabrese, P. G.; Walsh, M. J.; Owens, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Ways in which autonomous behavior of spacecraft can be extended to treat situations wherein a closed loop control by a human may not be appropriate or even possible are explored. Predictive models that minimize mean least squared error and arbitrary cost functions are discussed. A methodology for extracting cyclic components for an arbitrary environment with respect to usual and arbitrary criteria is developed. An approach to prediction and control based on evolutionary programming is outlined. A computer program capable of predicting time series is presented. A design of a control system for a robotic dense with partially unknown physical properties is presented.

  14. Analysis of spacecraft anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

  15. Spacecraft ceramic protective shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larriva, Rene F. (Inventor); Nelson, Anne (M.); Czechanski, James G. (Inventor); Poff, Ray E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A low areal density protective shield apparatus, and method for making same, for protecting spacecraft structures from impact with hypervelocity objects, including a bumper member comprising a bumper ceramic layer, a bumper shock attenuator layer, and a bumper confining layer. The bumper ceramic layer can be SiC or B.sub.4 C; the bumper shock attenuator layer can be zirconia felt; and the bumper confining layer can be aluminum. A base armor member can be spaced from the bumper member and a ceramic fiber-based curtain can be positioned between the bumper and base armor members.

  16. Xenia Spacecraft Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randy

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the proposed design for the Xenia mission spacecraft. The goal of this study is to perform a mission concept study for the mission. Included in this study are: the overall ground rules and assumptions (GR&A), a mission analysis, the configuration, the mass properties, the guidance, Navigation and control, the proposed avionics, the power system, the thermal protection system, the propulsion system, and the proposed structures. Conclusions from the study indicate that the observatory fits within the Falcon 9 mass and volume envelope for launching from Omelek, the pointing, slow slewing, and fast slewing requirements and the thermal requirements are met.

  17. Furlable spacecraft antenna development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, R. E.; Wilson, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    The development of large furlable spacecraft antennas using conical main reflectors is described. Two basic antenna configurations which utilize conical main reflectors have been conceived and are under development. In the conical-Gregorian configuration each ray experiences two reflections in traveling from the feed center to the aperture plane. In the Quadreflex (four reflection) configuration, each ray experiences four reflections, one at each of two subreflector surfaces and two at the main conical reflector surface. The RF gain measurements obtained from 6-ft and 30-in. models of the conical-Gregorian and Quadreflex concepts respectively were sufficiently encouraging to warrant further development of the concepts.

  18. Characterization, Optimization, and Test of the NPSAT1 MEMS 3-Axis Rate Sensor Suite for Use in Small Satellite Attitude Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    conceived of as a low- cost , low-mass augmentation to the magnetometer for use by the Attitude Control System (ACS). The experiment is to test the...rate sensor suite is fully tested and characterized. Experimental testing proves the sensor suite’s effectiveness as a low- cost , low-mass...MEMS sensors together makes a 3-axis rate sensor suite. The MEMS experiment was originally conceived of as a low- cost , low-mass augmentation to the

  19. Relative Navigation for Formation Flying of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso, Roberto; Du, Ju-Young; Hughes, Declan; Junkins, John L.; Crassidis, John L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a robust and efficient approach for relative navigation and attitude estimation of spacecraft flying in formation. This approach uses measurements from a new optical sensor that provides a line of sight vector from the master spacecraft to the secondary satellite. The overall system provides a novel, reliable, and autonomous relative navigation and attitude determination system, employing relatively simple electronic circuits with modest digital signal processing requirements and is fully independent of any external systems. Experimental calibration results are presented, which are used to achieve accurate line of sight measurements. State estimation for formation flying is achieved through an optimal observer design. Also, because the rotational and translational motions are coupled through the observation vectors, three approaches are suggested to separate both signals just for stability analysis. Simulation and experimental results indicate that the combined sensor/estimator approach provides accurate relative position and attitude estimates.

  20. Spacecraft potential control on ISEE-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonfalone, A.; Pedersen, A.; Fahleson, U. V.; Faelthammar, C. G.; Mozer, F. S.; Torbert, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    Active control of the potential of the ISEE-1 satellite by the use of electron guns is reviewed. The electron guns contain a special cathode capable of emitting an electron current selectable between 10 to the -8th power and 10 to the -3rd power at energies from approximately .6 to 41 eV. Results obtained during flight show that the satellite potential can be stabilized at a value more positive than the normally positive floating potential. The electron guns also reduce the spin modulation of the spacecraft potential which is due to the aspect dependent photoemission of the long booms. Plasma parameters like electron temperature and density can be deduced from the variation of the spacecraft potential as a function of the gun current. The effects of electron beam emission on other experiments are briefly mentioned.

  1. NEAR spacecraft flight system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft was built and launched in 29 months. After a 4-year cruise phase the spacecraft was in orbit about the asteroid Eros for 1 year, which enabled the science payload to return unprecedented scientific data. A summary of spacecraft in-flight-performance, including a discussion of the December 1998 aborted orbit insertion burn, is provided. Several minor hardware failures that occurred during the last few years of operations are described. Lessons learned during the cruise phase led to new features being incorporated into several in-flight software uploads. The added innovative features included the capability for the spacecraft to autonomously choose a spacecraft attitude that simultaneously kept the medium-gain antennas pointed at Earth while using solar pressure to control system momentum and a capability to combine a propulsive momentum dump with a trajectory correction maneuver. The spacecraft proved flexible, reliable, and resilient over the 5-year mission.

  2. Designing a micro-spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft design could move toward less complex probes which would cost less then previous highly instrumented missions. The goal then becomes to fly more frequent missions and use commercial, proven hardware to ameliorate development costs. A commonality would be kept in place from spacecraft to spacecraft, with upgrades being introduced only to meet specific objectives or take advantage of advances in commercial hardware. Mission costs are in large part determined by spacecraft mass, so instrumentation must be miniaturized, i.e., the concept of a micro-satellite. A design study for the Cosimi project, which would feature placing a spacecraft on the far side of the solar corona to broadcast radio signals to earth, demonstrates the feasibility of a 20 cm diam rocket and integrated instruments for performing low-cost solar physics experiments. It is concluded, however, that current program start-ups will continue to maximize the mass and instrumentation of spacecraft.

  3. Electromagnetic propulsion for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Three electromagnetic propulsion technologies, solid propellant pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and pulsed inductive thrusters (PIT), were developed for application to auxiliary and primary spacecraft propulsion. Both the PPT and MPD thrusters were flown in space, though only PPT's were used on operational satellites. The performance of operational PPT's is quite poor, providing only approximately 8 percent efficiency at approximately 1000 s specific impulse. However, laboratory PPT's yielding 34 percent efficiency at 2000 s specific impulse were extensively tested, and peak performance levels of 53 percent efficiency at 5170 s specific impulse were demonstrated. MPD thrusters were flown as experiments on the Japanese MS-T4 spacecraft and the Space Shuttle and were qualified for a flight in 1994. The flight MPD thrusters were pulsed, with a peak performance of 22 percent efficiency at 2500 s specific impulse using ammonia propellant. Laboratory MPD thrusters were demonstrated with up to 70 percent efficiency and 700 s specific impulse using lithium propellant. While the PIT thruster has never been flown, recent performance measurements using ammonia and hydrazine propellants are extremely encouraging, reaching 50 percent efficiency for specific impulses between 4000 to 8000 s. The fundamental operating principles, performance measurements, and system level design for the three types of electromagnetic thrusters are reviewed, and available data on flight tests are discussed for the PPT and MPD thrusters.

  4. SOHO spacecraft observations interrupted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    Efforts to re-establish nominal operations did not succeed and telemetry was lost. Subsequent attempts using the full NASA Deep Space Network capabilities have so far not been successful. ESA and NASA engineers are continuing with the task of re-establishing contact with the spacecraft. The SOHO mission is a joint undertaking of ESA and NASA. The spacecraft was launched aboard an Atlas II rocket from Florida on 2 December 1995 from the Cape Canaveral Air Station. Mission operations are directed from the control center at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, USA. In April 1998 SOHO successfully completed its nominal two-year mission to study the Sun's atmosphere, surface and interior. Major science highlights include the detection of rivers of plasma beneath the surface of the sun; the discovery of a magnetic "carpet" on the solar surface that seems to account for a substantial part of the energy that is needed to cause the very high temperatures of the corona, the Sun's outermost layer; the first detection of flare-induced solar quakes; the discovery of more than 50 sungrazing comets; the most detailed view to date of the solar atmosphere; and spectacular images and movies of Coronal Mass Ejections, which are being used to improve the ability to forecast space weather.

  5. NASA's spacecraft data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudmore, Alan; Flanegan, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Small Explorer Data System (SEDS), a space flight data system developed to support the Small Explorer (SMEX) project, is addressed. The system was flown on the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) SMEX mission, and with reconfiguration for different requirements will fly on the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). SEDS is also foreseen for the Hubble repair mission. Its name was changed to Spacecraft Data System (SDS) in view of expansions. Objectives, SDS hardware, and software are described. Each SDS box contains two computers, data storage memory, uplink (command) reception circuitry, downlink (telemetry) encoding circuitry, Instrument Telemetry Controller (ITC), and spacecraft timing circuitry. The SDS communicates with other subsystems over the MIL-STD-1773 data bus. The SDS software uses a real time Operating System (OS) and the C language. The OS layer, communications and scheduling layer, application task layer, and diagnostic software, are described. Decisions on the use of advanced technologies, such as ASIC's (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) and fiber optics, led to technical improvements, such as lower power and weight, without increasing the risk associated with the data system. The result was a successful SAMPEX development, integration and test, and mission using SEDS, and the upgrading of that system to SDS for TRMM and XTE.

  6. Spacecraft design considerations for an Inner Magnetosphere Imager mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Melody C.; Johnson, Charles L.

    1992-01-01

    Imaging the Earth's magnetosphere from space will enable scientists to better understand the global shape of the inner magnetosphere, its components and processes. The proposed Inner Magnetosphere Imager (IMI) mission will obtain the first simultaneous images of the component regions of the inner magnetosphere and will enable scientists to relate these global images to internal and external influences as well as local observations. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is performing a concept definition study of the proposed mission. As currently envisioned, the baseline mission calls for an instrument complement of approximately seven imagers to be flown in an elliptical Earth orbit with an apogee of seven Earth Radii (RE). Several spacecraft concepts have been examined for the mission. The baseline concept utilizes a spinning spacecraft with a despun platform, the second uses a three-axis stabilized spacecraft with a spinning platform, while the third option splits the instruments onto two small satellites; a spinning spacecraft and a complementary three-axis stabilized spacecraft. This paper will address the mission objectives, the rationale for using proven spacecraft designs, and the preliminary concept definition study team results for all three options.

  7. Time Frequency Analysis of Spacecraft Propellant Tank Spinning Slosh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven T.; Burkey, Russell C.; Sudermann, James

    2010-01-01

    Many spacecraft are designed to spin about an axis along the flight path as a means of stabilizing the attitude of the spacecraft via gyroscopic stiffness. Because of the assembly requirements of the spacecraft and the launch vehicle, these spacecraft often spin about an axis corresponding to a minor moment of inertia. In such a case, any perturbation of the spin axis will cause sloshing motions in the liquid propellant tanks that will eventually dissipate enough kinetic energy to cause the spin axis nutation (wobble) to grow further. This spinning slosh and resultant nutation growth is a primary design problem of spinning spacecraft and one that is not easily solved by analysis or simulation only. Testing remains the surest way to address spacecraft nutation growth. This paper describes a test method and data analysis technique that reveal the resonant frequency and damping behavior of liquid motions in a spinning tank. Slosh resonant frequency and damping characteristics are necessary inputs to any accurate numerical dynamic simulation of the spacecraft.

  8. General attitude maneuvers of spacecraft with flexible structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yiing-Yuh; Lin, Gern-Liang

    1995-03-01

    An efficient composite control strategy is proposed in this paper permitting simultaneous multi-axis reorientation of a spacecraft with flexible structures. The proposed control, separating large and small motions of the dynamic system, includes three parts that can be independently designed and tuned. For each maneuver, an open-loop referencing attitude control trajectory is derived by considering the spacecraft as rigid and executed by part 1. Flexural deformations of the structures are stabilized by part 2. Part 3, encompassing part 1 and part 2 control results and external disturbances, is an optimal guidance that tracks part 1 reference trajectory and achieves the specified final attitude in finite time. Three simulation cases are included in which a flexible model spacecraft is used. Collocated actuators and sensors are placed on the hub and on the flexible structures of the spacecraft.

  9. Spacecraft Attitude Tracking and Maneuver Using Combined Magnetic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes attitude-control algorithms using the combination of magnetic actuators with reaction wheel assemblies (RWAs) or other types of actuators such as thrusters. The combination of magnetic actuators with one or two RWAs aligned with different body axis expands the two-dimensional control torque to three-dimensional. The algorithms can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded attitude precisely. A design example is presented for nadir-pointing, pitch, and yaw maneuvers. The results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached and the attitude- control accuracy is comparable with RWA-based attitude control. When there are only one or two workable RWAs due to RWA failures, the attitude-control system can switch to the control algorithms for the combined magnetic actuators with the RWAs without going to the safe mode, and the control accuracy can be maintained. The attitude-control algorithms of the combined actuators are derived, which can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded values precisely. Results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached, and the attitude-control accuracy is comparable with 3-axis wheel control.

  10. Solar Array Disturbances to Spacecraft Pointing During the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), the first spacecraft to support NASA s return to the Moon, launched on June 18, 2009 from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V launch vehicle. It was initially inserted into a direct trans-lunar trajectory to the Moon. After a five day transit to the Moon, LRO was inserted into the Lunar orbit and successfully lowered to a low altitude elliptical polar orbit for spacecraft commissioning. Successful commissioning was completed in October 2009 when LRO was placed in its near circular mission orbit with an approximate altitude of 50km. LRO will spend at least one year orbiting the Moon, collecting lunar environment science and mapping data, utilizing a suite of seven instruments to enable future human exploration. The objective is to provide key science data necessary to facilitate human return to the Moon as well as identification of opportunities for future science missions. LRO's instrument suite will provide the high resolution imaging data with sub-meter accuracy, highly accurate lunar cartographic maps, mineralogy mapping, amongst other science data of interest. LRO employs a 3-axis stabilized attitude control system (ACS) whose primary control mode, the "Observing Mode", provides Lunar nadir, off-nadir, and inertial fine pointing for the science data collection and instrument calibration. This controller combines the capability of fine pointing with on-demand large angle full-sky attitude reorientation. It provides simplicity of spacecraft operation as well as additional flexibility for science data collection. A conventional suite of ACS components is employed in the Observing Mode to meet the pointing and control objectives. Actuation is provided by a set of four reaction wheels developed in-house at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Attitude feedback is provided by a six state Kalman filter which utilizes two SELEX Galileo Star Trackers for attitude updates, and a single Honeywell Miniature

  11. Electromagnetic propulsion for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Three electromagnetic propulsion technologies, solid propellant pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and pulsed inductive thrusters (PIT) have been developed for application to auxiliary and primary spacecraft propulsion. Both the PPT and MPD thrusters have been flown in space, though only PPTs have been used on operational satellites. The performance of operational PPTs is quite poor, providing only about 8 percent efficiency at about 1000 sec specific impulse. Laboratory PPTs yielding 34 percent efficiency at 5170 sec specific impulse have been demonstrated. Laboratory MPD thrusters have been demonstrated with up to 70 percent efficiency and 7000 sec specific impulse. Recent PIT performance measurements using ammonia and hydrazine propellants are extremely encouraging, reaching 50 percent efficiency for specific impulses between 4000 and 8000 sec.

  12. Spacecraft Attitude Representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.

  13. Magnetic bearings for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have been successfully applied to motorized rotor systems in the multi-kilogram range, at speeds up to 1200 radians per second. These engineering models also indicated the need for continued development in specific areas to make them feasible for spacecraft applications. Significant power reductions have recently been attained. A unique magnetic circuit, combining permanent magnets with electromagnetic control, has a bidirectional forcing capability with improved current sensitivity. The multi-dimensional nature of contact-free rotor support is discussed. Stable continuous radial suspension is provided by a rotationally symmetric permanent magnet circuit. Two bearings, on a common shaft, counteract the normal instability perpendicular to the rotational axis. The axial direction is servoed to prevent contact. A new bearing technology and a new field of application for magnetics is foreseen.

  14. Microbiological Contamination of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Bruce, R. J.; Groves, T. O.; Novikova, N. D.; Viktorov, A. N.

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Phase1 Program resulted in seven US astronauts residing aboard the Russian Space Station Mir between March 1995 and May 1998. Collaboration between U.S. and Russian scientists consisted of collection and analyses of samples from the crewmembers and the Mir and Shuttle environments before, during, and after missions that lasted from 75 to 209 days in duration. The effects of long-duration space flight on the microbial characteristics of closed life support systems and the interactions of microbes with the spacecraft environment and crewmembers were investigated. Air samples were collected using a Russian or U.S.-supplied sampler (SAS, RCS, or Burkard,) while surface samples were collected using contact slides (Hycon) or swabs. Mir recycled condensate and stored potable water sources were analyzed using the U.S.-supplied Water Experiment Kit. In-flight analysis consisted of enumeration of levels of bacteria and fungi. Amounts of microorganisms seen in the air and on surfaces were mostly within acceptability lin1its; observed temporal fluctuations in levels of microbes probably reflect changes in environmental conditions (e.g., humidity). All Mir galley hot water samples were within the standards set for Mir and the ISS. Microbial isolates were returned to Earth for identification of bacterial and fungal isolates. Crew samples (nose, throat, skin, urine, and feces) were analyzed using methods approved for the medical evaluations of Shuttle flight crews. No significant changes in crew microbiota were found during space flight or upon return relative to preflight results. Dissemination of microbes between the crew and environment was demonstrated by D A fingerprinting. Some biodegradation of spacecraft materials was observed. Accumulation of condensate allowed for the recovery of a wide range of bacteria and fungi as well as some protozoa and dust mites.

  15. Spacecraft signal sources portable test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, Albert; Kuhnle, Paul; Sydnor, Richard; Diener, William; Stowers, David

    1993-01-01

    There is a frequent need to measure the frequency stability and phase noise levels of very high performance signal sources that are required for certain spacecraft missions. These measurements need to be done at different locations as the spacecraft subsystems progress through the various stages of development, assembly, test, and integration. Allan Deviation and Phase Noise of high performance sources are generally measured by comparing the unit under test to a reference standard. Five basic requirements are associated with making these kind of measurements: (1) the reference standard performance needs to be equal or better than the unit under test; (2) the measurement system needs to accommodate odd, nonstandard measurement frequencies that can range from 4 MHz to 35 GHz; (3) warm-up frequency drift and aging can corrupt a measurement and must be dealt with; (4) test equipment generated noise must be understood and prevented from limiting the measurements; (5) test equipment noise performance must be verifiable in the field as needed. A portable measurement system that was built by JPL and used in the field is described. The methods of addressing the above requirements are outlined and some measurement noise floor values are given. This test set was recently used to measure state of the art crystal oscillator frequency standards on the TOPEX and MARS OBSERVER spacecraft during several stages of acceptance tests.

  16. Interactions Between SAS-C Spacecraft Nutations and Spin-Rate Control System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The SAS-C spacecraft is stabilized by a momentum biased reaction wheel and passive nutation damper. A closed-loop low-speed spacecraft spin rate...control system is included which uses a single-axis gyro and a variable speed range on the reaction wheel . Dynamic instability can result from

  17. Cluster: A fleet of four spacecraft to study plasma structures in three dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    The four Cluster spacecraft are spin stabilized spacecraft which are designed and built under stringent requirements as far as electromagnetic cleanliness is concerned. Conductive surfaces and low electromagnetic background noise are mandatory for accurate electric field and cold plasma measurements. The mission is implemented in collaboration between ESA and NASA. A Russian mission will be closely coordinated with Cluster.

  18. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Cycle life test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The service life and storage stability for several storage batteries were determined. The batteries included silver-zinc batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, and silver-cadmium batteries. The cell performance characteristics and limitations are to be used by spacecraft power systems planners and designers. A statistical analysis of the life cycle prediction and cause of failure versus test conditions is presented.

  19. Spacecraft Escape Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Charles, Dingell W.; Bufkin, Ann L.; Rodriggs, Liana M.; Peterson, Wayne; Cuthbert, Peter; Lee, David E.; Westhelle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    A report discusses the Gumdrop capsule a conceptual spacecraft that would enable the crew to escape safely in the event of a major equipment failure at any time from launch through atmospheric re-entry. The scaleable Gumdrop capsule would comprise a command module (CM), a service module (SM), and a crew escape system (CES). The CM would contain a pressurized crew environment that would include avionic, life-support, thermal control, propulsive attitude control, and recovery systems. The SM would provide the primary propulsion and would also supply electrical power, life-support resources, and active thermal control to the CM. The CES would include a solid rocket motor, embedded within the SM, for pushing the CM away from the SM in the event of a critical thermal-protection-system failure or loss of control. The CM and SM would normally remain integrated with each other from launch through recovery, but could be separated using the CES, if necessary, to enable the safe recovery of the crew in the CM. The crew escape motor could be used, alternatively, as a redundant means of de-orbit propulsion for the CM in the event of a major system failure in the SM.

  20. Printed Spacecraft Separation System

    SciTech Connect

    Holmans, Walter; Dehoff, Ryan

    2016-10-01

    In this project Planetary Systems Corporation proposed utilizing additive manufacturing (3D printing) to manufacture a titanium spacecraft separation system for commercial and US government customers to realize a 90% reduction in the cost and energy. These savings were demonstrated via “printing-in” many of the parts and sub-assemblies into one part, thus greatly reducing the labor associated with design, procurement, assembly and calibration of mechanisms. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned several of the components of the separation system based on additive manufacturing principles including geometric flexibility and the ability to fabricate complex designs, ability to combine multiple parts of an assembly into a single component, and the ability to optimize design for specific mechanical property targets. Shock absorption was specifically targeted and requirements were established to attenuate damage to the Lightband system from shock of initiation. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned components based on these requirements and sent the designs to Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be printed. ORNL printed the parts using the Arcam electron beam melting technology based on the desire for the parts to be fabricated from Ti-6Al-4V based on the weight and mechanical performance of the material. A second set of components was fabricated from stainless steel material on the Renishaw laser powder bed technology due to the improved geometric accuracy, surface finish, and wear resistance of the material. Planetary Systems Corporation evaluated these components and determined that 3D printing is potentially a viable method for achieving significant cost and savings metrics.

  1. Analyzing Spacecraft Telecommunication Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordon, Mark; Hanks, David; Gladden, Roy; Wood, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Multi-Mission Telecom Analysis Tool (MMTAT) is a C-language computer program for analyzing proposed spacecraft telecommunication systems. MMTAT utilizes parameterized input and computational models that can be run on standard desktop computers to perform fast and accurate analyses of telecommunication links. MMTAT is easy to use and can easily be integrated with other software applications and run as part of almost any computational simulation. It is distributed as either a stand-alone application program with a graphical user interface or a linkable library with a well-defined set of application programming interface (API) calls. As a stand-alone program, MMTAT provides both textual and graphical output. The graphs make it possible to understand, quickly and easily, how telecommunication performance varies with variations in input parameters. A delimited text file that can be read by any spreadsheet program is generated at the end of each run. The API in the linkable-library form of MMTAT enables the user to control simulation software and to change parameters during a simulation run. Results can be retrieved either at the end of a run or by use of a function call at any time step.

  2. Spectra and spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, V. I.

    2001-02-01

    In June 1999, Dr. Regis Courtin, Associate Editor of PSS, suggested that I write an article for the new section of this journal: "Planetary Pioneers". I hesitated , but decided to try. One of the reasons for my doubts was my primitive English, so I owe the reader an apology for this in advance. Writing took me much more time than I supposed initially, I have stopped and again returned to manuscript many times. My professional life may be divided into three main phases: pioneering work in ground-based IR astronomy with an emphasis on planetary spectroscopy (1955-1970), studies of the planets with spacecraft (1970-1989), and attempts to proceed with this work in difficult times. I moved ahead using the known method of trials and errors as most of us do. In fact, only a small percentage of efforts led to some important results, a sort of dry residue. I will try to describe below how has it been in my case: what may be estimated as the most important, how I came to this, what was around, etc.

  3. Hydrazine monitoring in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. H.; Beck, S. W.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrazine (HZ) and monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) are highly toxic compounds used as fuels in the Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Engines and in its maneuvering and reaction control system. Satellite refueling during a mission may also result in release of hydrazines. During extravehicular activities, the potential exists for hydrazines to contaminate the suit and to be brought into the internal atmosphere inadvertantly. Because of the high toxicity of hydrazines, a very sensitive, reliable, interference-free, and real-time method of measurement is required. A portable ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) has exhibited a low ppb detection limit for hydrazines suggesting a promising technology for the detection of hydrazines in spacecraft air. The Hydrazine Monitor is a modified airborne vapor monitor (AVM) with a custom-built datalogger. This off-the-shelf IMS was developed for the detection of chemical warfare agents on the battlefield. After early evaluations of the AVM for hydrazine measurements showed a serious interference from ammonia, the AVM was modified to measure HZ and MMH in the ppb concentration range without interference from ammonia in the low ppm range. A description of the Hydrazine Monitor and how it functions is presented.

  4. Spacecraft power system architecture to mitigate spacecraft charging effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A power system architecture for a spacecraft and a method of a power supply for a spacecraft are presented which take advantage of the reduced plasma interaction associated with positive ground high voltage photovoltaic arrays and provide a negative ground power supply for electrical loads of the spacecraft. They efficiently convert and regulate power to the load bus and reduce power system mass and complexity. The system and method ground the positive terminal of the solar arrays to the spacecraft hull, and using a power converter to invert the electric sign, permit a negative ground for the electrical distribution bus and electrical components. A number of variations including a load management system and a battery management system having charging and recharging devices are presented.

  5. Transient vibration test criteria for spacecraft hardware. [galileo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, D. L.; Hayes, C. D.

    1984-01-01

    Transient vibration test criteria, developed for spacecraft hardware, provide a test rationale to verify the capability of the hardware to withstand the low and mid frequency transient vibration environments induced by launch vehicle events. A test method, consisting of a series of discrete frequency, limited cycle, modulated sine wave pulses, was developed to avoid the slow swept sine drawbacks, yet provide a repeatable test that would excite all frequencies. The shape of the waveform is that of the classic response of the mass of a one degree of freedom system when it is base-excited by an exponentially decayed sine wave transient. Criteria were developed to define pulse amplitudes, shapes, and center frequencies from spacecraft loads analyses. Test tolerance criteria were also developed and specified. The transient vibration test criteria were implemented on spacecraft flight hardware and provided a more realistic test simulation (i.e., less conservative) for qualification of spacecraft hardware without risk of undertest.

  6. Modeling, Simulation, and Parameter Estimation of Lateral Spacecraft Fuel Slosh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatman, Yadira; Gangadharan, Sathya; Marsell, Brandon; Schlee, Keith; Sudermann, James; Walker, Charles; Ristow, James

    2008-01-01

    Predicting the effect of fuel slosh on a spacecraft and/or launch vehicle attitude control system is a very important and a challenging task. Whether the spacecraft is under spinning or lateral moving conditions, the dynamic effect of the fuel slosh will help determine whether the spacecraft will remain on its chosen trajectory. There are three categories of slosh that can be caused by launch vehicle and/or spacecraft maneuvers when the fuel is in the presence of an acceleration field. These include bulk fluid motion, subsurface wave motion, and free surface slosh. Each of these slosh types have a periodic component that is defined by either a spinning or lateral motion. For spinning spacecraft, all three types of slosh can play a major role in determining stability. Bulk fluid motion and free surface slosh can affect the lateral slosh characteristics. For either condition, the possibility for an unpredicted coupled resonance between the spacecraft and its on board fuel can have mission threatening affects. This on-going research effort aims at improving the accuracy and efficiency of modeling techniques used to predict these types of lateral fluid motions. In particular, efforts will focus on analyzing the effects of viscoelastic diaphragms on slosh dynamics.

  7. Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1971-01-01

    Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

  8. Gravity-gradient dynamics experiments performed in orbit utilizing the Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE-1) spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walden, H.

    1973-01-01

    Six dynamic experiments were performed in earth orbit utilizing the RAE spacecraft in order to test the accuracy of the mathematical model of RAE dynamics. The spacecraft consisted of four flexible antenna booms, mounted on a rigid cylindrical spacecraft hub at center, for measuring radio emissions from extraterrestrial sources. Attitude control of the gravity stabilized spacecraft was tested by using damper clamping, single lower leading boom operations, and double lower boom operations. Results and conclusions of the in-orbit dynamic experiments proved the accuracy of the analytic techniques used to model RAE dynamical behavior.

  9. Autonomous spacecraft maintenance study group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, M. H.; Low, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    A plan to incorporate autonomous spacecraft maintenance (ASM) capabilities into Air Force spacecraft by 1989 is outlined. It includes the successful operation of the spacecraft without ground operator intervention for extended periods of time. Mechanisms, along with a fault tolerant data processing system (including a nonvolatile backup memory) and an autonomous navigation capability, are needed to replace the routine servicing that is presently performed by the ground system. The state of the art fault handling capabilities of various spacecraft and computers are described, and a set conceptual design requirements needed to achieve ASM is established. Implementations for near term technology development needed for an ASM proof of concept demonstration by 1985, and a research agenda addressing long range academic research for an advanced ASM system for 1990s are established.

  10. Gemini 9 spacecraft recovery operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 9-A spacecraft, with Astronauts Thomas Stafford and Eugene Cernan still inside, in water as the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp, the recovery ship, comes alongside to recover the astronauts and their spaceship.

  11. ISS Update: Dream Chaser Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Michael Curie talks with Cheryl McPhillips, Commercial Crew Program Partner Manager for the Sierra Nevada Corporation, the company developing the Dream Chaser spacecraft...

  12. Thermoelectric Outer Planets Spacecraft (TOPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research and advanced development work is reported on a ballistic-mode, outer planet spacecraft using radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power. The Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS) project was established to provide the advanced systems technology that would allow the realistic estimates of performance, cost, reliability, and scheduling that are required for an actual flight mission. A system design of the complete RTG-powered outer planet spacecraft was made; major technical innovations of certain hardware elements were designed, developed, and tested; and reliability and quality assurance concepts were developed for long-life requirements. At the conclusion of its active phase, the TOPS Project reached its principal objectives: a development and experience base was established for project definition, and for estimating cost, performance, and reliability; an understanding of system and subsystem capabilities for successful outer planets missions was achieved. The system design answered long-life requirements with massive redundancy, controlled by on-board analysis of spacecraft performance data.

  13. Spacecraft Environmental Interactions Technology, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    State of the art of environment interactions dealing with low-Earth-orbit plasmas; high-voltage systems; spacecraft charging; materials effects; and direction of future programs are contained in over 50 papers.

