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Sample records for 3-d animated virtual

  1. Second Life, a 3-D Animated Virtual World: An Alternative Platform for (Art) Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hsiao-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    3-D animated virtual worlds are no longer only for gaming. With the advance of technology, animated virtual worlds not only are found on every computer, but also connect users with the internet. Today, virtual worlds are created not only by companies, but also through the collaboration of users. Online 3-D animated virtual worlds provide a new…

  2. Virtual reality and 3D animation in forensic visualization.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minhua; Zheng, Huiru; Lallie, Harjinder

    2010-09-01

    Computer-generated three-dimensional (3D) animation is an ideal media to accurately visualize crime or accident scenes to the viewers and in the courtrooms. Based upon factual data, forensic animations can reproduce the scene and demonstrate the activity at various points in time. The use of computer animation techniques to reconstruct crime scenes is beginning to replace the traditional illustrations, photographs, and verbal descriptions, and is becoming popular in today's forensics. This article integrates work in the areas of 3D graphics, computer vision, motion tracking, natural language processing, and forensic computing, to investigate the state-of-the-art in forensic visualization. It identifies and reviews areas where new applications of 3D digital technologies and artificial intelligence could be used to enhance particular phases of forensic visualization to create 3D models and animations automatically and quickly. Having discussed the relationships between major crime types and level-of-detail in corresponding forensic animations, we recognized that high level-of-detail animation involving human characters, which is appropriate for many major crime types but has had limited use in courtrooms, could be useful for crime investigation.

  3. Virtual reality and 3D animation in forensic visualization.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minhua; Zheng, Huiru; Lallie, Harjinder

    2010-09-01

    Computer-generated three-dimensional (3D) animation is an ideal media to accurately visualize crime or accident scenes to the viewers and in the courtrooms. Based upon factual data, forensic animations can reproduce the scene and demonstrate the activity at various points in time. The use of computer animation techniques to reconstruct crime scenes is beginning to replace the traditional illustrations, photographs, and verbal descriptions, and is becoming popular in today's forensics. This article integrates work in the areas of 3D graphics, computer vision, motion tracking, natural language processing, and forensic computing, to investigate the state-of-the-art in forensic visualization. It identifies and reviews areas where new applications of 3D digital technologies and artificial intelligence could be used to enhance particular phases of forensic visualization to create 3D models and animations automatically and quickly. Having discussed the relationships between major crime types and level-of-detail in corresponding forensic animations, we recognized that high level-of-detail animation involving human characters, which is appropriate for many major crime types but has had limited use in courtrooms, could be useful for crime investigation. PMID:20533989

  4. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  5. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  6. Education System Using Interactive 3D Computer Graphics (3D-CG) Animation and Scenario Language for Teaching Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Shindo, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    The 3D computer graphics (3D-CG) animation using a virtual actor's speaking is very effective as an educational medium. But it takes a long time to produce a 3D-CG animation. To reduce the cost of producing 3D-CG educational contents and improve the capability of the education system, we have developed a new education system using Virtual Actor.…

  7. Virtual Representations in 3D Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonfeld, Miri; Kritz, Miki

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the extent to which virtual worlds can serve as online collaborative learning environments for students by increasing social presence and engagement. 3D environments enable learning, which simulates face-to-face encounters while retaining the advantages of online learning. Students in Education departments created avatars…

  8. [3D virtual endoscopy of heart].

    PubMed

    Du, Aan; Yang, Xin; Xue, Haihong; Yao, Liping; Sun, Kun

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a virtual endoscopy (VE) for diagnosis of heart diseases, which is proved efficient and affordable, easy to popularize for viewing the interior of the heart. The dual source CT (DSCT) data were used as primary data in our system. The 3D structure of virtual heart was reconstructed with 3D texture mapping technology based on graphics processing unit (GPU), and could be displayed dynamically in real time. When we displayed it in real time, we could not only observe the inside of the chambers of heart but also examine from the new angle of view by the 3D data which were already clipped according to doctor's desire. In the pattern of observation, we used both mutual interactive mode and auto mode. In the auto mode, we used Dijkstra Algorithm which treated the 3D Euler distance as weighting factor to find out the view path quickly, and, used view path to calculate the four chamber plane. PMID:23198444

  9. 3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

  10. Virtual VMASC: A 3D Game Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manepalli, Suchitra; Shen, Yuzhong; Garcia, Hector M.; Lawsure, Kaleen

    2010-01-01

    The advantages of creating interactive 3D simulations that allow viewing, exploring, and interacting with land improvements, such as buildings, in digital form are manifold and range from allowing individuals from anywhere in the world to explore those virtual land improvements online, to training military personnel in dealing with war-time environments, and to making those land improvements available in virtual worlds such as Second Life. While we haven't fully explored the true potential of such simulations, we have identified a requirement within our organization to use simulations like those to replace our front-desk personnel and allow visitors to query, naVigate, and communicate virtually with various entities within the building. We implemented the Virtual VMASC 3D simulation of the Virginia Modeling Analysis and Simulation Center (VMASC) office building to not only meet our front-desk requirement but also to evaluate the effort required in designing such a simulation and, thereby, leverage the experience we gained in future projects of this kind. This paper describes the goals we set for our implementation, the software approach taken, the modeling contribution made, and the technologies used such as XNA Game Studio, .NET framework, Autodesk software packages, and, finally, the applicability of our implementation on a variety of architectures including Xbox 360 and PC. This paper also summarizes the result of our evaluation and the lessons learned from our effort.

  11. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  12. 3D Virtual Reality Check: Learner Engagement and Constructivist Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bair, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of three-dimensional (3D) virtual tools has created a need to communicate the engagement of 3D tools and specify learning gains that educators and the institutions, which are funding 3D tools, can expect. A review of literature demonstrates that specific models and theories for 3D Virtual Reality (VR) learning do not exist "per…

  13. Learning in 3-D Virtual Worlds: Rethinking Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Yufeng

    2008-01-01

    3-D virtual worlds, as a new form of learning environments in the 21st century, hold great potential in education. Learning in such environments, however, demands a broader spectrum of literacy skills. This article identifies a new set of media literacy skills required in 3-D virtual learning environments by reviewing exemplary 3-D virtual…

  14. A specification of 3D manipulation in virtual environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, S. Augustine; Furuta, Richard

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the modeling of three basic kinds of 3-D manipulations in the context of a logical hand device and our virtual panel architecture. The logical hand device is a useful software abstraction representing hands in virtual environments. The virtual panel architecture is the 3-D component of the 2-D window systems. Both of the abstractions are intended to form the foundation for adaptable 3-D manipulation.

  15. Learning in 3D Virtual Environments: Collaboration and Knowledge Spirals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Brian G.; Martin, Barbara N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to determine if learning occurred within a 3D virtual learning environment by determining if elements of collaboration and Nonaka and Takeuchi's (1995) knowledge spiral were present. A key portion of this research was the creation of a Virtual Learning Environment. This 3D VLE utilized the Torque Game Engine…

  16. Objective and subjective quality assessment of geometry compression of reconstructed 3D humans in a 3D virtual room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekuria, Rufael; Cesar, Pablo; Doumanis, Ioannis; Frisiello, Antonella

    2015-09-01

    Compression of 3D object based video is relevant for 3D Immersive applications. Nevertheless, the perceptual aspects of the degradation introduced by codecs for meshes and point clouds are not well understood. In this paper we evaluate the subjective and objective degradations introduced by such codecs in a state of art 3D immersive virtual room. In the 3D immersive virtual room, users are captured with multiple cameras, and their surfaces are reconstructed as photorealistic colored/textured 3D meshes or point clouds. To test the perceptual effect of compression and transmission, we render degraded versions with different frame rates in different contexts (near/far) in the scene. A quantitative subjective study with 16 users shows that negligible distortion of decoded surfaces compared to the original reconstructions can be achieved in the 3D virtual room. In addition, a qualitative task based analysis in a full prototype field trial shows increased presence, emotion, user and state recognition of the reconstructed 3D Human representation compared to animated computer avatars.

  17. Designing Virtual Museum Using Web3D Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianghai

    VRT was born to have the potentiality of constructing an effective learning environment due to its 3I characteristics: Interaction, Immersion and Imagination. It is now applied in education in a more profound way along with the development of VRT. Virtual Museum is one of the applications. The Virtual Museum is based on the WEB3D technology and extensibility is the most important factor. Considering the advantage and disadvantage of each WEB3D technology, VRML, CULT3D AND VIEWPOINT technologies are chosen. A web chatroom based on flash and ASP technology is also been created in order to make the Virtual Museum an interactive learning environment.

  18. Development of visual 3D virtual environment for control software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirose, Michitaka; Myoi, Takeshi; Amari, Haruo; Inamura, Kohei; Stark, Lawrence

    1991-01-01

    Virtual environments for software visualization may enable complex programs to be created and maintained. A typical application might be for control of regional electric power systems. As these encompass broader computer networks than ever, construction of such systems becomes very difficult. Conventional text-oriented environments are useful in programming individual processors. However, they are obviously insufficient to program a large and complicated system, that includes large numbers of computers connected to each other; such programming is called 'programming in the large.' As a solution for this problem, the authors are developing a graphic programming environment wherein one can visualize complicated software in virtual 3D world. One of the major features of the environment is the 3D representation of concurrent process. 3D representation is used to supply both network-wide interprocess programming capability (capability for 'programming in the large') and real-time programming capability. The authors' idea is to fuse both the block diagram (which is useful to check relationship among large number of processes or processors) and the time chart (which is useful to check precise timing for synchronization) into a single 3D space. The 3D representation gives us a capability for direct and intuitive planning or understanding of complicated relationship among many concurrent processes. To realize the 3D representation, a technology to enable easy handling of virtual 3D object is a definite necessity. Using a stereo display system and a gesture input device (VPL DataGlove), our prototype of the virtual workstation has been implemented. The workstation can supply the 'sensation' of the virtual 3D space to a programmer. Software for the 3D programming environment is implemented on the workstation. According to preliminary assessments, a 50 percent reduction of programming effort is achieved by using the virtual 3D environment. The authors expect that the 3D

  19. What Are the Learning Affordances of 3-D Virtual Environments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgarno, Barney; Lee, Mark J. W.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the potential learning benefits of three-dimensional (3-D) virtual learning environments (VLEs). Drawing on published research spanning two decades, it identifies a set of unique characteristics of 3-D VLEs, which includes aspects of their representational fidelity and aspects of the learner-computer interactivity they…

  20. ESL Teacher Training in 3D Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlova, Iryna; Priven, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Although language learning in 3D Virtual Worlds (VWs) has become a focus of recent research, little is known about the knowledge and skills teachers need to acquire to provide effective task-based instruction in 3D VWs and the type of teacher training that best prepares instructors for such an endeavor. This study employs a situated learning…

  1. Educational Visualizations in 3D Collaborative Virtual Environments: A Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fominykh, Mikhail; Prasolova-Forland, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) have become increasingly popular in educational settings and the role of 3D content is becoming more and more important. Still, there are many challenges in this area, such as lack of empirical studies that provide design for educational activities in 3D CVEs and lack of norms of how to support…

  2. Virtual 3d City Modeling: Techniques and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2013-08-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as Building, Tree, Vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. There are various terms used for 3D city models such as "Cybertown", "Cybercity", "Virtual City", or "Digital City". 3D city models are basically a computerized or digital model of a city contains the graphic representation of buildings and other objects in 2.5 or 3D. Generally three main Geomatics approach are using for Virtual 3-D City models generation, in first approach, researcher are using Conventional techniques such as Vector Map data, DEM, Aerial images, second approach are based on High resolution satellite images with LASER scanning, In third method, many researcher are using Terrestrial images by using Close Range Photogrammetry with DSM & Texture mapping. We start this paper from the introduction of various Geomatics techniques for 3D City modeling. These techniques divided in to two main categories: one is based on Automation (Automatic, Semi-automatic and Manual methods), and another is Based on Data input techniques (one is Photogrammetry, another is Laser Techniques). After details study of this, finally in short, we are trying to give the conclusions of this study. In the last, we are trying to give the conclusions of this research paper and also giving a short view for justification and analysis, and present trend for 3D City modeling. This paper gives an overview about the Techniques related with "Generation of Virtual 3-D City models using Geomatics Techniques" and the Applications of Virtual 3D City models. Photogrammetry, (Close range, Aerial, Satellite), Lasergrammetry, GPS, or combination of these modern Geomatics techniques play a major role to create a virtual 3-D City model. Each and every techniques and method has some advantages and some drawbacks. Point cloud model is a modern trend for virtual 3-D city model. Photo-realistic, Scalable, Geo-referenced virtual 3

  3. Game-Like Language Learning in 3-D Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berns, Anke; Gonzalez-Pardo, Antonio; Camacho, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents our recent experiences with the design of game-like applications in 3-D virtual environments as well as its impact on student motivation and learning. Therefore our paper starts with a brief analysis of the motivational aspects of videogames and virtual worlds (VWs). We then go on to explore the possible benefits of both in the…

  4. MOM3D/EM-ANIMATE - MOM3D WITH ANIMATION CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaeffer, J. F.

    1994-01-01

    MOM3D (LAR-15074) is a FORTRAN method-of-moments electromagnetic analysis algorithm for open or closed 3-D perfectly conducting or resistive surfaces. Radar cross section with plane wave illumination is the prime analysis emphasis; however, provision is also included for local port excitation for computing antenna gain patterns and input impedances. The Electric Field Integral Equation form of Maxwell's equations is solved using local triangle couple basis and testing functions with a resultant system impedance matrix. The analysis emphasis is not only for routine RCS pattern predictions, but also for phenomenological diagnostics: bistatic imaging, currents, and near scattered/total electric fields. The images, currents, and near fields are output in form suitable for animation. MOM3D computes the full backscatter and bistatic radar cross section polarization scattering matrix (amplitude and phase), body currents and near scattered and total fields for plane wave illumination. MOM3D also incorporates a new bistatic k space imaging algorithm for computing down range and down/cross range diagnostic images using only one matrix inversion. MOM3D has been made memory and cpu time efficient by using symmetric matrices, symmetric geometry, and partitioned fixed and variable geometries suitable for design iteration studies. MOM3D may be run interactively or in batch mode on 486 IBM PCs and compatibles, UNIX workstations or larger computers. A 486 PC with 16 megabytes of memory has the potential to solve a 30 square wavelength (containing 3000 unknowns) symmetric configuration. Geometries are described using a triangular mesh input in the form of a list of spatial vertex points and a triangle join connection list. The EM-ANIMATE (LAR-15075) program is a specialized visualization program that displays and animates the near-field and surface-current solutions obtained from an electromagnetics program, in particular, that from MOM3D. The EM-ANIMATE program is windows based and

  5. Organizational Learning Goes Virtual?: A Study of Employees' Learning Achievement in Stereoscopic 3D Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kung Wong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to deepen understanding of the use of stereoscopic 3D technology (stereo3D) in facilitating organizational learning. The emergence of advanced virtual technologies, in particular to the stereo3D virtual reality, has fundamentally changed the ways in which organizations train their employees. However, in academic or…

  6. [Development of a software for 3D virtual phantom design].

