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Sample records for 3-azole-3-il-propanoates regia specific

  1. A PCR based SNPs marker for specific characterization of English walnut (Juglans regia L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ciarmiello, Loredana F; Piccirillo, Pasquale; Pontecorvo, Giovanni; De Luca, Antonio; Kafantaris, Ioannis; Woodrow, Pasqualina

    2011-02-01

    English walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the most economically important species from all the 21 species belonging to the genus Juglans and is an important and healthy food as well as base material for timber industry. The aim of this study was to develop a simple technique for specific characterization of English walnut using DNA method. The first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) as well as the intervening 5.8S coding region of the rRNA gene for 18 cultivars of J. regia L. isolated from different geographic origins were characterized. The size of the spacers sequences ranged from 257 to 263 bases for ITS1 and from 217 to 219 bases for ITS2. Variation of GC contents has also been observed and scored as 55-56.7 and 57.1-58.9% for ITS1 and ITS2, respectively. This data exhibited the presence of polymorphism among cultivars. Alignment of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences from 18 walnut cultivars showed that there were 244 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1 short insertion-deletion (indel) at 5' end ITS1. Amplification refractory mutation system strategy was successfully applied to the SNP markers of the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences for the fingerprinting analysis of 17 on 18 walnut cultivars. The prediction of ITS1 and ITS2 RNA secondary structure from each cultivar was improved by detecting key functional elements shared by all sequences in the alignments. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region clearly separated the isolated sequences into two clusters. The results showed that ITS1 and ITS2 region could be used to discriminate these walnut cultivars.

  2. Drosera regia

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1980-01-01

    When I first received my plant of Drosera regia from a friend, it was a small specimen and I grew the plant in a 4-inch pot under grow-lux bulbs in my house. During the first summer, it grew reasonably well but put out only a maximum of 3-inch leaves

  3. Effect of walnut (Juglans regia) polyphenolic compounds on ovalbumin-specific IgE induction in female BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; Gershwin, Laurel J; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2010-03-01

    English walnuts are implicated in severe, IgE-mediated food allergy in humans. We sought to determine if polyphenolic compounds extracted from the edible nut could promote IgE production to a coadministered allergen. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) with or without alum (AL) or polyphenolic-enriched extract via intraperitoneal injection. Serum was analyzed for total IgE and OVA-specific IgE, IgG(1,) and IgG(2a/2b). Coadministration of walnut polyphenolic-enriched extract with antigen and AL increased serum concentrations of antigen-specific IgE and IgG(1). When AL was excluded from the injections, polyphenolic extract tended to enhance OVA-specific IgE and IgG(1) over levels induced by OVA alone, but the increase did not reach significance. Serum IgG(2a/2b) levels were similar between mice receiving OVA/AL and OVA/AL with polyphenolics. Thus, walnut polyphenolic extract enhanced the Th2-skewing effect of an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. This indicates that walnut polyphenolic compounds may play a role in allergic sensitization of genetically predisposed individuals.

  4. Construction of a high-density genetic map using specific length amplified fragment markers and identification of a quantitative trait locus for anthracnose resistance in walnut (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yufeng; Yin, Yanfei; Yang, Keqiang; Li, Jihong; Sang, Yalin; Huang, Long; Fan, Shu

    2015-08-18

    Walnut (Juglans regia, 2n = 32, approximately 606 Mb per 1C genome) is an economically important tree crop. Resistance to anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a major objective of walnut genetic improvement in China. The recently developed specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is an efficient strategy that can obtain large numbers of markers with sufficient sequence information to construct high-density genetic maps and permits detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for molecular breeding. SLAF-seq generated 161.64 M paired-end reads. 153,820 SLAF markers were obtained, of which 49,174 were polymorphic. 13,635 polymorphic markers were sorted into five segregation types and 2,577 markers of them were used to construct genetic linkage maps: 2,395 of these fell into 16 linkage groups (LGs) for the female map, 448 markers for the male map, and 2,577 markers for the integrated map. Taking into account the size of all LGs, the marker coverage was 2,664.36 cM for the female map, 1,305.58 cM for the male map, and 2,457.82 cM for the integrated map. The average intervals between two adjacent mapped markers were 1.11 cM, 2.91 cM and 0.95 cM for three maps, respectively. 'SNP_only' markers accounted for 89.25% of the markers on the integrated map. Mapping markers contained 5,043 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) loci, which corresponded to two SNP loci per SLAF marker. According to the integrated map, we used interval mapping (Logarithm of odds, LOD > 3.0) to detect our quantitative trait. One QTL was detected for anthracnose resistance. The interval of this QTL ranged from 165.51 cM to 176.33 cM on LG14, and ten markers in this interval that were above the threshold value were considered to be linked markers to the anthracnose resistance trait. The phenotypic variance explained by each marker ranged from 16.2 to 19.9%, and their LOD scores varied from 3.22 to 4.04. High-density genetic maps for walnut containing 16

  5. Roystonea regia (Kunth) O.F.

    Treesearch

    K.F. Connor

    2002-01-01

    Roystonea regia is a rapidly growing tree that can reach 15-34.5 m in height and 61 cm in diameter. The stout, smooth trunk is not always straight, and many short air roots are attached at the base. It is primarily valued as an ornamental. The seeds contain oil which is sold commercially or used for livestock feed. The leaves are used for thatching...

  6. The complete chloroplast genome of common walnut (Juglans regia)

    Treesearch

    Yiheng ​Hu; Keith E. Woeste; Meng Dang; Tao Zhou; Xiaojia Feng; Guifang Zhao; Zhanlin Liu; Zhonghu Li; Peng. Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Common walnut (Juglans regia L.) is cultivated in temperate regions worldwide for its wood and nuts. The complete chloroplast genome of J. regia was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. This is the first complete chloroplast sequence for the Juglandaceae, a family that includes numerous species of economic importance....

  7. Antihemolytic activity and mineral contents of Juglans regia L. flowers.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh, M A; Nabavi, S F; Nabavi, S M

    2013-07-01

    Juglans (J.) regia L. is known to possess many biological properties. In this study, antihemolytic activity of methanol extract of Juglans regia L. flower were investigated. Antihemolytic activities of Juglans regia L. flowers were evaluated by various in vitro assays. In addition, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and mineral contents of flowers were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extract showed good antihemolytic activity against H2O2 and CuOOH induced hemolysis in comparison with control. Extract was capable of scavenging H2O2 in a concentration dependent manner. IC50 for H2O2 scavenging activity was 311±12.8 µg ml-1. The amount of eight elements was determined and was in the order: Mn > Cu > Fe > Zn. Our study indicate that J. regia flower has remarkable antihemolytic activity, which maybe result of its high phenol and flavonoid contents, especially quercetin.

  8. The walnut (Juglans regia) genome sequence reveals diversity in genes coding for the biosynthesis of non-structural polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Pedro J; Crepeau, Marc W; Puiu, Daniela; Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Whalen, Jeanne; Stevens, Kristian A; Paul, Robin; Butterfield, Timothy S; Britton, Monica T; Reagan, Russell L; Chakraborty, Sandeep; Walawage, Sriema L; Vasquez-Gross, Hans A; Cardeno, Charis; Famula, Randi A; Pratt, Kevin; Kuruganti, Sowmya; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K; Leslie, Charles A; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Salzberg, Steven L; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Langley, Charles H; Neale, David B

    2016-09-01

    The Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.), a diploid species native to the mountainous regions of Central Asia, is the major walnut species cultivated for nut production and is one of the most widespread tree nut species in the world. The high nutritional value of J. regia nuts is associated with a rich array of polyphenolic compounds, whose complete biosynthetic pathways are still unknown. A J. regia genome sequence was obtained from the cultivar 'Chandler' to discover target genes and additional unknown genes. The 667-Mbp genome was assembled using two different methods (SOAPdenovo2 and MaSuRCA), with an N50 scaffold size of 464 955 bp (based on a genome size of 606 Mbp), 221 640 contigs and a GC content of 37%. Annotation with MAKER-P and other genomic resources yielded 32 498 gene models. Previous studies in walnut relying on tissue-specific methods have only identified a single polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene (JrPPO1). Enabled by the J. regia genome sequence, a second homolog of PPO (JrPPO2) was discovered. In addition, about 130 genes in the large gallate 1-β-glucosyltransferase (GGT) superfamily were detected. Specifically, two genes, JrGGT1 and JrGGT2, were significantly homologous to the GGT from Quercus robur (QrGGT), which is involved in the synthesis of 1-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose, a precursor for the synthesis of hydrolysable tannins. The reference genome for J. regia provides meaningful insight into the complex pathways required for the synthesis of polyphenols. The walnut genome sequence provides important tools and methods to accelerate breeding and to facilitate the genetic dissection of complex traits.

  9. Physicochemical characterisation of the galactomannan from delonix regia seed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper reports on the physicochemical characteristics of the polysaccharide extracted from the seeds of the legume Delonix regia which grows abundantly in Nigeria. The polysaccharide was found to consist of mannose and galactose with an M:G ratio 5:1 and average molar mass of 7.23 x 105 g/mol. T...

  10. English walnuts (Juglans regia L.) protect endogenous antioxidants in humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ellagic acid monomers, polymeric tannins and related phenolic compounds isolated from English walnuts (Juglans regia L.) have been reported to inhibit LDL oxidation ex vivo and decrease biomarkers of oxidative stress in animal models. To determine whether dietary and endogenous antioxidants are pres...

  11. Characterization of Jamaican Delonix regia and Cassia fistula Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Raymond; Rattray, Vaughn; Williams, Ruth; Denny, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Delonix regia and Cassia fistula seed extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ash, zinc and fatty acid content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized to assess the chemical functionalities present within the seeds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Lipid extracts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracts from the seeds of C. fistula had a higher antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content than D. regia. FTIR revealed that the seeds are a rich source of protein with small quantities of fat. C. fistula extracts contained a higher percentage of total fat than D. regia. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominant saturated fatty acid in both extracts. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were identified in smaller quantities. Seed extracts may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:27034834

  12. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30 μg and Erythromycin 15 μg were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P < 0.0001), but it did not show effect on S. mutans when compared with Erythromycin. According to the obtained MIC values, ethanol extract of Juglans regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes. PMID:23878540

  13. Landscape genetics of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) across its Asian range

    Treesearch

    Paola Pollegioni; Keith E. Woeste; Francesca Chiocchini; Irene Olimpieri; Virginia Tortolano; Jo Clark; Gabriel E. Hemery; Sergio Mapelli; Maria Emilla. Malvolti

    2014-01-01

    Persian walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. Despite the increasing interest in the development of conservation strategies for walnut germplasm, an accurate and full-scale overview of wild genetic resources of J. regia has not been conducted because natural...

  14. Rethinking the history of common walnut (Juglans regia L.) in Europe: Its origins and human interactions

    Treesearch

    Paola Pollegioni; Keith Woeste; Francesca Chiocchini; Stefano Del Lungo; Marco Ciolfi; Irene Olimpieri; Virginia Tortolano; Jo Clark; Gabriel E. Hemery; Sergio Mapelli; Maria Emilia Malvolti; Tzen-Yuh Chiang

    2017-01-01

    Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its high-quality wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that after the last glaciation J. regia survived and grew in almost completely isolated stands in Asia, and that ancient humans dispersed walnuts across Asia and into new...

  15. Tannins and Antioxidant Activities of the Walnut (Juglans regia) Pellicle.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tian-Peng; Cai, Le; Chen, Yang; Li, Ying; Wang, Ya-Rong; Liu, Chuan-Shui; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2015-12-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of the acetone extract and derived fractions from the walnut (Juglans regia) pellicle were estimated. The BuOH fraction exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity with the highest phenolic content. A phytochemical investigation of this fraction led to the isolation of three tannins, 2,3-hexahydroxydiphenoylglucose (1), pedunculagin (2) and 2,3,4,6-tetragalloylglucose (3). Pedunculagin showed high content and powerful activity, which implied that this compound plays an important role in the antioxidant activity of the walnut pellicle.

  16. Antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of Juglans regia fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Negi, Arvind Singh; Luqman, Suaib; Srivastava, Suchita; Krishna, Vinay; Gupta, Namita; Darokar, Mahendra Pandurang

    2011-06-01

    Cancer chemopreventive action of walnut [Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae)] has been explored. This study evaluated antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of walnut. Various fractions of walnut extract have been screened for antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. All these fractions have also been evaluated for total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and reducing power capacity. Chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited a high level of antiproliferation against HepG-2, liver cancer cell line (IC(50) = 9 and 15 µg/mL, respectively). Exhibiting high phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and potent antiproliferative activity, walnut may act as a cancer chemopreventive agent.

  17. [Chemical constituents from the flower of Juglans regia].

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian-Jun; Yang, Ben; Zeng, Yong; Li, Chong

    2012-10-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the flower Juglans regia. All compounds were isolated and purified by normal column chromatograph and polyamide chromatograph, the chemical strucures were mainly elucidated by ESI-MS and NMR spectra. Seven compounds were identified as follows: 4,5,8-trihydroxy-alpha-tetralone 5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(1),4,5-dihydroxy-alpha-tetralone4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(2), 5-hydroxy-4-methoxytetralone (3), 5-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone (4), rutin (5), vanillin (6), tetracosanoic acid 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester (7). All compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  18. Delonix regia: historic perspectives and modern phytochemical and pharmacological researches.

    PubMed

    Modi, Anuj; Mishra, Vijay; Bhatt, Ajita; Jain, Aviral; Mansoori, Mohd Hashim; Gurnany, Ekta; Kumar, Vimal

    2016-01-01

    Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook) Raffin (Fabaceae), also known as flame of forest, is a semi-deciduous tree, distributed throughout Madagascar, India, Africa, and Northern Australia. Various parts of the plant are traditionally used for the treatment of different ailments such as inflammation, rheumatism, bronchitis, diabetes, anemia, fever, gynecological disorders, and pneumonia. The plant possess antioxidant, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, wound healing, antiarthritic, larvicidal, antimalarial, antiemetic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antidiarrhoeal, antiheamolytic, diuretic, and anthelmintic activities. This review is an up-to-date compilation on its traditional uses in context to phytochemical and pharmacological perspectives. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and characterization of new microsatellites for walnut (Juglans regia).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z Y; Han, J W; Jin, Q; Wang, Y; Pang, X M; Li, Y Y

    2013-10-18

    The expressed sequence tag (EST) database represents a potentially valuable resource for the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for use in evolutionary studies. EST-SSRs reveal polymorphisms not only within the source taxon, but in related taxa as well. In this paper, we describe a case study in which the publicly available walnut (Juglans regia) EST database was used to develop SSR markers for use in the genetic analysis of the widespread Juglans nigra and Carya cathayensis and an endangered species Annamocarya sinensis. A total of 7262 unigenes, including 1911 contigs and 5351 singletons, were obtained from 13,559 ESTs retrieved from the NCBI database. The 7262 unigenes were further reduced to 706 EST-SSR sequences containing 805 SSR loci. Then, 309 EST-SSR primers were randomly designed, and 77 were identified with five high across-species transferability cross-species: namely, J. regia, J. nigra, C. cathayensis, Carya dabieshanensis, and A. sinensis. Thirteen highly polymorphic EST-SSRs were further used for genetic analyses in these above five species.

  20. PFabrication of gold tips by chemical etching in aqua regia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, F.; Calogero, G.; Di Marco, G.; Maragò, O. M.; Gucciardi, P. G.; Giorgianni, U.; Channon, K.; Sabatino, G.

    2007-10-01

    We present a method to produce sharp gold tips for applications in apertureless near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy. Thin gold wires are tapered by chemical etching in aqua regia, covered by an isooctane protective layer. Tips with apical radii of curvature of <50 nm are obtained with a 40% yield. The tip performances have been checked by shear-force imaging of amyloid fibrils samples and compared to optical fiber probes. The analysis of the tip morphology, carried out by scanning electron microscopy, shows the existence of two different etching processes occurring in bulk and at the liquid-liquid interface. A simple analytical model is presented to describe the dynamics of the tip formation at the liquid-liquid meniscus interface that fits remarkably well the experimental results in terms of tip shape and length.

  1. Nanosilver Particle Production Using Juglans Regia L. (Walnut) Leaf Extract

    PubMed Central

    Korbekandi, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Jalayer, Susan Sadat; Jalayer, Maryam Sadat; Bandegani, Maedeh

    2013-01-01

    Background The production of nanoparticles using a biosystem is considered green chemistry. Application of plant extracts as a biological process has been proven to be suitable for synthesis of nanoparticles. Objectives This study designed in order to evaluate the production of silver nanoparticles using Juglans regia leaf extract and to compare the outcome of different preparation methods of plant extracts (ethanolic extract, boiling water extract and plant powder) for the generation of nanoparticles. Materials and Methods The reaction mixture contained the following ingredients: AgNO3 (10 mM) as the biotransformation substrate, plant extract or powder as the biocatalyst, glucose (560 mM) as the electron donor, phosphate buffer (pH = 7, 100 mM) and ethanol 70% as the solvent in the reaction mixture. The samples were taken from the reaction mixtures at different times, and the absorbance (450 nm) of the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticle hydrosols was recorded immediately following dilution (1:80) so as to preserve its freshness. Results UV-visible spectrophotometer analysis revealed that the direct application of powder of the walnut leaf was the most efficient technique. TEM (Transmission electron microscopy) micrograph obtained by using this method revealed the generation of aggregated polydisperse, quasi-spherical nanoparticles in sizes of 10-50 nm. Ethonolic extract resulted in single silver nanoparticles which were nearly monodisperse, spherical, and individual nanoparticles ranged in size from 1-5 nm. Therefore, using direct powder of Walnut created more particles but applying ethanolic extract synthesized particles with smaller dimensions and no aggregation. Conclusions Different preparation methods of Juglans regia influence silver nanoparticles formation. PMID:24624182

  2. A simple digestion method with a Lefort aqua regia solution for diatom extraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huipin; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Jian; Hu, Sunlin; Wang, Yuzhong; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yanji

    2015-01-01

    Presence of diatoms in tissues has been considered as a significant sign of drowning. However, there are limitations in the present extraction methods. We developed a new digestion method using the Lefort aqua regia solution (3:1 nitric acid to hydrochloric acid) for diatom extraction and evaluated the digestive capability, diatom destruction, and diatoms' recovery of this new method. The kidney tissues from rabbit mixed with water rich in diatoms were treated by the Lefort aqua regia digestion method (n = 10) and the conventional acid digestion method (n = 10). The results showed that the digestive capability of Lefort aqua regia digestion method was superior to conventional acid digestion method (p < 0.01); the structure of diatom remained almost intact; and the recovery of diatom was comparable to the conventional acid digestion method (p > 0.05). The Lefort aqua regia reagent is an improvement over the conventional acid digestion for recovery of diatoms from tissue samples.

  3. The hypoglycemic effect of Juglans regia leaves aqueous extract in diabetic patients: A first human trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Juglans regia L. (J. regia ) is one of the medicinal plants traditionally used for treatment of diabetes in Iranian medicine. The effect of this plant has already been investigated on animal models; however, this is the first study conducted on human subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of J. regia leaves aqueous extract in type 2 diabetes patients. Fifty eight Iranian male and female patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups. One group (n = 30) received J. regia leaves extract while the other group (n = 28) received placebo. Fasting blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study and after two months for determination of HbA1c and blood glucose level as a main outcome and insulin, SGOT, SGPT, and ALP level as secondary outcome. Results Our analysis showed that serum fasting HbA1C and blood glucose levels were significantly decreased and the insulin level was increased in patients in the J. regia arm. Conclusions The results indicate that J. regia aqueous extract favorably affects blood levels of glucose, insulin and HbA1C in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:24447826

  4. Mineralogical basis for the interpretation of multi-element (ICP-AES), oxalic acid, and aqua regia partial digestions of stream sediments for reconnaissance exploration geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Mosier, E.L.; Motooka, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    We have applied partial digestion procedures, primarily oxalic acid and aqua regia leaches, to several regional geochemical reconnaissance studies carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analytical methods. We have chosen to use these two acids because the oxalic acid primarily attacks those compounds formed during secondary geochemical processes, whereas aqua regia will digest the primary sulfide phases as well as secondary phases. Application of the partial digestion technique has proven superior to total digestion because the concentration of metals in hydromorphic compounds and the sulfides is enhanced relative to the metals bound in the unattacked silicate phases. The aqua regia digestion attacks and leaches metals from the mafic chain silicates and the phyllosilicates (coordination number of VI or more), yielding a characteristic geochemical signature, but does not leach appreciable metal from many other silicates. In order to interpret the results from these leach studies, we have initiated an investigation of a large suite of hand-picked mineral separates. The study includes analyses of about two hundred minerals representing the common rock-forming minerals as well as end-member compositions of various silicates, oxides, sulfides, carbonates, sulfates, and some vanadates, molybdates, tungstates, and phosphates. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of leaching by acids of particular lattice sites in specific mineral structures. ?? 1987.

  5. Walnut (Juglans regia L.): genetic resources, chemistry, by-products.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Marcela L; Labuckas, Diana O; Lamarque, Alicia L; Maestri, Damián M

    2010-09-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the most widespread tree nut in the world. There is a great diversity of genotypes differing in forestry, productivity, physical and chemical nut traits. Some of them have been evaluated as promising and may serve as germplasm sources for breeding. The nutritional importance of the nut is related to the seed (kernel). It is a nutrient-dense food mainly owing to its oil content (up to 740 g kg(-1) in some commercial varieties), which can be extracted easily by screw pressing and consumed without refining. Walnut oil composition is dominated largely by unsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic together with lesser amounts of oleic and linolenic acids). Minor components of walnut oil include tocopherols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, hydrocarbons and volatile compounds. Phenolic compounds, present at high levels in the seed coat but poorly extracted with the oil, have been extensively characterised and found to possess strong antioxidant properties. The oil extraction residue is rich in proteins (unusually high in arginine, glutamic and aspartic acids) and has been employed in the formulation of various functional food products. This review describes current scientific knowledge concerning walnut genetic resources and composition as well as by-product obtainment and characteristics.

  6. Purification and characterization of tyrosinase from walnut leaves (Juglans regia).

    PubMed

    Zekiri, Florime; Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan G; Michael, Claudia; Mayer, Rupert L; Gerner, Christopher; Rompel, Annette

    2014-05-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a type-3 copper enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of phenolic compounds to their quinone derivates, which are further converted to melanin, a ubiquitous pigment in living organisms. In this study a plant originated tyrosinase was isolated from walnut leaves (Juglans regia) and biochemically characterized. It was possible to isolate and purify the enzyme by means of an aqueous two-phase extraction method followed by chromatographic purification and identification. Interestingly, the enzyme showed a rather high monophenolase activity considering that the main part of plant PPOs with some exceptions solely possess diphenolase activity. The average molecular mass of 39,047 Da (Asp(101)→Arg(445)) was determined very accurately by high resolution mass spectrometry. This proteolytically activated tyrosinase species was identified as a polyphenol oxidase corresponding to the known jrPPO1 sequence by peptide sequencing applying nanoUHPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The polypeptide backbone with sequence coverage of 96% was determined to start from Asp(101) and not to exceed Arg(445).

  7. Purification and characterization of tyrosinase from walnut leaves (Juglans regia)

    PubMed Central

    Zekiri, Florime; Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan G.; Michael, Claudia; Mayer, Rupert L.; Gerner, Christopher; Rompel, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a type-3 copper enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of phenolic compounds to their quinone derivates, which are further converted to melanin, a ubiquitous pigment in living organisms. In this study a plant originated tyrosinase was isolated from walnut leaves (Juglans regia) and biochemically characterized. It was possible to isolate and purify the enzyme by means of an aqueous two-phase extraction method followed by chromatographic purification and identification. Interestingly, the enzyme showed a rather high monophenolase activity considering that the main part of plant PPOs with some exceptions solely possess diphenolase activity. The average molecular mass of 39,047 Da (Asp101 → Arg445) was determined very accurately by high resolution mass spectrometry. This proteolytically activated tyrosinase species was identified as a polyphenol oxidase corresponding to the known jrPPO1 sequence by peptide sequencing applying nanoUHPLC–ESI-MS/MS. The polypeptide backbone with sequence coverage of 96% was determined to start from Asp101 and not to exceed Arg445. PMID:24613318

  8. Synergistic Antimicrobial Activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Amber; Khan, Adnan; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kazmi, Shahana U.; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates.” We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens PMID:25719410

  9. Synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Amber; Khan, Adnan; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kazmi, Shahana U; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates." We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens.

  10. Genetic diversity of Persian walnut (Juglans regia) in the cold-temperate zone of the United States and Europe

    Treesearch

    Aziz Ebrahimi; AbdolKarim Zarei; James R. McKenna; Geza Bujdoso; Keith E. Woeste

    2017-01-01

    We compared the genetic diversity of Juglans regia L. growing in the cold temperate region of the eastern U.S. with J. regia growing in the cold-temperate and Mediterranean regions of Europe. Ten microsatel-lite (SSR) loci were used to assess the genetic relationships among 114 total trees originating from the Midwestern USA (n...

  11. Seasonal changes in english walnut (Juglans regia L.) (Juglandaceae), fruit properties and host use patterns by Rhagoletis zoqui (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhagoletis zoqui Bush is a Neosubtropical, univoltine, frugivorous tephritid fly that exploits both native Juglans spp. and the introduced, Palearctic English walnut, Juglans regia. The seasonal development of commercial J. regia fruit and the pattern of host exploitation by R. zoqui were tracked ov...

  12. The walnut (Juglans regia) genome sequence reveals diversity in genes coding for the biosynthesis of non-structural polyphenols

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.), a diploid species native to the mountainous regions of Central Asia, is the major walnut species cultivated for nut production and is one of the most widespread tree nut species in the world. The high nutritional value of J. regia nuts is associated with a rich...

  13. Thermogravimetric characteristics and kinetics of scrap tyre and Juglans regia shell co-pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Uzun, B B; Yaman, E

    2014-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of Juglans regia shell, scrap tyre and their blends were investigated using a thermogravimetric analysis method. Experiments were performed under dynamic conditions and a nitrogen atmosphere in the range 293 to 973 K at different heating rates. During pyrolysis of J. regia shell three mass loss zones were specified as removal of water, decomposition of hemicelluloses and cellulose, and decomposition of lignin. The degradation curves of scrap tyre showed merely one stage which was due to decomposition of styrene butadiene rubber. The kinetic parameters were calculated using both Arrhenius and Coats-Redfern methods. By adopting the Arrhenius method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1 : 1 blends were found to be 69.22, 71.48 and 47.03 kJ mol(-1), respectively. Additionally, by using the Coats-Redfern method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1 : 1 blend were determined as 99.85, 78.72 and 63.81 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The addition of J. regia shell to scrap tyre caused a reduction in the activation energies. The difference of weight loss was measured to examine interactions between raw materials. The maximum difference between experimental and theoretical mass loss was 5% at about 648 K with a heating rate of 20 K min(-1). These results indicated a significant synergistic effect was available during co-pyrolysis of J. regia shell and scrap tyre in the high temperature region. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Thermodynamic characterization of the palm tree Roystonea regia peroxidase stability.

    PubMed

    Zamorano, Laura S; Pina, David G; Arellano, Juan B; Bursakov, Sergey A; Zhadan, Andrey P; Calvete, Juan J; Sanz, Libia; Nielsen, Peter R; Villar, Enrique; Gavel, Olga; Roig, Manuel G; Watanabe, Leandra; Polikarpov, Igor; Shnyrov, Valery L

    2008-01-01

    The structural stability of a peroxidase, a dimeric protein from royal palm tree (Roystonea regia) leaves, has been characterized by high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism, steady-state tryptophan fluorescence and analytical ultracentifugation under different solvent conditions. It is shown that the thermal and chemical (using guanidine hydrochloride (Gdn-HCl)) folding/unfolding of royal palm tree peroxidase (RPTP) at pH 7 is a reversible process involving a highly cooperative transition between the folded dimer and unfolded monomers, with a free stabilization energy of about 23 kcal per mol of monomer at 25 degrees C. The structural stability of RPTP is pH-dependent. At pH 3, where ion pairs have disappeared due to protonation, the thermally induced denaturation of RPTP is irreversible and strongly dependent upon the scan rate, suggesting that this process is under kinetic control. Moreover, thermally induced transitions at this pH value are dependent on the protein concentration, allowing it to be concluded that in solution RPTP behaves as dimer, which undergoes thermal denaturation coupled with dissociation. Analysis of the kinetic parameters of RPTP denaturation at pH 3 was accomplished on the basis of the simple kinetic scheme N-->kD, where k is a first-order kinetic constant that changes with temperature, as given by the Arrhenius equation; N is the native state, and D is the denatured state, and thermodynamic information was obtained by extrapolation of the kinetic transition parameters to an infinite heating rate. Obtained in this way, the value of RPTP stability at 25 degrees C is ca. 8 kcal per mole of monomer lower than at pH 7. In all probability, this quantity reflects the contribution of ion pair interactions to the structural stability of RPTP. From a comparison of the stability of RPTP with other plant peroxidases it is proposed that one of the main factors responsible for the unusually high stability of RPTP which

  15. Mechanism of gallic acid biosynthesis in bacteria (Escherichia coli) and walnut (Juglans regia).

    PubMed

    Muir, Ryann M; Ibáñez, Ana M; Uratsu, Sandra L; Ingham, Elizabeth S; Leslie, Charles A; McGranahan, Gale H; Batra, Neelu; Goyal, Sham; Joseph, Jorly; Jemmis, Eluvathingal D; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2011-04-01

    Gallic acid (GA), a key intermediate in the synthesis of plant hydrolysable tannins, is also a primary anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective agent found in wine, tea, and cocoa. In this publication, we reveal the identity of a gene and encoded protein essential for GA synthesis. Although it has long been recognized that plants, bacteria, and fungi synthesize and accumulate GA, the pathway leading to its synthesis was largely unknown. Here we provide evidence that shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH), a shikimate pathway enzyme essential for aromatic amino acid synthesis, is also required for GA production. Escherichia coli (E. coli) aroE mutants lacking a functional SDH can be complemented with the plant enzyme such that they grew on media lacking aromatic amino acids and produced GA in vitro. Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum lines expressing a Juglans regia SDH exhibited a 500% increase in GA accumulation. The J. regia and E. coli SDH was purified via overexpression in E. coli and used to measure substrate and cofactor kinetics, following reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry (RP-LC/ESI-MS) was used to quantify and validate GA production through dehydrogenation of 3-dehydroshikimate (3-DHS) by purified E. coli and J. regia SDH when shikimic acid (SA) or 3-DHS were used as substrates and NADP(+) as cofactor. Finally, we show that purified E. coli and J. regia SDH produced GA in vitro.

  16. Genetic diversity, structure and differentiation in cultivate walnut (Juglans regia L.)

    Treesearch

    M. Aradhya; K. Woeste; D. Velasco

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated walnut (Juglans regia) using 15 microsatellite loci revealed a considerable amount of genetic variation with a mild genetic structure indicating five genetic groups corresponding to the centers of diversity within the home range of walnut in Eurasia. Despite the narrow genetic...

  17. An assessment of the nutraceutical potential of Juglans regia L. leaf powder in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mollica, Adriano; Zengin, Gokhan; Locatelli, Marcello; Stefanucci, Azzurra; Macedonio, Giorgia; Bellagamba, Giuseppe; Onaolapo, Olakunle; Onaolapo, Adejoke; Azeez, Falilat; Ayileka, Adeola; Novellino, Ettore

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the nutraceutical potential of Juglans regia L. (a dietary supplement and food-additive) by evaluating the in-vitro anti-diabetic potential and by assessing the in-vivo anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic, and organ-protective effects of freshly-dried and powdered leaves of J. regia L. in diabetic rats. In the in-vivo experiments, dry powder of J. regia L. leaf (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered orally, twice daily (9.00 a.m. and 5 p.m.) to streptozocin-induced diabetic rats over a period of 28 days, during which body weight and blood glucose were monitored weekly. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was taken for assessment of lipid profile, antioxidant activity and liver/kidney biochemistry; while samples of the pancreas, liver and kidneys were fixed, processed, sectioned, and stained for general histology. Phytochemical evaluations of three extracts were carried out using HPLC-PDA validated procedures, while enzyme-inhibitory potentials were tested against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In-vivo assays showed that twice-daily administration of J. regia L. leaf resulted in weight gain, glycaemic control, reversal of dyslipidaemia and biochemical evidences of liver/kidney injury, and protection against pancreas, liver and kidney tissue injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic diversity, structure and differentiation in cultivated walnut (juglans regia l.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An analysis of genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated walnut (Juglans regia) using 15 microsatellite loci revealed a considerable amount of genetic variation with a mild genetic structure indicating five genetic groups corresponding to the centers of diversity within the home range of w...

  19. Heavy metal accumulation in the bark and leaves of Juglans regia planted in Artvin City, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Yunus; Unver, Mehmet C.; Ugulu, Ilker; Calis, Mesude; Durkan, Nazmi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of heavy metals such as copper, iron, manganese, zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium and chromium concentrated in Juglans regia bark and leaf samples from different localities in Artvin, Turkey. Analysis of the heavy metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr in samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP–OES; Perkin Elmer, Optima 8000 DV). Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The comparisons were performed in order to determine whether there were any differences between J. regia bark and leaf samples in terms of average heavy metal accumulation levels. As a result of this study, the following mean concentrations were determined for J. regia bark samples: the contents of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr (μg g−1, dry weight) ranged from 72.46 to 88.14, 14.40 to 628.0, 0.896 to 67.71, 7.000 to 28.52, 0.040 to 0.905, 1.031 to 2.744, 0.011 to 0.158 and 1.192 to 3.134, respectively. On the other hand, for J. regia leaf samples, the contents of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr (μg g−1, dry weight) ranged from 0.339 to 13.80, 12.72 to 698.2, 1.001 to 204.6, 7.362 to 56.03, 0.158 to 0.665, 0.130 to 2.744, 0.041 to 0.114 and 0.508 to 2.767, respectively. In the statistical analysis, heavy metal accumulation values of J. regia bark and leaf samples for Cu, Ni and Cr were significantly different (P < 0.05). PMID:26019552

  20. The effect of hydro alcoholic extract of Juglans regia leaves in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Jamshid; Delaviz, Hamdollah; Malekzadeh, Jan Mohammad; Roozbehi, Amrollah

    2012-04-01

    Phytotherapy has been achieved to maintain glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycemic properties of the Juglans regia leaf extract in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Nicotinamide was injected intraperitonealy (i.p.) 15 min before the injection of Streptozotocin (i.p.). One week after induction of diabetes, oral treatment started with extract of Juglans regia and Metformin and continued for 4 weeks. Fasting blood sugar, body weight, serum lipids and insulin level were measured in different groups. A significant reduction of glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol and serum triglycerides were detected after 4 weeks in rats treated with Juglans regia leaves compared to the control groups. Thus, Juglans regia extract treatment showed potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in type 2 diabetic rats.

  1. Antiglycation and antioxidation properties of Juglans regia and Calendula officinalis: possible role in reducing diabetic complications and slowing down ageing.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Haroon; Khan, Ibrar; Wahid, Abdul

    2012-09-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the body due to the non-enzymatic glycation of proteins and oxidation is associated with aging and diabetes mellitus. In this study we wanted to investigate the antiglycation and antioxidation potential of two medicinal plants: Juglans regia and Calendula officinalis. In-vitro investigation was carried out to discover the antiglycation and antioxidation potential of J. regia and C. officinalis. Using an Ultraviolet Double-beam Spectrophotometer, we evaluated the antiglycation property of the crude methanolic extracts of J. regia and C. officinalis by assessing their ability to inhibit the Maillard reaction. Employing the same instrument we also measured the antioxidation potential of these plant extracts using the nitric oxide (NO) free radical-scavenging assay. J. regia had greater antiglycation ability, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of 28 microg/mL as compared with that of C. officinalis (270 microg/mL). C. officinalis had greater antioxidation potential (26.10, 22.07 and 16.06% at 0.5 mg, 0.25 mg and 0.125 mg, respectively, as compared with 18.15, 16.50 and 16.06% of J. regia, respectively). J. regia and C. officinalis inhibited the Maillard reaction and prevented oxidation in-vitro. Hence, the extracts of these plants could have therapeutic uses in curbing chronic diabetic complications and slowing down aging.

  2. Protective Effect of Juglans regia L. Walnut Extract Against Oxidative DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Calcabrini, Cinzia; De Bellis, Roberta; Mancini, Umberto; Cucchiarini, Luigi; Stocchi, Vilberto; Potenza, Lucia

    2017-06-01

    Walnuts (Juglans regia L.) are relevant components of the Mediterranean diet providing important macronutrients, micronutrients and other bioactive constituents including unsaturated fatty acids, proteins, fiber, vitamins, minerals, phytosterols and polyphenols. Although the walnut beneficial effects in human health are widely recognized by a lot of epidemiologic studies very little is known regarding its effect on damaged DNA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Juglans regia L. ethanolic extract from kernel on the induction of DNA strand breaks by thiol/Fe(3+)/O2 mixed function oxidase, tert-butyl hydroperoxide or UVC radiations in acellular and cellular models. Plasmid DNA cleavage and fast Halo assay were used to monitor oxidative damage to DNA. Both approaches showed protection of oxidatively injured DNA. These results agree with a lot of scientific proofs which recommend walnut as dietary adjunct in health promotion and prevention as well as in treatment of lifestyle-related oxidative diseases.

  3. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts.

    PubMed

    Rahimzadeh, Mahsa; Jahanshahi, Samaneh; Moein, Soheila; Moein, Mahmood Reza

    2014-06-01

    One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhibition, Dixon plot was depicted. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Both plant extracts showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of α-amylase. 60% inhibition was seen with 2 mg/ml of U. dioica and 0.4 mg/ml of J. regia aqueous extract. Dixon plots revealed the type of α-amylase inhibition by these two extracts as competitive inhibition. Determination of the type of α-amylase inhibition by these plant extracts could provide by successful use of plant chemicals as drug targets.

  4. Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Serakta, M; Djerrou, Z; Mansour-Djaalab, H; Kahlouche-Riachi, F; Hamimed, S; Trifa, W; Belkhiri, A; Edikra, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were compared with three controls : CRL1 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes, CRL2 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of hydroalcoholic solvent, CRL3 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of Glucantim as a reference drug in the management of leishmaniasis. The results showed that both J. regia and L. inermis extracts reduced the promastigotes number significantly (P<0.01). however, S. officinalis showed a total inhibition of the Leishmania major growth.

  5. Determination of total polyphenolic compounds and flavonoids in Juglans regia leaves.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

    2014-07-01

    Juglans regia leaves have been widely used in traditional medicines because of its antimicrobial, antihelmintic, astringent, keratolytic, antidiarrhoeal, hypoglycaemic, depurative, tonic, carminative activity. Total polyphenolic compounds were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and flavonoids were quantified using the HPLC-PDA after the hydrolysis of the plant material with HCl. Among the flavonoids myricetin, quercetin, apigenin and kaempferol were found in appreciable amount.

  6. Determination of the Juglone Content of Juglans regia Leaves by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Matławska, Irena; Bylka, Wiesława; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa; Stanisz, Beata

    2015-07-01

    The constituents of walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves are represented by tannins, phenolics, and naphthoquinones, the characteristic compound being juglone. The content of juglone in the methanolic extract of the leaves determined by the GC/MS method was 9.9 ± 0.2 mg/100 g; small amounts (1.3 ± 0.02 mg/100 g) were recorded in the infusion, whereas in the decoction it was not detected. As some studies indicate toxicity of juglone, only decoctions should be recommended for therapeutic use.

  7. Rethinking the history of common walnut (Juglans regia L.) in Europe: Its origins and human interactions.

    PubMed

    Pollegioni, Paola; Woeste, Keith; Chiocchini, Francesca; Del Lungo, Stefano; Ciolfi, Marco; Olimpieri, Irene; Tortolano, Virginia; Clark, Jo; Hemery, Gabriel E; Mapelli, Sergio; Malvolti, Maria Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its high-quality wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that after the last glaciation J. regia survived and grew in almost completely isolated stands in Asia, and that ancient humans dispersed walnuts across Asia and into new habitats via trade and cultural expansion. The history of walnut in Europe is a matter of debate, however. In this study, we estimated the genetic diversity and structure of 91 Eurasian walnut populations using 14 neutral microsatellites. By integrating fossil pollen, cultural, and historical data with population genetics, and approximate Bayesian analysis, we reconstructed the demographic history of walnut and its routes of dispersal across Europe. The genetic data confirmed the presence of walnut in glacial refugia in the Balkans and western Europe. We conclude that human-mediated admixture between Anatolian and Balkan walnut germplasm started in the Early Bronze Age, and between western Europe and the Balkans in eastern Europe during the Roman Empire. A population size expansion and subsequent decline in northeastern and western Europe was detected in the last five centuries. The actual distribution of walnut in Europe resulted from the combined effects of expansion/contraction from multiple refugia after the Last Glacial Maximum and its human exploitation over the last 5,000 years.

  8. Delonix regia Leaf Extract (DRLE): A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Su, Wei-Lieh; Huang, Shih-Che; Wang, Shu-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Delonix regia (Boj. Ex. Hook) is a flowering plant in the pea family found in tropical areas and its leaves are used informally to treat diseases in folk medicine. However, the cardioprotective effects in this plant are still unclear. In this study, we found that the Delonix regia leaf extract (DRLE) (400 mg/kg/d) can reduce the mortality rate in an isoproterenol (ISO)-induced heart injury and hypertrophy mouse model. Decreased serum levels of creatine phosphokinase, LDH, GOT, TNF-alpha and increased nitric oxide levels were found in DRLE-treated ISO-injured mice. In the in vitro study, the porcine coronary artery exhibited vasodilation effect induced by DRLE in a dose-dependent manner. In the DRLE toxic test, overdose of DRLE showed the high safety in normal mice and may have the ability to remove the metabolic wastes in blood. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that DRLE has the cardioprotective effects by activating the vasodilation through NO pathway and preventing the myocyte injury via inhibition of TNF-alpha pathway. We suggest that DRLE may act as a promising novel herbal medicine for cardioprotection. PMID:27936072

  9. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts

    PubMed Central

    Rahimzadeh, Mahsa; Jahanshahi, Samaneh; Moein, Soheila; Moein, Mahmood Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Materials and Methods: Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhibition, Dixon plot was depicted. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results: Both plant extracts showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of α-amylase. 60% inhibition was seen with 2 mg/ml of U. dioica and 0.4 mg/ml of J. regia aqueous extract. Dixon plots revealed the type of α-amylase inhibition by these two extracts as competitive inhibition. Conclusion: Determination of the type of α-amylase inhibition by these plant extracts could provide by successful use of plant chemicals as drug targets. PMID:25140210

  10. Anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities of constituents of chloroform extract of Juglans regia leaves.

    PubMed

    Salimi, M; Ardestaniyan, M H; Mostafapour Kandelous, H; Saeidnia, S; Gohari, A R; Amanzadeh, A; Sanati, H; Sepahdar, Z; Ghorbani, S; Salimi, M

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate anti-proliferative as well as apoptotic activities of compounds identified in chloroform extract of Juglans regia leaves, on human breast and oral cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and BHY). Column chromatography, MTT assay, flowcytometry and western blotting have all been used in the study. Bioassay-guided fractionation of chloroform extract of J. regia afforded isolation of 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone [1], lupeol [2], daucosterol [3], 4-hydroxy-α-tetralone [4], β-sitosterol [5], 5,7- dihydroxy-3,4'-dimethoxyflavone [6] and regiolone [7]. Structures of the compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses [Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass]. All compounds inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) and BHY (human oral squamous carcinoma) cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Compounds 6 and 7 had potent cytotoxic effects on both MCF-7 and BHY cells (IC50 21-51 μm), yet were not toxic to normal cells. MCF-7 growth inhibition was attributed to apoptosis; population of apoptotic cells increased from 1.12% in controls to 5.64 and 8.1% after 48-h treatment with compounds 6 and 7, indicating their potential at inducing early and late apoptosis. The caspase cascade was not activated, as indicated by only insignificant cleavage of caspase-3. Our results suggest that compounds 6 and 7 can induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through the caspase-3 independent pathway. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Antiproliferative Activity of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Proteins and Walnut Protein Hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Wilman; Gómez-Ruiz, José Angel; Ruiz, Ana Lucia; Carvalho, Jõao Ernesto

    2017-09-25

    Proteins from Juglans regia L. were isolated. Then, proteins were hydrolyzed with different enzymes. Antiproliferative activity of proteins and of the protein hydrolysates of J. regia L. were evaluated using the sulforhodamine B method. Glutelin and prolamin proteins presented a high antiproliferative activity against cancer cells PC-3 (prostate) and K-562 (leukemia) with values of 43.9 and 84.4 μg/mL, respectively. The highest inhibitory effect observed was 50% at 0.25 μg/mL concentration in gastrointestinal digestion with pepsin and corolase pp in a dose-dependent manner against cancer cell UACC62 (melanoma). Pepsin hydrolysate showed inhibitory effects against cancer cell UACC62 (melanoma) with a concentration of 71.0 μg/mL. The effects were studied in a dose-dependent manner. The hydrolysate obtained with neutrase enzyme presented inhibitory effects against cancer cell UACC62 (melanoma) at a concentration of 25 μg/mL. Neither proteins nor protein hydrolysates presented cytotoxicity against normal cell assay VERO (epithelial).