  14. Gravity Probe B spacecraft description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Norman R.; Burns, Kevin; Katz, Russell; Kirschenbaum, Jon; Mason, Gary; Shehata, Shawky

    2015-11-01

    The Gravity Probe B spacecraft, developed, integrated, and tested by Lockheed Missiles & Space Company and later Lockheed Martin Corporation, consisted of structures, mechanisms, command and data handling, attitude and translation control, electrical power, thermal control, flight software, and communications. When integrated with the payload elements, the integrated system became the space vehicle. Key requirements shaping the design of the spacecraft were: (1) the tight mission timeline (17 months, 9 days of on-orbit operation), (2) precise attitude and translational control, (3) thermal protection of science hardware, (4) minimizing aerodynamic, magnetic, and eddy current effects, and (5) the need to provide a robust, low risk spacecraft. The spacecraft met all mission requirements, as demonstrated by dewar lifetime meeting specification, positive power and thermal margins, precision attitude control and drag-free performance, reliable communications, and the collection of more than 97% of the available science data.

  15. Plasma Interactions With Spacecraft (I)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    various plasma engineering concerns including surface discharges due to meteoroid impact and spacecraft contamination due to electric propulsion plasma...discharges due to meteoroid impact and spacecraft contamination due to electric propulsion plasma plume effects. The goal of this effort is to...Enhanced Radiation Belts in Lake Arrowhead, California on March 3-6, 2008. Dr. Mandell also attended the DSX System CDR, Breckenridge, Colorado, May 6-8

  16. Spacecraft external molecular contamination analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H. K. F.

    1990-01-01

    Control of contamination on and around spacecraft is required to avoid adverse effects on the performance of instruments and spacecraft systems. Recent work in this area is reviewed and discussed. Specific issues and limitations to be considered as part of the effort to predict contamination effects using modeling techniques are addressed. Significant results of Space Shuttle missions in the field of molecule/surface interactions as well as their implications for space station design and operation are reviewed.

  17. Recent Advances in Spacecraft Charging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-08

    divergence. The with partial successes [Cohen, etal., 1981; Cohen and transverse energy gained by a diverging beam Lai, 1982; Olsen , 1985; Werner, 1988]. When...probes, J AppL Phys., Technology Conference, R.C. Olsen (ed), Naval 63, 5674-5677, 1988. Postgraduate School, Mornterey, 1989. Neubert, T., MJ...Dec., 1993. Olsen , R.C., Modification of spacecraft potentials by Wang, J. and D.E_ Hastings, Ionospheric plasma flow plasma emission, J. Spacecraft

  18. Spacecraft design applications of QUICK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, David L.

    1992-01-01

    The interactive space mission trajectory design environment software QUICK, which is currently available on 14 different machine architectures, furnishes a programmable FORTRAN-like interface for a wide range of both built-in and user-defined functions. Since its inception at JPL in 1971, QUICK has evolved from a specialized calculator into a general-purpose engineering tool which also facilitates spacecraft conceptual design by treating spacecraft as collections of data records describing individual components of instruments.

  19. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (< 100 kg) can be used in a variety of architectures consisting of orbiters, landers, rovers, atmospheric probes, and penetrators. A few such vehicles have been flown in the past as technology demonstrations. However, technologies such as new miniaturized science-grade sensors and electronics, advanced manufacturing for lightweight structures, and innovative propulsion are making it possible to fly much more capable micro spacecraft for planetary exploration. While micro spacecraft, such as CubeSats, offer significant cost reductions with added capability from advancing technologies, the technical challenges for deep space missions are very different than for missions conducted in low Earth orbit. Micro spacecraft must be able to sustain a broad range of planetary environments (i.e., radiations, temperatures, limited power generation) and offer long-range telecommunication performance on a par with science needs. Other capabilities needed for planetary missions, such as fine attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  20. Energy management and attitude control for spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costic, Bret Thomas

    2001-07-01

    (model-based and adaptive) that simultaneously track a desired attitude trajectory and desired energy/power profile are presented. Both strategies ensure asymptotic tracking while the adaptive controller compensates for uncertain spacecraft inertia. In the final chapter, a control strategy is designed for a rotating, unbalanced disk. The control strategy, which is composed of a control torque and two control forces, regulates the disk displacement and ensures angular velocity tracking. The controller uses a desired compensation adaptation law and a gain adjusted forgetting factor to achieve exponential stability despite the lack of knowledge of the imbalance-related parameters, provided a mild persistency of excitation condition is satisfied.

  1. Software for Autonomous Spacecraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, John; Folta, Dave; Hawkins, Al; Dell, Greg

    2004-01-01

    The AutoCon computer programs facilitate and accelerate the planning and execution of orbital control maneuvers of spacecraft while analyzing and resolving mission constraints. AutoCon-F is executed aboard spacecraft, enabling the spacecraft to plan and execute maneuvers autonomously; AutoCon-G is designed for use on the ground. The AutoCon programs utilize advanced techniques of artificial intelligence, including those of fuzzy logic and natural-language scripting, to resolve multiple conflicting constraints and automatically plan maneuvers. These programs can be used to satisfy requirements for missions that involve orbits around the Earth, the Moon, or any planet, and are especially useful for missions in which there are requirements for frequent maneuvers and for resolution of complex conflicting constraints. During operations, the software targets new trajectories, places and sizes maneuvers, and controls spacecraft burns. AutoCon-G provides a userfriendly graphical interface, and can be used effectively by an analyst with minimal training. AutoCon-F reduces latency and supports multiple-spacecraft and formation-flying missions. The AutoCon architecture supports distributive processing, which can be critical for formation- control missions. AutoCon is completely object-oriented and can easily be enhanced by adding new objects and events. AutoCon-F was flight demonstrated onboard GSFC's EO-1 spacecraft flying in formation with Landsat-7.

  2. System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorfman, S. D.

    1973-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center Pioneer Venus Project objective is to conduct scientific investigations of the planet Venus using spin stabilized spacecraft. The defined approach to accomplish this goal is to implement a multiprobe spacecraft mission and an orbiter spacecraft mission. Candidate launch vehicles for the Pioneer Venus missions were the Thor/Delta and Atlas/Centaur. The multiprobe spacecraft consists of a probe bus, one large probe, and three small probes. The probes are designed to survive to the surface of Venus, and to make in situ measurements of the Venusian atmosphere; the probe bus enters the atmosphere and makes scientific measurements until it burns out. The orbiter mission uses a spacecraft designed to orbit Venus for 225 days with an orbit period of about 24 hours (h). The probe bus and orbiter designs are to use a common spacecraft bus.

  3. Intelligent spacecraft module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oungrinis, Konstantinos-Alketas; Liapi, Marianthi; Kelesidi, Anna; Gargalis, Leonidas; Telo, Marinela; Ntzoufras, Sotiris; Paschidi, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the development of an on-going research project that focuses on a human-centered design approach to habitable spacecraft modules. It focuses on the technical requirements and proposes approaches on how to achieve a spatial arrangement of the interior that addresses sufficiently the functional, physiological and psychosocial needs of the people living and working in such confined spaces that entail long-term environmental threats to human health and performance. Since the research perspective examines the issue from a qualitative point of view, it is based on establishing specific relationships between the built environment and its users, targeting people's bodily and psychological comfort as a measure toward a successful mission. This research has two basic branches, one examining the context of the system's operation and behavior and the other in the direction of identifying, experimenting and formulating the environment that successfully performs according to the desired context. The latter aspect is researched upon the construction of a scaled-model on which we run series of tests to identify the materiality, the geometry and the electronic infrastructure required. Guided by the principles of sensponsive architecture, the ISM research project explores the application of the necessary spatial arrangement and behavior for a user-centered, functional interior where the appropriate intelligent systems are based upon the existing mechanical and chemical support ones featured on space today, and especially on the ISS. The problem is set according to the characteristics presented at the Mars500 project, regarding the living quarters of six crew-members, along with their hygiene, leisure and eating areas. Transformable design techniques introduce spatial economy, adjustable zoning and increased efficiency within the interior, securing at the same time precise spatial orientation and character at any given time. The sensponsive configuration is

  4. Investigation of the dynamics of angular motion and construction of algorithms for controlling the angular momentum of spacecraft using a magnetic attitude control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, Yu. G.; Kulkov, V. M.; Terentyev, V. V.; Firsyuk, S. O.; Shemyakov, A. O.

    2016-11-01

    The problem of controlling the angular momentum of spacecraft using magnetic attitude control systems interacting with the Earth's magnetic field is considered. A mathematical model for the angular motion dynamics of a spacecraft has been constructed. An approach to determining the parameters of the control law for a spacecraft attitude control and stabilization system that ensures angular momentum dissipation is proposed.

  5. Output Feedback Slewing Control of Flewible Spacecraft by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daesik; Kim, Chun-Hwey; Bang, Hyochoong

    1997-12-01

    Slewing maneuver and vibration suppression control of flexible spacecraft model by Lyapunov stability theory are considered. The specific model considered in this paper consists of a rigid hub with an elastic appendage attached to the central hub and tip mass. Attitude control to point and stabilize single axis using reaction wheel type device is tested. To control all flexible modes is so critical to designing an active control law. We therefore considered an direct output feeback control design by using Lyapunov stability theory. It is shown that the ouput feedback control law design with proposed configuration gives satisfactory result in slewing performance and vibration suppression control.

  6. Future trends in spacecraft design and qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venneri, Samuel L.; Hanks, Brantley R.; Pinson, Larry D.

    1986-01-01

    Material and structures issues that must be resolved in order to develop the technology data base needed to design and qualify the next generation of large flexible spacecraft are discussed. This invoves the development of new ground test and analysis methods and the conduct of appropriate instrumented in-space flight experiments for final verification. A review of present understanding of material behavior in the space environment and identification of future needs is presented. The dynamic verification and subsequent qualification of a spacecraft structure currently rely heavily on ground-based tests, coupled with the verified analysis model. Future space structures, such as large antennas, Space Station and other large platforms, will be of sizes difficult to test using current ground test methods. In addition to size, other complex factors, such as low natural frequencies, lightweight construction and many structural joints, will also contribute significant problems to the test and qualification process in an Earth-gravity environment. These large spacecraft will also require new technology for controlling the configuration and dynamic deformations of the structures. Future trend in large flexible structures will also involve long-life design missions (10 to 20 years). In low earth orbit (LEO), materials will be subjected to repeated thermal cycles, ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen and vacuum. For high orbits such as geo-synchronous earth orbit (GEO), the materials will also be subjected to large doses of high energy electrons and protons. Understanding degradation and material stability over long-mission time periods will confront the designer with many issues that are unresolved today.

  7. Multi-Spacecraft Turbulence Analysis Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbury, Tim S.; Osman, Kareem T.

    Turbulence is ubiquitous in space plasmas, from the solar wind to supernova remnants, and on scales from the electron gyroradius to interstellar separations. Turbulence is responsible for transporting energy across space and between scales and plays a key role in plasma heating, particle acceleration and thermalisation downstream of shocks. Just as with other plasma processes such as shocks or reconnection, turbulence results in complex, structured and time-varying behaviour which is hard to measure with a single spacecraft. However, turbulence is a particularly hard phenomenon to study because it is usually broadband in nature: it covers many scales simultaneously. One must therefore use techniques to extract information on multiple scales in order to quantify plasma turbulence and its effects. The Cluster orbit takes the spacecraft through turbulent regions with a range of characteristics: the solar wind, magnetosheath, cusp and magnetosphere. In each, the nature of the turbulence (strongly driven or fully evolved; dominated by kinetic effects or largely on fluid scales), as well as characteristics of the medium (thermalised or not; high or low plasma sub- or super-Alfvenic) mean that particular techniques are better suited to the analysis of Cluster data in different locations. In this chapter, we consider a range of methods and how they are best applied to these different regions. Perhaps the most studied turbulent space plasma environment is the solar wind, see Bruno and Carbone [2005]; Goldstein et al. [2005] for recent reviews. This is the case for a number of reasons: it is scientifically important for cosmic ray and solar energetic particle scattering and propagation, for example. However, perhaps the most significant motivations for studying solar wind turbulence are pragmatic: large volumes of high quality measurements are available; the stability of the solar wind on the scales of hours makes it possible to identify statistically stationary intervals to

  8. Spacecraft Crew Cabin Condensation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrillo, Laurie Y.; Rickman, Steven L.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2013-01-01

    A report discusses a new technique to prevent condensation on the cabin walls of manned spacecraft exposed to the cold environment of space, as such condensation could lead to free water in the cabin. This could facilitate the growth of mold and bacteria, and could lead to oxidation and weakening of the cabin wall. This condensation control technique employs a passive method that uses spacecraft waste heat as the primary wallheating mechanism. A network of heat pipes is bonded to the crew cabin pressure vessel, as well as the pipes to each other, in order to provide for efficient heat transfer to the cabin walls and from one heat pipe to another. When properly sized, the heat-pipe network can maintain the crew cabin walls at a nearly uniform temperature. It can also accept and distribute spacecraft waste heat to maintain the pressure vessel above dew point.

  9. How to feed a spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, William

    1987-01-01

    The uplink process between ground computers and the spacecraft computer is examined. Data is uplinked to a spacecraft by a load (a sequence of preplanned commands) or by real-time commands; the differences between these two types of uplinks are discussed. The sequencing of a load involves: (1) request generation, (2) request integration, (3) reference generation, and (4) transmitting the load. The functions of each of the sequencing steps are described. The development of new sequencing methods using expert systems and AI is being studied. A symbolic processing software which has the ability to transmit data typed into a computer in English was developed. Consideration is given to the composition, capabilities of the parser, and application of the symbolic processing software to the Comet Renedezvous Asteroid Flyby spacecraft.

  10. Spacecraft Design Thermal Control Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyake, Robert N.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the functions of the thermal control subsystem engineers in the design of spacecraft. The goal of the thermal control subsystem that will be used in a spacecraft is to maintain the temperature of all spacecraft components, subsystems, and all the flight systems within specified limits for all flight modes from launch to the end of the mission. For most thermal control subsystems the mass, power and control and sensing systems must be kept below 10% of the total flight system resources. This means that the thermal control engineer is involved in all other flight systems designs. The two concepts of thermal control, passive and active are reviewed and the use of thermal modeling tools are explained. The testing of the thermal control is also reviewed.

  11. Swarms: Optimum aggregations of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, H. L.

    1980-01-01

    Swarms are aggregations of spacecraft or elements of a space system which are cooperative in function, but physically isolated or only loosely connected. For some missions the swarm configuration may be optimum compared to a group of completely independent spacecraft or a complex rigidly integrated spacecraft or space platform. General features of swarms are induced by considering an ensemble of 26 swarms, examples ranging from Earth centered swarms for commercial application to swarms for exploring minor planets. A concept for a low altitude swarm as a substitute for a space platform is proposed and a preliminary design studied. The salient design feature is the web of tethers holding the 30 km swarm in a rigid two dimensional array in the orbital plane. A mathematical discussion and tutorial in tether technology and in some aspects of the distribution of services (mass, energy, and information to swarm elements) are included.

  12. Conductive spacecraft materials development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehn, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to provide design criteria, techniques, materials, and test methods to ensure control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft surfaces. The control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft cannot be effected without the development of new and improved or modified materials or techniques that will provide electrical continuity over the surface of the spacecraft. The materials' photoemission, secondary emission, thermooptical, physical, and electrical properties in the space vacuum environment both in the presence and absence of electrical stress and ultraviolet, electron, and particulate radiation, are important to the achievement of charge control. The materials must be stable or have predictable response to exposure to the space environment for long periods of time. The materials of interest include conductive polymers, paints, transparent films and coatings as well as fabric coating interweaves.

  13. Electromagnetic braking for Mars spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    Aerobraking concepts are being studied to improve performance and cost effectiveness of propulsion systems for Mars landers and Mars interplanetary spacecraft. Access to megawatt power levels (nuclear power coupled to high-storage inductive or capacitive devices) on a manned Mars interplanetary spacecraft may make feasible electromagnetic braking and lift modulation techniques which were previously impractical. Using pulsed microwave and magnetic field technology, potential plasmadynamic braking and hydromagnetic lift modulation techniques have been identified. Entry corridor modulation to reduce loads and heating, to reduce vertical descent rates, and to expand horizontal and lateral landing ranges are possible benefits. In-depth studies are needed to identify specific design concepts for feasibility assessments. Standing wave/plasma sheath interaction techniques appear to be promising. The techniques may require some tailoring of spacecraft external structures and materials. In addition, rapid response guidance and control systems may require the use of structurally embedded sensors coupled to expert systems or to artificial intelligence systems.

  14. Fire safety applications for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Olson, Sandra L.

    1989-01-01

    Fire safety for spacecraft is reviewed by first describing current practices, many of which are adapted directly from aircraft. Then, current analyses and experimental knowledge in low-gravity combustion, with implications for fire safety are discussed. In orbiting spacecraft, the detection and suppression of flames are strongly affected by the large reduction in buoyant flows under low gravity. Generally, combustion intensity is reduced in low gravity. There are some notable exceptions, however, one example being the strong enhancement of flames by low-velocity ventilation flows in space. Finally, the future requirements in fire safety, particularly the needs of long-duration space stations in fire prevention, detection, extinguishment, and atmospheric control are examined. The goal of spacecraft fire-safety investigations is the establishment of trade-offs that promote maximum safety without hampering the useful human and scientific activities in space.

  15. Universal Controller for Spacecraft Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levanas, Greg; McCarthy, Thomas; Hunter, Don; Buchanan, Christine; Johnson, Michael; Cozy, Raymond; Morgan, Albert; Tran, Hung

    2006-01-01

    An electronic control unit has been fabricated and tested that can be replicated as a universal interface between the electronic infrastructure of a spacecraft and a brushless-motor (or other electromechanical actuator) driven mechanism that performs a specific mechanical function within the overall spacecraft system. The unit includes interfaces to a variety of spacecraft sensors, power outputs, and has selectable actuator control parameters making the assembly a mechanism controller. Several control topologies are selectable and reconfigurable at any time. This allows the same actuator to perform different functions during the mission life of the spacecraft. The unit includes complementary metal oxide/semiconductor electronic components on a circuit board of a type called rigid flex (signifying flexible printed wiring along with a rigid substrate). The rigid flex board is folded to make the unit fit into a housing on the back of a motor. The assembly has redundant critical interfaces, allowing the controller to perform time-critical operations when no human interface with the hardware is possible. The controller is designed to function over a wide temperature range without the need for thermal control, including withstanding significant thermal cycling, making it usable in nearly all environments that spacecraft or landers will endure. A prototype has withstood 1,500 thermal cycles between 120 and +85 C without significant deterioration of its packaging or electronic function. Because there is no need for thermal control and the unit is addressed through a serial bus interface, the cabling and other system hardware are substantially reduced in quantity and complexity, with corresponding reductions in overall spacecraft mass and cost.

  16. Training for spacecraft technical analysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, Thomas J.; Bryant, Larry

    1989-01-01

    Deep space missions such as Voyager rely upon a large team of expert analysts who monitor activity in the various engineering subsystems of the spacecraft and plan operations. Senior teammembers generally come from the spacecraft designers, and new analysts receive on-the-job training. Neither of these methods will suffice for the creation of a new team in the middle of a mission, which may be the situation during the Magellan mission. New approaches are recommended, including electronic documentation, explicit cognitive modeling, and coached practice with archived data.

  17. Human factors in spacecraft design.

    PubMed

    Harrison, A A; Connors, M M

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes some of the salient implications of evolving mission parameters for spacecraft design. Among the requirements for future spacecraft are new, higher standards of living, increased support of human productivity, and greater accommodation of physical and cultural variability. Design issues include volumetric allowances, architecture and layouts, closed life support systems, health maintenance systems, recreational facilities, automation, privacy, and decor. An understanding of behavioral responses to design elements is a precondition for critical design decisions. Human factors research results must be taken into account early in the course of the design process.

  18. Human factors in spacecraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Albert A.; Connors, Mary M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes some of the salient implications of evolving mission parameters for spacecraft design. Among the requirements for future spacecraft are new, higher standards of living, increased support of human productivity, and greater accommodation of physical and cultural variability. Design issues include volumetric allowances, architecture and layouts, closed life support systems, health maintenance systems, recreational facilities, automation, privacy, and decor. An understanding of behavioral responses to design elements is a precondition for critical design decisions. Human factors research results must be taken into account early in the course of the design process.

  19. Viking I Spacecraft in Cleanroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The planetary landing spacecraft Viking, which includes stereo cameras, a weather station, an automated stereo analysis laboratory and a biology instrument that can detect life, is under assembly at Martin Marietta Aerospace near Denver, Colorado. This Viking spacecraft will travel more than 460 million miles from Earth to a soft landing on Mars in 1976 to explore the surface and atmosphere of the red planet. Martin Marietta is prime and integration contractor for the Viking mission to NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The lander will be powered by two nuclear generators.

  20. Tools Automate Spacecraft Testing, Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    "NASA began the Small Explorer (SMEX) program to develop spacecraft to advance astrophysics and space physics. As one of the entities supporting software development at Goddard Space Flight Center, the Hammers Company Inc. (tHC Inc.), of Greenbelt, Maryland, developed the Integrated Test and Operations System to support SMEX. Later, the company received additional Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding from Goddard for a tool to facilitate the development of flight software called VirtualSat. NASA uses the tools to support 15 satellites, and the aerospace industry is using them to develop science instruments, spacecraft computer systems, and navigation and control software."

  1. Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry.

    PubMed

    McSween, Harry Y; McNutt, Ralph L; Prettyman, Thomas H

    2011-11-29

    Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon's crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus.

  2. Autonomous spacecraft attitude control using magnetic torquing only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musser, Keith L.; Ebert, Ward L.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic torquing of spacecraft has been an important mechanism for attitude control since the earliest satellites were launched. Typically a magnetic control system has been used for precession/nutation damping for gravity-gradient stabilized satellites, momentum dumping for systems equipped with reaction wheels, or momentum-axis pointing for spinning and momentum-biased spacecraft. Although within the small satellite community there has always been interest in expensive, light-weight, and low-power attitude control systems, completely magnetic control systems have not been used for autonomous three-axis stabilized spacecraft due to the large computational requirements involved. As increasingly more powerful microprocessors have become available, this has become less of an impediment. These facts have motivated consideration of the all-magnetic attitude control system presented here. The problem of controlling spacecraft attitude using only magnetic torquing is cast into the form of the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR), resulting in a linear feedback control law. Since the geomagnetic field along a satellite trajectory is not constant, the system equations are time varying. As a result, the optimal feedback gains are time-varying. Orbit geometry is exploited to treat feedback gains as a function of position rather than time, making feasible the onboard solution of the optimal control problem. In simulations performed to date, the control laws have shown themselves to be fairly robust and a good candidate for an onboard attitude control system.

  3. Cryostat system for spacecraft materials testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekany, Justin

    The main cause of spacecraft failures is due to the harsh space environment; therefore, rigorous testing of materials used in modern spacecraft is imperative to ensure proper operation during the life span of the mission. Enhancing the capabilities of ground-based test facilities allows for more accurate measurements to be taken as it better simulates the environment to which spacecraft will be exposed. The range of temperature measurements has been significantly extended for an existing space environment simulation test chamber used in the study of electron emission, sample charging and discharge, electrostatic discharge and arcing, electron transport, and luminescence of spacecraft materials. This was accomplished by incorporating a new two-stage, closed-cycle helium cryostat, which has an extended sample temperature range from 450 K, with long-term controlled stability of <0.5 K. The system was designed to maintain compatibility with an existing ultrahigh vacuum chamber (base pressure <10-7 Pa) that can simulate diverse space environments. These existing capabilities include controllable vacuum and ambient neutral gases conditions (<10-7 to 10 -1 Pa), electron fluxes (5 eV to 30 keV monoenergetic, focused, pulsed sources ranging from 10-4 to 1010 nA-cm -2), ion fluxes (<0.1 to 5 keV monoenergetic sources for inert and reactive gases with pulsing capabilities), and photon irradiation (numerous continuous and pulsed monochromatic and broadband IR/VIS/UV [0.5 to 7 eV] sources). The original sample mount accommodates one to four samples of 1 cm to 2.5 cm diameter in a low- temperature carousel, which allows rapid sample exchange and controlled exposure of the individual samples. Multiple additional sample mounts have been added to allow for standalone use for constant voltage measurements, radiation induced and conductivity tests, as well as extended capabilities for electron-induced luminescent measurements to be conducted using various material sample thicknesses

  4. Thermal balance testing of MSAT 2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, Serge; Choueiry, Elie

    1994-01-01

    The present work reports on the recently completed infrared thermal balance/thermal vacuum testing of a MSAT satellite, the first satellite to provide mobile communications service for all of continental North America. MSAT is a two spacecraft program, using a three-axis stabilized Hughes HS-601 series Bus as the vehicle for the Canadian designed Payload. The thermal tests which were performed at the Canadian Space Agency's David Florida Laboratory in Ottawa, Canada, lasted approximately 35 days. The infrared (IR) heating rig was designed to provide radiant heat inputs into seven spacecraft zones during Thermal Vacuum (TV) testing. The TV test was divided into multiple phases. It began with a thermal balance cold phase, followed by a thermal cold cycle and a hot balance phase, complemented by a thermal hot cycle to finish with a thermal cycle with continuous monitoring of the Bus and Payload. The spacecraft's external heat fluxes were provided by IR lamp sources. To ensure flux uniformity, highly reflective baffles and IR East and West faces; the Earth facing (Nadir); and the inside of the thrust cylinder. The aft-end panel heat fluxes were provided by a heated LN2 shroud. The radiation flux intensity on the spacecraft zones from the various rig elements was measured using Monitored Background Radiometers (MBR's) and compared with direct calculations and with pretest predictions. The temperature measurement system was based on Uniform Temperature References (UTR's) located inside the chamber such that all feedthroughs were copper-copper. This system was devised to achieve a temperature measurement accuracy of plus/minus 0.5 C for over 850 thermocouples used in the test. A PC-(QNX-based) based real-time data acquisition system was utilized to provide continuous monitoring of all channels based on a 30-second time scan. In addition, the data acquisition system was able to retrieve telemetry stream from the Satellite Test Equipments (STE) station for real-time data

  5. Nonlinearities in spacecraft structural dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Larry; Latimer, Kelly

    1988-01-01

    In considering nonlinearities in spacecraft structural dynamics, the following are examined: (1) SCOLE Configuration-Equations of Motion; (2) Modeling Error Sources; (3) Approximate Solutions; (4) Comparison of Model Accuracy; (5) Linear and Nonlinear Damping; (6) Experimental Results; and, (7) Future Work.

  6. Analyzing Dynamics of Cooperating Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Stephen P.; Folta, David C.; Conway, Darrel J.

    2004-01-01

    A software library has been developed to enable high-fidelity computational simulation of the dynamics of multiple spacecraft distributed over a region of outer space and acting with a common purpose. All of the modeling capabilities afforded by this software are available independently in other, separate software systems, but have not previously been brought together in a single system. A user can choose among several dynamical models, many high-fidelity environment models, and several numerical-integration schemes. The user can select whether to use models that assume weak coupling between spacecraft, or strong coupling in the case of feedback control or tethering of spacecraft to each other. For weak coupling, spacecraft orbits are propagated independently, and are synchronized in time by controlling the step size of the integration. For strong coupling, the orbits are integrated simultaneously. Among the integration schemes that the user can choose are Runge-Kutta Verner, Prince-Dormand, Adams-Bashforth-Moulton, and Bulirsh- Stoer. Comparisons of performance are included for both the weak- and strongcoupling dynamical models for all of the numerical integrators.

  7. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  8. Microbial Contamination in the Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft and space habitats supporting human exploration contain a diverse population of microorganisms. Microorganisms may threaten human habitation in many ways that directly or indirectly impact the health, safety, or performance of astronauts. The ability to produce and maintain spacecraft and space stations with environments suitable for human habitation has been established over 40 years of human spaceflight. An extensive database of environmental microbiological parameters has been provided for short-term (< 20 days) spaceflight by more than 100 missions aboard the Space Shuttle. The NASA Mir Program provided similar data for long-duration missions. Interestingly, the major bacterial and fungal species found in the Space Shuttle are similar to those encountered in the nearly 15-year-old Mir. Lessons learned from both the US and Russian space programs have been incorporated into the habitability plan for the International Space Station. The focus is on preventive measures developed for spacecraft, cargo, and crews. On-orbit regular housekeeping practices complete with visual inspections are essential, along with microbiological monitoring. Risks associated with extended stays on the Moon or a Mars exploration mission will be much greater than previous experiences because of additional unknown variables. The current knowledge base is insufficient for exploration missions, and research is essential to understand the effects of spaceflight on biological functions and population dynamics of microorganisms in spacecraft.

  9. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Reed, Benjamin; Cepollina, Frank; Ritter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Satellite servicing has been a proven capability of NASA since the first servicing missions in the 1980s with astronauts on the space shuttle. This capability enabled the on-orbit assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and saved the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mission following the discovery of the flawed primary mirror. The effectiveness and scope of servicing opportunities, especially using robotic servicers, is a function of how cooperative a spacecraft is. In this paper, modularity will be presented as a critical design aspect for a spacecraft that is cooperative from a servicing perspective. Different features of modularity are discussed using examples from HST and the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) program from the 1980s and 1990s. The benefits of modularity will be presented including those directly related to servicing and those outside of servicing including reduced costs and increased flexibility. The new Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) concept is introduced as an affordable implementation of modularity that provides cost savings and flexibility. Key aspects of the ROSE architecture are discussed such as the module design and the distributed avionics architecture. The ROSE concept builds on the experience from MMS and due to its modularity, would be highly suitable as a future client for on-orbit servicing.

  10. Materials for Spacecraft. Chapter 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria M.

    2016-01-01

    The general knowledge in this chapter is intended for a broad variety of spacecraft: manned or unmanned, low Earth to geosynchronous orbit, cis-lunar, lunar, planetary, or deep space exploration. Materials for launch vehicles are covered in chapter 7. Materials used in the fabrication of spacecraft hardware should be selected by considering the operational requirements for the particular application and the design engineering properties of the candidate materials. The information provided in this chapter is not intended to replace an in-depth materials study but rather to make the spacecraft designer aware of the challenges for various types of materials and some lessons learned from more than 50 years of spaceflight. This chapter discusses the damaging effects of the space environment on various materials and what has been successfully used in the past or what may be used for a more robust design. The material categories covered are structural, thermal control for on-orbit and re-entry, shielding against radiation and meteoroid/space debris impact, optics, solar arrays, lubricants, seals, and adhesives. Spacecraft components not directly exposed to space must still meet certain requirements, particularly for manned spacecraft where toxicity and flammability are concerns. Requirements such as fracture control and contamination control are examined, with additional suggestions for manufacturability. It is important to remember that the actual hardware must be tested to understand the real, "as-built" performance, as it could vary from the design intent. Early material trades can overestimate benefits and underestimate costs. An example of this was using graphite/epoxy composite in the International Space Station science racks to save weight. By the time the requirements for vibration isolation, Space Shuttle frequencies, and experiment operations were included, the weight savings had evaporated.