    PubMed

    Zou, Lian; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Qi

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a 3D virtual phantom design software, which was developed based on object-oriented programming methodology and dedicated to medical physics research. This software was named Magical Phan tom (MPhantom), which is composed of 3D visual builder module and virtual CT scanner. The users can conveniently construct any complex 3D phantom, and then export the phantom as DICOM 3.0 CT images. MPhantom is a user-friendly and powerful software for 3D phantom configuration, and has passed the real scene's application test. MPhantom will accelerate the Monte Carlo simulation for dose calculation in radiation therapy and X ray imaging reconstruction algorithm research. PMID:24804488

  7. A randomized controlled trial of the effects of hypnosis with 3-D virtual reality animation on tiredness, mood, and salivary cortisol.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Trevor; Steffert, Tony; Steed, Anthony; Gruzelier, John

    2011-01-01

    Case studies suggest hypnosis with a virtual reality (VR) component may be an effective intervention; although few follow-up randomized, controlled trials have been performed comparing such interventions with standard hypnotic treatments. Thirty-five healthy participants were randomized to self-hypnosis with VR imagery, standard self-hypnosis, or relaxation interventions. Changes in sleep, cortisol levels, and mood were examined. Self-hypnosis involved 10- to 20-min. sessions visualizing a healthy immune scenario. Trait absorption was also recorded as a possible moderator. Moderated regression indicated that both hypnosis interventions produced significantly lower tiredness ratings than relaxation when trait absorption was high. When trait absorption was low, VR resulted in significantly higher engagement ratings, although this did not translate to demonstrable improvement in outcome. Results suggest that VR imagery may increase engagement relative to traditional methods, but further investigation into its potential to enhance therapeutic efficacy is required. PMID:21104488

  8. NASA TRMM Satellite 3-D Animation of Cyclone Mahasen Rainfall

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows a simulated 3-D analysis of NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite's multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA). It shows rainfall that occurred with tro...

  9. The SEE Experience: Edutainment in 3D Virtual Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Blas, Nicoletta; Paolini, Paolo; Hazan, Susan

    Shared virtual worlds are innovative applications where several users, represented by Avatars, simultaneously access via Internet a 3D space. Users cooperate through interaction with the environment and with each other, manipulating objects and chatting as they go. Apart from in the well documented online action games industry, now often played…

  10. 3D Virtual Worlds as Environments for Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although much has been written about the ways in which new technology might transform educational practice, particularly in the area of literacy learning, there is relatively little empirical work that explores the possibilities and problems--or even what such a transformation might look like in the classroom. 3D virtual worlds offer a…

  11. Cognitive Aspects of Collaboration in 3d Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juřík, V.; Herman, L.; Kubíček, P.; Stachoň, Z.; Šašinka, Č.

    2016-06-01

    Human-computer interaction has entered the 3D era. The most important models representing spatial information — maps — are transferred into 3D versions regarding the specific content to be displayed. Virtual worlds (VW) become promising area of interest because of possibility to dynamically modify content and multi-user cooperation when solving tasks regardless to physical presence. They can be used for sharing and elaborating information via virtual images or avatars. Attractiveness of VWs is emphasized also by possibility to measure operators' actions and complex strategies. Collaboration in 3D environments is the crucial issue in many areas where the visualizations are important for the group cooperation. Within the specific 3D user interface the operators' ability to manipulate the displayed content is explored regarding such phenomena as situation awareness, cognitive workload and human error. For such purpose, the VWs offer a great number of tools for measuring the operators' responses as recording virtual movement or spots of interest in the visual field. Study focuses on the methodological issues of measuring the usability of 3D VWs and comparing them with the existing principles of 2D maps. We explore operators' strategies to reach and interpret information regarding the specific type of visualization and different level of immersion.

  12. Bringing macromolecular machinery to life using 3D animation.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Janet H

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a rapid rise in the use of three-dimensional (3D) animation to depict molecular and cellular processes. Much of the growth in molecular animation has been in the educational arena, but increasingly, 3D animation software is finding its way into research laboratories. In this review, I will discuss a number of ways in which 3d animation software can play a valuable role in visualizing and communicating macromolecular structures and dynamics. I will also consider the challenges of using animation tools within the research sphere.

  13. Inertial Motion-Tracking Technology for Virtual 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, NASA pioneered virtual reality research. The concept was present long before, but, prior to this, the technology did not exist to make a viable virtual reality system. Scientists had theories and ideas they knew that the concept had potential, but the computers of the 1970s and 1980s were not fast enough, sensors were heavy and cumbersome, and people had difficulty blending fluidly with the machines. Scientists at Ames Research Center built upon the research of previous decades and put the necessary technology behind them, making the theories of virtual reality a reality. Virtual reality systems depend on complex motion-tracking sensors to convey information between the user and the computer to give the user the feeling that he is operating in the real world. These motion-tracking sensors measure and report an object s position and orientation as it changes. A simple example of motion tracking would be the cursor on a computer screen moving in correspondence to the shifting of the mouse. Tracking in 3-D, necessary to create virtual reality, however, is much more complex. To be successful, the perspective of the virtual image seen on the computer must be an accurate representation of what is seen in the real world. As the user s head or camera moves, turns, or tilts, the computer-generated environment must change accordingly with no noticeable lag, jitter, or distortion. Historically, the lack of smooth and rapid tracking of the user s motion has thwarted the widespread use of immersive 3-D computer graphics. NASA uses virtual reality technology for a variety of purposes, mostly training of astronauts. The actual missions are costly and dangerous, so any opportunity the crews have to practice their maneuvering in accurate situations before the mission is valuable and instructive. For that purpose, NASA has funded a great deal of virtual reality research, and benefited from the results.

  14. Research on animation design of growing plant based on 3D MAX technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yineng; Fang, Kui; Bu, Weiqiong; Zhang, Xiaoling; Lei, Menglong

    In view of virtual plant has practical demands on quality, image and degree of realism animation in growing process of plant, this thesis design the animation based on mechanism and regularity of plant growth, and propose the design method based on 3D MAX technology. After repeated analysis and testing, it is concluded that there are modeling, rendering, animation fabrication and other key technologies in the animation design process. Based on this, designers can subdivid the animation into seed germination animation, plant growth prophase animation, catagen animation, later animation and blossom animation. This paper compounds the animation of these five stages by VP window to realize the completed 3D animation. Experimental result shows that the animation can realized rapid, visual and realistic simulatation the plant growth process.

  15. 3-D Sound for Virtual Reality and Multimedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Trejo, Leonard J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Technology and applications for the rendering of virtual acoustic spaces are reviewed. Chapter 1 deals with acoustics and psychoacoustics. Chapters 2 and 3 cover cues to spatial hearing and review psychoacoustic literature. Chapter 4 covers signal processing and systems overviews of 3-D sound systems. Chapter 5 covers applications to computer workstations, communication systems, aeronautics and space, and sonic arts. Chapter 6 lists resources. This TM is a reprint of the 1994 book from Academic Press.

  16. Dental impressions using 3D digital scanners: virtual becomes reality.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Nathan S; Aaronson, Heidi B

    2008-10-01

    The technologies that have made the use of three-dimensional (3D) digital scanners an integral part of many industries for decades have been improved and refined for application to dentistry. Since the introduction of the first dental impressioning digital scanner in the 1980s, development engineers at a number of companies have enhanced the technologies and created in-office scanners that are increasingly user-friendly and able to produce precisely fitting dental restorations. These systems are capable of capturing 3D virtual images of tooth preparations, from which restorations may be fabricated directly (ie, CAD/CAM systems) or fabricated indirectly (ie, dedicated impression scanning systems for the creation of accurate master models). The use of these products is increasing rapidly around the world and presents a paradigm shift in the way in which dental impressions are made. Several of the leading 3D dental digital scanning systems are presented and discussed in this article.

  17. NASA's 3-D Animation of Tropical Storm Ulika from Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animated 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ulika using GPM's Radar data showed some strong convective storms inside the tropical storm were dropping precipitation at a rate of over 187 mm (7.4 inches)...

  18. Virtual environment interaction through 3D audio by blind children.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J; Lumbreras, M

    1999-01-01

    Interactive software is actively used for learning, cognition, and entertainment purposes. Educational entertainment software is not very popular among blind children because most computer games and electronic toys have interfaces that are only accessible through visual cues. This work applies the concept of interactive hyperstories to blind children. Hyperstories are implemented in a 3D acoustic virtual world. In past studies we have conceptualized a model to design hyperstories. This study illustrates the feasibility of the model. It also provides an introduction to researchers to the field of entertainment software for blind children. As a result, we have designed and field tested AudioDoom, a virtual environment interacted through 3D Audio by blind children. AudioDoom is also a software that enables testing nontrivial interfaces and cognitive tasks with blind children. We explored the construction of cognitive spatial structures in the minds of blind children through audio-based entertainment and spatial sound navigable experiences. Children playing AudioDoom were exposed to first person experiences by exploring highly interactive virtual worlds through the use of 3D aural representations of the space. This experience was structured in several cognitive tasks where they had to build concrete models of their spatial representations constructed through the interaction with AudioDoom by using Legotrade mark blocks. We analyze our preliminary results after testing AudioDoom with Chilean children from a school for blind children. We discuss issues such as interactivity in software without visual cues, the representation of spatial sound navigable experiences, and entertainment software such as computer games for blind children. We also evaluate the feasibility to construct virtual environments through the design of dynamic learning materials with audio cues.

  19. Gravity and spatial orientation in virtual 3D-mazes.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Manuel; Lipshits, Mark; McIntyre, Joseph; Berthoz, Alain

    2003-01-01

    In order to bring new insights into the processing of 3D spatial information, we conducted experiments on the capacity of human subjects to memorize 3D-structured environments, such as buildings with several floors or the potentially complex 3D structure of an orbital space station. We had subjects move passively in one of two different exploration modes, through a visual virtual environment that consisted of a series of connected tunnels. In upright displacement, self-rotation when going around corners in the tunnels was limited to yaw rotations. For horizontal translations, subjects faced forward in the direction of motion. When moving up or down through vertical segments of the 3D tunnels, however, subjects facing the tunnel wall, remaining upright as if moving up and down in a glass elevator. In the unconstrained displacement mode, subjects would appear to climb or dive face-forward when moving vertically; thus, in this mode subjects could experience visual flow consistent with rotations about any of the 3 canonical axes. In a previous experiment, subjects were asked to determine whether a static, outside view of a test tunnel corresponded or not to the tunnel through which they had just passed. Results showed that performance was better on this task for the upright than for the unconstrained displacement mode; i.e. when subjects remained "upright" with respect to the virtual environment as defined by subject's posture in the first segment. This effect suggests that gravity may provide a key reference frame used in the shift between egocentric and allocentric representations of the 3D virtual world. To check whether it is the polarizing effects of gravity that leads to the favoring of the upright displacement mode, the experimental paradigm was adapted for orbital flight and performed by cosmonauts onboard the International Space Station. For these flight experiments the previous recognition task was replaced by a computerized reconstruction task, which proved

  20. Generating animated sequences from 3D whole-body scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pargas, Roy P.; Chhatriwala, Murtuza; Mulfinger, Daniel; Deshmukh, Pushkar; Vadhiyar, Sathish

    1999-03-01

    3D images of human subjects are, today, easily obtained using 3D wholebody scanners. 3D human images can provide static information about the physical characteristics of a person, information valuable to professionals such as clothing designers, anthropometrists, medical doctors, physical therapists, athletic trainers, and sculptors. Can 3D human images can be used to provide e more than static physical information. This research described in this paper attempts to answer the question by explaining a way that animated sequences may be generated from a single 3D scan. The process stars by subdividing the human image into segments and mapping the segments to those of a human model defined in a human-motion simulation package. The simulation software provides information used to display movement of the human image. Snapshots of the movement are captured and assembled to create an animated sequence. All of the postures and motion of the human images come from a single 3D scan. This paper describes the process involved in animating human figures from static 3D wholebody scans, presents an example of a generated animated sequence, and discusses possible applications of this approach.