  12. Properties of Delonix regia seed gum as a novel tablet binder.

    PubMed

    Adetogun, Gbadegesin E; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets formulated using Delonix regia seed gum (DRSG) as a binder have been studied in this work. Acacia BP (ACG) and tragacanth BP (TRG) were used as official gum standards. The mechanical properties, i.e. tensile strength (TS) and brittle fracture index (BFI), showed that with an increase in concentration of the gum binder, the tensile strength increased while the BFI was reduced. The crushing strength - friability/disintegration time ratio used to analyze the disintegration properties gave a rank order: tablets containing DRSG > tablets containing ACG > tablets containing TRG at 1%, w/w binder concentration while for higher binder concentrations, the rank order is: tablets containing ACG > tablets containing TRG > tablets containing DRSG. The results suggest that while Delonix regia seed gum may be useful as a binder, its use at a low concentration will improve the balance between the binding and disintegration properties of tablets when a faster disintegration is desired, while its use at a high concentration could serve the desire for a modified or sustained release tablet formulation.

  13. Antimycobacterial activity of Juglans regia, Juglans mollis, Carya illinoensis and Bocconia frutescens.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Vega, Delia Elva; Verde-Star, María Julia; Salinas-González, Noé; Rosales-Hernández, Bibiana; Estrada-García, Iris; Mendez-Aragón, Patricia; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; González-Garza, María Teresa; Castro-Garza, Jorge

    2008-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a serious worldwide health threat, killing almost 2 million people per year. Alternative antimycobacterial drugs are urgently needed; studies have shown that medicinal plants traditionally used to treat respiratory diseases are a potential source of compounds to treat tuberculosis. This paper studied the antimycobacterial activity of 28 extracts from four different plant species that have been used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat tuberculosis. Bark and leaf crude extracts of Juglans regia L., Juglans mollis Engelm., Carya illinoensis (Wangenh) K. Koch and Bocconia frutescens showed in vitro anti-M. tuberculosis activity. Hexane bark extracts from C. illinoensis, J. mollis and J. regia were the most active with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 31, 50 and 100 microg/mL, respectively. Ethanol bark extracts from C. illinoensis and J. mollis showed activity at 100 and 125 microg/mL, respectively. Leaf extracts had the lowest activity. Methanol and hexane leaves extracts from B. frutescens had a MIC of 125 microg/mL. None of the aqueous extracts showed antimycobacterial activity. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Rethinking the history of common walnut (Juglans regia L.) in Europe: Its origins and human interactions

    PubMed Central

    Pollegioni, Paola; Woeste, Keith; Chiocchini, Francesca; Del Lungo, Stefano; Ciolfi, Marco; Olimpieri, Irene; Tortolano, Virginia; Clark, Jo; Hemery, Gabriel E.; Mapelli, Sergio; Malvolti, Maria Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its high-quality wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that after the last glaciation J. regia survived and grew in almost completely isolated stands in Asia, and that ancient humans dispersed walnuts across Asia and into new habitats via trade and cultural expansion. The history of walnut in Europe is a matter of debate, however. In this study, we estimated the genetic diversity and structure of 91 Eurasian walnut populations using 14 neutral microsatellites. By integrating fossil pollen, cultural, and historical data with population genetics, and approximate Bayesian analysis, we reconstructed the demographic history of walnut and its routes of dispersal across Europe. The genetic data confirmed the presence of walnut in glacial refugia in the Balkans and western Europe. We conclude that human-mediated admixture between Anatolian and Balkan walnut germplasm started in the Early Bronze Age, and between western Europe and the Balkans in eastern Europe during the Roman Empire. A population size expansion and subsequent decline in northeastern and western Europe was detected in the last five centuries. The actual distribution of walnut in Europe resulted from the combined effects of expansion/contraction from multiple refugia after the Last Glacial Maximum and its human exploitation over the last 5,000 years. PMID:28257470

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of royal palm tree (Roystonea regia) peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Leandra; Nascimento, Alessandro S.; Zamorano, Laura S.; Shnyrov, Valery L.; Polikarpov, Igor

    2007-09-01

    The purification, crystallization, X-ray diffraction data acquisition and molecular-replacement results of royal palm tree (R. regia) peroxidase are described. Royal palm tree peroxidase (RPTP), which was isolated from Roystonea regia leaves, has an unusually high stability that makes it a promising candidate for diverse applications in industry and analytical chemistry [Caramyshev et al. (2005 ▶), Biomacromolecules, 6, 1360–1366]. Here, the purification and crystallization of this plant peroxidase and its X-ray diffraction data collection are described. RPTP crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.8 Å. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3{sub 1}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 116.83, c = 92.24 Å, and contain one protein molecule per asymmetric unit. The V{sub M} value and solvent content are 4.07 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and 69.8%, respectively.

  16. Identification and dosimetry of irradiated walnuts (Juglans regia) using EPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghraby, A.; Salama, E.; Sami, A.; Mansour, A.; El-Sayed, M.

    2012-03-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is an easy, fast, and reliable tool for identification of irradiated food. Untreated nuts may encounter hazards of carrying several pathogens or microbial contamination; walnuts are of specific importance due to their nutritional and medicinal values, and hence walnut processing via gamma irradiation is a necessary step. EPR was employed for the identification and dosimetry of Cs-137 gamma-irradiated walnuts (shells and kernels). Several important parameters were studied, such as spectral features, microwave power dependence of signal intensities, and short- and long-term time dependences. Responses of walnut shells and kernels to different radiation doses in the range 0-10 kGy were investigated. Results confirmed that EPR is a suitable tool for the identification and dosimetry of irradiated walnuts using either their shells or only kernels.

  17. Content of different groups of phenolic compounds in microshoots of Juglans regia cultivars and studies on antioxidant activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phenolic and other compounds were extracted from micropropagated axillary shoots (microshoots) of the walnut (Juglans regia L.) cultivars ‘Chandler’, ‘Howard’, ‘Kerman’, ‘Sunland’, and ‘Z63’. Among cultivars, microshoots showed differences in phenolic compounds, phenolic acids, flavonoids and proant...

  18. Pharmacological and Genotoxic Properties of Polyphenolic Extracts of Cedrela odorata L. and Juglans regia L. Barks in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Almonte-Flores, Dulce Carolina; Paniagua-Castro, Norma; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo; Rosales-Castro, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Cedrela odorata L. and Juglans regia L. bark extracts was performed in vitro. Juglans regia showed greater extract concentration and higher antioxidant activity. Hypoglycemic activity in rats was assessed by generating a glucose tolerance curve and determining the area under the curve (AUC). Diabetes was later induced by an injection with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg of b.w.) and confirmed after 24 hours. The extract was administered (200 mg/kg b.w.) over 10 days, and blood glucose was monitored and compared with a control group. The glucose AUC showed a hypoglycemic effect of J. regia and C. odorata in normal rats. Both extracts reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation in diabetic rats. Polyphenolic extracts reduced cholesterol levels in a hypercholesterolemic mouse model and decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation. Polyphenolic extract doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. were administered alone or with cyclophosphamide (CPA) 50 mg/kg ip, which was used as a positive control. Analyses were performed using leukocytes in a comet assay after 4 and 24 h of treatment. Genotoxic effects were evaluated by the comet assay, which showed that while J. regia extract had no effect, C. odorata extract induced slight damage at 200 mg/kg, with the formation of type 0 and 1 comets. PMID:25945104

  19. Antiradical activity of different parts of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) fruit as a function of genotype.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Vali; Jamei, Rashid; Heidari, Reza; Esfahlan, Ali Jahanban

    2012-12-15

    The objective of this work was to analyse phenolic compounds and antiradical capacity of different parts of walnut fruit among six genotypes of Juglans regia L. Therefore, total phenolic and flavonoid content were determined and methanolic extracts of walnut genotypes were considered by the reducing power, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenging. Significant differences were found in phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity of different parts of fruits and among various genotypes. High correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.81) was observed between phenol content and radical scavenging activity, but this was not always true (R(2)=0.01). These results demonstrated that walnut genotypes have different phenolic compounds and phenolic compounds have different radical scavenging power. The differences of phenolic compounds were confirmed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  20. Phytochemical Study of Juglans regia L. Pericarps from Greece with a Chemotaxonomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Tsasi, Gerasimia; Milošević-Ifantis, Tanja; Skaltsa, Helen

    2016-12-01

    Phytochemical research of different polarity extracts from green Juglans regia L. pericarps from Greece afforded 32 compounds: four pentacyclic triterpenes (1 - 4), three sesquiterpenes (5 - 7), four tetralones (8 - 11), two naphthoquinones (12 and 13), seven phenolic acids (14 - 20), one diarylheptanoid (21), one neo-lignan (22), seven flavonoids (23 - 29), two phenylethanoids (30 and 31) and one hydrolysed tannin (32). Compounds 4 and 29 are isolated for the first time from the species, while compounds 3, 7, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30 are reported for the first time in Juglandaceae. Chemotaxonomic significance of isolated compounds into Junglandaceae family is thoroughly discussed. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  1. Recovery of gold from computer circuit board scrap using aqua regia.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Peter P; Etsell, Thomas H

    2007-08-01

    Computer circuit board scrap was first treated with one part concentrated nitric acid and two parts water at 70 degrees C for 1 h. This step dissolved the base metals, thereby liberating the chips from the boards. After solid-liquid separation, the chips, intermixed with some metallic flakes and tin oxide precipitate, were mechanically crushed to liberate the base and precious metals contained within the protective plastic or ceramic chip cases. The base metals in this crushed product were dissolved by leaching again with the same type of nitric acid-water solution. The remaining solid constituents, crushed chips and resin, plus solid particles of gold, were leached with aqua regia at various times and temperatures. Gold was precipitated from the leachate with ferrous sulphate.

  2. Identification of cyclopropyl fatty acids in walnut (Juglans regia L.) oil.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Lumir Ondrej; Goldshlag, Paulina; Dembitsky, Valery Mikhail

    2008-06-01

    Identification of cyclopropyl fatty acids in walnut oil. GC/MS method was developed for the determination of eight cyclopropyl fatty acids in walnut (Juglans regia) oil. Monocyclopropane acids: methyl 9-cyclopropyl-nonanoate, 6,7-methylene-, 8,9-methylene-, 9,10-methylene-, 11,12-methylene octadecanoates, and dicyclic acid - methyl 9,10,12,13-dimethylene octadecanoate, tricyclic acid - methyl 9,10,12,13,15,16-trimethylene octadecanoate, and unsaturated - methyl 2-octylcyclopropene-1-octanoate were detected in walnut oil by GC-MS and their mass spectra studied. Four cyclic fatty acids were identified for the fist time in seed oils. Eight cyclopropyl fatty acids were detected in the Mediterranean nuts for the first time.

  3. Oral subchronic toxicity of a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits in mice.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Adriadne; Gámez, Rafael; Mas, Rosa; Noa, Miriam; Pardo, Balia; Marrero, Gisela; Pérez, Yohany; González, Rosa; Curveco, Dayisell; García, Haydee

    2008-01-01

    D-004 is a lipid extract of royal palm (Rosytonea regia) fruits that prevents prostate hyperplasia induced with testosterone in rodents. Previous studies have shown no D-004-related toxicity in rats, but no study in mice had been reported. D-004 (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg) was evaluated in a subchronic (eight weeks) study in NMRI mice. No evidences of treatment-related toxicity were detected. Thus, body-weight gain, clinical observations, food consumption, blood biochemical, hematology, organ-weight ratios, and histopathological findings were similar in control and treated groups. This study supports that D-004 orally administered up to 2000 mg/kg did not induce treatment-related toxicity.

  4. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of royal palm tree (Roystonea regia) peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Leandra; Nascimento, Alessandro S.; Zamorano, Laura S.; Shnyrov, Valery L.; Polikarpov, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Royal palm tree peroxidase (RPTP), which was isolated from Roystonea regia leaves, has an unusually high stability that makes it a promising candidate for diverse applications in industry and analytical chemistry [Caramyshev et al. (2005 ▶), Biomacromolecules, 6, 1360–1366]. Here, the purification and crystallization of this plant peroxidase and its X-ray diffraction data collection are described. RPTP crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.8 Å. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 116.83, c = 92.24 Å, and contain one protein molecule per asymmetric unit. The V M value and solvent content are 4.07 Å3 Da−1 and 69.8%, respectively. PMID:17768354

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of royal palm tree (Roystonea regia) peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Leandra; Nascimento, Alessandro S; Zamorano, Laura S; Shnyrov, Valery L; Polikarpov, Igor

    2007-09-01

    Royal palm tree peroxidase (RPTP), which was isolated from Roystonea regia leaves, has an unusually high stability that makes it a promising candidate for diverse applications in industry and analytical chemistry [Caramyshev et al. (2005), Biomacromolecules, 6, 1360-1366]. Here, the purification and crystallization of this plant peroxidase and its X-ray diffraction data collection are described. RPTP crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.8 A. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3(1)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 116.83, c = 92.24 A, and contain one protein molecule per asymmetric unit. The V(M) value and solvent content are 4.07 A3 Da(-1) and 69.8%, respectively.

  6. Nutraceutical Potential of Tinctures from Fruits, Green Husks, and Leaves of Juglans regia L.

    PubMed Central

    Durak, Agata; Pecio, Łukasz; Kowalska, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the phenolic composition and nutraceutical potential of tinctures from fruits in two stages of maturity (F3, younger; F25, older), green husks (GH), and leaves (L) of Juglans regia L. In all extracts gallic, protocatechuic, 3-caffeoylquinic, 3-ρ-coumaroylquinic, 4-caffeoylquinic, 4-ρ-coumaroylquinic, and ρ-coumaric acids and quercetin-3-O-deoxyhexoside were detected using UPLC-MS technique. Caffeic acid hexoside I and quercetin-3-O-deoxyhexoside I have been identified in GH tincture. The highest ability to chelate Fe2+ was observed for GH tincture (EC50 = 71.01 ± 3.55 mg FM/mL), whereas the lowest was observed (EC50 = 131.06 ± 6.55 mg FM/mL) for F3 tincture. The highest reducing power was found for F3 and F25 (EC50 = 32.47 ± 1.53 and 36.07 ± 1.72 mg FM/mL, resp.). Ability of tinctures to prevent lipids against oxidation was relatively low. The highest activity (EC50 = 126.49 ± 6.32 mg FM/mL) was determined for F25. Tested tinctures showed relatively high antiradical activity—EC50 values ranged from 100.56 ± 5.03 to 129.04 ± 6.45 mg FM/mL for L and F25, respectively. The results obtained suggest that J. regia can be a source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. PMID:24616634

  7. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of the Median Septum of Juglans regia in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ravanbakhsh, Asma; Mahdavi, Majid; Jalilzade-Amin, Ghader; Javadi, Shahram; Maham, Masoud; Mohammadnejad, Daryosh; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Median septum of Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae) with anti-diabetic effects has been used in Iranian traditional medicine. The present study estimates both oral acute and subchronic toxicities. Methods: In the oral acute toxicity study, female Wistar rats were treated with doses of 10, 100, 1000, 1600, 2900 and 5000 mg/ kg of the Juglans regia septum of methanol extract (JRSME), and were monitored for 14 days. In subchronic study, JRSME was administered by gavage at dose of 1000 mg/kg daily in Wistar rats for 28 days. Antioxidant status and biochemical examinations were fulfilled, and the vital organs were subjected to pathological analyses. Results: The extract did not produce any toxic signs or deaths; the medium lethal dose must be higher than 5000 mg/kg. In subchronic study, No significant morphological and histopathological changes were observed in the studied tissues. There was a significant increase in serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level in treated group compared to control after 4 weeks of JRSME intake. The treatment of rats resulted in a significant reduction of serum urea level (p<0.05), kidney’s xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) activity (p<0.001) and elevation of aldehyde oxidase (AO) activity (p<0.05) in kidney. In the treated group, the mean diameter of glomerulus and proximal urine tube epithelium stature was slightly greater than control group. A significant increase in serum MDA level is subject for further studies. Conclusion: This study showed that the extract has no acute or subacute adverse effects with dose of 1000 mg/kg. The administration of JRSME may improve kidney structure and function and help in treatment of some chronic diseases. PMID:28101461

  8. Nutraceutical potential of tinctures from fruits, green husks, and leaves of Juglans regia L.

    PubMed

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Durak, Agata; Pecio, Łukasz; Kowalska, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the phenolic composition and nutraceutical potential of tinctures from fruits in two stages of maturity (F3, younger; F25, older), green husks (GH), and leaves (L) of Juglans regia L. In all extracts gallic, protocatechuic, 3-caffeoylquinic, 3-ρ-coumaroylquinic, 4-caffeoylquinic, 4-ρ-coumaroylquinic, and ρ -coumaric acids and quercetin-3-O-deoxyhexoside were detected using UPLC-MS technique. Caffeic acid hexoside I and quercetin-3-O-deoxyhexoside I have been identified in GH tincture. The highest ability to chelate Fe(2+) was observed for GH tincture (EC50 = 71.01 ± 3.55 mg FM/mL), whereas the lowest was observed (EC50 = 131.06 ± 6.55 mg FM/mL) for F3 tincture. The highest reducing power was found for F3 and F25 (EC50 = 32.47 ± 1.53 and 36.07 ± 1.72 mg FM/mL, resp.). Ability of tinctures to prevent lipids against oxidation was relatively low. The highest activity (EC50 = 126.49 ± 6.32 mg FM/mL) was determined for F25. Tested tinctures showed relatively high antiradical activity-EC50 values ranged from 100.56 ± 5.03 to 129.04 ± 6.45 mg FM/mL for L and F25, respectively. The results obtained suggest that J. regia can be a source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties.

  9. Cytotoxicity effects of various Juglans regia (walnut) leaf extracts in human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Salimi, Mona; Majd, Ahmad; Sepahdar, Zahra; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Irian, Saeed; Ardestaniyan, Mohammad Hassan; Hedayati, Mohammad Hossein; Rastkari, Nooshin

    2012-11-01

    Currently, natural products have been shown to present interesting biological and pharmacological activities and are used as chemotherapeutic agents. Plants have historically been used in treating cancer and are recognized for their ability to produce secondary metabolites. Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae) has medicinal applications to treat a wide range of diseases such as cancer. The current study was designed to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of total extract as well as several fractions from the leaves of J. regia.The total phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannins content of these extracts were also determined to obtain further information on the correlation between the contents of phenolic compounds and antiproliferative effects as well as the leaf developmental stages. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and flow cytometry methods against human oral cancer, breast adenocarcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. The total phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannins were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminum chloride and butanol-HCl colorimetric methods. Our present study has shown that chloroform fraction has the lowest IC(50) values (0.36-0.81 mg/mL) and also induces cell cycle arrest (G0\\G1 phase) after a 24 h treatment. The colorimetric methods showed the highest amount of total phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannins in the methanol fraction (120.28 ± 2.32, 59.44 ± 0.87, 227.00 ± 4.91 mg/g of dry weight of extract). The results obtained herein indicate that walnut chloroform fraction may contain effective compounds which can be used as a chemotherapeutic agent.

  10. Analytical data and sample locality map for aqua-regia leachates of stream sediments analyzed by ICP from the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Van Trump, G. Jr.; Motooka, J.M.; Erlich, O.; Tompkins, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological report is presented detailing analytical data and sample locality map for aqua-regia leachates of stream sediments analyzed by ICP from the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, Alaska.

  11. Effects of Juglans regia L. leaf extract on hyperglycemia and lipid profiles in type two diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Saeed; Jamshidi, Leila; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Mohammad, Kazem; Najmizadeh, Ali Reza; Alimoradi, Houman; Huseini, Hasan Fallah

    2014-03-28

    The Juglans regia L. leaf has been traditionally used for treatment of diabetes mellitus in Iran. But yet, no controlled human study has determined its efficacy in diabetic patients. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of the Juglans regia leaf extract on hyperglycemia and lipid profiles in type II diabetic patients. Total 61 patients, suffering from type II diabetes with fasting blood glucose (FBG) between 150 and 200mg/dL, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between 7% and 9% and aged between 40 and 60 years were selected, and randomly divided in to two groups of Juglans regia and placebo. First group received 100mg Juglans regia leaf extract in capsules form two times a day for 3 months and other group received 100mg placebo capsule with the same dosage. The standard anti-diabetic therapy (metformin and glibenclamide, and nutritional regimen) was continued in both groups. At the baseline and after three months the FBG, insulin, HbA1c, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and liver and renal function tests were determined. In addition general satisfaction with the treatment was identified using health questionnaires. The results indicated that FBG, HbA1c, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in Juglans regia treated patients significantly decreased compared with the baseline and with placebo group. Patients in Juglans regia group were significantly satisfied with Juglans regia treatment compared with the placebo group. No liver, kidney and other side effects were observed in the groups, except more GI events (specially a mild diarrhea) associated with extract treatment at the beginning of the study. In conclusion, treatment of type II diabetic patients with 100mg Juglans regia leaf extract two times a day for three months improves lipid profile and glycemic control without any tangible adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Abrupt out-of-plane edge folding of a circular thin plate: Implication for a mature Victoria regia leaf.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pengfei; Zhang, Chen; Dang, Fei; Yan, Yuan; Liu, Yilun; Chen, Xi

    2016-09-01

    Inspired by the observation of the configurations of Victoria regia leaves, we establish a phenomenological buckling model for the abrupt out-of-plane edge folding of a circular thin sheet. A reduced model is first developed, and further refined by a more sophisticated growth strain field so that the resulting buckling morphology resembles that of a mature Victoria regia leaf. Parametric studies are carried out to investigate the effects of geometric, material, and strain field parameters on the buckling morphology. Several main characteristics discovered through numerical studies are verified by theoretical analysis of a simple geometry-based model. Besides, the roles of the thickness variation and cracks are examined. This work may not only shed some light on the morphogenesis of certain plants, but also provide some useful insights on three-dimensional fabrications using mechanical self-assembly.

  13. Flavonoids in Juglans regia L. leaves and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity via intracellular and chemical methods.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming-Hui; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Liu, Tao; Li, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are rich in Juglans regia L. leaves. They have potent antioxidant properties, which have been related to regulating immune function and enhancing anticancer activity. Herein, qualitative and quantitative determination of flavonoids from J. regia leaves was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization and negative ion detection (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) by comparison of the retention times and mass spectral fragments with standard substances or related literatures. Seventeen compounds were identified and major components are quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (453.11 μg/g, dry weight), quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (73.91 μg/g), quercetin-3-O-xyloside (70.04 μg/g), kaempferol-O-pentoside derivative (49.04 μg/g), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (48.61 μg/g), and kaempferol-O-pentoside (48.46 μg/g). The in vitro intracellular antioxidation indicated that flavonoids from J. regia leaves could reduce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in RAW264.7 cells and showed good radical scavenging activities. These results proved to be more related to the flavonoids that could be considered in the design of new formulations of dietary supplements or functional foods.

  14. Flavonoids in Juglans regia L. Leaves and Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant Activity via Intracellular and Chemical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ming-Hui; Liu, Tao; Li, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are rich in Juglans regia L. leaves. They have potent antioxidant properties, which have been related to regulating immune function and enhancing anticancer activity. Herein, qualitative and quantitative determination of flavonoids from J. regia leaves was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization and negative ion detection (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) by comparison of the retention times and mass spectral fragments with standard substances or related literatures. Seventeen compounds were identified and major components are quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (453.11 μg/g, dry weight), quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (73.91 μg/g), quercetin-3-O-xyloside (70.04 μg/g), kaempferol-O-pentoside derivative (49.04 μg/g), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (48.61 μg/g), and kaempferol-O-pentoside (48.46 μg/g). The in vitro intracellular antioxidation indicated that flavonoids from J. regia leaves could reduce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in RAW264.7 cells and showed good radical scavenging activities. These results proved to be more related to the flavonoids that could be considered in the design of new formulations of dietary supplements or functional foods. PMID:25133218

  15. Gemas: issues from the comparison of aqua regia and X-ray fluorescence results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinelli, Enrico; Birke, Manfred; Reimann, Clemens; Demetriades, Alecos; DeVivo, Benedetto; Flight, Dee; Ladenberger, Anna; Albanese, Stefano; Cicchella, Domenico; Lima, Annamaria

    2014-05-01

    The comparison of analytical results from aqua regia (AR) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) can provide information on soil processes controlling the element distribution. The GEMAS (GEochemical Mapping of Agricultural and grazing land Soils) agricultural soil database is used for this comparison. Analyses for the same suite of elements and parameters were carried out in the same laboratory under strict quality control procedures. Sample preparation has been conducted at the laboratory of the The comparison of analytical results from aqua regia (AR) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) can provide information on soil processes controlling the element distribution in soil. The GEMAS (GEochemical Mapping of Agricultural and grazing land Soils) agricultural soil database, consisting of 2 x ca. 2100 samples spread evenly over 33 European countries, is used for this comparison. Analyses for the same suite of elements and parameters were carried out in the same laboratory under strict quality control procedures. Sample preparation has been conducted at the laboratory of the Geological Survey of the Slovak Republic, AR analyses were carried out at ACME Labs, and XRF analyses at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Germany Element recovery by AR is very different, ranging from <1% (e.g. Na, Zr) to > 80% (e.g. Mn, P, Co). Recovery is controlled by mineralogy of the parent material, but geographic and climatic factors and the weathering history of the soils are also important. Nonetheless, even the very low recovery elements show wide ranges of variation and spatial patterns that are affected by other factors than soil parent material. For many elements soil pH have a clear influence on AR extractability: under acidic soil conditions almost all elements tend to be leached and their extractability is generally low. It progressively increases with increasing pH and is highest in the pH range 7-8. Critical is the clay content of the soil

  16. Bioactive properties and chemical composition of six walnut (Juglans regia L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, Ivo; Sousa, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Bento, Albino; Estevinho, Letícia

    2008-06-01

    The chemical composition, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity were studied in six walnuts (Juglans regia L.) cultivars (cv. Franquette, Lara, Marbot, Mayette, Mellanaise and Parisienne) produced in Portugal. Concerning their chemical composition the main constituent of fruits was fat ranging from 78.83% to 82.14%, being the nutritional value around 720kcal per 100g of fruits. Linoleic acid was the major fatty acid reaching the maximum value of 60.30% (cv. Lara) followed by oleic, linolenic and palmitic acids. The aqueous extracts of walnut cultivars were investigated by the reducing power assay, the scavenging effect on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and beta-carotene linoleate model system. All the walnut extracts exhibited antioxidant capacity in a concentration-dependent manner being the lowest EC(50) values obtained with extracts of cv. Parisienne. Their antimicrobial capacity was also checked against gram positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans), revealing activity against the different tested microorganisms.

  17. Walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves: phenolic compounds, antibacterial activity and antioxidant potential of different cultivars.

    PubMed

    Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, Ivo; Sousa, Anabela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ferreres, Federico; Bento, Albino; Seabra, Rosa; Estevinho, Letícia

    2007-11-01

    Different cultivars of walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves (Cv. Lara, Franquette, Mayette, Marbot, Mellanaise and Parisienne) grown in Portugal, were investigated in what concerns phenolic compounds and antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Phenolics analysis was performed by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD and 10 compounds were identified and quantified: 3- and 5-caffeoylquinic acids, 3- and 4-p-coumaroylquinic acids, p-coumaric acid, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-pentoside derivative, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-xyloside and quercetin 3-rhamnoside. The antimicrobial capacity was screened against Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans). Walnut leaves selectively inhibited the growth of Gram positive bacteria, being B. cereus the most susceptible one (MIC 0.1mg/mL). Gram negative bacteria and fungi were resistant to the extracts at 100mg/mL. Lara walnut leaves were also submitted to antibacterial assays using 18 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus sp. Antioxidant activity was accessed by the reducing power assay, the scavenging effect on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and beta-carotene linoleate model system. In a general way, all of the studied walnut leaves cultivars presented high antioxidant activity (EC(50) values lower than 1mg/mL), being Cv. Lara the most effective one.

  18. Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Protein Hydrolysates Using Different Proteases.

    PubMed

    Jahanbani, Raheleh; Ghaffari, S Mahmood; Salami, Maryam; Vahdati, Kourosh; Sepehri, Houri; Sarvestani, Nazanin Namazi; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-12-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) contains approximately 20-25 % protein with abundant essential amino acids. The enzymatic hydrolysate of Persian walnut (Chandler) seed proteins was prepared by incubation with three different proteases, including pancreatic chymotrypsin and trypsin, and a microbial enzyme proteinase K. The hydrolysates were found to possess excellent antioxidant capacities. The peptide fractions scavenged the 2, 2'-anizo-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radicals and inhibited the activity of reactive oxygen species. Walnut protein hydrolysates were also tested, for the first time, against the viability of human breast (MDA-MB231) and colon (HT-29) cancer cell lines. MTT, [3-(4, 5dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide], assay was used to assess in vitro cancer cell viability upon treatment with the peptide fractions. The peptide fractions showed cell growth inhibition of 63 ± 1.73 % for breast cancer and 51 ± 1.45 % for colon cancer cells. Thus, a direct correlation between antioxidant and anticancer activities of walnut peptide fractions exists and supports their potential therapeutic benefit.

  19. Total phenols, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity of walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husks.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ivo; Sousa, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Bento, Albino; Estevinho, Letícia; Pereira, José Alberto

    2008-07-01

    The total phenols content and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were studied in walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husks aqueous extracts of five different cultivars (Franquette, Mayette, Marbot, Mellanaise and Parisienne). Total phenols content was determined by colorimetric assay and their amount ranged from 32.61 mg/g of GAE (cv. Mellanaise) to 74.08 mg/g of GAE t (cv. Franquette). The antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts was assessed through reducing power assay, scavenging effects on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and beta-carotene linoleate model system. A concentration-dependent antioxidative capacity was verified in reducing power and DPPH assays, with EC50 values lower than 1 mg/mL for all the tested extracts. The antimicrobial capacity was screened against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and fungi. All the extracts inhibited the growth of Gram positive bacteria, being Staphylococcus aureus the most susceptible one with MIC of 0.1 mg/mL for all the extracts. The results obtained indicate that walnut green husks may become important in the obtainment of a noticeable source of compounds with health protective potential and antimicrobial activity.

  20. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene from Juglans regia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Deng, Guang; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Zhang, Weiwei; Huang, Xiaohua; Li, Linling; Cheng, Hua; Rong, Xiaofeng; Li, Jinbao

    2012-06-26

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first key enzyme of the phenypropanoid pathway. A full-length cDNA of PAL gene was isolated from Juglans regia for the first time, and designated as JrPAL. The full-length cDNA of the JrPAL gene contained a 1935bp open reading frame encoding a 645-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 70.4 kD and isoelectric point (pI) of 6.7. The deduced JrPAL protein showed high identities with other plant PALs. Molecular modeling of JrPAL showed that the 3D model of JrPAL was similar to that of PAL protein from Petroselinum crispum (PcPAL), implying that JrPAL may have similar functions with PcPAL. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that JrPAL shared the same evolutionary ancestor of other PALs and had a closer relationship with other angiosperm species. Transcription analysis revealed that JrPAL was expressed in all tested tissues including roots, stems, and leaves, with the highest transcription level being found in roots. Expression profiling analyses by real-time PCR revealed that JrPAL expression was induced by a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses, including UV-B, wounding, cold, abscisic acid and salicylic acid.

  1. Periods of Organogenesis in Mono‐ and Bicyclic Annual Shoots of Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae)

    PubMed Central

    SABATIER, S.; BARTHÉLÉMY, D.; DUCOUSSO, I.

    2003-01-01

    The organogenetic cycle of shoots on main branches of 4‐year‐old Juglans regia trees was studied. Mono‐ and bicyclic floriferous and vegetative annual shoots were analysed. Five parent annual shoot types were sampled between October 1992 and August 1993. Organogenesis of summer growth units was monitored between 16 Jun. and 3 Aug. 1993. Variations over time in the number of nodes, cataphylls and embryonic green leaves of terminal buds were studied. The number of nodes of parent shoot buds was compared with the number of nodes of shoots derived from parent shoot buds. The spring growth units of mono‐ and bicyclic shoots consist exclusively of preformed leaves which were differentiated, respectively, during the spring flush of growth (mid‐April until mid‐May) or the summer flush of growth (mid‐June until early August) in the previous growing season. Thus, winter buds may consist of flower and leaf primordia differentiated in two different periods during annual shoot extension. The summer growth units of bicyclic shoots consist of preformed leaves that were differentiated in spring buds during the spring flush of growth in the current growing season. Bud morphology is compared between spring and summer shoots. PMID:12805084

  2. Biochemical and physical properties of some walnut genotypes (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Caglarirmak, Necla

    2003-02-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is a plant that has significant economical value and medicinal importance for human health. It is consumed in large quantities by people, therefore, it has a very important place in the public nutritive habits. Turkey has a very good walnut population of walnut varieties when compared to other parts of the world. Our objective was to investigate kernel properties and fatty acid composition, proximate composition and minerals of genotypes that are commonly grown in Turkey. Investigated genotypes were Sebin-Type-I, Körcegöz, Karabodur, Tozam and Güvenli. Physical properties are attributed to quality criteria of nuts. Sebin Type-I and Güvenli showed a good quality according to the test results. Average fatty acid compositions of genotypes (%) were 16:0; 6.88, 18:0; 7.50, 18:1; 21.16, 18.2; 43.41, 18:3; 6.25: 20:0; 11.75 for Sebin-Type-I, Körcegöz, Karabodur, Tozani and Güvenli, respectively. Proximate compounds (%) were: protein, 13.77; ash, 1.81; moisture, 2.98; fat, 62.84; total carbohydrate, 18.67. Average mineral contents (mg/100 g) were: P, 316.0; K, 270.0; Ca, 85.0; Mg, 90.0; Zn, 2.01; Mn, 2.46; Cu, 1.01; Fe, 2.90; B, 1.03.

  3. Maternal feeding with walnuts (Juglans regia) improves learning and memory in their adult pups

    PubMed Central

    Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Karimi, Abuzar; Shabani, Mohammad; Sheibani, Vahid; Esmaeilpour, Khadije

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Walnut (Juglans Regia) is a domestic fruit of Iran. Walnut kernel (WK) has many beneficial constituents such as unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and vitamin E. Scientific studies have shown that fatty acids and vitamin E can modulate learning and memory processes. The aim of the present work was to study effects of walnut consumption by mothers during pregnancy and lactation on learning and memory in adult rat offsprings. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into three groups: control (fed with ordinary food, 20 g daily), gestation (fed with WK, 6% of food intake during pregnancy), and gestation and lactation (fed with WK, 6% of food intake during gestation and lactation). Morris water maze test was performed for their adult offsprings. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference in learning and memory of rat offsprings between experimental and control groups. Conclusion: These data may indicate that feeding mothers with WK results in improvement in learning and memory of their offsprings. PMID:25050291

  4. Juglans regia and J. nigra, two trees important in traditional medicine: A comparison of leaf essential oil compositions and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Prajwal; Satyal, Prabodh; Dosoky, Noura S; Maharjan, Samjhana; Setzer, William N

    2013-10-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of Juglans regia, collected from Kathmandu, Nepal, and Juglans nigra from Huntsville, Alabama, USA, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 69 compounds were identified in the J. regia oil, accounting for 99.0% of the eluting components of the oil while three different samples of J. nigra were analyzed identifying a total of 99.3%, 99.4% and 99.7% of the oils. The leaf essential oil of J. regia was dominated by the aromatic compounds eugenol (27.5%) and methyl salicylate (16.2%), and the sesquiterpenes germacrene D (21.4%) and (E)-beta-farnesene (8.2%). The essential oils from three different samples of. J. nigra contained (E)-caryophyllene (17.3%-20.4%) and germacrene D (7.1%-22.5%) with smaller amounts of juglone (1.0%-8.8%), alpha-hydrojuglone (1.0-9.5%), and delta-cadinene (3.8%-8.7%). J. regia leaf oil, devoid of juglone, showed allelopathic activity, while J. nigra leaf oil was less phytotoxic. The presence of eugenol and methyl salicylate in the leaves of J. regia are consistent with the traditional uses of this plant to treat toothache, rheumatism, and fungal infections.

  5. Activity guided isolation and modification of juglone from Juglans regia as potent cytotoxic agent against lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Bang; Zou, Chang-Lin; Duan, Yu-Xia; Wu, Fang; Li, Gang

    2015-11-03

    Juglans regia has been found to exhibit significant anticancer activity against various human cancer cell lines. This study was undertaken to isolate the active chemical constituent (Juglone) and to investigate its cytotoxic activity along with its various analogs against different human cancer cell lines. Isolation of juglone, a napthoquinone, from the chloroform extract of the root part of Juglans regia was executed by flash chromatography using silica gel as stationary phase. The isolated Juglone was used as starting material for the further synthesis of a novel series of triazolyl analogs using click chemistry approach to investigate their cytotoxic potential against different human cancer cell lines using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-yl)-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay. The different extracts of Juglans regia and the isolated compound (juglone) exhibited satisfactory cytotoxic activity against a panel of eight different human cancer cell lines namely, prostate colon (Colo-205 and HCT-116), breast (T47D), prostate (PC-3 and DU-145), skin (A-431) and lung (NCI-H322 and A549). Interestingly, all the synthesised analogs displayed enhanced and selective cytotoxic activity against lung cancer cell lines only. Of the synthesized derivatives, 15a and 16a displayed the best activity with IC50 of 4.72 and 4.67 μM against A549 cells. Both these derivatives exhibited superior potency to BEZ-235 against both the lung cancer cell lines. So far as the structural aspects are concerned, electron withdrawing substituents at the ortho position of R moiety of the triazolyl analogs seem to be essential for attaining better activity. The present study demonstrates the selective and enhanced cytotoxic activity of the triazolyl analogs of juglone against NCI-H322 and A549 human lung cancer cell lines. Some derivatives exhibited superior potency to BEZ-235, a commercially available anticancer agent.

  6. Seasonal variation of the main individual phenolics and juglone in walnut (Juglans regia) leaves.

    PubMed

    Cosmulescu, Sina; Trandafir, Ion; Nour, Violeta

    2014-05-01

    Walnut [Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae)] is a rich source of phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids, naphtoquinones and flavonoids. The increasing interest in the powerful biological activities of plant phenolics has outlined the necessity of determining their content in leaves of different walnut cultivars. In this study, walnut leaves from walnut cultivars, originating from the same orchard and from the same year of production, were analyzed for their content in ellagic acid, rutin, myricetin and juglone. In addition, the seasonal variation of these major individual phenolics from June to August was determined. An HPLC method was used for identification and quantification of ellagic acid, rutin, myricetin and juglone contained in the methanol extract of walnut leaves in nine different cultivars grown under the same agricultural, geographical and climatic conditions. Cultivars and sampling date had statistically significant influence on the phenolics contents in walnut leaves. The results showed that ellagic acid, rutin, myricetin and juglone were more abundant in July 15th samples (average content is 84.62 mg/100 g FW, 98.9 mg/100 g FW, 178.09 mg/100 g FW and 73.81 mg/100 g FW, respectively). Their contents increases similarly in all the cultivars; therefore, the walnut leaves should preferentially be collected until early August, when phenolics content is higher. The results reported here show that genotype and its interaction with the environment could make significant differences in leaf polyphenols. Walnut leaves may become a noticeable source of compounds with health protective potential.

  7. Root growth dynamics linked to above-ground growth in walnut (Juglans regia)

    PubMed Central

    Contador, Maria Loreto; Comas, Louise H.; Metcalf, Samuel G.; Stewart, William L.; Porris Gomez, Ignacio; Negron, Claudia; Lampinen, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Examination of plant growth below ground is relatively scant compared with that above ground, and is needed to understand whole-plant responses to the environment. This study examines whether the seasonal timing of fine root growth and the spatial distribution of this growth through the soil profile varies in response to canopy manipulation and soil temperature. Methods Plasticity in the seasonal timing and vertical distribution of root production in response to canopy and soil water manipulation was analysed in field-grown walnut (Juglans regia ‘Chandler’) using minirhizotron techniques. Key Results Root production in walnuts followed a unimodal curve, with one marked flush of root growth starting in mid-May, with a peak in mid-June. Root production declined later in the season, corresponding to increased soil temperature, as well as to the period of major carbohydrate allocation to reproduction. Canopy and soil moisture manipulation did not influence the timing of root production, but did influence the vertical distribution of roots through the soil profile. Water deficit appeared to promote root production in deeper soil layers for mining soil water. Canopy removal appeared to promote shallow root production. Conclusions The findings of this study add to growing evidence that root growth in many ecosystems follows a unimodal curve with one marked flush of root growth in coordination with the initial leaf flush of the season. Root vertical distribution appeared to have greater plasticity than timing of root production in this system, with temperature and/or carbohydrate competition constraining the timing of root growth. Effects on root distribution can have serious impacts on trees, with shallow rooting having negative impacts in years with limited soil water or positive impacts in years with wet springs, and deep rooting having positive impacts on soil water mining from deeper soil layers but negative impacts in years with wet springs

  8. Hepatoprotective effects of Juglans regia extract against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Eidi, Akram; Moghadam, Jalal Zarringhalam; Mortazavi, Pejman; Rezazadeh, Shamsali; Olamafar, Somayeh

    2013-05-01

    Different parts of the walnut [Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae)] have been used in folk medicine for protection against liver injury, although its actual efficacy remains uncertain. The present study investigated the protective effect of walnut leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rats. The rats were randomly divided into seven groups: control, CCl4 (i.p., 0.5 mL/kg b.w., 50% CCl4 in olive oil), walnut extract (at dose level of 0.2 g/kg b.w.) alone, walnut extract (at dose levels of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 g/kg b.w.) with CCl4, and treatment was carried out accordingly. On the 28th day, rats were sacrificed and blood was withdrawn by cardiac puncture. Liver damage was assessed by serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and albumin), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and histopathological observation. Administration of walnut leaf extract (ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 g/kg b.w.) significantly lowered serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels in CCl4-treated rats. Walnut leaf extract increased antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase and catalase. Histopathological examination of livers showed that walnut leaves extract reduced fatty degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolization and necrosis in CCl4-treated rats. These results suggest that walnut extract has a protective effect over CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rat liver. These results demonstrate that walnut extract acts as a good hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent in attenuating hepatocellular damage.

  9. Root growth dynamics linked to above-ground growth in walnut (Juglans regia).

    PubMed

    Contador, Maria Loreto; Comas, Louise H; Metcalf, Samuel G; Stewart, William L; Porris Gomez, Ignacio; Negron, Claudia; Lampinen, Bruce D

    2015-07-01

    Examination of plant growth below ground is relatively scant compared with that above ground, and is needed to understand whole-plant responses to the environment. This study examines whether the seasonal timing of fine root growth and the spatial distribution of this growth through the soil profile varies in response to canopy manipulation and soil temperature. Plasticity in the seasonal timing and vertical distribution of root production in response to canopy and soil water manipulation was analysed in field-grown walnut (Juglans regia 'Chandler') using minirhizotron techniques. Root production in walnuts followed a unimodal curve, with one marked flush of root growth starting in mid-May, with a peak in mid-June. Root production declined later in the season, corresponding to increased soil temperature, as well as to the period of major carbohydrate allocation to reproduction. Canopy and soil moisture manipulation did not influence the timing of root production, but did influence the vertical distribution of roots through the soil profile. Water deficit appeared to promote root production in deeper soil layers for mining soil water. Canopy removal appeared to promote shallow root production. The findings of this study add to growing evidence that root growth in many ecosystems follows a unimodal curve with one marked flush of root growth in coordination with the initial leaf flush of the season. Root vertical distribution appeared to have greater plasticity than timing of root production in this system, with temperature and/or carbohydrate competition constraining the timing of root growth. Effects on root distribution can have serious impacts on trees, with shallow rooting having negative impacts in years with limited soil water or positive impacts in years with wet springs, and deep rooting having positive impacts on soil water mining from deeper soil layers but negative impacts in years with wet springs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press

  10. Crystal structure and statistical coupling analysis of highly glycosylated peroxidase from royal palm tree (Roystonea regia).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Leandra; de Moura, Patricia Ribeiro; Bleicher, Lucas; Nascimento, Alessandro S; Zamorano, Laura S; Calvete, Juan J; Sanz, Libia; Pérez, Alicia; Bursakov, Sergey; Roig, Manuel G; Shnyrov, Valery L; Polikarpov, Igor

    2010-02-01

    Royal palm tree peroxidase (RPTP) is a very stable enzyme in regards to acidity, temperature, H(2)O(2), and organic solvents. Thus, RPTP is a promising candidate for developing H(2)O(2)-sensitive biosensors for diverse applications in industry and analytical chemistry. RPTP belongs to the family of class III secretory plant peroxidases, which include horseradish peroxidase isozyme C, soybean and peanut peroxidases. Here we report the X-ray structure of native RPTP isolated from royal palm tree (Roystonea regia) refined to a resolution of 1.85A. RPTP has the same overall folding pattern of the plant peroxidase superfamily, and it contains one heme group and two calcium-binding sites in similar locations. The three-dimensional structure of RPTP was solved for a hydroperoxide complex state, and it revealed a bound 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid molecule (MES) positioned at a putative substrate-binding secondary site. Nine N-glycosylation sites are clearly defined in the RPTP electron-density maps, revealing for the first time conformations of the glycan chains of this highly glycosylated enzyme. Furthermore, statistical coupling analysis (SCA) of the plant peroxidase superfamily was performed. This sequence-based method identified a set of evolutionarily conserved sites that mapped to regions surrounding the heme prosthetic group. The SCA matrix also predicted a set of energetically coupled residues that are involved in the maintenance of the structural folding of plant peroxidases. The combination of crystallographic data and SCA analysis provides information about the key structural elements that could contribute to explaining the unique stability of RPTP.