  11. Line-of-sight based formation keeping and attitude control of two spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warier, Rakesh R.; Sinha, Arpita; Sukumar, Srikant

    2016-10-01

    We consider coupled attitude and position control of two spacecraft where absolute attitudes are not available. The objective is to attain a formation requiring a desired distance between two spacecraft and alignment of attitudes along the inertial line-of-sight (LOS) direction between the center of masses of the spacecraft. A relative attitude and position control scheme is developed using LOS vectors measured in each spacecraft's body frame. The current work differs from past research in the sense that the relative positions of the two spacecraft are not assumed to be fixed and all control laws are obtained in respective body fixed frames. The state feedback laws put forth in this work guarantee almost semi-global asymptotic stability of the desired closed-loop equilibrium configuration.

  12. Electrical Grounding Architecture for Unmanned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This handbook is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and all NASA Centers and is intended to provide a common framework for consistent practices across NASA programs. This handbook was developed to describe electrical grounding design architecture options for unmanned spacecraft. This handbook is written for spacecraft system engineers, power engineers, and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) engineers. Spacecraft grounding architecture is a system-level decision which must be established at the earliest point in spacecraft design. All other grounding design must be coordinated with and be consistent with the system-level architecture. This handbook assumes that there is no one single 'correct' design for spacecraft grounding architecture. There have been many successful satellite and spacecraft programs from NASA, using a variety of grounding architectures with different levels of complexity. However, some design principles learned over the years apply to all types of spacecraft development. This handbook summarizes those principles to help guide spacecraft grounding architecture design for NASA and others.

  13. Second Venus spacecraft set for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The launch phase of the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe spacecraft and cruise phases of both the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and the Multiprobe spacecraft are covered. Material pertinent to the Venus encounter is included.

  14. Risk-based Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostolakis, G.; Catton, I.; Issacci, F.; Paulos, T.; Jones, S.; Paxton, K.; Paul, M.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on risk-based spacecraft fire safety experiments are presented. Spacecraft fire risk can never be reduced to a zero probability. Probabilistic risk assessment is a tool to reduce risk to an acceptable level.

  15. Control analysis of an underactuated spacecraft under disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongxia; Jia, Yinghong; Jin, Lei; Xu, Shijie

    2013-02-01

    Based on the nonlinear controllability theory, this paper analyzes the attitude controllability for an underactuated spacecraft using two or one thrusters in sequence. In order to provide a preconditional guide on designing the control law for the underactuated attitude control system in the actual case, the underactuated spacecraft with respect to the orbit frame is investigated in the presence of periodical oscillation disturbance. First, attitude dynamic model was established for an underactuated spacecraft actuated by three thrusters, one or two of which has failed separately, and the special orthogonal group (SO(3)) is deployed to describe the attitude motions. Second, Liouville theorem and Poincaré's recurrence theorem were used to confirm that the drift field is Weakly Positively Poisson Stable (WPPS). Furthermore, the sufficient and necessary condition of controllability was obtained on the basis of Lie Algebra Rank Condition (LARC). Finally, according to the case of two available thrusters, angular velocity stabilization and three-axis attitude stabilization control laws are designed, and proved by Lyapunov stability theory and LaSalle invariant theorem. The analysis and simulation results illustrate the feasibility of the proposed control law.

  16. Qingchang Wenzhong Decoction Ameliorates Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats by Downregulating the IP10/CXCR3 Axis-Mediated Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Tang-you; Shi, Rui; Zhao, Wei-han; Guo, Yi; Gao, Kang-li; Chen, Chen; Xie, Tian-hong; Li, Jun-xiang

    2016-01-01

    Qingchang Wenzhong Decoction (QCWZD) is an effective traditional Chinese medicine prescription. Our previous studies have shown that QCWZD has significant efficacy in patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis (UC) and in colonic mucosa repair in UC rat models. However, the exact underlying mechanism remains unknown. Thus, this study was conducted to determine QCWZD's efficacy and mechanism in dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced UC rat models, which were established by 7-day administration of 4.5% DSS solution. QCWZD was administered daily for 7 days, after which the rats were euthanized. Disease activity index (DAI), histological score (HS), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) level were determined to evaluate UC severity. Serum interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP10) levels were determined using ELISA kits. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction were, respectively, used to determine colonic protein and gene expression of IP10, chemokine (cys-x-cys motif) receptor (CXCR)3, and nuclear factor- (NF-) κB p65. Intragastric QCWZD administration ameliorated DSS-induced UC, as evidenced by decreased DAI, HS, and MPO levels. Furthermore, QCWZD decreased the protein and gene expression of IP10, CXCR3, and NF-κB p65. Overall, these results suggest that QCWZD ameliorates DSS-induced UC in rats by downregulating the IP10/CXCR3 axis-mediated inflammatory response and may be a novel UC therapy. PMID:27413386

  17. Enteric glial cells counteract Clostridium difficile Toxin B through a NADPH oxidase/ROS/JNK/caspase-3 axis, without involving mitochondrial pathways

    PubMed Central

    Macchioni, Lara; Davidescu, Magdalena; Fettucciari, Katia; Petricciuolo, Maya; Gatticchi, Leonardo; Gioè, Davide; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Bellini, Massimo; Marconi, Pierfrancesco; Roberti, Rita; Bassotti, Gabrio; Corazzi, Lanfranco

    2017-01-01

    Enteric glial cells (EGCs) are components of the intestinal epithelial barrier essential for regulating the enteric nervous system. Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated colitis, toxin B (TcdB) being the major virulence factor, due to its ability to breach the intestinal epithelial barrier and to act on other cell types. Here we investigated TcdB effects on EGCs and the activated molecular mechanisms. Already at 2 hours, TcdB triggered ROS formation originating from NADPH-oxidase, as demonstrated by their reduction in the presence of the NADPH-oxidase inhibitor ML171. Although EGCs mitochondria support almost completely the cellular ATP need, TcdB exerted weak effects on EGCs in terms of ATP and mitochondrial functionality, mitochondrial ROS production occurring as a late event. ROS activated the JNK signalling and overexpression of the proapoptotic Bim not followed by cytochrome c or AIF release to activate the downstream apoptotic cascade. EGCs underwent DNA fragmentation through activation of the ROS/JNK/caspase-3 axis, evidenced by the ability of ML171, N-acetylcysteine, and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 to inhibit caspase-3 or to contrast apoptosis. Therefore, TcdB aggressiveness towards EGCs is mainly restricted to the cytosolic compartment, which represents a peculiar feature, since TcdB primarily influences mitochondria in other cellular types. PMID:28349972

  18. CXCL10/CXCR3 axis promotes the invasion of gastric cancer via PI3K/AKT pathway-dependent MMPs production.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongfeng; Wu, Jin; Wang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Xufeng; Liu, Dan

    2016-08-01

    CXCR3, a G-protein coupled chemokine receptor, has been found to be overexpressed in many tumors and act as an independent prognostic marker. However, it is still unclear whether CXCR3 is involved in gastric cancer progression. In this study, we found that CXCR3 was markedly expressed in gastric cancer cells and tissues. High CXCR3 expression correlated with advanced tumor stage, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis and poor survival of gastric cancer patients. Activation of CXCR3 by one of its ligands CXCL10 promoted the invasion and migration of gastric cancer BGC-823 and MGC-803 cells, and increased the secretion and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9. However, the effects of CXCL10 on gastric cancer cells were attenuated by CXCR3 siRNA transfection. Furthermore, overexpression of CXCR3 enhanced CXCL10-mediated cell invasion and migration of gastric cancer MKN28 cells. In addition, CXCR3 time-dependently induced activation of AKT. PI3K/AKT pathway was required for CXCR3-mediated gastric cancer cell invasion, migration and MMP-2/9 production. Together, our findings suggest that CXCL10/CXCR3 axis promotes gastric cancer cell invasion and migration by upregulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 production via PI3K/AKT pathway. Thus, CXCR3 could be a potential target for the gastric cancer treatment.

  19. Potential Modulations on SCATHA (Spacecraft Charging at High Altitude) Spacecraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-30

    86-92 00 Potential Modulations on the SCATHA Spacecraft P. D. CRAVEN and R. C. OLSEN Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL 35812 T. AGGSON...TR-0086(6940-05)-13 7. AUTHOR(@) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(#) P. D. Craven, R. C. Olsen , T. Aggson, F04701-85-C-0086 J. F. Fennell, and D. R...is evidence from geosynchronous satellites that positive potentials cause some low energy populations to be hidden ( Olsen , 1982). Such populations

  20. Autonomy Architectures for a Constellation of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes three autonomy architectures for a system that continuously plans to control a fleet of spacecraft using collective mission goals instead of goals of command sequences for each spacecraft. A fleet of self-commanding spacecraft would autonomously coordinate itself to satisfy high level science and engineering goals in a changing partially-understood environment-making feasible the operation of tens of even a hundred spacecraft (such as for interferometer or magnetospheric constellation missions).

  1. Spacecraft and their Boosters. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coard, E. A.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education I, provides a description of some of the discoveries that spacecraft have made possible and of the experience that American astronauts have had in piloting spacecraft. The basic principles behind the operation of spacecraft and their boosters are explained. Descriptions are also included on…

  2. Attitude control and sloshing suppression for liquid-filled spacecraft in the presence of sinusoidal disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Honghua; Wang, Zeguo

    2016-11-01

    The attitude regulation for a liquid-filled spacecraft in the presence of low frequency sinusoidal disturbance is considered in this paper. The liquid-filled spacecraft is modelled as a rigid body attached with a simple pendulum. A novel control scheme is proposed, which is composed of Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC), Positive Position Feedback (PPF), Extended State Observer (ESO) and Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA). The unknown sloshing mode could be estimated from the combined ESO and SSA, and accordingly ADRC and PPF controller is designed for the stabilization of the spacecraft. Particularly, the parameters of the disturbance are not required as long as its frequency is lower than the sloshing one. The proposed approach could provide stabilization for the spacecraft, rejection for the disturbance, and active damping for the sloshing. Its effectiveness is validated by numerical simulations.

  3. SAMPEX Spin Stabilized Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Dean C.; Markley, F. Landis; Watson, Todd P.

    2008-01-01

    The Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), the first of the Small Explorer series of spacecraft, was launched on July 3, 1992 into an 82' inclination orbit with an apogee of 670 km and a perigee of 520 km and a mission lifetime goal of 3 years. After more than 15 years of continuous operation, the reaction wheel began to fail on August 18,2007. With a set of three magnetic torquer bars being the only remaining attitude actuator, the SAMPEX recovery team decided to deviate from its original attitude control system design and put the spacecraft into a spin stabilized mode. The necessary operations had not been used for many years, which posed a challenge. However, on September 25, 2007, the spacecraft was successfully spun up to 1.0 rpm about its pitch axis, which points at the sun. This paper describes the diagnosis of the anomaly, the analysis of flight data, the simulation of the spacecraft dynamics, and the procedures used to recover the spacecraft to spin stabilized mode.

  4. MIDN: a spacecraft microdosimeter mission.

    PubMed

    Pisacane, V L; Ziegler, J F; Nelson, M E; Caylor, M; Flake, D; Heyen, L; Youngborg, E; Rosenfeld, A B; Cucinotta, F; Zaider, M; Dicello, J F

    2006-01-01

    MIDN (MIcroDosimetry iNstrument) is a payload on the MidSTAR-I spacecraft (Midshipman Space Technology Applications Research) under development at the United States Naval Academy. MIDN is a solid-state system being designed and constructed to measure microdosimetric spectra to determine radiation quality factors for space environments. Radiation is a critical threat to the health of astronauts and to the success of missions in low-Earth orbit and space exploration. The system will consist of three separate sensors, one external to the spacecraft, one internal and one embedded in polyethylene. Design goals are mass <3 kg and power <2 W. The MidSTAR-I mission in 2006 will provide an opportunity to evaluate a preliminary version of this system. Its low power and mass makes it useful for the International Space Station and manned and unmanned interplanetary missions as a real-time system to assess and alert astronauts to enhanced radiation environments.

  5. Flywheel energy storage for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage systems have been studied to determine their potential for use in spacecraft. This system was found to be superior to alkaline secondary batteries and regenerative fuel cells in most of the areas that are important in spacecraft applications. Of special importance, relative to batteries, are lighter weight, longer cycle and operating life, and high efficiency which minimizes solar array size and the amount of orbital makeup fuel required. In addition, flywheel systems have a long shelf life, give a precise state of charge indication, have modest thermal control needs, are capable of multiple discharges per orbit, have simple ground handling needs, and have the capability of generating extremely high power for short durations.

  6. Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry

    PubMed Central

    McSween, Harry Y.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon’s crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus. PMID:21402932

  7. Doppler tracking of planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    This article concerns the measurement of Doppler shift on microwave links that connect planetary spacecraft with the Deep Space Network. Such measurements are made by tracking the Doppler effect with phase-locked loop receivers. A description of equipment and techniques as well as a summary of the appropriate mathematical models are given. The two-way Doppler shift is measured by transmitting a highly-stable microwave (uplink) carrier from a ground station, having the spacecraft coherently transpond this carrier, and using a phase-locked loop receiver at the ground station to track the returned (downlink) carrier. The largest sources of measurement error are usually plasma noise and thermal noise. The plasma noise, which may originate in the ionosphere or the solar corona, is discussed; and a technique to partially calibrate its effect, involving the use of two simultaneous downlink carriers that are coherently related, is described. Range measurements employing Doppler rate-aiding are also described.

  8. Contingent plan structures for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, M.; Currie, K.; Tate, A.

    1987-01-01

    Most current AI planners build partially ordered plan structures which delay decisions on action ordering. Such structures cannot easily represent contingent actions. A representation which can is presented. The representation has some other useful features: it provides a good account of the causal structure of a plan, can be used to describe disjunctive actions, and it offers a planner the opportunity of even less commitment than the classical partial order on actions. The use of this representation is demonstrated in an on-board spacecraft activity sequencing problem. Contingent plan execution in a spacecraft context highlights the requirements for a fully disjunctive representation, since communication delays often prohibit extensive ground-based accounting for remotely sensed information and replanning on execution failure.

  9. Multiple spacecraft Michelson stellar interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stachnik, R. V.; Arnold, D.; Melroy, P.; Mccormack, E. F.; Gezari, D. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an orbital analysis and performance assessment of SAMSI (Spacecraft Array for Michelson Spatial Interferometry) are presented. The device considered includes two one-meter telescopes in orbits which are identical except for slightly different inclinations; the telescopes achieve separations as large as 10 km and relay starlight to a central station which has a one-meter optical delay line in one interferometer arm. It is shown that a 1000-km altitude, zero mean inclination orbit affords natural scanning of the 10-km baseline with departures from optical pathlength equality which are well within the corrective capacity of the optical delay line. Electric propulsion is completely adequate to provide the required spacecraft motions, principally those needed for repointing. Resolution of 0.00001 arcsec and magnitude limits of 15 to 20 are achievable.

  10. Spacecraft Tests of General Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John D.

    1997-01-01

    Current spacecraft tests of general relativity depend on coherent radio tracking referred to atomic frequency standards at the ground stations. This paper addresses the possibility of improved tests using essentially the current system, but with the added possibility of a space-borne atomic clock. Outside of the obvious measurement of the gravitational frequency shift of the spacecraft clock, a successor to the suborbital flight of a Scout D rocket in 1976 (GP-A Project), other metric tests would benefit most directly by a possible improved sensitivity for the reduced coherent data. For purposes of illustration, two possible missions are discussed. The first is a highly eccentric Earth orbiter, and the second a solar-conjunction experiment to measure the Shapiro time delay using coherent Doppler data instead of the conventional ranging modulation.

  11. Anomalous Earth flybys of spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Klaus; Dwivedi, Bhola N.

    2015-07-01

    A small deviation from the potential is expected for the gravitational interaction of extended bodies. It is explained as a consequence of a recently proposed gravitational impact model (Wilhelm et al. in Astrophys. Space Sci. 343:135-144, 2013) and has been applied to anomalous perihelion advances by Wilhelm and Dwivedi (New Astron. 31:51-55, 2014). The effect—an offset of the effective gravitational centre from the geometric centre of a spherical symmetric body—might also be responsible for the observed anomalous orbital energy gains and speed increases during Earth flybys of several spacecraft. However, close flybys would require detailed considerations of the orbit geometry. In this study, an attempt is made to explain the anomalous Earth flybys of the Galileo, NEAR Shoemaker and Rosetta spacecraft.

  12. Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

  13. Specifying spacecraft flexible appendage rigidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seltzer, S. M.; Shelton, H. L.

    1977-01-01

    As a method for specifying the required degree of rigidity of spacecraft flexible appendages, an analytical technique is proposed for establishing values for the frequency, damping ratio, and modal gain (deflection) of the first several bending modes. The shortcomings of the technique result from the limitations associated with the order of the equations that can be handled practically. An iterative method is prescribed for handling a system whose structural flexibility is described by more than one normal mode. The analytical technique is applied to specifying solar panel rigidity constraints for the NASA Space Telescope. The traditional nonanalytic procedure for specifying the required degree of rigidity of spacecraft flexible appendages has been to set a lower limit below which bending mode frequencies may not lie.

  14. Robust steering control of spacecraft carrier rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Adriana Elysa Alimandro; da Rosa, Alex; Ferreira, Henrique Cezar; Ishihara, Joao Yoshiyuki; Borges, Renato Alves; Sheptun, Yuri Dmitrievich

    In the year of 2003 it was established a cooperation agreement between Ukraine and Brazil for utilization of Cyclone-4 launch vehicle at Alcantara Launch Center. The company responsible for the marketing and operation of launch services is the company bi-national Alcantara Cyclone Space (ACS). The Cyclone-4 launch vehicle is the newest version of the Ukrainian Cyclone family launchers developed by Yuzhnoye State Design Office. This family has been used for many successful spacecrafts launches since 1969. This paper is concerned with the yaw stabilization problem around a nominal trajectory for the third stage of a satellite carrier rocket similar to the Cyclone-4. Only the steering machine of the main engine is considered as actuator. The dynamic behavior of the third stage around the nominal trajectory is modeled as a fourthorder time-varying linear system whereas the steering machine is modeled as a linear dynamical system up to third order. The values of the parameters of the steering machine model are unknown, however belonging to known intervals. As the main result, the stabilization problem is solved with a proportional derivative (PD) controller. The proposed tuning approach takes into account the robustness of the controller with respect to the steering machine model uncertainties. The performance of the PD controller is demonstrated by simulation results.

  15. Underactuated spacecraft formation reconfiguration with collision avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Yan, Ye; Zhou, Yang

    2017-02-01

    Underactuated collision-free controllers are proposed in this paper for multiple spacecraft formation reconfiguration in circular orbits with the loss of either the radial or in-track thrust. A nonlinear dynamical model of underactuated formation flying is introduced, which is then linearized about circular orbits for controllability and feasibility analyses on underactuated formation reconfiguration. By using the inherent dynamics coupling of system states, reduced-order sliding mode controllers are then designed for either case to indirectly stabilize the system trajectories to the desired formations. In consideration of the collision-avoidance requirement, the artificial potential function method is then employed to design novel underactuated collision-avoidance maneuvers. Rigorous proof substantiates the capabilities of such maneuvers in preventing collisions even in the absence of radial or in-track thrust. Furthermore, a Lyapunov-based analysis ensures the asymptotic stability of the overall closed-loop system. Numerical simulations are performed in a J2-perturbed environment to verify the validity of the proposed underactuated control schemes for collision-free reconfiguration.

  16. Dissipative compensators for flexible spacecraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, S. M.; Maghami, P. G.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of controller design for flexible spacecraft is addressed. Model-based compensators, which rely on the knowledge of the system parameters to tune the state estimator, are considered. The instability mechanisms resulting from high sensitivity to parameter uncertainties are investigated. Dissipative controllers, which use collocated actuators and sensors, are also considered, and the robustness properties of constant-gain dissipative controllers in the presence of unmodeled elastic-mode dynamics, sensor/actuator nonlinearities, and actuator dynamics are summarized. In order to improve the performance without sacrificing robustness, a class of dissipative dynamic compensators is proposed and is shown to retain robust stability in the presence of second-order actuator dynamics if acceleration feedback is employed. A class of dissipative dynamic controllers is proposed which consists of a low-authority, constant-gain controller and a high-authority dynamic compensator. A procedure for designing an optimal dissipative dynamic compensator is given which minimizes a quadratic performance criterion. Such compensators offer the promise of better performance while still retaining robust stability.

  17. Radiation effects in spacecraft electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, James P.

    1989-01-01

    Effects on the internal spacecraft electronics due to exposure to the natural and enhanced space radiation environment will be reviewed. The emphasis will be placed on the description of the nature of both the exposure environment and failure mechanisms in semiconductors. Understanding both the system environment and device effects is critical in the use of laboratory simulation environments to obtain the data necessary to design and qualify components for successful application.

  18. Outgassing data for spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. A., Jr.; Marriott, R. S.; Park, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    A system for determining the mass loss in vacuum and for collecting the outgassed compounds was developed. Outgassing data, derived from tests at 398 K (125 degrees C) for 24 hours in vacuum as per ASTM E 59577, are compiled for numerous materials for spacecraft use. The data presented are the total mass loss (TML) and the collected volatile condensable materials (CVCM). The various materials are compiled by likely usage and alphabetically.

  19. Teaching old spacecraft new tricks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquhar, Robert; Dunham, David

    1988-01-01

    The technique of sending existing space probes on extended mission by altering their orbital paths with gravity-assist maneuvers and relatively brief rocket firings is examined. The use of the technique to convert the International Sun-Earth Explorer 3 mission into the International Cometary Explorer mission is discussed. Other examples are considered, including the extension of the Giotto mission and the retargeting of the Sakigake spacecraft. The original and altered trajectories of these three missions are illustrated.

  20. Plasma sources for spacecraft neutralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. A.; Katz, I.; Mandell, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of the operation of plasma sources for the neutralization of the surface of a spacecraft traveling in the presence of hot plasma are discussed with special attention given to the hollow-cathode-based plasma contactors. Techiques are developed that allow the calculation of the potentials and particle densities in the near environment of a hollow cathode plasma contactor in both the test tank and the LEO environment. The techniques and codes were validated by comparison of calculated and measured results.

  1. Ongoing Progress in Spacecraft Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Dave (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is a collection of papers presented at the Mars Mission Research Center workshop on Ongoing Progress in Spacecraft Controls. The technical program addressed additional Mars mission control problems that currently exist in robotic missions in addition to human missions. Topics include control systems design in the presence of large time delays, fuel-optimal propulsive control, and adaptive control to handle a variety of unknown conditions.

  2. Autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietz, J. C.; Almand, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A storyboard display is presented which summarizes work done recently in design and simulation of autonomous video rendezvous and docking systems for spacecraft. This display includes: photographs of the simulation hardware, plots of chase vehicle trajectories from simulations, pictures of the docking aid including image processing interpretations, and drawings of the control system strategy. Viewgraph-style sheets on the display bulletin board summarize the simulation objectives, benefits, special considerations, approach, and results.

  3. Autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tietz, J. C.; Almand, B. J.

    A storyboard display is presented which summarizes work done recently in design and simulation of autonomous video rendezvous and docking systems for spacecraft. This display includes: photographs of the simulation hardware, plots of chase vehicle trajectories from simulations, pictures of the docking aid including image processing interpretations, and drawings of the control system strategy. Viewgraph-style sheets on the display bulletin board summarize the simulation objectives, benefits, special considerations, approach, and results.

  4. Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative (SSTI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reppucci, George

    1995-01-01

    This is the second in a series of semi-annual reports that describe the technology areas being advanced under this contract and the progress achieved to date. The last technology report concentrated on the spacecraft. This report places greater emphasis on the payloads. White papers by several of the payload providers are attached. These are HSI, UCB, PRKE, and CAFE. This report covers the period from January 1995 through June 1995.

  5. Prospects for detection of gravitational radiation by simultaneous Doppler tracking of several spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, F. B.; Wahlquist, H. D.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports a calculation of the effect of gravitational radiation on the observed Doppler shift of a sinusoidal electromagnetic signal transmitted to, and coherently transponded from, distant spacecraft. It is found that the effect of plane gravitational waves on such observations is not intuitively immediate, and in fact depends sensitively on the spacecraft direction, which suggests the possibility of detecting such plane waves by simultaneous Doppler tracking of several spacecraft. The need for broad band gravitational wave observations, the required stabilities of time keeping standards, and astrophysical sources expected in the Very Low Frequency band are briefly discussed.

  6. Energy Storage Flywheels on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, Robert O.; Brown, Gary; Levinthal, Joel; Brodeur, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    With advances in carbon composite material, magnetic bearings, microprocessors, and high-speed power switching devices, work has begun on a space qualifiable Energy Momentum Wheel (EMW). An EMW is a device that can be used on a satellite to store energy, like a chemical battery, and manage angular momentum, like a reaction wheel. These combined functions are achieved by the simultaneous and balanced operation of two or more energy storage flywheels. An energy storage flywheel typically consists of a carbon composite rotor driven by a brushless DC motor/generator. Each rotor has a relatively large angular moment of inertia and is suspended on magnetic bearings to minimize energy loss. The use of flywheel batteries on spacecraft will increase system efficiencies (mass and power), while reducing design-production time and life-cycle cost. This paper will present a discussion of flywheel battery design considerations and a simulation of spacecraft system performance utilizing four flywheel batteries to combine energy storage and momentum management for a typical LEO satellite. A proposed set of control laws and an engineering animation will also be presented. Once flight qualified and demonstrated, space flywheel batteries may alter the architecture of most medium and high-powered spacecraft.

  7. Worldwide Spacecraft Crew Hatch History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.

  8. Spacecraft Jitter Attenuation Using Embedded Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith

    1995-01-01

    Remote sensing from spacecraft requires precise pointing of measurement devices in order to achieve adequate spatial resolution. Unfortunately, various spacecraft disturbances induce vibrational jitter in the remote sensing instruments. The NASA Langley Research Center has performed analysis, simulations, and ground tests to identify the more promising technologies for minimizing spacecraft pointing jitter. These studies have shown that the use of smart materials to reduce spacecraft jitter is an excellent match between a maturing technology and an operational need. This paper describes the use of embedding piezoelectric actuators for vibration control and payload isolation. In addition, recent advances in modeling, simulation, and testing of spacecraft pointing jitter are discussed.

  9. Quasi-Sun-Pointing of Spacecraft Using Radiation Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spilker, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    A report proposes a method of utilizing solar-radiation pressure to keep the axis of rotation of a small spin-stabilized spacecraft pointed approximately (typically, within an angle of 10 deg to 20 deg) toward the Sun. Axisymmetry is not required. Simple tilted planar vanes would be attached to the outer surface of the body, so that the resulting spacecraft would vaguely resemble a rotary fan, windmill, or propeller. The vanes would be painted black for absorption of Solar radiation. A theoretical analysis based on principles of geometric optics and mechanics has shown that torques produced by Solar-radiation pressure would cause the axis of rotation to precess toward Sun-pointing. The required vane size would be a function of the angular momentum of the spacecraft and the maximum acceptable angular deviation from Sun-pointing. The analysis also shows that the torques produced by the vanes would slowly despin the spacecraft -- an effect that could be counteracted by adding specularly reflecting "spin-up" vanes.

  10. Preventing Spacecraft Failures Due to Tribological Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Many mechanical failures that occur on spacecraft are caused by tribological problems. This publication presents a study that was conducted by the author on various preventatives, analyses, controls and tests (PACTs) that could be used to prevent spacecraft mechanical system failure. A matrix is presented in the paper that plots tribology failure modes versus various PACTs that should be performed before a spacecraft is launched in order to insure success. A strawman matrix was constructed by the author and then was sent out to industry and government spacecraft designers, scientists and builders of spacecraft for their input. The final matrix is the result of their input. In addition to the matrix, this publication describes the various PACTs that can be performed and some fundamental knowledge on the correct usage of lubricants for spacecraft applications. Even though the work was done specifically to prevent spacecraft failures the basic methodology can be applied to other mechanical system areas.

  11. An IL-27/Stat3 axis induces expression of programmed cell death 1 ligands (PD-L1/2) on infiltrating macrophages in lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Horlad, Hasita; Ma, Chaoya; Yano, Hiromu; Pan, Cheng; Ohnishi, Koji; Fujiwara, Yukio; Endo, Shinya; Kikukawa, Yoshitaka; Okuno, Yutaka; Matsuoka, Masao; Takeya, Motohiro; Komohara, Yoshihiro

    2016-11-01

    Immune escape and tolerance in the tumor microenvironment are closely involved in tumor progression, and are caused by T-cell exhaustion and mediated by the inhibitory signaling of immune checkpoint molecules including programmed death-1 (PD-1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4, and T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domaincontaining molecule-3. In the present study, we investigated the expression of the PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) in a lymphoma microenvironment using paraffin-embedded tissue samples, and subsequently studied the detailed mechanism of upregulation of PD-L1 on macrophages using cultured human macrophages and lymphoma cell lines. We found that macrophages in lymphoma tissues of almost all cases of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma expressed PD-L1. Cell culture studies showed that the conditioned medium of ATL-T and SLVL cell lines induced increased expression of PD-L1/2 on macrophages, and that this PD-L1/2 overexpression was dependent on activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3). In vitro studies including cytokine array analysis showed that IL-27 (heterodimer of p28 and EBI3) induced overexpression of PD-L1/2 on macrophages via Stat3 activation. Because lymphoma cell lines produced IL-27B (EBI3) but not IL-27p28, it was proposed that the IL-27p28 derived from macrophages and the IL-27B (EBI3) derived from lymphoma cells formed an IL-27 (heterodimer) that induced PD-L1/2 overexpression. Although the significance of PD-L1/2 expressions on macrophages in lymphoma progression has never been clarified, an IL-27-Stat3 axis might be a target for immunotherapy for lymphoma patients.

  12. Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John F.; Haggerty, James J.; Woodburn, John H.

    1961-01-01

    In this twentieth century, we are privileged to witness the first steps toward realization of an age-old dream: the exploration of space. Already, in the first few years of the Space Age, man has been able to penetrate the layer of atmosphere which surrounds his planet and to venture briefly into space. Scores of man-made objects have been thrust into space, some of them to roam the solar system forever. Behind each space mission are years of patient research, thousands of man-hours of labor, and large sums of money. Because the sums involved are so enormous, the question is frequently asked, "Is it worth it?" Many people want to know what return this huge investment will bring to mankind. The return on the investment is knowledge. The accumulation of knowledge over the centuries has made possible our advanced way of life. As we unlock more and more of the secrets of the universe through space exploration, we add new volumes to the encyclopedia of man's knowledge. This will be applied to the benefit of mankind. For the practical-minded, there are concrete benefits to our way of life. Although we are still in the Stone Age of space exploration, a number of immediate applications of space technology are already apparent. For instance, imagine the benefits of an absolutely perfect system of predicting the weather. Or, going a step further, even changing the weather. And wouldn't it be fascinating to watch the next Olympic games, telecast from Tokyo, on your TV set? These are just a few of the practical benefits made possible by space technology.