  1. Enhanced LOD Concepts for Virtual 3d City Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, J.; Geiger, A.; Gröger, G.; Häfele, K.-H.; Löwner, M.-O.

    2013-09-01

    Virtual 3D city models contain digital three dimensional representations of city objects like buildings, streets or technical infrastructure. Because size and complexity of these models continuously grow, a Level of Detail (LoD) concept effectively supporting the partitioning of a complete model into alternative models of different complexity and providing metadata, addressing informational content, complexity and quality of each alternative model is indispensable. After a short overview on various LoD concepts, this paper discusses the existing LoD concept of the CityGML standard for 3D city models and identifies a number of deficits. Based on this analysis, an alternative concept is developed and illustrated with several examples. It differentiates between first, a Geometric Level of Detail (GLoD) and a Semantic Level of Detail (SLoD), and second between the interior building and its exterior shell. Finally, a possible implementation of the new concept is demonstrated by means of an UML model.

  2. Virtual environment display for a 3D audio room simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, William L.; Foster, Scott H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of a virtual environment simulation system integrating a 3D acoustic audio model with an immersive 3D visual scene is discussed. The system complements the acoustic model and is specified to: allow the listener to freely move about the space, a room of manipulable size, shape, and audio character, while interactively relocating the sound sources; reinforce the listener's feeling of telepresence in the acoustical environment with visual and proprioceptive sensations; enhance the audio with the graphic and interactive components, rather than overwhelm or reduce it; and serve as a research testbed and technology transfer demonstration. The hardware/software design of two demonstration systems, one installed and one portable, are discussed through the development of four iterative configurations.

  3. Virtual reality 3D headset based on DMD light modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Evans, Allan; Tang, Edward

    2014-06-13

    We present the design of an immersion-type 3D headset suitable for virtual reality applications based upon digital micro-mirror devices (DMD). Our approach leverages silicon micro mirrors offering 720p resolution displays in a small form-factor. Supporting chip sets allow rapid integration of these devices into wearable displays with high resolution and low power consumption. Applications include night driving, piloting of UAVs, fusion of multiple sensors for pilots, training, vision diagnostics and consumer gaming. Our design is described in which light from the DMD is imaged to infinity and the user’s own eye lens forms a real image on the user’s retina.

  4. From Multi-User Virtual Environment to 3D Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, Daniel; Kemp, Jeremy; Edgar, Edmund

    2008-01-01

    While digital virtual worlds have been used in education for a number of years, advances in the capabilities and spread of technology have fed a recent boom in interest in massively multi-user 3D virtual worlds for entertainment, and this in turn has led to a surge of interest in their educational applications. In this paper we briefly review the…

  5. A New Navigation Method for 3D Virtual Environment Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haydar, Mahmoud; Maidi, Madjid; Roussel, David; Mallem, Malik

    2009-03-01

    Navigation in virtual environments is a complex task which imposes a high cognitive load on the user. It consists on maintaining knowledge of current position and orientation of the user while he moves through the space. In this paper, we present a novel approach for navigation in 3D virtual environments. The method is based on the principle of skiing, and the idea is to provide to the user a total control of his navigation speed and rotation using his two hands. This technique enables user-steered exploration by determining the direction and the speed of motion using the knowledge of the positions of the user hands. A module of speed control is included to the technique to easily control the speed using the angle between the hands. The direction of motion is given by the orthogonal axis of the segment joining the two hands. A user study will show the efficiency of the method in performing exploration tasks in complex 3D large-scale environments. Furthermore, we proposed an experimental protocol to prove that this technique presents a high level of navigation guidance and control, achieving significantly better performance in comparison to simple navigation techniques.

  6. 3D Technology Selection for a Virtual Learning Environment by Blending ISO 9126 Standard and AHP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Aydin; Guler, Inan

    2011-01-01

    Web3D presents many opportunities for learners in a virtual world or virtual environment over the web. This is a great opportunity for open-distance education institutions to benefit from web3d technologies to create courses with interactive 3d materials. There are many open source and commercial products offering 3d technologies over the web…

  7. Virtual reality 3D headset based on DMD light modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Evans, Allan; Tang, Edward

    2014-06-01

    We present the design of an immersion-type 3D headset suitable for virtual reality applications based upon digital micromirror devices (DMD). Current methods for presenting information for virtual reality are focused on either polarizationbased modulators such as liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) devices, or miniature LCD or LED displays often using lenses to place the image at infinity. LCoS modulators are an area of active research and development, and reduce the amount of viewing light by 50% due to the use of polarization. Viewable LCD or LED screens may suffer low resolution, cause eye fatigue, and exhibit a "screen door" or pixelation effect due to the low pixel fill factor. Our approach leverages a mature technology based on silicon micro mirrors delivering 720p resolution displays in a small form-factor with high fill factor. Supporting chip sets allow rapid integration of these devices into wearable displays with high-definition resolution and low power consumption, and many of the design methods developed for DMD projector applications can be adapted to display use. Potential applications include night driving with natural depth perception, piloting of UAVs, fusion of multiple sensors for pilots, training, vision diagnostics and consumer gaming. Our design concept is described in which light from the DMD is imaged to infinity and the user's own eye lens forms a real image on the user's retina resulting in a virtual retinal display.

  8. fVisiOn: glasses-free tabletop 3D display to provide virtual 3D media naturally alongside real media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shunsuke

    2012-06-01

    A novel glasses-free tabletop 3D display, named fVisiOn, floats virtual 3D objects on an empty, flat, tabletop surface and enables multiple viewers to observe raised 3D images from any angle at 360° Our glasses-free 3D image reproduction method employs a combination of an optical device and an array of projectors and produces continuous horizontal parallax in the direction of a circular path located above the table. The optical device shapes a hollow cone and works as an anisotropic diffuser. The circularly arranged projectors cast numerous rays into the optical device. Each ray represents a particular ray that passes a corresponding point on a virtual object's surface and orients toward a viewing area around the table. At any viewpoint on the ring-shaped viewing area, both eyes collect fractional images from different projectors, and all the viewers around the table can perceive the scene as 3D from their perspectives because the images include binocular disparity. The entire principle is installed beneath the table, so the tabletop area remains clear. No ordinary tabletop activities are disturbed. Many people can naturally share the 3D images displayed together with real objects on the table. In our latest prototype, we employed a handmade optical device and an array of over 100 tiny projectors. This configuration reproduces static and animated 3D scenes for a 130° viewing area and allows 5-cm-tall virtual characters to play soccer and dance on the table.

  9. 3D virtual screening of large combinatorial spaces.

    PubMed

    Muegge, Ingo; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    A new method for 3D in silico screening of large virtual combinatorial chemistry spaces is described. The software PharmShape screens millions of individual compounds applying a multi-conformational pharmacophore and shape based approach. Its extension, PharmShapeCC, is capable of screening trillions of compounds from tens of thousands of combinatorial libraries. Key elements of PharmShape and PharmShapeCC are customizable pharmacophore features, a composite inclusion sphere, library core intermediate clustering, and the determination of combinatorial library consensus orientations that allow for orthogonal enumeration of libraries. The performance of the software is illustrated by the prospective identification of a novel CXCR5 antagonist and examples of finding novel chemotypes from synthesizing and evaluating combinatorial hit libraries identified from PharmShapeCC screens for CCR1, LTA4 hydrolase, and MMP-13.

  10. Virtual environment display for a 3D audio room simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapin, William L.; Foster, Scott

    1992-06-01

    Recent developments in virtual 3D audio and synthetic aural environments have produced a complex acoustical room simulation. The acoustical simulation models a room with walls, ceiling, and floor of selected sound reflecting/absorbing characteristics and unlimited independent localizable sound sources. This non-visual acoustic simulation, implemented with 4 audio ConvolvotronsTM by Crystal River Engineering and coupled to the listener with a Poihemus IsotrakTM, tracking the listener's head position and orientation, and stereo headphones returning binaural sound, is quite compelling to most listeners with eyes closed. This immersive effect should be reinforced when properly integrated into a full, multi-sensory virtual environment presentation. This paper discusses the design of an interactive, visual virtual environment, complementing the acoustic model and specified to: 1) allow the listener to freely move about the space, a room of manipulable size, shape, and audio character, while interactively relocating the sound sources; 2) reinforce the listener's feeling of telepresence into the acoustical environment with visual and proprioceptive sensations; 3) enhance the audio with the graphic and interactive components, rather than overwhelm or reduce it; and 4) serve as a research testbed and technology transfer demonstration. The hardware/software design of two demonstration systems, one installed and one portable, are discussed through the development of four iterative configurations. The installed system implements a head-coupled, wide-angle, stereo-optic tracker/viewer and multi-computer simulation control. The portable demonstration system implements a head-mounted wide-angle, stereo-optic display, separate head and pointer electro-magnetic position trackers, a heterogeneous parallel graphics processing system, and object oriented C++ program code.

  11. Computer-assisted three-dimensional surgical planning and simulation: 3D virtual osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Xia, J; Ip, H H; Samman, N; Wang, D; Kot, C S; Yeung, R W; Tideman, H

    2000-02-01

    A computer-assisted three-dimensional virtual osteotomy system for orthognathic surgery (CAVOS) is presented. The virtual reality workbench is used for surgical planning. The surgeon immerses in a virtual reality environment with stereo eyewear, holds a virtual "scalpel" (3D Mouse) and operates on a "real" patient (3D visualization) to obtain pre-surgical prediction (3D bony segment movements). Virtual surgery on a computer-generated 3D head model is simulated and can be visualized from any arbitrary viewing point in a personal computer system.

  12. Participatory Gis: Experimentations for a 3d Social Virtual Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.

    2013-08-01

    The dawn of GeoWeb 2.0, the geographic extension of Web 2.0, has opened new possibilities in terms of online dissemination and sharing of geospatial contents, thus laying the foundations for a fruitful development of Participatory GIS (PGIS). The purpose of the study is to investigate the extension of PGIS applications, which are quite mature in the traditional bi-dimensional framework, up to the third dimension. More in detail, the system should couple a powerful 3D visualization with an increase of public participation by means of a tool allowing data collecting from mobile devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets). The PGIS application, built using the open source NASA World Wind virtual globe, is focussed on the cultural and tourism heritage of Como city, located in Northern Italy. An authentication mechanism was implemented, which allows users to create and manage customized projects through cartographic mash-ups of Web Map Service (WMS) layers. Saved projects populate a catalogue which is available to the entire community. Together with historical maps and the current cartography of the city, the system is also able to manage geo-tagged multimedia data, which come from user field-surveys performed through mobile devices and report POIs (Points Of Interest). Each logged user can then contribute to POIs characterization by adding textual and multimedia information (e.g. images, audios and videos) directly on the globe. All in all, the resulting application allows users to create and share contributions as it usually happens on social platforms, additionally providing a realistic 3D representation enhancing the expressive power of data.

  13. Presence Pedagogy: Teaching and Learning in a 3D Virtual Immersive World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronack, Stephen; Sanders, Robert; Cheney, Amelia; Riedl, Richard; Tashner, John; Matzen, Nita

    2008-01-01

    As the use of 3D immersive virtual worlds in higher education expands, it is important to examine which pedagogical approaches are most likely to bring about success. AET Zone, a 3D immersive virtual world in use for more than seven years, is one embodiment of pedagogical innovation that capitalizes on what virtual worlds have to offer to social…

  14. Implementation of virtual models from sheet metal forming simulation into physical 3D colour models using 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junk, S.

    2016-08-01

    Today the methods of numerical simulation of sheet metal forming offer a great diversity of possibilities for optimization in product development and in process design. However, the results from simulation are only available as virtual models. Because there are any forming tools available during the early stages of product development, physical models that could serve to represent the virtual results are therefore lacking. Physical 3D-models can be created using 3D-printing and serve as an illustration and present a better understanding of the simulation results. In this way, the results from the simulation can be made more “comprehensible” within a development team. This paper presents the possibilities of 3D-colour printing with particular consideration of the requirements regarding the implementation of sheet metal forming simulation. Using concrete examples of sheet metal forming, the manufacturing of 3D colour models will be expounded upon on the basis of simulation results.

  15. A 3D character animation engine for multimodal interaction on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandali, Enrico; Lavagetto, Fabio; Pisano, Paolo

    2005-03-01

    Talking virtual characters are graphical simulations of real or imaginary persons that enable natural and pleasant multimodal interaction with the user, by means of voice, eye gaze, facial expression and gestures. This paper presents an implementation of a 3D virtual character animation and rendering engine, compliant with the MPEG-4 standard, running on Symbian-based SmartPhones. Real-time animation of virtual characters on mobile devices represents a challenging task, since many limitations must be taken into account with respect to processing power, graphics capabilities, disk space and execution memory size. The proposed optimization techniques allow to overcome these issues, guaranteeing a smooth and synchronous animation of facial expressions and lip movements on mobile phones such as Sony-Ericsson's P800 and Nokia's 6600. The animation engine is specifically targeted to the development of new "Over The Air" services, based on embodied conversational agents, with applications in entertainment (interactive story tellers), navigation aid (virtual guides to web sites and mobile services), news casting (virtual newscasters) and education (interactive virtual teachers).