  11. Role of the lens in controlling physical dormancy break and germination of Delonix regia (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Jaganathan, G K; Wu, G-R; Han, Y-Y; Liu, B L

    2017-01-01

    Physical dormancy occurs in all three subfamilies of Fabaceae, namely Mimosoideae, Papilionoideae and Caesalpinioideae, making it one of the largest plant families in terms of number of species with physical dormancy. However, little is known about the water gap structure and germination ecology of species in Caesalpinioideae. Freshly collected seeds of Delonix regia (Caesalpinioideae) did not imbibe water, thus they had physical dormancy. Both dry heat and wet heat were effective in breaking dormancy, however, longer duration was required at 80 °C and shorter duration at 90 °C. Seeds buried in the field for 2 years germinated to 21% and 42% after the first and second summer, respectively, compared with 3% germination in seeds at the time of maturity. Seeds incubated at 15/60 °C in the laboratory (mimicking summer conditions) for 3 months supported this conclusion, as dormancy was relieved in 18% and 24% of seeds stored dry and watered intermediately, respectively. All the dormancy breaking treatments resulted in lifting of palisade layers in the lens region to form a circular lid-like opening, i.e. water gap (Type II simple). Blocking experiments confirmed that water entered only through the lens and no secondary water entry point was observed. No apparent changes in morphology/anatomy of the hilum region were noted in dormant and non-dormant (water permeable) seeds. These results suggest that summer temperatures could open the lens in a proportion of seeds every year and that germination occurs during the subsequent wet season in the tropics.

  12. Testing founder effect speciation: Divergence population genetics of the Spoonbills Platalea regia and Pl. minor (Threskiornithidae, Aves)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yeung, Carol K.L.; Tsai, Pi-Wen; Chesser, R. Terry; Lin, Rong-Chien; Yao, Cheng-Te; Tian, Xiu-Hua; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    Although founder effect speciation has been a popular theoretical model for the speciation of geographically isolated taxa, its empirical importance has remained difficult to evaluate due to the intractability of past demography, which in a founder effect speciation scenario would involve a speciational bottleneck in the emergent species and the complete cessation of gene flow following divergence. Using regression-weighted approximate Bayesian computation, we tested the validity of these two fundamental conditions of founder effect speciation in a pair of sister species with disjunct distributions: the royal spoonbill Platalea regia in Australasia and the black-faced spoonbill Pl. minor in eastern Asia. When compared with genetic polymorphism observed at 20 nuclear loci in the two species, simulations showed that the founder effect speciation model had an extremely low posterior probability (1.55 × 10-8) of producing the extant genetic pattern. In contrast, speciation models that allowed for postdivergence gene flow were much more probable (posterior probabilities were 0.37 and 0.50 for the bottleneck with gene flow and the gene flow models, respectively) and postdivergence gene flow persisted for a considerable period of time (more than 80% of the divergence history in both models) following initial divergence (median = 197,000 generations, 95% credible interval [CI]: 50,000-478,000, for the bottleneck with gene flow model; and 186,000 generations, 95% CI: 45,000-477,000, for the gene flow model). Furthermore, the estimated population size reduction in Pl. regia to 7,000 individuals (median, 95% CI: 487-12,000, according to the bottleneck with gene flow model) was unlikely to have been severe enough to be considered a bottleneck. Therefore, these results do not support founder effect speciation in Pl. regia but indicate instead that the divergence between Pl. regia and Pl. minor was probably driven by selection despite continuous gene flow. In this light, we

  13. Testing founder effect speciation: divergence population genetics of the spoonbills Platalea regia and Pl. minor (Threskiornithidae, Aves).

    PubMed

    Yeung, Carol K L; Tsai, Pi-Wen; Chesser, R Terry; Lin, Rong-Chien; Yao, Cheng-Te; Tian, Xiu-Hua; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    Although founder effect speciation has been a popular theoretical model for the speciation of geographically isolated taxa, its empirical importance has remained difficult to evaluate due to the intractability of past demography, which in a founder effect speciation scenario would involve a speciational bottleneck in the emergent species and the complete cessation of gene flow following divergence. Using regression-weighted approximate Bayesian computation, we tested the validity of these two fundamental conditions of founder effect speciation in a pair of sister species with disjunct distributions: the royal spoonbill Platalea regia in Australasia and the black-faced spoonbill Pl. minor in eastern Asia. When compared with genetic polymorphism observed at 20 nuclear loci in the two species, simulations showed that the founder effect speciation model had an extremely low posterior probability (1.55 × 10(-8)) of producing the extant genetic pattern. In contrast, speciation models that allowed for postdivergence gene flow were much more probable (posterior probabilities were 0.37 and 0.50 for the bottleneck with gene flow and the gene flow models, respectively) and postdivergence gene flow persisted for a considerable period of time (more than 80% of the divergence history in both models) following initial divergence (median = 197,000 generations, 95% credible interval [CI]: 50,000-478,000, for the bottleneck with gene flow model; and 186,000 generations, 95% CI: 45,000-477,000, for the gene flow model). Furthermore, the estimated population size reduction in Pl. regia to 7,000 individuals (median, 95% CI: 487-12,000, according to the bottleneck with gene flow model) was unlikely to have been severe enough to be considered a bottleneck. Therefore, these results do not support founder effect speciation in Pl. regia but indicate instead that the divergence between Pl. regia and Pl. minor was probably driven by selection despite continuous gene flow. In this light, we

  14. Deep RNA-Seq profile reveals biodiversity, plant-microbe interactions and a large family of NBS-LRR resistance genes in walnut (Juglans regia) tissues.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Britton, Monica; Martínez-García, P J; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2016-03-01

    Deep RNA-Seq profiling, a revolutionary method used for quantifying transcriptional levels, often includes non-specific transcripts from other co-existing organisms in spite of stringent protocols. Using the recently published walnut genome sequence as a filter, we present a broad analysis of the RNA-Seq derived transcriptome profiles obtained from twenty different tissues to extract the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in the walnut ecosystem in California. Since the residual nature of the transcripts being analyzed does not provide sufficient information to identify the exact strain, inferences made are constrained to the genus level. The presence of the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora was detected in the root through the presence of a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Cryptococcus, the causal agent of cryptococcosis, was found in the catkins and vegetative buds, corroborating previous work indicating that the plant surface supported the sexual cycle of this human pathogen. The RNA-Seq profile revealed several species of the endophytic nitrogen fixing Actinobacteria. Another bacterial species implicated in aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (Methylibium petroleiphilum) is also found in the root. RNA encoding proteins from the pea aphid were found in the leaves and vegetative buds, while a serine protease from mosquito with significant homology to a female reproductive tract protease from Drosophila mojavensis in the vegetative bud suggests egg-laying activities. The comprehensive analysis of RNA-seq data present also unraveled detailed, tissue-specific information of ~400 transcripts encoded by the largest family of resistance (R) genes (NBS-LRR), which possibly rationalizes the resistance of the specific walnut plant to the pathogens detected. Thus, we elucidate the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in several walnut (Juglans regia) tissues in California using deep RNA-Seq profiling.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of polyphenol oxidase from Juglans regia (jrPPO1)

    SciTech Connect

    Zekiri, Florime; Bijelic, Aleksandar; Molitor, Christian; Rompel, Annette

    2014-05-28

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a plant PPO exhibiting monophenolase activity from J. regia (jrPPO1) in its active form (Asp{sup 101}–Arg{sup 445}) are reported. Tyrosinase is a type 3 copper enzyme that catalyzes the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones, which are precursors for the biosynthesis of melanins. The first plant tyrosinase from walnut leaves (Juglans regia) was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. During the purification, two forms of the enzyme differing only in their C-termini [jrPPO1(Asp{sup 101}–Pro{sup 444}) and jrPPO1(Asp{sup 101}–Arg{sup 445})] were obtained. The most abundant form jrPPO1(Asp{sup 101}–Arg{sup 445}), as described in Zekiri et al. [Phytochemistry (2014 ▶), 101, 5–15], was crystallized, resulting in crystals that belonged to space group C121, with unit-cell parameters a = 115.56, b = 91.90, c = 86.87 Å, α = 90, β = 130.186, γ = 90°, and diffracted to 2.39 Å resolution. Crystals were only obtained from solutions containing at least 30% polyethylene glycol 5000 monomethyl ether in a close-to-neutral pH range.

  16. A simple and convenient method for the preparation of antioxidant peptides from walnut (Juglans regia L.) protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Chuan; Yang, Sheng-Jie; Hong, Da; Yang, Jin-Ping; Liu, Min; Lin, Yun; Huang, Chia-Hui; Wang, Chao-Jih

    2016-01-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.), that belongs to the Juglandaceae family, is one of the nuts commonly found in Chinese diets. Researchers had obtained peptides from walnut protein hydrolysates, and these peptides exhibited the high antioxidant activities. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and convenient method for a facile and reproducible preparation of antioxidant peptides from walnut protein hydrolysates. Walnut proteins were extracted from walnut kernels using continuous countercurrent extraction process, and were separately hydrolyzed with six types of proteases (neutrase, papain, bromelain, alcalase, pepsin, and pancreatin). Then, hydrolysates were purified by ultrafiltration. The yields and purity of the peptides prepared using neutrase and papain were 16 and 81 % at least, respectively, higher than others, and had low molecular weight, 99 % of which were less than 1500 Da. Furthermore, the bioassay indicated that the two peptides exhibited the high antioxidant activities in the DPPH (IC50 values: 59.40 and 31.02 µg/mL, respectively), ABTS (IC50 values: 80.36 and 62.22 µg/mL, respectively), and superoxide radical scavenging assay (IC50 values: 107.47 and 80.00 µg/mL, respectively). The method combines the advantages of generality, rapidity, simplicity, and is useful for the mass production of walnut peptides.Graphical AbstractPreparation of antioxidant peptides from walnut (Juglans regia L.) protein hydrolysates.

  17. Aqua regia extracted metals in sediments from the industrial area and surroundings of Pančevo, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Relić, Dubravka; Đorđević, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja; Anđelković, Ivan; Miletić, Srđan; Đuričić, Jelena

    2011-02-28

    Surface and buried sediments were analyzed for Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V, as well as for total carbon and hydrogen to assess the distribution of sediment pollution due to the vicinity of the petrochemical complex. The samples, collected from 20 locations within the petrochemical complex and from 16 locations outside the complex, were aqua regia extracted and analyzed by ICP/OES. Metals were determined with an acceptable accuracy for certified metals of 82-113%. The precision for the aqua regia extraction was satisfactory, less than 20%, except for Cd where it was 28%. Comparison of the data from the petrochemical with those from the non-petrochemical areas showed different distributions of the metals. Metals that exceeded the baseline range; Ba, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, were detected in higher concentrations in sediments that were under the influence of the chlor-alkali plant within the petrochemical complex. Comparison with data from the petrochemical complex and its surroundings and their distribution demonstrated that the metal compositions of the sediments were modified by anthropogenic activities.

  18. Frost hardiness in walnut trees (Juglans regia L.): how to link physiology and modelling?

    PubMed

    Charrier, Guillaume; Poirier, Magalie; Bonhomme, Marc; Lacointe, André; Améglio, Thierry

    2013-11-01

    In the literature, frost hardiness (FH) studies in trees have often been restricted to one organ (buds, leaves, needles or twigs). To extend our knowledge and gain a unified view, FH differences between organs and tissues or throughout the life of the tree have to be characterized in relation to physiological changes. In this study, different organs and tissues of young potted and mature orchard walnut trees (Juglans regia L.) were compared for seasonal changes in FH during different years. FH was assessed using the electrolyte leakage method. Physiological parameters were concomitantly monitored focusing on two significant traits: water content (WC) and carbohydrate content (glucose + fructose + sucrose, GFS). No seasonal variation in FH was observed in the root system, but acclimation and deacclimation were observed aboveground. Among organs and tissues, cold sensitivity levels were different in deep winter, with buds most sensitive and bark most resistant, but acclimation/deacclimation dynamics followed similar patterns. Physiological variation was also similar among organs: FH increased when WC decreased and/or soluble carbohydrates increased. Based on these results, relations between soluble carbohydrate content, WC and FH were calculated independently or in interaction. The key results were that: (i) the relationship between FH and physiological parameters (GFS and WC), which had previously been shown for branches only, could be generalized to all aboveground organs; (ii) lower WC increased the cryoprotective effect of GFS, showing a synergic effect of the two factors; (iii) the best fit was a non-linear function of WC and GFS, yielding a predictive model with an root mean square error of 5.07 °C on an independent dataset and 2.59 °C for the most sensitive stages; and (iv) the same parameters used for all organs yielded a unified model of FH depending on physiology, although the variability of GFS or WC was wide. The model should be of value for predicting

  19. Human cancer cell antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of Juglans regia L.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Márcia; Ferreira, Pedro J; Mendes, Vanda S; Silva, Renata; Pereira, José A; Jerónimo, Carmen; Silva, Branca M

    2010-01-01

    Several studies suggest that regular consumption of nuts, mostly walnuts, may have beneficial effects against oxidative stress mediated diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Walnuts contain several phenolic compounds which are thought to contribute to their biological properties. The present study reports the total phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of methanolic and petroleum ether extracts obtained from walnut (Juglans regia L.) seed, green husk and leaf. The total phenolic contents were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antioxidant activities assessed by the ability to quench the stable free radical 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and to inhibit the 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocytes. Methanolic seed extract presented the highest total phenolic content (116 mg GAE/g of extract) and DPPH scavenging activity (EC(50) of 0.143 mg/mL), followed by leaf and green husk. In petroleum ether extracts, antioxidant action was much lower or absent. Under the oxidative action of AAPH, all methanolic extracts significantly protected the erythrocyte membrane from hemolysis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, although leaf extract inhibitory efficiency was much stronger (IC(50) of 0.060 mg/mL) than that observed for green husks and seeds (IC(50) of 0.127 and 0.121 mg/mL, respectively). Walnut methanolic extracts were also assayed for their antiproliferative effectiveness using human renal cancer cell lines A-498 and 769-P and the colon cancer cell line Caco-2. All extracts showed concentration-dependent growth inhibition toward human kidney and colon cancer cells. Concerning A-498 renal cancer cells, all extracts exhibited similar growth inhibition activity (IC(50) values between 0.226 and 0.291 mg/mL), while for both 769-P renal and Caco-2 colon cancer cells, walnut leaf extract showed a higher antiproliferative efficiency (IC(50) values of 0.352 and 0

  20. Genotypic Differences in Branching Pattern and Fruiting Habit in Common Walnut (Juglans regia L.)

    PubMed Central

    SOLAR, ANITA; ŠTAMPAR, FRANCI

    2003-01-01

    Architectural analysis of 840 Slovenian walnut (Juglans regia L.) genotypes was performed to determine the most typical and frequent morphological types and to evaluate their vegetative and generative potential. Four branching and fruiting patterns (I–IV) were detected. A 3‐year‐old fruiting branch, consisting of a 3‐year‐old shoot plus corresponding 2‐year‐old and 1‐year‐old shoots, was used as a structural unit for quantitative analysis. In the intermediate fruit‐bearing types with mesotonic and acrotonic branching pattern (types II and III), the total lengths of 3‐, 2‐ and 1‐year‐old shoots were 385 and 380 cm, respectively, compared with 275 and 253 cm in the terminal and lateral‐fruiting types (types I and IV). In type I, 1‐year‐old shoots had significantly fewer nodes than in other types. In addition, they had a thinner basal diameter than types III and IV, and their angles were the most erect (39°). Only 0·4 out of 3·6 1‐year‐old shoots were flowering with one mixed bud with 1·9 female flowers. In type IV, 2‐year‐old shoots had significantly more nodes and a larger basal diameter than other types. One‐year‐old shoots in type IV are thicker than those in other types. Ratios between the number of flowering and the total number of 1‐year‐old shoots were 0·7 in type IV, 0·6 in type III, 0·5 in type II and 0·1 in type I. On 1‐year‐old shoots in type IV, 1·7 mixed buds with a mean of three female inflorescences per bud were counted. Consequently, the generative potential is highest in type IV and lowest in type I. In types II and III, growth and the ability to bear fruits are more balanced. PMID:12829447

  1. Incidence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 1 in and on ‘Paradox’ (Juglans hindsii x Juglans regia) walnut seed collected from commercial nurseries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The walnut rootstock Paradox (Juglans hindsii (Jeps) Rehder x J. regia L.) is susceptible to Agrobacterium tumefaciens (7) which often results in a high incidence of crown gall in nursery or walnut production orchards. Though A. tumefaciens is susceptible to the commonly used preplant soil fumigant...

  2. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of Persian walnut (Juglans regia) accessions from 14 European, African, and Asian countries using SSR markers

    Treesearch

    Aziz Ebrahimi; Abdolkarim Zarei; Shaneka Lawson; Keith E. Woeste; M. J. M. Smulders

    2016-01-01

    Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the world's most widely grown nut crop, but large-scale assessments and comparisons of the genetic diversity of the crop are notably lacking. To guide the conservation and utilization of Persian walnut genetic resources, genotypes (n = 189) from 25 different regions in 14 countries on...

  3. Aqua regia extractable selenium concentrations of some Scottish topsoils measured by ICP-MS and the relationship with mineral and organic soil components.

    PubMed

    Shand, Charles A; Balsam, Matthias; Hillier, Stephen J; Hudson, Gordon; Newman, Gareth; Arthur, John R; Nicol, Fergus

    2010-04-30

    To provide information concerning the geographical distribution of selenium (Se) in the soils of Scotland, we analysed 47 arable soils selected on the basis of their parent rock, which were expected to have relatively high, low or unclassified Se concentrations. To investigate relationships between the actual minerals in the soils and the aqua regia extractable Se concentration of the soil, soil minerals were quantified by X-ray diffraction. The aqua regia extractable Se concentrations of the soils were between 0.19 and 1.46 mg kg(-1). No simple correlation between the aqua regia extractable Se concentrations of the soil and the parent rock classification estimated by soil survey was evident. Partial least squares analysis revealed that the aqua regia extractable Se concentration of the soils was positively related to loss on ignition (LOI) or C concentration and negatively related to the K-feldspar concentration, with other minerals being less important. The Se concentration of arable topsoils from Scotland is more related to LOI or carbon concentration, with parent material being less important.

  4. Determination of gold and silver in geological samples by focused infrared digestion: A re-investigation of aqua regia digestion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Baker, Laura A; Brindle, Ian D

    2016-02-01

    Focused infrared radiation-based digestions, for the determination of gold and silver, can be achieved in a timeframe as short as 10-15 min, making it an attractive candidate technology for the mining industry, where very large numbers of samples are analyzed on a daily basis. An investigation was carried out into gold and silver dissolution chemistry from geological samples using this novel digestion technique. This study investigated in-depth the issue of low recoveries of gold from aqua regia (AR) digestions, reported by a number of researchers. Conventional AR digestions consistently delivered gold recoveries in a range of 69-80% of the certified values for the four certified reference materials (CRM) employed (CCU-1d, SN26, OREAS 62c, and AMiS 0274), while silver recoveries were satisfactory. By gradually shifting the HCl:HNO3 ratio (v/v) from 3:1 to a reversed 1:3 ratio, recoveries of gold and silver exhibited inverse trends. At a HCl:HNO3 ratio of 1:3, complete recovery of gold was achieved with excellent reproducibility in all CRMs. Meanwhile, silver recoveries plunged significantly at this ratio in samples with higher silver concentrations. Silver values were recovered, however, when the silver was re-solubilized by adding a small volume of concentrated HCl to the cooled reverse aqua regia digests. Recoveries of base metals, such as Fe and Cu, were satisfactory throughout and were much less sensitive to changes in the digestion medium. Using four CRMs and five real-world gold/silver containing samples, the utility of the proposed reverse aqua regia was systematically studied. The uncomplicated nature of the digestion methods reported here, that are fast, effective and inexpensive, may be useful to analysts developing/optimizing their methods for the rapid determination of Au and Ag in a variety of mineral phases, particularly where rapid results are desirable, such as in prospecting and mine development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Composition of fatty acids, triacylglycerols and polar compounds of different walnut varieties (Juglans regia L.) from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Bouabdallah, I; Bouali, I; Martinez-Force, E; Albouchi, A; Perez Camino, M C; Boukhchina, S

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition (total oil content, fatty acids, triacylglycerols (TAGs) and polar compounds) of six walnuts (Juglans regia L.) cultivars (Lauzeronne, Franquette, Hartley, Local pt, Local gd and Parisienne) collected from Mateur (north of Tunisia) was evaluated. The major fatty acids found in the walnut oils are linoleic acid (60.42-65.77%), oleic acid (13.21-19.94%) and linolenic acid (7.61-13%). The TAG species were mainly composed of trilinolein (LLL), dilinoleoyl-linolenoyl-glycerol, dilinoleoyl-oleoyl-glycerol and palmitoyl-dilinoleoyl-glycerol classes. The results revealed that Local pt variety has the highest level of oil (62.56%), linoleic acid (65.77%) and LLL (33.48%). Significant differences among oil samples were observed, therefore showing a great variability in the oil composition among cultivars.

  6. Report on novel environmental niches for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in Colombia: Tabebuia guayacan and Roystonea regia.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Norida; Escandón, Patricia

    2017-01-23

    Knowledge of the environmental distribution of C. neoformans/C. gattii is important in the epidemiology and ecology of the etiological agent, which causes cryptococcosis, a deadly disease worldwide. The aim of this report is to describe the presence of C. neoformans/C. gattii in new environmental niches in Colombia. A total of 837 environmental samples were collected from six different species of trees across four cities; molecular type was determined by PCR fingerprinting and RFLP. Molecular type VNI and VGIII were isolated from different species of trees, resulting in two novel niches for this pathogen: Tabebuia guayacan and Roystonea regia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Protective effects of methanolic extract of Juglans regia L. leaf on streptozotocin-induced diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Nasiry, Davood; Khalatbary, Ali Reza; Ahmadvand, Hassan; Talebpour Amiri, Fereshteh; Akbari, Esmaeil

    2017-10-02

    Oxidative stress has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), the most common and debilitating complications of diabetes mellitus. There is accumulating evidence that Juglans regia L. (GRL) leaf extract, a rich source of phenolic components, has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties. This study aimed to determine the protective effects of Juglans regia L. leaf extract against streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy in rat. The DPN rat model was generated by intraperitoneal injection of a single 55 mg/kg dose of streptozotocin (STZ). A subset of the STZ-induced diabetic rats intragastically administered with GRL leaf extract (200 mg/kg/day) before or after the onset of neuropathy, whereas other diabetic rats received only isotonic saline as the same volume of GRL leaf extract. To evaluate the effects of GRL leaf extract on the diabetic neuropathy various parameters, including histopathology and immunohistochemistry of apoptotic and inflammatory factors were assessed along with nociceptive and biochemical assessments. Degeneration of the sciatic nerves which was detected in the STZ-diabetic rats attenuated after GRL leaf extract administration. Greater caspase-3, COX-2, and iNOS expression could be detected in the STZ-diabetic rats, which were significantly attenuated after GRL leaf extract administration. Also, attenuation of lipid peroxidation and nociceptive response along with improved antioxidant status in the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats were detected after GRL leaf extract administration. In other word, GRL leaf extract ameliorated the behavioral and structural indices of diabetic neuropathy even after the onset of neuropathy, in addition to blood sugar reduction. Our results suggest that GRL leaf extract exert preventive and curative effects against STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats which might be due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. Protection against

  8. Comparison of cytotoxic and anti-platelet activities of polyphenolic extracts from Arnica montana flowers and Juglans regia husks.

    PubMed

    Rywaniak, Joanna; Luzak, Boguslawa; Podsedek, Anna; Dudzinska, Dominika; Rozalski, Marcin; Watala, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds of plant origin are well known to be beneficial to human health: they exert protective effects on haemostasis and have a particular influence on blood platelets. However, the anti-platelet properties of polyphenolic compounds observed so far have not been weighed against their potential cytotoxic action against platelets. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that anti-platelet and cytotoxic effects on blood platelets may interfere and therefore, may often lead to confusion when evaluating the properties of plant extracts or other agents towards blood platelets. The anti-platelet and cytotoxic in vitro effects of plant extracts obtained from the husks of walnuts (J. regia) and flowers of arnica (A. montana) on platelet reactivity and viability were examined. Platelet function was assessed using standard methods (flow cytometry: P-selectin expression, activation of GPIIbIIIa complex, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, VASP index; turbidimetric and impedance aggregometry) and newly set assays (flow cytometric monitoring of platelet cytotoxicity). The results reveal that none of the studied plant extracts demonstrated cytotoxicity towards blood platelets. The phenolic acid-rich extract of A. montana (7.5 and 15 µg/ml) significantly reduced the ADP-induced aggregation in both whole blood and PRP, and decreased the platelet reactivity index (PRI; VASP phosphorylation) in whole blood, while showing excellent antioxidant capacity. The extract of J. regia husks significantly reduced ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood when applied at 7.5 µg/ml, and only slightly decreased the PRI at 15 µg/ml. Both examined extracts suppressed platelet hyper-reactivity, and such influence did not interfere with cytotoxic effects of the extracts. Thus, its high polyphenol content, excellent antioxidant capacity and distinct anti-platelet properties, in combination with its lack of toxicity, make the extract of A. montana flowers a possible

  9. Microwave assisted aqua regia extraction of thallium from sediment and coal fly ash samples and interference free determination by continuum source ETAAS after cloud point extraction.

    PubMed

    Meeravali, Noorbasha N; Madhavi, K; Kumar, Sunil Jai

    2013-01-30

    A simple cloud point extraction method is described for the separation and pre-concentration of thallium from the microwave assisted aqua regia extracts of sediment and coal fly ash samples. The method is based on the formation of extractable species of thallium and its interaction with hydrophobic solubilizing sites of Triton X-114 micelles in the presence of aqua regia and electrolyte NaCl. These interactions of micelles are used for extraction of thallium from a bulk aqueous phase into a small micelles-rich phase. The potential chloride interferences are eliminated effectively, which enabled interference free determination of thallium from aqua regia extracts using continuum source ETAAS. The parameters affecting the extraction process are optimized. Under the optimized conditions, pre-concentration factor and limit of detection are 40 and 0.2 ng g(-1), respectively. The recoveries are in the range of 95-102%. A characteristic mass, 13 pg was obtained. The accuracy of the method is verified by analyzing certified reference materials such as NIST 1633b coal fly ash, NIST 1944 marine sediment and GBW 07312 stream sediments. The results obtained are in good agreement with the certified values and method is also applied to real samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Polyphenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of heartnut (Juglans ailanthifolia Var. cordiformis) and Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Tsao, Rong; Yang, Raymond; Liu, Chunming; Zhu, Honghui; Young, J Christopher

    2006-10-18

    The polyphenolic compositions of three heartnut (Juglans ailanthifolia var. cordiformis) varieties (Imshu, Campbell CW1, and Campbell CW3) were examined and compared with those of two Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) varieties (Combe and Lake). The nuts were defatted, extracted, and separated into three different fractions, the free phenolic acid (FPA), acid-hydrolyzable phenolic acid (AHPA), and bound phenolic acid (BPA) fractions. The total phenolic contents (TPCs) in both FPA and AHPA of the Persian walnuts were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than those of the heartnuts, but not in the BPA (P = 0.20). LC-ESI-MS(n)() studies revealed that except for the FPA fraction, the major polyphenolics in both heartnut and Persian walnut were ellagic acid and valoneic acid dilactone. Persian walnuts contained an average of 0.29 and 1.31 mg of ellagic acid/g nut in the 80% methanol extractable fractions FPA and AHPA, respectively. Heartnuts contained an average of 0.16 and 0.60 mg of ellagic acid/g nut in the respective fractions. Bound ellagic acid in the residue was 0.93 and 0.70 mg/g of nut in the Persian walnut and in the heartnut, respectively. Valoneic acid dilactone was tentatively identified and quantified as milligrams of ellagic acid equivalent per gram of nut. These components were found to contribute to the strong total antioxidant activities measured using ferric reducing antioxidant power and photochemiluminescence methods.

  11. Carbohydrate uptake from xylem vessels and its distribution among stem tissues and buds in walnut (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Marc; Peuch, Médéric; Ameglio, Thierry; Rageau, Rémy; Guilliot, Agnès; Decourteix, Mélanie; Alves, Georges; Sakr, Soulaiman; Lacointe, André

    2010-01-01

    Bud break pattern is a key determinant of tree architecture. The mechanisms leading to the precedence of certain buds over the others are not yet fully explained, but the availability of soluble sugars may play a significant role, especially those in the xylem sap at the onset of the growing period. Here, we measured carbon availability in the different tissues (bud, xylem and bark). To assess the capacity of buds to use the xylem sap carbohydrates, the fluxes between xylem vessels and parenchyma cells, bark and buds of walnut (Juglans regia cv 'Franquette') were measured during the rest period until bud break. This uptake capacity varies according to the temperature, the sugar and the position on the branch of the fragment studied. Between December and March, in xylem tissues, the active component of sucrose uptake was predominant compared with diffusion (90% of the total uptake), whereas the active component accounted for more moderate amounts in buds (50% of the uptake). The active uptake of hexoses took place belatedly (April) in xylem. The flow rates between xylem vessels and buds increased 1 month before bud break and reached 2000 microg sucrose h(-)(1) g DW(-)(1). Fluxes seemed to depend on bud position on the branch. However, this study strongly suggests that they were mainly dependent on the sink strength of the buds and on the sink competition between bud, xylem parenchyma and bark.

  12. THE EFFECT OF EXTRACT OF GREEK WALNUT (JUGLANS REGIA L.) SEPTA ON SOME FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ERYTHROCYTES.

    PubMed

    Ramishvili, L; Gordeziani, M; Tavdishvili, E; Bedineishvili, N; Dzidziguri, D; Kotrikadze, N

    2016-12-01

    Administration of plant extracts for the treatment of several different diseases is an important approach ofmodern medicine.The reason must be an easy way of application, low price and the complex action of herbal medicines. The aim of the work was to study the effect of extract of walnut (Juglans regia L.) septa on the functional characteristics of erythrocytes during administration of cytotoxic agent - cyclophosphamide (experimental model of leukopenia). The material for the study was blood of the intact and experimental white mice. Sorption capacity and resistance to lysis of erythrocyte membrane have been determined by the spectrophotometric methods. According to the gained results, administration of cyclophosphamide had an influence on sorption capacity of erythrocytes and the given characteristic was increased only on the 8th day of cyclophosphamide administration, compared to control. Sorption capacity of erythrocytes was increased more on 8th day after combined application of cyclophosphamide and exctract of walnut septa. Resistance of erythrocytes to lysis was also increased after administration of the cyclophosphamide and this characteristic was further increased in case of combined application of cyclophosphamide and exctract of walnut septa. Thus, the stimulative effects of extract of walnut septa have been established on sorption capacity and resistance to lysis of erythrocytes in case of nonspecific damage of the cells.

  13. Content of carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic and aliphatic alcohols, and volatile compounds in six walnuts (Juglans regia L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Ikram Bou; Tlili, Nizar; Martinez-Force, Enrique; Rubio, Ana Gracia Pérez; Perez-Camino, Maria Carmen; Albouchi, Ali; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the content of tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic and aliphatic alcohols, carotenoids, and volatile compounds in the kernel oils from six walnut (Juglans regia L.) varieties. The levels of β-carotene ranged between 0.22 and 0.62 mg/kg, followed by lutein (0.01-0.06 mg/kg). The total content of tocopherol ranged from 186.5 to 436.2 mg/kg of the extracted oil and the major isoform in all samples was γ-tocopherol. The most abundant phytosterol was β-sitosterol (974-1494 mg/kg) followed by campesterol then Δ-5-avenasterol. The major triterpenic alcohol was cycloartenol (226.4-532.1 mg/kg). Hexacosanol (9.71-28.15 mg/kg) was the major aliphatic alcohol. The detected volatile compounds were pentanal, hexanal, nonanal, 2-decenal and hexanol. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between varieties, which are probably due to genetic factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of polyphenol oxidase from Juglans regia (jrPPO1)

    PubMed Central

    Zekiri, Florime; Bijelic, Aleksandar; Molitor, Christian; Rompel, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a type 3 copper enzyme that catalyzes the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones, which are precursors for the biosynthesis of melanins. The first plant tyrosinase from walnut leaves (Juglans regia) was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. During the purification, two forms of the enzyme differing only in their C-termini [jrPPO1(Asp101–Pro444) and jrPPO1(Asp101–Arg445)] were obtained. The most abundant form jrPPO1(Asp101–Arg445), as described in Zekiri et al. [Phytochemistry (2014 ▶), 101, 5–15], was crystallized, resulting in crystals that belonged to space group C121, with unit-cell parameters a = 115.56, b = 91.90, c = 86.87 Å, α = 90, β = 130.186, γ = 90°, and diffracted to 2.39 Å resolution. Crystals were only obtained from solutions containing at least 30% polyethylene glycol 5000 monomethyl ether in a close-to-neutral pH range. PMID:24915104

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of polyphenol oxidase from Juglans regia (jrPPO1).

    PubMed

    Zekiri, Florime; Bijelic, Aleksandar; Molitor, Christian; Rompel, Annette

    2014-06-01

    Tyrosinase is a type 3 copper enzyme that catalyzes the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones, which are precursors for the biosynthesis of melanins. The first plant tyrosinase from walnut leaves (Juglans regia) was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. During the purification, two forms of the enzyme differing only in their C-termini [jrPPO1(Asp101-Pro444) and jrPPO1(Asp101-Arg445)] were obtained. The most abundant form jrPPO1(Asp101-Arg445), as described in Zekiri et al. [Phytochemistry (2014), 101, 5-15], was crystallized, resulting in crystals that belonged to space group C121, with unit-cell parameters a=115.56, b=91.90, c=86.87 Å, α=90, β=130.186, γ=90°, and diffracted to 2.39 Å resolution. Crystals were only obtained from solutions containing at least 30% polyethylene glycol 5000 monomethyl ether in a close-to-neutral pH range.

  16. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on physicochemical and functional properties of walnut (Juglans regia L.) protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zihan; Guo, Xingfeng; Lin, Yan; Chen, Jiluan; Liao, Xiaojun; Hu, Xiaosong; Wu, Jihong

    2013-03-30

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is a good source of protein that has potential application in new product formation and fortification. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (300-600 MPa 20 min) on physicochemical and functional properties of walnut protein isolate (WPI) using various analytical techniques at room temperature. The results showed significant modification of solubility, free sulfhydryl content and surface hydrophobicity with increased levels of HHP treatment, indicating partial denaturation and aggregation of proteins. Differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence spectrum analyses demonstrated that HHP treatment resulted in gradual unfolding of protein structure. Emulsifying activity index was significantly (P < 0.05) increased after HHP treatment at 400 MPa, but significantly decreased (P < 0.05) relative to the untreated WPI with further increase in pressure. HHP treatment at 300-600 MPa significantly decreased emulsion stability index. Additionally, HHP-treated walnut proteins showed better foaming properties and in vitro digestibility. These results suggest that HHP treatment could be applied to modify the properties of walnut proteins by appropriate of pressure levels, which will help in using walnut protein as a potential food ingredient. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Studies on characterization and removal of methylene blue with Delonix regia plant litters activated carbon encapsulated nano metal oxide.

    PubMed

    Daniel, S; Syed Shabudeen, P S; Basker, A

    2015-07-01

    An advanced adsorbent material prepared by encapsulating nano-metaloxide on an activated carbon of Delonix regia plant litters was tested for its efficiency and superiority as an improved, advanced activated carbon material. It was subjected to modern instrumental techniques to evolve its morphology and its structure by FTIR, SEM, TEM, XRD, EDAX and BET studies. The size of MgO particles was in the range of 20 nm-25 nm. The surface area of nano composite was 632 m2 g(-1). Experimental results, based on batch mode of experiments, indicated that the adsorbent could remove 90% dye for the adsorbent dosage of 100 mg, at pH 7.0 and contact time of 120 min. The adsorption equilibrium data were well correlated for both, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The monolayer adsorption capacity Qo was found to be 14.425 mg g(-1) for the composite. The kinetic adsorption data fitted the pseudo first order modeled by Lagergren and also intra particle diffusion. Removal efficiency of the composite adsorbent was higher than the uncoated adsorbents. Regeneration of exhausted adsorbent showed considerable improved variation in comparison to normal activated carbon materials.

  18. Oral acute and subchronic toxicity of D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, in rats.

    PubMed

    Gámez, R; Mas, R; Noa, M; Menéndez, R; García, H; Rodríguez, Y; Rodríguez, Y; Felipe, E; Goicochea, E

    2005-01-01

    D-004 is a lipid extract obtained from Cuban royal palm (Rosytonea regia) fruits, consisting of a mixture of fatty acids and esters. D-004 has shown protective effects on prostate hyperplasia induced by testosterone in rodents. We report the results of two studies investigating the acute and subchronic oral toxicity of D004 in rats. Oral acute toxicity of D-004 (2,000 mg/kg) was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats according to the acute toxic class method, and the results showed that D-004 oral acute toxicity was practically absent, being defined as unclassified. In the subchronic study, rats were orally treated with D-004 at 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg for 90 days. No evidence of treatment-related toxicity was detected. Thus, analysis of body weight gain, clinical observations, blood biochemistry, hematology, organ weight ratios and histopathological data did not show significant differences between control and treated groups. We conclude that D-004 orally administered to rats was safe and that no drug-related toxicity was detected even at the highest dose investigated in both acute and subchronic (2,000 mg/kg) studies. Thus, this dose can be considered as a nonobservable-effect dose in rats.

  19. One year oral Toxicity of D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, A; Gámez, R; Noa, M; Mas, R; Arencibia, D; Pardo, B; Valle, M; Oyarzábal, A; Curveco, D; García, H; Goicochea, E; Mendoza, N; Jiménez, S

    2011-11-01

    D-004, a lipid extract of royal palm (Roystonea regia) fruits that contains a reproducible mixture of fatty acids, has been shown to prevent testosterone and phenylephrine-induced prostate hyperplasia in rodents. This study investigated the long-term oral toxicity of D-004 in rats. Rats from both sexes were randomized into four groups (20 rats sex/group): a control and three treated with D-004 (800, 1500 or 2000 mg/kg/day, respectively). At study completion, rats were sacrificed under anaesthesia. Determinations of blood biochemical and haematological parameters and organ weight were done. Also, necropsy and histopathological studies were performed. Four of 160 rats died before study completion. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed throughout the study. Food and water consumption, bodyweight, blood biochemical and haematological parameters, organ weight ratios and histopathological findings were similar in control and treated groups. The histological lesions found in treated animals are commonly present in this specie and strain according to literature and our historical data. In conclusion, long-term (12 months) oral treatment of rats with D-004 (800-2000 mg/kg/day) did not show evidences of D-004-related toxicity under our conditions. The highest dose tested (2000 mg/kg) was a no-observed adverse effect level in this study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preventive effects of D-004, a lipid extract from Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) fruits, on testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia in intact and castrated rodents.

    PubMed

    Arruzazabala, M L; Carbajal, D; Más, R; Molina, V; Rodríguez, E; González, V

    2004-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the noncancerous, uncontrolled growth of prostate gland cells and stroma that can cause difficulty urinating. Fruit lipid extracts from saw palmetto, a palm from the Arecaceae family, are used for BPH management. The Cuban royal palm, Roystonea regia, is also a member of the Arecaceae family and therefore it was appropriate to investigate the protective effects of Roystonea regia fruit lipid extracts on prostatic hyperplasia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, prevented testosterone-induced PH in castrated and intact rodents. Two series of experiments were performed. The first one was conducted in castrated and intact rats, distributed into five groups of 10 rats per group. The negative control group was injected with soy oil and treated orally with vehicle, while the four testosterone-injected groups were treated with vehicle (positive control), D-004 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The other experiment was conducted in castrated and intact mice. These were distributed into four groups of 10 mice per group: a negative control group and three testosterone-injected groups, of which one was a positive control, while two received D-004 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. At study completion, the rodents were sacrificed and prostates removed and weighed. D-004 at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly and dose-dependently prevented prostate enlargement in intact and castrated rats and mice. The percentage inhibitions obtained in mice were greater: 77% and 84% for intact and castrated mice, respectively. D-004 therapy did not affect body weight. It is concluded that D-004 administered orally significantly prevented testosterone-induced prostate enlargement in both intact and castrated rodents, indicating that an endogenous supply of testosterone is not necessary to observe such an effect The results of the present investigation support further studies of D

  1. Fatty acid profiles, tocopherol contents, and antioxidant activities of heartnut (Juglans ailanthifolia Var. cordiformis) and Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Tsao, Rong; Yang, Raymond; Kramer, John K G; Hernandez, Marta

    2007-02-21

    The fatty acid and tocopherol compositions of three heartnut (Juglans ailanthifolia var. cordiformis) varieties (Imshu, Campbell CW1, and Campbell CW3) were examined and compared with those of two Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) varieties (Combe and Lake). The major fatty acids found in heartnuts and walnuts were identified by gas chromatography as linoleic (18:2n-6), alpha-linolenic (18:3n-3), oleic (18:1n-9), palmitic (16:0), and stearic acid (18:0). Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the main group of fatty acids found in both heartnut and walnut, ranging from 73.07 to 80.98%, and were significantly higher in heartnut than in Persian walnuts (P < 0.001). In addition, heartnuts had significantly higher levels of 18:2n-6 and lower levels of 18:3n-3 compared to the Persian walnuts. gamma-Tocopherol was the main tocopherol homologue present in both types of nuts, followed by delta- and alpha-tocopherol. The highest concentration of gamma-tocopherol was found in Combe Persian walnut at 267.87 mug/g, followed by Lake Persian walnut and Imshu, Campbell CW1, and CW3 heartnut at 205.45, 187.33, 161.84, and 126.46 mug/g, respectively. Tocopherols, particularly the gamma-tocopherol, were found to contribute the most to the strong total antioxidant activities of both walnut and heartnut oils using either the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay or the photochemiluminescence method.

  2. Cavitation and water fluxes driven by ice water potential in Juglans regia during freeze–thaw cycles

    PubMed Central

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Badel, Eric; Charrier, Guillaume; Ponomarenko, Alexandre; Bonhomme, Marc; Foucat, Loïc; Mayr, Stefan; Améglio, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Freeze–thaw cycles induce major hydraulic changes due to liquid-to-ice transition within tree stems. The very low water potential at the ice–liquid interface is crucial as it may cause lysis of living cells as well as water fluxes and embolism in sap conduits, which impacts whole tree–water relations. We investigated water fluxes induced by ice formation during freeze–thaw cycles in Juglans regia L. stems using four non-invasive and complementary approaches: a microdendrometer, magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray microtomography, and ultrasonic acoustic emissions analysis. When the temperature dropped, ice nucleation occurred, probably in the cambium or pith areas, inducing high water potential gradients within the stem. The water was therefore redistributed within the stem toward the ice front. We could thus observe dehydration of the bark’s living cells leading to drastic shrinkage of this tissue, as well as high tension within wood conduits reaching the cavitation threshold in sap vessels. Ultrasonic emissions, which were strictly emitted only during freezing, indicated cavitation events (i.e. bubble formation) following ice formation in the xylem sap. However, embolism formation (i.e. bubble expansion) in stems was observed only on thawing via X-ray microtomography for the first time on the same sample. Ultrasonic emissions were detected during freezing and were not directly related to embolism formation. These results provide new insights into the complex process and dynamics of water movements and ice formation during freeze–thaw cycles in tree stems. PMID:26585223

  3. Cavitation and water fluxes driven by ice water potential in Juglans regia during freeze-thaw cycles.

    PubMed

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Badel, Eric; Charrier, Guillaume; Ponomarenko, Alexandre; Bonhomme, Marc; Foucat, Loïc; Mayr, Stefan; Améglio, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    Freeze-thaw cycles induce major hydraulic changes due to liquid-to-ice transition within tree stems. The very low water potential at the ice-liquid interface is crucial as it may cause lysis of living cells as well as water fluxes and embolism in sap conduits, which impacts whole tree-water relations. We investigated water fluxes induced by ice formation during freeze-thaw cycles in Juglans regia L. stems using four non-invasive and complementary approaches: a microdendrometer, magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray microtomography, and ultrasonic acoustic emissions analysis. When the temperature dropped, ice nucleation occurred, probably in the cambium or pith areas, inducing high water potential gradients within the stem. The water was therefore redistributed within the stem toward the ice front. We could thus observe dehydration of the bark's living cells leading to drastic shrinkage of this tissue, as well as high tension within wood conduits reaching the cavitation threshold in sap vessels. Ultrasonic emissions, which were strictly emitted only during freezing, indicated cavitation events (i.e. bubble formation) following ice formation in the xylem sap. However, embolism formation (i.e. bubble expansion) in stems was observed only on thawing via X-ray microtomography for the first time on the same sample. Ultrasonic emissions were detected during freezing and were not directly related to embolism formation. These results provide new insights into the complex process and dynamics of water movements and ice formation during freeze-thaw cycles in tree stems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaf essential oil of Juglans regia L. and its constituents.