  13. Tracking and data relay satellite system configuration and tradeoff study. Volume 5: TDRS spacecraft design, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A dual spin stabilized TDR spacecraft design is presented for low data rate (LDR) and medium data rate (MDR) user spacecraft telecommunication relay service. The relay satellite provides command and data return channels for unmanned users together with duplex voice and data communication channels for manned user spacecraft. TDRS/ground links are in the Ku band. Command links are provided at UHF for LDR users and S band for MDR users. Voice communication channels are provided at UHF/VHF for LDR users and at S band for MDR users. The spacecraft is designed for launch on the Delta 2914 with system deployment planned for 1978. This volume contains a description of the overall TDR spacecraft configuration, a detailed description of the spacecraft subsystems, a reliability analysis, and a product effectiveness plan.

  14. Control and dynamics of a flexible spacecraft during stationkeeping maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, D.; Yocum, J.; Kang, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    A case study of a spacecraft having flexible solar arrays is presented. A stationkeeping attitude control mode using both earth and rate gyro reference signals and a flexible vehicle dynamics modeling and implementation is discussed. The control system is designed to achieve both pointing accuracy and structural mode stability during stationkeeping maneuvers. Reduction of structural mode interactions over the entire mode duration is presented. The control mode using a discrete time observer structure is described to show the convergence of the spacecraft attitude transients during Delta-V thrusting maneuvers without preloading thrusting bias to the onboard control processor. The simulation performance using the three axis, body stabilized nonlinear dynamics is provided. The details of a five body dynamics model are discussed. The spacecraft is modeled as a central rigid body having cantilevered flexible antennas, a pair of flexible articulated solar arrays, and to gimballed momentum wheels. The vehicle is free to undergo unrestricted rotations and translations relative to inertial space. A direct implementation of the equations of motion is compared to an indirect implementation that uses a symbolic manipulation software to generate rigid body equations.

  15. Benefits of Spacecraft Level Vibration Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Scott; Kern, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    NASA-HDBK-7008 Spacecraft Level Dynamic Environments Testing discusses the approaches, benefits, dangers, and recommended practices for spacecraft level dynamic environments testing, including vibration testing. This paper discusses in additional detail the benefits and actual experiences of vibration testing spacecraft for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) flight projects. JPL and GSFC have both similarities and differences in their spacecraft level vibration test approach: JPL uses a random vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending to as high as 250 Hz. GSFC uses a sine sweep vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending only to the limits of the coupled loads analysis (typically 50 to 60 Hz). However, both JPL and GSFC use force limiting to realistically notch spacecraft resonances and response (acceleration) limiting as necessary to protect spacecraft structure and hardware from exceeding design strength capabilities. Despite GSFC and JPL differences in spacecraft level vibration test approaches, both have uncovered a significant number of spacecraft design and workmanship anomalies in vibration tests. This paper will give an overview of JPL and GSFC spacecraft vibration testing approaches and provide a detailed description of spacecraft anomalies revealed.

  16. Comet explorer spacecraft design project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The small, chemically primitive objects of the solar system, comets and asteroids, are one of the most important frontiers remaining for future planetary exploration. So stated the Solar System Exploration Committee of the NASA Advisory Council in its 1986 report 'Planetary Exploration Through the Year 2000.' The Halley's comet flyby missions completed last spring raised more questions than were answered about the nature of comets. The next mission to a comet must be able to explore some of these questions. In the late 1990's, a spacecraft might be built to explore the hazardous area surrounding a comet nucleus. Rigorous pointing requirements for remote sensing instruments will place a considerable burden on their attendant control systems. To meet these requirements we have pursued the initial design and analysis of a multi-bodied comet explorer spacecraft. Sized so as to be built on-orbit after the space station is operational, the spacecraft is comprised of Orbit Replaceable Unit (ORU) subsystems, packaged into two major components: a three-axis controlled instrument platform and a spinning, detached comet dust shield. Such a configuration decouples the dynamics of dust impaction from the stringent pointing out requirements of the imaging experiments. At the same time, it offers an abundance of simple analysis problems that may be carried out by undergraduates. These problems include the following: Selection of subsystem components, sizing trade studies, investigation of three-axis and simple spin dynamics, design of simple control systems, orbit determination, and intercept trajectory generation. Additionally, such topics as proposal writing project management, human interfacing, and costing have been covered. A new approach to design teaching has been taken, whereby students will 'learn by teaching.' They are asked to decompose trade options into a set of 'if-then' rules, which then 'instruct' the Mechanically Intelligent Designer (MIND) expert design system

  17. Spacecraft transformer and inductor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    The conversion process in spacecraft power electronics requires the use of magnetic components which frequently are the heaviest and bulkiest items in the conversion circuit. This handbook pertains to magnetic material selection, transformer and inductor design tradeoffs, transformer design, iron core dc inductor design, toroidal power core inductor design, window utilization factors, regulation, and temperature rise. Relationships are given which simplify and standardize the design of transformers and the analysis of the circuits in which they are used. The interactions of the various design parameters are also presented in simplified form so that tradeoffs and optimizations may easily be made.

  18. Coffee-can-sized spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ross M.

    1988-01-01

    The current status and potential scientific applications of intelligent 1-5-kg projectiles being developed by SDIO and DARPA for military missions are discussed. The importance of advanced microelectronics for such small spacecraft is stressed, and it is pointed out that both chemical rockets and EM launchers are currently under consideration for these lightweight exoatmospheric projectiles (LEAPs). Long-duration power supply is identified as the primary technological change required if LEAPs are to be used for interplanetary scientific missions, and the design concept of a solar-powered space-based railgun to accelerate LEAPs on such missions is considered.

  19. Plasma interactions with large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagalyn, Rita C.; Maynard, Nelson C.

    1986-01-01

    Space is playing a rapidly expanding role in the conduct of the Air Force mission. Larger, more complex, high-power space platforms are planned and military astronauts will provide a new capability in spacecraft servicing. Interactions of operational satellites with the environment have been shown to degrade space sensors and electronics and to constrain systems operations. The environmental interaction effects grow nonlinearly with increasing size and power. Quantification of the interactions and development of mitigation techniques for systems-limiting interactions is essential to the success of future Air Force space operations.

  20. Autonomous Spacecraft Maintenance Study Group.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    ADOAIOO 318 JETOPROPULSION LAB PASADENA CA F/G 9/2 AUTONOMOUS SPACECRAFT MAINTENANCE STUDY GROUP(U) FEB 81 M H MARSHALL, G D LOW NAS7-100...for pUblio release AW AIR 1912a(T) D1etribution 13 Umlalt~ d , (7b). A. D . BLOSE -7 The research described in this pubi’cation was carried out by the Jet...Rettriek (Jill I Academic Assessment Committee iKDAMac (~jf.IIht~i~srtt D I I I I1. ), ’I ,lil I. I 1 i i t: c; Jill I h-0 K IfItt,1 fIIlkc I IV

  1. Digital Doppler measurement with spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Labelle, Remi C.; Bevan, Roland P.; Del Castillo, Hector M.; Chong, Dwayne C.

    1991-01-01

    Digital and analog phase-locked loop (PLL) receivers were operated in parallel, each tracking the residual carrier from a spacecraft. The PLL tracked the downlink carrier and measured its instantaneous phase. This information, combined with a knowledge of the uplink carrier and the transponder ratio, permitted the computation of a Doppler observable. In this way, two separate Doppler measurements were obtained for one observation window. The two receivers agreed on the magnitude of the Doppler effect to within 1 mHz. There was less jitter on the data from the digital receiver. This was due to its smaller noise bandwidth. The demonstration and its results are described.

  2. Spacecraft platform cost estimating relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruhl, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    The three main cost areas of unmanned satellite development are discussed. The areas are identified as: (1) the spacecraft platform (SCP), (2) the payload or experiments, and (3) the postlaunch ground equipment and operations. The SCP normally accounts for over half of the total project cost and accurate estimates of SCP costs are required early in project planning as a basis for determining total project budget requirements. The development of single formula SCP cost estimating relationships (CER) from readily available data by statistical linear regression analysis is described. The advantages of single formula CER are presented.

  3. Electron yields from spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, K.; Gordon, W. L.; Hoffman, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Photoyields and secondary electron emission (SEE) characteristics were determined under UHV conditions for a group of insulating materials used in spacecraft applications. The SEE studies were carried out with a pulsed primary beam while photoyields were obtained with a chopped photon beam from a Kr resonance source with major emission at 123.6 nm. This provides a photon flux close to that of the Lyman alpha in the space environment. Yields per incident photon are obtained relative to those from a freshly evaporated and air oxidized Al surface. Results are presented for Kapton, FEP Teflon, the borosilicate glass covering of a shuttle tile, and spacesuit outer fabric.

  4. Autonomy Architectures for a Constellation of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    Until the past few years, missions typically involved fairly large expensive spacecraft. Such missions have primarily favored using older proven technologies over more recently developed ones, and humans controlled spacecraft by manually generating detailed command sequences with low-level tools and then transmitting the sequences for subsequent execution on a spacecraft controller. This approach toward controlling a spacecraft has worked spectacularly on previous missions, but it has limitations deriving from communications restrictions - scheduling time to communicate with a particular spacecraft involves competing with other projects due to the limited number of deep space network antennae. This implies that a spacecraft can spend a long time just waiting whenever a command sequence fails. This is one reason why the New Millennium program has an objective to migrate parts of mission control tasks onboard a spacecraft to reduce wait time by making spacecraft more robust. The migrated software is called a "remote agent" and has 4 components: a mission manager to generate the high level goals, a planner/scheduler to turn goals into activities while reasoning about future expected situations, an executive/diagnostics engine to initiate and maintain activities while interpreting sensed events by reasoning about past and present situations, and a conventional real-time subsystem to interface with the spacecraft to implement an activity's primitive actions. In addition to needing remote planning and execution for isolated spacecraft, a trend toward multiple-spacecraft missions points to the need for remote distributed planning and execution. The past few years have seen missions with growing numbers of probes. Pathfinder has its rover (Sojourner), Cassini has its lander (Huygens), and the New Millenium Deep Space 3 (DS3) proposal involves a constellation of 3 spacecraft for interferometric mapping. This trend is expected to continue to progressively larger fleets. For

  5. Periodic attitude control of a slowly spinning spacecraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todosiev, E. P.

    1973-01-01

    A periodic attitude control system is presented which permits control of secular errors of a slowly spinning spacecraft operating in a high disturbance environment. Attitude errors of the spin-axis are detected by sun sensors (or rate gyros) and are controlled by a periodic control law which modulates external control torques generated by mass expulsion torquers. Attitude stability during the uncontrolled periods is obtained passively via the vehicle spin momentum. Equations of motion, a system block diagram, and design parameters are presented for a typical spacecraft application. Simulation results are included which demonstrate the feasibility of the novel control concept. Salient features of the periodic control approach are implementation simplicity, excellent response, and a propellant utilization efficiency greater than 75 percent.

  6. A composite control scheme for 6DOF spacecraft formation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Haibin; Li, Shihua; Fei, Shumin

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a 6DOF spacecraft formation control problem is investigated via a composite control method, which consists of a feedback control law based on a finite time control technique and a feedforward compensator based on a nonlinear disturbance observer technique. The composite controller can guarantee that the closed-loop error system is globally asymptotically stable with respect to a set of two equilibria, that is, the 6DOF spacecraft can reach the desired formation. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the control performance of the proposed method in terms of both stabilization and disturbance rejection are considerably better than the traditional method.

  7. A CFD Approach to Modeling Spacecraft Fuel Slosh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsell, Brandon; Gangadharan, Sathya; Chatman, Yadira; Sudermann, James; Schlee, Keith; Ristow, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Energy dissipation and resonant coupling from sloshing fuel in spacecraft fuel tanks is a problem that occurs in the design of many spacecraft. In the case of a spin stabilized spacecraft, this energy dissipation can cause a growth in the spacecrafts' nutation (wobble) that may lead to disastrous consequences for the mission. Even in non-spinning spacecraft, coupling between the spacecraft or upper stage flight control system and an unanticipated slosh resonance can result in catastrophe. By using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver such as Fluent, a model for this fuel slosh can be created. The accuracy of the model must be tested by comparing its results to an experimental test case. Such a model will allow for the variation of many different parameters such as fluid viscosity and gravitational field, yielding a deeper understanding of spacecraft slosh dynamics. In order to gain a better understanding of the dynamics behind sloshing fluids, the Launch Services Program (LSP) at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is interested in finding ways to better model this behavior. Thanks to past research, a state-of-the-art fuel slosh research facility was designed and fabricated at Embry Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU). This test facility has produced interesting results and a fairly reliable parameter estimation process to predict the necessary values that accurately characterize a mechanical pendulum analog model. The current study at ERAU uses a different approach to model the free surface sloshing of liquid in a spherical tank using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods. Using a software package called Fluent, a model was created to simulate the sloshing motion of the propellant. This finite volume program uses a technique called the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to model the interaction between two fluids [4]. For the case of free surface slosh, the two fluids are the propellant and air. As the fuel sloshes around in the tank, it naturally

  8. Differential orbital element-based spacecraft formation control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobiesiak, Ludwik Andrew

    Spacecraft formation flight is an important technology for upcoming scientific and Earth observation missions. The topic of this work is the control of spacecraft formations specifically through the control of the differential, mean orbital elements of a spacecraft. Orbital perturbations can disturb formation geometry in an undesirable fashion so active control is required to maintain a precise relative trajectory. A number of control strategies are proposed. The first is an impulsive thrust strategy that is valid for formations in both eccentric and circular orbits. A general N-thrust per orbit formulation is presented. For the two-thrust case, an analytical solution to the constraint equations is presented and the closed-loop stability of the formation is considered. Two-thrust performance is shown to achieve superior position control with similar delta-V over previously proposed control strategies. The geomagnetic Lorentz force is a propellantless means of altering a spacecraft's orbit. A spacecraft with a significant surface charge experiences the Lorentz force due to the spacecraft's velocity relative to the Earth's magnetic field. Application of the Lorentz force to the formation control problem is a major contribution of this work. It is identified that the relative spacecraft state is not completely controllable with the Lorentz force alone, necessitating control strategies that combine conventional thruster actuation with the Lorentz force. Emphasis is placed on minimizing the thruster actuation and maximizing the use of the Lorentz force. Strategies that employ both continuous and impulsive thruster actuation with the Lorentz force are considered. Results show that the majority of the required actuation can be achieved using the Lorentz force. Investigation of optimal impulsive thrusting with continuous Lorentz force actuation motivates the development of novel optimal control theory for linear time-varying systems with both continuous and impulsive

  9. System design of an ion drive spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J.

    1978-01-01

    As electric propulsion technology has improved and mission requirements have changed, a series of Ion Propulsion Module (IPM) design concepts have evolved. The most recent iteration occurred in the NASA-sponsored Halley Comet Rendezvous Mission (HCRM) study of ion drive. Spacecraft system design considerations introduced by the integration of such an IPM as the primary propulsion source are described with reference to the synthesis of the HCRM spacecraft and spacecraft design considerations for other interplanetary applications. IPM interactions with the system (especially telecommunications and science) are found to be manageable. The spacecraft design developed for the HCRM indicates the interface simplicity between the IPM and the spacecraft. Methods are shown for readily applying this IPM to a variety of planetary missions. Methods are also described for the IPM to provide up to 5 kW to the spacecraft for increasing the mission science return

  10. Estimating Torque Imparted on Spacecraft Using Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.; Macala, Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of missions with spacecraft flying by planetary moons with atmospheres; there will be future missions with similar flybys. When a spacecraft such as Cassini flies by a moon with an atmosphere, the spacecraft will experience an atmospheric torque. This torque could be used to determine the density of the atmosphere. This is because the relation between the atmospheric torque vector and the atmosphere density could be established analytically using the mass properties of the spacecraft, known drag coefficient of objects in free-molecular flow, and the spacecraft velocity relative to the moon. The density estimated in this way could be used to check results measured by science instruments. Since the proposed methodology could estimate disturbance torque as small as 0.02 N-m, it could also be used to estimate disturbance torque imparted on the spacecraft during high-altitude flybys.

  11. Rapid Spacecraft Development: Results and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, William A.

    2002-01-01

    The Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the management and direction of a dynamic and versatile program for the definition, competition, and acquisition of multiple indefinite delivery and indefinite quantity contracts - resulting in a catalog of spacecraft buses. Five spacecraft delivery orders have been placed by the RSDO and one spacecraft has been launched. Numerous concept and design studies have been performed, most with the intent of leading to a future spacecraft acquisition. A collection of results and lessons learned is recorded to highlight management techniques, methods and processes employed in the conduct of spacecraft acquisition. Topics include working relationships under fixed price delivery orders, price and value, risk management, contingency reserves, and information restrictions.

  12. Computing Plasma Interactions Of A Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Davis, V. A.

    1994-01-01

    NASCAP/LEO (NASA Spacecraft Charging Analyzer Program for Low Earth Orbit) implements collection of mathematical models and algorithms designed to study electrostatic interaction between cold, dense plasma and spacecraft surfaces. Computes variety of electrostatic, plasma, and flow effects. Appropriate for conditions in which temperature of plasma small in comparison with spacecraft-generated potentials and Debye screening length short in comparison with dimensions of spacecraft. Related NASCAP/GEO (LEW-12973) code (NASA Charging Analyzer Program for Geosynchronous Orbit, denoted as NASCAP) appropriate for conditions which spacecraft differential potentials result from interactions with hot plasma and Debye screening length larger than dimensions of spacecraft. Object-definition portion of NASCAP/GEO code provided as part of package. NASCAP/LEO written in FORTRAN 77 and C language.

  13. Active control of electric potential of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques are discussed for controlling the potential of a spacecraft by means of devices which release appropriate charged particles from the spacecraft to the environment. Attention is given to electron emitters, ion emitters, a basic electron emitter arrangement, techniques for sensing electric field or potential, and flight experiments on active potential control. It is recommended to avoid differential charging on spacecraft surfaces because it can severely affect the efficacy of emitters. Discharging the frame of a spacecraft with dielectric surfaces involves the risk of stressing the dielectric material excessively. The spacecraft should, therefore, be provided with grounded conductive surfaces. It is pointed out that particles released by control systems can return to the spacecraft.

  14. Pointing compensation system for spacecraft instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, Carl T. (Inventor); Gamble, Donald W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A closed loop system reduces pointing errors in one or more spacecraft instruments. Associated with each instrument is a electronics package (3) for commanding motion in that instrument and a pointing control system (5) for imparting motion in that instrument in response to a command (4) from the commanding package (3). Spacecraft motion compensation logic (25) compensates for instrument pointing errors caused by instrument-motion-induced spacecraft motion. Any finite number of instruments can be so compensated, by providing each pointing control system (5) and each commanding package (3), for the instruments desired to be compensated, with a link to the spacecraft motion compensation logic (25). The spacecraft motion compensation logic (25) is an electronic manifestation of the algebraic negative of a model of the dynamics of motion of the spacecraft. An example of a suitable model, and computer-simulated results, are presented.

  15. Electrolysis Propulsion for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroot, Wim A.; Arrington, Lynn A.; McElroy, James F.; Mitlitsky, Fred; Weisberg, Andrew H.; Carter, Preston H., II; Myers, Blake; Reed, Brian D.

    1997-01-01

    Electrolysis propulsion has been recognized over the last several decades as a viable option to meet many satellite and spacecraft propulsion requirements. This technology, however, was never used for in-space missions. In the same time frame, water based fuel cells have flown in a number of missions. These systems have many components similar to electrolysis propulsion systems. Recent advances in component technology include: lightweight tankage, water vapor feed electrolysis, fuel cell technology, and thrust chamber materials for propulsion. Taken together, these developments make propulsion and/or power using electrolysis/fuel cell technology very attractive as separate or integrated systems. A water electrolysis propulsion testbed was constructed and tested in a joint NASA/Hamilton Standard/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories program to demonstrate these technology developments for propulsion. The results from these testbed experiments using a I-N thruster are presented. A concept to integrate a propulsion system and a fuel cell system into a unitized spacecraft propulsion and power system is outlined.

  16. Spacecraft nitrogen generation. [liquid hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, R. D.; Carlson, J. N.; Powell, J. D.; Kacholia, K. K.

    1974-01-01

    Two spacecraft nitrogen (N2) generation systems based on the catalytic dissociation of hydrazine (N2H4) were evaluated. In the first system, liquid N2H4 is catalytically dissociated to yield an N2 and hydrogen (H2) gas mixture. Separation of the N2/H2 gas mixture to yield N2 and a supply of H2 is accomplished using a polymer-electrochemical N2/H2 separator. In the second system, the N2/H2 gas mixture is separated in a two-stage palladium/silver (Pd/Ag) N2/H2 separator. The program culminated in the successful design, fabrication, and testing of a N2H4 catalytic dissociator, a polymer-electrochemical N2/H2 separator, and a two-stage Pd/Ag N2/H2 separator. The hardware developed was sized for an N2 delivery rate of 6.81 kg/d (15lb/day). Experimental results demonstrated that both spacecraft N2 generation systems are capable of producing 6.81 kg/d (15lb/day) of 99.9% pure N2 at a pressure greater than or equal to 1035 kN/m(2) (150 psia).

  17. Plasma Sterilization Technology for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, S. J.; Olson, R. L.; Leavens, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    The application of plasma gas technology to sterilization and decontamination of spacecraft components is considered. Areas investigated include: effective sterilizing ranges of four separate gases; lethal constituents of a plasma environment; effectiveness of plasma against a diverse group of microorganisms; penetrating efficiency of plasmas for sterilization; and compatibility of spacecraft materials with plasma environments. Results demonstrated that plasma gas, specifically helium plasma, is a highly effective sterilant and is compatible with spacecraft materials.

  18. 1997 Spacecraft Contamination and Coatings Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T. (Compiler); Benner, Steve M. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains the presentation charts of talks given at the "1997 Spacecraft Contamination and Coatings Workshop," held July 9-10, 1997, in Annapolis, Maryland. The workshop was attended by representatives from NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Department of Defense, industry, and universities concerned with the the spacecraft contamination engineering and thermal control coatings. The workshop provided a forum for exchanging new developments in spacecraft contamination and coatings.

  19. ISIS-B spacecraft magnetic tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic tests of the ISIS B spacecraft were conducted to determine the various magnetic moments of the spacecraft, evalute its spin and attitude control systems, and calibrate the six onboard magnetometer probes. Test procedures and equipment are described. Techniques for evaluting the data are discussed, and test results are presented. The spacecraft's magnetic characteristics were found to be satisfactory. Proper threshold values for gating the torquing coils were obtained. The onboard magnetometers were satisfactorily calibrated.

  20. Neptune aerocapture mission and spacecraft design overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Robert W.; Hall, Jeff L.; Spliker, Tom R.; O'Kongo, Nora

    2004-01-01

    A detailed Neptune aerocapture systems analysis and spacecraft design study was performed as part of NASA's In-Space Propulsion Program. The primary objectives were to assess the feasibility of a spacecraft point design for a Neptune/Triton science mission. That uses aerocapture as the Neptune orbit insertion mechanism. This paper provides an overview of the science, mission and spacecraft design resulting from that study.

  1. Fire suppression in human-crew spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Dietrich, Daniel L.

    1991-01-01

    Fire extinguishment agents range from water and foam in early-design spacecraft (Halon 1301 in the present Shuttle) to carbon dioxide proposed for the Space Station Freedom. The major challenge to spacecraft fire extinguishment design and operations is from the micro-gravity environment, which minimizes natural convection and profoundly influences combustion and extinguishing agent effectiveness, dispersal, and post-fire cleanup. Discussed here are extinguishment in microgravity, fire-suppression problems anticipated in future spacecraft, and research needs and opportunities.

  2. EMI from Spacecraft Docking Systems Spacecraft Charging - Plasma Contact Potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgard, John D.; Scully, Robert; Musselman, Randall

    2012-01-01

    The plasma contact potential of a visiting vehicle (VV), such as the Orion Service Module (SM), is determined while docking at the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Due to spacecraft charging effects on-orbit, the potential difference between the CEV and the VV can be large at docking, and an electrostatic discharge (ESD) could occur at capture, which could degrade, disrupt, damage, or destroy sensitive electronic equipment on the CEV and/or VV. Analytical and numerical models of the CEV are simulated to predict the worst-case potential difference between the CEV and the VV when the CEV is unbiased (solar panels unlit: eclipsed in the dark and inactive) or biased (solar panels sunlit: in the light and active).

  3. General Methodology for Designing Spacecraft Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald; Ocampo, Cesar; Mathur, Ravishankar; Morcos, Fady; Senent, Juan; Williams, Jacob; Davis, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    A methodology for designing spacecraft trajectories in any gravitational environment within the solar system has been developed. The methodology facilitates modeling and optimization for problems ranging from that of a single spacecraft orbiting a single celestial body to that of a mission involving multiple spacecraft and multiple propulsion systems operating in gravitational fields of multiple celestial bodies. The methodology consolidates almost all spacecraft trajectory design and optimization problems into a single conceptual framework requiring solution of either a system of nonlinear equations or a parameter-optimization problem with equality and/or inequality constraints.

  4. Formation Flying Spacecraft Concept for Heliophysics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Davila, Joseph; Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Shah, Neerav; Li, Steven X.

    2016-05-01

    A number of space-based heliophysics instruments would benefit from formation flying spacecraft. An occulter or a focusing optic such as a photon sieve could be mounted on a separate spacecraft rather than at the end of a boom. This would enable science measurements to be made on smaller, less expensive spacecraft. To accomplish this goal, the relative position of the spacecraft must be monitored and controlled to high precision. We describe two separate optical sensing systems that monitor relative position of the spacecraft to the level required for a photon sieve mission concept wherein the photon sieve is mounted on one spacecraft while the imaging detector is mounted on another. The first system employs a novel time of flight measurement of a laser beam that includes imbedded optical data packets. The contents of the returning data packet can be compared to the departing data packet to provide an extremely high resolution distance measurement. Employing three such systems allows measurement of pitch and yaw in addition to longitudinal separation. The second optical system monitors lateral motion. A mildy divergent laser beam is transmitted from one spacecraft to a sensor array on the second spacecraft. Monitoring the position of the brightest portion of the beam on the sensor array provides a direct measurement of lateral relative motion. Employing at least two such systems enables monitoring roll of the spacecraft as well as centration. We will also discuss low force thruster systems required for high precision station keeping.

  5. Optimizing Spacecraft Placement for Liaison Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, C. Channing; Villac, Benjamin F.; Lo, Martin W.

    2011-01-01

    A navigation and communications network is proposed to support an anticipated need for infrastructure in the Earth-Moon system. Periodic orbits will host the constellations while a novel, autonomous navigation strategy will guide the spacecraft along their path strictly based on satellite-to-satellite telemetry. In particular, this paper investigates the second stage of a larger constellation optimization scheme for multi-spacecraft systems. That is, following an initial orbit down-selection process, this analysis provides insights into the ancillary problem of spacecraft placement. Two case studies are presented that consider configurations of up to four spacecraft for a halo orbit and a cycler trajectory.

  6. An Artificial Neural Network Control System for Spacecraft Attitude Stabilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    training is based on the concept of enforced performance. A neural network will learn to meet a specific performance goal if the performance standard...is the only solution to a problem. Performance index training is devised to teach the neural network the time-optimal control law for the system. Real...time adaptation of a neural network in closed loop control of the Crew/Equipment Retriever was demonstrated in computer simulations.

  7. Doppler aided attitude determination for spin stabilized spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D.; McElrath, T.; Taylor, T.; Howell, D.; Voth, C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the theory of spin signature removal and the results obtained during the Genesis and Contour missions, during which spin axis pointing measurement errors of 1 degree or less were achieved.

  8. Vacuum stability requirements of polymeric material for spacecraft application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish outgassing requirements and test guidelines for polymeric materials used in the space thermal/vacuum environment around sensitive optical or thermal control surfaces. The scope of this document covers the control of polymeric materials used near or adjacent to optical or thermal control surfaces that are exposed to the thermal/vacuum environment of space. This document establishes the requirements and defines the test method to evaluate polymeric materials used in the vicinity of these surfaces in space applications.

  9. Real-Time EDL Navigation Performance Using Spacecraft to Spacecraft Radiometric Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhart, P. Daniel; Ely, Todd; Duncan, Courtney; Lightsey, Glenn; Campbell, Todd; Mogensen, Andy

    2006-01-01

    A two-year task sponsored by NASA's Mars Technology Program's Advanced Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) work area includes investigation of improvements to EDL navigation by processing spacecraft-to-spacecraft radiometric data. Spacecraft-to- spacecraft navigation will take advantage of the UHF link between two spacecraft (i.e. to an orbiter from an approaching lander for EDL telemetry relay) to build radiometric data, specifically the velocity between the two spacecraft along the radio beam, that are processed to determine position and velocity in real time. The improved onboard state knowledge provided by spacecraft-to-spacecraft navigation will improve the performance of entry guidance by providing a more accurate state estimate and ultimately reduce the landed position error. Work on the final year of this task is reported here.

  10. Contingency Trajectory Design for a Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver Failure by the LADEE Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a contingency trajectory analysis performed for the Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission in the event of a missed lunar-orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver by the LADEE spacecraft. The effects of varying solar perturbations in the vicinity of the weak stability boundary (WSB) in the Sun-Earth system on the trajectory design are analyzed and discussed. It is shown that geocentric recovery trajectory options existed for the LADEE spacecraft, depending on the spacecraft's recovery time to perform an Earth escape-prevention maneuver after the hypothetical LOI maneuver failure and subsequent path traveled through the Sun-Earth WSB. If Earth-escape occurred, a heliocentric recovery option existed, but with reduced science capacapability for the spacecraft in an eccentric, not circular near-equatorial retrograde lunar orbit.

  11. System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 9: Attitude control/mechanisms subsystems studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus mission study was conducted for a probe spacecraft and an orbiter spacecraft to be launched by either a Thor/Delta or an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle. Both spacecraft are spin stabilized. The spin speed is controlled by ground commands to as low as 5 rpm for science instrument scanning on the orbiter and as high as 71 rpm for small probes released from the probe bus. A major objective in the design of the attitude control and mechanism subsystem (ACMS) was to provide, in the interest of costs, maximum commonality of the elements between the probe bus and orbiter spacecraft configurations. This design study was made considering the use of either launch vehicle. The basic functional requirements of the ACMS are derived from spin axis pointing and spin speed control requirements implicit in the acquisition, cruise, encounter and orbital phases of the Pioneer Venus missions.

  12. Dynamic analysis of a flexible spacecraft with rotating components. Volume 1: Analytical developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodley, C. S.; Devers, A. D.; Park, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    Analytical procedures and digital computer code are presented for the dynamic analysis of a flexible spacecraft with rotating components. Topics, considered include: (1) nonlinear response in the time domain, and (2) linear response in the frequency domain. The spacecraft is assumed to consist of an assembly of connected rigid or flexible subassemblies. The total system is not restricted to a topological connection arrangement and may be acting under the influence of passive or active control systems and external environments. The analytics and associated digital code provide the user with the capability to establish spacecraft system nonlinear total response for specified initial conditions, linear perturbation response about a calculated or specified nominal motion, general frequency response and graphical display, and spacecraft system stability analysis.