  16. Spatial integration of boundaries in a 3D virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Bouchekioua, Youcef; Miller, Holly C; Craddock, Paul; Blaisdell, Aaron P; Molet, Mikael

    2013-10-01

    Prior research, using two- and three-dimensional environments, has found that when both human and nonhuman animals independently acquire two associations between landmarks with a common landmark (e.g., LM1-LM2 and LM2-LM3), each with its own spatial relationship, they behave as if the two unique LMs have a known spatial relationship despite their never having been paired. Seemingly, they have integrated the two associations to create a third association with its own spatial relationship (LM1-LM3). Using sensory preconditioning (Experiment 1) and second-order conditioning (Experiment 2) procedures, we found that human participants integrated information about the boundaries of pathways to locate a goal within a three-dimensional virtual environment in the absence of any relevant landmarks. Spatial integration depended on the participant experiencing a common boundary feature with which to link the pathways. These results suggest that the principles of associative learning also apply to the boundaries of an environment.

  17. Markerless 3D motion capture for animal locomotion studies

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, William Irvin; Hirasaki, Eishi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obtaining quantitative data describing the movements of animals is an essential step in understanding their locomotor biology. Outside the laboratory, measuring animal locomotion often relies on video-based approaches and analysis is hampered because of difficulties in calibration and often the limited availability of possible camera positions. It is also usually restricted to two dimensions, which is often an undesirable over-simplification given the essentially three-dimensional nature of many locomotor performances. In this paper we demonstrate a fully three-dimensional approach based on 3D photogrammetric reconstruction using multiple, synchronised video cameras. This approach allows full calibration based on the separation of the individual cameras and will work fully automatically with completely unmarked and undisturbed animals. As such it has the potential to revolutionise work carried out on free-ranging animals in sanctuaries and zoological gardens where ad hoc approaches are essential and access within enclosures often severely restricted. The paper demonstrates the effectiveness of video-based 3D photogrammetry with examples from primates and birds, as well as discussing the current limitations of this technique and illustrating the accuracies that can be obtained. All the software required is open source so this can be a very cost effective approach and provides a methodology of obtaining data in situations where other approaches would be completely ineffective. PMID:24972869

  18. iVirtualWorld: A Domain-Oriented End-User Development Environment for Building 3D Virtual Chemistry Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Virtual worlds are well-suited for building virtual laboratories for educational purposes to complement hands-on physical laboratories. However, educators may face technical challenges because developing virtual worlds requires skills in programming and 3D design. Current virtual world building tools are developed for users who have programming…

  19. Integration of the virtual 3D model of a control system with the virtual controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbuś, K.; Ociepka, P.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the design process includes simulation analysis of different components of a constructed object. It involves the need for integration of different virtual object to simulate the whole investigated technical system. The paper presents the issues related to the integration of a virtual 3D model of a chosen control system of with a virtual controller. The goal of integration is to verify the operation of an adopted object of in accordance with the established control program. The object of the simulation work is the drive system of a tunneling machine for trenchless work. In the first stage of work was created an interactive visualization of functioning of the 3D virtual model of a tunneling machine. For this purpose, the software of the VR (Virtual Reality) class was applied. In the elaborated interactive application were created adequate procedures allowing controlling the drive system of a translatory motion, a rotary motion and the drive system of a manipulator. Additionally was created the procedure of turning on and off the output crushing head, mounted on the last element of the manipulator. In the elaborated interactive application have been established procedures for receiving input data from external software, on the basis of the dynamic data exchange (DDE), which allow controlling actuators of particular control systems of the considered machine. In the next stage of work, the program on a virtual driver, in the ladder diagram (LD) language, was created. The control program was developed on the basis of the adopted work cycle of the tunneling machine. The element integrating the virtual model of the tunneling machine for trenchless work with the virtual controller is the application written in a high level language (Visual Basic). In the developed application was created procedures responsible for collecting data from the running, in a simulation mode, virtual controller and transferring them to the interactive application, in which is verified the

  20. Rapid prototyping 3D virtual world interfaces within a virtual factory environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosta, Charles Paul; Krolak, Patrick D.

    1993-01-01

    On-going work into user requirements analysis using CLIPS (NASA/JSC) expert systems as an intelligent event simulator has led to research into three-dimensional (3D) interfaces. Previous work involved CLIPS and two-dimensional (2D) models. Integral to this work was the development of the University of Massachusetts Lowell parallel version of CLIPS, called PCLIPS. This allowed us to create both a Software Bus and a group problem-solving environment for expert systems development. By shifting the PCLIPS paradigm to use the VEOS messaging protocol we have merged VEOS (HlTL/Seattle) and CLIPS into a distributed virtual worlds prototyping environment (VCLIPS). VCLIPS uses the VEOS protocol layer to allow multiple experts to cooperate on a single problem. We have begun to look at the control of a virtual factory. In the virtual factory there are actors and objects as found in our Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future project. In this artificial reality architecture there are three VCLIPS entities in action. One entity is responsible for display and user events in the 3D virtual world. Another is responsible for either simulating the virtual factory or communicating with the real factory. The third is a user interface expert. The interface expert maps user input levels, within the current prototype, to control information for the factory. The interface to the virtual factory is based on a camera paradigm. The graphics subsystem generates camera views of the factory on standard X-Window displays. The camera allows for view control and object control. Control or the factory is accomplished by the user reaching into the camera views to perform object interactions. All communication between the separate CLIPS expert systems is done through VEOS.

  1. Issues and Challenges of Teaching and Learning in 3D Virtual Worlds: Real Life Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeil, Ulrike; Ang, Chee Siang; Zaphiris, Panayiotis

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to study the characteristics and usage patterns of 3D virtual worlds in the context of teaching and learning. To achieve this, we organised a full-day workshop to explore, discuss and investigate the educational use of 3D virtual worlds. Thirty participants took part in the workshop. All conversations were recorded and transcribed for…

  2. 3D Inhabited Virtual Worlds: Interactivity and Interaction between Avatars, Autonomous Agents, and Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jens F.

    This paper addresses some of the central questions currently related to 3-Dimensional Inhabited Virtual Worlds (3D-IVWs), their virtual interactions, and communication, drawing from the theory and methodology of sociology, interaction analysis, interpersonal communication, semiotics, cultural studies, and media studies. First, 3D-IVWs--seen as a…

  3. The Virtual Radiopharmacy Laboratory: A 3-D Simulation for Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexiou, Antonios; Bouras, Christos; Giannaka, Eri; Kapoulas, Vaggelis; Nani, Maria; Tsiatsos, Thrasivoulos

    2004-01-01

    This article presents Virtual Radiopharmacy Laboratory (VR LAB), a virtual laboratory accessible through the Internet. VR LAB is designed and implemented in the framework of the VirRAD European project. This laboratory represents a 3D simulation of a radio-pharmacy laboratory, where learners, represented by 3D avatars, can experiment on…

  4. The Engelbourg's ruins: from 3D TLS point cloud acquisition to 3D virtual and historic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, Mathieu; Berger, Solveig; Nobile, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    The Castle of Engelbourg was built at the beginning of the 13th century, at the top of the Schlossberg. It is situated on the territory of the municipality of Thann (France), at the crossroads of Alsace and Lorraine, and dominates the outlet of the valley of Thur. Its strategic position was one of the causes of its systematic destructions during the 17th century, and Louis XIV finished his fate by ordering his demolition in 1673. Today only few vestiges remain, of which a section of the main tower from about 7m of diameter and 4m of wide laying on its slice, unique characteristic in the regional castral landscape. It is visible since the valley, was named "the Eye of the witch", and became a key attraction of the region. The site, which extends over approximately one hectare, is for several years the object of numerous archaeological studies and is at the heart of a project of valuation of the vestiges today. It was indeed a key objective, among the numerous planned works, to realize a 3D model of the site in its current state, in other words, a virtual model "such as seized", exploitable as well from a cultural and tourist point of view as by scientists and in archaeological researches. The team of the ICube/INSA lab had in responsibility the realization of this model, the acquisition of the data until the delivery of the virtual model, thanks to 3D TLS and topographic surveying methods. It was also planned to integrate into this 3D model, data of 2D archives, stemming from series of former excavations. The objectives of this project were the following ones: • Acquisition of 3D digital data of the site and 3D modelling • Digitization of the 2D archaeological data and integration in the 3D model • Implementation of a database connected to the 3D model • Virtual Visit of the site The obtained results allowed us to visualize every 3D object individually, under several forms (point clouds, 3D meshed objects and models, etc.) and at several levels of detail

  5. Interaction Design and Usability of Learning Spaces in 3D Multi-user Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minocha, Shailey; Reeves, Ahmad John

    Three-dimensional virtual worlds are multimedia, simulated environments, often managed over the Web, which users can 'inhabit' and interact via their own graphical, self-representations known as 'avatars'. 3D virtual worlds are being used in many applications: education/training, gaming, social networking, marketing and commerce. Second Life is the most widely used 3D virtual world in education. However, problems associated with usability, navigation and way finding in 3D virtual worlds may impact on student learning and engagement. Based on empirical investigations of learning spaces in Second Life, this paper presents design guidelines to improve the usability and ease of navigation in 3D spaces. Methods of data collection include semi-structured interviews with Second Life students, educators and designers. The findings have revealed that design principles from the fields of urban planning, Human- Computer Interaction, Web usability, geography and psychology can influence the design of spaces in 3D multi-user virtual environments.

  6. V-Man Generation for 3-D Real Time Animation. Chapter 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Sibiryakov, Alexander; Ju, Xiangyang

    2007-01-01

    The V-Man project has developed an intuitive authoring and intelligent system to create, animate, control and interact in real-time with a new generation of 3D virtual characters: The V-Men. It combines several innovative algorithms coming from Virtual Reality, Physical Simulation, Computer Vision, Robotics and Artificial Intelligence. Given a high-level task like "walk to that spot" or "get that object", a V-Man generates the complete animation required to accomplish the task. V-Men synthesise motion at runtime according to their environment, their task and their physical parameters, drawing upon its unique set of skills manufactured during the character creation. The key to the system is the automated creation of realistic V-Men, not requiring the expertise of an animator. It is based on real human data captured by 3D static and dynamic body scanners, which is then processed to generate firstly animatable body meshes, secondly 3D garments and finally skinned body meshes.

  7. Virtual and Printed 3D Models for Teaching Crystal Symmetry and Point Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, Lluís; Estop, Euge`nia

    2015-01-01

    Both, virtual and printed 3D crystal models can help students and teachers deal with chemical education topics such as symmetry and point groups. In the present paper, two freely downloadable tools (interactive PDF files and a mobile app) are presented as examples of the application of 3D design to study point-symmetry. The use of 3D printing to…

  8. Contextual EFL Learning in a 3D Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Yu-Ju

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of the current study are to develop virtually immersive EFL learning contexts for EFL learners in Taiwan to pre- and review English materials beyond the regular English class schedule. A 2-iteration action research lasting for one semester was conducted to evaluate the effects of virtual contexts on learners' EFL learning. 132…

  9. Evaluation of Home Delivery of Lectures Utilizing 3D Virtual Space Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishide, Ryo; Shima, Ryoichi; Araie, Hiromu; Ueshima, Shinichi

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation experiments have been essential in exploring home delivery of lectures for which users can experience campus lifestyle and distant learning through 3D virtual space. This paper discusses the necessity of virtual space for distant learners by examining the effects of virtual space. The authors have pursued the possibility of…

  10. Virtual 3D microscopy using multiplane whole slide images in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Kalinski, Thomas; Zwönitzer, Ralf; Sel, Saadettin; Evert, Matthias; Guenther, Thomas; Hofmann, Harald; Bernarding, Johannes; Roessner, Albert

    2008-08-01

    To reproduce focusing in virtual microscopy, it is necessary to construct 3-dimensional (3D) virtual slides composed of whole slide images with different focuses. As focusing is frequently used for the assessment of Helicobacter pylori colonization in diagnostic pathology, we prepared virtual 3D slides with up to 9 focus planes from 144 gastric biopsy specimens with or without H pylori gastritis. The biopsy specimens were diagnosed in a blinded manner by 3 pathologists according to the updated Sydney classification using conventional microscopy, virtual microscopy with a single focus plane, and virtual 3D microscopy with 5 and 9 focus planes enabling virtual focusing. Regarding the classification of H pylori, we found a positive correlation between the number of focus planes used in virtual microscopy and the number of correct diagnoses as determined by conventional microscopy. Concerning H pylori positivity, the specificity and sensitivity of virtual 3D microscopy using virtual slides with 9 focus planes achieved a minimum of 0.95 each, which was approximately the same as in conventional microscopy. We consider virtual 3D microscopy appropriate for primary diagnosis of H pylori gastritis and equivalent to conventional microscopy.

  11. 3-D Virtual and Physical Reconstruction of Bendego Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, S. L. R.; Zucolotto, M. E.; Fontes, R. C.; dos Santos, J. R. L.

    2012-09-01

    The use of 3D laser scanning to meteoritic to preserve the original shape of the meteorites before cutting and the facility of saved the datas in STL format (stereolithography) to print three-dimensional physical models and generate a digital replica.