    PubMed

    Rather, Manzoor A; Dar, Bilal A; Dar, Mohd Yousuf; Wani, Bilal A; Shah, Wajahat A; Bhat, Bilal A; Ganai, Bashir A; Bhat, Khursheed A; Anand, Rajneesh; Qurishi, Mushtaq A

    2012-10-15

    The essential oil from the leaves of Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae) growing wild in Kashmir (India) was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by a combination of capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 38 compounds, representing 92.7% of the oil, were identified and the major components were found to be α-pinene (15.1%), β-pinene (30.5%), β-caryophyllene (15.5%) germacrene D (14.4%) and limonene (3.6%). The essential oil and the main individual constituents were screened for antibacterial activity and the essential oil evaluated for antioxidant activity. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion and microdilution methods against a group of clinically significant Gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis MTCC-435, Bacillus subtilis MTCC-441, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Proteus vulgaris MTCC-321, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC-1688, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dyssenteriae, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli). The essential oil and its major components exhibited broad spectrum inhibition against all the bacterial strains with Gram-positive being more susceptible to the oil than Gram-negative bacteria. Antioxidant activity of the oil was evaluated by the scavenging effect on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radicals. In general, the essential oil exhibited high antioxidant activity which was comparable to the reference standards at the same dose (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl toluene, BHT) with IC(50) values of 34.5 and 56.4μg/ml calculated by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Late summer photosynthesis and storage carbohydrates in walnut (Juglans regia L.): Feed-back and feed-forward effects.

    PubMed

    Moscatello, Stefano; Proietti, Simona; Augusti, Angela; Scartazza, Andrea; Walker, Robert P; Famiani, Franco; Battistelli, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    The effect of late summer - autumn limitation of phloem export on growth, photosynthesis and storage carbohydrate accumulation, was evaluated in walnut (Juglans regia L.). This was done by girdling current years shoots, with either all or with only a third of the leaves left in place. Nineteen days after girdling, photosynthesis was greatly reduced and after 46 days, it was about 70% lower in both girdling treatments compared to the control (ungirdled shoots). This reduction is consistent with a feed-back effect of an increased carbohydrate content of the leaves. At the end of the experiment (46 days after girdling), the radial growth of girdled shoots was increased at their base but not at their apical part compared to the control. Girdling increased the accumulation of sucrose in the bark at the base of the shoot and of starch in the bark and in the wood of the shoot apical part. The activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in wood increased in the apical part of girdled shoots. The results suggest that a high availability of carbohydrates elicits a feed-forward action on the shoot sink size and activity (radial growth and storage carbohydrate accumulation). Further, for the first time in tree wood we found an increased total activity of AGP induced by an increased assimilate availability. Moreover, the results indicated that, in late summer - autumn, CO2 uptake by leaves of the deciduous tree walnut is strongly dependent on export of photosynthates from the crown. Therefore, carbon uptake in this period depends largely on the availability of effective storage sinks where newly produced assimilates can be accumulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Phyto-synthesis and structural characterization of catalytically active gold nanoparticles biosynthesized using Delonix regia leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Dauthal, Preeti; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi

    2016-12-01

    Biological methods of nanoparticles synthesis are ecologically sound and sustainable alternative to the conventional methods. On the basis of aforesaid premise, the present study deals with the optimization and fabrication of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) using easily available bio-resource, Delonix regia leaf extract. The use of practically nontoxic natural extracts and water allows the synthesis pathways presented to be considered as ''green'' and so permitting the synthesized Au-NPs to be used in sensitive areas, such as bioremediation. Various characterization techniques are adopted for the evaluation of size, stability, morphology, crystal nature, and purity of nanoparticles. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy analysis showed a surface Plasmon resonance peak for prepared Au-NPs at 542 nm, and its absorbance increased with increasing the interaction time. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the particles were spherical and 4-24 nm in size. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis displayed a 2.2 keV peak corresponding to the pure phase gold nanocrystal. X-ray diffraction analysis proved the fabrication of crystalline Au-NPs with face-centered cubic geometry within 10 min. Furthermore, ζ potential (-15 mV) and Fourier transform infrared data suggested the role of polar polyphenolic compounds of leaf extract in fabrication and stabilization process. Biofabricated nanoparticles are demonstrated to have catalytic activity for the reduction of toxic nitro-organic pollutant o-nitroaniline. Therefore, the present study offers a straightforward, cost-efficient, eco-friendly, and sustainable alternative for the fabrication of catalytically active Au-NPs.

  7. Antioxidant effects of D-004, a lipid extract from the Roystonea regia fruit, on the plasma of healthy men

    PubMed Central

    López, Ernesto; Molina, Vivian; Illnait, José; Oyarzábal, Ambar; Fernández, Lilia C.; Más, Rosa; Gámez, Rafael; Fernández, Julio C.; Jiménez, Sonia; Mesa, Meilis; Hollands, Ivón; Mendoza, Sarahí

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of D-004, a lipid extract of the Roystonea regia fruit that prevents testosterone- and phenylepinephrine-induced prostate hyperplasia in rodents, on plasma oxidative markers in healthy men. We enrolled male volunteers (20–55 years) in good health and without lower urinary tract symptoms. Thirty-four eligible participants were randomized to placebo or D-004 (320 mg) capsules administered daily for 6 weeks. An interim check-up and a final visit were conducted after 3 and 6 weeks of therapy, respectively. Physical examinations were performed at each visit, and laboratory tests were performed at baseline and at treatment completion. Oxidative variables included plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), total hydroxyperoxides (TOH), sulphydryl (SH) groups and total antioxidant status (TAS). We assessed treatment compliance and addressed adverse experiences (AEs) at weeks 3 and 6. At week 6, with D-004, the mean reductions of plasma MDA (26.7%), TOH (18.8%) and SH groups (31.6%), and the mean increase of TAS (35.3%) were significantly different from those of placebo (P < 0.001 for plasma TAS, P < 0.0001 for all other comparisons). D-004 did not differ from the placebo in safety indicators. There were two withdrawals (both in the D-004 group), with one due to dyspepsia (the only AE during the trial). In conclusion, D-004 displayed antioxidant effects on plasma oxidative markers in healthy men, which was consistent with findings from laboratory experimental studies. PMID:19169265

  8. Therapeutic effect of D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, on prostate hyperplasia induced in rats.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, D; Molina, V; Mas, R; Arruzazabala, M L

    2005-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a nonmalignant growth of prostate leading to difficulty in urinating. Drug therapy, phytotherapy included, is frequently used to treat BPH. D-004 is a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, and previous studies have shown that oral treatment with D-004 for 14 days prevented prostate hyperplasia (PH) induced by testosterone in rats. No information is available, however; about the effects of D-004 in reverting already established PH. This study investigated whether D-004 could improve PH after oral dosing with testosterone in rats. Rats were distributed in five groups (10 rats/group). One group was injected with soy oil (negative control) and four groups were injected with testosterone: one was orally treated with the vehicle (positive control), two with D-004 (200 and 400 mg/kg) and the other with Saw palmetto (400 mg/kg). At study completion, the rats were sacrificed and the prostates were removed and weighed. D-004 (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently decreased prostate enlargement by 85% and 98%, respectively, versus the positive control. Likewise, Saw palmetto (400 mg/kg) significantly reduced prostate weight by 73% versus the positive control. D-004 (400 mg/kg) was more effective (p < 0.05) than Saw palmetto (400 mg/kg) in lowering prostate enlargement. D-004 and Saw palmetto also decreased the prostate weight to body weight ratio, but did not affect body weight. In conclusion, D-004 (200 and 400 mg/kg) orally administered was effective for reducing PH after testosterone dosing. D-004 (400 mg/kg) was more effective than Saw palmetto (400 mg/kg). Further studies, however, are needed to corroborate the present results.

  9. Capillary zone electrophoresis for separation and analysis of four diarylheptanoids and an alpha-tetralone derivative in the green walnut husks (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Liu, Jun-Xi; Zhao, Liang; Di, Duo-Long; Meng, Min; Jiang, Sheng-Xiang

    2008-11-04

    A fast capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for the simultaneous determination of four cyclic diarylheptanoids (rhoiptelol, RH; juglanin A, JA; juglanin B, JB; juglanin C, JC) and an alpha-tetralone derivative (sclerone, SC) in the extract of the green walnut husks (Juglans regia L.) was developed. The optimized buffer was composed of 25 mM sodium tetraborate at pH 10.3. The applied voltage was 20 kV and the capillary temperature was kept constant at 20 degrees C. The detection wavelength was set at 220 nm using a photodiode array detection. The effects of several CE parameters, including pH value, buffer concentration, applied voltage and separation temperature on the separation were investigated systematically. Regression equations showed good linear relationships (correlation coefficients: 0.9996-0.9999) between the peak area of each compound (RH, JA, JB, JC and SC) and its concentration accordingly. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) of the migration time and peak area were less than 0.57 and 3.44% (intra-day), and 0.97 and 3.71% (inter-day), respectively. The contents of the five active compounds in the green walnut husks (J. regia L.) from different origins were determined with satisfactory repeatability and recovery.

  10. Determination of Se in biological samples by axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after digestion with aqua regia and on-line chemical vapor generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Éder José; Herrmann, Amanda Beatriz; de Caires, Suzete Kulik; Frescura, Vera Lúcia Azzolin; Curtius, Adilson José

    2009-06-01

    A simple and fast method for the determination of Se in biological samples, including food, by axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry using on-line chemical vapor generation (CVG-ICP OES) is proposed. The concentrations of HCl and NaBH 4, used in the chemical vapor generation were optimized by factorial analysis. Six certified materials (non-fat milk powder, lobster hepatopancreas, human hair, whole egg powder, oyster tissue, and lyophilised pig kidney) were treated with 10 mL of aqua regia in a microwave system under reflux for 15 min followed by additional 15 min in an ultrasonic bath. The solutions were transferred to a 100 mL volumetric flask and the final volume was made up with water. The Se was determined directly in these solutions by CVG-ICP OES, using the analytical line at 196.026 nm. Calibration against aqueous standards in 10% v/v aqua regia in the concentration range of 0.5-10.0 µg L - 1 Se(IV) was used for the analysis. The quantification limit, considering a 0.5 g sample weight in a final volume of 100 mL - 1 was 0.10 µg g - 1. The obtained concentration values were in agreement with the total certified concentrations, according to the t-test for a 95% confidence level.

  11. Surface engineered nanostructured lipid carriers for efficient nose to brain delivery of ondansetron HCl using Delonix regia gum as a natural mucoadhesive polymer.

    PubMed

    Devkar, Tejas B; Tekade, Avinash R; Khandelwal, Kishanchandra R

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to fabricate ondansetron hydrochloride [OND] loaded mucoadhesive nanostructured lipid carriers [NLCs] for efficient delivery to brain through nasal route. Mucoadhesive NLCs thereby sustaining drug release for longer time in nasal cavity. NLCs were prepared by high pressure homogenization [HPH] technique using glycerol monostearate [GMS]; as solid lipid, Capryol 90; as liquid lipid, soya lecithin; as surfactant and poloxamer 188; as cosurfactant. In the fabrication of NLCs, Delonix regia gum [DRG], isolated from seeds of D. regia belonging to family fabiaceae was used as a mucoadhesive polymer. The NLCs were evaluated for particle size, morphology, drug-entrapment efficiency [%EE], mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release, histological examination, ex vivo permeation study, in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies in the brain/blood following intravenous [i.v.] and intranasal [i.n.] administration. Particle size, PDI, Zeta potential was observed in the range of 92.28-135nm, 0.32-0.46, and -11.5 to -36.2 respectively. Prepared NLCs achieved thermodynamic stability, control release pattern with minor histopathological changes in sheep nasal mucosa. The significantly [P<0.05] higher values for selected batch was observed, when administered by i.n. route showed higher drug targeting efficiency [506%] and direct transport percentage [97.14%] which confirms the development of promising OND-loaded NLC for efficient nose-to-brain delivery.

  12. Characterization of low molecular weight allergens from English walnut (Juglans regia).

    PubMed

    Downs, Melanie L; Semic-Jusufagic, Aida; Simpson, Angela; Bartra, Joan; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Rigby, Neil M; Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L; Mills, E N Clare

    2014-12-03

    Although English walnut is a commonly allergenic tree nut, walnut allergens have been poorly characterized to date. The objective of this work was to characterize the natural, low molecular weight (LMW) allergens from walnut. A protocol was developed to purify LMW allergens (specifically 2S albumins) from English walnuts. In addition to 2S albumins, a series of peptides from the N-terminal region of the 7S seed storage globulin proprotein were also identified and characterized. These peptides comprised a four-cysteine motif (C-X-X-X-C-X10-12-C-X-X-X-C) repeated throughout the 7S N-terminal region. Upon IgE immunoblotting, 3/11 and 5/11 sera from walnut-allergic subjects showed IgE reactivity to the 7S N-terminal fragments and 2S albumin, respectively. The mature 7S protein and the newly described 7S N-terminal peptides represent two distinct types of allergens. Because the proteolytic processing of 7S globulins has not been elucidated in many edible plant species, similar protein fragments may be present in other nuts and seeds.

  13. [Analysis of the extraction of red pellicle of walnut (Juglans regia L.) by ultraviolet-visible spectra and HPLC-ESI-MS(n)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Jian; Hao, Yan-Bin; Qi, Jian-Xun; Hu, Xiao-Song

    2009-06-01

    The extraction of the red pellicle of walnut (Juglans regia L.) was analyzed by UV-visible spectra and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) (high-performance-liquid-chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry). The extraction in ethanol-HCl showed two absorption peaks at 560 and 591 nm respectively in the UV-Vis spectrum; after purified by lead acetate and thin-layer-chromatography, the extraction in ethanol-HCl showed 4 absorption peaks at 340, 370, 552 and 585 nm respectively. These results testified that the anthocyanin was in the extraction. Six molecular ion peaks (m/z) occurred on MS: 301, 481, 633, 783, 785 and 950, which was identified as ellagic acid, Hexahydroxydiphenoyl(HHDP)-glucose, Galloyl-HHDP-glucose, Di-HHDP-glucose, Di-Galloyl-HHDP-glucose, and HHDP-Valoneoyl-glucose respectively.

  14. Market analysis of food products for detection of allergenic walnut (Juglans regia) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis) by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    López-Calleja, Inés María; de la Cruz, Silvia; González, Isabel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2015-06-15

    Two real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays for detection of walnut (Juglans regia) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis) traces in a wide range of processed foods are described here. The method consists on a real-time PCR assay targeting the ITS1 region, using a nuclease (TaqMan) probe labeled with FAM and BBQ. The method was positive for walnut and pecan respectively, and negative for all other heterologous plants and animals tested. Using a series of model samples with defined raw walnut in wheat flour and heat-treated walnut in wheat flour with a range of concentrations of 0.1-100,000 mg kg(-1), a practical detection limit of 0.1 mg kg(-1) of walnut content was estimated. Identical binary mixtures were done for pecan, reaching the same limit of detection of 0.1 mg kg(-1). The assay was successfully trialed on a total of 232 commercial foodstuffs.

  15. Variation in soil water uptake and its effect on plant water status in Juglans regia L. during dry and wet seasons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shou-Jia; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin-Song; Wan, Xianchong

    2011-12-01

    Temporal and spatial variations in the water status of walnut trees (Juglans regia L.) and the soil in which they were growing were traced by analyzing the differences in hydrogen isotopes during spring and summer in a 7-year-old walnut stand. Walnut root dynamics were measured in both dry and wet seasons. Walnut roots were mainly distributed in the upper soil (0-30 cm depth), with around 60% of the total root mass in upper soil layers and 40% in deep soil layers (30-80 cm depth). The upper soil layers contributed 68% of the total tree water requirement in the wet season, but only 47% in the dry season. In the wet season, total roots, living roots and new roots were all significantly more abundant than in the dry season. There were significant differences in pre-dawn branch percentage loss of hydraulic conductance (PLC), pre-dawn leaf water potential and transpiration between the dry and wet seasons. Water content in the upper soil layers remarkably influenced xylem water stable-hydrogen isotope (δD) values. Furthermore, there were linear relationships between the xylem water δD value and pre-dawn branch PLC, pre-dawn leaf water potential, transpiration rate and photosynthetic rate. In summary, J. regia was compelled to take a larger amount of water from the deep soil layers in the dry season, but this shift could not prevent water stress in the plant. The xylem water δD values could be used as an indicator to investigate the water stress of plants, besides probing profiles of soil water use.

  16. In planta characterization of a tau class glutathione S-transferase gene from Juglans regia (JrGSTTau1) involved in chilling tolerance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guiyan; Xu, Zhenggang; Peng, Shaobing; Sun, Yudong; Jia, Caixia; Zhai, Meizhi

    2016-03-01

    JrGSTTau1 is an important candidate gene for plant chilling tolerance regulation. A tau subfamily glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene from Juglans regia (JrGSTTau1, GeneBank No.: KT351091) was cloned and functionally characterized. JrGSTTau1 was induced by 16, 12, 10, 8, and 6 °C stresses. The transiently transformed J. regia showed much greater GST, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) activities and lower H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and electrolyte leakage (EL) rate than prokII (empty vector control) and RNAi::JrGSTTau1 under cold stress, indicating that JrGSTTau1 may be involved in chilling tolerance. To further confirm the role of JrGSTTau1, JrGSTTau1 was heterologously expressed in tobacco, transgenic Line5, Line9, and Line12 were chosen for analysis. The germinations of WT, Line5, Line9, and Line12 were similar, but the fresh weight, primary root length, and total chlorophyll content (tcc) of the transgenic lines were significantly higher than those of WT under cold stress. When cultivated in soil, the GST and SOD activities of transgenic tobacco were significantly higher than those of WT; however, the MDA and H2O2 contents of WT were on average 1.47- and 1.96-fold higher than those of Line5, Line9, and Line12 under 16 °C. The DAB, Evans blue, and PI staining further confirmed these results. Furthermore, the abundances of NtGST, MnSOD, NtMAPK9, and CDPK15 were elevated in 35S::JrGSTTau1 tobacco compared with WT. These results suggested that JrGSTTau1 improves the plant chilling tolerance involved in protecting enzymes, ROS scavenging, and stress-related genes, indicating that JrGSTTau1 is a candidate gene for the potential application in molecular breeding to enhance plant abiotic stress tolerance.

  17. In vitro neuroprotective effects of the leaf and fruit extracts of Juglans regia L. (walnut) through enzymes linked to Alzheimer's disease and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Suntar, Ipek Pesin; Akkol, Esra Kupeli

    2011-12-01

    Several extracts of the leaves and fruits of Juglans regia L. were assessed for their neuroprotective effects through antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase methods. Anticholinesterase activity was determined against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), the enzymes vital for Alzheimer's disease, at 50, 100 and 200 μg ml(-1). Antioxidant activity was tested using radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD), superoxide (SO), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) radicals, as well as ferric ion-chelating capacity, ferric- and phosphomolybdenum-reducing antioxidant power at 500, 1000 and 2000 μg ml(-1). Total phenol and flavonoid quantification of the extracts was calculated. The extracts scavenged DPPH radical in varying degrees; however, they did not scavenge DPMD and H(2)O(2). Only the dichloromethane and water extracts were able to quench SO (10.09 ± 1.38%) and NO (24.09 ± 2.19%) radicals, respectively, at low level. The extracts showed either low or no BChE inhibition and no AChE inhibition.

  18. [Development of a new hydrocarbon extract from the medicinal raw material of Circassian walnut (Juglans regia) and study of its antiparasitic activity].

    PubMed

    Streliaeva, A V; Polzikov, V V; Prokina, E S; Kurilov, D V; Chebyshev, N V; Shcheglova, T A; Gasparian, É R; Sadykov, V M

    2011-01-01

    The authors developed a technology for preparing a hydrocarbon extract from the medicinal raw material of Circassian walnut (Juglans regia), including its green fruits, green leaves, and fresh roots. To prepare the preparation, they obtained for the first time a new extragent called petroleum Russia that was found to contain more than hundred chemical compounds by chromatography mass spectrometry. The new agent was named irillen. Experiments on albino mice and albino rats established that the new agent was low toxic. The lethal doses of irillen were calculated: LD50 was 16377 +/- 457.5 mg/kg; LD16 = 12986.4 mg/kg; LD84 was 18976.6 mg/kg for albino mice; LD50 was 16998.0 +/- 535.4 mg/kg; LD16 = 12875.3 mg/ kg; LD84 = 18583.4 mg/kg for albino rats. The irillen prepared by the authors should be referred to as a low toxic and practically nontoxic agent (Toxicity Class IV and V). Irillen has a broad spectrum of antiparasitic activity. It is effective in treating toxocariasis in dogs, larval alveolar echinococcosis, ascaridiasis, and eimeriasis in chickens, and siphachiasis.

  19. Determination of a novel diarylheptanoid (Juglanin B) from green walnut husks (Juglans regia L.) in rat plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin-Yi; Duan, Qiu-Yan; Liu, Jun-Xi; Di, Duo-Long

    2010-03-01

    A simple and reliable analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) was developed for the determination of a novel diarylheptanoid (Juglanin B) from green walnut husks (Juglans regia L.) in rat plasma using rhoiptelol as an internal standard. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Sinochrom ODS-AP C(18) column (250 x 4.6 microm i.d., 5 mm) with acetonitrile-10 mM postassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH = 3; 55:45, v/v) as mobile phase, and the detection wavelength was set at 214 nm. The plasma samples were prepared using methanol as protein precipitator. The extraction recovery of Juglanin B ranged from 70.26 to 78.59%, and the calibration curve had a good linearity in the range 0.08-50 microg/mL (r(2) = 0.9932). The RSDs of intra- and inter-day precision ranged from 1.19 to 4.92% and 4.35 to 4.54%, respectively. The HPLC-DAD method described is a simple, rapid and reliable method for the determination of Juglanin B level and for use in studies involving pharmacokinetics.

  20. The influence of liming on soil chemical properties and on the alleviation of manganese and copper toxicity in Juglans regia, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus sp. plantations.

    PubMed

    Chatzistathis, T; Alifragis, D; Papaioannou, A

    2015-03-01

    Juglans regia, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus sp. plantations, suffering from Mn and Cu toxicity, were limed in order to reduce Cu and Mn solubility in soil. The purposes of the present work were: i) to study the changes in soil chemical properties after the addition of CaCO3, ii) to investigate the influence of liming on the reduction of Mn and Cu toxicity. After the addition of CaCO3 (three applications, during three successive years), pH and CaCO3 content were significantly increased, while organic C and N were significantly reduced. Exchangeable Ca concentrations have been slightly, or significantly, increased, while those of Mg have been decreased; in addition, ratios Ca/Mg and C/N have been significantly increased after liming. Impressive reductions of DTPA extractable Cu and Mn concentrations (more than 10 times in most cases) were recorded. It was also found that trees without Mn and Cu toxicity symptoms (healthy tress) before liming did not have, in many cases, significantly greater leaf Mn, Cu and Fe concentrations, than trees after soil liming (all the trees were healthy). This probably happened because excess Mn and Cu quantities had been accumulated into their root system. Finally, leaf Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations of trees suffering from toxicity were significantly decreased after soil liming, while leaf Fe concentrations, in all the plant species studied, were increased.

  1. Identification of walnut husk (Juglans regia L.) volatiles and the behavioural response of the invasive Walnut Husk Fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson.

    PubMed

    Sarles, Landry; Boullis, Antoine; Fassotte, Bérénice; Lognay, Georges; Verhaeghe, Agnès; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J

    2017-10-01

    Several European countries are important walnut (Juglans regia L.) producers. However, these countries must contend with the recent introduction of the Walnut Husk Fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera, Tephritidae), which is causing severe economic losses, especially in organic production. Because most Tephritid fruit flies use kairomones in their search for host plants, we hypothesise that this highly specialist species orients toward the volatile blend released by walnut husks. We collected, identified, and quantified the volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) released by walnut husks from the most commonly cultivated variety in France (Franquette). Then, the behavioural response of R. completa toward synthetic odour blends was recorded in dual choice assays conducted in net cages. A total of 26 VOCs were identified, with α-pinene, β-pinene, trans-linalool, eugenol, and tetradecane representing the major constituents. In the dual choice assay, male and female R. completa were strongly attracted to synthetic blend that included most of the identified husk VOCs. When searching for a host plant, R. completa use host fruit kairomones. The potential of these semiochemicals in monitoring and management of this quarantine pest is discussed. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Comparison of the effects of fresh leaf and peel extracts of walnut (Juglans regia L.) on blood glucose and β-cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Javidanpour, Somaye; Fatemi Tabtabaei, Seyed Reza; Siahpoosh, Amir; Morovati, Hasan; Shahriari, Ali

    2012-01-01

    There is some report about the hypoglycemic effect of Juglans rejia L. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats and hypoglycemic effect of its fruit peel administered intra peritoneally. Thirty male Wistar rats divided into five groups, to evaluate the hypoglycemic and pancreas β-cells regenerative effects of oral methanolic extracts of leaf and fruit peel of walnut. Rats were made diabetic by intravenous (IV) injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (STZ). Negative control group did not get STZ and any treatment. Positive control, leaf extract, peel extract and insulin groups were treated orally by extract solvent, 200 mg kg-1 leaf extract, 200 mg kg-1 peel extract and 5 IU kg-1 of subcutaneous neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, respectively. Four weeks later, blood was collected for biochemical analysis and pancreases were removed for β-cells counts in histological sections. Diabetes leads to increase of fast blood sugar (FBS) and HbA1c, and decrease of β-cell number and insulin. FBS decreased only in leaf extract group. HbA1c decreased in leaf extract and insulin groups. The β-cells number increased in leaf and peel extract groups. Insulin increased moderately in all treatment groups. We showed the proliferative properties of leaves and peel of Juglans regia L. methanolic extract in STZ- induced diabetic rats, which was accompanied by hypoglycemic effect of leaf extract. PMID:25653767

  3. In Vitro effect of D-004, a lipid extract of the ground fruits of the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia), on rat microsomal lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Roberto; Más, Rosa; Pérez, Yohani; González, R M

    2007-01-01

    D-004 is a lipid extract of the fruits of the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) containing a mixture of saturated fatty acids. D-004 inhibits prostate hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone, in rodents. Since fatty acids inhibit lipid peroxidation (LP), this study investigated whether D-004 prevents in vitro LP. D-004 (0.9-1000 microg/mL) markedly and dose-dependently inhibited in vitro iron-induced LP in native brain and liver microsomes. D-004 showed hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, which could explain partially its antioxidant effect on microsomal iron-induced LP, but it was unable to scavenge superoxide and ABTS radicals, indicating a limited radical scavenging activity. Also, D-004 inhibited CCl4-mediated LP in active liver microsomes through a decreased generation of radical species rather than a radical trapping action on CCl(4)-derived radical species. D-004 also inhibited lipooxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) activities, and the generation of protein-associated carbonyl groups after LP. Since increased oxidative stress has been linked to PH, the antioxidant effect of D-004 shown here could contribute to explaining its beneficial effects on T-induced PH in rodents. Nevertheless, this study shows only in vitro results. Further studies should investigate whether D-004 also exhibits antioxidant effects in vivo.

  4. Light-mediated K(leaf) induction and contribution of both the PIP1s and PIP2s aquaporins in five tree species: walnut (Juglans regia) case study.

    PubMed

    Baaziz, Khaoula Ben; Lopez, David; Rabot, Amelie; Combes, Didier; Gousset, Aurelie; Bouzid, Sadok; Cochard, Herve; Sakr, Soulaiman; Venisse, Jean-Stephane

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the response of leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)) to light is a challenge in elucidating plant-water relationships. Recent data have shown that the effect of light on K(leaf) is not systematically related to aquaporin regulation, leading to conflicting conclusions. Here we investigated the relationship between light, K(leaf), and aquaporin transcript levels in five tree species (Juglans regia L., Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus robur L., Salix alba L. and Populus tremula L.) grown in the same environmental conditions, but differing in their K(leaf) responses to light. Moreover, the K(leaf) was measured by two independent methods (high-pressure flow metre (HPFM) and evaporative flux method (EFM)) in the most (J. regia) and least (S. alba) responsive species and the transcript levels of aquaporins were analyzed in perfused and unperfused leaves. Here, we found that the light-induced K(leaf) value was closely related to stronger expression of both the PIP1 and PIP2 aquaporin genes in walnut (J. regia), but to stimulation of PIP1 aquaporins alone in F. sylvatica and Q. robur. In walnut, all newly identified aquaporins were found to be upregulated in the light and downregulated in the dark, further supporting the relationship between the light-mediated induction of K(leaf) and aquaporin expression in walnut. We also demonstrated that the K(leaf) response to light was quality-dependent, K(leaf) being 60% lower in the absence of blue light. This decrease in K(leaf) was correlated with strong downregulation of three PIP2 aquaporins and of all the PIP1 aquaporins tested. These data support a relationship between light-mediated K(leaf) regulation and the abundance of aquaporin transcripts in the walnut tree.

  5. Wood specific gravity variation among five important hardwood species of Kashmir Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Wani, Bilal Ahmad; Bodha, R H; Khan, Amina

    2014-02-01

    Wood Specific Gravity (SG) is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In the present study, specific gravity varied among the five different woods at three different sites from 0.40 in Populus nigra at site III (Shopian) to 0.80 in Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana at site II (Surasyar). Among the three different sites, specific gravity varied from 0.73 to 0.80 in Parroptiosis jacquemontiana; in Robinia pseudoacacia it varied from 0.71 to 0.79; in Salix alba, it varied from 0.42 to 0.48; In Populus nigra it varied from 0.40 to 0.48 and in Juglans regia it varied from 0.59 to 0.66. On the basis of the specific gravity variation patterns these woods were categorized as light (Salix alba, Populus nigra) moderately heavy (Juglans regia) and moderately heavy to heavy (Robinia pseudoacacia, Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana) which predicts their properties like strength, dimensional stability with moisture content change, ability to retain paint, fiber yield per unit volume, suitability for making particleboard and related wood composite materials and suitability as a raw material for making paper.

  6. Both JrWRKY2 and JrWRKY7 of Juglans regia mediate responses to abiotic stresses and abscisic acid through formation of homodimers and interaction.

    PubMed

    Yang, G; Zhang, W; Liu, Z; Yi-Maer, A-Y; Zhai, M; Xu, Z

    2017-03-01

    WRKY transcription factors belong to a large protein family that is involved in diverse developmental processes and abiotic stress responses. Currently, there is little understanding of the role of WRKY transcription factors in regulatory mechanisms in plants, especially in the protein-protein interactions that are essential for biological regulatory functions and networks. In the present study, yeast one-hybrid, yeast two-hybrid, transient expression and quantitative RT-PCR were applied to investigate the potential characteristics of two WRKY proteins from Juglans regia, JrWRKY2 (GenBank Accession No. KU057089) and JrWRKY7 (GenBank Accession No. KP784651). JrWRKY2 and JrWRKY7 can form homodimers and interact with each other. JrWRKY2 and JrWRKY7 can bind to W-box motifs. Similarly high levels of transcription were found for JrWRKY2 and JrWRKY7 under NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stresses, as well as at different developmental stages, e.g., the pistil or terminal leaf. JrWRKY2 and JrWRKY7 were transiently overexpressed in an independent manner in the terminal leaf. Analyses of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, and electrolyte leakage rate showed that JrWRKY2 and JrWRKY7 overexpression improved plant tolerance to NaCl, PEG, abscisic acid, and cold stress. Additionally, JrWRKY2 and JrWRKY7 overexpression elevated transcription of SOD, POD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and MYB genes, but downregulated the expression of NAC. Overall, the results demonstrate that JrWRKY2 and JrWRKY7 are dimeric proteins that can form functional homodimers and interact with each other and that they are involved in abiotic stress responses.

  7. Antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes and phenolics of different solvent extracts from leaves, flowers and bark of Gold Mohar [Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf].

    PubMed

    Shabir, Ghulam; Anwar, Farooq; Sultana, Bushra; Khalid, Zafar M; Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Qaiser M; Ashrafuzzaman, M

    2011-08-25

    This paper describes the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic components of different solvent (absolute methanol, absolute ethanol, absolute acetone, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone and deionized water) extracts of leaves, flowers and bark of Gold Mohar [Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf.]. The extract yields from leaves, flowers and bark ranged from 10.19 to 36.24, 12.97 to 48.47 and 4.22 to 8.48 g/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively. Overall, 80% methanol extract produced from the leaves exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) higher antioxidant activity, with high phenolic contents (3.63 g GAE/100 g DW), total flavonoid contents (1.19 g CE/100 g DW), inhibition of peroxidation (85.54%), DPPH scavenging capacity (IC(50) value 8.89 μg/mL) and reducing power (1.87). Similarly, this 80% methanol leaves extract also showed superior antimicrobial activity. HPLC analysis of the 80% methanol extracts for individual phenolics revealed the presence of gallic, protocatechuic and salicylic acid in leaves; gallic, protocatechuic, salicylic, trans-cinnamic and chlorogenic acid in flowers, and gallic acid in bark as the main (amount > 1.50 mg/100 g DW) phenolic acids. Besides, small amounts ( < 1.50 mg/100 g DW) of some other phenolic acids such as sorbic, sinapic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, 3-hydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxycinnamic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were also detected. The extracts of the tested parts of Gold Mohar, especially, the leaves, might be valuable for functional food and therapeutic applications.

  8. Competition for water between walnut seedlings (Juglans regia) and rye grass (Lolium perenne) assessed by carbon isotope discrimination and delta18O enrichment.

    PubMed

    Picon-Cochard, C; Nsourou-Obame, A; Collet, C; Guehl, J M; Ferhi, A

    2001-02-01

    Container-grown walnut seedlings (Juglans regia L.) were subjected to competition with rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) and to a 2-week soil drying cycle. One and 2 weeks after the beginning of the drought treatment, H2 18O (delta approximately equals +100%) was added to the bottom layer of soil in the plant containers to create a vertical H2 18O gradient. Rye grass competition reduced aboveground and belowground biomass of the walnut seedlings by 60%, whereas drought had no effect. The presence of rye grass reduced the dry weight of walnut roots in the upper soil layer and caused a 50% reduction in lateral root length. Rye grass competition combined with the drought treatment reduced walnut leaf CO2 assimilation rate (A) and leaf conductance (gw) by 20 and 39%, respectively. Transpiration rates in rye grass, both at the leaf level and at the plant or tiller level, were higher than in walnut seedlings. Leaf intrinsic water-use efficiency (A/gw) of walnut seedlings increased in response to drought and no differences were observed between the single-species and mixed-species treatments, as confirmed by leaf carbon isotope discrimination measurements. Measurement of delta18O in soil and in plant xylem sap indicated that the presence of rye grass did not affect the vertical profile of soil water uptake by walnut seedlings. Walnut seedlings and rye grass withdrew water from the top and middle soil layers in well-watered conditions, whereas during the drought treatment, walnut seedlings obtained water from all soil layers, but rye grass took up water from the bottom soil layer only.

  9. Characterization of a vacuolar H(+)-ATPase G subunit gene from Juglans regia (JrVHAG1) involved in mannitol-induced osmotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenggang; Zhao, Yunlin; Ge, Yu; Peng, Jiao; Dong, Meng; Yang, Guiyan

    2017-03-01

    JrVHAG1 is an important candidate gene for plant osmotic tolerance regulation. Vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) is important for plant responses to abiotic stress; the G subunit is a vital part of V-ATPase. In this study, a G subunit of V-ATPase was cloned from Juglans regia (JrVHAG1) and functionally characterized. JrVHAG1 transcription was induced by mannitol that increasing 17.88-fold in the root at 12 h and 19.16-fold in the leaf at 96 h compared to that under control conditions. JrVHAG1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis and three lines (G2, G6, and G9) with highest expression levels were selected for analysis. The results showed that under normal conditions, the transgenic and wild-type (WT) plants displayed similar germination, biomass accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, and physiological index. However, when treated with mannitol, the fresh weight, root length, water-holding ability, and V-ATPase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activity of G2, G6, and G9 were significantly higher than those of WT. In contrast, the ROS and cell damage levels of the transgenic seedlings were lower than those of WT. Furthermore, the transcription levels of V-ATPase subunits, ABF, DREB, and NAC transcription factors (TFs), all of which are factors of ABA signaling pathway, were much higher in JrVHAG1 transgenic plants than those in WT. The positive induction of JrVHAG1 gene under abscisic acid (ABA) treatments in root and leaf tissues indicates that overexpression of JrVHAG1 improves plant tolerance to osmotic stress relating to the ABA signaling pathway, which is transcriptionally activated by ABF, DREB, and NAC TFs, and correlated to ROS scavenging and V-ATPase activity.

  10. Population Differentiation in Common Walnut (Juglans regia L.) across Major Parts of Its Native Range-Insights from Molecular and Morphometric Data.

    PubMed

    Roor, Wladimir; Konrad, Heino; Mamadjanov, Davletbek; Geburek, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Juglans regia is an economically highly important species for fruit and wood production in the warm temperate and subtropical zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Besides the natural influence of climatic and geomorphological barriers, its genetic structure has been strongly modified by humans and the population history is still unclear. For this reason, we investigated mainly natural walnut populations across the Eurasian continent on a molecular (44 populations, 581 trees) and morphometric level (23 populations, 1391 ripe nuts). Population genetic diversity and differentiation were examined by using 7 microsatellite loci. Morphometric characteristics of the nuts (mainly roundness index and nut density) were used to estimate trait variation and population differentiation. Highest allelic richness Rs12 = 7.05 was observed in a Pakistani and the lowest value Rs12 = 3.04 in a Kyrgyz population. The genetic differentiation among populations was high (FST = 0.217; RST = 0.530) indicating a strong phylogeographic pattern. While variation of the roundness index within single populations was high, this trait neither differentiated geographical regions nor was it associated to genetic clusters. Approximated QST based on this trait equalled FST, while approximated QST based on nut density considerably exceeded FST, indicating selection. Nut density was moderately correlated with altitude, latitude, and longitude, and differentiated populations according to their origin. Pakistani and Indian populations showed highest nut densities. These South Asian populations contain putatively ancestral nut forms, which probably have been lost in other populations as a consequence of human selection. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Spring bud growth depends on sugar delivery by xylem and water recirculation by phloem Münch flow in Juglans regia.

    PubMed

    Tixier, Aude; Sperling, Or; Orozco, Jessica; Lampinen, Bruce; Amico Roxas, Adele; Saa, Sebastian; Earles, J Mason; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2017-05-09

    During spring, bud growth relies on long-distance transport of remotely stored carbohydrates. A new hypothesis suggests this transport is achieved by the interplay of xylem and phloem. During the spring, carbohydrate demand of developing buds often exceeds locally available storage, thus requiring the translocation of sugars from distant locations like limbs, stems and roots. Both the phloem and xylem have the capacity for such long-distance transport, but their functional contribution is unclear. To address this ambiguity, the spatial and temporal dynamics of carbohydrate availability in extension shoots of Juglans regia L. were analyzed. A significant loss of extension shoot carbohydrates in remote locations was observed while carbohydrate availability near the buds remained unaffected. This pattern of depletion of carbohydrate reserves supports the notion of long-distance translocation. Girdling and dye perfusion experiments were performed to assess the role of phloem and xylem in the transport of carbohydrate and water towards the buds. Girdling caused a decrease in non-structural carbohydrate concentration above the point of girdling and an unexpected concurrent increase in water content associated with impeded xylem transport. Based on experimental observations and modeling, we propose a novel mechanism for maintenance of spring carbohydrate translocation in trees where xylem transports carbohydrates and this transport is maintained with the recirculation of water by phloem Münch flow. Phloem Münch flow acts as a pump for generating water flux in xylem and allows for transport and mobilization of sugars from distal locations prior to leaves photosynthetic independence and in the absence of transpiration.

  12. Construction and evaluation of a modular biofilm-forming chamber for microbial recovery of neodymium and semi-continuous biofilm preparation. Tolerance of Serratia sp.N14 on acidic conditions and neutralized aqua regia.

    PubMed

    Vavlekas, Dimitrios A

    2017-02-01

    Recovery of neodymium from liquid metallic wastes and scrap leachates is a crucial step for its recycling, which can take place through the immobilized biofilms of Serratia sp. N14. These biofilms are produced in a fermentor vessel with a turnaround time of 10-14 days, which is unacceptable from an economic point of view for an industrial process. This study proposes the construction and evaluation of a modular system, whereby a biofilm-forming chamber is inserted into the continuous biomass outflow of the main chemostat vessel, for an alternative semi-continuous and economic production of biofilm. The activity of the biofilm from the outflow chamber was found to be the same as the one from the main chamber, which was stored in a cold room (4°C), for 9-12 months, depending on a 24 h nucleation step.Moreover, the ability of the biofilm to function in the presence of a leaching agent (aqua regia) or in acidic conditions was also evaluated. The biofilm of the main chamber can remain active even at 50% neutralized aqua regia (pH 3.0), while at acidic conditions, phosphate release of the cells is reduced to 50%. This strain proves to be very tolerant in low pH or high salt concentration solutions. The biofilm produced from the outflow of the main fermentor vessel is of acceptable activity, rather than being disposed.

  13. Palladium-citric acid-ammonium fluoride as a matrix modifier for overcoming of interferences occurring during the direct determination of Sn in aqua regia extracts from environmental samples by D2-ETAAS.

    PubMed

    Husáková, Lenka; Srámková, Jitka; Cernohorský, Tomás; Urbanová-Dolezalová, Iva

    2009-02-15

    When tin is to be determined in such a complex matrix like aqua regia extracts of environmental samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), spectral interferences occur when deuterium-lamp (D(2)) background correction is used, even using high pyrolysis temperature of 1400 degrees C achieved with palladium with citric acid chemical modifier. We have found that the further addition of NH(4)F to palladium with citric acid chemical modifier is essential for overcoming the above-mentioned problems for which aluminium oxide is most probably responsible. It is supposed, that NH(4)F enables volatilization of the alumina matrix formed by hydrolysis from the chloride salt and interfering in a gas phase via the formation of AlF(3) which could be, in contrast to aluminium oxide, removed from the graphite furnace during the pyrolysis stage. Using the proposed chemical modifier, the direct and accurate determination of Sn in aqua regia extracts from rocks, soils and sediments is possible even when using matrix free standard solutions. This presumption was confirmed by the analysis of certified reference samples and by the comparison with inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (ICP-TOFMS) method. Characteristic mass and LOD value for the original sample (10-microL aliquots of sample) was 17 pg and 0.055 microg g(-1), respectively.

  14. [Effects of inoculating plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on the biological characteristics of walnut (Juglans regia) rhizosphere soil under drought condition].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang-Chun; Xing, Shang-Jun; Ma, Hai-Lin; Du, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Bing-Yao

    2014-05-01

    Effects of four plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) , namely Pseudomonas sp. YT3, Bacillus subtilis DZ1, B. cereus L90 and B. fusiformis L13 on the biological characteristics of walnut (Juglans regia) rhizosphere soil under drought stress were investigated. Results showed that drought stress had little effect on available nutrients of walnut rhizosphere soil, but significantly decreased the activity of organic carbon by 18.4% and increased the pH from 7.34 to 7.79. Under drought stress condition, the inoculation of Bacillus cereus L90 significantly increased high-labile organic carbon in walnut rhizosphere by 14.5% relative to the un-inoculated control, and decreased the pH to 7.41. Compared with the irrigated control, the total microbial populations, root exudates, microbial biomass carbon, and microbial biomass nitrogen in walnut rhizosphere soil were significantly decreased by 36.0%, 20.7%, 33.5% and 30.7%, respectively, because of drought stress. However, L90 inoculation decreased these deficits to 14.1%, 10.3%, 12.1% and 12.7%, respectively. Some terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) disappeared under the drought condition and PGPR inoculation had great influence on T-RFs according to Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism profiles. The Margalef index and the Shannon index of walnut rhizosphere soil significantly decreased, but the Simpson index increased relative to the irrigated control. Compared with the un-inoculated control, the Margalef index significantly increased from 0.42 to 0.99, as well as the Shannon index increased from 0.52 to 0.98. However, the Simpson index de- creased from 0.60 to 0.39. Inoculating YT3, DZ1 and L13 had weaker effects on the biological characteristics of walnut rhizosphere soil compared to inoculating L90, suggesting L90 inoculation could interfere with the suppression of drought stress to the biological characteristics of walnut rhizosphere soil.