  13. Robust adaptive control of spacecraft proximity maneuvers under dynamic coupling and uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Liang; Huo, Wei

    2015-11-01

    This paper provides a solution for the position tracking and attitude synchronization problem of the close proximity phase in spacecraft rendezvous and docking. The chaser spacecraft must be driven to a certain fixed position along the docking port direction of the target spacecraft, while the attitude of the two spacecraft must be synchronized for subsequent docking operations. The kinematics and dynamics for relative position and relative attitude are modeled considering dynamic coupling, parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. The relative motion model has a new form with a novel definition of the unknown parameters. An original robust adaptive control method is developed for the concerned problem, and a proof of the asymptotic stability is given for the six degrees of freedom closed-loop system. A numerical example is displayed in simulation to verify the theoretical results.

  14. Thermal Insulating Coating for Spacecrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Raj K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    To protect spacecraft and their contents from excessive heat thermal protection system are essential. For such thermal protection, metal coatings, ceramic materials, ablative materials, and various matrix materials have all been tried, but none have been found entirely satisfactory. The basis for this thermal protection system is the fact that the heat required to melt a substance is 80 to 100 times larger than the heat required to raise its temperature one degree. This led to the use herein of solid-liquid phase change materials. Unlike conventional heat storage materials, when phase change materials reach the temperature at which they change phase they absorb large amounts of heat without getting hotter. By this invention, then, a coating composition is provided for application to substrates subjected to temperatures above 100 F. The coating composition includes a phase change material.

  15. Thermal insulating coating for spacecrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Raj K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    To protect spacecraft and their contents from excessive heat thermal protection systems are essential. For such thermal protection, metal coatings, ceramic materials, ablative materials, and various matrix materials have all been tried, but none have been found entirely satisfactory. The basis for this thermal protection system is the fact that the heat required to melt a substance is 80 to 100 times larger than the heat required to raise its temperature one degree. This led to the use herein of solid-liquid phase change materials. Unlike conventional heat storage materials, when phase change materials reach the temperature at which they change phase they absorb large amounts of heat without getting hotter. By this invention, then, a coating composition is provided for application to substrates subjected to temperatures above 100? F. The coating composition includes a phase change material.

  16. Rosetta spacecraft meets asteroid Steins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-08-01

    Steins is Rosetta’s first nominal scientific target. The spacecraft will rendezvous with the asteroid in the course of its first incursion into the asteroid belt located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, while on its way to comet 67/P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The study of asteroids is extremely important as they represent a sample of Solar System material at different stages of evolution - key to understanding the origin of our own planet and of our planetary neighbourhood. The closest approach to Steins is due to take place on 5 September at 20:58 CEST (Central European Summer Time), from a distance of 800 km, during which the spacecraft will not be communicating with Earth. First ground contact with the spacecraft and announcement of successful fly-by will take place at 22:23 CEST. The first data and images collected by Rosetta will be sent to Earth throughout the night of 5 to 6 September and will undergo preliminary processing in the morning of 6 September. The first images will be made available for broadcasters via a special satellite feed on Saturday 6 September (details will be given on http://television.esa.int). To register for the events, please use the attached form. The press conference on 6 September will also be streamed on the ESA web: at http://www.esa.int/rosetta. Rosetta Steins Fly-By Doors open to the media 5 September 2008, 18:00, Building K ESA-ESOC Robert-Bosch Strasse 5, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany 18:00 - Doors open 18:00 - 19:00 Interview opportunities 19:00 - 20:15 Buffet dinner 20:15 - 20:30 The Steins Fly-By, Introduction by Paolo Ferri, Head of Solar and Planetary Missions Division (Mission Operations Dept.), ESA The crucial role of Flight Dynamics, by Trevor Morley, Rosetta Flight Dynamics Team, ESA 20:30 - 21:00 Live from Rosetta’s control room (loss of telemetry signal at 20:47) 22:23 - First telemetry on ground: signal of successful fly-by 23:00 - End of event Rosetta Steins Fly-By Press Conference 6 September 2008, 12

  17. Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (SWEGs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    As the protection of crew health is a primary focus of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Space and Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) is vigilant in setting potable water limits for spaceflight that are health protective. Additional it is important that exposure limits not be set so stringently that water purification systems are unnecessarily over designed. With these considerations in mind, NASA has partnered with the National Research Council on Toxicology (NRCCOT) to develop spacecraft water exposure guidelines (SWEGs) for application in spaceflight systems. Based on documented guidance (NRC, 2000) NASA has established 28 SWEGs for chemical components that are particularly relevant to water systems on the International Space Station, the Shuttle and looking forward to Constellation.

  18. NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdridge, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    On 12 February 2001, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Shoemaker became the first spacecraft to land on a small body, 433 Eros. Prior to that historic event, NEAR was the first-ever orbital mission about an asteroid. The mission presented general challenges associated with other planetary space missions as well as challenges unique to an inaugural mission around a small body. The NEAR team performed this operations feat with processes and tools developed during the 4-year-long cruise to Eros. Adding to the success of this historic mission was the cooperation among the NEAR science, navigation, guidance and control, mission design, and software teams. With clearly defined team roles, overlaps in responsibilities were minimized, as were the associated costs. This article discusses the processes and systems developed at APL that enabled the success of NEAR mission operations.

  19. Structural qualification of large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Ben K.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past twenty-five (25) years of the space program, the major challenge in the structural qualification of the primary structure has shifted from conducting a test that simulated the environment to accurately predicting the structural member loads in flight. Once the flight loads are avaliable, a number of different test methods are used to qualify the structure by subjecting it to the proper loads. The qualification challenge for future large spacecraft will be to adequately predict its dynamic characteristic in space to assure that it can be controlled to meet the mission objectives. A new test concept that may allow acquisition of modal data by ground tests for verification of mathematical models of large flexible space structures which can't be ground tested by conventional methods is discussed.

  20. Acquisition Tracking and Pointing Control of the Bifocal Relay Mirror Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Marcello; Agrawal, Brij N.

    been carried out and are presented in this paper. The first experiment consisted on the stabilization of the spacecraft simulator around a certain attitude while the laser beam connection was maintained between the source and a moving point. The second experiment consisted in the slewing of the spacecraft simulator along a reference trajectory. The experiments demonstrated the feasibility of some of the control laws for the system.

  1. Design and testing of magnetic controllers for Satellite stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guelman, M.; Waller, R.; Shiryaev, A.; Psiaki, M.

    2005-01-01

    A study was carried out of attitude control algorithms that are able to provide 3-axis stabilization of a satellite equipped with a magnetometer as the only sensor, and magnetic torquers as the only actuators. Two different solutions to the problem were developed, namely Linear Quadratic Regulator and No Wheel controllers. Their aptitude to achieve the required performance was confirmed by multiple numerical simulations under different initial conditions and various scenarios. The new algorithms were tested onboard the Israeli Gurwin-TechSAT micro-satellite, nominally momentum-biased, stabilized within 2- 2.5∘ precision by the proportion-plus-derivative magnetic controller. In the flight tests of the new controllers, some valuable results were obtained, such as revealing the possibility to effectively maintain the satellite 3-axis stabilization even with a very small momentum bias, and the implementation and efficient performance of the properly modified extended and linear Kalman filters in the onboard computer.

  2. Stable adaptive neurocontrollers for spacecraft and space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanner, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews recently developed techniques of adaptive nonlinear control using neural networks, and demonstrates their application to two important practical problems in orbital operations. An adaptive neurocontroller is first developed for spacecraft attitude control applications, and then the same design, slightly modified, is shown to be effective in the control of free-floating orbital manipulators. The algorithms discussed have guaranteed stability and convergence properties, and thus constitute viable alternatives to existing control methodologies. Simulation results are presented demonstrating the performance of each algorithm with representative dynamic models.

  3. Distributed control topologies for deep space formation flying spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaegh, F. Y.; Smith, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    A formation of satellites flying in deep space can be specified in terms of the relative satellite positions and absolute satellite orientations. The redundancy in the relative position specification generates a family of control topologies with equivalent stability and reference tracking performance, one of which can be implemented without requiring communication between the spacecraft. A relative position design formulation is inherently unobservable, and a methodology for circumventing this problem is presented. Additional redundancy in the control actuation space can be exploited for feed-forward control of the formation centroid's location in space, or for minimization of total fuel consumption.

  4. Theoretical analysis of infrared radiation shields of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    For a system of N diffuse, gray body radiation shields which view only adjacent surfaces and space, the net radiation method for enclosures has been used to formulate a system of linear, nonhomogeneous equations in terms of the temperatures to the fourth power of each surface in the coupled system of enclosures. The coefficients of the unknown temperatures in the system of equations are expressed in terms of configuration factors between adjacent surfaces and the emissivities. As an application, a system of four conical radiation shields for a spin stabilized STARPROBE spacecraft has been designed and analyzed with respect to variations of the cone half angles, the intershield spacings, and emissivities.

  5. The microwave radiometer spacecraft: A design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    A large passive microwave radiometer spacecraft with near all weather capability of monitoring soil moisture for global crop forecasting was designed. The design, emphasizing large space structures technology, characterized the mission hardware at the conceptual level in sufficient detail to identify enabling and pacing technologies. Mission and spacecraft requirements, design and structural concepts, electromagnetic concepts, and control concepts are addressed.

  6. Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts. Views include Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the Gemini 4 space flight, sitting in life raft awaiting pickup by helicopter from the recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp (33490); Navy frogmen stand on the flotation collar of the Gemini 4 spacecraft during recovery operations (33491).

  7. Guaranteed initialization of distributed spacecraft formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel P.; Ploen, Scott R.; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Keim, Jason A.; Phan, Linh H.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present a solution to the formation initialization (FI) problem for N distributed spacecraft located in deep space. Our solution to the FI problem is based on a three-stage sky search procedure that reduces the FI problem for N spacecraft to the simpler problem of initializing a set of sub-formations.

  8. Microbiological profiles of four Apollo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puleo, J. R.; Oxborrow, G. S.; Fields, N. D.; Herring, C. M.; Smith, L. S.

    1973-01-01

    The levels and types of microorganisms on various components of four Apollo spacecraft were determined and compared. Although the results showed that the majority of microorganisms isolated were those considered to be indigenous to humans, an increase in organisms associated with soil and dust was noted with each successive Apollo spacecraft.

  9. Wet oxidation of a spacecraft model waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wydeven, T.

    1985-01-01

    Wet oxidation was used to oxidize a spacecraft model waste under different oxidation conditions. The variables studied were pressure, temperature, duration of oxidation, and the use of one homogeneous and three heterogeneous catalysts. Emphasis is placed on the final oxidation state of carbon and nitrogen since these are the two major components of the spacecraft model waste and two important plant nutrients.

  10. Optimal Lorentz-augmented spacecraft formation flying in elliptic orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Yan, Ye; Zhou, Yang

    2015-06-01

    An electrostatically charged spacecraft accelerates as it moves through the Earth's magnetic field due to the induced Lorentz force, providing a new means of propellantless electromagnetic propulsion for orbital maneuvers. The feasibility of Lorentz-augmented spacecraft formation flying in elliptic orbits is investigated in this paper. Assuming the Earth's magnetic field as a tilted dipole corotating with Earth, a nonlinear dynamical model that characterizes the orbital motion of Lorentz spacecraft in the vicinity of arbitrary elliptic orbits is developed. To establish a predetermined formation configuration at given terminal time, pseudospectral method is used to solve the optimal open-loop trajectories of hybrid control inputs consisted of Lorentz acceleration and thruster-generated control acceleration. A nontilted dipole model is also introduced to analyze the effect of dipole tilt angle via comparisons with the tilted one. Meanwhile, to guarantee finite-time convergence and system robustness against external perturbations, a continuous fast nonsingular terminal sliding mode controller is designed and the closed-loop system stability is proved by Lyapunov theory. Numerical simulations substantiate the validity of proposed open-loop and closed-loop control schemes, and the results indicate that an almost propellantless formation establishment can be achieved by choosing appropriate objective function in the pseudospectral method. Furthermore, compared to the nonsingular terminal sliding mode controller, the closed-loop controller presents superior convergence rate with only a bit more control effort. And the proposed controller can be applied in other Lorentz-augmented relative orbital control problems.

  11. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  12. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  13. Interactions between spacecraft and their environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    1993-01-01

    Spacecraft inevitably interact with their environments. Besides the interactions one immediately thinks of in space (zero-g, solar heating, atmospheric drag, expansion into vacuum conditions, etc.) other interactions are also important. Those of interest to spacecraft designers so far may be grouped under several headings; plasma interactions and spacecraft charging, impact of debris and micrometeoroids, chemical reactions with neutral species, radiation degradation, etc. Researchers have made great progress in defining and evaluating the interactions of spacecraft with their expected ambient environments near Earth and in interplanetary space. Some of these interactions are discussed with an eye toward expanding our knowledge into new environments, such as may be found at the moon and Mars, that will interact in new and different ways with exploring spacecraft and spacefarers.

  14. Spacecraft Power Source Installation at Launch Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytal, Paul; Hoffman, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    For certain space missions, an assembly must be integrated onto the spacecraft as late as possible in the launch vehicle processing flow. 12This late integration can be driven for a variety of reasons including thermal or hazardous materials constraints. This paper discusses the process of integrating an assembly onto a spacecraft as late as one week prior to the opening of the launch window. Consideration is given to achieving sufficient access for hardware integration, methods of remotely securing hardware to the spacecraft, maintaining spacecraft cleanliness throughout the integration process, and electrically integrating the component to the spacecraft. Specific examples are taken from the remote mechanical, electrical, and fluid cooling system integration of the power source onto the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover at the Atlas V Vertical Integration Facility (VIF) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida.

  15. Spacecraft Dynamics and Control Program at AFRPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, A.; Slimak, L. K. S.; Schloegel, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    A number of future DOD and NASA spacecraft such as the space based radar will be not only an order of magnitude larger in dimension than the current spacecraft, but will exhibit extreme structural flexibility with very low structural vibration frequencies. Another class of spacecraft (such as the space defense platforms) will combine large physical size with extremely precise pointing requirement. Such problems require a total departure from the traditional methods of modeling and control system design of spacecraft where structural flexibility is treated as a secondary effect. With these problems in mind, the Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory (AFRPL) initiated research to develop dynamics and control technology so as to enable the future large space structures (LSS). AFRPL's effort in this area can be subdivided into the following three overlapping areas: (1) ground experiments, (2) spacecraft modeling and control, and (3) sensors and actuators. Both the in-house and contractual efforts of the AFRPL in LSS are summarized.

  16. Implications of arcing due to spacecraft charging on spacecraft EMI margins of immunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inouye, G. T.

    1981-01-01

    Arcing due to spacecraft charging on spacecraft EMI margins of immunity was determined. The configuration of the P78-2 spacecraft of the SCATHA program was analyzed. A brushfire arc discharge model was developed, and a technique for initiating discharges with a spark plug trigger was for data configuration. A set of best estimate arc discharge parameters was defined. The effects of spacecraft potentials in limiting the discharge current blowout component are included. Arc discharge source models were incorporated into a SEMCAP EMI coupling analysis code for the DSP spacecraft. It is shown that with no mission critical circuits will be affected.

  17. Improving Spacecraft Data Visualization Using Splunk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conte, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    EPOXI, like all spacecraft missions, receives large volumes of telemetry data from its spacecraft, DIF. It is extremely important for this data to be updated quickly and presented in a readable manner so that the flight team can monitor the status of the spacecraft. Existing DMD pages for monitoring spacecraft telemetry, while functional, are limited and do not take advantage of modern search technology. For instance, they only display current data points from instruments on the spacecraft and have limited graphing capabilities, making it difficult to see historical data. The DMD pages have fixed refresh rates so the team must often wait several minutes to see the most recent data, even after it is received on the ground. The pages are also rigid and require an investment of time and money to update. To more easily organize and visualize spacecraft telemetry, the EPOXI team has begun experimenting with Splunk, a commercially-available data mining system. Splunk can take data received from the spacecraft's different data channels, often in different formats, and index all the data into a common format. Splunk allows flight team members to search through the different data formats from a single interface and to filter results by time range and data field to make finding specific spacecraft events quick and easy. Furthermore, Splunk provides functions to create custom interfaces which help team members visualize the data in charts and graphs to show how the health of the spacecraft has changed over time.One of the goals of my internship with my mentor, Victor Hwang, was to develop new Splunk interfaces to replace the DMD pages and give the spacecraft team access to historical data and visualizations that were previously unavailable. The specific requirements of these pages are discussed in the next section.

  18. A Computational Investigation for Determining the Natural Frequencies and Damping Effects of Diaphragm-Implemented Spacecraft Propellant Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenahen, Brian; Bernier, Adrien; Gangadharan, Sathya; Sudermann, James; Marsell, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    Spin-stabilization maneuvers are typically performed by spacecraft entering low-earth orbit to maintain attitude stability. These maneuvers induce periodic fluid movement inside the spacecraft's propellant tank known as fuel slosh, which is responsible for creating forces and moments on the sidewalls of the propellant tank. These forces and moments adversely affect spin-stabilization and risk jeopardizing the mission of the spacecraft. Therefore, propellant tanks are designed with propellant management devices (PMD's) such as barnes or diaphragms which work to counteract the forces and moments associated with fuel slosh. However, despite the presence of PMD's, the threat of spin-stabilization interference still exists should the propellant tank be excited at its natural frequency. When the fluid is excited at its natural frequency, the forces and moments acting on the propellant tank are amplified and may result in destabilizing the spacecraft. Thus, a computational analysis is conducted concerning diaphragm-implemented propellant tanks excited at their natural frequencies. Using multi-disciplinary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, computational models are developed to reflect potential scenarios that spacecraft propellant tanks could experience. By simulating the propellant tank under a wide array of parameters and variables including fill-level, gravity and diaphragm material and shape, a better understanding is gained as to how these parameters individually and collectively affect liquid propellant tanks and ultimately, spacecraft attitude dynamics.

  19. TTEthernet for Integrated Spacecraft Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loveless, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Aerospace projects have traditionally employed federated avionics architectures, in which each computer system is designed to perform one specific function (e.g. navigation). There are obvious downsides to this approach, including excessive weight (from so much computing hardware), and inefficient processor utilization (since modern processors are capable of performing multiple tasks). There has therefore been a push for integrated modular avionics (IMA), in which common computing platforms can be leveraged for different purposes. This consolidation of multiple vehicle functions to shared computing platforms can significantly reduce spacecraft cost, weight, and design complexity. However, the application of IMA principles introduces significant challenges, as the data network must accommodate traffic of mixed criticality and performance levels - potentially all related to the same shared computer hardware. Because individual network technologies are rarely so competent, the development of truly integrated network architectures often proves unreasonable. Several different types of networks are utilized - each suited to support a specific vehicle function. Critical functions are typically driven by precise timing loops, requiring networks with strict guarantees regarding message latency (i.e. determinism) and fault-tolerance. Alternatively, non-critical systems generally employ data networks prioritizing flexibility and high performance over reliable operation. Switched Ethernet has seen widespread success filling this role in terrestrial applications. Its high speed, flexibility, and the availability of inexpensive commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components make it desirable for inclusion in spacecraft platforms. Basic Ethernet configurations have been incorporated into several preexisting aerospace projects, including both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). However, classical switched Ethernet cannot provide the high level of network

  20. Low power arcjet system spacecraft impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Lichtin, D. A.; Palchefsky, J. W.; Bogorad, A. L.

    1993-01-01

    Application of electrothermal arcjets on communications satellites requires assessment of integration concerns identified by the user community. Perceived risks include plume contamination of spacecraft materials, induced arcing or electrostatic discharges between differentially charged spacecraft surfaces, and conducted and radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) for both steady state and transient conditions. A Space Act agreement between Martin Marietta Astro Space, the Rocket Research Company, and NASA's Lewis Research Center was established to experimentally examine these issues. Spacecraft materials were exposed to an arcjet plume for 40 hours, representing 40 weeks of actual spacecraft life, and contamination was characterized by changes in surface properties. With the exception of the change in emittance of one sample, all measurable changes in surface properties resulted in acceptable end of life characteristics. Charged spacecraft samples were benignly and consistently reduced to ground potential during exposure to the powered arcjet plume, suggesting that the arcjet could act as a charge control device on spacecraft. Steady state EMI signatures obtained using two different power processing units were similar to emissions measured in a previous test. Emissions measured in UHF, S, C, Ku and Ka bands obtained a null result which verified previous work in the UHF, S, and C bands. Characteristics of conducted and radiated transient emissions appear within standard spacecraft susceptibility criteria.

  1. Adaptive Deadband Synchronization for a Spacecraft Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel; Hadaegh, Fred; Kang, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    A paper discusses general problems in estimation and control of the states (positions, attitudes, and velocities) of spacecraft flying in formation, then addresses the particular formation-flying-control problem of synchronization of deadbands. The paper presents a deadband synchronization algorithm for the case in which the spacecraft are equipped with pulse-width-modulated thrusters for maintaining their required states. The algorithm synchronizes thruster-firing times across all six degrees of freedom of all the spacecraft. The algorithm is scalable, inherently adapts to disturbances, and does not require knowledge of spacecraft masses and disturbance forces. In this algorithm, one degree of freedom of one spacecraft is designated the leader, and all other degrees of freedom of all spacecraft as followers. The Cassini adaptive optimum deadband drift controller is the subalgorithm for control in each degree of freedom, and the adaptation is run until each spacecraft achieves a specified drift period. The adaptation is critical because a different disturbance affects each different degree of freedom. Then the leader communicates its thruster-firing starting times to the followers. Then, for each follower, a deadband-synchronization subalgorithm determines the shift needed to synchronize its drift period with that of the leader.

  2. Spacecraft Systems Engineering, 3rd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortescue, Peter; Stark, John; Swinerd, Graham

    2003-03-01

    Following on from the hugely successful previous editions, the third edition of Spacecraft Systems Engineering incorporates the most recent technological advances in spacecraft and satellite engineering. With emphasis on recent developments in space activities, this new edition has been completely revised. Every chapter has been updated and rewritten by an expert engineer in the field, with emphasis on the bus rather than the payload. Encompassing the fundamentals of spacecraft engineering, the book begins with front-end system-level issues, such as environment, mission analysis and system engineering, and progresses to a detailed examination of subsystem elements which represent the core of spacecraft design - mechanical, electrical, propulsion, thermal, control etc. This quantitative treatment is supplemented by an appreciation of the interactions between the elements, which deeply influence the process of spacecraft systems design. In particular the revised text includes * A new chapter on small satellites engineering and applications which has been contributed by two internationally-recognised experts, with insights into small satellite systems engineering. * Additions to the mission analysis chapter, treating issues of aero-manouevring, constellation design and small body missions. In summary, this is an outstanding textbook for aerospace engineering and design students, and offers essential reading for spacecraft engineers, designers and research scientists. The comprehensive approach provides an invaluable resource to spacecraft manufacturers and agencies across the world.

  3. Remote agent prototype for spacecraft autonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pell, Barney; Bernard, Douglas E.; Chien, Steve; Gat, Erann; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, P. P.; Wagner, Michael D.; Williams, Brian C.

    1996-10-01

    NASA has recently announced the New Millennium Program (NMP) to develop 'faster, better, cheaper' spacecraft in order to establish a 'virtual presence' in space. A crucial element in achieving this vision is onboard spacecraft autonomy, requiring us to automate functions which have traditionally been achieved on ground by humans. These include planning activities, sequencing spacecraft actions, tracking spacecraft state, ensuring correct functioning, recovering in cases of failure and reconfiguring hardware. In response to these challenging requirements, we analyzed the spacecraft domain to determine its unique properties and developed an architecture which provided the required functionality. This architecture integrates traditional real-time monitoring and control with constraint-based planning and scheduling, robust multi-threaded execution, and model-based diagnosis and reconfiguration. In a five month effort we successfully demonstrated this implemented architecture in the context of an autonomous insertion of a simulated spacecraft into orbit around Saturn, trading off science and engineering goals, and achieving the mission goals in the face of any single point of hardware failure. This scenario turned out to be among the most complex handled by each of the component technologies. As a result of this success, the integrated architecture has been selected to control the first NMP flight, Deep Space One, in 1998. It will be the first AI system to autonomously control an actual spacecraft.

  4. Protecting Against Faults in JPL Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Paula

    2007-01-01

    A paper discusses techniques for protecting against faults in spacecraft designed and operated by NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The paper addresses, more specifically, fault-protection requirements and techniques common to most JPL spacecraft (in contradistinction to unique, mission specific techniques), standard practices in the implementation of these techniques, and fault-protection software architectures. Common requirements include those to protect onboard command, data-processing, and control computers; protect against loss of Earth/spacecraft radio communication; maintain safe temperatures; and recover from power overloads. The paper describes fault-protection techniques as part of a fault-management strategy that also includes functional redundancy, redundant hardware, and autonomous monitoring of (1) the operational and health statuses of spacecraft components, (2) temperatures inside and outside the spacecraft, and (3) allocation of power. The strategy also provides for preprogrammed automated responses to anomalous conditions. In addition, the software running in almost every JPL spacecraft incorporates a general-purpose "Safe Mode" response algorithm that configures the spacecraft in a lower-power state that is safe and predictable, thereby facilitating diagnosis of more complex faults by a team of human experts on Earth.

  5. Spacecraft capture and docking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Kinyuen (Inventor); Rafeek, Shaheed (Inventor); Myrick, Thomas (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A system for capturing and docking an active craft to a passive craft has a first docking assembly on the active craft with a first contact member and a spike projecting outwardly, a second docking assembly on the passive craft having a second contact member and a flexible net deployed over a target area with an open mesh for capturing the end of the spike of the active craft, and a motorized net drive for reeling in the net and active craft to mate with the passive craft's docking assembly. The spike has extendable tabs to allow it to become engaged with the net. The net's center is coupled to a net spool for reeling in. An alignment funnel has inclined walls to guide the net and captured spike towards the net spool. The passive craft's docking assembly includes circumferentially spaced preload wedges which are driven to lock the wedges against the contact member of the active craft. The active craft's docking assembly includes a rotary table and drive for rotating it to a predetermined angular alignment position, and mating connectors are then engaged with each other. The system may be used for docking spacecraft in zero or low-gravity environments, as well as for docking underwater vehicles, docking of ancillary craft to a mother craft in subsonic flight, in-flight refueling systems, etc.

  6. Novel Material for Future Spacecrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Subbayu; Cothran, Ernestine

    2005-01-01

    Outside earth's protective magnetosphere crew members and sensitive equipment need to be protected against two primary radiation sources, namely Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEP). For planetary missions, this combination of radiation particles could result in doses that are higher than the allowable level currently permitted for low-earth orbit manned missions. This SBIR project aims to develop a multifunctional and lightweight composite material that not only provides sufficient radiation shielding but also provides sufficient structural integrity to be considered as a spacecraft material. This presentation will discuss the deep space radiation problem and the material based solutions being proposed by BAE SYS scientists to overcome this problem. The presentation will focus on the initiative taken by BAE SYS scientists to proactively engage and team with experts at NASA, small business, and other federal laboratories to develop and test a dual phase composite material. The presentation will also highlight the potential benefits to our customer, NASA and also to BAE SYS.

  7. Micro Sun Sensor for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobasser, Sohrab; Liebe, Carl; Bae, Youngsam; Schroeder, Jeffrey; Wrigley, Chris

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the development of a compact micro Sun sensor for use as a part of the attitude determination subsystem aboard future miniature spacecraft and planetary robotic vehicles. The prototype unit has a mass of only 9 g, a volume of only 4.2 cm(sup 3), a power consumption of only 30 mW, and a 120 degree field of view. The unit has demonstrated an accuracy of 1 arcminute. The unit consists of a multiple pinhole camera: A micromachined mask containing a rectangular array of microscopic pinholes, machined utilizing the microectromechanical systems (MEMS), is mounted in front of an active-pixel sensor (APS) image detector. The APS consists of a 512 x 512-pixel array, on-chip 10-bit analog to digital converter (ADC), on-chip bias generation, and on-chip timing control for self-sequencing and easy programmability. The digitized output of the APS is processed to compute the centroids of the pinhole Sun images on the APS. The Sun angle, relative to a coordinate system fixed to the sensor unit, is then computed from the positions of the centroids.

  8. Inertial Energy Storage for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of inertial energy storage in a spacecraft power system is evaluated on the basis of a conceptual integrated design that encompasses a composite rotor, magnetic suspension and a permanent magnet (PM) motor/generator for a 3-kW orbital average payload at a bus distribution voltage of 250 volts dc. The conceptual design, is referred to as a Mechanical Capacitor. The baseline power system configuration selected is a series system employing peak-power-tracking for a Low Earth-Orbiting application. Power processing, required in the motor/generator, provides potential alternative that can only be achieved in systems with electrochemical energy storage by the addition of power processing components. One such alternative configuration provides for peak-power-tracking of the solar array and still maintains a regulated bus, without the expense of additional power processing components. Precise speed control of the two counterrotating wheels is required to reduce interaction with the attitude control system (ACS) or alternatively, used to perform attitude control functions.

  9. Autonomous navigation of USAF spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, J. R., Jr.

    1983-12-01

    The U. S. Air Force is developing satellite-borne sensors to enable autonomous navigation of spacecraft in the near future. This study compares the observations from several medium-accuracy space sensors, such as the existing telescopic space sextant, with those of future matrix-type sensors. The large field of view of matrix sensors will allow them to determine the Earth horizon to approximately an order of magnitude better than current infrared sensors by observing atmospheric refraction of stellar light. This horizon determination will give the matrix sensors an accuracy of less than 1 km. The limiting factor in Earth-horizon determination is the modeling of atmospheric refraction effects. For high-accuracy requirements (100 meters or less), the Global Positioning System (GPS) offers the only near-term solution. A relative navigation technique using range and Doppler data is proposed for autonomous navigation of the GPS satellites. The navigation accuracy of this technique is evaluated by consider covariance analysis and by processing corrupted data through a reduced-order onboard Sequentially Partitioned Algorithm. The algorithm is stable and for the GPS system produces in-plane accuracy of 40 meters over twenty days. However, out-of-plane motion is shown to be unobservable in the GPS-to-GPS tracking mode, and errors of up to 1.5 km over 60 days are experienced. For this reason, a supplemental transmitter on the ground or in a different orbit is recommended.

  10. Optimal magnetic attitude control of small spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jinsong

    Spacecraft attitude control, using only magnetic coils, suffers from being unable to apply a torque about the axis defined by the magnetic field of the earth. This lack of controllability results in marginal stability, slow slew maneuvering and convergence to equilibrium positions. Currently available control schemes typically require one or more orbits to finish a large angle attitude maneuver, which severely restricts the application of magnetic control in projects requiring fast attitude maneuvers. In this dissertation, the open-loop time-optimal magnetic control is first presented to show the potential performance increase of the magnetic attitude control method. Nonlinear time-varying models with constrained inputs are considered instead of the linearized model generally used. The results show that time-optimal magnetic attitude control can be considerably faster, than the current available control schemes. The inherent weakness of the open-loop method is its lack of robustness; specifically, its response is sensitive to small changes in the system. Two methods, model predictive control and continuous optimization approach, are presented as closed-loop control strategies to increase the robustness of the time-optimal approach. Simulation results show that these two feedback control schemes effectively improve the robustness of the control system. Finally, magnetic attitude regulation after the time-optimal magnetic control is discussed. The main contribution of this work shows that magnetic attitude control is not necessarily slow, as commonly believed, as long as an appropriate control algorithm is applied. The different time-optimal controllers presented show considerable convergence time reduction for large angle attitude maneuvers; which enables magnetic attitude control to be applied to more time-critical applications.