  12. Orchestrating learning during implementation of a 3D virtual world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakus, Turkan; Baydas, Ozlem; Gunay, Fatma; Coban, Murat; Goktas, Yuksel

    2016-10-01

    There are many issues to be considered when designing virtual worlds for educational purposes. In this study, the term orchestration has acquired a new definition as the moderation of problems encountered during the activity of turning a virtual world into an educational setting for winter sports. A development case showed that community plays a key role in both the emergence of challenges and in the determination of their solutions. The implications of this study showed that activity theory was a useful tool for understanding contextual issues. Therefore, instructional designers first developed relevant tools and community-based solutions. This study attempts to use activity theory in a prescriptive way, though it is known as a descriptive theory. Finally, since virtual world projects have many aspects, the variety of challenges and practical solutions presented in this study will provide practitioners with suggestions on how to overcome problems in future.

  13. Spilling the beans on java 3D: a tool for the virtual anatomist.

    PubMed

    Guttmann, G D

    1999-04-15

    The computing world has just provided the anatomist with another tool: Java 3D, within the Java 2 platform. On December 9, 1998, Sun Microsystems released Java 2. Java 3D classes are now included in the jar (Java Archive) archives of the extensions directory of Java 2. Java 3D is also a part of the Java Media Suite of APIs (Application Programming Interfaces). But what is Java? How does Java 3D work? How do you view Java 3D objects? A brief introduction to the concepts of Java and object-oriented programming is provided. Also, there is a short description of the tools of Java 3D and of the Java 3D viewer. Thus, the virtual anatomist has another set of computer tools to use for modeling various aspects of anatomy, such as embryological development. Also, the virtual anatomist will be able to assist the surgeon with virtual surgery using the tools found in Java 3D. Java 3D will be able to fulfill gaps, such as the lack of platform independence, interactivity, and manipulability of 3D images, currently existing in many anatomical computer-aided learning programs.

  14. Combination of Virtual Tours, 3d Model and Digital Data in a 3d Archaeological Knowledge and Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, M.; Brigand, N.

    2012-08-01

    The site of the Engelbourg ruined castle in Thann, Alsace, France, has been for some years the object of all the attention of the city, which is the owner, and also of partners like historians and archaeologists who are in charge of its study. The valuation of the site is one of the main objective, as well as its conservation and its knowledge. The aim of this project is to use the environment of the virtual tour viewer as new base for an Archaeological Knowledge and Information System (AKIS). With available development tools we add functionalities in particular through diverse scripts that convert the viewer into a real 3D interface. By beginning with a first virtual tour that contains about fifteen panoramic images, the site of about 150 times 150 meters can be completely documented by offering the user a real interactivity and that makes visualization very concrete, almost lively. After the choice of pertinent points of view, panoramic images were realized. For the documentation, other sets of images were acquired at various seasons and climate conditions, which allow documenting the site in different environments and states of vegetation. The final virtual tour was deducted from them. The initial 3D model of the castle, which is virtual too, was also joined in the form of panoramic images for completing the understanding of the site. A variety of types of hotspots were used to connect the whole digital documentation to the site, including videos (as reports during the acquisition phases, during the restoration works, during the excavations, etc.), digital georeferenced documents (archaeological reports on the various constituent elements of the castle, interpretation of the excavations and the searches, description of the sets of collected objects, etc.). The completely personalized interface of the system allows either to switch from a panoramic image to another one, which is the classic case of the virtual tours, or to go from a panoramic photographic image

  15. Anesthesiology training using 3D imaging and virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blezek, Daniel J.; Robb, Richard A.; Camp, Jon J.; Nauss, Lee A.

    1996-04-01

    Current training for regional nerve block procedures by anesthesiology residents requires expert supervision and the use of cadavers; both of which are relatively expensive commodities in today's cost-conscious medical environment. We are developing methods to augment and eventually replace these training procedures with real-time and realistic computer visualizations and manipulations of the anatomical structures involved in anesthesiology procedures, such as nerve plexus injections (e.g., celiac blocks). The initial work is focused on visualizations: both static images and rotational renderings. From the initial results, a coherent paradigm for virtual patient and scene representation will be developed.

  16. Design of Learning Spaces in 3D Virtual Worlds: An Empirical Investigation of "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minocha, Shailey; Reeves, Ahmad John

    2010-01-01

    "Second Life" (SL) is a three-dimensional (3D) virtual world, and educational institutions are adopting SL to support their teaching and learning. Although the question of how 3D learning spaces should be designed to support student learning and engagement has been raised among SL educators and designers, there is hardly any guidance or research…

  17. Employing Virtual Humans for Education and Training in X3D/VRML Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ieronutti, Lucio; Chittaro, Luca

    2007-01-01

    Web-based education and training provides a new paradigm for imparting knowledge; students can access the learning material anytime by operating remotely from any location. Web3D open standards, such as X3D and VRML, support Web-based delivery of Educational Virtual Environments (EVEs). EVEs have a great potential for learning and training…

  18. Gaming in a 3D Multiuser Virtual Environment: Engaging Students in Science Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cher, P.; Nonis, Darren; Hedberg, John

    2006-01-01

    Based on the exploratory study of a 3D multiuser virtual environment (3D MUVE), known as Quest Atlantis (QA), in a series of Primary Four (10- to 11-year-olds) Science lessons at Orchard Primary School in Singapore, this paper examines the issues of learning engagement and describes the socio-cultural context of QA's implementation. The students…

  19. Development of real-time motion capture system for 3D on-line games linked with virtual character

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong Hyeong; Ryu, Young Kee; Cho, Hyung Suck

    2004-10-01

    Motion tracking method is being issued as essential part of the entertainment, medical, sports, education and industry with the development of 3-D virtual reality. Virtual human character in the digital animation and game application has been controlled by interfacing devices; mouse, joysticks, midi-slider, and so on. Those devices could not enable virtual human character to move smoothly and naturally. Furthermore, high-end human motion capture systems in commercial market are expensive and complicated. In this paper, we proposed a practical and fast motion capturing system consisting of optic sensors, and linked the data with 3-D game character with real time. The prototype experiment setup is successfully applied to a boxing game which requires very fast movement of human character.

  20. A Collaborative Virtual Environment for Situated Language Learning Using VEC3D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ya-Chun; Yang, Mau-Tsuen

    2008-01-01

    A 3D virtually synchronous communication architecture for situated language learning has been designed to foster communicative competence among undergraduate students who have studied English as a foreign language (EFL). We present an innovative approach that offers better e-learning than the previous virtual reality educational applications. The…

  1. The Virtual-casing Principle For 3D Toroidal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-02-24

    The capability to calculate the magnetic field due to the plasma currents in a toroidally confined magnetic fusion equilibrium is of manifest relevance to equilibrium reconstruction and stellarator divertor design. Two methodologies arise for calculating such quantities. The first being a volume integral over the plasma current density for a given equilibrium. Such an integral is computationally expensive. The second is a surface integral over a surface current on the equilibrium boundary. This method is computationally desirable as the calculation does not grow as the radial resolution of the volume integral. This surface integral method has come to be known as the "virtual-casing principle". In this paper, a full derivation of this method is presented along with a discussion regarding its optimal application.

  2. Computer-assisted three-dimensional surgical planning: 3D virtual articulator: technical note.

    PubMed

    Ghanai, S; Marmulla, R; Wiechnik, J; Mühling, J; Kotrikova, B

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a computer-assisted planning system for dysgnathia treatment. It describes the process of information gathering using a virtual articulator and how the splints are constructed for orthognathic surgery. The deviation of the virtually planned splints is shown in six cases on the basis of conventionally planned cases. In all cases the plaster models were prepared and scanned using a 3D laser scanner. Successive lateral and posterior-anterior cephalometric images were used for reconstruction before surgery. By identifying specific points on the X-rays and marking them on the virtual models, it was possible to enhance the 2D images to create a realistic 3D environment and to perform virtual repositioning of the jaw. A hexapod was used to transfer the virtual planning to the real splints. Preliminary results showed that conventional repositioning could be replicated using the virtual articulator.

  3. The virtual-casing principle for 3D toroidal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazerson, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The capability to calculate the magnetic field due to the plasma currents in a toroidally confined magnetic fusion equilibrium is of manifest relevance to equilibrium reconstruction and stellarator divertor design. Two methodologies arise for calculating such quantities. The first being a volume integral over the plasma current density for a given equilibrium. Such an integral is computationally expensive. The second is a surface integral over a surface current on the equilibrium boundary. This method is computationally desirable as the calculation does not grow as the radial resolution of the volume integral. This surface integral method has come to be known as the ‘virtual-casing principle’. In this paper, a full derivation of this method is presented along with a discussion regarding its optimal application. This paper has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The publisher, by accepting the paper for publication acknowledges, that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive,paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this paper, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  4. Understanding Human Perception of Building Categories in Virtual 3d Cities - a User Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutzauer, P.; Becker, S.; Niese, T.; Deussen, O.; Fritsch, D.

    2016-06-01

    Virtual 3D cities are becoming increasingly important as a means of visually communicating diverse urban-related information. To get a deeper understanding of a human's cognitive experience of virtual 3D cities, this paper presents a user study on the human ability to perceive building categories (e.g. residential home, office building, building with shops etc.) from geometric 3D building representations. The study reveals various dependencies between geometric properties of the 3D representations and the perceptibility of the building categories. Knowledge about which geometries are relevant, helpful or obstructive for perceiving a specific building category is derived. The importance and usability of such knowledge is demonstrated based on a perception-guided 3D building abstraction process.

  5. Mobile viewer system for virtual 3D space using infrared LED point markers and camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Taneji, Shoto

    2006-09-01

    The authors have developed a 3D workspace system using collaborative imaging devices. A stereoscopic display enables this system to project 3D information. In this paper, we describe the position detecting system for a see-through 3D viewer. A 3D display system is useful technology for virtual reality, mixed reality and augmented reality. We have researched spatial imaging and interaction system. We have ever proposed 3D displays using the slit as a parallax barrier, the lenticular screen and the holographic optical elements(HOEs) for displaying active image 1)2)3)4). The purpose of this paper is to propose the interactive system using these 3D imaging technologies. The observer can view virtual images in the real world when the user watches the screen of a see-through 3D viewer. The goal of our research is to build the display system as follows; when users see the real world through the mobile viewer, the display system gives users virtual 3D images, which is floating in the air, and the observers can touch these floating images and interact them such that kids can make play clay. The key technologies of this system are the position recognition system and the spatial imaging display. The 3D images are presented by the improved parallax barrier 3D display. Here the authors discuss the measuring method of the mobile viewer using infrared LED point markers and a camera in the 3D workspace (augmented reality world). The authors show the geometric analysis of the proposed measuring method, which is the simplest method using a single camera not the stereo camera, and the results of our viewer system.

  6. A new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-05-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing day to day for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally three main image based approaches are using for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling and third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete solution available to create complete 3D city model by using images. These image based methods also have limitations This paper gives a new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry. This approach is divided into three sections. First, data acquisition process, second is 3D data processing, and third is data combination process. In data acquisition process, a multi-camera setup developed and used for video recording of an area. Image frames created from video data. Minimum required and suitable video image frame selected for 3D processing. In second section, based on close range photogrammetric principles and computer vision techniques, 3D model of area created. In third section, this 3D model exported to adding and merging of other pieces of large area. Scaling and alignment of 3D model was done. After applying the texturing and rendering on this model, a final photo-realistic textured 3D model created. This 3D model transferred into walk-through model or in movie form. Most of the processing steps are automatic. So this method is cost effective and less laborious. Accuracy of this model is good. For this research work, study area is the campus of department of civil engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. This campus acts as a prototype for city. Aerial photography is restricted in many country

  7. Integration of virtual and real scenes within an integral 3D imaging environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jinsong; Aggoun, Amar; McCormick, Malcolm

    2002-11-01

    The Imaging Technologies group at De Montfort University has developed an integral 3D imaging system, which is seen as the most likely vehicle for 3D television avoiding psychological effects. To create real fascinating three-dimensional television programs, a virtual studio that performs the task of generating, editing and integrating the 3D contents involving virtual and real scenes is required. The paper presents, for the first time, the procedures, factors and methods of integrating computer-generated virtual scenes with real objects captured using the 3D integral imaging camera system. The method of computer generation of 3D integral images, where the lens array is modelled instead of the physical camera is described. In the model each micro-lens that captures different elemental images of the virtual scene is treated as an extended pinhole camera. An integration process named integrated rendering is illustrated. Detailed discussion and deep investigation are focused on depth extraction from captured integral 3D images. The depth calculation method from the disparity and the multiple baseline method that is used to improve the precision of depth estimation are also presented. The concept of colour SSD and its further improvement in the precision is proposed and verified.

  8. NASA's 3-D TRMM Satellite Animation of Tropical Storm Andrea

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D view from the west was derived from TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) data captured when Andrea was examined by the TRMM satellite with the June 5, 2234 UTC (6:34 p.m. EDT) orbit. It clearly s...

  9. Integrated bronchoscopic video tracking and 3D CT registration for virtual bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, William E.; Helferty, James P.; Padfield, Dirk R.