  15. Co-administration of walnut (Juglans regia) prevents systemic hypertension induced by long-term use of dexamethasone: a promising strategy for steroid consumers.

    PubMed

    Joukar, Siyavash; Ebrahimi, Sahar; Khazaei, Majid; Bashiri, Alireza; Shakibi, Mohammad Reza; Naderi, Vida; Shahouzehi, Beydolah; Alasvand, Masoud

    2017-12-01

    The long-term consumption of glucocorticoids (GCs) may induce serious adverse effects such as hypertension. There is sufficient evidence related to the benefit of walnuts on the cardiovascular system. This study assesses the effect of methanol extract of walnut [Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae)] on dexamethasone-induced hypertension and the possible mechanisms in Wistar rats. Animals were randomized into control, kernel extract (100 and 200 mg/kg/d, orally), dexamethasone (0.03 mg/kg/d, subcutaneously), dexamethasone + kernel (100 and 200 mg/kg/d, separately), and dexamethasone + captopril (25 mg/kg/d, orally) groups. Animals were treated with water, kernel extract or captopril by gavage 4 d before and during 11 d of saline or dexamethasone treatment. On the 16th day, blood pressure (BP) was recorded and blood samples were collected to measure nitric oxide (NO). Animal hearts were frozen for measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Dexamethasone increased the diastolic BP and MDA/GPX ratio in comparison with control group (128 ± 7 vs. 105 ± 3 mmHg, p < 0.05 and 0.2 ± 0.046 vs. 0.08 ± 0.02, p < 0.05). Combination of dexamethasone and walnut (200 mg/kg) prevented the dexamethasone-induced diastolic hypertension (109 ± 3 vs. 128 ± 7 mmHg; p < 0.05), increased the GPX level (14.8 ± 1.46 vs. 5.1 ± 0.64 unit/mg, p < 0.05), reduced the MDA/GPX ratio (0.16 ± 0.015 vs. 0.2 ± 0.046) and improved serum NO level. Similar to captopril, walnut extract normalized dexamethasone-induced hypertension. A part of this beneficial effect apparently involves maintaining balance of the redox system and NO production.

  16. In vitro effect of D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of the cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia), on prostate steroid 5α-reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Pérez, L Yohani; Menéndez, Roberto; Má, Rosa; González, Rosa M

    2006-11-01

    D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia), has been found to reduce prostatic hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone (T), but not PH induced with dihydrotestosterone (DHT), in rodents, suggesting the inhibition of prostate 5α-reductase activity. The aims of this study were to assess whether D-004 inhibits prostate 5α-reductase activity in vitro and to examine the effects of D-004 on enzyme kinetics. This experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Center of Natural Products, National Center for Scientific Research, Havana, Cuba. Soluble rat prostate preparations were used as the source of 5α-reductase, and ((3)H)-DHT production was measured to determine prostate 5α-reductase activity. Cell-free rat prostate homogenates were pre-incubated with carboxymethyl cellulose 2% alone (control tubes) or D-004 (0.24-125 μg/mL) suspended in the vehicle (treated tubes) for 10 minutes prior to adding the labeled substrate ((3)H)-T Once the reaction was stopped, sterols were extracted with chloroform and aliquots were applied on silica gel plates developed in benzene-acetone (4:1, v/v). Areas containing DHT were scraped and radioactivity was counted. The median inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined by measuring the conversion of T to DHT The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and Vmax values before and after adding D-004 were determined in kinetic studies using labeled T (0.5-25 μmol/L). Compared with controls, D-004 significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the enzymatic reaction at doses of 1.95 to 125.0 μg/mL) (all, P < 0.05). The IC50 of D-004 required to inhibit 5a-reductase activity was 2.25 μg/mL. Enzyme inhibition was noncompetitive, since D-004 lowered the Vmax from 15.3 to 10.0 nmol DHT/min · mg(-1) protein, while the Km (4.54 μmol/L) was almost unaffected. D-004 dose-dependently and noncompetitively inhibited in vitro 5α-reductase activity in soluble fractions of rat prostate

  17. In vitro effect of D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of the cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia), on prostate steroid 5α-reductase activity

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, L. Yohani; Menéndez, Roberto; Má, Rosa; González, Rosa M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia), has been found to reduce prostatic hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone (T), but not PH induced with dihydrotestosterone (DHT), in rodents, suggesting the inhibition of prostate 5α-reductase activity. Objectives: The aims of this study were to assess whether D-004 inhibits prostate 5α-reductase activity in vitro and to examine the effects of D-004 on enzyme kinetics. Methods: This experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Center of Natural Products, National Center for Scientific Research, Havana, Cuba. Soluble rat prostate preparations were used as the source of 5α-reductase, and (3H)-DHT production was measured to determine prostate 5α-reductase activity. Cell-free rat prostate homogenates were pre-incubated with carboxymethyl cellulose 2% alone (control tubes) or D-004 (0.24–125 μg/mL) suspended in the vehicle (treated tubes) for 10 minutes prior to adding the labeled substrate (3H)-T Once the reaction was stopped, sterols were extracted with chloroform and aliquots were applied on silica gel plates developed in benzene-acetone (4:1, v/v). Areas containing DHT were scraped and radioactivity was counted. The median inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined by measuring the conversion of T to DHT The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and Vmax values before and after adding D-004 were determined in kinetic studies using labeled T (0.5-25 μmol/L). Results: Compared with controls, D-004 significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the enzymatic reaction at doses of 1.95 to 125.0 μg/mL) (all, P < 0.05). The IC50 of D-004 required to inhibit 5a-reductase activity was 2.25 μg/mL. Enzyme inhibition was noncompetitive, since D-004 lowered the Vmax from 15.3 to 10.0 nmol DHT/min · mg−1 protein, while the Km (4.54 μmol/L) was almost unaffected. Conclusions: D-004 dose-dependently and noncompetitively inhibited in vitro 5

  18. Simultaneous determination of three diarylheptanoids and an alpha-tetralone derivative in the green walnut husks (Juglans regia L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junxi; Meng, Min; Li, Chen; Huang, Xinyi; Di, Duolong

    2008-05-09

    By optimizing extraction, separation and analytical conditions, a reliable and accurate high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method coupled with photodiode array detector (DAD) at room temperature is developed for simultaneous determination of three diarylheptanoids (juglanin A, juglanin B, rhoiptelol) and an alpha-tetralone derivative (regiolone) in methanol extracts from the green walnut husks (Juglans regia L.) The sample pretreatment process involved the reflux extraction using methanol as the extract with a ratio of liquor to sample of 15 mL/g. The separation was achieved on a SinoChrom ODS-AP C(18) column with gradient elution using acetonitrile and 2% (v/v) acetic acid in water. The intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD%) for the analytes ranged from 1.08 to 1.51 and 0.60 to 1.13, respectively. The average recoveries obtained were from 88.4% to 96.2% for the analytes with RSDs below 3.13%. The correlation coefficients of the calibration curve exceeded 0.999. The detection limits were 0.51, 0.25, 0.32 and 0.35 ng at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, respectively. Quantitative analyses of the samples from different grown sites and in obtained different months showed that the contents of the analytes varied significantly. The method was then successfully applied for the detection and isolation of a new diarylheptanoid derivative in the green walnut husks (J. regia L.). The structure of the new compound was elucidated by various spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques (COSY, HMQC, HMBC), HR-ESI-MS and X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis.

  19. Interference-free determination of thallium in aqua regia leaches from rocks, soils and sediments by D(2)-ETAAS method using mixed palladium-citric acid-lithium chemical modifier.

    PubMed

    Husáková, Lenka; Cernohorský, Tomás; Srámková, Jitka; Hubácková, Katerina; Dolezalová, Iva

    2008-04-28

    The mixture of palladium (chloride) with citric acid and lithium is proposed as a new chemical modifier for the elimination of interference occurred during the determination of Tl in aqua regia extracts from rocks, soils and sediments by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using instrumentation with deuterium-lamp background correction (D(2)-ETAAS). Palladium was preferred to rhodium and platinum as to analyte stabilization, citric acid served as an effective reducing agent facilitating formation of Pd-Tl stable covalent bonds playing an important role in the analyte stabilization. Citric acid in addition helps to remove most of interfering chloride at low temperature. The further addition of Li increased significantly the robustness of chemical modifier against strongly interfering ZnCl2 matrix by binding free chlorine into a more stable LiCl molecule. In the presence of the proposed chemical modifier the temperature for the final step of pyrolysis was adjustable up to 1000 degrees C, without any noticeable loss of volatile Tl species and the interference of the rest chloride matrix was significantly reduced. The application of the modifier to direct determination of Tl in aqua regia extracts from rocks, soils and sediments has ensured the characteristic mass and LOD value for the original sample 13 pg and 0.043 microg g(-1), respectively (10-microL aliquots of sample) and has enabled the use of matrix-free standard solutions for attaining accurate analysis. The accuracy was verified by the analysis of certified reference samples and by the comparison of results with those found by an inductively coupled plasma orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ICP-oa-TOFMS) method.

  20. Walnut extract (Juglans regia L.) and its component ellagic acid exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in human aorta endothelial cells and osteoblastic activity in the cell line KS483.

    PubMed

    Papoutsi, Z; Kassi, E; Chinou, I; Halabalaki, M; Skaltsounis, L A; Moutsatsou, P

    2008-04-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that the incidence of CVD and postmenopausal osteoporosis is low in the Mediterranean area, where herbs and nuts, among others, play an important role in nutrition. In the present study, we sought a role of walnuts (Juglans regia L.) in endothelial and bone-cell function. As the endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules has been recognised as an early step in inflammation and atherogenesis, we examined the effect of walnut methanolic extract and ellagic acid, one of its major polyphenolic components (as shown by HPLC analysis), on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in human aortic endothelial cells. After incubating the cells with TNF-alpha (1 ng/ml) in the absence and in the presence of walnut extract (10-200 microg/ml) or ellagic acid (10- 7-10- 5 m), the VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression was quantified by cell-ELISA. We further evaluated the effect of walnut extract (10-50 microg/ml), in comparison with ellagic acid (10- 9-10- 6m), on nodule formation in the osteoblastic cell line KS483. Walnut extract and ellagic acid decreased significantly the TNF-alpha-induced endothelial expression of both VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 (P < 0.01; P < 0.001). Both walnut extract (at 10-25 microg/ml) and ellagic acid (at 10- 9-10- 8 m) induced nodule formation in KS483 osteoblasts. The present results suggest that the walnut extract has a high anti-atherogenic potential and a remarkable osteoblastic activity, an effect mediated, at least in part, by its major component ellagic acid. Such findings implicate the beneficial effect of a walnut-enriched diet on cardioprotection and bone loss.

  1. Effects of D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) or the lipidosterolic extract of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) on the sexual activity in male rats: A controlled, experimental study.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Lilia C; Mas, Rosa; Fernández, Julio; Mendoza, Sarahí; Gámez, Rafael; Pardo, Balia

    2008-02-01

    The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is not completely understood, but hormonal changes in aging men seem to be pivotal. Dihydrotestosterone, a potent, active metabolite of testosterone, is formed by the enzymatic action of prostate 5α-reductase and causes cell growth and hyperplasia. Consistent with this action, male sexual dysfunction has been clinically documented to be among the drug-related adverse events associated with 5α-reductase inhibitors. The lipidosterolic extract of saw palmetto (LESP) fruit (Serenoa repens) has been used to treat BPH. D-004, a lipid extract of Roystonea regia Royal palm fruit, has been found to prevent prostatic hyperplasia induced by testoste-rone in rodents and to competitively inhibit prostate 5α-reductase activity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of D-004 and LESP, administered as single or repeated doses, on the sexual activity in male rats. This controlled, experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Centre of Natural Products, National Centre for Scientific Research, Havana City, Cuba. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 300 g were randomized into 5 groups: 2 groups treated orally with D-004 (400 and 800 mg/kg); 2 groups treated orally with LESP (400 and 800 mg/kg); and 1 control group orally administered a water vehicle. Sexual activity behavior (the number of mounts and intromissions, mount latency, and intromission latency) was assessed during 2 observation periods: 90 minutes after the initial dose and at the end of the 30-day treatment. Latency was defined as time elapsed between the first mount and intromission. A total of 50 rats (mean [SD] age, 10 [3] weeks; mean [SD] weight, 295 [10] g) were included in the experiment. There were no significant difterences in the mean number of mounts, intromissions, mount latency, or intromission latency in the groups treated with single or repeated doses of D-004 or LESP (400 and 800 mg/kg) compared with the

  2. Effects of D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) or the lipidosterolic extract of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) on the sexual activity in male rats: A controlled, experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Lilia C.; Mas, Rosa; Fernández, Julio; Mendoza, Sarahí; Gámez, Rafael; Pardo, Balia

    2008-01-01

    Background: The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is not completely understood, but hormonal changes in aging men seem to be pivotal. Dihydrotestosterone, a potent, active metabolite of testosterone, is formed by the enzymatic action of prostate 5α-reductase and causes cell growth and hyperplasia. Consistent with this action, male sexual dysfunction has been clinically documented to be among the drug-related adverse events associated with 5α-reductase inhibitors. The lipidosterolic extract of saw palmetto (LESP) fruit (Serenoa repens) has been used to treat BPH. D-004, a lipid extract of Roystonea regia Royal palm fruit, has been found to prevent prostatic hyperplasia induced by testoste-rone in rodents and to competitively inhibit prostate 5α-reductase activity in vitro. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of D-004 and LESP, administered as single or repeated doses, on the sexual activity in male rats. Methods: This controlled, experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Centre of Natural Products, National Centre for Scientific Research, Havana City, Cuba. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 300 g were randomized into 5 groups: 2 groups treated orally with D-004 (400 and 800 mg/kg); 2 groups treated orally with LESP (400 and 800 mg/kg); and 1 control group orally administered a water vehicle. Sexual activity behavior (the number of mounts and intromissions, mount latency, and intromission latency) was assessed during 2 observation periods: 90 minutes after the initial dose and at the end of the 30-day treatment. Latency was defined as time elapsed between the first mount and intromission. Results: A total of 50 rats (mean [SD] age, 10 [3] weeks; mean [SD] weight, 295 [10] g) were included in the experiment. There were no significant difterences in the mean number of mounts, intromissions, mount latency, or intromission latency in the groups treated with single or repeated doses of D-004 or LESP

  3. Specification Reformulation During Specification Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Kevin M.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the ARIES Simulation Component (ASC) is to uncover behavioral errors by 'running' a specification at the earliest possible points during the specification development process. The problems to be overcome are the obvious ones the specification may be large, incomplete, underconstrained, and/or uncompilable. This paper describes how specification reformulation is used to mitigate these problems. ASC begins by decomposing validation into specific validation questions. Next, the specification is reformulated to abstract out all those features unrelated to the identified validation question thus creating a new specialized specification. ASC relies on a precise statement of the validation question and a careful application of transformations so as to preserve the essential specification semantics in the resulting specialized specification. This technique is a win if the resulting specialized specification is small enough so the user my easily handle any remaining obstacles to execution. This paper will: (1) describe what a validation question is; (2) outline analysis techniques for identifying what concepts are and are not relevant to a validation question; and (3) identify and apply transformations which remove these less relevant concepts while preserving those which are relevant.

  4. Military specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Philip

    1987-01-01

    The current situation relative to the military specification is that there is not one specific model of turbulence which people are using. Particular disagreement exists on how turbulence levels will vary with qualitative analysis. It does not tie one down to specifics. When it comes to flying quality specifications, many feel that one should stay with the definitions of the Cooper-Harper rating scale but allow the levels to shift depending on the level of turbulence. There is a ride quality specification in the MIL-SPEC having to do with flight control systems design that is related to a turbulence model. This spec (MIL-F8785C) and others are discussed.

  5. The Structure of a Plant Tyrosinase from Walnut Leaves Reveals the Importance of “Substrate-Guiding Residues” for Enzymatic Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Bijelic, Aleksandar; Pretzler, Matthias; Molitor, Christian; Zekiri, Florime; Rompel, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosinases and catechol oxidases are members of the class of type III copper enzymes. While tyrosinases accept both mono- and o-diphenols as substrates, only the latter substrate is converted by catechol oxidases. Researchers have been working for decades to elucidate the monophenolase/diphenolase specificity on a structural level and have introduced an early hypothesis that states that the reason for the lack of monophenolase activity in catechol oxidases may be its structurally restricted active site. However, recent structural and biochemical studies of this enzyme class have raised doubts about this theory. Herein, the first crystal structure of a plant tyrosinase (from Juglans regia) is presented. The structure reveals that the distinction between mono- and diphenolase activity does not depend on the degree of restriction of the active site, and thus a more important role for amino acid residues located at the entrance to and in the second shell of the active site is proposed. PMID:26473311

  6. Building Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The building in the top photo is the new home of the National Permanent Savings Bank in Washington, D.C., designed by Hartman-Cox Architects. Its construction was based on a money-saving method of preparing building specifications which derived from NASA technology developed to obtain quality construction while holding down cost of launch facilities, test centers and other structures. Written technical specifications spell out materials and components to be used on construction projects and identify the quality tests each item must pass. Specifications can have major impact on construction costs. Poorly formulated specifications can lead to unacceptable construction which must be replaced, unnecessarily high materials costs, safety hazards, disputes and often additional costs due to delays and litigation. NASA's Langley Research Center developed a novel approach to providing accurate, uniform, cost-effective specifications which can be readily updated to incorporate new building technologies. Called SPECSINTACT, it is a computerized - system accessible to all NASA centers involved in construction programs. The system contains a comprehensive catalog of master specifications applicable to many types of construction. It enables designers of any structure to call out relevant sections from computer storage and modify them to fit the needs of the project at hand. Architects and engineers can save time by concentrating their efforts on needed modifications rather than developing all specifications from scratch. Successful use of SPECSINTACT has led to a number of spinoff systems. One of the first was MASTERSPEC, developed from NASA's experience by Production Systems for Architects and Engineers, Inc., an organization established by the American Institute of Architects. MASTERSPEC, used in construction of the bank building pictured, follows the same basic format as SPECSINTACT and can be used in either automated or manual modes. The striking appearance of the bank

  7. Specifying Specification.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    This paper tackles the accusation that applied ethics is no serious academic enterprise because it lacks theoretical bracing. It does so in two steps. In the first step I introduce and discuss a highly acclaimed method to guarantee stability in ethical theories: Henry Richardson's specification. The discussion shows how seriously ethicists take the stability of the connection between the foundational parts of their theories and their further development as well as their "application" to particular problems or cases. A detailed scrutiny of specification leads to the second step, where I use insights from legal theory to inform the debate around stability from that point of view. This view reveals some of specification's limitations. I suggest that, once specification is sufficiently specified, it appears astonishingly similar to deduction as used in legal theory. Legal theory also provides valuable insight into the functional range of deduction and its relation to other forms of reasoning. This leads to a richer understanding of stability in normative theories and to a smart division of labor between deduction and other forms of reasoning. The comparison to legal theory thereby provides a framework for how different methods such as specification, deduction, balancing, and analogy relate to one another.

  8. Specific Suspicion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses a recent case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court which highlights the importance of having specific suspicions of misbehavior before conducting a strip search. The case involves an eighth-grade female student who was being strip-searched by a middle school assistant principal, a school nurse, and an administrative assistant…

  9. Specific Suspicion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses a recent case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court which highlights the importance of having specific suspicions of misbehavior before conducting a strip search. The case involves an eighth-grade female student who was being strip-searched by a middle school assistant principal, a school nurse, and an administrative assistant…

  10. Plasma levels, tissue distribution, and excretion of radioactivity after single-dose administration of ((3)H)-oleic acid added to D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of Roystonea regia, in rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez, L Yohani; Menéndez, Roberto; Más, Rosa; González, Rosa M

    2006-11-01

    D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of Roystonea regia, contains a mixture of fatty acids-mainly oleic, lauric, palmitic, and myristic acids, with oleic acid being among the most abundant-that has been found to reduce the risk for prostatic hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone (T) in rats. The pharmacokinetic profile of D-004 has not been reported. The objective of this study in rats was to assess plasma levels, tissue distribution, and excretion of total radioactivity (TR) after single-dose administration of oral D-004 radiolabeled with ((3)H)-oleic acid, as a surrogate for the pharmacokinetics of D-004. This experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Center of Natural Products, National Center for Scientific Research, Havana, Cuba. Single doses of suspensions of ((3)H)-oleic acid 0.16 μCi/mg mixed with D-004 400 mg/kg (radioactive dose/animal 7.2 μCi) were given orally to male Wistar rats weighing 150 to 200 g assigned to the treated or control group. Three rats were euthanized at each of the following times: 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 144 hours after study drug administration. After administration, the rats euthanized at the last experimental time point were housed individually in metabolism cages. Urine and feces samples were collected daily. At each time point, blood samples were drawn and plasma samples were obtained using centrifugation. After euthanization, tissue samples (liver, lungs, spleen, brain, kidneys, adipose tissue, muscle, stomach, small and large intestines, adrenal glands, heart, testes, prostate, and seminal vesicles) were quickly removed, washed, blotted, and homogenized. Plasma (100 μL), tissue aliquots (100 mg), feces (10 mg), and urine (100μL) were dissolved and TR was measured. Samples were assayed in duplicate. Results were expressed in μgEq of radio-labeled oleic acid per milliliter of plasma or urine or gram of tissue or feces. Plasma, tissue, feces, and urine samples of rats that

  11. Plasma levels, tissue distribution, and excretion of radioactivity after single-dose administration of (3H)-oleic acid added to D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of Roystonea regia, in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, L. Yohani; Menéndez, Roberto; Más, Rosa; González, Rosa M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of Roystonea regia, contains a mixture of fatty acids—mainly oleic, lauric, palmitic, and myristic acids, with oleic acid being among the most abundant—that has been found to reduce the risk for prostatic hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone (T) in rats. The pharmacokinetic profile of D-004 has not been reported. Objective: The objective of this study in rats was to assess plasma levels, tissue distribution, and excretion of total radioactivity (TR) after single-dose administration of oral D-004 radiolabeled with (3H)-oleic acid, as a surrogate for the pharmacokinetics of D-004. Methods: This experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Center of Natural Products, National Center for Scientific Research, Havana, Cuba. Single doses of suspensions of (3H)-oleic acid 0.16 μCi/mg mixed with D-004 400 mg/kg (radioactive dose/animal 7.2 μCi) were given orally to male Wistar rats weighing 150 to 200 g assigned to the treated or control group. Three rats were euthanized at each of the following times: 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 144 hours after study drug administration. After administration, the rats euthanized at the last experimental time point were housed individually in metabolism cages. Urine and feces samples were collected daily. At each time point, blood samples were drawn and plasma samples were obtained using centrifugation. After euthanization, tissue samples (liver, lungs, spleen, brain, kidneys, adipose tissue, muscle, stomach, small and large intestines, adrenal glands, heart, testes, prostate, and seminal vesicles) were quickly removed, washed, blotted, and homogenized. Plasma (100 μL), tissue aliquots (100 mg), feces (10 mg), and urine (100μL) were dissolved and TR was measured. Samples were assayed in duplicate. Results were expressed in μgEq of radio-labeled oleic acid per milliliter of plasma or urine or gram of tissue or feces. Plasma, tissue, feces

  12. Specific phobias.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Alfons O

    2009-09-01

    Exposure based treatments in which patients are systematically confronted with their feared objects of situations are highly effective in the treatment of specific phobias and produce stable improvement both in reported fear and behavioral avoidance. Exposure in reality is more effective in most cases than exposure in sensu. For situations that are difficult to realize, exposure in virtual environments has become increasingly valuable. Exposure in vivo is clearly superior to pharmacotherapy, although cognitive enhancers have been successfully used recently to increase the effect of exposure therapy. The induction of relaxation is not a necessary precondition for exposure therapy. Rather the current mechanisms of change focus on extinction learning as being the central mechanism both on a cognitive level namely that the feared object is no longer associated with severely threatening consequence but also on an affective level, meaning that feared cue is no longer capable to activate the fear circuit in the brain. Accordingly future diagnostic categorizations of phobic disorders in the DSM-V should rather focus on the pattern of the fear response that needs to be changed than on the eliciting cues or situations that are avoided.

  13. Intent Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1995-01-01

    We have been investigating the implications of using abstractions based on intent rather than the aggregation and information-hiding abstractions commonly used in software en- gineering: Cognitive psychologists have shown that intent abstraction is consistent with human problem-solving processes. We believe that new types of specifications and designs based on this concept can assist in understanding and specifying requirements, capturing the most important design rationale information in an efficient and economical way, and supporting the process of identifying and analyzing required changes to minimize the introduction of errors. The goal of hierarchical abstraction is to allow both top-down and bottom-up reasoning about a complex system. In computer science, we have made much use of (1) part-whole abstractions where each level of a hierarchy represents an aggregation of the components at a lower level and of (2) information-hiding abstractions where each level contains the same conceptual information but hides some details about the concepts, that is, each level is a refinement of the information at a higher level.

  14. A Specification Translation from Behavioral Specifications to Rewrite Specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masaki; Kong, Weiqiang; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Futatsugi, Kokichi

    There are two ways to describe a state machine as an algebraic specification: a behavioral specification and a rewrite specification. In this study, we propose a translation system from behavioral specifications to rewrite specifications to obtain a verification system which has the strong points of verification techniques for both specifications. Since our translation system is complete with respect to invariant properties, it helps us to obtain a counter-example for an invariant property through automatic exhaustive searching for a rewrite specification.

  15. Mining Specifications: A Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Andreas

    Recent advances in software validation and verification make it possible to widely automate whether a specification is satisfied. This progress is hampered, though, by the persistent difficulty of writing specifications. Are we facing a “specification crisis”? In this paper, I show how to alleviate the burden of writing specifications by reusing and extending specifications as mined from existing software and give an overview on the state of the art in specification mining, its origins, and its potential.

  16. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  17. Certification of methylmercury in cod fish tissue certified reference material by species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Kazumi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Yarita, Takashi; Takatsu, Akiko; Okamoto, Kensaku; Chiba, Koichi

    2008-07-01

    A new cod fish tissue certified reference material, NMIJ CRM 7402-a, for methylmercury analysis was certified by the National Metrological Institute of Japan in the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST). Cod fish was collected from the sea close to Japan. The cod muscle was powdered by freeze-pulverization and was placed into 600 glass bottles (10 g each), which were sterilized with gamma-ray irradiation. The certification was carried out using species-specific isotope dilution gas chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SSID-GC-ICPMS), where (202)Hg-enriched methylmercury (MeHg) was used as the spike compound. In order to avoid any possible analytical biases caused by nonquantitative extraction, degradation and/or formation of MeHg in sample preparations, two different extraction methods (KOH/methanol and HCl/methanol extractions) were performed, and one of these extraction methods utilized two different derivatization methods (ethylation and phenylation). A double ID method was adopted to minimize the uncertainty arising from the analyses. In order to ensure not only the reliability of the analytical results but also traceability to SI units, the standard solution of MeHg used for the reverse-ID was prepared from high-purity MeHg chloride and was carefully assayed as follows: the total mercury was determined by ID-ICPMS following aqua regia digestion, and the ratio of Hg as MeHg to the total Hg content was estimated by GC-ICPMS. The certified value given for MeHg is 0.58 +/- 0.02 mg kg(-1) as Hg.

  18. Platinum leaching from automotive catalytic converters with aqua regia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasani, M.; Khodadadi, A.; Koleini, S. M. J.; Saeedi, A. H.; Pérez-Pacheco, Y.; Meléndez, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Herein, kinetics extraction of platinum from spent auto catalysts, using nitric acid as an oxidant in hydrochloric acid solution, was investigated. The parameters such as temperature, hydrochloric and nitric acid concentrations, stirring speed, particle size and liquid/solid ratio, were analysed. The kinetic data were analysed using the shrinking core model. A variant of this model fits the kinetic data more appropriately. At a temperature of 90°C, the values of R2 in surface chemical reactions and diffusion were 0.819 and 0.937, respectively. With the alternative model, however, 0.991 was obtained. The activation energy for the dissolution was 35.75kJ/mol.

  19. Walnuts (Juglans regia) Chemical Composition and Research in Human Health.

    PubMed

    Hayes, David; Angove, Michael J; Tucci, Joe; Dennis, Christina

    2016-06-10

    Walnuts are among the most widely consumed commercially grown tree nuts in the world. Many health benefits have been claimed for the consumption of these, including reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, type II diabetes treatment, and prevention and treatment of certain cancers, and the lessening of symptoms attributed to age-related and other neurological disorders. The health-promoting benefits of walnut consumption are ascribed to its fatty acid profile, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids with a particularly high ω3:ω6 ratio-the highest among all the tree nuts. The content of polyphenols and other phytochemicals in walnuts, with their claimed cytotoxic properties, also make them an attractive candidate for research for the prevention of free radical-induced nucleic acid damage. Research of walnut consumption in humans and animals employing a range of data sets and statistical methods suggest that walnuts may be considered a safe potential nutraceutical or possibly pharmaceutical substance. Nevertheless, few reviews of scientific research on the proposed benefits of these nuts exist, in spite of the numerous claims attributed to them in the lay media. This brief review article attempts to disseminate much of the information surrounding walnut consumption, and human health benefits, to other scientists and the interested general reader.

  20. Specific heat revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizarro, C. A.; Condat, C. A.; Lamberti, P. W.; Prato, D. P.

    1996-06-01

    The correlation between potential shape and specific heat is generally absent from textbook discussions. We present a detailed analysis of the specific heat contribution due to independent particles subject to one-dimensional classical and quantum model potentials. For the classical models, we use phase space concepts to develop a clear physical interpretation of the temperature dependence of the specific heat. For the quantum models, we make the interpretation in terms of the differences in quantum levels.

  1. [Specific dermatoses of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Vera; Coutinho, Inês; Gameiro, Rita; Vieira, Ricardo; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    During pregnancy immunological, metabolic, hormonal and vascular changes occur, and can cause specific skin diseases. The specific dermatoses of pregnancy have undergone numerous changes in nomenclature and classification, partly due to advances in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of these skin diseases. Currently the following diseases are considered specific dermatoses of pregnancy: pemphigoid gestations, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and atopic eruption of pregnancy. Timely diagnosis and specific and safe treatment are essential to prevent complications which, although rare, may be associated with significant maternal-fetal comorbidity.

  2. Improved technical specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Improved technical specifications for nuclear power plants are outlined. The objectives of this work are to improve safety, provide a clearer understanding of safety significance, and ease NRC and industry administrative burdens. Line item improvements, bases, and implementation of the specifications are discussed.

  3. Prototype Facility Educational Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Div. of Professional-Technical Education, Boise.

    This document presents prototypical educational specifications to guide the building and renovation of Idaho vocational schools so they can help communities meet the advanced, professional-technical programs of the future. The specifications start with points to consider when determining school site suitability. The document then sets forth…

  4. Issues Specific to Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... War Specific to Women Types of Trauma War Terrorism Violence and Abuse Disasters Is it PTSD? Treatment ... Overview Types of Trauma Trauma Basics Disaster and Terrorism Military Trauma Violence & other Trauma Assessment Assessment Overview ...

  5. VOST charcoal specification study

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

    1995-07-01

    The volatile organic sampling train, SW-846 Method 0030, (VOST) is currently one of the leading methodology`s available for the sampling and analysis of volatile organic hazardous compounds from stationary sources at very low levels. The method does not identify a specific equivalent sorbent, nor the performance specifications which would allow determination of an equivalent. Lot 104 petroleum-based charcoal is no longer commercially available. Laboratories are presently using a wide range of substitutes with varying performance from batch to batch of charcoal. To provide performance specifications and identify a replacement for SKC Lot 104 charcoal, a VOST charcoal specification study was initiated. Performance, cost, ease of handling, and plentiful supply make Anasorb 747 a good choice for replacement of SKX Lot 104.

  6. Phobia - simple/specific

    MedlinePlus

    ... enable JavaScript. A phobia is an ongoing intense fear or anxiety of a certain object, animal, activity, ... panic attack when exposed to the object of fear. Specific phobias are a common mental disorder. Common ...

  7. Languages for Specific Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swales, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on languages for specific purposes, providing a brief historical perspective, examining it as a profession, discipline, or neither; its role in science and law; language for business purposes; and the position of English worldwide. (Author/VWL)

  8. TWRSview system requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  9. Harmonization of Biodiesel Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, T. L.

    2008-02-01

    Worldwide biodiesel production has grown dramatically over the last several years. Biodiesel standards vary across countries and regions, and there is a call for harmonization. For harmonization to become a reality, standards have to be adapted to cover all feedstocks. Additionally, all feedstocks cannot meet all specifications, so harmonization will require standards to either tighten or relax. For harmonization to succeed, the biodiesel market must be expanded with the alignment of test methods and specification limits, not contracted.

  10. Specificity Controls for Immunocytochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Holmseth, Silvia; Zhou, Yun; Follin-Arbelet, Virginie V.; Lehre, Knut Petter; Bergles, Dwight E.

    2012-01-01

    The biomedical research community relies directly or indirectly on immunocytochemical data. Unfortunately, validation of labeling specificity is difficult. A common specificity test is the preadsorption test. This test was intended for testing crude antisera but is now frequently used to validate monoclonal and affinity purified polyclonal antibodies. Here, the authors assess the power of this test. Nine affinity purified antibodies to different epitopes on 3 proteins (EAAT3, slc1a1; EAAT2, slc1a2; BGT1, slc6a12) were tested on samples (tissue sections and Western blots with or without fixation). The selected antibodies displayed some degree of cross-reactivity as defined by labeling of samples from knockout mice. The authors show that antigen preadsorption blocked all labeling of both wild-type and knockout samples, implying that preadsorption also blocked binding to cross-reactive epitopes. They show how this can give an illusion of specificity and illustrate sensitivity-specificity relationships, the importance of good negative controls, that fixation can create new epitopes, and that cross-reacting epitopes present in sections may not be present on Western blots and vice versa. In conclusion, they argue against uncritical use of the preadsorption test and, in doing so, address a number of other issues related to immunocytochemistry specificity testing. PMID:22215633

  11. Lidar base specification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heidemann, Hans Karl.

    2012-01-01

    In late 2009, a $14.3 million allocation from the “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act” for new light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data prompted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program (NGP) to develop a common base specification for all lidar data acquired for The National Map. Released as a draft in 2010 and formally published in 2012, the USGS–NGP “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” (now Lidar Base Specification) was quickly embraced as the foundation for numerous state, county, and foreign country lidar specifications. Prompted by a growing appreciation for the wide applicability and inherent value of lidar, a USGS-led consortium of Federal agencies commissioned a National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA) study in 2010 to quantify the costs and benefits of a national lidar program. A 2012 NEEA report documented a substantial return on such an investment, defined five Quality Levels (QL) for elevation data, and recommended an 8-year collection cycle of Quality Level 2 (QL2) lidar data as the optimum balance of benefit and affordability. In response to the study, the USGS–NGP established the 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) in 2013 as the interagency vehicle through which the NEEA recommendations could be realized. Lidar is a fast evolving technology, and much has changed in the industry since the final draft of the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” was written. Lidar data have improved in accuracy and spatial resolution, geospatial accuracy standards have been revised by the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), industry standard file formats have been expanded, additional applications for lidar have become accepted, and the need for interoperable data across collections has been realized. This revision to the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” publication addresses those changes and provides continued guidance towards a nationally consistent lidar dataset.

  12. Mask cost and specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hisashi; Higashikawa, Iwao

    2003-12-01

    At the panel discussion of Photomask Japan 2003, we discussed about Mask cost and specification. The topics are (1) Mask price trend and its impact, (2) How to reduce the mask costs; solutions from a mask shop, mask writing tool and mask inspection tool 3) Partnering mask suppliers with mask users; reasonable mask specification and OPC strategies. The choice of DUV laser writer instead of e-beam writer is one solution for reduction of mask cost. The continuous improvement of e-beam writer and resist sensitivity for high throughput is another solution. The partnership between designer, EDA vender, mask maker and wafer lithographer becomes more important.

  13. Automated Library System Specifications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    AD-A78 95 AUTOMATED LIBRARY SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS(U) ARMY LIBRARY /i MANAGEMENT OFFICE ALEXANDRIA VA ASSISTANT CHIEF OF STAFF FOR INFORMATION... MANAGEMENT M B BONNETT JUN 86 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 9/2 NLEElIIhllEEEEE IllEEEEEllllEI .1lm lliml * ~I fI.L25 MI, [OCM RL,;OCLUTO fl. ’N k~ AUTOMATED LIBRARY...SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS .,I Prepared by Mary B. Bonnett ARMY LIBRARY MANAGEMENT OFFICE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT CHIEF OF STAFF FOR INFORMATION MANAGEMENT Lij

  14. Lidar base specification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heidemann, Hans Karl.

    2012-01-01

    Lidar is a fast evolving technology, and much has changed in the industry since the final draft of the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” was written. Lidar data have improved in accuracy and spatial resolution, geospatial accuracy standards have been revised by the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), industry standard file formats have been expanded, additional applications for lidar have become accepted, and the need for interoperable data across collections has been realized. This revision to the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” publication addresses those changes and provides continued guidance towards a nationally consistent lidar dataset.

  15. Specifications for Thesaurus Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstead, Jessica L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents specifications for software that is designed to support manual development and maintenance of information retrieval thesauri. Evaluation of existing software and design of custom software is discussed, requirements for integration with larger systems and for the user interface are described, and relationships among terms are discussed.…

  16. Checklist of Educational Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William O.; Saavedra, Louis E.

    This document presents procedures and checklists for the development of educational specifications for all phases of a school building program. Areas include--(1) program of the proposed school, (2) the community to be served, (3) the site, (4) the nature of the school project, (5) the architect, (6) relationships of areas of the building, (7)…

  17. Facilities Specifications Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athletic Business, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides line drawings of indoor and outdoor sporting fields reflecting the specifications and dimensional standards of each, including where additional information can be found. Sporting events from badminton, baseball, and basketball to lacrosse, swimming/diving, and volleyball are addressed. (GR)

  18. IDC System Specification Document.

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  19. Sport-specific balance.

    PubMed

    Zemková, Erika

    2014-05-01

    This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.

  20. Children's specific fears.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, H; Vostanis, P; Dogra, N; Doos, L; Ford, T; Goodman, R

    2009-11-01

    Most children experience some degree of fear during their development. Specific fears are considered as an appropriate response provided that they are proportionate to the intensity of the perceived threat. Our aim is to present the prevalence of specific fears among children in the Great Britain, their socio-demographic correlates, in particular their association with ethnicity. Data on the child's experience of specific fears were obtained from parents of a national representative sample of 5- to 16-year-olds using the Development and Well-Being Assessment. Biographic, socio-demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the child and the family were included in the questionnaire. About one-third of children were assessed by their parents as having at least one of 12 specific fears. The most commonly reported fears were animals (11.6%), blood/injections (10.8%) and the dark (6.3%). Just less than 1% of all children were assessed according to International Classification of Diseases research diagnostic criteria as having a specific phobia. Biographic, socio-demographic and socioeconomic factors were independently associated with a greater likelihood of a child having particular fears. The most marked associations were fears of the dark, loud noises, imagined supernatural beings in younger children and fear of animals among girls and all non-white groups. Although fears are only labelled as phobias when they impair functioning and interfere with life, they can cause personal distress to children and also can interfere with their daily activities. Children's fears differ in nature across different ethnic groups. Culturally mediated beliefs, values and traditions may play a role in their expression.

  1. Category specific semantic impairments.

    PubMed

    Warrington, E K; Shallice, T

    1984-09-01

    We report a quantitative investigation of the visual identification and auditory comprehension deficits of 4 patients who had made a partial recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis. Clinical observations had suggested the selective impairment and selective preservation of certain categories of visual stimuli. In all 4 patients a significant discrepancy between their ability to identify inanimate objects and inability to identify living things and foods was demonstrated. In 2 patients it was possible to compare visual and verbal modalities and the same pattern of dissociation was observed in both. For 1 patient, comprehension of abstract words was significantly superior to comprehension of concrete words. Consistency of responses was recorded within a modality in contrast to a much lesser degree of consistency between modalities. We interpret our findings in terms of category specificity in the organization of meaning systems that are also modality specific semantic systems.

  2. Referral Directory System Specification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-30

    Centel I Wildemuth , Barbara ERIC Clearinghouse on Tests, Measurement al I Wilhoit, R. C. ITexas Engineering Experiment Station, Ther I Williams, Larry...Donald J. 990538 DEFENSE GATEWAY INFORMATION SYSTEM SYSTEM SPECIFICATION APPENDIX D: SAMPLE INDICES 69 W Wilde, D. U. 991983 Wildemuth , Barbara ...Wente, Van A. 991660 Werk, William R. 990806 Zaker, T. A. 991295 Wert, Barbara 990620 Zeidlik, Hannah 990758 West, Oriana Brown 990825 Zeller, M

  3. Sport-specific conditioning.

    PubMed

    Kibler, W B; Chandler, T J

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the athlete is to optimize performance. The goal of the sports medicine physician is to minimize injury risk. By preparing the athlete's body for the mechanical and metabolic demands inherent in a particular sport, sport-specific conditioning programs can help achieve both these goals. Periodization of the conditioning program is the ideal framework for keeping the individual athlete's workload as high as possible without overtraining and injury.

  4. SPECIFIC HEAT INDICATOR

    DOEpatents

    Horn, F.L.; Binns, J.E.

    1961-05-01

    Apparatus for continuously and automatically measuring and computing the specific heat of a flowing solution is described. The invention provides for the continuous measurement of all the parameters required for the mathematical solution of this characteristic. The parameters are converted to logarithmic functions which are added and subtracted in accordance with the solution and a null-seeking servo reduces errors due to changing voltage drops to a minimum. Logarithmic potentiometers are utilized in a unique manner to accomplish these results.

  5. NOSS altimeter algorithm specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, D. W.; Forsythe, R. G.; Mcmillan, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    A description of all algorithms required for altimeter processing is given. Each description includes title, description, inputs/outputs, general algebraic sequences and data volume. All required input/output data files are described and the computer resources required for the entire altimeter processing system were estimated. The majority of the data processing requirements for any radar altimeter of the Seasat-1 type are scoped. Additions and deletions could be made for the specific altimeter products required by other projects.

  6. SFEP Subsystem Specification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    untrusted code. All device control decision tables shall reside solely within the security kernel data base. Jf an illegal control operation is...0 0 0 -0^ ADDRESS MAP OF LOCAL BUS ADDRESS MAP OF REMOTE BUS 0 N ISL RECOGNIZES ADDRESSES IN THIS AREA DATA ACTUALLY STORED /LOADED...ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS DIVISION HANSCOM AIR FORCE BASE, MA 01731 20100827250 LEGAL NOTICE When U. S. Government drawings, specifications or other data are

  7. Data specifications for INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portele, Clemens; Woolf, Andrew; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    In Europe a major recent development has been the entering in force of the INSPIRE Directive in May 2007, establishing an infrastructure for spatial information in Europe to support Community environmental policies, and policies or activities which may have an impact on the environment. INSPIRE is based on the infrastructures for spatial information established and operated by the 27 Member States of the European Union. The Directive addresses 34 spatial data themes needed for environmental applications, with key components specified through technical implementing rules. This makes INSPIRE a unique example of a legislative "regional" approach. One of the requirements of the INSPIRE Directive is to make existing spatial data sets with relevance for one of the spatial data themes available in an interoperable way, i.e. where the spatial data from different sources in Europe can be combined to a coherent result. Since INSPIRE covers a wide range of spatial data themes, the first step has been the development of a modelling framework that provides a common foundation for all themes. This framework is largely based on the ISO 19100 series of standards. The use of common generic spatial modelling concepts across all themes is an important enabler for interoperability. As a second step, data specifications for the first set of themes has been developed based on the modelling framework. The themes include addresses, transport networks, protected sites, hydrography, administrative areas and others. The data specifications were developed by selected experts nominated by stakeholders from all over Europe. For each theme a working group was established in early 2008 working on their specific theme and collaborating with the other working groups on cross-theme issues. After a public review of the draft specifications starting in December 2008, an open testing process and thorough comment resolution process, the draft technical implementing rules for these themes have been

  8. General Environmental Verification Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milne, J. Scott, Jr.; Kaufman, Daniel S.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center s General Environmental Verification Specification (GEVS) for STS and ELV Payloads, Subsystems, and Components is currently being revised based on lessons learned from GSFC engineering and flight assurance. The GEVS has been used by Goddard flight projects for the past 17 years as a baseline from which to tailor their environmental test programs. A summary of the requirements and updates are presented along with the rationale behind the changes. The major test areas covered by the GEVS include mechanical, thermal, and EMC, as well as more general requirements for planning, tracking of the verification programs.