  11. Robust stationkeeping and reconfiguration of underactuated spacecraft formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard; Dev Kumar, Krishna; Zou, Anmin

    2014-12-01

    Feasibility of achieving reliable control for spacecraft formation keeping and reconfiguration without the need for thrust in either the radial or along-track direction is explored in this paper. Analysis of the linearized dynamics without along-track input indicates the presence of an uncontrollable eigenvalue at the origin. A nonlinear controller is designed to indirectly stabilize the uncontrollable modes to a stable manifold around the equilibrium. Conditions for robustness against unmatched uncertainties and disturbances are derived to establish the regions of asymptotic stabilization. The benefits of the proposed control method are also validated via numerical simulations to show that precise formation maintenance can be achieved by dealing with the issues of system nonlinearities, variations in initial conditions, and external disturbances, concurrently.

  12. Adaptive neural control of spacecraft using control moment gyros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeghim, Henzeh; Kim, Donghoon

    2015-03-01

    An adaptive control technique is applied to reorient spacecraft with uncertainty using control moment gyros. A nonlinear quaternion feedback law is chosen as a baseline controller. An additional adaptive control input supported by neural networks can estimate and eliminate unknown terms adaptively. The normalized input neural networks are considered for reliable computation of the adaptive input. To prove the stability of the closed-loop dynamics with the control law, the Lyapunov stability theory is considered. Accordingly, the proposed approach results in the uniform ultimate boundedness in tracking error. For reorientation maneuvers, control moment gyros are utilized with a well-known singularity problem described in this work investigated by predicting one-step ahead singularity index. A momentum vector recovery approach using magnetic torquers is also introduced to evaluate the avoidance strategies indirectly. Finally, the suggested methods are demonstrated by numerical simulation studies.

  13. The natural space environment: Effects on spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Bonnie F.; Norton, O. W. (Compiler); Alexander, Margaret B. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the natural space environments on spacecraft design, development, and operation are the topic of a series of NASA Reference Publications currently being developed by the Electromagnetics and Environments Branch, Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory, Marshall Space Flight Center. This primer provides an overview of the natural space environments and their effect on spacecraft design, development, and operations, and also highlights some of the new developments in science and technology for each space environment. It is hoped that a better understanding of the space environment and its effect on spacecraft will enable program management to more effectively minimize program risks and costs, optimize design quality, and successfully achieve mission objectives.

  14. Autonomic Computing for Spacecraft Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Jones, Lori

    2007-01-01

    Autonomic computing for spacecraft ground systems increases the system reliability and reduces the cost of spacecraft operations and software maintenance. In this paper, we present an autonomic computing solution for spacecraft ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which consists of an open standard for a message oriented architecture referred to as the GMSEC architecture (Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center), and an autonomic computing tool, the Criteria Action Table (CAT). This solution has been used in many upgraded ground systems for NASA 's missions, and provides a framework for developing solutions with higher autonomic maturity.

  15. Reactor power system/spacecraft integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elms, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The new national initiative in space reactor technology evaluation and development is strongly tied to mission applications and to spacecraft and space transportation system (STS) compatibility. This paper discusses the power system integration interfaces with potential using spacecraft and the STS, and the impact of these requirements on the design. The integration areas of interest are mechanical, thermal, electrical, attitude control, and mission environments. The mission environments include space vacuum, solar input, heat sink, space radiation, weapons effects, and reactor power system radiation environments. The natural, reactor, and weapons effects radiation must be evaluated and combined to define the design requirements for spacecraft electronic equipment.

  16. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  17. Spacecraft Charging Results from the SCATHA Satellite.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-15

    2028 WOC 1976 INCREASING 4 FL1CTRON 1 iNk ;4 ASIN(i 0 V SI 4 .p NL1H’Y 4 IkeV) 10 I140_ ..... .. KAPTON 1000 - -- VOLTAGE SPACECRAI; I I(I GROUND...for publication, 1980. 4. Mizera, P. F., "SSPM Charging Results," J. Spacecraft and Rockets, accepted for publication, 1980. 5. McPherson , D. A., D. P...Cauffman and W. R. Schober , "Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes: SCATHA Satellite Program," J. Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 12, No. 10, Oct. 1975

  18. Meteoroid-Induced Anomalies on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic meteoroid background is directional (not isotropic) and accounts for 90 percent of the meteoroid risk to a typical spacecraft. Meteor showers get all the press, but account for only approximately10 percent of spacecraft risk. Bias towards assigning meteoroid cause to anomalies during meteor showers. Vast majority of meteoroids come from comets and have a bulk density of approximately 1 gram per cubic centimeter (ice). High speed meteoroids (approximately 50 kilometers per second) can induce electrical anomalies in spacecraft through discharging of charged surfaces (also EMP (electromagnetic pulse?).

  19. The natural space environment: Effects on spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bonnie F.; Norton, O. W.; Alexander, Margaret B.

    1994-11-01

    The effects of the natural space environments on spacecraft design, development, and operation are the topic of a series of NASA Reference Publications currently being developed by the Electromagnetics and Environments Branch, Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory, Marshall Space Flight Center. This primer provides an overview of the natural space environments and their effect on spacecraft design, development, and operations, and also highlights some of the new developments in science and technology for each space environment. It is hoped that a better understanding of the space environment and its effect on spacecraft will enable program management to more effectively minimize program risks and costs, optimize design quality, and successfully achieve mission objectives.

  20. Embedded spacecraft thermal control using ultrasonic consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Jared W.

    Research has been completed in order to rapidly manufacture spacecraft thermal control technologies embedded in spacecraft structural panels using ultrasonic consolidation. This rapid manufacturing process enables custom thermal control designs in the time frame necessary for responsive space. Successfully embedded components include temperature sensors, heaters, wire harnessing, pre-manufactured heat pipes, and custom integral heat pipes. High conductivity inserts and custom integral pulsating heat pipes were unsuccessfully attempted. This research shows the viability of rapid manufacturing of spacecraft structures with embedded thermal control using ultrasonic consolidation.

  1. Reducing antenna mechanical noise in precision spacecraft tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, J. W.; Estabrook, F. B.; Asmar, S. W.; Iess, L.; Tortora, P.

    2008-06-01

    Doppler tracking of deep space probes is central to spacecraft navigation and many radio science investigations. The most sensitive Doppler observations to date were taken using the NASA/JPL Deep Space Network antenna DSS 25 (a 34 m diameter beam-waveguide station instrumented with simultaneous X- and Ka-band uplink and tropospheric scintillation calibration equipment) tracking the Cassini spacecraft. Those observations achieved Doppler fractional frequency stability (Doppler frequency fluctuation divided by center frequency, Δf/fo) ≈ 3 X 10-15 at 1000 s integration time. The leading noise in these very-high-sensitivity tracks was time-dependent unmodeled motion of the ground antenna's phase center (caused, e.g., by antenna sag as elevation angle changes, unmodeled subreflector motion, wind loading, bulk motion of the antenna as it rolled over irregularities in its azimuth ring, etc.). This antenna mechanical noise has seemed irreducible since it is not clear how to build a large, moving, steel structure with intrinsic mechanical stability better than that of current tracking stations. Here we show how intrinsic mechanical noise of a large tracking antenna can be suppressed when two-way Doppler tracking data and receive-only Doppler data from a stiffer antenna are combined with suitable delays. Using this time delay correction procedure, the mechanical noise in the final Doppler observable can be reduced to that of the stiffer antenna. We demonstrate proof-of-concept experimentally and briefly discuss some practical considerations.

  2. Development of a Robust star identification technique for use in attitude determination of the ACE spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Mark; Rohrbaugh, Dave

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft is designed to fly in a spin-stabilized attitude. The spacecraft will carry two attitude sensors - a digital fine Sun sensor and a charge coupled device (CCD) star tracker - to allow ground-based determination of the spacecraft attitude and spin rate. Part of the processing that must be performed on the CCD star tracker data is the star identification. Star data received from the spacecraft must be matched with star information in the SKYMAP catalog to determine exactly which stars the sensor is tracking. This information, along with the Sun vector measured by the Sun sensor, is used to determine the spacecraft attitude. Several existing star identification (star ID) systems were examined to determine whether they could be modified for use on the ACE mission. Star ID systems which exist for three-axis stabilized spacecraft tend to be complex in nature and many require fairly good knowledge of the spacecraft attitude, making their use for ACE excessive. Star ID systems used for spinners carrying traditional slit star sensors would have to be modified to model the CCD star tracker. The ACE star ID algorithm must also be robust, in that it will be able to correctly identify stars even though the attitude is not known to a high degree of accuracy, and must be very efficient to allow real-time star identification. The paper presents the star ID algorithm that was developed for ACE. Results from prototype testing are also presented to demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and robustness of the algorithm.

  3. Autonomy Architectures for a Constellation of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    Until the past few years, missions typically involved fairly large expensive spacecraft. Such missions have primarily favored using older proven technologies over more recently developed ones, and humans controlled spacecraft by manually generating detailed command sequences with low-level tools and then transmitting the sequences for subsequent execution on a spacecraft controller. This approach toward controlling a spacecraft has worked spectacularly on previous missions, but it has limitations deriving from communications restrictions - scheduling time to communicate with a particular spacecraft involves competing with other projects due to the limited number of deep space network antennae. This implies that a spacecraft can spend a long time just waiting whenever a command sequence fails. This is one reason why the New Millennium program has an objective to migrate parts of mission control tasks onboard a spacecraft to reduce wait time by making spacecraft more robust. The migrated software is called a "remote agent" and has 4 components: a mission manager to generate the high level goals, a planner/scheduler to turn goals into activities while reasoning about future expected situations, an executive/diagnostics engine to initiate and maintain activities while interpreting sensed events by reasoning about past and present situations, and a conventional real-time subsystem to interface with the spacecraft to implement an activity's primitive actions. In addition to needing remote planning and execution for isolated spacecraft, a trend toward multiple-spacecraft missions points to the need for remote distributed planning and execution. The past few years have seen missions with growing numbers of probes. Pathfinder has its rover (Sojourner), Cassini has its lander (Huygens), and the New Millenium Deep Space 3 (DS3) proposal involves a constellation of 3 spacecraft for interferometric mapping. This trend is expected to continue to progressively larger fleets. For

  4. Maneuver Design and Calibration for the Genesis Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Kenneth E.; Hong, Philip E.; Zietz, Richard P.; Han, Don

    2000-01-01

    Genesis is the fifth mission selected as part of NASA's Discovery Program. The objective of Genesis is to collect solar wind samples for a period of approximately two years while in a halo orbit about the Earth-Sun L I point. At the end of this period, the samples are to be returned to a specific recovery point on the Earth for subsequent analysis. This goal has never been attempted before and presents a formidable challenge in terms of mission design and operations, particularly planning and execution of propulsive maneuvers. To achieve a level of cost-effectiveness consistent with a Discovery-class mission, the Genesis spacecraft design was adapted to the maximum extent possible from designs used on earlier missions, such as Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Stardust, another sample collection mission. The spacecraft design for Genesis is shown. Spin stabilization was chosen for attitude control, in lieu of three-axis stabilization, with neither reaction wheels nor accelerometers included. This precludes closed-loop control of propulsive maneuvers and implies that any attitude changes, including spin changes and precessions, will behave like translational propulsive maneuvers and affect the spacecraft trajectory. Moreover, to minimize contamination risk to the samples collected, all thrusters were placed on the side opposite the sample collection canister. The orientation and characteristics of thrusters are indicated. For large maneuvers (>2.5 m/s), two 5 lbf thrusters will be used for delta v, with precession to the burn attitude, followed by spin-up from 1.6 to 10 rpm before the burn and spin down to 1.6 rpm afterwards, then precession back to the original spin attitude. For small maneuvers (<2.5 m/s), no spin change is needed and four 0.2 lbf thrusters are used for Av. Single or double 360 deg. precession changes are required whenever the desired delta v falls inside the two-way turn circle (about 0.4 m/s) based on the mass properties, spin rate and lever arm

  5. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  6. Spacecraft Pointing and Position Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Control Loop Electronics R. Rotor D. Transverse Oscillation Damper S. Stator E. Motor V. Clamping mechanism Fig.1 M 2-3 3.2 Torques applied to the...However, with the presence of a passive nutation damper and an onboard wobble control algorithm, nutation and wobble can be assumed negligible during...with a damper having a time constant chosen to provide overall stability. The power of such satellites i. limited by the size of the fixedf solar

  7. Cycle life test. [of secondary spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Statistical information concerning cell performance characteristics and limitations of secondary spacecraft cells is presented. Weaknesses in cell design as well as battery weaknesses encountered in various satellite programs are reported. Emphasis is placed on improving the reliability of space batteries.

  8. Spacecraft Multiple Array Communication System Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Desilva, Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations, design validation, and performance verification. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space and ground environment in which the tools operate. In this paper, a spacecraft communication system with multiple arrays is simulated. Multiple array combined technique is used to increase the radio frequency coverage and data rate performance. The technique is to achieve phase coherence among the phased arrays to combine the signals at the targeting receiver constructively. There are many technical challenges in spacecraft integration with a high transmit power communication system. The array combining technique can improve the communication system data rate and coverage performances without increasing the system transmit power requirements. Example simulation results indicate significant performance improvement can be achieved with phase coherence implementation.

  9. A Framework for Designing Optimal Spacecraft Formations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    3 1. Reference Frame ..................................................................................6 B. SOLVING OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEMS ........................................7...spacecraft state. Depending on the model, there may be additional variables in the state, but there will be a minimum of these six. B. SOLVING OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEMS Until

  10. Fire behavior and risk analysis in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    1988-01-01

    Practical risk management for present and future spacecraft, including space stations, involves the optimization of residual risks balanced by the spacecraft operational, technological, and economic limitations. Spacecraft fire safety is approached through three strategies, in order of risk: (1) control of fire-causing elements, through exclusion of flammable materials for example; (2) response to incipient fires through detection and alarm; and (3) recovery of normal conditions through extinguishment and cleanup. Present understanding of combustion in low gravity is that, compared to normal gravity behavior, fire hazards may be reduced by the absence of buoyant gas flows yet at the same time increased by ventilation flows and hot particle expulsion. This paper discusses the application of low-gravity combustion knowledge and appropriate aircraft analogies to fire detection, fire fighting, and fire-safety decisions for eventual fire-risk management and optimization in spacecraft.

  11. Aerothermodynamics of the Mars Global Surveyor Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shane, Russell W.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    The aerothermodynamics characteristics of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft are investigated and reported. These results have been used by the Mars Global Surveyor mission planners to design the aerobraking phase of the mission. Analytical and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo computer codes were used with a detailed, three dimensional model of the spacecraft to evaluate spacecraft aerobraking characteristics for flight in free molecular and transitional flow regimes. The spacecraft is found to be aerodynamically stable in aerobraking and planned contingency configurations. Aerodynamic forces, moments, and heating are found to be highly dependent on atmospheric density. Accommodation coefficient. is seen to strongly influence drag coefficient. Transitional flow effects are found to reduce overall solar panel heating. Attitude control thruster plumes are shown to interact with the freestream, diminishing the effectiveness of the attitude control system and even leading to thrust reversal. These plume-freestream interaction effects are found to be highly dependent on freestream density.

  12. NASA's Orion Spacecraft Undergoes Water Landing Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 25, 2016, the Orion spacecraft underwent a water drop test at the Hydro Impact Basin at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. Join host Eric Gillard, of NASA Langley, and g...

  13. Spacecraft (Mobile Satellite) configuration design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The relative costs to procure and operate a two-satellite mobile satellite system designed to operate either in the UHF band of the L Band, and with several antenna diameter options in each frequency band was investigated. As configured, the size of the spacecraft is limited to the current RCA Series 4000 Geosynchronous Communications Spacecraft bus, which spans the range from 4000 to 5800 pounds in the transfer orbit. The Series 4000 bus forms the basis around which the Mobile Satellite transponder and associated antennas were appended. Although the resultant configuration has little outward resemblance to the present Series 4000 microwave communications spacecraft, the structure, attitude control, thermal, power, and command and control subsystems of the Series 4000 spacecraft are all adapted to support the Mobile Satellite mission.

  14. Launch of the MR-2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Launching of the Mercury-Redstone 2 (MR-3) spacecraft from Cape Canaveral on a suborbital mission. Onboard the craft was Ham, a 37-pound chimpanzee. Despite an over-acceleration factor, the flight was considered to be successful.

  15. December 2008 CME as Viewed by Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    Newly reprocessed images from NASA's STEREO-A spacecraft, allow scientists to trace the anatomy of the December 2008 CME as it moves and changes on its journey from the Sun to the Earth, identify t...

  16. NASA Team Captures Hayabusa Spacecraft Reentry

    NASA Video Gallery

    A group of astronomers from NASA, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and other organizations had a front row seat to observe the Hayabusa spacecraft's fiery plunge into Earth's atmospher...

  17. Last Flight for GRAIL's Twin Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the final flight path for NASA’s twin GravityRecovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission spacecraft, which willimpact the moon on Dec. 17, 2012, around 2:28 p.m. PST. ...

  18. Industry perspectives on Plug-& -Play Spacecraft Avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, R.; Graven, P.; Liptak, L.

    This paper describes the methodologies and findings from an industry survey of awareness and utility of Spacecraft Plug-& -Play Avionics (SPA). The survey was conducted via interviews, in-person and teleconference, with spacecraft prime contractors and suppliers. It focuses primarily on AFRL's SPA technology development activities but also explores the broader applicability and utility of Plug-& -Play (PnP) architectures for spacecraft. Interviews include large and small suppliers as well as large and small spacecraft prime contractors. Through these “ product marketing” interviews, awareness and attitudes can be assessed, key technical and market barriers can be identified, and opportunities for improvement can be uncovered. Although this effort focuses on a high-level assessment, similar processes can be used to develop business cases and economic models which may be necessary to support investment decisions.

  19. Failure Modes Experienced on Spacecraft Nicd Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1985-01-01

    A review was made of failures and irregularities experienced on nickel cadmium batteries for 31 spacecraft. Only rarely did batteries fail completely. In many cases, poorly performing batteries were compensated for by a reduction in loads or by continuing to operate in spite of out-of-voltage conditions. Low discharge voltage was the most common problem observed in flight spacecraft (42%). Spacecraft batteries are often designed to protect against cell shorts, but cell shorts accounted for only 16% of the failures. Other causes of problems were high charge voltage (16%), battery problems caused by other elements of the spacecraft (10%), and open circuit failures (6%). Problems of miscellaneous or unknown causes occurred in 10% of the cases.

  20. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

  1. Spacecraft radiators for advanced mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Design requirements for spacecraft heat rejection systems are identified, and their impact on the construction of conventional pumped fluid and hybrid heat pipe/pumped fluid radiators is evaluated. Heat rejection systems to improve the performance or reduce the cost of the spacecraft are proposed. Heat rejection requirements which are large compared to those of existing systems and mission durations which are relatively long, are discussed.

  2. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, D. E.; Harkness, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    A life cycle test of secondary electric batteries for spacecraft applications was conducted. A sample number of nickel cadmium batteries were subjected to general performance tests to determine the limit of their actual capabilities. Weaknesses discovered in cell design are reported and aid in research and development efforts toward improving the reliability of spacecraft batteries. A statistical analysis of the life cycle prediction and cause of failure versus test conditions is provided.

  3. Neutralization tests on the SERT 2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Domitz, S.

    1979-01-01

    Neutralization test data obtained on the SERT 2 spacecraft are presented. Tests included ion beam neutralization of a thruster by a close (normal design) neutralizer as well as by a distant (1 meter) neutralizer. Parameters affecting neutralization, such as neutralizer bias voltage, neutralizer anode voltage, local spacecraft plasma density, and solar array voltage configuration were varied and changes in plasma potentials were measured. A plasma model is presented as an approximation of observed results.

  4. Taurus lightweight manned spacecraft Earth orbiting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Kevin A.; Vandersall, Eric J.; Plotkin, Jennifer; Travisano, Jeffrey J.; Loveless, Dennis; Kaczmarek, Michael; White, Anthony G.; Est, Andy; Bulla, Gregory; Henry, Chris

    1991-01-01

    The Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft (LMS) was developed by students of the University of Maryland's Aerospace Engineering course in Space Vehicle Design. That course required students to design an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS) to augment or replace the Space Transportation System and meet the following design requirements: (1) launch on the Taurus Booster being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation; (2) 99.9 percent assured crew survival rate; (3) technology cutoff data of 1 Jan. 1991; (4) compatibility with current space administration infrastructure; and (5) first flight by May 1995. The Taurus LMS design meets the above requirements and represents an initial step towards larger and more complex spacecraft. The Taurus LMS has a very limited application when compared to the Space Shuttle, but it demonstrates that the U.S. can have a safe, reliable, and low cost space system. The Taurus LMS is a short mission duration spacecraft designed to place one man into low earth orbit (LEO). The driving factor for this design was the low payload carrying capabilities of the Taurus Booster--1300 kg to a 300 km orbit. The Taurus LMS design is divided into six major design sections. The human factors system deals with the problems of life support and spacecraft cooling. The propulsion section contains the abort system, the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), the Reaction Control System (RCS), and power generation. The thermal protection systems and spacecraft structure are contained in the structures section. The avionics section includes navigation, attitude determination, data processing, communication systems, and sensors. The mission analysis section was responsible for ground processing and spacecraft astrodynamics. The systems integration section pulled the above sections together into one spacecraft and addressed costing and reliability.

  5. Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft Earth orbiting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosset, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft (LMS) was developed by students of the University of Maryland's Aerospace Engineering course in Space Vehicle Design. That course required students to design an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS) to augment or replace the Space Transportation System and meet the following design requirements: (1) launch on the Taurus Booster being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation; (2) 99.9 percent assured crew survival rate; (3) technology cutoff date of 1 Jan. 1991; (4) compatibility with current space administration infrastructure; and (5) first flight by May 1995. The Taurus LMS design meets the above requirements and represents an initial step toward larger and more complex spacecraft. The Taurus LMS has a very limited application when compared to the space shuttle, but it demonstrates that the U.S. can have a safe, reliable, and low-cost space system. The Taurus LMS is a short mission duration spacecraft designed to place one man into low Earth orbit (LEO). The driving factor for this design was the low payload carrying capabilities of the Taurus Booster - 1300 kg to a 300-km orbit. The Taurus LMS design is divided into six major design sections. The Human Factors section deals with the problems of life support and spacecraft cooling. The Propulsion section contains the Abort System, the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), the Reaction Control System (RCS), and Power Generation. The thermal protection systems and spacecraft structure are contained in the Structures section. The Avionics section includes Navigation, Attitude Determination, Data Processing, Communication systems, and Sensors. The Mission Analysis section was responsible for ground processing and spacecraft astrodynamics. The Systems Integration Section pulled the above sections together into one spacecraft, and addressed costing and reliability.

  6. Atmosphere Explorer (AE) spacecraft system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The principal design and performance characteristics of the AE spacecraft system designed to support the Atmosphere Explorer C, D, and E missions are summarized. It has been prepared for the information of experimenters and other participants in the Atmosphere Explorer program as a general guide for design and operational planning. The description represents the spacecraft system as defined at the conclusion of the interface definition study.

  7. Power requirements for commercial communications spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billerbeck, W. J.

    Historical data on commercial spacecraft power systems are presented and their power requirements to the growth of satellite communications channel usage are related. Some approaches for estimating future power requirements of this class of spacecraft through the year 2000 are proposed. The key technology drivers in satellite power systems are addressed. Several technological trends in such systems are described, focusing on the most useful areas for research and development of major subsystems, including solar arrays, energy storage, and power electronics equipment.

  8. An Integrated Architecture for Onboard Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueiredo, Marco A.; Stakem, Patrick H.; Flatley, Thomas P.; Hines, Tonjua M.

    1999-01-01

    As increasingly complex scientific and environmental observation spacecraft are deployed, the burden on the downlink assets, and ground-based systems complexity and cost is becoming a major problem. Already, the limitations of communications bandwidth and processing throughput limit the science data gathering, both in volume and in rate. This poses a dilemma to the scientist experimenter forcing choices between data collection and bandwidth/processing/archiving. Advances in ground based processing and space-to-Earth links have fallen behind the requirements for observation data, at increasing rates, over the last few decades. As NASA achieves its 40th anniversary, the ability to observe and capture phenomena of theoretical and practical interest to life on Earth far outstrips the ability to transfer, process, or store these data. NASA recognizes the need to invest on technological advancements that will enable both the space and ground systems to address the limitations. Spacecraft onboard computing power is a clear one. The capability of creating data products onboard the spacecraft adds a new level of flexibility to address the more demanding observation needs. Current spacecraft computing power is limited and incapable of addressing the needs of the new generation of observation satellites because extensive onboard data processing is required. Traditional spacecraft architectures only collect, package, and transmit to Earth the data acquired by multiple instruments. Conversely, the experience on developing ground data systems shows the need for high performance computing systems to process and create information from the instrumentation data. The expectation is that supercomputing technology is required to enable spacecraft to create information onboard. Moving supercomputing capability onboard spacecraft requires an approach that considers an integrated data architecture. Otherwise, it may simply convert a compute-bound problem into a communications bound

  9. Spacecraft high-voltage power supply construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. F.; Stern, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The design techniques, circuit components, fabrication techniques, and past experience used in successful high-voltage power supplies for spacecraft flight systems are described. A discussion of the basic physics of electrical discharges in gases is included and a design rationale for the prevention of electrical discharges is provided. Also included are typical examples of proven spacecraft high-voltage power supplies with typical specifications for design, fabrication, and testing.

  10. Planning the Voyager spacecraft's mission to Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plagemann, Stephen H.

    1987-01-01

    The application of the systems engineering process to the planning of the Voyager spacecraft mission is described. The Mission Planning Office prepared guidelines that controlled the use of the project and multimission resources and spacecraft consumables in order to obtain valuable scientific data at an acceptable risk level. Examples of mission planning which are concerned with the design of the Deep Space Network antenna, the uplink window for transmitting computer command subsystem loads, and the contingency and risk assessment functions are presented.

  11. A Method for Governing Spacecraft Evasive Maneuvering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    countermeasures fail to prevent detection of the spacecraft, or fail to deceive, confuse, or destroy the attacker. To maneuver effectively , the...cept is concluded to be imminent, the spacecraft must be able to plan and carry-out effective evasive maneuvers based on information which is timely...hostile force deployments, and support the command and control of mil- itary operations. In fact, an effective and survivable satellite network is

  12. Expedition Seven Launched Aboard Soyez Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. Aboard are Expedition Seven crew members, cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander, and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer. Expedition Six crew members returned to Earth aboard the Russian spacecraft after a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS. Photo credit: NASA/Scott Andrews

  13. 10 K Spacecraft Cryocooler Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    PL-TR-96-1115 PL-TR- 96-1115 10 K SPACECRAFT CRYOCOOLER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Larry D. Crawford Aerojet Electronic Systems Division P. 0. Box 296 Azusa...covered (from... to) July 1996 Final 09/92 to 11/94 4. Title & subtitle 5a. Contract or Grant # 10 K Spacecraft Cryocooler Development Program F29601...reports were not followed for this technical report. 14. Abstract The purpose of this project was to develop cryocooler technology capable of providing

  14. Trajectory Control and Optimization for Responsive Spacecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    36 3.2.2 Controlling the Position of the Spacecraft Within the Orbit . . 37 vi Page 3.2.3 Thrust-coast Duty...focuses on methods for performing minimum time in-plane maneuvers. The optimal control problem for an orbiting spacecraft perturbed by a small, constant...focuses on feedback control methods for performing in-plane maneuvers. Lyapunov theory is applied to the nonlinear equations of motion for an orbiting space

  15. Lunar Scout Two spacecraft gravity experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew F.

    1993-03-01

    Measurement of the gravity field of the Moon has a high science priority because of its implications for the internal structure and thermal history of the Moon, and it has a high priority for future exploration activities because of the influence of lunar gravity on spacecraft navigation and orbit maintenance. The current state of knowledge in the lunar gravity field (and the uncertainty in the knowledge) is based primarily on data accumulated from the Lunar Orbiter and Apollo programs. Data are sparse and emphasize the equatorial band (+/- 30 deg) on the near side of the Moon. There are no tracking data on the far side and only the Lunar Orbiter 5 provides a small amount of high inclination data. A host of gravity models developed from different combinations of tracking data have large discrepancies in their predictions of spacecraft motion and orbit lifetimes. There are also large disagreements in the Mercator projections of the gravity acceleration from each model, especially on the far side, where the contours tend to have no obvious relationship with the local topography. The science and engineering requirements for global gravity field mapping will be satisfied with continuous radio metric tracking of Lunar Scout 1 in a low polar orbit using the Deep Space Network and Lunar Scout 2 in a high elliptical orbit. The gravity field of the Moon will be mapped during the Scout Program using a two spacecraft concept. In the two spacecraft concept, one spacecraft is placed in a high altitude eccentric orbit while the second spacecraft is in a low altitude polar orbit. The gravity experiment requires a radio frequency that will permit two-way Doppler tracking between the spacecraft and the Deep Space Network (DSN). Both spacecraft carry NASA standard transponder systems for data transmission to Earth as well as for tracking and orbit determination. Data sufficient to produce a gravity field map could be acquired within one month with this system.

  16. Lunar Scout Two spacecraft gravity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Andrew F.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of the gravity field of the Moon has a high science priority because of its implications for the internal structure and thermal history of the Moon, and it has a high priority for future exploration activities because of the influence of lunar gravity on spacecraft navigation and orbit maintenance. The current state of knowledge in the lunar gravity field (and the uncertainty in the knowledge) is based primarily on data accumulated from the Lunar Orbiter and Apollo programs. Data are sparse and emphasize the equatorial band (+/- 30 deg) on the near side of the Moon. There are no tracking data on the far side and only the Lunar Orbiter 5 provides a small amount of high inclination data. A host of gravity models developed from different combinations of tracking data have large discrepancies in their predictions of spacecraft motion and orbit lifetimes. There are also large disagreements in the Mercator projections of the gravity acceleration from each model, especially on the far side, where the contours tend to have no obvious relationship with the local topography. The science and engineering requirements for global gravity field mapping will be satisfied with continuous radio metric tracking of Lunar Scout 1 in a low polar orbit using the Deep Space Network and Lunar Scout 2 in a high elliptical orbit. The gravity field of the Moon will be mapped during the Scout Program using a two spacecraft concept. In the two spacecraft concept, one spacecraft is placed in a high altitude eccentric orbit while the second spacecraft is in a low altitude polar orbit. The gravity experiment requires a radio frequency that will permit two-way Doppler tracking between the spacecraft and the Deep Space Network (DSN). Both spacecraft carry NASA standard transponder systems for data transmission to Earth as well as for tracking and orbit determination. Data sufficient to produce a gravity field map could be acquired within one month with this system.