    2003-05-01

    Lung cancer assessment involves an initial evaluation of 3D CT image data followed by interventional bronchoscopy. The physician, with only a mental image inferred from the 3D CT data, must guide the bronchoscope through the bronchial tree to sites of interest. Unfortunately, this procedure depends heavily on the physician's ability to mentally reconstruct the 3D position of the bronchoscope within the airways. In order to assist physicians in performing biopsies of interest, we have developed a method that integrates live bronchoscopic video tracking and 3D CT registration. The proposed method is integrated into a system we have been devising for virtual-bronchoscopic analysis and guidance for lung-cancer assessment. Previously, the system relied on a method that only used registration of the live bronchoscopic video to corresponding virtual endoluminal views derived from the 3D CT data. This procedure only performs the registration at manually selected sites; it does not draw upon the motion information inherent in the bronchoscopic video. Further, the registration procedure is slow. The proposed method has the following advantages: (1) it tracks the 3D motion of the bronchoscope using the bronchoscopic video; (2) it uses the tracked 3D trajectory of the bronchoscope to assist in locating sites in the 3D CT "virtual world" to perform the registration. In addition, the method incorporates techniques to: (1) detect and exclude corrupted video frames (to help make the video tracking more robust); (2) accelerate the computation of the many 3D virtual endoluminal renderings (thus, speeding up the registration process). We have tested the integrated tracking-registration method on a human airway-tree phantom and on real human data.

  10. Embodied collaboration support system for 3D shape evaluation in virtual space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Masashi; Watanabe, Tomio

    2005-12-01

    Collaboration mainly consists of two tasks; one is each partner's task that is performed by the individual, the other is communication with each other. Both of them are very important objectives for all the collaboration support system. In this paper, a collaboration support system for 3D shape evaluation in virtual space is proposed on the basis of both studies in 3D shape evaluation and communication support in virtual space. The proposed system provides the two viewpoints for each task. One is the viewpoint of back side of user's own avatar for the smooth communication. The other is that of avatar's eye for 3D shape evaluation. Switching the viewpoints satisfies the task conditions for 3D shape evaluation and communication. The system basically consists of PC, HMD and magnetic sensors, and users can share the embodied interaction by observing interaction between their avatars in virtual space. However, the HMD and magnetic sensors, which are put on the users, would restrict the nonverbal communication. Then, we have tried to compensate the loss of nodding of partner's avatar by introducing the speech-driven embodied interactive actor InterActor. Sensory evaluation by paired comparison of 3D shapes in the collaborative situation in virtual space and in real space and the questionnaire are performed. The result demonstrates the effectiveness of InterActor's nodding in the collaborative situation.

  11. Applying a 3D Situational Virtual Learning Environment to the Real World Business--An Extended Research in Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shwu-huey

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand (1) what kind of students can be facilitated through the help of three-dimensional virtual learning environment (3D VLE), and (2) the relationship between a conventional test (ie, paper and pencil test) and the 3D VLE used in this study, the study designs a 3D virtual supermarket (3DVS) to help students transform their role…

  12. Management and services for large-scale virtual 3D urban model data based on network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhengwei; Chen, Jing; Wu, Huayi

    2008-10-01

    The buildings in modern city are complex and diverse, and the quantity is huge. These bring very big challenge for constructing 3D GIS under network circumstance and eventually realizing the Digital Earth. After analyzed the characteristic of network service about massive 3D urban building model data, this paper focuses on the organization and management of spatial data and the network services strategy, proposes a progressive network transmission schema based on the spatial resolution and the component elements of 3D building model data. Next, this paper put forward multistage-link three-dimensional spatial data organization model and encoding method of spatial index based on fully level quadtree structure. Then, a virtual earth platform, called GeoGlobe, was developed using above theory. Experimental results show that above 3D spatial data management model and service theory can availably provide network services for large-scale 3D urban model data. The application results and user experience good .

  13. Approach to Constructing 3d Virtual Scene of Irrigation Area Using Multi-Source Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, S.; Dou, M.; Wang, J.; Zhang, S.; Chen, X.

    2015-10-01

    For an irrigation area that is often complicated by various 3D artificial ground features and natural environment, disadvantages of traditional 2D GIS in spatial data representation, management, query, analysis and visualization is becoming more and more evident. Building a more realistic 3D virtual scene is thus especially urgent for irrigation area managers and decision makers, so that they can carry out various irrigational operations lively and intuitively. Based on previous researchers' achievements, a simple, practical and cost-effective approach was proposed in this study, by adopting3D geographic information system (3D GIS), remote sensing (RS) technology. Based on multi-source data such as Google Earth (GE) high-resolution remote sensing image, ASTER G-DEM, hydrological facility maps and so on, 3D terrain model and ground feature models were created interactively. Both of the models were then rendered with texture data and integrated under ArcGIS platform. A vivid, realistic 3D virtual scene of irrigation area that has a good visual effect and possesses primary GIS functions about data query and analysis was constructed.Yet, there is still a long way to go for establishing a true 3D GIS for the irrigation are: issues of this study were deeply discussed and future research direction was pointed out in the end of the paper.

  14. Inertial Sensor-Based Touch and Shake Metaphor for Expressive Control of 3D Virtual Avatars

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shashidhar; Chintalapalli, Harinadha Reddy; Kim, Dubeom; Chai, Youngho

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an inertial sensor-based touch and shake metaphor for expressive control of a 3D virtual avatar in a virtual environment. An intuitive six degrees-of-freedom wireless inertial motion sensor is used as a gesture and motion control input device with a sensor fusion algorithm. The algorithm enables user hand motions to be tracked in 3D space via magnetic, angular rate, and gravity sensors. A quaternion-based complementary filter is implemented to reduce noise and drift. An algorithm based on dynamic time-warping is developed for efficient recognition of dynamic hand gestures with real-time automatic hand gesture segmentation. Our approach enables the recognition of gestures and estimates gesture variations for continuous interaction. We demonstrate the gesture expressivity using an interactive flexible gesture mapping interface for authoring and controlling a 3D virtual avatar and its motion by tracking user dynamic hand gestures. This synthesizes stylistic variations in a 3D virtual avatar, producing motions that are not present in the motion database using hand gesture sequences from a single inertial motion sensor. PMID:26094629

  15. Three Primary School Students' Cognition about 3D Rotation in a Virtual Reality Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Andy

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on three primary school students' explorations of 3D rotation in a virtual reality learning environment (VRLE) named VRMath. When asked to investigate if you would face the same direction when you turn right 45 degrees first then roll up 45 degrees, or when you roll up 45 degrees first then turn right 45 degrees, the students…

  16. The Cognitive Apprenticeship Theory for the Teaching of Mathematics in an Online 3D Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouta, Hara; Paraskeva, Fotini

    2013-01-01

    Research spanning two decades shows that there is a continuing development of 3D virtual worlds and investment in such environments for educational purposes. Research stresses the need for these environments to be well-designed and for suitable pedagogies to be implemented in the teaching practice in order for these worlds to be fully effective.…

  17. Socialisation for Learning at a Distance in a 3-D Multi-User Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edirisingha, Palitha; Nie, Ming; Pluciennik, Mark; Young, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a pilot study that examined the pedagogical potential of "Second Life" (SL), a popular three-dimensional multi-user virtual environment (3-D MUVE) developed by the Linden Lab. The study is part of a 1-year research and development project titled "Modelling of Secondlife Environments" (http://www.le.ac.uk/moose)…

  18. Inertial Sensor-Based Touch and Shake Metaphor for Expressive Control of 3D Virtual Avatars.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shashidhar; Chintalapalli, Harinadha Reddy; Kim, Dubeom; Chai, Youngho

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an inertial sensor-based touch and shake metaphor for expressive control of a 3D virtual avatar in a virtual environment. An intuitive six degrees-of-freedom wireless inertial motion sensor is used as a gesture and motion control input device with a sensor fusion algorithm. The algorithm enables user hand motions to be tracked in 3D space via magnetic, angular rate, and gravity sensors. A quaternion-based complementary filter is implemented to reduce noise and drift. An algorithm based on dynamic time-warping is developed for efficient recognition of dynamic hand gestures with real-time automatic hand gesture segmentation. Our approach enables the recognition of gestures and estimates gesture variations for continuous interaction. We demonstrate the gesture expressivity using an interactive flexible gesture mapping interface for authoring and controlling a 3D virtual avatar and its motion by tracking user dynamic hand gestures. This synthesizes stylistic variations in a 3D virtual avatar, producing motions that are not present in the motion database using hand gesture sequences from a single inertial motion sensor. PMID:26094629

  19. Exploring 3-D Virtual Reality Technology for Spatial Ability and Chemistry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Z.; Goetz, E. T.; Keeney-Kennicutt, W.; Cifuentes, L.; Kwok, O.; Davis, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the potential of Second Life® (SL), a three-dimensional (3-D) virtual world, to enhance undergraduate students' learning of a vital chemistry concept. A quasi-experimental pre-posttest control group design was used to conduct the study. A total of 387 participants completed three assignment activities either in SL or using…

  20. Laying the Groundwork for Socialisation and Knowledge Construction within 3D Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minocha, Shailey; Roberts, Dave

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports the theoretical underpinnings for the pedagogical role and rationale for adopting 3D virtual worlds for socialisation and knowledge creation in distance education. Socialisation or "knowing one another" in remote distributed environments can be achieved through synchronous technologies such as instant messaging, audio and…

  1. Design and Implementation of a 3D Multi-User Virtual World for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibanez, Maria Blanca; Garcia, Jose Jesus; Galan, Sergio; Maroto, David; Morillo, Diego; Kloos, Carlos Delgado

    2011-01-01

    The best way to learn is by having a good teacher and the best language learning takes place when the learner is immersed in an environment where the language is natively spoken. 3D multi-user virtual worlds have been claimed to be useful for learning, and the field of exploiting them for education is becoming more and more active thanks to the…

  2. Supporting Distributed Team Working in 3D Virtual Worlds: A Case Study in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minocha, Shailey; Morse, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study into how a three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (Second Life) can facilitate socialisation and team working among students working on a team project at a distance. This models the situation in many commercial sectors where work is increasingly being conducted across time zones and between…

  3. Teaching Digital Natives: 3-D Virtual Science Lab in the Middle School Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Teresa J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a 3-D virtual environment in Second Life for the delivery of standards-based science content for middle school students in the rural Appalachian region of Southeast Ohio. A mixed method approach in which quantitative results of improved student learning and qualitative observations of implementation within…

  4. Virtual rough samples to test 3D nanometer-scale scanning electron microscopy stereo photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarrubia, J. S.; Tondare, V. N.; Vladár, A. E.

    2016-03-01

    The combination of scanning electron microscopy for high spatial resolution, images from multiple angles to provide 3D information, and commercially available stereo photogrammetry software for 3D reconstruction offers promise for nanometer-scale dimensional metrology in 3D. A method is described to test 3D photogrammetry software by the use of virtual samples—mathematical samples from which simulated images are made for use as inputs to the software under test. The virtual sample is constructed by wrapping a rough skin with any desired power spectral density around a smooth near-trapezoidal line with rounded top corners. Reconstruction is performed with images simulated from different angular viewpoints. The software's reconstructed 3D model is then compared to the known geometry of the virtual sample. Three commercial photogrammetry software packages were tested. Two of them produced results for line height and width that were within close to 1 nm of the correct values. All of the packages exhibited some difficulty in reconstructing details of the surface roughness.

  5. Special effects used in creating 3D animated scenes-part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramescu, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    In present, with the help of computer, we can create special effects that look so real that we almost don't perceive them as being different. These special effects are somehow hard to differentiate from the real elements like those on the screen. With the increasingly accesible 3D field that has more and more areas of application, the 3D technology goes easily from architecture to product designing. Real like 3D animations are used as means of learning, for multimedia presentations of big global corporations, for special effects and even for virtual actors in movies. Technology, as part of the movie art, is considered a prerequisite but the cinematography is the first art that had to wait for the correct intersection of technological development, innovation and human vision in order to attain full achievement. Increasingly more often, the majority of industries is using 3D sequences (three dimensional). 3D represented graphics, commercials and special effects from movies are all designed in 3D. The key for attaining real visual effects is to successfully combine various distinct elements: characters, objects, images and video scenes; like all these elements represent a whole that works in perfect harmony. This article aims to exhibit a game design from these days. Considering the advanced technology and futuristic vision of designers, nowadays we have different and multifarious game models. Special effects are decisively contributing in the creation of a realistic three-dimensional scene. These effects are essential for transmitting the emotional state of the scene. Creating the special effects is a work of finesse in order to achieve high quality scenes. Special effects can be used to get the attention of the onlooker on an object from a scene. Out of the conducted study, the best-selling game of the year 2010 was Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2. This way, the article aims for the presented scene to be similar with many locations from this type of games, more

  6. Web-based three-dimensional Virtual Body Structures: W3D-VBS.

    PubMed

    Temkin, Bharti; Acosta, Eric; Hatfield, Paul; Onal, Erhan; Tong, Alex

    2002-01-01

    Major efforts are being made to improve the teaching of human anatomy to foster cognition of visuospatial relationships. The Visible Human Project of the National Library of Medicine makes it possible to create virtual reality-based applications for teaching anatomy. Integration of traditional cadaver and illustration-based methods with Internet-based simulations brings us closer to this goal. Web-based three-dimensional Virtual Body Structures (W3D-VBS) is a next-generation immersive anatomical training system for teaching human anatomy over the Internet. It uses Visible Human data to dynamically explore, select, extract, visualize, manipulate, and stereoscopically palpate realistic virtual body structures with a haptic device. Tracking user's progress through evaluation tools helps customize lesson plans. A self-guided "virtual tour" of the whole body allows investigation of labeled virtual dissections repetitively, at any time and place a user requires it. PMID:12223495

  7. Web-based Three-dimensional Virtual Body Structures: W3D-VBS

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, Bharti; Acosta, Eric; Hatfield, Paul; Onal, Erhan; Tong, Alex