  9. Master Software Requirements Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Chaumin

    2003-01-01

    A basic function of a computational grid such as the NASA Information Power Grid (IPG) is to allow users to execute applications on remote computer systems. The Globus Resource Allocation Manager (GRAM) provides this functionality in the IPG and many other grids at this time. While the functionality provided by GRAM clients is adequate, GRAM does not support useful features such as staging several sets of files, running more than one executable in a single job submission, and maintaining historical information about execution operations. This specification is intended to provide the environmental and software functional requirements for the IPG Job Manager V2.0 being developed by AMTI for NASA.

  10. Component-specific modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A series of interdisciplinary modeling and analysis techniques that were specialized to address three specific hot section components are presented. These techniques will incorporate data as well as theoretical methods from many diverse areas including cycle and performance analysis, heat transfer analysis, linear and nonlinear stress analysis, and mission analysis. Building on the proven techniques already available in these fields, the new methods developed will be integrated into computer codes to provide an accurate, and unified approach to analyzing combustor burner liners, hollow air cooled turbine blades, and air cooled turbine vanes. For these components, the methods developed will predict temperature, deformation, stress and strain histories throughout a complete flight mission.

  11. Targeted Peptide Specificity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-31

    the conformation of small natural peptide ligands. In the last year two peptides were investigaýed by 2D-NMR,(j2.- conotoxin SI, which targets to the...targets. Although these venoms are very complex, we have focused on three groups of peptide toxins, the a, j and w- conotoxins which target to nicotinic...grant period are summarized below.) In addition, the 2D-NMR work is continuing and in addition to examining one of the conotoxins specific for the

  12. Vessel Specific Levels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Marine debris degrades ocean habitats, endangers marine and coastal wildlife, causes navigation hazards, results in economic losses to industry and governments, and threatens human health and safety. EPA Pacific Southwest (Region 9) is tapping existing programs and resources to advance the prevention, reduction and clean-up of marine debris in the North Pacific Ocean. EPA Pacific Southwest activities build upon specific recommendations of the Interagency Marine Debris Coordinating Committee by targeting threats and sources of debris and responding to debris impacts. EPA is initiating a three-pronged effort to reduce sources of marine debris, prevent trash from entering the oceans, and assess the human and ecosystem impacts and potential for cleanup.

  13. Return Vessel Specific Levels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Marine debris degrades ocean habitats, endangers marine and coastal wildlife, causes navigation hazards, results in economic losses to industry and governments, and threatens human health and safety. EPA Pacific Southwest (Region 9) is tapping existing programs and resources to advance the prevention, reduction and clean-up of marine debris in the North Pacific Ocean. EPA Pacific Southwest activities build upon specific recommendations of the Interagency Marine Debris Coordinating Committee by targeting threats and sources of debris and responding to debris impacts. EPA is initiating a three-pronged effort to reduce sources of marine debris, prevent trash from entering the oceans, and assess the human and ecosystem impacts and potential for cleanup.

  14. Specifications Physiological Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The operation of a physiological monitoring system (PMS) is described. Specifications were established for performance, design, interface, and test requirements. The PMS is a compact, microprocessor-based system, which can be worn in a pack on the body or may be mounted on a Spacelab rack or other appropriate structure. It consists of two modules, the Data Control Unit (DCU) and the Remote Control/Display Unit (RCDU). Its purpose is to collect and distribute data from physiological experiments in the Spacelab and in the Orbiter.

  15. Component-specific modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Accomplishments are described for the second year effort of a 3-year program to develop methodology for component specific modeling of aircraft engine hot section components (turbine blades, turbine vanes, and burner liners). These accomplishments include: (1) engine thermodynamic and mission models; (2) geometry model generators; (3) remeshing; (4) specialty 3-D inelastic stuctural analysis; (5) computationally efficient solvers, (6) adaptive solution strategies; (7) engine performance parameters/component response variables decomposition and synthesis; (8) integrated software architecture and development, and (9) validation cases for software developed.

  16. 310 Facility chemical specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerty, K.J.

    1997-05-21

    The 300 area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) was designed and built to treat the waste water from the 300 area process sewer system. Several treatment technologies are employed to remove the trace quantities of contaminants in the stream, including iron coprecipitation, clarification, filtration, ion exchange, and ultra violet light/hydrogen peroxide oxidation of organics. The chemicals that will be utilized in the treatment process are hydrogen peroxide, sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, and ferric chloride. This document annotates the required chemical characteristics of TEDF bulk chemicals as well as the criteria that were used to establish these criteria. The chemical specifications in appendix B are generated from this information.

  17. Specific construction tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcrae, W. V., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The technical feasibility of the Satellite Power System (SPS) is discussed. The development of feasible operational concepts and conceptualization of specific construction tasks are examined. The logic flow of functional analyses of both the rectenna and the satellite is illustrated. Constraints placed upon the construction processes and equipment by the satellite design are outlined. The construction tasks, when defined and combined into an integrated schedule establish, a time line for construction mass flow demands to be satisfied by the space transportation systems. An example of satellite constructive demands and HLLV delivery capabilities is given.

  18. Disease specific protein corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that upon their entrance into the biological environments, the surface of nanomaterials would be covered by various biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids). The absorption of these biomolecules, so called `protein corona', onto the surface of (nano)biomaterials confers them a new `biological identity'. Although the formation of protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles has been widely investigated, there are few reports on the effect of various diseases on the biological identity of nanoparticles. As the type of diseases may tremendously changes the composition of the protein source (e.g., human plasma/serum), one can expect that amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona composition may be varied, in disease type manner. Here, we show that corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles (after interaction with in the plasma of the healthy individuals) could induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes release of the inflammatory cytokines. However, no considerable releases of inflammatory cytokines were observed for corona coated graphene sheets. In contrast, the obtained corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles from the hypofibrinogenemia patients could not induce inflammatory cytokine release where graphene sheets do. Therefore, one can expect that disease-specific protein coronas can provide a novel approach for applying nanomedicine to personalized medicine, improving diagnosis and treatment of different diseases tailored to the specific conditions and circumstances.

  19. VOST charcoal specification study

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerst, R.G.; Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

    1996-12-31

    The volatile organic sampling train (VOST) is currently one the leading methodologies available for the sampling and analysis of volatile principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) and products of incomplete combustion (PICs) from stationary sources at very low levels. However, revisions to the original method are necessary to maintain VOST as a viable regulatory tool. To provide performance specifications and identify a replacement for SKC Lot 104 charcoal, a VOST charcoal specification study was initiated. The following carbon-based candidate sorbents were considered: Tenax-GR (a graphitized Tenax); a Petroleum-based Charcoal; Ambersorbe XE-340 (hydrophobic carbonized resin bead); Anasorb 747 (beaded active carbon with very regular pore size); Carbosieve{reg_sign} S-III (carbon molecular sieve); and a Beaded Activated Charcoal (BAC) (with a very regular pore size). The results indicated that Tenax-GR showed significantly poorer performance than the other candidates in preliminary experimental results. Ambersorb did not retain the gaseous volatile organic compounds tested as well as the others and recovery of vinyl chloride was very low at all levels of spiking. Carbosieve was eliminated as a candidate replacement because of cost and handling problems. The petroleum-based charcoal was eliminated because of difficulties in handling a finely-divided powder. The availability of Anasorb 747 proved to be the deciding factor between it and the BAC. Performance, cost, ease of handling, and plentiful supply make Anasorb{reg_sign} 747 a good choice for replacement of SKC Lot 104. 1 tab.

  20. Dyslexia (specific reading disability).

    PubMed

    Shaywitz, Sally E; Shaywitz, Bennett A

    2005-06-01

    Converging evidence from a number of lines of investigation indicates that dyslexia represents a disorder within the language system and more specifically within a particular subcomponent of that system, phonological processing. Recent advances in imaging technology, particularly the development of functional magnetic resonance imaging, provide evidence of a neurobiological signature for dyslexia, specifically a disruption of two left hemisphere posterior brain systems, one parieto-temporal, the other occipito-temporal, with compensatory engagement of anterior systems around the inferior frontal gyrus and a posterior (right occipito-temporal) system. Furthermore, good evidence indicates a computational role for the left occipito-temporal system: the development of fluent (automatic) reading. The brain systems for reading are malleable and their disruption in dyslexic children may be remediated by provision of an evidence-based, effective reading intervention. In addition, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of young adults with reading difficulties followed prospectively and longitudinally from age 5 through their mid twenties suggests that there may be two types of reading difficulties, one primarily on a genetic basis, the other, and far more common, reflecting environmental influences. These studies offer the promise for more precise identification and effective management of dyslexia in children, adolescents and adults.

  1. Component specific modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maffeo, R. J.; Mcknight, R. L.; Tipton, M. T.; Weber, G.

    1986-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop and verify a series of interdisciplinary modeling and analysis techniques that were specialized to address three specific hot section components. These techniques incorporate data as well as theoretical methods from many diverse areas including cycle and performance analysis, heat transfer analysis, linear and nonlinear stress analysis, and mission analysis. Building on the proven techniques already available in these fields, the new methods developed are integrated to provide an accurate, efficient, and unified approach to analyzing combustor burner liners, hollow air-cooled turbine blades, and air-cooled turbine vanes. For these components, the methods developed predict temperature, deformation, stress, and strain histories throughout a complete flight mission.

  2. The Void Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B

    2005-04-23

    The purpose of this memo is to explore more fully the allowable void specification, in part to make it clearer to those doing the day-to-day evaluation and in part to help me understand the ramifications. A simulation of voids in a Be shell is used to support my understanding of Haan's analysis. The key results showing allowable void diameter as a function of void fraction are shown in Figure 6 (p. 8). What is important here is that generally in ''good'' samples we only see small voids, perhaps at most a few tenths of a {micro}m in size. For this void size the shells can be underdense by as much as 10% and still meet the 1 part in 10{sup 4} spec (though there may be other issues with reduced density).

  3. Component-specific modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    A series of interdisciplinary modeling and analysis techniques that were specialized to address three specific hot section components are presented. These techniques will incorporate data as well as theoretical methods from many diverse areas including cycle and performance analysis, heat transfer analysis, linear and nonlinear stress analysis, and mission analysis. Building on the proven techniques already available in these fields, the new methods developed will be integrated into computer codes to provide an accurate, efficient and unified approach to analyzing combustor burner liners, hollow air-cooled turbine blades and air-cooled turbine vanes. For these components, the methods developed will predict temperature, deformation, stress and strain histories throughout a complete flight mission.

  4. Cylinder Test Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Catanach; Larry Hill; Herbert Harry; Ernest Aragon; Don Murk

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of the cylinder testis two-fold: (1) to characterize the metal-pushing ability of an explosive relative to that of other explosives as evaluated by the E{sub 19} cylinder energy and the G{sub 19} Gurney energy and (2) to help establish the explosive product equation-of-state (historically, the Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation). This specification details the material requirements and procedures necessary to assemble and fire a typical Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) cylinder test. Strict adherence to the cylinder. material properties, machining tolerances, material heat-treatment and etching processes, and high explosive machining tolerances is essential for test-to-test consistency and to maximize radial wall expansions. Assembly and setup of the cylinder test require precise attention to detail, especially when placing intricate pin wires on the cylinder wall. The cylinder test is typically fired outdoors and at ambient temperature.

  5. Site Specific Verification Guidelines.

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, Steve; Gordon, Frederick M.; Kennedy, Mike

    1992-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Northwest region have moved from energy surplus to a time when demand for energy is likely to exceed available supplies. The Northwest Power Planning Council is calling for a major push to acquire new resources.'' To meet anticipated loads in the next decade, BPA and the region must more than double that rate at which we acquire conservation resources. BPA hopes to achieve some of this doubling by programs independently designed and implemented by utilities and other parties without intensive BPA involvement. BPA will accept proposals for programs using performance-based payments, in which BPA bases its reimbursement to the sponsor on measured energy savings rather than program costs. To receive payment for conservation projects developed under performance-based programs, utilities and other project developers must propose verification plans to measure the amount of energy savings. BPA has traditionally used analysis of billing histories, before and after measure installation, adjusted by a comparison group on non-participating customers to measure conservation savings. This approach does not work well for all conversation projects. For large or unusual facilities the comparison group approach is not reliable due to the absence of enough comparable non-participants to allow appropriate statistical analysis. For these facilities, which include large commercial and institutional buildings, industrial projects, and complex combinations of building types served by a single utility meter, savings must be verified on a site-specific basis. These guidelines were written to help proposers understand what Bonneville considers the important issues in site specific verification of conservation performance. It also provides a toolbox of methods with guidance on their application and use. 15 refs.

  6. Intent Specifications: An Approach to Building Human-Centered Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines and proposes an approach to writing software specifications, based on research in systems theory, cognitive psychology, and human-machine interaction. The goal is to provide specifications that support human problem solving and the tasks that humans must perform in software development and evolution. A type of specification, called intent specifications, is constructed upon this underlying foundation.

  7. Intent Specifications: An Approach to Building Human-Centered Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines and proposes an approach to writing software specifications, based on research in systems theory, cognitive psychology, and human-machine interaction. The goal is to provide specifications that support human problem solving and the tasks that humans must perform in software development and evolution. A type of specification, called intent specifications, is constructed upon this underlying foundation.

  8. Genotype Specification Language.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Erin H; Sagawa, Shiori; Weis, James W; Schubert, Max G; Bissell, Michael; Hawthorne, Brian; Reeves, Christopher D; Dean, Jed; Platt, Darren

    2016-06-17

    We describe here the Genotype Specification Language (GSL), a language that facilitates the rapid design of large and complex DNA constructs used to engineer genomes. The GSL compiler implements a high-level language based on traditional genetic notation, as well as a set of low-level DNA manipulation primitives. The language allows facile incorporation of parts from a library of cloned DNA constructs and from the "natural" library of parts in fully sequenced and annotated genomes. GSL was designed to engage genetic engineers in their native language while providing a framework for higher level abstract tooling. To this end we define four language levels, Level 0 (literal DNA sequence) through Level 3, with increasing abstraction of part selection and construction paths. GSL targets an intermediate language based on DNA slices that translates efficiently into a wide range of final output formats, such as FASTA and GenBank, and includes formats that specify instructions and materials such as oligonucleotide primers to allow the physical construction of the GSL designs by individual strain engineers or an automated DNA assembly core facility.

  9. [Dermatomyositis-specific antibodies].

    PubMed

    Bodoki, L; Nagy-Vincze, M; Griger, Z; Dankó, K

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are chronic systemic autoimmune diseases characterized by symmetrical proximal muscle weakness. The clinicopathological subdivision nowadays appears to be obsolete which is why the immunoserological classification has been developed. Dermatomyositis represents one the most important subsets of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and dermatomyositis-specific autoantibodies play a significant role in this subset. The aim of this article was to present these autoantibodies with the help of the literature. This article presents the most important information about dermatomyositis including not only the classical anti-Mi-2 autoantibody but also the recently detected anti-TIF1γ, anti-NXP2, anti-SAE and anti-MDA5 autoantibodies. The focus is on the frequency of these autoantibodies, the associated symptoms in adult and juvenile dermatomyositis cases and some special aspects from the literature. All of the studies confirmed that these autoantibodies are particularly detectable in dermatomyositis. The results from the literature have recently shown that the frequency of the autoantibodies detected in juvenile cases is higher than the frequency of traditional autoantibodies (e.g. anti-Jo-1, anti-Mi-2 and anti-SRP). It is useful to detect these autoantibodies in order to be able to make a better assessment of the clinical symptoms and prognosis during the course of the disease.

  10. [Foot specific orthotic devices].

    PubMed

    Goldcher, Alain

    2010-03-20

    For each foot pathology, whatever its nature and aetiology, there is an orthesis, the best mechanical treatment. For toe pathologies due to or worsened by the footwear, we must recommend wearing other shoes and sometimes an orthoplasty which is not covered by health insurance. Sole orthesis are quite effective for most pathologies causing pain when walking, and involving the foot sole or starting in the foot. Realised by an approved splint technician, they are covered by health insurance for a lump sum, but patients are telling us their cost is becoming more and more difficult to bear Mass-produced shoes, therapeutic or not, deserve a special place in the therapeutic arsenal of podiatry. Temporary used shoes improve post-operation situation and some specifically located discharges. More and more shoes are available for longer use, most of them not approved but better looking, and at least as effective as and not costlier than the few models covered by health insurance.They can provide footwear that are not standard and can't be helped by bespoke shoes reserved for precise medical indications.

  11. ADANS database specification

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-16

    The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.

  12. Tissue Specific Electrochemical Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Sobrova, Pavlina; Vyslouzilova, Lenka; Stepankova, Olga; Ryvolova, Marketa; Anyz, Jiri; Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Kizek, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Background Proteomics and metalloproteomics are rapidly developing interdisciplinary fields providing enormous amounts of data to be classified, evaluated and interpreted. Approaches offered by bioinformatics and also by biostatistical data analysis and treatment are therefore of extreme interest. Numerous methods are now available as commercial or open source tools for data processing and modelling ready to support the analysis of various datasets. The analysis of scientific data remains a big challenge, because each new task sets its specific requirements and constraints that call for the design of a targeted data pre-processing approach. Methodology/Principal Findings This study proposes a mathematical approach for evaluating and classifying datasets obtained by electrochemical analysis of metallothionein in rat 9 tissues (brain, heart, kidney, eye, spleen, gonad, blood, liver and femoral muscle). Tissue extracts were heated and then analysed using the differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. The voltammograms were subsequently processed. Classification models were designed making separate use of two groups of attributes, namely attributes describing local extremes, and derived attributes resulting from the level = 5 wavelet transform. Conclusions/Significance On the basis of our results, we were able to construct a decision tree that makes it possible to distinguish among electrochemical analysis data resulting from measurements of all the considered tissues. In other words, we found a way to classify an unknown rat tissue based on electrochemical analysis of the metallothionein in this tissue. PMID:23185396

  13. Specific immunotherapy in children.

    PubMed

    Bufe, A; Roberts, G

    2011-09-01

    Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) with allergen extracts in children with allergic rhinitis, with or without co-seasonal asthma, has developed into a routine treatment although the scientific evidence for its efficacy is not as strong as for adults. In the hands of experienced allergists, this treatment has been proven to be safe. The development of allergen tablets for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) may open a new age of more convenient, safer SIT. In children, in particular, the evidence for the long-term efficacy of SLIT, its ability to prevent the development of asthma and polysensitization and its comparability to SCIT will be required before it will replace the traditional subcutaneous route. Issues of compliance represent an important drawback of SLIT. We need ways of improving this. Treatment of asthma by immunotherapy is still restricted to clearly defined patients with mild to moderate asthma with symptoms that are related to the specific allergen sensitization. In these patients, symptoms and use of anti-inflammatory therapy can be reduced by SIT.

  14. Specification validation tools study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotta, J. P.

    1987-05-01

    The use of the SMALLTALK language for specification of space mission information systems was assessed. It is shown that functional prototyping is possible. The SMALLTALK-80 language provides a complete development environment and powerful conceptual features that makes it a very good support for prototyping. Simple versions of both prototyping tool and demonstration examples were built rapidly. The prototyping approach should be introduced in the development cycle of space systems because it allows early verification of the functional analysis. However, it should not be limited to this phase and should be associated with the project data base to support various utilizations by keeping the unicity of the system definition. It is important that a model of the coordination tasks (e.g., mode management) in a space system is developed in order to make easier its verification and its implementation. This model should integrate the conventional way to define the management tasks and a more formal description. The approach could be applied to reliability analysis at functional level, and development of dynamic and hierarchic models of mode management.

  15. Specificity and non-specificity in RNA–protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Jankowsky, Eckhard; Harris, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is regulated by complex networks of interactions between RNAs and proteins. Proteins that interact with RNA have been traditionally viewed as either specific or non-specific; specific proteins interact preferentially with defined RNA sequence or structure motifs, whereas non-specific proteins interact with RNA sites devoid of such characteristics. Recent studies indicate that the binary “specific vs. non-specific” classification is insufficient to describe the full spectrum of RNA–protein interactions. Here, we review new methods that enable quantitative measurements of protein binding to large numbers of RNA variants, and the concepts aimed as describing resulting binding spectra: affinity distributions, comprehensive binding models and free energy landscapes. We discuss how these new methodologies and associated concepts enable work towards inclusive, quantitative models for specific and non-specific RNA–protein interactions. PMID:26285679

  16. Compositional Specification of Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penix, John; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes our experience using parameterized algebraic specifications to model properties of software architectures. The goal is to model the decomposition of requirements independent of the style used to implement the architecture. We begin by providing an overview of the role of architecture specification in software development. We then describe how architecture specifications are build up from component and connector specifications and give an overview of insights gained from a case study used to validate the method.

  17. Ion specificities of artificial macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lvdan; Kou, Ran; Liu, Guangming

    2016-12-21

    Artificial macromolecules are well-defined synthetic polymers, with a relatively simple structure as compared to naturally occurring macromolecules. This review focuses on the ion specificities of artifical macromolecules. Ion specificities are influenced by solvent-mediated indirect ion-macromolecule interactions and also by direct ion-macromolecule interactions. In aqueous solutions, the role of water-mediated indirect ion-macromolecule interactions will be discussed. The addition of organic solvents to aqueous solutions significantly changes the ion specificities due to the formation of water-organic solvent complexes. For direct ion-macromolecule interactions, we will discuss specific ion-pairing interactions for charged macromolecules and specific ion-neutral site interactions for uncharged macromolecules. When the medium conditions change from dilute solutions to crowded environments, the ion specificities can be modified by either the volume exclusion effect, the variation of dielectric constant, or the interactions between ions, macromolecules, and crowding agents.

  18. Variola Virus-Specific Diagnostic Assays: Characterization, Sensitivity, and Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Kondas, Ashley V.; Olson, Victoria A.; Li, Yu; Abel, Jason; Laker, Miriam; Rose, Laura; Wilkins, Kimberly; Turner, Jonathan; Kline, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A public health response relies upon rapid and reliable confirmation of disease by diagnostic assays. Here, we detail the design and validation of two variola virus-specific real-time PCR assays, since previous assays cross-reacted with newly identified cowpox viruses. The assay specificity must continually be reassessed as other closely related viruses are identified. PMID:25673790

  19. SPECIFIC AND NON-SPECIFIC POLYSACCHARIDES OF TYPE IV PNEUMOCOCCUS

    PubMed Central

    Heidelberger, Michael; Kendall, Forrest E.

    1931-01-01

    1. Three nitrogen-containing polysaccharides have been isolated from autolyzed cultures of Type IV pneumococcus: (1) a type-specific carbohydrate differing markedly from those of Type I, II, and III pneumococcus, and representing a type of substance hitherto not observed among specific polysaccharides, (2) a chemically similar carbohydrate without specific function, and (3) the "C" substance, or species-specific polysaccharide of Tillett, Goebel, and Avery. 2. The chemical differences between the specific polysaccharides of Pneumococcus are discussed, and the relationship of the new examples to chitin is pointed out and its bearing indicated on the unsettled controversy as to whether or not chitin occurs in bacteria. 3. The data of Tillett, Goebel, and Avery on the "C" substance have been extended. PMID:19869869

  20. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    PubMed

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  1. Performance Specifications for Occupational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Div. of Career Technology and Adult Learning.

    This document lists and discusses the development of Maryland's performance specifications for occupational programs. The introduction explains the process used to develop performance standards and specifications for 10 career cluster majors that were identified by a task force of educators and employers as high-demand occupational areas in…

  2. PROPOSED SPECIFICATIONS FOR INERTIAL SURVEYING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, William H.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to continue the movement toward placing inertial surveying instruments in the toolbox of the geodetic surveyor. A set of specifications is proposed for performing horizontal geodetic surveys with inertial instruments that will meet the Federal Geodetic Control Committee (FGCC) second- and third-order standards. These specifications are tentative.

  3. Measuring wood specific gravity, correctly

    Treesearch

    G. Bruce Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2010-01-01

    The specific gravity (SG) of wood is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In recent years, wood specific gravity, traditionally a forester’s variable, has become the domain of ecologists exploring the universality of plant functional traits and conservationists estimating global carbon stocks. While these...

  4. Hanford Site environmental management specification

    SciTech Connect

    Grygiel, M.L.

    1998-06-10

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) uses this Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification (Specification) to document top-level mission requirements and planning assumptions for the prime contractors involved in Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. This Specification describes at a top level the activities, facilities, and infrastructure necessary to accomplish the cleanup of the Hanford Site and assigns this scope to Site contractors and their respective projects. This Specification also references the key National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), and safety documentation necessary to accurately describe the cleanup at a summary level. The information contained in this document reflects RL`s application of values, priorities, and critical success factors expressed by those involved with and affected by the Hanford Site project. The prime contractors and their projects develop complete baselines and work plans to implement this Specification. These lower-level documents and the data that support them, together with this Specification, represent the full set of requirements applicable to the contractors and their projects. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this Specification to the other basic Site documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this specification represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents.

  5. The Development of Educational Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh.

    This publication is intended to assist local boards of education, superintendents, and staff in the organization and development of educational specifications. It was written because most educators have little knowledge about the purpose, process, organization, or contents of the finished product (educational specifications). It provides a…

  6. Specific Learning Difficulties in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weedon, Charles

    Specific difficulties in mathematics tend to receive much less attention than do parallel difficulties with language. Accordingly, as its contribution to an ongoing project on children's learning difficulties and what to do about them, the Tayside (Scotland) Region decided to focus on children's specific problems with mathematics/arithmetic and…

  7. Response to "Transfer or Specificity?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Transfer or Specificity?" and reports a research that supports a strong case for a fundamental motor skill as a precursor to two sport specific skills as in Gallahue and Ozmun's (2002) theoretical model of motor development. Reported changes in performance of the overarm throw are…

  8. Response to "Transfer or Specificity?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Transfer or Specificity?" and reports a research that supports a strong case for a fundamental motor skill as a precursor to two sport specific skills as in Gallahue and Ozmun's (2002) theoretical model of motor development. Reported changes in performance of the overarm throw are…

  9. Suggestions for Developing Educational Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Public Instruction, Topeka.

    In the preparation of written educational specifications, the content, organization and method of presentation of materials are far from standardized with no one pattern being advocated. There are, however, certain standards or criteria which are desirable for guidance. The educational specifications should provide the architect with all of the…

  10. Small Specifications for Tree Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Philippa; Wheelhouse, Mark

    O'Hearn, Reynolds and Yang introduced Separation Logic to provide modular reasoning about simple, mutable data structures in memory. They were able to construct small specifications of programs, by reasoning about the local parts of memory accessed by programs. Gardner, Calcagno and Zarfaty generalised this work, introducing Context Logic to reason about more complex data structures. In particular, they developed a formal, compositional specification of the Document Object Model, a W3C XML update library. Whilst keeping to the spirit of local reasoning, they were not able to retain small specifications. We introduce Segment Logic, which provides a more fine-grained analysis of the tree structure and yields small specifications. As well as being aesthetically pleasing, small specifications are important for reasoning about concurrent tree update.

  11. Specificity of Exercise and Specificity of Training: A Subcellular Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCafferty, William B.; Horvath, Steven M.

    1977-01-01

    Selection of proper competitive activities for athletes is discussed in relation to the acknowledged fact that cellular adaptation is dependent upon the specific program employed in training for competitive events. (MB)

  12. Variola virus-specific diagnostic assays: characterization, sensitivity, and specificity.

    PubMed

    Kondas, Ashley V; Olson, Victoria A; Li, Yu; Abel, Jason; Laker, Miriam; Rose, Laura; Wilkins, Kimberly; Turner, Jonathan; Kline, Richard; Damon, Inger K

    2015-04-01

    A public health response relies upon rapid and reliable confirmation of disease by diagnostic assays. Here, we detail the design and validation of two variola virus-specific real-time PCR assays, since previous assays cross-reacted with newly identified cowpox viruses. The assay specificity must continually be reassessed as other closely related viruses are identified. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Standard technical specifications, Westinghouse Plants: Specifications. Volume 1, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This NUREG contains the improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Westinghouse plants. Revision 1 incorporates the cumulative changes to Revision 0, which was published in September 1992. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, specifically the Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG), NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993 (58 FR 39132). Licensees are encouraged to upgrade their technical specifications consistent with those criteria and conforming, to the extent practical and consistent with the licensing basis for the facility, to Revision 1 to the improved STS. The Commission continues to place the highest priority on requests for complete conversions to the improved STS. Licensees adopting portions of the improved STS to existing technical specifications should adopt all related requirements, as applicable, to achieve a high degree of standardization and consistency.

  14. Information capacity of specific interactions

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, Miriam H.; Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Specific interactions are a hallmark feature of self-assembly and signal-processing systems in both synthetic and biological settings. Specificity between components may arise from a wide variety of physical and chemical mechanisms in diverse contexts, from DNA hybridization to shape-sensitive depletion interactions. Despite this diversity, all systems that rely on interaction specificity operate under the constraint that increasing the number of distinct components inevitably increases off-target binding. Here we introduce “capacity,” the maximal information encodable using specific interactions, to compare specificity across diverse experimental systems and to compute how specificity changes with physical parameters. Using this framework, we find that “shape” coding of interactions has higher capacity than chemical (“color”) coding because the strength of off-target binding is strongly sublinear in binding-site size for shapes while being linear for colors. We also find that different specificity mechanisms, such as shape and color, can be combined in a synergistic manner, giving a capacity greater than the sum of the parts. PMID:27155013

  15. SSL: A software specification language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, S. L.; Buckles, B. P.; Ryan, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    SSL (Software Specification Language) is a new formalism for the definition of specifications for software systems. The language provides a linear format for the representation of the information normally displayed in a two-dimensional module inter-dependency diagram. In comparing SSL to FORTRAN or ALGOL, it is found to be largely complementary to the algorithmic (procedural) languages. SSL is capable of representing explicitly module interconnections and global data flow, information which is deeply imbedded in the algorithmic languages. On the other hand, SSL is not designed to depict the control flow within modules. The SSL level of software design explicitly depicts intermodule data flow as a functional specification.

  16. GFF Specification for SAR Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Nathan; Bielek, Timothy P.; Matthews, John D.; Coakley, Henry John; Pan, Len

    2014-08-01

    This document provides the basic GFF format definition for a GFF file. This document covers the contents of the main header and the basic GFF file structure. The contents of specific extensions are covered in a separate document.

  17. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of Synaptic Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Margeta, Milica A.; Shen, Kang

    2011-01-01

    Synapses are specialized junctions that mediate information flow between neurons and their targets. A striking feature of the nervous system is the specificity of its synaptic connections: an individual neuron will form synapses only with a small subset of available presynaptic and postsynaptic partners. Synaptic specificity has been classically thought to arise from homophilic or heterophilic interactions between adhesive molecules acting across the synaptic cleft. Over the past decade, many new mechanisms giving rise to synaptic specificity have been identified. Synapses can be specified by secreted molecules that promote or inhibit synaptogenesis, and their source can be a neighboring guidepost cell, not just presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. Furthermore, lineage, fate, and timing of development can also play critical roles in shaping neural circuits. Future work utilizing large-scale screens will aim to elucidate the full scope of cellular mechanisms and molecular players that can give rise to synaptic specificity. PMID:19969086

  19. Monopropellant hydrazine resistojet model specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbi, R.

    1972-01-01

    The specifications for the electrothermal hydrazine thruster model are presented including performance, design and qualification requirements, and product configuration and acceptance tests. The contamination control procedures, acceptance test plan, and engineering drawings are included.

  20. Specifications for structural range improvements.

    Treesearch

    H. Reed Sanderson; Thomas M. Quigley; Emery E. Swan; Louis R. Spink

    1990-01-01

    Construction specifications and illustrations are provided for several types of barbed wire and pole fences, gates, cattle guards, stiles, spring developments, water troughs, stock ponds, trick tanks, and livestock access trails.

  1. Expression specificity of GFAP transgenes.

    PubMed

    Su, Mu; Hu, Huimin; Lee, Youngjin; d'Azzo, Alessandra; Messing, Albee; Brenner, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament protein found predominantly in astrocytes. This specificity has recommended the GFAP gene promoter for targeting transgene expression to astrocytes. Although both we [Brenner et al. J. Neurosci. 14:1030-1037, (1994)] and others [Mucke et al. New Biol. 3:465-474, (1991)] have reported astrocyte specificity for GFAP promoters, we demonstrate here that these DNA sequences can also direct activity in neurons. The pattern of neuronal activity varied with both the nature of the expressed sequence and the transgene insertion site. Specifically, neuronal expression was very high for a protective protein/cathepsin A minigene, moderate for lacZ and undetectable for GFP. These findings, coupled with a survey of the literature, recommend that investigators using GFAP-driven transgenes verify specificity for each line studied, using a detection system whose sensitivity is sufficient to detect a compromising level of misexpression.

  2. Electric motor model repair specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    These model repair specifications list the minimum requirements for repair and overhaul of polyphase AC squireel cage induction motors. All power ranges, voltages, and speeds of squirrel cage motors are covered.

  3. Patient-Specific Orthopaedic Implants.

    PubMed

    Haglin, Jack M; Eltorai, Adam E M; Gil, Joseph A; Marcaccio, Stephen E; Botero-Hincapie, Juliana; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-11-01

    Patient-specific orthopaedic implants are emerging as a clinically promising treatment option for a growing number of conditions to better match an individual's anatomy. Patient-specific implant (PSI) technology aims to reduce overall procedural costs, minimize surgical time, and maximize patient outcomes by achieving better biomechanical implant fit. With this commercially-available technology, computed tomography or magnetic resonance images can be used in conjunction with specialized computer programs to create preoperative patient-specific surgical plans and to develop custom cutting guides from 3-D reconstructed images of patient anatomy. Surgeons can then place these temporary guides or "jigs" during the procedure, allowing them to better recreate the exact resections of the computer-generated surgical plan. Over the past decade, patient-specific implants have seen increased use in orthopaedics and they have been widely indicated in total knee arthroplasty, total hip arthroplasty, and corrective osteotomies. Patient-specific implants have also been explored for use in total shoulder arthroplasty and spinal surgery. Despite their increasing popularity, significant support for PSI use in orthopaedics has been lacking in the literature and it is currently uncertain whether the theoretical biomechanical advantages of patient-specific orthopaedic implants carry true advantages in surgical outcomes when compared to standard procedures. The purpose of this review was to assess the current status of patient-specific orthopaedic implants, to explore their future direction, and to summarize any comparative published studies that measure definitive surgical characteristics of patient-specific orthopaedic implant use such as patient outcomes, biomechanical implant alignment, surgical cost, patient blood loss, or patient recovery.

  4. mREST Interface Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCartney, Patrick; MacLean, John

    2012-01-01

    mREST is an implementation of the REST architecture specific to the management and sharing of data in a system of logical elements. The purpose of this document is to clearly define the mREST interface protocol. The interface protocol covers all of the interaction between mREST clients and mREST servers. System-level requirements are not specifically addressed. In an mREST system, there are typically some backend interfaces between a Logical System Element (LSE) and the associated hardware/software system. For example, a network camera LSE would have a backend interface to the camera itself. These interfaces are specific to each type of LSE and are not covered in this document. There are also frontend interfaces that may exist in certain mREST manager applications. For example, an electronic procedure execution application may have a specialized interface for configuring the procedures. This interface would be application specific and outside of this document scope. mREST is intended to be a generic protocol which can be used in a wide variety of applications. A few scenarios are discussed to provide additional clarity but, in general, application-specific implementations of mREST are not specifically addressed. In short, this document is intended to provide all of the information necessary for an application developer to create mREST interface agents. This includes both mREST clients (mREST manager applications) and mREST servers (logical system elements, or LSEs).

  5. NIF optical specifications - the importance of the RMS gradient specification

    SciTech Connect

    Auerbach, J M; Cotton, C T; English, R E; Henesian, M A; Hunt J T; Kelly, J H; Lawson, J K; Sacks, J B; Shoup, M J; Trenholme, W H

    1998-07-06

    The performance of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), especially in terms of laser focusability, will be determined by several key factors. One of these key factors is the optical specification for the thousands of large aperture optics that will comprise the 192 beamlines. We have previously reported on the importance of the specification of the power spectral density (PSD) on NIF performance. Recently, we have been studying the importance of long spatial wavelength (>33 mm) phase errors on focusability. We have concluded that the preferred metric for determining the impact of these long spatial wavelength phase errors is the rms phase gradient. In this paper, we outline the overall approach to NIF optical specifications, detail the impact of the rms phase gradient on NIF focusability, discuss its trade-off with the PSD in determining the spot size and review measurements of optics similar to those to be manufactured for NIF.

  6. Quantifying group specificity of animal vocalizations without specific sender information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vester, Heike; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Timme, Marc; Hallerberg, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Recordings of animal vocalization can lack information about sender and context. This is often the case in studies on marine mammals or in the increasing number of automated bioacoustics monitorings. Here, we develop a framework to estimate group specificity without specific sender information. We introduce and apply a bag-of-calls-and-coefficients approach (BOCCA) to study ensembles of cepstral coefficients calculated from vocalization signals recorded from a given animal group. Comparing distributions of such ensembles of coefficients by computing relative entropies reveals group specific differences. Applying the BOCCA to ensembles of calls recorded from group of long-finned pilot whales in northern Norway, we find that differences of vocalizations within social groups of pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are significantly lower than intergroup differences.

  7. Velocity specificity, combination training and sport specific tasks.

    PubMed

    Cronin, J; McNair, P J; Marshall, R N

    2001-06-01

    Whether velocity-specific resistance training is important for improving functional sporting performance was investigated by studying the effect of isoinertial training velocity on netball chest pass throwing velocity. Twenty-one female netball players were randomly assigned to a strength-trained group (80% 1RM - average training velocity = .308 m/s), power-trained group (60% 1RM - average training velocity = .398 m/s) and a control group. Resistance training was combined with sport specific motion training for both groups over a ten-week training duration. Pre- and post-training testing revealed that the training velocity associated with the strength-trained group produced significantly greater improvement in mean volume of weight lifted (85kg) and mean power output (13.25 W) as compared to the power and control groups (P< 0.05). The strength-trained and power-trained groups significantly improved netball throw velocity by 12.4% and 8.8% respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups. The validity of velocity-specific training and subsequent adaptations to improve functional sporting performance appears highly questionable, due to the disparity between training velocity and actual movement velocity (11.38 m x s(-1)) for a given sport specific task such as the netball throw it was proposed that the repeated intent to move an isoinertial load as rapidly as possible coupled with performance of the sport-specific movement promote efficient coordination and activation patterns. Such mechanisms might be more important determinants of sport-specific high velocity adaptation.

  8. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  9. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khaw, J.

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -11/ Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components. (LEW)

  10. Specificity of hammerhead ribozyme cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, K J; Herschlag, D; Uhlenbeck, O C

    1996-01-01

    To be effective in gene inactivation, the hammerhead ribozyme must cleave a complementary RNA target without deleterious effects from cleaving non-target RNAs that contain mismatches and shorter stretches of complementarity. The specificity of hammerhead cleavage was evaluated using HH16, a well-characterized ribozyme designed to cleave a target of 17 residues. Under standard reaction conditions, HH16 is unable to discriminate between its full-length substrate and 3'-truncated substrates, even when six fewer base pairs are formed between HH16 and the substrate. This striking lack of specificity arises because all the substrates bind to the ribozyme with sufficient affinity so that cleavage occurs before their affinity differences are manifested. In contrast, HH16 does exhibit high specificity towards certain 3'-truncated versions of altered substrates that either also contain a single base mismatch or are shortened at the 5' end. In addition, the specificity of HH16 is improved in the presence of p7 nucleocapsid protein from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, which accelerates the association and dissociation of RNA helices. These results support the view that the hammerhead has an intrinsic ability to discriminate against incorrect bases, but emphasizes that the high specificity is only observed in a certain range of helix lengths. Images PMID:8670879

  11. Compiler writing system detail design specification. Volume 1: Language specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Construction within the Meta language for both language and target machine specification is reported. The elements of the function language as a meaning and syntax are presented, and the structure of the target language is described which represents the target dependent object text representation of applications programs.

  12. THE SPECIFICITY OF ALLERGIC REACTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Salvin, S. B.; Smith, R. F.

    1964-01-01

    Adult guinea pigs were made unresponsive to a heterologous protein (e.g. bovine gamma globulin, or BGG) or a hapten-protein conjugate (e.g. p-aminobenzoic acid-bovine gamma globulin, or PABAγmiddot;BGG) by intraperitoneal injection of 80 mg cyclophosphamide and the specific antigen. This immunologic unresponsiveness developed to the specific antigen administered simultaneously with the cyclophosphamide, and not to any variants. Thus, animals unresponsive to PABAγmiddot;BGG remained unresponsive to the original antigen on challenge with a variant, but formed delayed hypersensitivity and circulating antibody to the variant. The specificity of immunologic unresponsiveness, therefore, seems more closely related to the whole antigen molecule than does delayed hypersensitivity. PMID:14157034

  13. High specific heat superconducting composite

    DOEpatents

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1979-01-01

    A composite superconductor formed from a high specific heat ceramic such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium-aluminum oxide and a conventional metal conductor such as copper or aluminum which are insolubly mixed together to provide adiabatic stability in a superconducting mode of operation. The addition of a few percent of insoluble gadolinium-aluminum oxide powder or gadolinium oxide powder to copper, increases the measured specific heat of the composite by one to two orders of magnitude below the 5.degree. K. level while maintaining the high thermal and electrical conductivity of the conventional metal conductor.

  14. Automotive Lubricant Specification and Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, M. F.

    This chapter concerns commercial lubricant specification and testing, drawing together the many themes of previous chapters. Military lubricant standards were a very strong initial influence during World War II and led to the separate historical development of the North American and European specification systems. The wide range of functions that a successful lubricant must satisfy is discussed, together with issues of balancing special or universal applications, single or multiple engine tests, the philosophy of accelerated testing and the question of 'who sets the standards?' The role of engine tests and testing organisations is examined.

  15. Host Specificity of Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Bäumler, Andreas; Fang, Ferric C.

    2013-01-01

    Most pathogens are able to infect multiple hosts but some are highly adapted to a single-host species. A detailed understanding of the basis of host specificity can provide important insights into molecular pathogenesis, the evolution of pathogenic microbes, and the potential for pathogens to cross the species barrier to infect new hosts. Comparative genomics and the development of humanized mouse models have provided important new tools with which to explore the basis of generalism and specialism. This review will examine host specificity of bacterial pathogens with a focus on generalist and specialist serovars of Salmonella enterica. PMID:24296346

  16. Application specific serial arithmetic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, K.; Mathews, D.; Thompson, T.

    1990-01-01

    High performance systolic arrays of serial-parallel multiplier elements may be rapidly constructed for specific applications by applying hardware description language techniques to a library of full-custom CMOS building blocks. Single clock pre-charged circuits have been implemented for these arrays at clock rates in excess of 100 Mhz using economical 2-micron (minimum feature size) CMOS processes, which may be quickly configured for a variety of applications. A number of application-specific arrays are presented, including a 2-D convolver for image processing, an integer polynomial solver, and a finite-field polynomial solver.

  17. Netware-Specific Network Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robin M.

    This paper focuses on practical and cost-effective NetWare-specific approaches to information systems and computer security. A series of real world experiences is presented that illustrate fundamental information systems and security concepts. A NetWare network is a client-server network which uses a file server to share files while client…

  18. EDUCATIONAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FLANIGAN, VIRGINIA; AND OTHERS

    THE REPORT CAN BE USED AS A GUIDE IN THE PREPARATION OF EDUCATIONAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS. NEW CURRICULA, METHODS OF INSTRUCTION, AND TEACHING AIDS ADD TO THE SOPHISTICATION OF EDUCATION. PROGRAMS ENCOMPASS MANY AREAS OF EDUCATION, EACH REQUIRING PROFESSIONAL DECISIONS. THESE DECISIONS MUST BE ORGANIZED INTO WRITTEN SPECIFICATIONS…

  19. CONTRACT DOCUMENTS AND PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First California Commission on School Construction Systems, Palo Alto.

    A SET OF EDUCATIONAL SPECIFICATION DRAFTED BY THE FIRST CALIFORNIA COMMISSION ON SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS GIVES INFORMATION ON BIDDING PROCEDURES, A DESCRIPTION OF THE CURRENT CONSTRUCTION PROGRAM, PROCEDURES FOR SUBMITTING A PROPOSAL, DATA AND CONDITIONS RELATED TO THE DEVELOPMENT PHASE OF THE PROJECT, COMPONENT CONTRACTS, AND GENERAL…

  20. Education Specifications: New Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA.

    Educational specifications are presented delineating instructional space requirements and relationships for a middle school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. A description of the desired educational programs is followed by a discussion of those spaces necessary to house the program and the relationship that they must bear one to the other.…

  1. Specific Skills Training. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Social Fund, Dublin (Ireland).

    Ireland's program of specific skills training (SST) Objective 1 courses, which are designed to train/retrain the labor force required for implementation of Ireland's Industry and Services Operational Programme, was evaluated by analyzing program expenditure reports and participant profiles, surveying a random sample of 101 employers, and visiting…

  2. [Specificities in children wound healing].