  17. Attitude Estimation in Fractionated Spacecraft Cluster Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Blackmore, James C.

    2011-01-01

    An attitude estimation was examined in fractioned free-flying spacecraft. Instead of a single, monolithic spacecraft, a fractionated free-flying spacecraft uses multiple spacecraft modules. These modules are connected only through wireless communication links and, potentially, wireless power links. The key advantage of this concept is the ability to respond to uncertainty. For example, if a single spacecraft module in the cluster fails, a new one can be launched at a lower cost and risk than would be incurred with onorbit servicing or replacement of the monolithic spacecraft. In order to create such a system, however, it is essential to know what the navigation capabilities of the fractionated system are as a function of the capabilities of the individual modules, and to have an algorithm that can perform estimation of the attitudes and relative positions of the modules with fractionated sensing capabilities. Looking specifically at fractionated attitude estimation with startrackers and optical relative attitude sensors, a set of mathematical tools has been developed that specify the set of sensors necessary to ensure that the attitude of the entire cluster ( cluster attitude ) can be observed. Also developed was a navigation filter that can estimate the cluster attitude if these conditions are satisfied. Each module in the cluster may have either a startracker, a relative attitude sensor, or both. An extended Kalman filter can be used to estimate the attitude of all modules. A range of estimation performances can be achieved depending on the sensors used and the topology of the sensing network.

  18. Proximity operations considerations affecting spacecraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staas, Steven K.

    1991-01-01

    Experience from several recent spacecraft development programs, such as Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) has shown the need for factoring proximity operations considerations into the vehicle design process. Proximity operations, those orbital maneuvers and procedures which involve operation of two or more spacecraft at ranges of less than one nautical mile, are essential to the construction, servicing, and operation of complex spacecraft. Typical proximity operations considerations which drive spacecraft design may be broken into two broad categories; flight profile characteristics and concerns, and use of various spacecraft systems during proximity operations. Proximity operations flight profile concerns include the following: (1) relative approach/separation line; (2) relative orientation of the vehicles; (3) relative translational and rotational rates; (4) vehicle interaction, in the form of thruster plume impingement, mating or demating operations, or uncontrolled contact/collision; and (5) active vehicle piloting. Spacecraft systems used during proximity operations include the following: (1) sensors, such as radar, laser ranging devices, or optical ranging systems; (2) effector hardware, such as thrusters; (3) flight control software; and (4) mating hardware, needed for docking or berthing operations. A discussion of how these factors affect vehicle design follows, addressing both active and passive/cooperative vehicles.

  19. DMSP Spacecraft Charging in Auroral Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, Andrew; Minow, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft are a series of low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites whose mission is to observe the space environment using the precipitating energetic particle spectrometer (SSJ/4-5). DMSP satellites fly in a geosynchronous orbit at approx.840 km altitude which passes through Earth s ionosphere. The ionosphere is a region of partially ionized gas (plasma) formed by the photoionization of neutral atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere of Earth. For satellites in LEO, such as DMSP, the plasma density is usually high and the main contributors to the currents to the spacecraft are the precipitating auroral electrons and ions from the magnetosphere as well as the cold plasma that constitutes the ionosphere. It is important to understand how the ionosphere and auroral electrons can accumulate surface charges on satellites because spacecraft charging has been the cause of a number of significant anomalies for on-board instrumentation on high altitude spacecraft. These range from limiting the sensitivity of measurements to instrument malfunction depending on the magnitude of the potential difference over the spacecraft surface. Interactive Data Language (IDL) software was developed to process SSJ/4-5 electron and ion data and to create a spectrogram of the particles number and energy fluxes. The purpose of this study is to identify DMSP spacecraft charging events and to present a preliminary statistical analysis. Nomenclature

  20. Radiation Effects on Spacecraft Structural Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An J.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Hunter, Hamilton T.; Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.

    2002-07-01

    Research is being conducted to develop an integrated technology for the prediction of aging behavior for space structural materials during service. This research will utilize state-of-the-art radiation experimental apparatus and analysis, updated codes and databases, and integrated mechanical and radiation testing techniques to investigate the suitability of numerous current and potential spacecraft structural materials. Also included are the effects on structural materials in surface modules and planetary landing craft, with or without fission power supplies. Spacecraft structural materials would also be in hostile radiation environments on the surface of the moon and planets without appreciable atmospheres and moons around planets with large intense magnetic and radiation fields (such as the Jovian moons). The effects of extreme temperature cycles in such locations compounds the effects of radiation on structural materials. This paper describes the integrated methodology in detail and shows that it will provide a significant technological advance for designing advanced spacecraft. This methodology will also allow for the development of advanced spacecraft materials through the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of material degradation in the space radiation environment. Thus, this technology holds a promise for revolutionary advances in material damage prediction and protection of space structural components as, for example, in the development of guidelines for managing surveillance programs regarding the integrity of spacecraft components, and the safety of the aging spacecraft. (authors)

  1. Standardizing the information architecture for spacecraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an information architecture developed for the Space Station Freedom as a model from which to derive an information architecture standard for advanced spacecraft. The information architecture provides a way of making information available across a program, and among programs, assuming that the information will be in a variety of local formats, structures and representations. It provides a format that can be expanded to define all of the physical and logical elements that make up a program, add definitions as required, and import definitions from prior programs to a new program. It allows a spacecraft and its control center to work in different representations and formats, with the potential for supporting existing spacecraft from new control centers. It supports a common view of data and control of all spacecraft, regardless of their own internal view of their data and control characteristics, and of their communications standards, protocols and formats. This information architecture is central to standardizing spacecraft operations, in that it provides a basis for information transfer and translation, such that diverse spacecraft can be monitored and controlled in a common way.

  2. Compact, Precise Inertial Rotation Sensors for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosing, David; Oseas, Jeffrey; Korechoff, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A document describes a concept for an inertial sensor for measuring the rotation of an inertially stable spacecraft around its center of gravity to within 100 microarcseconds or possibly even higher precision. Whereas a current proposal for a spacecraft-rotation sensor of this accuracy requires one spacecraft dimension on the order of ten meters, a sensor according to this proposal could fit within a package smaller than 1 meter and would have less than a tenth of the mass. According to the concept, an inertial mass and an apparatus for monitoring the mass would be placed at some known distance from the center of gravity so that any rotation of the spacecraft would cause relative motion between the mass and the spacecraft. The relative motion would be measured and, once the displacement of the mass exceeded a prescribed range, a precisely monitored restoring force would be applied to return the mass to a predetermined position. Measurements of the relative motion and restoring force would provide information on changes in the attitude of the spacecraft. A history of relative motion and restoring-force measurements could be kept, enabling determination of the cumulative change in attitude during the observation time.

  3. Real-Time EDL Navigation Performance Using Spacecraft to Spacecraft Radiometric Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhart, P. Daniel; Ely, Todd; Duncan, Courtney; Lightsey, Glenn; Campbell, Todd; Mogensen, Andy

    2006-01-01

    A two-year task sponsored by NASA's Mars Technology Program's Advanced Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) work area includes investigation of improvements to EDL navigation by processing spacecraft-to-spacecraft radiometric data. Spacecraft-to-spacecraft navigation will take advantage of the UHF link between two spacecraft (i.e. to an orbiter from an approaching lander for EDL telemetry relay) to build radiometric data, specifically the velocity between the two spacecraft along the radio beam, that are processed to determine position and velocity in real time. The improved onboard state knowledge provided by spacecraft-to-spacecraft navigation will improve the performance of entry guidance by providing a more accurate state estimate and ultimately reduce the landed position error. A previous paper documented the progress of the first year of this task, including the spacecraft definitions, selection and documentation of the required algorithms and analysis results used to define the algorithm set. The final year of this task is reported here. Topics include modifications to the previously selected algorithm set for implementation, and performance of the implemented algorithms in a stand-alone filter, on an emulator of the target processor and finally on a breadboard processing unit.

  4. Unique Features of Dynamic Isotope Power Systems for High-Requirements Spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, Bernard

    1980-08-01

    The Dynamic Isotope Power System, designed for spacecraft requiring prime power in the 500-to-2000 watt range, has been successfully built and ground tested. A number of studies, summarized herein, have demonstrated the advantages of using such a power system instead of the conventional solar system, for a variety of earth-orbit missions. These advantages stem from the unique nature of the dynamic isotope system, different in kind from solar power systems. As a result, in many cases, the spacecraft design can be significantly simplified and more closely harmonized with mission requirements. This overall advantage can be crucial in missions which have stringent pointing, stability, viewing and/or positioning requirements.

  5. Active nutation control of an asymmetric spacecraft using an axial reaction wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahmohamadi Ousaloo, Hamed

    2016-12-01

    The focus of this paper is to develop a control scheme for overcoming the nutational motion of an asymmetric spin satellite regardless of its spin-to-transverse inertia ratio using a single reaction wheel mounted along the desired spin axis. In this strategy the basic Proportional-Derivative (PD) controller is acted on the precession angle error and, moreover, Lyapunov stability is applied for creating positive spin rate using proper precession command. A Monte Carlo type approach is used to verify the stability for various inertia ratios. The control system makes use of only angular velocity of wheel and spacecraft angular rates to stabilize spin. This active nutation controller globally and asymptotically stabilizes the spacecraft about a revolute motion and provides automatically logical recovery of desired positive spin from any initial state. This straightforward attitude recovery technique does not require accurate estimates of spacecraft inertias and various simulation results demonstrate that stability is not affected by various inertia ratios. Numerical simulations confirm that the approach has typically robust performance.

  6. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative program is underway to address open issues in spacecraft fire safety. Because of limited access to long-term low-gravity conditions and the small volume generally allotted for these experiments, there have been relatively few experiments that directly study spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample sizes and environment conditions typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. The major constraint has been the size of the sample, with prior experiments limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. This lack of experimental data forces spacecraft designers to base their designs and safety precautions on 1-g understanding of flame spread, fire detection, and suppression. However, low-gravity combustion research has demonstrated substantial differences in flame behavior in low-gravity. This, combined with the differences caused by the confined spacecraft environment, necessitates practical scale spacecraft fire safety research to mitigate risks for future space missions. To address this issue, a large-scale spacecraft fire experiment is under development by NASA and an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status, and concept of this collaborative international project (Saffire). The project plan is to conduct fire safety experiments on three sequential flights of an unmanned ISS re-supply spacecraft (the Orbital Cygnus vehicle) after they have completed their delivery of cargo to the ISS and have begun their return journeys to earth. On two flights (Saffire-1 and Saffire-3), the experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter-scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. On one of the flights (Saffire-2), 9 smaller (5 x 30 cm) samples will be tested to evaluate NASAs material flammability screening tests

  7. Modeling the fundamental characteristics and processes of the spacecraft functioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazhenov, V. I.; Osin, M. I.; Zakharov, Y. V.

    1986-01-01

    The fundamental aspects of modeling of spacecraft characteristics by using computing means are considered. Particular attention is devoted to the design studies, the description of physical appearance of the spacecraft, and simulated modeling of spacecraft systems. The fundamental questions of organizing the on-the-ground spacecraft testing and the methods of mathematical modeling were presented.

  8. 6 DOF synchronized control for spacecraft formation flying with input constraint and parameter uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yueyong; Hu, Qinglei; Ma, Guangfu; Zhou, Jiakang

    2011-10-01

    This paper treats the problem of synchronized control of spacecraft formation flying (SFF) in the presence of input constraint and parameter uncertainties. More specifically, backstepping based robust control is first developed for the total 6 DOF dynamic model of SFF with parameter uncertainties, in which the model consists of relative translation and attitude rotation. Then this controller is redesigned to deal with the input constraint problem by incorporating a command filter such that the generated control could be implementable even under physical or operating constraints on the control input. The convergence of the proposed control algorithms is proved by the Lyapunov stability theorem. Compared with conventional methods, illustrative simulations of spacecraft formation flying are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach to achieve the spacecraft track the desired attitude and position trajectories in a synchronized fashion even in the presence of uncertainties, external disturbances and control saturation constraint.

  9. Precise Orbit Determination for LEO Spacecraft Using GNSS Tracking Data from Multiple Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Da; Bertiger, William; Desai, Shailen; Haines, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    To support various applications, certain Earth-orbiting spacecrafts (e.g., SRTM, COSMIC) use multiple GNSS antennas to provide tracking data for precise orbit determination (POD). POD using GNSS tracking data from multiple antennas poses some special technical issues compared to the typical single-antenna approach. In this paper, we investigate some of these issues using both real and simulated data. Recommendations are provided for POD with multiple GNSS antennas and for antenna configuration design. The observability of satellite position with multiple antennas data is compared against single antenna case. The impact of differential clock (line biases) and line-of-sight (up, along-track, and cross-track) on kinematic and reduced-dynamic POD is evaluated. The accuracy of monitoring the stability of the spacecraft structure by simultaneously performing POD of the spacecraft and relative positioning of the multiple antennas is also investigated.

  10. Dynamic modeling and optimal control of spacecraft with flexible structures undergoing general attitude maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yiing-Yuh; Lin, Gern-Liang

    1992-08-01

    In this research, the dynamics and control of a rigid spacecraft with flexible structures were studied for the case of optimal simultaneous multiaxis reorientation. A model spacecraft consisting of a rigid hub in the middle and two solid bodies symmetrically connected to either side of the hub through uniformly distributed flexible beams is considered for the dynamic analysis and control simulation. To optimally reorienting the spacecraft, an optimal nominal control trajectory is found first through an iterative procedure. Linear flexural deformations are assumed for the beam structures and the assumed modes method is applied to find the vibration control law of the beams. The system overall optimal attitude control is achieved by following the open loop optimal reference control trajectory with an stabilizing guidance law.

  11. Sheath ionization model of beam emissions from large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, S. T.; Cohen, H. A.; Bhavnani, K. H.; Tautz, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical model of the charging of a spacecraft emitting electron and ion beams has been applied to the case of large spacecraft. In this model, ionization occurs in the sheath due to the return current. Charge neutralization of spherical space charge flow is examined by solving analytical equations numerically. Parametric studies of potential large spacecraft are performed. As in the case of small spacecraft, the ions created in the sheath by the returning current play a large role in determining spacecraft potential.

  12. Spacecraft-spacecraft very long baseline interferometry. Part 1: Error modeling and observable accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, C. D., Jr.; Border, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    In Part 1 of this two-part article, an error budget is presented for Earth-based delta differential one-way range (delta DOR) measurements between two spacecraft. Such observations, made between a planetary orbiter (or lander) and another spacecraft approaching that planet, would provide a powerful target-relative angular tracking data type for approach navigation. Accuracies of better than 5 nrad should be possible for a pair of spacecraft with 8.4-GHz downlinks, incorporating 40-MHz DOR tone spacings, while accuracies approaching 1 nrad will be possible if the spacecraft incorporate 32-GHz downlinks with DOR tone spacing on the order of 250 MHz; these accuracies will be available for the last few weeks or months of planetary approach for typical Earth-Mars trajectories. Operational advantages of this data type are discussed, and ground system requirements needed to enable spacecraft-spacecraft delta DOR observations are outlined. This tracking technique could be demonstrated during the final approach phase of the Mars '94 mission, using Mars Observer as the in-orbit reference spacecraft, if the Russian spacecraft includes an 8.4-GHz downlink incorporating DOR tones. Part 2 of this article will present an analysis of predicted targeting accuracy for this scenario.

  13. Automating Trend Analysis for Spacecraft Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, George; Cooter, Miranda; Updike, Clark; Carey, Everett; Mackey, Jennifer; Rykowski, Timothy; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft trend analysis is a vital mission operations function performed by satellite controllers and engineers, who perform detailed analyses of engineering telemetry data to diagnose subsystem faults and to detect trends that may potentially lead to degraded subsystem performance or failure in the future. It is this latter function that is of greatest importance, for careful trending can often predict or detect events that may lead to a spacecraft's entry into safe-hold. Early prediction and detection of such events could result in the avoidance of, or rapid return to service from, spacecraft safing, which not only results in reduced recovery costs but also in a higher overall level of service for the satellite system. Contemporary spacecraft trending activities are manually intensive and are primarily performed diagnostically after a fault occurs, rather than proactively to predict its occurrence. They also tend to rely on information systems and software that are oudated when compared to current technologies. When coupled with the fact that flight operations teams often have limited resources, proactive trending opportunities are limited, and detailed trend analysis is often reserved for critical responses to safe holds or other on-orbit events such as maneuvers. While the contemporary trend analysis approach has sufficed for current single-spacecraft operations, it will be unfeasible for NASA's planned and proposed space science constellations. Missions such as the Dynamics, Reconnection and Configuration Observatory (DRACO), for example, are planning to launch as many as 100 'nanospacecraft' to form a homogenous constellation. A simple extrapolation of resources and manpower based on single-spacecraft operations suggests that trending for such a large spacecraft fleet will be unmanageable, unwieldy, and cost-prohibitive. It is therefore imperative that an approach to automating the spacecraft trend analysis function be studied, developed, and applied to

  14. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  15. Spacecraft Charging Issues for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burford, Janessa Lynne; Trout, Dawn H.; Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft charging is well known threat to successful long term spacecraft operations and instrument reliability in orbits that spend significant time in hot electron environments. In recent years, spacecraft charging has increasingly been recognized as a potentially significant engineering issue for launch vehicles used to deploy spacecraft using (a) low Earth orbit (LEO), high inclination flight trajectories that pass through the auroral zone, (b) geostationary transfer orbits that require exposures to the hot electron environments in the Earths outer radiation belts, and (c) LEO escape trajectories using multiple phasing orbits through the Earths radiation belts while raising apogee towards a final Earth escape geometry. Charging becomes an issue when significant areas of exposed insulating materials or ungrounded conductors are used in the launch vehicle design or the payload is designed for use in a benign charging region beyond the Earths magnetosphere but must survive passage through the strong charging regimes of the Earths radiation belts. This presentation will first outline the charging risks encountered on typical launch trajectories used to deploy spacecraft into Earth orbit and Earth escape trajectories. We then describe the process used by NASAs Launch Services Program to evaluate when surface and internal charging is a potential risk to a NASA mission. Finally, we describe the options for mitigating charging risks including modification of the launch vehicle and/or payload design and controlling the risk through operational launch constraints to avoid significant charging environments

  16. A programmable heater control circuit for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, D. D.; Owen, J. W.; Smith, D. A.; Lewter, W. J.

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal control is accomplished for many components through use of multilayer insulation systems, electrical heaters, and radiator systems. The heaters are commanded to maintain component temperatures within design specifications. The programmable heater control circuit (PHCC) was designed to obtain an effective and efficient means of spacecraft thermal control. The hybrid circuit provides use of control instrumentation as temperature data, available to the spacecraft central data system, reprogramming capability of the local microprocessor during the spacecraft's mission, and the elimination of significant spacecraft wiring. The hybrid integrated circuit has a temperature sensing and conditioning circuit, a microprocessor, and a heater power and control circuit. The device is miniature and housed in a volume which allows physical integration with the component to be controlled. Applications might include alternate battery-powered logic-circuit configurations. A prototype unit with appropriate physical and functional interfaces was procured for testing. The physical functionality and the feasibility of fabrication of the hybrid integrated circuit were successfully verified. The remaining work to develop a flight-qualified device includes fabrication and testing of a Mil-certified part. An option for completing the PHCC flight qualification testing is to enter into a joint venture with industry.

  17. Spacecraft design project multipurpose satellite bus MPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellman, Lyle; Riley, John; Szostak, Michael; Watkins, Joseph; Willhelm, Joseph; Yale, Gary

    1990-01-01

    The thrust of this project was to design not a single spacecraft, but to design a multimission bus capable of supporting several current payloads and unnamed, unspecified future payloads. Spiraling costs of spacecraft and shrinking defense budgets necessitated a fresh look at the feasibility of a multimission spacecraft bus. The design team chose two very diverse and different payloads, and along with them two vastly different orbits, to show that multimission spacecraft buses are an area where indeed more research and effort needs to be made. Tradeoffs, of course, were made throughout the design, but optimization of subsystem components limited weight and volume penalties, performance degradation, and reliability concerns. Simplicity was chosen over more complex, sophisticated and usually more efficient designs. Cost of individual subsystem components was not a primary concern in the design phase, but every effort was made to chose flight tested and flight proven hardware. Significant cost savings could be realized if a standard spacecraft bus was indeed designed and purchased in finite quantities.

  18. Relative orbit control of collocated geostationary spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rausch, Raoul R.

    A relative orbit control concept for collocated geostationary spacecraft is presented. One chief spacecraft, controlled from the ground, is responsible for the orbit determination and control of the remaining vehicles. Any orbit relative to the chief is described in terms of equinoctial orbit element differences and a linear mapping is employed for quick transformation from relative orbit measurements to orbit element differences. It is demonstrated that the concept is well-suited for spacecraft that are collocated using eccentricity-inclination vector separation and this formulation still allows for the continued use of well established and currently employed stationkeeping schemes, such as the Sun-pointing-perigee strategy. The relative approach allows to take determinisitc thruster cross-coupling effects in the computation of stationkeeping corrections into account. The control cost for the proposed concept is comparable to ground-based stationkeeping. A relative line-of-sight constraint between spacecraft separated in longitude is also considered and an algorithm is developed to provide enforcement options. The proposed on-board control approach maintains the deputy spacecraft relative orbit, is competitive in terms of propellant consumption, allows enforcement of a relative line-of-sight constraint and offers increased autonomy and flexibility for future missions.

  19. Bare Conductive Tether for Decelerating a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Vaughn, Jason; Welzyn, Ken; Ballance, Judy; Carroll, Joe; Lorenzini, Enrico; Estes, bob; Schuler, Pete; Mojazza, hamid; Lennhoff, John

    2007-01-01

    A document describes a prototype of electrically conductive tethers to be used primarily to decelerate spacecraft and/or generate electric power for the spacecraft. Like prior such tethers, this tether is designed so that when it is deployed from a spacecraft in orbit, its motion across the terrestrial magnetic field induces an electric current. The Lorentz force on the current decelerates the spacecraft. Optionally, the current can be exploited to convert some orbital kinetic energy to electric energy for spacecraft systems. Whereas the conductive portions of prior such tethers are covered with electrical insulation except for end electrodes that make contact with the ionosphere, this tether includes a conductive portion that is insulated along part of its length but deliberately left bare along a substantial remaining portion of its length to make contact with the ionosphere. The conductive portions of the tether are made of coated thin aluminum wires wrapped around strong, lightweight aromatic polyamide braids. The main advantages of the present partly-bare-tether design over the prior all-insulated-tether design include greater resistance to degradation by the impact of monatomic oxygen at orbital altitude and speed and greater efficiency in collecting electrons from the ionosphere.

  20. Simulator for Testing Spacecraft Separation Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Nick; Gaines, Joe; Bryan, Tom

    2006-01-01

    A report describes the main features of a system for testing pyrotechnic and mechanical devices used to separate spacecraft and modules of spacecraft during flight. The system includes a spacecraft simulator [also denoted a large mobility base (LMB)] equipped with air thrusters, sensors, and data-acquisition equipment. The spacecraft simulator floats on air bearings over an epoxy-covered concrete floor. This free-flotation arrangement enables simulation of motion in outer space in three degrees of freedom: translation along two orthogonal horizontal axes and rotation about a vertical axis. The system also includes a static stand. In one application, the system was used to test a bolt-retraction system (BRS) intended for separation of the lifting-body and deorbit-propulsion stages of the X- 38 spacecraft. The LMB was connected via the BRS to the static stand, then pyrotechnic devices that actuate the BRS were fired. The separation distance and acceleration were measured. The report cites a document, not yet published at the time of reporting the information for this article, that is said to present additional detailed information.

  1. Spacecraft Attitude Maneuver Planning Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornfeld, Richard P.

    2004-01-01

    A key enabling technology that leads to greater spacecraft autonomy is the capability to autonomously and optimally slew the spacecraft from and to different attitudes while operating under a number of celestial and dynamic constraints. The task of finding an attitude trajectory that meets all the constraints is a formidable one, in particular for orbiting or fly-by spacecraft where the constraints and initial and final conditions are of time-varying nature. This approach for attitude path planning makes full use of a priori constraint knowledge and is computationally tractable enough to be executed onboard a spacecraft. The approach is based on incorporating the constraints into a cost function and using a Genetic Algorithm to iteratively search for and optimize the solution. This results in a directed random search that explores a large part of the solution space while maintaining the knowledge of good solutions from iteration to iteration. A solution obtained this way may be used as is or as an initial solution to initialize additional deterministic optimization algorithms. A number of representative case examples for time-fixed and time-varying conditions yielded search times that are typically on the order of minutes, thus demonstrating the viability of this method. This approach is applicable to all deep space and planet Earth missions requiring greater spacecraft autonomy, and greatly facilitates navigation and science observation planning.

  2. Spacecraft Charging Issues for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhler, Janessa L.; Minow, Joseph I.; Trout, Dawn H.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft charging is well known threat to successful long term spacecraft operations and instrument reliability in orbits that spend significant time in hot electron environments. In recent years, spacecraft charging has increasingly been recognized as a potentially significant engineering issue for launch vehicles used to deploy spacecraft using (a) low Earth orbit (LEO), high inclination flight trajectories that pass through the auroral zone, (b) geostationary transfer orbits that require exposures to the hot electron environments in the Earths outer radiation belts, and (c) LEO escape trajectories using multiple phasing orbits through the Earths radiation belts while raising apogee towards a final Earth escape geometry. Charging becomes an issue when significant areas of exposed insulating materials or ungrounded conductors are used in the launch vehicle design or the payload is designed for use in a benign charging region beyond the Earths magnetosphere but must survive passage through the strong charging regimes of the Earths radiation belts. This presentation will first outline the charging risks encountered on typical launch trajectories used to deploy spacecraft into Earth orbit and Earth escape trajectories. We then describe the process used by NASAs Launch Services Program to evaluate when surface and internal charging is a potential risk to a NASA mission. Finally, we describe the options for mitigating charging risks including modification of the launch vehicle andor payload design and controlling the risk through operational launch constraints to avoid significant charging environments.

  3. Space radiation environment monitoring onboard Chinese spacecrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijin; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Xianguo

    The space particle radiation can cause harsh hazards to spacecraft performance and lifetime. Numerous operational anomalies and several Chinese satellites failures have been attributed to radiation effects. The failure of FY-1 satellite, in 1991, increased awareness of space radiation effects and enhanced monitoring in situ. From then on, Space Environment Monitors (SEM) have been widely used in a great number of Chinese spacecrafts, such as SZ-4 manned spacecraft, FY-1, FY-3 sun-synchronous orbit satellites, FY-2 geo-synchronous orbit satellite, CE-1 lunar probe satellite, and so on. In particular, the SJ-4 and the SJ-5 satellites, which were used for special experiments of space radiation and theirs effects on spacecrafts, had been launched in 1990's. The sustained space radiation monitoring on LEO and GEO has accumulated a mass of data and can promote studies for empirical model of space radiation. In this article, monitoring at the Chinese spacecrafts from 1990's to the predictive future will be described, and cross-calibration of data and their typical results will be given.

  4. Guidance and control of swarms of spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Daniel James

    There has been considerable interest in formation flying spacecraft due to their potential to perform certain tasks at a cheaper cost than monolithic spacecraft. Formation flying enables the use of smaller, cheaper spacecraft that distribute the risk of the mission. Recently, the ideas of formation flying have been extended to spacecraft swarms made up of hundreds to thousands of 100-gram-class spacecraft known as femtosatellites. The large number of spacecraft and limited capabilities of each individual spacecraft present a significant challenge in guidance, navigation, and control. This dissertation deals with the guidance and control algorithms required to enable the flight of spacecraft swarms. The algorithms developed in this dissertation are focused on achieving two main goals: swarm keeping and swarm reconfiguration. The objectives of swarm keeping are to maintain bounded relative distances between spacecraft, prevent collisions between spacecraft, and minimize the propellant used by each spacecraft. Swarm reconfiguration requires the transfer of the swarm to a specific shape. Like with swarm keeping, minimizing the propellant used and preventing collisions are the main objectives. Additionally, the algorithms required for swarm keeping and swarm reconfiguration should be decentralized with respect to communication and computation so that they can be implemented on femtosats, which have limited hardware capabilities. The algorithms developed in this dissertation are concerned with swarms located in low Earth orbit. In these orbits, Earth oblateness and atmospheric drag have a significant effect on the relative motion of the swarm. The complicated dynamic environment of low Earth orbits further complicates the swarm-keeping and swarm-reconfiguration problems. To better develop and test these algorithms, a nonlinear, relative dynamic model with J2 and drag perturbations is developed. This model is used throughout this dissertation to validate the algorithms

  5. An Analysis of 20 Years of Space Weathering Effects on the Boeing 376 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frith, James; Anz-Meador, Phillip; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent; Lederer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The Boeing HS-376 spin stabilized spacecraft was a popular design that was launched continuously into geosynchronous orbit starting in 1980, with the last launch occurring in 2003. Over 50 of the HS-376 buses were produced to fulfill a variety of different communication missions for countries all over the world. The design of the bus is easily approximated as a telescoping cylinder that is covered with solar cells and an Earth-facing antenna that is despun at the top of the cylinder. The similarity in design and the number of spacecraft launched over a long period of time make the HS-376 a prime target for studying the effects of solar weathering on solar panels as a function of time. A selection of primarily non-operational HS-376 spacecraft launched over a 20-year time period were observed using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea and multi-band, near-infrared photometry produced. Each spacecraft was observed for an entire night cycling through ZYJHK filters and time-varying colors produced to compare near-infrared color as a function of launch date. The resulting analysis shown here may help in the future to set launch date constraints on the parent object of unidentified debris objects or other unknown spacecraft.

  6. Evaluation of spacecraft technology programs (effects on communication satellite business ventures), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenburg, J. S.; Gaelick, C.; Kaplan, M.; Fishman, J.; Hopkins, C.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial organizations as well as government agencies invest in spacecraft (S/C) technology programs that are aimed at increasing the performance of communications satellites. The value of these programs must be measured in terms of their impacts on the financial performane of the business ventures that may ultimately utilize the communications satellites. An economic evaluation and planning capability was developed and used to assess the impact of NASA on-orbit propulsion and space power programs on typical fixed satellite service (FSS) and direct broadcast service (DBS) communications satellite business ventures. Typical FSS and DBS spin and three-axis stabilized spacecraft were configured in the absence of NASA technology programs. These spacecraft were reconfigured taking into account the anticipated results of NASA specified on-orbit propulsion and space power programs. In general, the NASA technology programs resulted in spacecraft with increased capability. The developed methodology for assessing the value of spacecraft technology programs in terms of their impact on the financial performance of communication satellite business ventures is described. Results of the assessment of NASA specified on-orbit propulsion and space power technology programs are presented for typical FSS and DBS business ventures.