    2002-01-01

    Major efforts are being made to improve the teaching of human anatomy to foster cognition of visuospatial relationships. The Visible Human Project of the National Library of Medicine makes it possible to create virtual reality-based applications for teaching anatomy. Integration of traditional cadaver and illustration-based methods with Internet-based simulations brings us closer to this goal. Web-based three-dimensional Virtual Body Structures (W3D-VBS) is a next-generation immersive anatomical training system for teaching human anatomy over the Internet. It uses Visible Human data to dynamically explore, select, extract, visualize, manipulate, and stereoscopically palpate realistic virtual body structures with a haptic device. Tracking user’s progress through evaluation tools helps customize lesson plans. A self-guided “virtual tour” of the whole body allows investigation of labeled virtual dissections repetitively, at any time and place a user requires it. PMID:12223495

  8. GEARS a 3D Virtual Learning Environment and Virtual Social and Educational World Used in Online Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkand, Jonathan; Kush, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) are becoming increasingly popular in online education environments and have multiple pedagogical advantages over more traditional approaches to education. VLEs include 3D worlds where students can engage in simulated learning activities such as Second Life. According to Claudia L'Amoreaux at Linden Lab, "at…

  9. An Interactive 3D Virtual Anatomy Puzzle for Learning and Simulation - Initial Demonstration and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Messier, Erik; Wilcox, Jascha; Dawson-Elli, Alexander; Diaz, Gabriel; Linte, Cristian A

    2016-01-01

    To inspire young students (grades 6-12) to become medical practitioners and biomedical engineers, it is necessary to expose them to key concepts of the field in a way that is both exciting and informative. Recent advances in medical image acquisition, manipulation, processing, visualization, and display have revolutionized the approach in which the human body and internal anatomy can be seen and studied. It is now possible to collect 3D, 4D, and 5D medical images of patient specific data, and display that data to the end user using consumer level 3D stereoscopic display technology. Despite such advancements, traditional 2D modes of content presentation such as textbooks and slides are still the standard didactic equipment used to teach young students anatomy. More sophisticated methods of display can help to elucidate the complex 3D relationships between structures that are so often missed when viewing only 2D media, and can instill in students an appreciation for the interconnection between medicine and technology. Here we describe the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a 3D virtual anatomy puzzle dedicated to helping users learn the anatomy of various organs and systems by manipulating 3D virtual data. The puzzle currently comprises several components of the human anatomy and can be easily extended to include additional organs and systems. The 3D virtual anatomy puzzle game was implemented and piloted using three display paradigms - a traditional 2D monitor, a 3D TV with active shutter glass, and the DK2 version Oculus Rift, as well as two different user interaction devices - a space mouse and traditional keyboard controls. PMID:27046584

  10. Algorithm for simulation of craniotomies assisted by peripheral for 3D virtual navigation.

    PubMed

    Duque, Sara I; Ochoa, John F; Botero, Andrés F; Ramirez, Mateo

    2015-01-01

    Neurosurgical procedures require high precision and an accurate localization of the structures. For that reason and due to the advances in 3D visualization, the software for planning and training neurosurgeries has become an important tool for neurosurgeons and students, but the manipulation of the 3D structures is not always easy for the staff that usually works with 2D images. This paper describes a system developed in open source software that allows performing a virtual craniotomy (a common procedure in neurosurgery that enables the access to intracranial lesions) in 3D slicer; the system includes a peripheral input in order to permit the manipulation of the 3D structures according to camera movements and to guide the movement of the craniotomy tool. PMID:26737914

  11. Comparative analysis of video processing and 3D rendering for cloud video games using different virtualization technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bada, Adedayo; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive empirical performance evaluation of 3D video processing employing the physical/virtual architecture implemented in a cloud environment. Different virtualization technologies, virtual video cards and various 3D benchmarks tools have been utilized in order to analyse the optimal performance in the context of 3D online gaming applications. This study highlights 3D video rendering performance under each type of hypervisors, and other factors including network I/O, disk I/O and memory usage. Comparisons of these factors under well-known virtual display technologies such as VNC, Spice and Virtual 3D adaptors reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the various hypervisors with respect to 3D video rendering and streaming.

  12. vPresent: A cloud based 3D virtual presentation environment for interactive product customization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Xiaoming; Guo, Fei; He, Yifeng; Guan, Ling

    2013-09-01

    In modern society, many companies offer product customization services to their customers. There are two major issues in providing customized products. First, product manufacturers need to effectively present their products to the customers who may be located in any geographical area. Second, customers need to be able to provide their feedbacks on the product in real-time. However, the traditional presentation approaches cannot effectively convey sufficient information for the product or efficiently adjust product design according to customers' real-time feedbacks. In order to address these issues, we propose vPresent , a cloud based 3D virtual presentation environment, in this paper. In vPresent, the product expert can show the 3D virtual product to the remote customers and dynamically customize the product based on customers' feedbacks, while customers can provide their opinions in real time when they are viewing a vivid 3D visualization of the product. Since the proposed vPresent is a cloud based system, the customers are able to access the customized virtual products from anywhere at any time, via desktop, laptop, or even smart phone. The proposed vPresent is expected to effectively deliver 3D visual information to customers and provide an interactive design platform for the development of customized products.

  13. Modulation of cortical activity in 2D versus 3D virtual reality environments: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Slobounov, Semyon M; Ray, William; Johnson, Brian; Slobounov, Elena; Newell, Karl M

    2015-03-01

    There is a growing empirical evidence that virtual reality (VR) is valuable for education, training, entertaining and medical rehabilitation due to its capacity to represent real-life events and situations. However, the neural mechanisms underlying behavioral confounds in VR environments are still poorly understood. In two experiments, we examined the effect of fully immersive 3D stereoscopic presentations and less immersive 2D VR environments on brain functions and behavioral outcomes. In Experiment 1 we examined behavioral and neural underpinnings of spatial navigation tasks using electroencephalography (EEG). In Experiment 2, we examined EEG correlates of postural stability and balance. Our major findings showed that fully immersive 3D VR induced a higher subjective sense of presence along with enhanced success rate of spatial navigation compared to 2D. In Experiment 1 power of frontal midline EEG (FM-theta) was significantly higher during the encoding phase of route presentation in the 3D VR. In Experiment 2, the 3D VR resulted in greater postural instability and modulation of EEG patterns as a function of 3D versus 2D environments. The findings support the inference that the fully immersive 3D enriched-environment requires allocation of more brain and sensory resources for cognitive/motor control during both tasks than 2D presentations. This is further evidence that 3D VR tasks using EEG may be a promising approach for performance enhancement and potential applications in clinical/rehabilitation settings. PMID:25448267

  14. Representing 3D virtual objects: interaction between visuo-spatial ability and type of exploration.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Frank; van den Broek, Egon L

    2010-03-17

    We investigated individual differences in interactively exploring 3D virtual objects. 36 participants explored 24 simple and 24 difficult objects (composed of respectively three and five Biederman geons) actively, passively, or not at all. Both their 3D mental representation of the objects and visuo-spatial ability was assessed. Results show that, regardless of the object's complexity, people with a low VSA benefit from active exploration of objects, where people with a middle or high VSA do not. These findings extend and refine earlier research on interactively learning visuo-spatial information and underline the importance to take individual differences into account. PMID:20116394

  15. Representing 3D virtual objects: interaction between visuo-spatial ability and type of exploration.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Frank; van den Broek, Egon L

    2010-03-17

    We investigated individual differences in interactively exploring 3D virtual objects. 36 participants explored 24 simple and 24 difficult objects (composed of respectively three and five Biederman geons) actively, passively, or not at all. Both their 3D mental representation of the objects and visuo-spatial ability was assessed. Results show that, regardless of the object's complexity, people with a low VSA benefit from active exploration of objects, where people with a middle or high VSA do not. These findings extend and refine earlier research on interactively learning visuo-spatial information and underline the importance to take individual differences into account.

  16. The Learner Characteristics, Features of Desktop 3D Virtual Reality Environments, and College Chemistry Instruction: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Zahira; Goetz, Ernest T.; Keeney-Kennicutt, Wendy; Kwok, Oi-man; Cifuentes, Lauren; Davis, Trina J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined a model of the impact of a 3D desktop virtual reality environment on the learner characteristics (i.e. perceptual and psychological variables) that can enhance chemistry-related learning achievements in an introductory college chemistry class. The relationships between the 3D virtual reality features and the chemistry learning test as…

  17. Versatile, Immersive, Creative and Dynamic Virtual 3-D Healthcare Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The author provides a critical overview of three-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds and “serious gaming” that are currently being developed and used in healthcare professional education and medicine. The relevance of this e-learning innovation for teaching students and professionals is debatable and variables influencing adoption, such as increased knowledge, self-directed learning, and peer collaboration, by academics, healthcare professionals, and business executives are examined while looking at various Web 2.0/3.0 applications. There is a need for more empirical research in order to unearth the pedagogical outcomes and advantages associated with this e-learning technology. A brief description of Roger’s Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Siemens’ Connectivism Theory for today’s learners is presented as potential underlying pedagogical tenets to support the use of virtual 3-D learning environments in higher education and healthcare. PMID:18762473

  18. Using the CAVE virtual-reality environment as an aid to 3-D electromagnetic field computation

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.; Levine, D.; Huang, M.; Papka, M; Kettunen, L.

    1995-08-01

    One of the major problems in three-dimensional (3-D) field computation is visualizing the resulting 3-D field distributions. A virtual-reality environment, such as the CAVE, (CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment) is helping to overcome this problem, thus making the results of computation more usable for designers and users of magnets and other electromagnetic devices. As a demonstration of the capabilities of the CAVE, the elliptical multipole wiggler (EMW), an insertion device being designed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) now being commissioned at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), wa made visible, along with its fields and beam orbits. Other uses of the CAVE in preprocessing and postprocessing computation for electromagnetic applications are also discussed.

  19. The potential of 3-D virtual worlds in professional nursing education.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Margaret M; Murray, Peter J; Erdley, W Scott

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds (VWs), such as Second Life, are actively being explored for their potential use in health care and nursing professional education and even for practice. The relevance of this e-learning innovation on a large scale for teaching students and professionals is yet to be demonstrated and variables influencing adoption, such as increased knowledge, self-directed learning, and peer collaboration, by academics, and health care professionals requires empirical research. PMID:19592909

  20. Use of Colour and Interactive Animation in Learning 3D Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iskander, Wejdan; Curtis, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two computer-implemented techniques (colour and interactive animation) on learning 3D vectors. The participants were 43 female Saudi Arabian high school students. They were pre-tested on 3D vectors using a paper questionnaire that consisted of calculation and visualization types of questions. The students…

  1. The cognitive apprenticeship theory for the teaching of mathematics in an online 3D virtual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouta, Hara; Paraskeva, Fotini

    2013-03-01

    Research spanning two decades shows that there is a continuing development of 3D virtual worlds and investment in such environments for educational purposes. Research stresses the need for these environments to be well-designed and for suitable pedagogies to be implemented in the teaching practice in order for these worlds to be fully effective. To this end, we propose a pedagogical framework based on the cognitive apprenticeship for deriving principles and guidelines to inform the design, development and use of a 3D virtual environment. This study examines how the use of a 3D virtual world facilitates the teaching of mathematics in primary education by combining design principles and guidelines based on the Cognitive Apprenticeship Theory and the teaching methods that this theory introduces. We focus specifically on 5th and 6th grade students' engagement (behavioral, affective and cognitive) while learning fractional concepts over a period of two class sessions. Quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate considerable improvement in the engagement of the students who participated in the experiment. This paper presents the findings regarding students' cognitive engagement in the process of comprehending basic fractional concepts - notoriously hard for students to master. The findings are encouraging and suggestions are made for further research.

  2. 3D Virtual Worlds as Art Media and Exhibition Arenas: Students' Responses and Challenges in Contemporary Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Lilly

    2013-01-01

    3D virtual worlds (3D VWs) are considered one of the emerging learning spaces of the 21st century; however, few empirical studies have investigated educational applications and student learning aspects in art education. This study focused on students' responses to and challenges with 3D VWs in both aspects. The findings show that most…

  3. Effects of 3D Virtual Reality of Plate Tectonics on Fifth Grade Students' Achievement and Attitude toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of a teaching method using 3D virtual reality simulations on achievement and attitude toward science. An experiment was conducted with fifth-grade students (N = 41) to examine the effects of 3D simulations, designed to support inquiry-based science curriculum. An ANOVA analysis revealed that the 3D group scored…

  4. Mackay campus of environmental education and digital cultural construction: the application of 3D virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Shao-Chi; Chung, Yu-Wei; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Huang, Jun-Yi; Chang, Jhih-Ting; He, Cai-Ying; Cheng, Yi-Wen

    2012-04-01

    This study uses 3D virtual reality technology to create the "Mackay campus of the environmental education and digital cultural 3D navigation system" for local historical sites in the Tamsui (Hoba) area, in hopes of providing tourism information and navigation through historical sites using a 3D navigation system. We used Auto CAD, Sketch Up, and SpaceEyes 3D software to construct the virtual reality scenes and create the school's historical sites, such as the House of Reverends, the House of Maidens, the Residence of Mackay, and the Education Hall. We used this technology to complete the environmental education and digital cultural Mackay campus . The platform we established can indeed achieve the desired function of providing tourism information and historical site navigation. The interactive multimedia style and the presentation of the information will allow users to obtain a direct information response. In addition to showing the external appearances of buildings, the navigation platform can also allow users to enter the buildings to view lifelike scenes and textual information related to the historical sites. The historical sites are designed according to their actual size, which gives users a more realistic feel. In terms of the navigation route, the navigation system does not force users along a fixed route, but instead allows users to freely control the route they would like to take to view the historical sites on the platform.