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J; Antonicelli, F; Tuton, D; Mazouz Dorval, S; François, C

    2016-10-01

    Children have specific characteristics of wound healing. The aim of this study was to describe the specific clinical characteristics of wounds healing in children and to present the current knowledge on the specific mechanisms with regard to infant age. The tissue insult or injury in fetus can heal without scar, mainly due to reduced granulation tissue associated to diminished or even no inflammatory phase, modified extracellular matrix such as the concentration of hyaluronic acid in amniotic liquid, expression and arrangement of collagen and tenascin. Thickness of children skin is a serious negative factor in case of trauma, whereas poor co-morbidities and efficient growth tissue mechanisms are beneficial to good evolution, even in cases of extensive damage and loss of tissue. The subsequent tissue mechanical forces, wound healing during childhood, spanning from the age of 2 until the end of puberty, is associated with more hypertrophic scars, both in duration and in intensity. Consequently, unnecessary surgery has to be avoided during this period when possible, and children with abnormal or pathologic wound healing should benefit from complementary treatments (hydration, massage, brace, silicone, hydrotherapy…), which represent efficient factors to minimize tissue scarring. After wound healing, the growth body rate can be responsible for specific complications, such as contractures, alopecia, and scar intussusceptions. Its evolutionary character implies the need of an attentive follow-up until adult age. Psychologic repercussions, as a consequence of pathologic scars, must be prevented and investigated by the surgeon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Developing dendrites demonstrate unexpected specificity.

    PubMed

    Chalupa, Leo M

    2006-11-22

    Our knowledge of how developing dendrites attain their mature state is still rudimentary. In this issue of Neuron, Mumm et al. rely on time-lapsed analysis of ingrowing dendrites of retinal ganglion cells in transgenic zebrafish to show that this process is much more specific than has been suspected.

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specifications. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 3...

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specifications. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 3...

  6. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specifications. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 3...

  7. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specifications. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 3...

  8. ON GROUP SPECIFIC A SUBSTANCES

    PubMed Central

    Landsteiner, K.; Chase, M. W.

    1936-01-01

    A method of preparation and a preliminary chemical investigation of the substance present in commercial (pig) pepsin which reacts with human A antiserum are presented. The material offers especial advantage in securing in quantity a serologically highly active preparation suitable for further studies. Active preparations were isolated moreover from commercial (pig) gastric mucin. Some other materials showing group specific reactions are mentioned. PMID:19870506

  9. [Phenotype specific therapy of COPD].

    PubMed

    Rothe, Thomas

    2014-12-10

    COPD is not a homogenous disease but consists of at least four different phenotypes: Emphysema, COPD with chronic bronchitis, asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS), and COPD with recurrent exacerbations. With differentiation, treatment can be designed phenotype-specific. Some modern drugs are not indicated in all phenotypes.

  10. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specifications. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec....

  11. Reflight certification software design specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The PDSS/IMC Software Design Specification for the Payload Development Support System (PDSS)/Image Motion Compensator (IMC) is contained. The PDSS/IMC is to be used for checkout and verification of the IMC flight hardware and software by NASA/MSFC.

  12. Portable File Format (PFF) specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H.

    2015-02-01

    Created at Sandia National Laboratories, the Portable File Format (PFF) allows binary data transfer across computer platforms. Although this capability is supported by many other formats, PFF files are still in use at Sandia, particularly in pulsed power research. This report provides detailed PFF specifications for accessing data without relying on legacy code.

  13. Specificity of Cardiovascular Endurance Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Calberth B., Jr.; Johnson, James H.

    This study determined the specificity of cardiovascular endurance training on a bicycle ergometer. Eighteen male subjects were tested on a heart rate response test of 150 beats per minute on a bicycle ergometer at the pace of 50 revolutions per minute (rpm) and at 160 beats per minute at 60 and 80 rpm, with the resistance equal to the force of…

  14. Adaptive Assessments Using Open Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Hector Barbosa; Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Conde, Maria Jose; Morales, Erla M.; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation is a key element in formal education processes; it must be constructed in a way that the item questions within help students understand by adapting them to the learning style as well. The focus of the present research work specifically in the convenience to adapt an associated multimedia material in each single question besides the…

  15. Specificity and Variability of Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Charles H.; Kohl, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Describes two experiments which examined how supplementing specific practice experiences with variable practice experiences influenced motor skill retention. Participants received varying trials of acquisition practice on a criterion force production task. Acquisition practice with variations of the criterion task led to better retention than…

  16. Category-specific naming and modality-specific imagery.

    PubMed

    Laws, Keith R

    2002-01-01

    Some attempts to explain category-specific disorders have stressed how different modality knowledge bases (i.e., visual knowledge vs motoric/functional knowledge) may underlie the distinction between living and nonliving things. This study examined 60 normal subjects for the relationship between picture naming in four subcategories (animals, fruit/vegetables, praxic and nonpraxic objects) and imagery vividness in seven modalities. Participants made more nonliving than living errors; and females made more nonliving errors than males. There was a significant correlation between naming of animals and fruits/vegetables and visual imagery vividness; however, this association was also significant for praxic and nonpraxic object naming. There was no evidence of associations between kinesthetic imagery and praxic object naming or gustatory/olfactory imagery and fruit/vegetable naming. These findings accord with the notion of a general association between visual imagery and picture naming, but provide no support for more specific links between modality-specific imagery vividness and naming in different categories.

  17. Substrate Specificity of Chlorophyllase 12

    PubMed Central

    McFeeters, Roger F.

    1975-01-01

    Apparent Km and Vmax values were obtained for hydrolysis of methyl and ethyl chlorophyllides a, methyl and ethyl pheophorbide a, and 9-hydroxymethyl pheophorbide a by chlorophyllase from Ailanthus altissima. Analysis of substrate specificity data for chlorophyllase indicates that the presence of a 9-keto group and a methyl alcohol group esterified at the 7-position in chlorophyll derivatives results in maximum binding affinity for substrates. Data on maximum reaction rates indicate that the rate-controlling step of hydrolysis occurs after release of the alcohol from the ester. Probable high affinity chlorophyllase inhibitors can be predicted on the basis of these specificity studies. An improved method for purification of chlorophyllase has been developed. PMID:16659086

  18. Isotope specific arbitrary material sorter

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2015-12-08

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide a rapid and unique, isotope specific method for sorting materials. The objects to be sorted are passed on a conveyor in front of a MEGa-ray beam which has been tuned to the nuclear resonance fluorescence transition of the desired material. As the material containing the desired isotope traverses the beam, a reduction in the transmitted MEGa-ray beam occurs. Alternately, the laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  19. Instrument specificity in experienced musicians.

    PubMed

    Drost, Ulrich C; Rieger, Martina; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2007-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that experienced pianists have acquired integrated action-effect (A-E) associations. In the present study, we were interested in how specific these associations are for the own instrument by investigating pianists and guitarists. A-E associations were examined by testing whether the perception of a "potential" action-effect has an influence on actions. Participants played chords on their instrument in response to visual stimuli, while they were presented task-irrelevant auditory distractors (congruent or incongruent) in varying instrument timbre. In Experiment 1, pianists exhibited an interference effect with timbres of their own instrument category (keyboard instruments: piano and organ). In Experiment 2 guitarists showed an interference effect only with guitar timbre. Thus, integrated A-E associations primarily seem to consist of a specific component on a sensory-motor level involving the own instrument. Additionally, categorical knowledge about how an instrument is played seems to be involved.

  20. Certifying Domain-Specific Policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael; Pressburger, Thomas; Rosu, Grigore; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Proof-checking code for compliance to safety policies potentially enables a product-oriented approach to certain aspects of software certification. To date, previous research has focused on generic, low-level programming-language properties such as memory type safety. In this paper we consider proof-checking higher-level domain -specific properties for compliance to safety policies. The paper first describes a framework related to abstract interpretation in which compliance to a class of certification policies can be efficiently calculated Membership equational logic is shown to provide a rich logic for carrying out such calculations, including partiality, for certification. The architecture for a domain-specific certifier is described, followed by an implemented case study. The case study considers consistency of abstract variable attributes in code that performs geometric calculations in Aerospace systems.

  1. Frit specification development: Letter report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.A.; Hrma, P.R.; Vienna, J.D.; Fini, P.T.

    1996-03-01

    To specify frit for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the relevant requirements and characterization need to be established. The properties and applicable testing will be incorporated into a specification. Several areas have been identified that require consideration in a frit specification: glass processability and acceptability; frit storage and handling; frit slurry rheology; melter feed rheology; canister decontamination; pumping equipment/pipe erosion; frit cooling rate; and glass melting rate. The listed areas are influenced primarily by frit composition, temperature history, particle morphology, particle size, size distribution. and properties that depend on the primary variables such as hardness and frit density. Frit development proceeds in two steps: the first focuses on the waste glass, and the second on the pre-melt (including cold cap) processing.

  2. Industrial lead paint removal specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, R.C.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform the reader as to some of the pertinent rules and regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) that may effect an industrial lead paint removal project. The paper discusses a recommended schedule of procedures and preparations to be followed by the lead paint removal specification writer when analyzing the possible impact of the project on the environment, the public and workers. Implications of the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) along with hazardous waste handling, manifesting, transporting and disposal procedures are discussed with special emphasis placed as to their impact on the writer and the facility owner. As the rules and regulations are highly complex, the writer has attempted to explain the methodology currently being used in state-of-the-art industrial lead abatement specifications.

  3. Patient specific physical anatomy models.

    PubMed

    Cameron, B M; Holmes, D R; Rettmann, M E; Robb, R A

    2008-01-01

    The advent of small footprint stereo-lithographic printers and the ready availability of segmentation and surface modeling software provide a unique opportunity to create patient-specific physical models of anatomy, validation of image guided intervention applications against phantoms that exhibit naturally occurring anatomic variation. Because these models can incorporate all structures relevant to a procedure, this allows validation to occur under realistic conditions using the same or similar techniques as would be used in a clinical application. This in turn reduces the number of trials and time spent performing in-vivo validation experiments. In this paper, we describe our general approach for the creation of both non-tissue and tissue-mimicking patient-specific models as part of a general-purpose patient emulation system used to validate image guided intervention applications.

  4. [Quality specification of Curcumae Radix].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingjing; Zhang, Qingzhe; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Qiwei

    2010-08-01

    To establish and revise the quality specification of Curcumae Radix. TLC identification was carried out by the method in Appendix VI B in Chinese pharmacopoeia (2005th Edition) and the contents of volatile oil was determined by the method describing in Appendix XD. Twenty-four Samples from four different curcuma species were performed TLC qualitative analysis and volatile determination, respectively. The established method can be used for the quality control of Curcumae Radix.

  5. IntelliCable Interface Specification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    on system operation and is purely information for the user. If it is unused it should be set as 0, which will allow the power manager to display an...IntelliCable vastly reduces the possibility of equipment damage, by providing information tied to each power cable, indicating to the Power Manager ...specific device type is used to further identify the device attached the Power Manager . This field is often extra information or ‘fluff’, used for the

  6. Lightweight Specifications for Parallel Correctness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-05

    this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204... George Necula Professor David Wessel Fall 2012 1 Abstract Lightweight Specifications for Parallel Correctness by Jacob Samuels Burnim Doctor of Philosophy...enthusiasm and endless flow of ideas, and for his keen research sense. I would also like to thank George Necula for chairing my qualifying exam committee and

  7. Chromosome specific repetitive DNA sequences

    DOEpatents

    Moyzis, Robert K.; Meyne, Julianne

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for determining specific nucleotide sequences useful in forming a probe which can identify specific chromosomes, preferably through in situ hybridization within the cell itself. In one embodiment, chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family me This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  8. Contrast-specific ultrasound techniques.

    PubMed

    Quaia, E

    2007-06-01

    The advent of microbubble contrast agents has determined an important evolution of ultrasound (US) technology due to the introduction of contrast-specific US techniques. This was due to the fact that neither colour or power Doppler are suitable for correct management of the signals produced by microbubble insonation, as they are limited by the heavy presence of artefacts. Microbubbles may be insonated by a characteristic frequency named resonance or fundamental frequency (f (0)) by using a high or low transmit power. If insonated by a high transmit power, microbubbles produce a wideband harmonic signal due to microbubble destruction. If insonated by a low transmit power, microbubbles produce harmonic frequencies (2f, 3f, 4f) due to their nonlinear physical behaviour. Contrast-specific US techniques have recently undergone an important technical development with the introduction of innovative algorithms able to register selectively the harmonic signals produced by microbubbles and to suppress the signal produced by stationary tissues. The different contrast-specific US techniques may be distinguished by their basic principle into pseudo-Doppler, harmonic, phase-modulation, amplitude-modulation and phase-and amplitude-modulation techniques.

  9. Specific test and evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.H.

    1997-12-09

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a ``lower tier`` document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP) This STEP encompasses all testing activities required to demonstrate compliance to the project design criteria as it relates to the modifications of the AN-A valve pit. The Project Design Specifications (PDS) identify the specific testing activities required for the Project. Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities), Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Acceptance Tests (CATs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). It should be noted that POTPs are not required for testing of the modifications to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit. The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

  10. Sex-specific and race-specific hip fracture rates.

    PubMed Central

    Kellie, S E; Brody, J A

    1990-01-01

    Sex-, race- and age-specific hip fracture rates were determined using Health Care Financing Administration data for Medicare-reimbursed hip fracture hospitalizations from 1980 to 1982. Rates were highest in White women, lowest in Black men, and intermediate in White men and Black women. Proportions of hip fracture patients dying during hospitalization and those discharged to nursing homes, respectively, were: White men (10.5%; 49%); Black men (9.3%; 32%); White women (5.0%; 54%); and Black women (8.2%; 30%). PMID:2305917

  11. [Specific antiepileptic therapy in childhood].

    PubMed

    Kelemen, A; Bozić, K; Zikić, M; Gebauer, K; Filipović, D

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with basic rational antiepileptic therapeutic procedures in children with special consideration of numerous specificities which occur in childhood: difficulties in establishing correct syndrome diagnosis, predominantly after the first or first few seizures which makes it difficult to decide about appropriate syndrome-specific therapy in regard to efficacy, mechanism of action and range of antiepileptic action; difficulties in assessment of subjective factors (their adverse effects and recognition of seizures with subjective symptoms), children's vulnerability in regard to drug toxicity; age-specific pharmacokinetics of these drugs. The number of available antiepileptics today is great due to new drugs, but carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproate (VAL) are still basic antiepileptics, although carbamazepine's action is reduced to partial epilepsies. The paper describes range of action of available antiepileptics in regard to classification of epileptic seizures and most frequent epileptic syndromes. Adverse effects of antiepileptic agents depend on the age, so examples of age-dependent adverse effects are given considering conventional and new antiepileptics. It is well known that optimal control of seizures depends not only on correct choice of drug, but also on appropriate dosage; it is necessary to be informed about age-dependent characteristics of clinical pharmacokinetics: resorption, metabolism, elimination and half-life of antiepileptics. Although 70-80% of children may be well treated with monotherapy, 15% of children require combination of 2 or more drugs causing drug interactions in resorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. Examples of antiepileptic interactions as well as interactions of other drugs and antiepileptics are given. The paper also deals with special importance of the psychosocial aspects of epilepsy. These children are often unaccepted by others, mostly because others are afraid of their disease, which contributes to

  12. Lack of specificity of commercially available antisera: better specifications needed.

    PubMed

    Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Labruyère, Wil T; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F; Lamers, Wouter H

    2008-12-01

    The ideal antiserum for immunohistochemical (IHC) applications contains monospecific high-affinity antibodies with little nonspecific adherence to sections. Many commercially available antibodies are "affinity" purified, but it is unknown if they meet "hard" specificity criteria, such as absence of staining in tissues genetically deficient for the antigen or a staining pattern that is identical to that of an antibody raised against a different epitope on the same protein. Reviewers, therefore, often require additional characterization. Although the affinity-purified antibodies used in our study on the distribution of muscarinic receptors produced selective staining patterns on sections, few passed the preabsorption test, and none produced bands of the anticipated size on Western blots. More importantly, none showed a difference in staining pattern on sections or Western blots between wild-type and knockout mice. Because these antibodies were used in most studies published thus far, our findings cast doubts on the validity of the extant body of morphological knowledge of the whole family of muscarinic receptors. We formulate requirements that antibody-specification data sheets should meet and propose that journals for which IHC is a core technique facilitate consumer rating of antibodies. "Certified" antibodies could avoid fruitless and costly validation assays and should become the standard of commercial suppliers.

  13. How specific is specific phobia? Different neural response patterns in two subtypes of specific phobia.

    PubMed

    Lueken, Ulrike; Kruschwitz, Johann Daniel; Muehlhan, Markus; Siegert, Jens; Hoyer, Jürgen; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    Specific phobia of the animal subtype has been employed as a model disorder exploring the neurocircuitry of anxiety disorders, but evidence is lacking whether the detected neural response pattern accounts for all animal subtypes, nor across other phobia subtypes. The present study aimed at directly comparing two subtypes of specific phobia: snake phobia (SP) representing the animal, and dental phobia (DP) representing the blood-injection-injury subtype. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), brain activation and skin conductance was measured during phobogenic video stimulation in 12 DP, 12 SP, and 17 healthy controls. For SP, the previously described activation of fear circuitry structures encompassing the insula, anterior cingulate cortex and thalamus could be replicated and was furthermore associated with autonomic arousal. In contrast, DP showed circumscribed activation of the prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex (PFC/OFC) when directly compared to SP, being dissociated from autonomic arousal. Results provide preliminary evidence for the idea that snake and dental phobia are characterized by distinct underlying neural systems during sustained emotional processing with evaluation processes in DP being controlled by orbitofrontal areas, whereas phobogenic reactions in SP are primarily guided by limbic and paralimbic structures. Findings support the current diagnostic classification conventions, separating distinct subtypes in DSM-IV-TR. They highlight that caution might be warranted though for generalizing findings derived from animal phobia to other phobic and anxiety disorders. If replicated, results could contribute to a better understanding of underlying neurobiological mechanisms of specific phobia and their respective classification.

  14. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Smirnov, Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  15. [Quality specification of Perillae Fructus].

    PubMed

    Gu, Lihua; Lin, Chen; Wu, Tao; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Zhengtao

    2010-08-01

    To improve the quality control specification of Perillae Fructus, the identification methods and assay were developed. Rosmarinic acid, luteolin and apigenin in the sample were identified by TLC. The content of rosmarinic acid was determined by HPLC. The linear calibration curve of rosmarinic acid was obtained in the ranges of 19.4-194.2 g x L(-1) (R2 = 0.9999). The arerage coveriy (n=9) for the assay was 99.8% (RSD 3.6%). The established methods are accuracy, sensitivity and reproducible, and can be used for the quality control of Perillae Fructus.

  16. Functional specificity of PMCA isoforms?

    PubMed

    Domi, Teuta; Di Leva, Francesca; Fedrizzi, Laura; Rimessi, Alessandro; Brini, Marisa

    2007-03-01

    In mammals, four different genes encode four PMCA isoforms. PMCA1 and PMCA4 are expressed ubiquitously. PMCA2 and PMCA3 are expressed prevalently in the central nervous systems. More than 30 variants are generated by mechanisms of alternative splicing. The physiological meaning of the existence of such elevated number of isoforms is not clear, but it would be plausible to relate it to the cell-specific demands of Ca2+ homeostasis. To characterize functional specificity of PMCA variants we have investigated two aspects: the effects of the overexpression of the different PMCA variants on cellular Ca2+ handling and the existence of possible isoform-specific interactions with partner proteins using a yeast two-hybrid technique. The four basic PMCA isoforms were coexpressed in CHO cells together with the Ca2+-sensitive recombinant photoprotein aequorin. The effects of their overexpression on Ca2+ homeostasis were monitored in the living cells. They had revealed that the ubiquitous isoforms 1 and 4 are less effective in reducing the Ca2+ peaks generated by cell stimulation as compared to the neuron-specific isoforms 2 and 3. To establish whether these differences were related to different and new physiological regulators of the pump, the 90 N-terminal residues of PMCA2 and PMCA4 have been used as baits for the search of molecular partners. Screening of a human brain cDNA library with the PMCA4 bait specified the epsilon-isoform of protein 14-3-3, whereas no 14-3-3 epsilon clone was obtained with the PMCA2 bait. Overexpression of PMCA4/14-3-3 epsilon (but not of PMCA2/14-3-3 epsilon) in HeLa cells together with targeted aequorins showed that the ability of the cells to export Ca2+ was impaired. Thus, the interaction with 14-3-3 epsilon inhibited PMCA4 but not PMCA2. The role of PMCA2 has been further characterized by Ca2+ measurements in cells overexpressing different splicing variants. The results indicated that the combination of alternative splicing at two different

  17. Restoring HIV-specific immunity.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1999-02-12

    When HIV is controlled with antiretrovirals, immunity to other infections often returns. Sometimes patients can stop prophylactic treatment, and sometimes opportunistic infections can clear up without treatment. However, immunity to HIV itself does not return, or returns very slowly, even when HIV has been suppressed for years with drug therapy. Researchers do not know why HIV immunity reacts differently, but several possible approaches to restoring HIV-specific immunity are being researched. One approach involves a therapeutic vaccination while the virus is well suppressed with antiretrovirals. The other approach is beginning HIV treatment very early, before the virus begins destroying the cells that recognize it. Several studies are discussed.

  18. Project X functional requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, S.D.; Henderson, S.D.; Kephart, R.; Kerby, J.; Kourbanis, I.; Lebedev, V.; Mishra, S.; Nagaitsev, S.; Solyak, N.; Tschirhart, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Project X is a multi-megawatt proton facility being developed to support a world-leading program in Intensity Frontier physics at Fermilab. The facility is designed to support programs in elementary particle and nuclear physics, with possible applications to nuclear energy research. A Functional Requirements Specification has been developed in order to establish performance criteria for the Project X complex in support of these multiple missions, and to assure that the facility is designed with sufficient upgrade capability to provide U.S. leadership for many decades to come. This paper will briefly review the previously described Functional Requirements, and then discuss their recent evolution.

  19. [Geroprotectors: specific action or hormesis?].

    PubMed

    Vaĭserman, A M

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, a number of nutrients and chemicals including antioxidants, vitamins, and hormones are widely advertised as "anti-aging" drugs ("geroprotectors"). It is usually believed that life-extending capacity of geroprotectors may be attributed to their specific anti-aging mechanisms, even without solid scientific evidence. Induction of the hormetic adaptive response in stressed organisms could be alternative explanation. The evidence that life-extending effects of anti-aging drugs may be due to hormetic-like response is discussed in this analytic review.

  20. Logic programming and metadata specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Saacks, Marguerite E.

    1992-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) ideas and techniques are critical to the development of intelligent information systems that will be used to collect, manipulate, and retrieve the vast amounts of space data produced by 'Missions to Planet Earth.' Natural language processing, inference, and expert systems are at the core of this space application of AI. This paper presents logic programming as an AI tool that can support inference (the ability to draw conclusions from a set of complicated and interrelated facts). It reports on the use of logic programming in the study of metadata specifications for a small problem domain of airborne sensors, and the dataset characteristics and pointers that are needed for data access.

  1. Specific EEG frequencies at specific brain areas and performance.

    PubMed

    Fernández, T; Harmony, T; Silva-Pereyra, J; Fernández-Bouzas, A; Gersenowies, J; Galán, L; Carbonell, F; Marosi, E; Otero, G; Valdés, S I

    2000-08-21

    In this study it was shown that in adults, the frequency characteristics of EEG preceding stimuli that were followed by incorrect responses were different from the characteristics of EEG preceding stimuli that were followed by correct responses. In the recording during three different tasks that explore different neuronal networks, higher values of current preceding incorrect performance in those areas directly related to the task were found in frequencies within the delta (1.56 and 3.12 Hz) and beta bands (13.26, 14.04, 14.82, 15.6, 17.16 and 17.94 Hz), suggesting that these frequencies signal inhibition. Frequencies within the alpha band (9.36 and 12.48 Hz) showed greater energy preceding correct responses in task-specific areas, supporting previous results observed in children.

  2. Substrate Specificity of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Marc O.; Wu, Lisa Y.; Santiago, Nicholas M.; Moser, Jamie M.; Rowley, Jennifer A.; Bolstad, Erin S. D.; Berkman, Clifford E.

    2007-01-01

    A series of putative dipeptide substrates of prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) was prepared that explored α- and β/γ-linked acidic residues at the P1 position and various chromophores at the P2 position, while keeping the P1’ residue constant as L-Glu. Four chromophores were examined, including 4-phenylazobenzoyl, 1-pyrenebutyrl, 9-anthracenylcarboxyl-γ-aminobutyrl, and 4-nitrophenylbutyryl. When evaluating these chromophores, it was found that a substrate containing 4-phenylazobenzoyl at the P2 position was consumed most efficiently. Substitution at the P1 position with acidic residues showed that only γ-linked L-Glu and D-Glu were recognized by the enzyme, with the former being more readily proteolyzed. Lastly, binding modes of endogenous substrates and our best synthetic substrate (4-phenylazobenzoyl-Glu-γ-Glu) were proposed by computational docking studies into an X-ray crystal structure of the PSMA extracellular domain. PMID:17764959

  3. Flight Guidance System Requirements Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven P.; Tribble, Alan C.; Carlson, Timothy M.; Danielson, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a requirements specification written in the RSML-e language for the mode logic of a Flight Guidance System of a typical regional jet aircraft. This model was created as one of the first steps in a five-year project sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center, Rockwell Collins Inc., and the Critical Systems Research Group of the University of Minnesota to develop new methods and tools to improve the safety of avionics designs. This model will be used to demonstrate the application of a variety of methods and techniques, including safety analysis of system and subsystem requirements, verification of key properties using theorem provers and model checkers, identification of potential sources mode confusion in system designs, partitioning of applications based on the criticality of system hazards, and autogeneration of avionics quality code. While this model is representative of the mode logic of a typical regional jet aircraft, it does not describe an actual or planned product. Several aspects of a full Flight Guidance System, such as recovery from failed sensors, have been omitted, and no claims are made regarding the accuracy or completeness of this specification.

  4. Specific heat of solid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xi; Clark, Anthony; Kim, Eunseong; Chan, Moses

    2006-03-01

    Recently superflow in solid ^4He was found below 200mK via a torsional oscillator technique^1. While there were a number of measurements on the specific heat of solid helium carried out down to 100mK, there is no evidence of a heat capacity signature related to the onset of the supersolid phase^2. A serious experimental challenge is discerning the small specific heat of solid helium from that of the metallic cells which are typically used to confine the solid. We have recently begun a new measurement of the heat capacity of solid helium contained in a silicon cell. The heat capacity of the silicon cell below 300mK is always less than that of the solid helium sample. Results of the measurement will be presented. This work is supported by NSF under grant number 0207071. [1] E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Nature 427, 225 (2004); E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Science 305, 1941 (2004); E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, J. Low Temp. Phys. 138, 859 (2005). [2] S. H. Castles and E. D. Adams, J. Low Temp. Phys. 19, 397 (1975); B. H'ebral et al., Phonons in Condensed Matter, edited by H. J. Maris (Plenum, New York, 1980), pg. 169; A. C. Clark and M. H. W. Chan, J. Low Temp. Phys. 138, 853 (2005).

  5. Inhibitors of specific ceramide synthases.

    PubMed

    Schiffmann, Susanne; Hartmann, Daniela; Fuchs, Sina; Birod, Kerstin; Ferreiròs, Nerea; Schreiber, Yannick; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Geisslinger, Gerd; Grösch, Sabine; Stark, Holger

    2012-02-01

    Ceramide synthases (CerSs) are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of ceramides and display a group of at least six different isoenzymes (CerS1-6). Ceramides itself are bioactive molecules. Ceramides with different N-acyl side chains (C(14:0)-Cer - C(26:0)-Cer) possess distinct roles in cell signaling. Therefore, the selective inhibition of specific CerSs which are responsible for the formation of a specific ceramide holds promise for a number of new clinical treatment strategies, e.g., cancer. Here, we identified four of hitherto unknown functional inhibitors of CerSs derived from the FTY720 (Fingolimod) lead structure and showed their inhibitory effectiveness by two in vitro CerS activity assays. Additionally, we tested the substances in two cell lines (HCT-116 and HeLa) with different ceramide patterns. In summary, the in vitro activity assays revealed out that ST1058 and ST1074 preferentially inhibit CerS2 and CerS4, while ST1072 inhibits most potently CerS4 and CerS6. Importantly, ST1060 inhibits predominately CerS2. First structure-activity relationships and the potential biological impact of these compounds are discussed.

  6. Arithmetic Memory Is Modality Specific

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Timothy; Szücs, Dénes

    2015-01-01

    In regards to numerical cognition and working memory, it is an open question as to whether numbers are stored into and retrieved from a central abstract representation or from separate notation-specific representations. This study seeks to help answer this by utilizing the numeral modality effect (NME) in three experiments to explore how numbers are processed by the human brain. The participants were presented with numbers (1–9) as either Arabic digits or written number words (Arabic digits and dot matrices in Experiment 2) at the first (S1) and second (S2) stimuli. The participant’s task was to add the first two stimuli together and verify whether the answer (S3), presented simultaneously with S2, was correct. We hypothesized that if reaction time (RT) at S2/S3 depends on the modality of S1 then numbers are retrieved from modality specific memory stores. Indeed, RT depended on the modality of S1 whenever S2 was an Arabic digit which argues against the concept of numbers being stored and retrieved from a central, abstract representation. PMID:26716692

  7. Molecular-specific urokinase antibodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atassi, M. Zouhair (Inventor); Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have been developed against the different molecular forms of urokinase using synthetic peptides as immunogens. The peptides were synthesized specifically to represent those regions of the urokinase molecules which are exposed in the three-dimensional configuration of the molecule and are uniquely homologous to urokinase. Antibodies are directed against the lysine 158-isoleucine 159 peptide bond which is cleaved during activation from the single-chain (ScuPA) form to the bioactive double chain (54 KDa and 33 KDa) forms of urokinase and against the lysine 135 lysine 136 bond that is cleaved in the process of removing the alpha-chain from the 54 KDa form to produce the 33 KDa form of urokinase. These antibodies enable the direct measurement of the different molecular forms of urokinase from small samples of conditioned medium harvested from cell cultures.

  8. PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION AND LAWFUL SPECIFICATION

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E.; Rubin, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    When a listener can also see a talker, audible and visible properties are ineluctably combined, perceptually. This perceptual disposition to audiovisual integration has received widely ranging explanations. At one extreme, accounts have likened perception to a blind listener and a deaf viewer combined within a single skin, resolving discrepancies in identification by each modality. At the other extreme, perception has been described as necessarily and automatically synesthetic. Useful descriptive and explanatory evidence was provided in a study of auditory-haptic presentation by Fowler and Dekle (1991), showing that neither familiarity nor congruence is required for perceptual integration to occur across modalities. Instead, the notion of conjoint lawful specification was proposed as a governing constraint. This principle treats sensory activity as proximal sampling of the properties of distal objects and events, and this essay notes that its corollaries offer a broadly applicable guide in contemporary investigations of perception. PMID:27642242

  9. Specific Language Impairment Across Languages

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Laurence B.

    2014-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant and longstanding deficit in spoken language ability that adversely affects their social and academic well-being. Studies of children with SLI in a wide variety of languages reveal diverse symptoms, most of which seem to reflect weaknesses in grammatical computation and phonological short-term memory. The symptoms of the disorder are sensitive to the type of language being acquired, with extraordinary weaknesses seen in those areas of language that are relatively challenging for younger typically developing children. Although these children's deficits warrant clinical and educational attention, their weaknesses might reflect the extreme end of a language aptitude continuum rather than a distinct, separable condition. PMID:24765105

  10. LAS bioconcentration is isomer specific

    SciTech Connect

    Tolls, J.; Haller, M.; Graaf, I. de; Thijssen, M.H.C.; Sijm, D.T.H.M.

    1995-12-31

    The authors measured parent compound specific bioconcentration data for linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in Pimephales promelas. They did so by using cold, custom synthesized sulfophenyl alkanes. They observed that, within homologous series of isomers, the uptake rate constants (k{sub 1}) and the bioconcentration factor (BCF) increase with increasing number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain (n{sub C-atoms}). In contrast, the elimination rate constant k{sub 2} appears to be independent of the alkyl chain length. Regressions of log BCF vs n{sub C-atoms} yielded different slopes for the homologous groups of the 5- and the 2-sulfophenyl alkane isomers. Regression of all log BCF-data vs log 1/CMC yielded a good description of the data. However, when regressing the data for both homologous series separately again very different slopes are obtained. The results therefore indicate that hydrophobicity-bioconcentration relationships may be different for different homologous groups of sulfophenyl alkanes.

  11. MATISSE: specifications and expected performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, A.; Lagarde, S.; Petrov, R. G.; Berio, P.; Robbe-Dubois, S.; Lopez, B.; Antonelli, P.; Allouche, F.; Cruzalebes, P.; Millour, F.; Bazin, G.; Bourgès, L.

    2016-08-01

    MATISSE (Multi AperTure mid-Infrared SpectroScopic Experiment) is the next generation spectro-interferometer at the European Southern Observatory VLTI operating in the spectral bands L, M and N, and combining four beams from the unit and auxiliary telescopes. MATISSE is now fully integrated at the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur in Nice (France), and has entered very recently its testing phase in laboratory. This paper summarizes the equations describing the MATISSE signal and the associated sources of noise. The specifications and the expected performances of the instrument are then evaluated taking into account the current characteristics of the instrument and the VLTI infrastructure, including transmission and contrast degradation budgets. In addition, we present the different MATISSE simulation tools that will be made available to the future users.

  12. Specific Language Impairment Across Languages.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Laurence B

    2014-03-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant and longstanding deficit in spoken language ability that adversely affects their social and academic well-being. Studies of children with SLI in a wide variety of languages reveal diverse symptoms, most of which seem to reflect weaknesses in grammatical computation and phonological short-term memory. The symptoms of the disorder are sensitive to the type of language being acquired, with extraordinary weaknesses seen in those areas of language that are relatively challenging for younger typically developing children. Although these children's deficits warrant clinical and educational attention, their weaknesses might reflect the extreme end of a language aptitude continuum rather than a distinct, separable condition.

  13. DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC NEUTRONIC REACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Dessauer, G.

    1960-05-10

    A method is given for production-line determination of the specific neutronic reactivity of such objects as individual nuclear fuel or neutron absorber elements and is notable for rapidity and apparatus simplicity. The object is incorporated in a slightly sub-critical chain fission reactive assembly having a discrete neutron source, thereby establishing a K/sub eff/ within the crucial range of 0.95 to 0.995. The range was found to afford, uniquely, flux- transient damped response in a niatter of seconds simultaneously with acceptable analytical sensitivity. The resulting neutron flux measured at a situs spaced from both object and source within the assembly serves as a calibrable indication of said reactivity.

  14. Specific test and evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-03-20

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AX-B Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP). Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities), Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Acceptance Tests (CATs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). It should be noted that POTPs are not required for testing of the transfer line addition. The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

  15. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    PubMed

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  16. Genetic specificity of face recognition

    PubMed Central

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Plomin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities. PMID:26417086

  17. Formal specification of human-computer interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auernheimer, Brent

    1990-01-01

    A high-level formal specification of a human computer interface is described. Previous work is reviewed and the ASLAN specification language is described. Top-level specifications written in ASLAN for a library and a multiwindow interface are discussed.

  18. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1996-06-11

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidation state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  19. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  20. Specificity factors in cytoplasmic polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, Amanda; Meijer, Hedda A; de Moor, Cornelia H

    2013-01-01

    Poly(A) tail elongation after export of an messenger RNA (mRNA) to the cytoplasm is called cytoplasmic polyadenylation. It was first discovered in oocytes and embryos, where it has roles in meiosis and development. In recent years, however, has been implicated in many other processes, including synaptic plasticity and mitosis. This review aims to introduce cytoplasmic polyadenylation with an emphasis on the factors and elements mediating this process for different mRNAs and in different animal species. We will discuss the RNA sequence elements mediating cytoplasmic polyadenylation in the 3′ untranslated regions of mRNAs, including the CPE, MBE, TCS, eCPE, and C-CPE. In addition to describing the role of general polyadenylation factors, we discuss the specific RNA binding protein families associated with cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements, including CPEB (CPEB1, CPEB2, CPEB3, and CPEB4), Pumilio (PUM2), Musashi (MSI1, MSI2), zygote arrest (ZAR2), ELAV like proteins (ELAVL1, HuR), poly(C) binding proteins (PCBP2, αCP2, hnRNP-E2), and Bicaudal C (BICC1). Some emerging themes in cytoplasmic polyadenylation will be highlighted. To facilitate understanding for those working in different organisms and fields, particularly those who are analyzing high throughput data, HUGO gene nomenclature for the human orthologs is used throughout. Where human orthologs have not been clearly identified, reference is made to protein families identified in man. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23776146

  1. Variant-specific prion interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Jaya; Liebman, Susan W

    2013-01-01

    Prions are protein conformations that “self-seed” the misfolding of their non-prion iso-forms into prion, often amyloid, conformations. The most famous prion is the mammalian PrP protein that in its prion form causes transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Curiously there can be distinct conformational differences even between prions of the same protein propagated in the same host species. These are called prion strains or variants. For example, different PrP variants are faithfully transmitted during self-seeding and are associated with distinct disease characteristics. Variant-specific PrP prion differences include the length of the incubation period before the disease appears and the deposition of prion aggregates in distinct regions of the brain.1 Other more common neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, type 2 diabetes and ALS) are likewise caused by the misfolding of a normal protein into a self-seeding aggregate.2-4 One of the most important unanswered questions is how the first prion-like seed arises de novo, resulting in the pathological cascade. PMID:24475372

  2. Application-Specific Super Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackey, Raymond J.; Baurle, Herbert F.; Barile, John

    1989-12-01

    Super Computer processing levels will be necessary to implement real time functions in radar and communication systems. Design and fabrication of such systems require innovative approaches in addressing the problem rather than the normal methods of solution. The mathematical solution to multiple simultaneous equations is the optimum solution in many signal processing problems in radar and communications. Historically this optimum solution was not directly possible, so approximations were derived through various signal processing techniques. The advent of high-speed digital processing devices in concurrent processing architectures has raised the possibility of achieving the optimum solution. This mathematical solution is applicable to many adaptive signal processing problems including spatial, spectral, temporal, and moving target indication filtering. Hazeltine, under contract with RADC on the Systolic Array Processor Brassboard program, has built a processor solving this class of problems in a highly concurrent systolic processing architecture. The application-specific processor built on this program performs over 1.25 billion floating point operations per second (BFLOPS), solving equations with up to twelve complex variables.

  3. Are specific emotions narrated differently?

    PubMed

    Habermas, Tilmann; Meier, Michaela; Mukhtar, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Two studies test the assertion that anger, sadness, fear, pride, and happiness are typically narrated in different ways. Everyday events eliciting these 5 emotions were narrated by young women (Study 1) and 5- and 8-year-old girls (Study 2). Negative narratives were expected to engender more effort to process the event, be longer, more grammatically complex, more often have a complication section, and use more specific emotion labels than global evaluations. Narratives of Hogan's (2003) juncture emotions anger and fear were expected to focus more on action and to contain more core narrative sections of orientation, complication, and resolution than narratives of the outcome emotions sadness and happiness. Hypotheses were confirmed for adults except for syntactic complexity, whereas children showed only some of these differences. Hogan's theory that juncture emotions are restricted to the complication section was not confirmed. Finally, in adults, indirect speech was more frequent in anger narratives and internal monologue in fear narratives. It is concluded that different emotions should be studied in how they are narrated, and that narratives should be analyzed according to qualitatively different emotions.

  4. 41 CFR 101-29.201 - Specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specification. 101-29.201 Section 101-29.201 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...-Definitions § 101-29.201 Specification. A specification is a document, prepared specifically to support...

  5. 41 CFR 101-29.201 - Specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Specification. 101-29.201 Section 101-29.201 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...-Definitions § 101-29.201 Specification. A specification is a document, prepared specifically to support...

  6. 77 FR 27814 - Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... COMMISSION Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force... Consolidated Line Item Improvement Process AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of... safety evaluation (SE) for plant-specific adoption of Technical Specifications (TSs) Task Force...

  7. Composition, structure and functional properties of protein concentrates and isolates produced from walnut (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiaoying; Hua, Yufei

    2012-01-01

    In this study, composition, structure and the functional properties of protein concentrate (WPC) and protein isolate (WPI) produced from defatted walnut flour (DFWF) were investigated. The results showed that the composition and structure of walnut protein concentrate (WPC) and walnut protein isolate (WPI) were significantly different. The molecular weight distribution of WPI was uniform and the protein composition of DFWF and WPC was complex with the protein aggregation. H(0) of WPC was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those of DFWF and WPI, whilst WPI had a higher H(0) compared to DFWF. The secondary structure of WPI was similar to WPC. WPI showed big flaky plate like structures; whereas WPC appeared as a small flaky and more compact structure. The most functional properties of WPI were better than WPC. In comparing most functional properties of WPI and WPC with soybean protein concentrate and isolate, WPI and WPC showed higher fat absorption capacity (FAC). Emulsifying properties and foam properties of WPC and WPI in alkaline pH were comparable with that of soybean protein concentrate and isolate. Walnut protein concentrates and isolates can be considered as potential functional food ingredients.

  8. Root growth dynamics linked to aboveground growth in walnuts (Juglans regia L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background and Aims: Examination of belowground plant responses to canopy and soil moisture manipulation is scant compared to that aboveground but needed to understand whole plant responses to environmental factors. Plasticity in the seasonal timing and vertical distribution of root growth in respon...

  9. Molecular cloning and heterologous expression analysis of JrVTE1 gene from walnut (Juglans regia).

    PubMed

    Wang, Cancan; Li, Chuanrong; Leslie, Charles A; Sun, Qingrong; Guo, Xianfeng; Yang, Keqiang

    Tocopherol cyclase (VTE1) plays a key role in promoting the production of γ-tocopherol and improving total tocopherol content in photosynthetic organisms. Walnut is an important source of tocopherols in the human diet, and γ-tocopherol is the major tocopherol compound in walnut kernels. In this study, a full-length cDNA of the VTE1 gene was isolated from walnut using RT-PCR and RACE, and designated as JrVTE1. The full-length cDNA of the JrVTE1 gene contained a 1353-bp open-reading frame encoding a 451-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 49.5 kDa. The deduced JrVTE1 protein had a considerable homology with other plant VTE1s and belonged to the tocopherol cyclase family. Functional characterization of JrVTE1 by heterologous expression was carried out in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and microshoot lines of the fruit trees jujube (Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa) and pear (Pyrus communis) cultivar 'Old Home'. JrVTE1 in E. coli expressed as a 50 kDa protein, as expected. One or two copies of the transferred JrVTE1 gene were detected in the genomes of representative transgenic lines (from the initial transgenic plants) of jujube and pear by gel blots analysis. Over-expression of JrVTE1 in jujube and pear resulted in an accumulation of tocopherol and a shift in tocopherol composition in leaf, root and stem tissues. In the transgenic jujube, the total tocopherol content increased by 29.8 μg/g in the stems of line J3, 43.7 and 22.5 μg/g in the roots and leaves of line J1, respectively, whereas in the transgenic pear it increased by 47.3 μg/g in the leaf of line P3, and 16.7 and 10.4 μg/g in roots and stems of line P9, respectively. In the examined tissues of transgenic plants, the highest accumulation rate was the γ-tocopherol. These results indicate that JrVTE1 is one of the rate-limiting enzymes for tocopherol production and could be used to improve the tocopherol content of tree crops through genetic engineering.

  10. Purification and identification of antioxidant peptides from walnut (Juglans regia L.) protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ning; Yang, Hongmei; Sun, Yi; Niu, Jun; Liu, Shuying

    2012-12-01

    Walnut proteins were hydrolyzed separately using three different proteases to obtain antioxidant peptides. The antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Among hydrolysates, pepsin hydrolysate obtained by 3h exhibited the highest antioxidant activities, which could also quench the hydroxyl radical, chelate ferrous ion, exhibit reducing power and inhibit the lipid peroxidation. Then, 3-h pepsin hydrolysates were purified sequentially by ultrafiltration, gel filtration and RP-HPLC. The sequence of the peptide with the highest antioxidative activity was identified to be Ala-Asp-Ala-Phe (423.23 Da) using RP-HPLC-ESI-MS, which was identified for the first time from walnut protein hydrolysates. Last, the inhibition of the peptide on lipid peroxidation was similar with that of reduced glutathione (GSH). These results indicate that the protein hydrolysates and/or its isolated peptides may be effectively used as food additives.

  11. Molecular Characterization, Antioxidant and Protein Solubility-Related Properties of Polyphenolic Compounds from Walnut (Juglans regia).