  7. Finite-Time Attitude Tracking Control for Spacecraft Using Terminal Sliding Mode and Chebyshev Neural Network.

    PubMed

    An-Min Zou; Kumar, K D; Zeng-Guang Hou; Xi Liu

    2011-08-01

    A finite-time attitude tracking control scheme is proposed for spacecraft using terminal sliding mode and Chebyshev neural network (NN) (CNN). The four-parameter representations (quaternion) are used to describe the spacecraft attitude for global representation without singularities. The attitude state (i.e., attitude and velocity) error dynamics is transformed to a double integrator dynamics with a constraint on the spacecraft attitude. With consideration of this constraint, a novel terminal sliding manifold is proposed for the spacecraft. In order to guarantee that the output of the NN used in the controller is bounded by the corresponding bound of the approximated unknown function, a switch function is applied to generate a switching between the adaptive NN control and the robust controller. Meanwhile, a CNN, whose basis functions are implemented using only desired signals, is introduced to approximate the desired nonlinear function and bounded external disturbances online, and the robust term based on the hyperbolic tangent function is applied to counteract NN approximation errors in the adaptive neural control scheme. Most importantly, the finite-time stability in both the reaching phase and the sliding phase can be guaranteed by a Lyapunov-based approach. Finally, numerical simulations on the attitude tracking control of spacecraft in the presence of an unknown mass moment of inertia matrix, bounded external disturbances, and control input constraints are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed controller.

  8. Unique Features and Spacecraft Applications of Dynamic Isotope Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, B.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamic isotope power system represents the most recent attempt to develop a heat-engine generator for space electric power. A major objective in this most recent effort was to increase the power and to reduce the cost of nuclear space power systems to the point where the unique features of this power source could be brought to bear for Earth-orbit missions which could benefit therefrom. This objective was largely achieved; both weight and cost of the dynamic isotope systems are comparable to solar power systems. The dynamic isotope power system, designed for spacecraft requiring prime power in the 500-2000 W range, has been successfully built and ground tested. A number of studies, summarized herein, have demonstrated the advantages of using such a power system instead of the conventional solar system for a variety of Earth-orbit missions. These advantages stem from the unique nature of the dynamic isotope system, different in kind from solar power systems. As a result, in many cases, the spacecraft design can be significantly simplified and more closely harmonized with mission requirements. This overall advantage can be crucial in missions which have stringent pointing, stability, viewing, and/or positioning requirements.

  9. Lessons from NASA. [spacecraft reliability engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    Particular requirements related to the design and the operation of spacecraft have forced NASA to take a reliability approach that differs somewhat from that used in many other applications. NASA has found that some of the traditional tools of reliability engineering, such as life testing, reliability demonstration testing, maintainability analysis, and direct failure analysis, are impractical for spacecraft. In place of a statistical approach, the space agency uses an engineering approach to mission reliability. Reliability is to be obtained with the aid of three different approaches, including the application of effective design principles, the control and screening of all parts, and the testing of the entire spacecraft or its prototype for predicted capabilities. Attention is given to failure-mode analysis, the enhancement of Voyager reliability by autonomous operation, the redundancy in Shuttle design, the weeding out of bad hardware, and the preference for off-the-shelf devices.

  10. Infrared characterized spacecraft contaminants and related compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, F. C.

    1977-01-01

    The limits of the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum are discussed, together with an explanation of some of the shortcomings of obtaining data in this range. Similarities and differences in the interest taken by the chemist/spectroscopist and the space/spectroscopist in the IR spectrum are discussed. The chemist uses IR spectra to identify materials and contaminants associated with spacecraft fabrication and testing. The space scientist, using IR spectrometry, can determine atmospheric conditions around planets, stars, and galaxies. He could also determine the temperature profile of the Earth's atmosphere at different altitudes, or even the temperature profile of the Sun. The importance of detecting contamination of spacecraft and the possible results of not taking corrective action are explored. All space experiments contain some contaminants, to a lesser or greater degree; the responsible personnel involved must determine the level of toleration. A collection of IR spectra of known spacecraft contaminants is presented as a guide for cognizant scientists and engineers.

  11. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  12. Preliminary design method for deployable spacecraft beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Cassapakis, Costas

    1995-01-01

    There is currently considerable interest in low-cost, lightweight, compactly packageable deployable elements for various future missions involving small spacecraft. These elements must also have a simple and reliable deployment scheme and possess zero or very small free-play. Although most small spacecraft do not experience large disturbances, very low stiffness appendages or free-play can couple with even small disturbances and lead to unacceptably large attitude errors which may involve the introduction of a flexible-body control system. A class of structures referred to as 'rigidized structures' offers significant promise in providing deployable elements that will meet these needs for small spacecraft. The purpose of this paper is to introduce several rigidizable concepts and to develop a design methodology which permits a rational comparison of these elements to be made with alternate concepts.

  13. Attitude control compensator for flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodzeit, Neil E. (Inventor); Linder, David M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An attitude control loop for a spacecraft uses a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for control about an axis. The spacecraft body has at least a primary mechanical resonance. The attitude sensors are collocated, or both on the rigid portion of the spacecraft. The flexure attributable to the resonance may result in instability of the system. A compensator for the control loop has an amplitude response which includes a component which rolls off beginning at frequencies below the resonance, and which also includes a component having a notch at a notch frequency somewhat below the resonant frequency. The phase response of the compensator tends toward zero at low frequencies, and tends toward -180.degree. as frequency increases toward the notch frequency. At frequencies above the notch frequency, the phase decreases from +180.degree., becoming more negative, and tending toward -90.degree. at frequencies far above the resonance frequency. Near the resonance frequency, the compensator phase is near zero.

  14. Embedded Thermal Control for Spacecraft Subsystems Miniaturization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of spacecraft size, weight and power (SWaP) resources is an explicit technical priority at Goddard Space Flight Center. Embedded Thermal Control Subsystems are a promising technology with many cross cutting NSAA, DoD and commercial applications: 1.) CubeSatSmallSat spacecraft architecture, 2.) high performance computing, 3.) On-board spacecraft electronics, 4.) Power electronics and RF arrays. The Embedded Thermal Control Subsystem technology development efforts focus on component, board and enclosure level devices that will ultimately include intelligent capabilities. The presentation will discuss electric, capillary and hybrid based hardware research and development efforts at Goddard Space Flight Center. The Embedded Thermal Control Subsystem development program consists of interrelated sub-initiatives, e.g., chip component level thermal control devices, self-sensing thermal management, advanced manufactured structures. This presentation includes technical status and progress on each of these investigations. Future sub-initiatives, technical milestones and program goals will be presented.

  15. Numerical Analysis of Magnetic Sail Spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Daisuke; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Usui, Hideyuki; Funaki, Ikkoh; Kojima, Hirotsugu

    2008-12-31

    To capture the kinetic energy of the solar wind by creating a large magnetosphere around the spacecraft, magneto-plasma sail injects a plasma jet into a strong magnetic field produced by an electromagnet onboard the spacecraft. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the IMF (interplanetary magnetic field) on the magnetosphere of magneto-plasma sail. First, using an axi-symmetric two-dimensional MHD code, we numerically confirm the magnetic field inflation, and the formation of a magnetosphere by the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetic field. The expansion of an artificial magnetosphere by the plasma injection is then simulated, and we show that the magnetosphere is formed by the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetic field expanded by the plasma jet from the spacecraft. This simulation indicates the size of the artificial magnetosphere becomes smaller when applying the IMF.

  16. Plasma source for spacecraft potential control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    A stable electrical ground which enables the particle spectrometers to measure the low energy particle populations was investigated and the current required to neutralize the spacecraft was measured. In addition, the plasma source for potential control (PSPO C) prevents high charging events which could affect the spacecraft electrical integrity. The plasma source must be able to emit a plasma current large enough to balance the sum of all other currents to the spacecraft. In ion thrusters, hollow cathodes provide several amperes of electron current to the discharge chamber. The PSPO C is capable of balancing the net negative currents found in eclipse charging events producing 10 to 100 microamps of electron current. The largest current required is the ion current necessary to balance the total photoelectric current.

  17. LDEF Materials Results for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F. (Compiler); Gregory, John (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    These proceedings describe the application of LDEF data to spacecraft and payload design, and emphasize where space environmental effects on materials research and development is needed as defined by LDEF data. The LDEF six years of exposure of materials has proven to be by far the most comprehensive source of information ever obtained on the long-term performance of materials in the space environment. The conference provided a forum for materials scientists and engineers to review and critically assess the LDEF results from the standpoint of their relevance, significance, and impact on spacecraft design practice. The impact of the LDEF findings on materials selection and qualification, and the needs and plans for further study, were addressed from several perspectives. Many timely and needed changes and modifications in external spacecraft materials selection have occurred as a result of LDEF investigations.

  18. Mars Science Laboratory Spacecraft Assembled for Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The major components of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft cruise stage atop the aeroshell, which has the descent stage and rover inside were connected together in October 2008 for several weeks of system testing, including simulation of launch vibrations and deep-space environmental conditions.

    These components will be taken apart again, for further work on each of them, after the environmental testing. The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft is being assembled and tested for launch in 2011.

    This image was taken inside the Spacecraft Assembly Facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., which manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  19. Guaranteed spatial initialization of distributed spacecraft formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel P.; Ploen, Scott R.; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Sohl, Garett A.

    2004-01-01

    In a precious paper the authors developed a formation initialization (FI) algorithm for a deep space, N-spacecraft formation. It was demonstrated analytically that this FI contribution of this paper is to extend this planar guarantee to deep space formations with arbitrary initial conditions. As part of the guarantee of initialization, a bound on the time-to-initialize is obtained. The guaranteed FI algorithm is then demonstrated for a two-spacecraft formation with realistic deep space mission constraints (e.g. limited field-of-view relative sensors and attitude constraints). The two-spacecraft scenario is challenging in that it has the least relative sensor field-of-view overlap. Finally, for this scenario, the distribution of time-to-initialize is characterized through a 150,000-case Monte Carlo analysis.

  20. Dawn Spacecraft Reaction Control System Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukami, Masashi; Nakazono, Barry

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Dawn spacecraft mission is studying conditions and processes of the solar system's earliest epoch by investigating two protoplanets remaining intact since their formations, Ceres and Vesta. Launch was in 2007. Ion propulsion is used to fly to and enter orbit around Vesta, depart Vesta and fly to Ceres, and enter orbit around Ceres. A conventional blowdown hydrazine reaction control system (RCS) is used to provide external torques for attitude control. Reaction wheel assemblies were intended to provide attitude control in most cases. However, the spacecraft experienced one, then two apparent failures of reaction wheels. Also, similar thrusters experienced degradation in a long life application on another spacecraft. Those factors led to RCS being operated in ways completely different than anticipated prior to launch. Numerous mitigations and developments needed to be implemented. The Vesta mission was fully successful. Even with the compromises necessary due to those anomalies, the Ceres mission is also projected to be feasible.

  1. Spacecraft Charging in Low Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda N.

    2007-01-01

    Spacecraft charging in plasma and radiation environments is a temperature dependent phenomenon due to the reduction of electrical conductivity in dielectric materials at low temperatures. Charging time constants are proportional to l/conductivity may become very large (on the order of days to years) at low temperatures and accumulation of charge densities in insulators in charging environments traditionally considered benign at ambient temperatures may be sufficient to produce charge densities and electric fields of concern in insulators at low temperatures. Low temperature charging is of interest because a number of spacecraft-primarily infrared astronomy and microwave cosmology observatories-are currently being design, built, and or operated at very cold temperatures on the order of 40K to 100K. This paper reviews the temperature dependence of spacecraft charging processes and material parameters important to charging as a function of temperature with an emphasis on low temperatures regimes.

  2. 8th Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, J. L. (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    The 8th Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference was held in Huntsville, Alabama, October 20-24, 2003. Hosted by NASA s Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program and co-sponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the European Space Agency (ESA), the 2003 conference saw attendance from eleven countries with over 65 oral papers and 18 poster papers. Presentation topics highlighted the latest in spacecraft charging mitigation techniques and on-orbit investigations, including: Plasma Propulsion and Tethers; Ground Testing Techniques; Interactions of Spacecraft and Systems With the Natural and Induced Plasma Environment; Materials Characterizations; Models and Computer Simulations; Environment Specifications; Current Collection and Plasma Probes in Space Plasmas; On-Orbit Investigations. A round-table discussion of international standards regarding electrostatic discharge (ESD) testing was also held with the promise of continued discussions in the off years and an official continuation at the next conference.

  3. Spacecraft-produced neutron fluxes on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quist, T. C.; Furst, M.; Burnett, D. S.; Baum, J. H.; Peacock, C. L., Jr.; Perry, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of neutron fluxes in different energy ranges are reported for the Skylab spacecraft. Detectors composed of uranium, thorium, and bismuth foils with mica as a fission track recorder, as well as boron foils with cellulose acetate as an alpha-particle recorder, were deployed at different positions in the Orbital Workshop. It was found that the Skylab neutron flux was dominated by high energy (greater than 1 MeV) contributions and that there was no significant time variation in the fluxes. Firm upper limits of 7-15 neutrons/sq cm-sec, depending on the detector location in the spacecraft, were established for fluxes above 1 MeV. Below 1 MeV, the neutron fluxes were about an order of magnitude lower. The neutrons are interpreted as originating from the interactions of leakage protons from the radiation belt with the spacecraft.

  4. The MSAT spacecraft of Telesat Mobile Inc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertenyi, E.

    The MSAT spacecraft of the Canadian mobile satellite operator, Telesat Mobile Inc. (TMI) is described. When launched in 1994, the large geostationary MSAT spacecraft which is currently under construction by Hughes Aircraft Co. and Spar Aerospace Ltd. will enable TMI to provide mobile and transportable communications services to its customers even in the most remote parts of the North American continent. The main elements of TMI's mobile satellite system (described in a companion paper) are the space segment and the ground segment. TMI's space segment will employ one of two nearly identical satellites, one of which will be owned and operated by TMI, the other by the U.S. mobile satellite operator, American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC). The two companies are participating in a joint spacecraft procurement in order to reduce the nonrecurring costs and to ensure system compatibility between the two systems; and they have also agreed to provide in-orbit backup to each other in the event of a catastrophic satellite failure. The program status, performance requirements, main parameters, and configuration of the MSAT spacecraft are reviewed. The major features of the communications subsystem are discussed in some detail, and a brief summary is presented of the spacecraft service module. Key technology items include the L-band RF power amplifier, which must operate with a high DC to RF power efficiency and generate low intermodulation when loaded with multi-carrier signals; and the large diameter deployable L-band antenna. The development status and expected performance of these spacecraft components is examined.

  5. Spacecraft Radio Scintillation and Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard

    1993-01-01

    When a wave propagates through a turbulent medium, scattering by the random refractive index inhomogeneities can lead to a wide variety of phenomena that have been the subject of extensive study. The observed scattering effects include amplitude or intensity scintillation, phase scintillation, angular broadening, and spectral broadening, among others. In this paper, I will refer to these scattering effects collectively as scintillation. Although the most familiar example is probably the twinkling of stars (light wave intensity scintillation by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere), scintillation has been encountered and investigated in such diverse fields as ionospheric physics, oceanography, radio astronomy, and radio and optical communications. Ever since planetary spacecraft began exploring the solar system, scintillation has appeared during the propagation of spacecraft radio signals through planetary atmospheres, planetary ionospheres, and the solar wind. Early studies of these phenomena were motivated by the potential adverse effects on communications and navigation, and on experiments that use the radio link to conduct scientific investigations. Examples of the latter are radio occultation measurements (described below) of planetary atmospheres to deduce temperature profiles, and the search for gravitational waves. However,these concerns soon gave way to the emergence of spacecraft radio scintillation as a new scientific tool for exploring small-scale dynamics in planetary atmospheres and structure in the solar wind, complementing in situ and other remote sensing spacecraft measurements, as well as scintillation measurements using natural (celestial) radio sources. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe and review the solar system spacecraft radio scintillation observations, to summarize the salient features of wave propagation analyses employed in interpreting them, to underscore the unique remote sensing capabilities and scientific relevance of

  6. Autonomous Spacecraft Communication Interface for Load Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Timothy P.; May, Ryan D.; Morris, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Ground-based controllers can remain in continuous communication with spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) with near-instantaneous communication speeds. This permits near real-time control of all of the core spacecraft systems by ground personnel. However, as NASA missions move beyond LEO, light-time communication delay issues, such as time lag and low bandwidth, will prohibit this type of operation. As missions become more distant, autonomous control of manned spacecraft will be required. The focus of this paper is the power subsystem. For present missions, controllers on the ground develop a complete schedule of power usage for all spacecraft components. This paper presents work currently underway at NASA to develop an architecture for an autonomous spacecraft, and focuses on the development of communication between the Mission Manager and the Autonomous Power Controller. These two systems must work together in order to plan future load use and respond to unanticipated plan deviations. Using a nominal spacecraft architecture and prototype versions of these two key components, a number of simulations are run under a variety of operational conditions, enabling development of content and format of the messages necessary to achieve the desired goals. The goals include negotiation of a load schedule that meets the global requirements (contained in the Mission Manager) and local power system requirements (contained in the Autonomous Power Controller), and communication of off-plan disturbances that arise while executing a negotiated plan. The message content is developed in two steps: first, a set of rapid-prototyping "paper" simulations are preformed; then the resultant optimized messages are codified for computer communication for use in automated testing.

  7. A Reconfigurable Communications System for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Pong P.; Kifle, Muli

    2004-01-01

    Two trends of NASA missions are the use of multiple small spacecraft and the development of an integrated space network. To achieve these goals, a robust and agile communications system is needed. Advancements in field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology have made it possible to incorporate major communication and network functionalities in FPGA chips; thus this technology has great potential as the basis for a reconfigurable communications system. This report discusses the requirements of future space communications, reviews relevant issues, and proposes a methodology to design and construct a reconfigurable communications system for small scientific spacecraft.

  8. Communication analysis for the expendable explorer spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This report provides the results of communication analysis for the baseline and enhanced performance spacecraft designs proposed for Expendable Explorer Spacecraft (EES) series of missions. Five classes of orbits (Geosynchronous, Circular-28 degree inclination, Polar-90 degree inclination, Sunsynchronous-97 degree inclination, Molniya orbit) and a set of candidate instrument payloads provided by the ESS Study Manager were used to formulate the basis for the ESS Communications Study. The study was performed to assess the feasibility of using Space Network or ground stations for supporting the communications, tracking and data handling of the candidate instruments that are proposed to be launched into the desired orbit.

  9. Interplanetary spacecraft design using solar electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, J. H.; Paul, G. M.

    1974-01-01

    Emphasis of the electric propulsion technology program is now on the application of solar electric propulsion to scientific missions. Candidate planetary, cometary, and geosynchronous missions are being studied. The object of this paper is to describe a basic spacecraft design proposed as the means to accomplish (1) a comet Encke slow flyby, (2) a comet Encke rendezvous, and (3) an out-of-the-ecliptic mission. The discussion includes design differences foreseen for the various missions and indicates those areas where spacecraft design commonality is possible. Particular emphasis is placed on a solar electric propulsion module design which permits an attractive degree of design inheritance from mission to mission.

  10. Fire extinguishment and inhibition in spacecraft environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deris, John

    1987-01-01

    It was concluded that it is essential that NASA develop a comprehensive approach to fire extinguishment and inerting in spacecraft environments. Electronic equipment might be easily protected through use of an onboard inert gas generating system. The use of Halon 1301 presents serious technological challenges for agent cleanup and removal of the toxic and corrosive products of combustion. Nitrogen pressurization, while effective, probably presents a serious weight penality. The use of liquid water sprays appears to be the most effective approach to general purpose spacecraft fire protection.

  11. Two-impulse reorientation of asymmetric spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martz, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation conducted to determine minimum maneuver costs for attitude reorientation of spacecraft of all possible inertial distribution over a wide range of maneuver angles by use of a two impulse coning method of reorientation is reported. Maneuver cost, proportional to the product of fuel consumed (total impulse) and time expended during a maneuver is discussed. Assumptions included external impulsive control torques, rigid body spacecraft rest-to-rest maneuvers, and no disturbance torques. Results are presented in terms of average cost and standard deviation for various maneuver ranges. Costs of individual reorientations are calculated with the computer program included.

  12. Operational Philosophy Concerning Manned Spacecraft Cabin Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSimpelaere, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The last thirty years have seen the Space Shuttle as the prime United States spacecraft for manned spaceflight missions. Many lessons have been learned about spacecraft design and operation throughout these years. Over the next few decades, a large increase of manned spaceflight in the commercial sector is expected. This will result in the exposure of commercial crews and passengers to many of the same risks crews of the Space Shuttle have encountered. One of the more dire situations that can be encountered is the loss of pressure in the habitable volume of the spacecraft during on orbit operations. This is referred to as a cabin leak. This paper seeks to establish a general cabin leak response philosophy with the intent of educating future spacecraft designers and operators. After establishing a relative definition for a cabin leak, the paper covers general descriptions of detection equipment, detection methods, and general operational methods for management of a cabin leak. Subsequently, all these items are addressed from the perspective of the Space Shuttle Program, as this will be of the most value to future spacecraft due to similar operating profiles. Emphasis here is placed upon why and how these methods and philosophies have evolved to meet the Space Shuttle s needs. This includes the core ideas of: considerations of maintaining higher cabin pressures vs. lower cabin pressures, the pros and cons of a system designed to feed the leak with gas from pressurized tanks vs. using pressure suits to protect against lower cabin pressures, timeline and consumables constraints, re-entry considerations with leaks of unknown origin, and the impact the International Space Station (ISS) has had to the standard Space Shuttle cabin leak response philosophy. This last item in itself includes: procedural management differences, hardware considerations, additional capabilities due to the presence of the ISS and its resource, and ISS docking/undocking considerations with a

  13. Spacecraft load, design and test philosophies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, B. K.

    1986-01-01

    The development of spacecraft loads, design and test philosophies at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) during the past 25 years is presented. Examples from the JPL's Viking, Voyager and Galileo spacecraft are used to explain the changes in philosophy necessary to meet the program requirements with a reduction in cost and schedule. Approaches to validate mathematical models of large structures which can't be ground tested as an overall system because of size and/or adverse effects of terrestrial conditions such as gravity are presented.

  14. Thermal Control Technologies for Complex Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal control is a generic need for all spacecraft. In response to ever more demanding science and exploration requirements, spacecraft are becoming ever more complex, and hence their thermal control systems must evolve. This paper briefly discusses the process of technology development, the state-of-the-art in thermal control, recent experiences with on-orbit two-phase systems, and the emerging thermal control technologies to meet these evolving needs. Some "lessons learned" based on experience with on-orbit systems are also presented.

  15. Design of Spacecraft Missions to Remove Multiple Orbital Debris Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Alfano, Salvatore; Pinon, Elfego; Gold, Kenn; Gaylor, David

    2012-01-01

    The amount of hazardous debris in Earth orbit has been increasing, posing an evergreater danger to space assets and human missions. In January of 2007, a Chinese ASAT test produced approximately 2600 pieces of orbital debris. In February of 2009, Iridium 33 collided with an inactive Russian satellite, yielding approximately 1300 pieces of debris. These recent disastrous events and the sheer size of the Earth orbiting population make clear the necessity of removing orbital debris. In fact, experts from both NASA and ESA have stated that 10 to 20 pieces of orbital debris need to be removed per year to stabilize the orbital debris environment. However, no spacecraft trajectories have yet been designed for removing multiple debris objects and the size of the debris population makes the design of such trajectories a daunting task. Designing an efficient spacecraft trajectory to rendezvous with each of a large number of orbital debris pieces is akin to the famous Traveling Salesman problem, an NP-complete combinatorial optimization problem in which a number of cities are to be visited in turn. The goal is to choose the order in which the cities are visited so as to minimize the total path distance traveled. In the case of orbital debris, the pieces of debris to be visited must be selected and ordered such that spacecraft propellant consumption is minimized or at least kept low enough to be feasible. Emergent Space Technologies, Inc. has developed specialized algorithms for designing efficient tour missions for near-Earth asteroids that may be applied to the design of efficient spacecraft missions capable of visiting large numbers of orbital debris pieces. The first step is to identify a list of high priority debris targets using the Analytical Graphics, Inc. SOCRATES website and then obtain their state information from Celestrak. The tour trajectory design algorithms will then be used to determine the itinerary of objects and v requirements. These results will shed light

  16. Rapid Calculation of Spacecraft Trajectories Using Efficient Taylor Series Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.; Martini, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    A variable-order, variable-step Taylor series integration algorithm was implemented in NASA Glenn's SNAP (Spacecraft N-body Analysis Program) code. SNAP is a high-fidelity trajectory propagation program that can propagate the trajectory of a spacecraft about virtually any body in the solar system. The Taylor series algorithm's very high order accuracy and excellent stability properties lead to large reductions in computer time relative to the code's existing 8th order Runge-Kutta scheme. Head-to-head comparison on near-Earth, lunar, Mars, and Europa missions showed that Taylor series integration is 15.8 times faster than Runge- Kutta on average, and is more accurate. These speedups were obtained for calculations involving central body, other body, thrust, and drag forces. Similar speedups have been obtained for calculations that include J2 spherical harmonic for central body gravitation. The algorithm includes a step size selection method that directly calculates the step size and never requires a repeat step. High-order Taylor series integration algorithms have been shown to provide major reductions in computer time over conventional integration methods in numerous scientific applications. The objective here was to directly implement Taylor series integration in an existing trajectory analysis code and demonstrate that large reductions in computer time (order of magnitude) could be achieved while simultaneously maintaining high accuracy. This software greatly accelerates the calculation of spacecraft trajectories. At each time level, the spacecraft position, velocity, and mass are expanded in a high-order Taylor series whose coefficients are obtained through efficient differentiation arithmetic. This makes it possible to take very large time steps at minimal cost, resulting in large savings in computer time. The Taylor series algorithm is implemented primarily through three subroutines: (1) a driver routine that automatically introduces auxiliary variables and

  17. Algorithms for spacecraft formation flying navigation based on wireless positioning system measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Shu Ting

    Spacecraft formation flying navigation continues to receive a great deal of interest. The research presented in this dissertation focuses on developing methods for estimating spacecraft absolute and relative positions, assuming measurements of only relative positions using wireless sensors. The implementation of the extended Kalman filter to the spacecraft formation navigation problem results in high estimation errors and instabilities in state estimation at times. This is due to the high nonlinearities in the system dynamic model. Several approaches are attempted in this dissertation aiming at increasing the estimation stability and improving the estimation accuracy. A differential geometric filter is implemented for spacecraft positions estimation. The differential geometric filter avoids the linearization step (which is always carried out in the extended Kalman filter) through a mathematical transformation that converts the nonlinear system into a linear system. A linear estimator is designed in the linear domain, and then transformed back to the physical domain. This approach demonstrated better estimation stability for spacecraft formation positions estimation, as detailed in this dissertation. The constrained Kalman filter is also implemented for spacecraft formation flying absolute positions estimation. The orbital motion of a spacecraft is characterized by two range extrema (perigee and apogee). At the extremum, the rate of change of a spacecraft's range vanishes. This motion constraint can be used to improve the position estimation accuracy. The application of the constrained Kalman filter at only two points in the orbit causes filter instability. Two variables are introduced into the constrained Kalman filter to maintain the stability and improve the estimation accuracy. An extended Kalman filter is implemented as a benchmark for comparison with the constrained Kalman filter. Simulation results show that the constrained Kalman filter provides better

  18. Pyroshock Environments Characterized for Spacecraft Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.

    1999-01-01

    Pyrotechnic shock, or pyroshock, is the transient response of a structure to loading induced by the ignition of pyrotechnic (explosive or propellant activated) devices. These devices are typically used to separate structural systems (e.g., separate a spacecraft from a launch vehicle) and deploy appendages (e.g., solar panels). Pyroshocks are characterized by high peak acceleration, high-frequency content, and short duration. Because of their high acceleration and high-frequency, pyroshocks can cause spaceflight hardware to fail. Verifying by test that spaceflight hardware can withstand the anticipated shock environment is considered essential to mission success. The Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 spacecraft for NASA's Mission to Planet Earth is scheduled to be launched on an Atlas IIAS vehicle in 1999, and the NASA Lewis Research Center is the launch vehicle integrator for this NASA Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft. The EOS spacecraft was subjected to numerous ground shock tests to verify that its scientific instruments and avionics components will withstand the shock-induced vibration produced when the spacecraft separates from the launch vehicle. Shock test data from these tests represent the third largest available pyroshock database in the United States. Future spacecraft missions will directly benefit from the knowledge gained from these tests. The payload separation system used for EOS is a new system that operates by firing six separation nuts. This system was tested to verify its functional operation and to characterize the resulting shock levels. The launch vehicle contractor (Lockheed Martin Astronautics) and spacecraft contractor (Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space) completed 16 separation test firings. This resulted in an unusually large amount of pyroshock data. Typically, only one or two pyroshock test firings are performed for a spacecraft mission. Because of the size of this separation system shock database, engineers were able to perform

  19. Science Benefits of Onboard Spacecraft Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cangahuala, Al; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Owen, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Primitive bodies (asteroids and comets), which have remained relatively unaltered since their formation, are important targets for scientific missions that seek to understand the evolution of the solar system. Often the first step is to fly by these bodies with robotic spacecraft. The key to maximizing data returns from these flybys is to determine the spacecraft trajectory relative to the target body-in short, navigate the spacecraft- with sufficient accuracy so that the target is guaranteed to be in the instruments' field of view. The most powerful navigation data in these scenarios are images taken by the spacecraft of the target against a known star field (onboard astrometry). Traditionally, the relative trajectory of the spacecraft must be estimated hours to days in advance using images collected by the spacecraft. This is because of (1)!the long round-trip light times between the spacecraft and the Earth and (2)!the time needed to downlink and process navigation data on the ground, make decisions based on the result, and build and uplink instrument pointing sequences from the results. The light time and processing time compromise navigation accuracy considerably, because there is not enough time to use more accurate data collected closer to the target-such data are more accurate because the angular capability of the onboard astrometry is essentially constant as the distance to the target decreases, resulting in better "plane-of- sky" knowledge of the target. Excellent examples of these timing limitations are high-speed comet encounters. Comets are difficult to observe up close; their orbits often limit scientists to brief, rapid flybys, and their coma further restricts viewers from seeing the nucleus in any detail, unless they can view the nucleus at close range. Comet nuclei details are typically discernable for much shorter durations than the roundtrip light time to Earth, so robotic spacecraft must be able to perform onboard navigation. This onboard

  20. Spacecraft Charging Calculations: NASCAP-2K and SEE Spacecraft Charging Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. A.; Neergaard, L. F.; Mandell, M. J.; Katz, I.; Gardner, B. M.; Hilton, J. M.; Minor, J.

    2002-01-01

    For fifteen years NASA and the Air Force Charging Analyzer Program for Geosynchronous Orbits (NASCAP/GEO) has been the workhorse of spacecraft charging calculations. Two new tools, the Space Environment and Effects (SEE) Spacecraft Charging Handbook (recently released), and Nascap-2K (under development), use improved numeric techniques and modern user interfaces to tackle the same problem. The SEE Spacecraft Charging Handbook provides first-order, lower-resolution solutions while Nascap-2K provides higher resolution results appropriate for detailed analysis. This paper illustrates how the improvements in the numeric techniques affect the results.