    PubMed

    Labuckas, Diana; Maestri, Damián; Lamarque, Alicia

    2016-05-01

    Aqueous ethanol extraction of partially defatted walnut flours provides a simple and reliable method to obtain extracts with high content of polyphenolic compounds. These were characterized by means of HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analytical techniques and molecular parameters. Considering the whole set of polyphenolic compounds identified, a high average number of phenolic-OH groups was found. Although these represent potential hydrogen-atom transfer sites, which are associated with high free-radical scavenging capacity, results show that such a property could be strongly limited by the low lipophilicity of polyphenols affecting the accessibility of these molecules to lipid substrates. Variations in pH values were found to change the ionization behavior of phenolic compounds. These changes, however, had minor effects on walnut protein solubility-related properties. The results obtained in this study highlight the importance of molecular characterization of walnut phenolic compounds in order to assess better their bioactive properties.

  12. Comet assay to assess the genotoxicity of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) husks with statistical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Petriccione, Milena; Ciniglia, Claudia

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to confirm the utility of the Comet assay as a genotoxicity screening test for evaluating the impact of walnut husk aqueous extract. Phytotoxicity assays using diluted and undiluted walnut husk aqueous extracts were performed on young roots of Raphanus sativus (radish), and the Comet assay was used to evaluate DNA integrity in isolated radish radicle nuclei. The results reveal a dose-dependent accumulation of DNA damage in radish radicles treated with walnut husks water extract and that the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test combined with Johnson SB distribution was the best approach for describing Comet assay data.

  13. Genetic and silvicultural research promoting common walnut (Juglans regia) for timber production in the United Kingdom

    Treesearch

    Gabriel E. Hemery

    2004-01-01

    A combination of genetic and silvicultural research is required to improve the viability of common walnut for timber production in the UK. A summary of a research programme, initiated in 1996, is provided. Establishment of walnut plantations using tree shelters indicated positive benefits using 0.75 m shelters but larger shelters (1.20 m) caused early flushing and...

  14. Highly biocompatible collagen-Delonix regia seed polysaccharide hybrid scaffolds for antimicrobial wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Cheirmadurai, Kalirajan; Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy; Murali, Ragothaman

    2016-02-10

    Biomaterials based entirely on biological resources are ideal for tissue engineering applications. Here we report the preparation of hybrid collagen scaffolds comprising gulmohar seed polysaccharide (GSP) and cinnamon bark extract as cross-linking agent. (1)H NMR spectrum of GSP confirms the presence of galactose and mannose in the ratio of 1:1.54, which was further corroborated using FT-IR. The hybrid scaffolds show better enzyme and thermal stability in contrast to pure collagen scaffold probably due to weak interactions from GSP and covalent interaction through cinnamaldehyde. Gas permeability and scanning electron microscopic analysis show that the porosity of the hybrid scaffolds is slightly reduced with the increase in the concentration of GSP. The infrared and circular dichroic spectral studies show that the secondary structure of the collagen did not change after the interaction with GSP and cinnamaldehyde. The hybrid scaffolds stabilized with cinnamaldehyde show good antimicrobial activity against the common multi-drug resistant wound pathogens. These results suggest that the prepared hybrid scaffolds have great potential for antimicrobial wound dressing applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolomics reveals significant variations in metabolites and correlations regarding the maturation of walnuts (Juglans regia L.)

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Guodong; Sui, Jinkai

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The content of walnut metabolites is related to its nutritive value and physiological characteristics, however, comprehensive information concerning the metabolome of walnut kernels is limited. In this study we analyzed the metabolites of walnut kernels at five developmental stages from filling to ripening using GC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics; of a total 252 peaks identified, 85 metabolites were positively identified. Further statistical analysis revealed that these 85 metabolites covered different types of metabolism pathways. PCA scores revealed that the metabolic compositions of the embryo are different at each stage, while the metabolic composition of the endotesta could not be significantly separated into distinct groups. Additionally, 7225 metabolite-metabolite correlations were detected in walnut kernel by a Pearson correlation coefficient approach; during screening of the calculated correlations, 463 and 1047 were determined to be significant with r2≥0.49 and had a false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.05 in endotesta and embryo, respectively. This work provides the first comprehensive metabolomic study of walnut kernels and reveals that most of the carbohydrate and protein-derived carbon was transferred into other compounds, such as fatty acids, during the maturation of walnuts, which may potentially provide the basis for further studies on walnut kernel metabolism. PMID:27215321

  16. Occurrence of shallow bark canker of walnut (Juglans regia) in southern provinces of Iran.

    PubMed

    Yousefikopaei, F; Taghavi, S M; Banihashemi, Z

    2007-05-01

    From April 2001 to November 2002, samples of walnut branches and trunks with symptoms of shallow bark canker were collected from Fars and Kohgiluyeh-va-Boyerahmad provinces. Symptoms of the disease were small cracks in the bark of the trunk and scaffold branches of mature trees with dark watery exudates which stained the affected trunk or limb. By removal of phelloderm, extensive necrosis of the underlying tissues was observed. In some cases, necrosis extended to cambium and outer xylem. Sixty-one strains of a bacterium were isolated from infected tissues using EMB and YDC media. On the basis of standard biochemical and physiological tests the bacterium was identified as Brenneria nigrifluens. The pathogen was found to be wide-spread in the provinces. Isolates were compared by physiological and biochemical characters, antibiotic sensitivity and protein electrophoretic pattern. Most of the strains were fairly similar in phenotypic features and electrophoretic profiles ofwhole-cell proteins were similar to each other and to reference strain (B. nigrifluens 5D313). Inoculation of 1-2 years-old walnut seedlings in May and June produced blackening symptoms and the bacterium survived for long period in infected tissues. This is the first report of the shallow bark canker of walnut in southern Iran.

  17. Developing new microsatellite markers in walnut (Juglans regia L.) from Juglans nigra genomic GA enriched library

    Treesearch

    Hayat Topcu; Nergiz Coban; Keith Woeste; Mehmet Sutyemez; Salih. Kafkas

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to develop new polymorphic SSR primer pairs in walnut using sequences derived from Juglans nigra L. genomic enriched library with GA repeat. The designed 94 SSR primer pairs were subjected to gradient PCR in 12 walnut cultivars to determine their optimum annealing temperatures and to determine whether they produce bands. Then, the...

  18. Genetic diversity in walnut (Juglans regia) from the caucasus nation of Azerbaijan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Analysis of genetic structure and differentiation using 12 microsatellite loci of six walnut populations, three each from the Greater Caucasus and the Talysh, revealed a moderate range of variation. The observed number of alleles ranged from 2 to 11 alleles with a mean of 5.6 alleles per locus. The ...

  19. A pair of taxifolin-3-O-arabinofuranoside isomers from Juglans regia L.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huanxin; Bai, Hong; Jing, Yuanchao; Li, Wei; Yin, Shujun; Zhou, Honglei

    2017-04-01

    Diaphragma juglandis Fructus has been known for its effect on tonifying kidney in traditional Uighur medicine. During our ongoing studies on the discovery of biologically active compounds from folk medicine, a pair of flavanonol glycoside isomers named (2S,3S)-taxifolin-3-O-α-d-arabinofuranoside (1) and (2S,3S)-taxifolin-3-O-α-l-arabinofuranoside (2) were isolated, among them, 1 was a new compound. It is the first report of taxifolin-3-O-arabinofuranosides in both α-d and α-l configuration forms in genus Juglans. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence, in combination with circular dichroism.

  20. Composition, Structure and Functional Properties of Protein Concentrates and Isolates Produced from Walnut (Juglans regia L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiaoying; Hua, Yufei

    2012-01-01

    In this study, composition, structure and the functional properties of protein concentrate (WPC) and protein isolate (WPI) produced from defatted walnut flour (DFWF) were investigated. The results showed that the composition and structure of walnut protein concentrate (WPC) and walnut protein isolate (WPI) were significantly different. The molecular weight distribution of WPI was uniform and the protein composition of DFWF and WPC was complex with the protein aggregation. H0 of WPC was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those of DFWF and WPI, whilst WPI had a higher H0 compared to DFWF. The secondary structure of WPI was similar to WPC. WPI showed big flaky plate like structures; whereas WPC appeared as a small flaky and more compact structure. The most functional properties of WPI were better than WPC. In comparing most functional properties of WPI and WPC with soybean protein concentrate and isolate, WPI and WPC showed higher fat absorption capacity (FAC). Emulsifying properties and foam properties of WPC and WPI in alkaline pH were comparable with that of soybean protein concentrate and isolate. Walnut protein concentrates and isolates can be considered as potential functional food ingredients. PMID:22408408

  1. Phenolic acids, syringaldehyde, and juglone in fruits of different cultivars of Juglans regia L.

    PubMed

    Colaric, Mateja; Veberic, Robert; Solar, Anita; Hudina, Metka; Stampar, Franci

    2005-08-10

    Phenolic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, ellagic, and syringic acid) as well as syringaldehyde and juglone were identified in ripe fruits of 10 walnut cultivars: Adams, Cisco, Chandler, Franquette, Lara, Fernor, Fernette, Alsoszentivani 117 (A-117), Rasna, and Elit. Analyses were done using a high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a diode array detector. Significant differences in the contents of identified phenolics were observed among cultivars. Phenolics were determined separately in the kernel and in the thin skin of the walnut, termed the pellicle. Not only in the kernel but also in the pellicle did syringic acid, juglone, and ellagic acid predominate (average values of 33.83, 11.75, and 5.90 mg/100 g of kernel; and 1003.24, 317.90, and 128.98 mg/100 g of pellicle, respectively), and the contents of ferulic and sinapic acid (average values of 0.06 and 0.05 mg/100 g of kernel and 2.93 and 2.17 mg/100 g of pellicle, respectively) were the lowest in all cultivars. The highest differences in the sum of all identified phenolics were observed between Rasna and Fernette fruits; in Rasna there were >2-fold higher contents of identified phenolics in both kernel and pellicle. It was found that the walnut pellicle is the most important source of walnut phenolics. The ratio between the contents in pellicle and kernel varied by at least 14.8-fold for caffeic acid (cv. Adams) and by up to 752.0-fold for p-coumaric acid (cv. Elit).

  2. Evaluation of quality changes in walnut kernels (Juglans regia L.) by Vis/NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P N; Sørensen, G; Engelsen, S B; Bertelsen, G

    2001-12-01

    Storage of walnut kernels in light and at room temperature, as is common practice, is detrimental to their sensory quality and shelf life. This study demonstrates that Vis/NIR spectroscopy, in combination with multivariate data analysis (chemometrics), is a most capable rapid method for monitoring the overall quality deterioration of walnut kernels. Spectral predictions of the sensory attributes nutty and rancid tastes by partial least-squares regression (PLSR) resulted in correlations (r(2)) of 0.77 and 0.86, respectively, whereas with PLSR prediction of the chemical parameter hexanal content a correlation (r(2)) of 0.72 was obtained. The study further establishes that storage in light results in pronounced oxidative changes, especially in walnuts stored at 21 degrees C, whereas dark storage at 5 degrees C results in walnuts without any trace of rancid taste during 25 weeks of storage at accelerated storage conditions (50% oxygen).

  3. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from a new raw lignocellulosic material: flamboyant (Delonix regia) pods.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Alexandro M M; Cazetta, André L; Garcia, Clarice A; Moraes, Juliana C G; Nogami, Eurica M; Lenzi, Ervim; Costa, Willian F; Almeida, Vitor C

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbons were prepared from flamboyant pods by NaOH activation at three different NaOH:char ratios: 1:1 (AC-1), 2:1 (AC-2), and 3:1 (AC-3). The properties of these carbons, including BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter, were characterized from N(2) adsorption isotherms. The activated carbons obtained were essentially microporous and had BET surface area ranging from 303 to 2463 m(2) g(-1).(13)C (CP/MAS and MAS) solid-state NMR shows that the lignocellulosic structures were completely transformed into a polycyclic material after activation process, thermogravimetry shows a high thermal resistance, Boehm titration and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy allowed characterizing the presence of functional groups on the surface of activated carbons. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a high pore development. The experimental results indicated the potential use of flamboyant pods as a precursor material in the preparation of activated carbon.

  4. Comparison of antifungal activity of extracts from different Juglans regia cultivars and juglone.

    PubMed

    Wianowska, D; Garbaczewska, S; Cieniecka-Roslonkiewicz, A; Dawidowicz, A L; Jankowska, A

    2016-11-01

    This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antifungal activity of extracts from walnut green husks of Lake, Koszycki, UO1, UO2 and non-grafted cultivars as well as juglone against the plant pathogenic fungi such as Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, Phytophthora infestans as well as Ascosphaera apis causing chalkbrood disease in honey bees. The obtained data show that the antifungal activities of the extracts do not always depend on the antifungal activity of juglone, and that they can be modulated by their other components. This fact allows us to conclude that juglone is not the only component of walnut green husk extracts which is responsible for the inhibition of mycelial growth. Phenolic compounds were found to be responsible for activity of the extracts and they can modify antifungal activity of juglone.

  5. [Urine specific gravity during general anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Maho; Morioka, Nobutada; Nozaki, Chisato; Abe, Mikiko; Yamada, Arata; Ozaki, Makoto

    2007-06-01

    The urine volume and urine specific gravity per unit time during a short operation under volume loading were examined to explore the possibility of urine specific gravity as an indirect index of fluid therapy. After introducing anesthesia, under volume loading with acetic acid Ringer solution 10 ml x kg(-1) x hr(-1), urine volume and specific gravity per unit time at 30 min intervals from urination to 90 min later and the correlation between the urine volume and urine specific gravity were examined. A chronological increase of urine specific gravity was also confirmed. Therefore, the values of urine specific gravity of each 30 minute intervals were compared using Student's t-test. The urine volume and urine specific gravity per unit time showed no significant negative correlation until after 90 min. Increasing urine specific gravity even under volume loading became significant 90 min after urination. There is a possibility of employing urine specific gravity as an indirect index of fluid therapy.

  6. 21 CFR 660.44 - Specificity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.44 Specificity. Each filling of the product shall be specific for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen as determined...

  7. 21 CFR 660.44 - Specificity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.44 Specificity. Each filling of the product shall be specific for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen as determined...

  8. 21 CFR 660.44 - Specificity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.44 Specificity. Each filling of the product shall be specific for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen as determined...

  9. 21 CFR 660.44 - Specificity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.44 Specificity. Each filling of the product shall be specific for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen as determined...

  10. 21 CFR 660.5 - Specificity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.5 Specificity. Each filling of the product shall be specific for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen,...

  11. 21 CFR 660.5 - Specificity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.5 Specificity. Each filling of the product shall be specific for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen,...

  12. 21 CFR 660.5 - Specificity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.5 Specificity. Each filling of the product shall be specific for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen,...

  13. 21 CFR 660.5 - Specificity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.5 Specificity. Each filling of the product shall be specific for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen,...

  14. Adaptive Disclosure: A Combat Specific PTSD Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-31

    health problems (specifically PTSD and depression ) and functioning. KEYWORDS: Active-duty, Marine Corps, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Cognitive...in terms of its impact on deployment-related psychological health problems (specifically PTSD and depression ) and functioning. The project has

  15. Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The objectives of Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications are to ensure that the design team applies commissioning concepts to the design and prepares commissioning specifications and a commission plan for inclusion in the bid construction documents.

  16. 46 CFR 174.030 - Specific applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.030 Specific applicability. Each mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) inspected under Subchapter IA of this...

  17. 46 CFR 174.030 - Specific applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.030 Specific applicability. Each mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) inspected under Subchapter IA of this...

  18. 21 CFR 660.5 - Specificity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.5 Specificity. Each filling of the product shall be specific for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen, as...

  19. 21 CFR 660.44 - Specificity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.44 Specificity. Each filling of the product shall be specific for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen as determined by...

  20. Goddard trajectory determination subsystem: Mathematical specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, W. E. (Editor); Velez, C. E. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    The mathematical specifications of the Goddard trajectory determination subsystem of the flight dynamics system are presented. These specifications include the mathematical description of the coordinate systems, dynamic and measurement model, numerical integration techniques, and statistical estimation concepts.

  1. 46 CFR 174.010 - Specific applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Deck Cargo Barges § 174.010 Specific applicability. Each barge that carries cargo above the weather deck must comply with this subpart....

  2. Low temperature specific heat of propylene glycol

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Da-Ming; Chen, Huiwei

    1997-01-01

    The specific heat of propylene glycol has been measured at temperatures from 0.1 K to 6 K. The magnitude and the temperature dependence of the specific heat are similar to that found in other fragile glasses.

  3. Domain and Specification Models for Software Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iscoe, Neil; Liu, Zheng-Yang; Feng, Guohui

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses our approach to representing application domain knowledge for specific software engineering tasks. Application domain knowledge is embodied in a domain model. Domain models are used to assist in the creation of specification models. Although many different specification models can be created from any particular domain model, each specification model is consistent and correct with respect to the domain model. One aspect of the system-hierarchical organization is described in detail.

  4. 40 CFR 87.81 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 87.81 Section 87...) Definitions. Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.81 Fuel specifications. Fuel having specifications as provided in § 87.61 shall be used in smoke emission testing....

  5. 40 CFR 87.81 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 87.81 Section 87.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.81 Fuel specifications. Fuel having specifications as provided in §...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1413 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1413 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1413 Fuel specifications. (a) The test fuel to be used... octane specification of the fuels does not apply. For all gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1413 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1413 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1413 Fuel specifications. (a) The test fuel to be used... octane specification of the fuels does not apply. For all gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1413 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1413 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1413 Fuel specifications. (a) The test fuel to be used... octane specification of the fuels does not apply. For all gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty...

  9. 14 CFR 34.81 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel specifications. 34.81 Section 34.81 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND... Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.81 Fuel specifications. Fuel having specifications as...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1413 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1413 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1413 Fuel specifications. (a) The test fuel to be used... octane specification of the fuels does not apply. For all gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty...

  11. 40 CFR 87.81 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 87.81 Section 87.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.81 Fuel specifications. Fuel having specifications as provided in §...

  12. 40 CFR 35.936-13 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-13 Specifications. (a) Nonrestrictive specifications. (1) No specification for bids or statement of work in connection with such works shall be written in such a manner as to contain proprietary, exclusionary,...

  13. 28 CFR 0.76 - Specific functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific functions. 0.76 Section 0.76... Division § 0.76 Specific functions. The functions delegated to the Assistant Attorney General for Administration by this subpart O shall also include the following specific policy functions: (a) Directing the...

  14. Information Concerning Preparation of Specifications for Carpeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, John W.

    This paper argues for detailed, written carpeting specifications to assure that schools obtain quality products at competitive prices. The advantages of and specifications for school carpeting are given. A sample written specification contains items on: scope, general features, materials, acoustic characteristics, identification and acoustic…

  15. Methods for chromosome-specific staining

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel

    1995-01-01

    Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogenous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include methods for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes.

  16. 50 CFR 648.260 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.260 Specifications. (a) Process for setting specifications. The Council's... Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab FMP objectives and other FMP provisions. (b) Development of specifications. In... estimates of stock size; sea sampling, port sampling, and survey data or, if sea sampling data are...

  17. Programming Bacteriophages by Swapping Their Specificity Determinants.

    PubMed

    Goren, Moran G; Yosef, Ido; Qimron, Udi

    2015-12-01

    Bacteriophages, bacteria's natural enemies, may serve as potent antibacterial agents. Their specificity for certain bacterial sub-species limits their effectiveness, but allows selective targeting of bacteria. Lu and colleagues present a platform for such targeting through alteration of bacteriophages' host specificity by swapping specificity domains in their host-recognition ligand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 40 CFR 247.5 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Specifications. 247.5 Section 247.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES COMPREHENSIVE PROCUREMENT... specifications for procurement items procured by Federal agencies to revise their specifications by May 8,...

  19. Development of specifications for caramel colours.

    PubMed

    Licht, B H; Shaw, K; Smith, C; Mendoza, M; Orr, J; Myers, D V

    1992-05-01

    Specifications have been developed to define each of the four classes of caramel colour. The specifications were based on analysis of a large database generated during the course of characterization studies of each of the classes. A series of simple and practical tests was developed for the analysis of caramel colour samples to ensure conformity to the specifications.

  20. 37 CFR 1.125 - Substitute specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....125 Section 1.125 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... substitute specification includes no new matter. (c) A substitute specification submitted under this section... specification of record. The text of any added subject matter must be shown by underlining the added text. The...

  1. 37 CFR 1.125 - Substitute specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....125 Section 1.125 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... substitute specification includes no new matter. (c) A substitute specification submitted under this section... specification of record. The text of any added subject matter must be shown by underlining the added text. The...

  2. 42 CFR 37.203 - Autopsy specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Autopsy specifications. 37.203 Section 37.203... EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Autopsies § 37.203 Autopsy specifications. (a) Every autopsy for which a claim for payment is submitted pursuant to this part: (1) Shall be...

  3. 42 CFR 37.203 - Autopsy specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Autopsy specifications. 37.203 Section 37.203... EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Autopsies § 37.203 Autopsy specifications. (a) Every autopsy for which a claim for payment is submitted pursuant to this part: (1) Shall be...

  4. 42 CFR 37.203 - Autopsy specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Autopsy specifications. 37.203 Section 37.203... EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF COAL MINERS Autopsies § 37.203 Autopsy specifications. (a) Every autopsy for which a claim for payment is submitted pursuant to this part: (1) Shall be...

  5. Domain Specificity and Variability in Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Rochel

    2000-01-01

    Maintains that there are core-specific and non-core-specific domains of knowledge, but that only the core-specific domains benefit from innate skeletal structures. Asserts that core skeletal domains are universally shared, even though their particular foci may vary. Emphasizes that individuals vary in terms of the noncore domains they acquire.…

  6. 77 FR 15399 - Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...-specific adoption of Technical Specifications (TS) Task Force (TSTF) Traveler TSTF-505, Revision 1... ADAMS under Accession No. ML12032A065. The model SE for plant-specific adoption of TSTF-505, Revision 1...

  7. Requirements Specification Language (RSL) and supporting tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frincke, Deborah; Wolber, Dave; Fisher, Gene; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes a general purpose Requirement Specification Language (RSL). RSL is a hybrid of features found in several popular requirement specification languages. The purpose of RSL is to describe precisely the external structure of a system comprised of hardware, software, and human processing elements. To overcome the deficiencies of informal specification languages, RSL includes facilities for mathematical specification. Two RSL interface tools are described. The Browser view contains a complete document with all details of the objects and operations. The Dataflow view is a specialized, operation-centered depiction of a specification that shows how specified operations relate in terms of inputs and outputs.

  8. A Computational Model of Semantic Memory Impairment: Modality- Specificity and Emergent Category-Specificity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    article we demonstrate how a modality-specific semantic memory system can account for category- specific impairments after brain damage. Specifically...different sensorimotor channels. In this article we demonstrate how a modality-specific semantic memory system can account for category-specific...just one modality (e.g. visual or auditory agnosia ) or impaired manipulation of objects with specific uses, despite intact recognition of them (apraxia

  9. Identification of tissue-specific targeting peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Eunkyoung; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kang, Sang-Kee; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Daejin; Park, Kisoo; Choi, Kihang; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Jung, Dong Hyun

    2012-11-01

    Using phage display technique, we identified tissue-targeting peptide sets that recognize specific tissues (bone-marrow dendritic cell, kidney, liver, lung, spleen and visceral adipose tissue). In order to rapidly evaluate tissue-specific targeting peptides, we performed machine learning studies for predicting the tissue-specific targeting activity of peptides on the basis of peptide sequence information using four machine learning models and isolated the groups of peptides capable of mediating selective targeting to specific tissues. As a representative liver-specific targeting sequence, the peptide "DKNLQLH" was selected by the sequence similarity analysis. This peptide has a high degree of homology with protein ligands which can interact with corresponding membrane counterparts. We anticipate that our models will be applicable to the prediction of tissue-specific targeting peptides which can recognize the endothelial markers of target tissues.

  10. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    PubMed Central

    Margraf, Jürgen; Vriends, Noortje; Meyer, Andrea H.; Becker, Eni S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. Objectives The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young women in the community. Method Data came from the Dresden Predictor Study in which 1,538 German women (18–25 years) completed a diagnostic interview at two time points. Results Women with specific phobia had a twofold increase in odds of developing any anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, and any somatoform disorder during 17 months, compared to women without specific phobia. Except for depression, these associations persisted after adjustment for all comorbid mental disorders. Conclusions Specific phobia thus appears to be a risk factor for a variety of problems. The result further underpins the necessity for early intervention for specific phobia to prevent later mental health problems. PMID:19888542

  11. Specific fears and phobias. Epidemiology and classification.

    PubMed

    Curtis, G C; Magee, W J; Eaton, W W; Wittchen, H U; Kessler, R C

    1998-09-01

    Data on eight specific fears representing DSM-III-R simple phobia were analysed to evaluate: (a) their prevalence and (b) the validity of subtypes of specific phobia defined by DSM-IV. A modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to a probability sample of 8098 community respondents. Correlates of responses to questions concerning these fears were analysed. The most prevalent specific fears were of animals among women, and of heights among men. Slight evidence was found for specific phobia subtypes. Number of fears, independent of type, powerfully predicted impairment, comorbidity, illness course, demographic features, and family psychopathology. Number of specific fears may mark a general predisposition to psychopathology. More detailed information is needed to resolve the question of specific phobia subtypes.

  12. Certifiable Specification and Verification of C Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüth, Christoph; Walter, Dennis

    A novel approach to the specification and verification of C programs through an annotation language that is a mixture between JML and the language of Isabelle/HOL is proposed. This yields three benefits: specifications are concise and close to the underlying mathematical model; existing Isabelle theories can be reused; and the leap of faith from specification language to encoding in a logic is small. This is of particular relevance for software certification, and verification in application areas such as robotics.

  13. Methods for chromosome-specific staining

    DOEpatents

    Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

    1995-09-05

    Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogeneous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include ways for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes. 3 figs.

  14. High flux isotope reactor technical specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Technical specifications are presented concerning safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; administrative controls; and accidents and anticipated transients.

  15. Formal specification and verification of Ada software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hird, Geoffrey R.

    1991-01-01

    The use of formal methods in software development achieves levels of quality assurance unobtainable by other means. The Larch approach to specification is described, and the specification of avionics software designed to implement the logic of a flight control system is given as an example. Penelope is described which is an Ada-verification environment. The Penelope user inputs mathematical definitions, Larch-style specifications and Ada code and performs machine-assisted proofs that the code obeys its specifications. As an example, the verification of a binary search function is considered. Emphasis is given to techniques assisting the reuse of a verification effort on modified code.

  16. Resistance heating elements with specific heating profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschberg, M. H.

    1976-01-01

    Bundled, interrupted, resistance heating elements provide specific heating profiles. Design allows for easily tailored lengths and locations of "hot sections" and larger surface areas for heat radiation.

  17. Site-specific non-LTR retrotransposons.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Haruhiko

    2015-04-01

    Although most of non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons are incorporated in the host genome almost randomly, some non-LTR retrotransposons are incorporated into specific sequences within a target site. On the basis of structural and phylogenetic features, non-LTR retrotransposons are classified into two large groups, restriction enzyme-like endonuclease (RLE)-encoding elements and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE)-encoding elements. All clades of RLE-encoding non-LTR retrotransposons include site-specific elements. However, only two of more than 20 APE-encoding clades, Tx1 and R1, contain site-specific non-LTR elements. Site-specific non-LTR retrotransposons usually target within multi-copy RNA genes, such as rRNA gene (rDNA) clusters, or repetitive genomic sequences, such as telomeric repeats; this behavior may be a symbiotic strategy to reduce the damage to the host genome. Site- and sequence-specificity are variable even among closely related non-LTR elements and appeared to have changed during evolution. In the APE-encoding elements, the primary determinant of the sequence- specific integration is APE itself, which nicks one strand of the target DNA during the initiation of target primed reverse transcription (TPRT). However, other factors, such as interaction between mRNA and the target DNA, and access to the target region in the nuclei also affect the sequence-specificity. In contrast, in the RLE-encoding elements, DNA-binding motifs appear to affect their sequence-specificity, rather than the RLE domain itself. Highly specific integration properties of these site-specific non-LTR elements make them ideal alternative tools for sequence-specific gene delivery, particularly for therapeutic purposes in human diseases.

  18. User Interface Technology for Formal Specification Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Formal specification development and modification are an essential component of the knowledge-based software life cycle. User interface technology is needed to empower end-users to create their own formal specifications. This paper describes the advanced user interface for AMPHION1 a knowledge-based software engineering system that targets scientific subroutine libraries. AMPHION is a generic, domain-independent architecture that is specialized to an application domain through a declarative domain theory. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that provides semantic guidance in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications in an application domain. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Automatic deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. The tables that drive AMPHION's user interface are automatically compiled from a domain theory; portions of the interface can be customized by the end-user. The user interface facilitates formal specification development by hiding syntactic details, such as logical notation. It also turns some of the barriers for end-user specification development associated with strongly typed formal languages into active sources of guidance, without restricting advanced users. The interface is especially suited for specification modification. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development.

  19. 10 CFR 76.23 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 76.23 Section 76.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.23 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon its own initiative or upon application of the...

  20. 10 CFR 76.23 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 76.23 Section 76.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.23 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon its own initiative or upon application of the...

  1. 10 CFR 76.23 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 76.23 Section 76.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.23 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon its own initiative or upon application of the...

  2. 10 CFR 76.23 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 76.23 Section 76.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.23 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon its own initiative or upon application of the...

  3. 10 CFR 76.23 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 76.23 Section 76.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.23 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon its own initiative or upon application of the...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1513 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1513 Section 86.1513 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... § 86.1513 Fuel specifications. The requirements of this section are set forth in 40 CFR part...

  5. 40 CFR 92.113 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 92.113 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.113 Fuel specifications. (a) Diesel test fuel. (1) The diesel fuels for testing locomotives or locomotive engines...

  6. 40 CFR 92.113 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 92.113 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.113 Fuel specifications. (a) Diesel test fuel. (1) The diesel fuels for testing locomotives or locomotive engines...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1513 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1513 Section 86.1513 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... § 86.1513 Fuel specifications. The requirements of this section are set forth in 40 CFR part...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1513 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1513 Section 86.1513 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... § 86.1513 Fuel specifications. The requirements of this section are set forth in 40 CFR part...

  9. 40 CFR 92.113 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Fuel specifications. 92.113 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.113 Fuel specifications. (a) Diesel test fuel. (1) The diesel fuels for testing locomotives or locomotive engines...

  10. 40 CFR 92.113 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 92.113 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.113 Fuel specifications. (a) Diesel test fuel. (1) The diesel fuels for testing locomotives or locomotive engines...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1513 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1513 Section 86.1513 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... § 86.1513 Fuel specifications. The requirements of this section are set forth in 40 CFR part...

  12. 40 CFR 92.113 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 92.113 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.113 Fuel specifications. (a) Diesel test fuel. (1) The diesel fuels for testing locomotives or locomotive engines...

  13. In Situ Vitrification software requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Grush, W.H.; Marwil, E.S.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes the Software Requirements Specification for the Electrical Resistance Heating and Thermal Energy Transport models of the In-Situ Vitrification (ISV) process. It contains the Data Flow Diagrams, Process Specifications, Data Structure Diagrams, and the Data Dictionary. 5 refs.

  14. 10 CFR 71.12 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 71.12 Section 71.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Exemptions § 71.12 Specific exemptions. On application of any interested person or on its own initiative, the Commission...

  15. 48 CFR 8.712 - Specification changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification changes. 8.712 Section 8.712 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.712 Specification changes. (a) The contracting activity shall notify...

  16. 48 CFR 8.712 - Specification changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification changes. 8.712 Section 8.712 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.712 Specification changes. (a) The contracting activity shall notify...

  17. 10 CFR 1016.6 - Specific waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific waivers. 1016.6 Section 1016.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 1016.6 Specific waivers. DOE may, upon application of any interested party, grant such waivers from the requirements of...

  18. 10 CFR 51.6 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 51.6 Section 51.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS § 51.6 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon application of any...

  19. 10 CFR 51.6 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 51.6 Section 51.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS § 51.6 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon application of any...

  20. 32 CFR 292.4 - Specific policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specific policy. 292.4 Section 292.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (DIA) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 292.4 Specific...

  1. 12 CFR 347.119 - Specific consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific consent. 347.119 Section 347.119 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.119 Specific consent. General consent and expedited processing under this subpart do...

  2. 28 CFR 0.101 - Specific functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific functions. 0.101 Section 0.101 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration § 0.101 Specific functions. The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration shall be...

  3. 29 CFR 1956.10 - Specific criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES IN STATES WITHOUT APPROVED PRIVATE EMPLOYEE PLANS Criteria § 1956.10 Specific criteria. (a) General. A State plan for public employees must meet the specific criteria set forth in this... required by the Assistant Secretary. (c) Standards. The State plan for public employees shall include,...

  4. Selection of Children with Specific Language Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rachel E.; Tallal, Paula

    1981-01-01

    A standard approach to the selection of children with specific language deficits was devised, based on a current definition of specific language deficit that depends heavily on exclusion criteria. A total of 132 language impaired children aged four to eight and one-half years were assessed. (Author)

  5. Situation-Specific Assessment of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Bergman, Mindy E.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Drasgow, Fritz; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 13,743 women in the armed forces used an instrument to identify specific experiences of sexual harassment rather than aggregate approaches. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the measure's construct validity. Reasons for using aggregate versus situation-specific approaches were identified. (Contains 19 references.) (SK)

  6. Motorcycle Education Curriculum Specifications. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, A. James; And Others

    This report contains specifications for a motorcycle safety education curriculum designed to reduce the incidence and severity of motorcycle accidents. The specifications prescribe objectives, prerequisites, methods, materials, equipment, facilities, and proficiency measures for six units of instruction: (1) basic riding skills, (2) street riding…

  7. 10 CFR 55.11 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 55.11 Section 55.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES Exemptions § 55.11 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon application by an interested person, or upon its own initiative, grant such exemptions...

  8. 10 CFR 55.11 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 55.11 Section 55.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES Exemptions § 55.11 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon application by an interested person, or upon its own initiative, grant such exemptions...

  9. 48 CFR 619.202 - Specific policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specific policies. 619.202 Section 619.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 619.202 Specific policies. ...

  10. 50 CFR 648.260 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.260 Specifications. (a) Annual review and specifications process. The Council, the Red Crab Plan Development Team (PDT), and the Red Crab Advisory Panel shall monitor the status of the red crab fishery and resource. (1) The Red Crab PDT shall meet at least once annually...

  11. 50 CFR 648.260 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.260 Specifications. (a) Annual review and specifications process. The Council, the Red Crab Plan Development Team (PDT), and the Red Crab Advisory Panel shall monitor the status of the red crab fishery and resource. (1) The Red Crab PDT shall meet at least once annually...

  12. 50 CFR 648.260 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.260 Specifications. (a) Annual review and specifications process. The Council, the Red Crab Plan Development Team (PDT), and the Red Crab Advisory Panel shall monitor the status of the red crab fishery and resource. (1) The Red Crab PDT shall meet at least once annually...

  13. 50 CFR 648.260 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.260 Specifications. (a) Annual review and specifications process. The Council, the Red Crab Plan Development Team (PDT), and the Red Crab Advisory Panel shall monitor the status of the red crab fishery and resource. (1) The Red Crab PDT shall meet at least once annually...

  14. Educational Specifications: University City High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA.

    Educational specifications are presented delineating instructional space requirements and relationships for a new high school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. These specifications comprise a set of written instructions from which the architect can derive a design concept compatible with current educational needs and adaptable to future changes in…

  15. 14 CFR 34.81 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.81 Fuel specifications. Fuel having specifications as provided...

  16. 14 CFR 34.81 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.81 Fuel specifications. Fuel having specifications as provided...

  17. 18 CFR 35.33 - Specific provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specific provisions. 35.33 Section 35.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Governing Nuclear Plant Decommissioning Trust Funds § 35.33 Specific provisions. (a) In addition to the...

  18. 18 CFR 35.33 - Specific provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Specific provisions. 35.33 Section 35.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Governing Nuclear Plant Decommissioning Trust Funds § 35.33 Specific provisions. (a) In addition to the...

  19. 16 CFR 1210.15 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specifications. 1210.15 Section 1210.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1210.15 Specifications. (a) Requirement...

  20. 16 CFR 1210.15 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specifications. 1210.15 Section 1210.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1210.15 Specifications. (a) Requirement...

  1. 16 CFR § 1210.15 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specifications. § 1210.15 Section § 1210.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1210.15 Specifications. (a...

  2. 14 CFR 91.1015 - Management specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Management specifications. 91.1015 Section... Operations Program Management § 91.1015 Management specifications. (a) Each person conducting operations under this subpart or furnishing fractional ownership program management services to fractional...

  3. 14 CFR 91.1015 - Management specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Management specifications. 91.1015 Section... Operations Program Management § 91.1015 Management specifications. (a) Each person conducting operations under this subpart or furnishing fractional ownership program management services to fractional...

  4. 14 CFR 91.1015 - Management specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Management specifications. 91.1015 Section... Operations Program Management § 91.1015 Management specifications. (a) Each person conducting operations under this subpart or furnishing fractional ownership program management services to fractional...

  5. 12 CFR 217.207 - Specific risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... models must: (1) Capture event risk and idiosyncratic risk; and (2) Capture and demonstrate sensitivity...-regulated institution has no specific risk add-on for those portfolios for purposes of paragraph (a)(2)(iii... correlation trading positions, the Board-regulated institution must calculate a specific-risk add-on for the...

  6. 50 CFR 648.165 - Framework specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Framework specifications. 648.165 Section... Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.165 Framework specifications. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60641... through its annual review or framework adjustment process that minimum fish sizes are necessary to...

  7. 14 CFR 91.1015 - Management specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management specifications. 91.1015 Section... Operations Program Management § 91.1015 Management specifications. (a) Each person conducting operations under this subpart or furnishing fractional ownership program management services to fractional owners...

  8. 10 CFR 35.19 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 35.19 Section 35.19 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Information § 35.19 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon application of any interested person or upon its own initiative, grant exemptions...

  9. 10 CFR 35.19 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 35.19 Section 35.19 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Information § 35.19 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon application of any interested person or upon its own initiative, grant exemptions...

  10. 10 CFR 35.19 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 35.19 Section 35.19 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Information § 35.19 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon application of any interested person or upon its own initiative, grant exemptions...

  11. 10 CFR 35.19 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 35.19 Section 35.19 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Information § 35.19 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon application of any interested person or upon its own initiative, grant exemptions...

  12. 10 CFR 35.19 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 35.19 Section 35.19 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Information § 35.19 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon application of any interested person or upon its own initiative, grant exemptions...

  13. Formalisms for user interface specification and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auernheimer, Brent J.

    1989-01-01

    The application of formal methods to the specification and design of human-computer interfaces is described. A broad outline of human-computer interface problems, a description of the field of cognitive engineering and two relevant research results, the appropriateness of formal specification techniques, and potential NASA application areas are described.

  14. Fast specific field detection of RHDVb.

    PubMed

    Dalton, K P; Nicieza, I; Podadera, A; de Llano, D; Martin Alonso, J M; de Los Toyos, J R; García Ocaña, M; Vázquez-Villa, F; Velasco, B; Landeta, O; Parra, F

    2017-02-28

    This work describes a simple and rapid test for field detection of the emerging rabbit pathogen RHDVb. The assay is specific for RHDVb, showing no cross-reactivity with other RHDV types giving a specific result in under 10 min using rabbit liquid exudates or liver homogenate samples taken at necropsy.

  15. General specifications covering requirements of aeronautic instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1917-01-01

    Report includes specifications for the use and production of instruments used in the navigation and operation of aircraft. Specifications are included for the following instruments: barometer or altimeter, compass, air speed meter, inclinometer, drift meter, tachometer, oil gauge, oil pressure gauge, gasoline gauge, gasoline flow indicator, distance indicator, barograph, angle of attack indicator, radiator temperature indicator, gasoline feed system pressure indicator, sextant, airplane director.

  16. Stress and Specificity: Reply to Miller (2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Thomas F.; Spanovic, Marija; Miller, Norman

    2009-01-01

    T. F. Denson, M. Spanovic, and N. Miller (2009) meta-analytically tested the hypotheses that specific appraisals and emotions would predict cortisol and immune responses to laboratory stressors and emotion inductions. Although the cortisol data supported the integrated specificity hypothesis, G. E. Miller (2009) raised questions concerning the…

  17. Identifying Specific Comprehension Deficits in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Diane Baty

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that educators may be missing an under-identified population of approximately 10 percent of typically developing children, who have fluent, age-appropriate decoding and word recognition skills, yet have specific difficulties with other higher-level text processing factors. These children are said to have specific comprehension…

  18. 10 CFR 26.9 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 26.9 Section 26.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.9 Specific exemptions. Upon application of any interested person or on its own initiative, the Commission may grant such exemptions from...

  19. 10 CFR 26.9 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 26.9 Section 26.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.9 Specific exemptions. Upon application of any interested person or on its own initiative, the Commission may grant such exemptions from...

  20. 10 CFR 26.9 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 26.9 Section 26.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.9 Specific exemptions. Upon application of any interested person or on its own initiative, the Commission may grant such exemptions from...

  1. 10 CFR 26.9 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 26.9 Section 26.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.9 Specific exemptions. Upon application of any interested person or on its own initiative, the Commission may grant such exemptions from...

  2. 10 CFR 26.9 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 26.9 Section 26.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.9 Specific exemptions. Upon application of any interested person or on its own initiative, the Commission may grant such exemptions from...

  3. 24 CFR 2003.9 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT OF 1974 § 2003.9 Specific exemptions. (a) The systems of records entitled “Investigative Files of... information cannot readily be identified. (b) The systems of records entitled “Investigative Files of the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specific exemptions. 2003.9 Section...

  4. 16 CFR 1014.12 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 1014.12 Section 1014.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES IMPLEMENTING THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1014.12 Specific exemptions. (a) Injury information. (1) The Bureau of...

  5. 14 CFR 398.3 - Specific airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific airports. 398.3 Section 398.3... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.3 Specific airports. (a) At an eligible place, essential air service may be specified as service to a particular...

  6. 14 CFR 398.3 - Specific airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specific airports. 398.3 Section 398.3... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.3 Specific airports. (a) At an eligible place, essential air service may be specified as service to a particular...

  7. 10 CFR 140.8 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 140.8 Section 140.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 140.8 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon application of any interested person or...

  8. 14 CFR 398.3 - Specific airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specific airports. 398.3 Section 398.3... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.3 Specific airports. (a) At an eligible place, essential air service may be specified as service to a particular airport...

  9. 14 CFR 398.3 - Specific airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specific airports. 398.3 Section 398.3... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.3 Specific airports. (a) At an eligible place, essential air service may be specified as service to a particular airport...

  10. 14 CFR 398.3 - Specific airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specific airports. 398.3 Section 398.3... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.3 Specific airports. (a) At an eligible place, essential air service may be specified as service to a particular airport...

  11. 14 CFR 119.7 - Operations specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations specifications. 119.7 Section...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS General § 119.7 Operations specifications. (a) Each certificate...

  12. VOSpace specification Version 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew; Morris, Dave; Rixon, Guy; Dowler, Pat; Schaaff, Andre; Tody, Doug; Graham, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    VOSpace is the IVOA interface to distributed storage. This specification presents the first RESTful version of the interface, which is functionally equivalent to the SOAP-based VOSpace 1.1 specification. Note that all prior VOSpace clients will not work with this new version of the interface.

  13. 18 CFR 35.33 - Specific provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specific provisions. 35.33 Section 35.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Governing Nuclear Plant Decommissioning Trust Funds § 35.33 Specific provisions. (a) In addition to...

  14. Specific heat of ovendry loblolly pine wood

    Treesearch

    Charles W. McMillin

    1969-01-01

    In the range of 333 K to 413 K, the specific heat of ovendry loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) wood was expressed by a linear function of temperature. No relationship was detected with specific gravity, growth rate, or distance from the pith; nor were differences found between earlywood and latewood.

  15. 32 CFR 1801.63 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specific exemptions. 1801.63 Section 1801.63 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Exemptions § 1801.63 Specific exemptions. Pursuant to...

  16. 32 CFR 1801.63 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific exemptions. 1801.63 Section 1801.63 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Exemptions § 1801.63 Specific exemptions. Pursuant to...

  17. 32 CFR 1801.63 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specific exemptions. 1801.63 Section 1801.63 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Exemptions § 1801.63 Specific exemptions. Pursuant to...

  18. 32 CFR 1801.63 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specific exemptions. 1801.63 Section 1801.63 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Exemptions § 1801.63 Specific exemptions. Pursuant to...

  19. 32 CFR 1801.63 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specific exemptions. 1801.63 Section 1801.63 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Exemptions § 1801.63 Specific exemptions. Pursuant to...

  20. Specificity of a Maximal Step Exercise Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Lynn A.; Marsh, Jennifer L.; Shewokis, Patricia A.; Pohlman, Roberta L.

    2007-01-01

    To adhere to the principle of "exercise specificity" exercise testing should be completed using the same physical activity that is performed during exercise training. The present study was designed to assess whether aerobic step exercisers have a greater maximal oxygen consumption (max VO sub 2) when tested using an activity specific, maximal step…