  5. Virtual 3D bladder reconstruction for augmented medical records from white light cystoscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurie, Kristen L.; Zlatev, Dimitar V.; Angst, Roland; Liao, Joseph C.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2016-02-01

    Bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate that necessitates lifelong surveillance to detect mucosal lesions. Examination with white light cystoscopy (WLC), the standard of care, is inherently subjective and data storage limited to clinical notes, diagrams, and still images. A visual history of the bladder wall can enhance clinical and surgical management. To address this clinical need, we developed a tool to transform in vivo WLC videos into virtual 3-dimensional (3D) bladder models using advanced computer vision techniques. WLC videos from rigid cystoscopies (1280 x 720 pixels) were recorded at 30 Hz followed by immediate camera calibration to control for image distortions. Video data were fed into an automated structure-from-motion algorithm that generated a 3D point cloud followed by a 3D mesh to approximate the bladder surface. The highest quality cystoscopic images were projected onto the approximated bladder surface to generate a virtual 3D bladder reconstruction. In intraoperative WLC videos from 36 patients undergoing transurethral resection of suspected bladder tumors, optimal reconstruction was achieved from frames depicting well-focused vasculature, when the bladder was maintained at constant volume with minimal debris, and when regions of the bladder wall were imaged multiple times. A significant innovation of this work is the ability to perform the reconstruction using video from a clinical procedure collected with standard equipment, thereby facilitating rapid clinical translation, application to other forms of endoscopy and new opportunities for longitudinal studies of cancer recurrence.

  6. Elderly Healthcare Monitoring Using an Avatar-Based 3D Virtual Environment

    PubMed Central

    Pouke, Matti; Häkkilä, Jonna

    2013-01-01

    Homecare systems for elderly people are becoming increasingly important due to both economic reasons as well as patients’ preferences. Sensor-based surveillance technologies are an expected future trend, but research so far has devoted little attention to the User Interface (UI) design of such systems and the user-centric design approach. In this paper, we explore the possibilities of an avatar-based 3D visualization system, which exploits wearable sensors and human activity simulations. We present a technical prototype and the evaluation of alternative concept designs for UIs based on a 3D virtual world. The evaluation was conducted with homecare providers through focus groups and an online survey. Our results show firstly that systems taking advantage of 3D virtual world visualization techniques have potential especially due to the privacy preserving and simplified information presentation style, and secondly that simple representations and glancability should be emphasized in the design. The identified key use cases highlight that avatar-based 3D presentations can be helpful if they provide an overview as well as details on demand. PMID:24351747

  7. Elderly healthcare monitoring using an avatar-based 3D virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Pouke, Matti; Häkkilä, Jonna

    2013-12-17

    Homecare systems for elderly people are becoming increasingly important due to both economic reasons as well as patients' preferences. Sensor-based surveillance technologies are an expected future trend, but research so far has devoted little attention to the User Interface (UI) design of such systems and the user-centric design approach. In this paper, we explore the possibilities of an avatar-based 3D visualization system, which exploits wearable sensors and human activity simulations. We present a technical prototype and the evaluation of alternative concept designs for UIs based on a 3D virtual world. The evaluation was conducted with homecare providers through focus groups and an online survey. Our results show firstly that systems taking advantage of 3D virtual world visualization techniques have potential especially due to the privacy preserving and simplified information presentation style, and secondly that simple representations and glancability should be emphasized in the design. The identified key use cases highlight that avatar-based 3D presentations can be helpful if they provide an overview as well as details on demand.

  8. 3D Visualization of Cultural Heritage Artefacts with Virtual Reality devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonizzi Barsanti, S.; Caruso, G.; Micoli, L. L.; Covarrubias Rodriguez, M.; Guidi, G.

    2015-08-01

    Although 3D models are useful to preserve the information about historical artefacts, the potential of these digital contents are not fully accomplished until they are not used to interactively communicate their significance to non-specialists. Starting from this consideration, a new way to provide museum visitors with more information was investigated. The research is aimed at valorising and making more accessible the Egyptian funeral objects exhibited in the Sforza Castle in Milan. The results of the research will be used for the renewal of the current exhibition, at the Archaeological Museum in Milan, by making it more attractive. A 3D virtual interactive scenario regarding the "path of the dead", an important ritual in ancient Egypt, was realized to augment the experience and the comprehension of the public through interactivity. Four important artefacts were considered for this scope: two ushabty, a wooden sarcophagus and a heart scarab. The scenario was realized by integrating low-cost Virtual Reality technologies, as the Oculus Rift DK2 and the Leap Motion controller, and implementing a specific software by using Unity. The 3D models were implemented by adding responsive points of interest in relation to important symbols or features of the artefact. This allows highlighting single parts of the artefact in order to better identify the hieroglyphs and provide their translation. The paper describes the process for optimizing the 3D models, the implementation of the interactive scenario and the results of some test that have been carried out in the lab.

  9. Architecture of web services in the enhancement of real-time 3D video virtualization in cloud environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bada, Adedayo; Wang, Qi; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Grecos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to improving the application of 3D video rendering and streaming by jointly exploring and optimizing both cloud-based virtualization and web-based delivery. The proposed web service architecture firstly establishes a software virtualization layer based on QEMU (Quick Emulator), an open-source virtualization software that has been able to virtualize system components except for 3D rendering, which is still in its infancy. The architecture then explores the cloud environment to boost the speed of the rendering at the QEMU software virtualization layer. The capabilities and inherent limitations of Virgil 3D, which is one of the most advanced 3D virtual Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) available, are analyzed through benchmarking experiments and integrated into the architecture to further speed up the rendering. Experimental results are reported and analyzed to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed approach.

  10. Fast extraction of minimal paths in 3D images and applications to virtual endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, T; Cohen, L D

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this article is to build trajectories for virtual endoscopy inside 3D medical images, using the most automatic way. Usually the construction of this trajectory is left to the clinician who must define some points on the path manually using three orthogonal views. But for a complex structure such as the colon, those views give little information on the shape of the object of interest. The path construction in 3D images becomes a very tedious task and precise a priori knowledge of the structure is needed to determine a suitable trajectory. We propose a more automatic path tracking method to overcome those drawbacks: we are able to build a path, given only one or two end points and the 3D image as inputs. This work is based on previous work by Cohen and Kimmel [Int. J. Comp. Vis. 24 (1) (1997) 57] for extracting paths in 2D images using Fast Marching algorithm. Our original contribution is twofold. On the first hand, we present a general technical contribution which extends minimal paths to 3D images and gives new improvements of the approach that are relevant in 2D as well as in 3D to extract linear structures in images. It includes techniques to make the path extraction scheme faster and easier, by reducing the user interaction. We also develop a new method to extract a centered path in tubular structures. Synthetic and real medical images are used to illustrate each contribution. On the other hand, we show that our method can be efficiently applied to the problem of finding a centered path in tubular anatomical structures with minimum interactivity, and that this path can be used for virtual endoscopy. Results are shown in various anatomical regions (colon, brain vessels, arteries) with different 3D imaging protocols (CT, MR). PMID:11731307

  11. Advances in animal ecology from 3D-LiDAR ecosystem mapping.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew B; Asner, Gregory P

    2014-12-01

    The advent and recent advances of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have enabled accurate measurement of 3D ecosystem structure. Here, we review insights gained through the application of LiDAR to animal ecology studies, revealing the fundamental importance of structure for animals. Structural heterogeneity is most conducive to increased animal richness and abundance, and increased complexity of vertical vegetation structure is more positively influential compared with traditionally measured canopy cover, which produces mixed results. However, different taxonomic groups interact with a variety of 3D canopy traits and some groups with 3D topography. To develop a better understanding of animal dynamics, future studies will benefit from considering 3D habitat effects in a wider variety of ecosystems and with more taxa.

  12. Advances in animal ecology from 3D-LiDAR ecosystem mapping.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew B; Asner, Gregory P

    2014-12-01

    The advent and recent advances of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have enabled accurate measurement of 3D ecosystem structure. Here, we review insights gained through the application of LiDAR to animal ecology studies, revealing the fundamental importance of structure for animals. Structural heterogeneity is most conducive to increased animal richness and abundance, and increased complexity of vertical vegetation structure is more positively influential compared with traditionally measured canopy cover, which produces mixed results. However, different taxonomic groups interact with a variety of 3D canopy traits and some groups with 3D topography. To develop a better understanding of animal dynamics, future studies will benefit from considering 3D habitat effects in a wider variety of ecosystems and with more taxa. PMID:25457158

  13. Software Development: 3D Animations and Creating User Interfaces for Realistic Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordillo, Orlando Enrique

    2015-01-01

    My fall 2015 semester was spent at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center working in the Integrated Graphics, Operations, and Analysis Laboratory (IGOAL). My first project was to create a video animation that could tell the story of OMICS. OMICS is a term being used in the field of biomedical science to describe the collective technologies that study biological systems, such as what makes up a cell and how it functions with other systems. In the IGOAL I used a large 23 inch Wacom monitor to draw storyboards, graphics, and line art animations. I used Blender as the 3D environment to sculpt, shape, cut or modify the several scenes and models for the video. A challenge creating this video was to take a term used in biomedical science and describe it in such a way that an 8th grade student can understand. I used a line art style because it would visually set the tone for what we thought was an educational style. In order to get a handle on the perspective and overall feel for the animation without overloading my workspace, I split up the 2 minute animation into several scenes. I used Blender's python scripting capabilities which allowed for the addition of plugins to add or modify tools. The scripts can also directly interact with the objects to create naturalistic patterns or movements. After collecting the rendered scenes, I used Blender's built-in video editing workspace to output the animation. My second project was to write software that emulates a physical system's interface. The interface was to simulate a boat, ROV, and winch system. Simulations are a time and cost effective way to test complicated data and provide training for operators without having to use expensive hardware. We created the virtual controls with 3-D Blender models and 2-D graphics, and then add functionality in C# using the Unity game engine. The Unity engine provides several essential behaviors of a simulator, such as the start and update functions. A framework for Unity, which was developed in

  14. Virtual Boutique: a 3D modeling and content-based management approach to e-commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquet, Eric; El-Hakim, Sabry F.

    2000-12-01

    The Virtual Boutique is made out of three modules: the decor, the market and the search engine. The decor is the physical space occupied by the Virtual Boutique. It can reproduce any existing boutique. For this purpose, photogrammetry is used. A set of pictures of a real boutique or space is taken and a virtual 3D representation of this space is calculated from them. Calculations are performed with software developed at NRC. This representation consists of meshes and texture maps. The camera used in the acquisition process determines the resolution of the texture maps. Decorative elements are added like painting, computer generated objects and scanned objects. The objects are scanned with laser scanner developed at NRC. This scanner allows simultaneous acquisition of range and color information based on white laser beam triangulation. The second module, the market, is made out of all the merchandises and the manipulators, which are used to manipulate and compare the objects. The third module, the search engine, can search the inventory based on an object shown by the customer in order to retrieve similar objects base don shape and color. The items of interest are displayed in the boutique by reconfiguring the market space, which mean that the boutique can be continuously customized according to the customer's needs. The Virtual Boutique is entirely written in Java 3D and can run in mono and stereo mode and has been optimized in order to allow high quality rendering.

  15. CT virtual endoscopy and 3D stereoscopic visualisation in the evaluation of coronary stenting.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z; Lawrence-Brown

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this case report is to present the additional value provided by CT virtual endoscopy and 3D stereoscopic visualisation when compared with 2D visualisations in the assessment of coronary stenting. A 64-year old patient was treated with left coronary stenting 8 years ago and recently followed up with multidetector row CT angiography. An in-stent restenosis of the left coronary artery was suspected based on 2D axial and multiplanar reformatted images. 3D virtual endoscopy was generated to demonstrate the smooth intraluminal surface of coronary artery wall, and there was no evidence of restenosis or intraluminal irregularity. Virtual fly-through of the coronary artery was produced to examine the entire length of the coronary artery with the aim of demonstrating the intraluminal changes following placement of the coronary stent. In addition, stereoscopic views were generated to show the relationship between coronary artery branches and the coronary stent. In comparison with traditional 2D visualisations, virtual endoscopy was useful for assessment of the intraluminal appearance of the coronary artery wall following coronary stent implantation, while stereoscopic visualisation improved observers' understanding of the complex cardiac structures. Thus, both methods could be used as a complementary tool in cardiac imaging.

  16. Web GIS in practice VII: stereoscopic 3-D solutions for online maps and virtual globes

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Robinson, Larry R

    2009-01-01

    Because our pupils are about 6.5 cm apart, each eye views a scene from a different angle and sends a unique image to the visual cortex, which then merges the images from both eyes into a single picture. The slight difference between the right and left images allows the brain to properly perceive the 'third dimension' or depth in a scene (stereopsis). However, when a person views a conventional 2-D (two-dimensional) image representation of a 3-D (three-dimensional) scene on a conventional computer screen, each eye receives essentially the same information. Depth in such cases can only be approximately inferred from visual clues in the image, such as perspective, as only one image is offered to both eyes. The goal of stereoscopic 3-D displays is to project a slightly different image into each eye to achieve a much truer and realistic perception of depth, of different scene planes, and of object relief. This paper presents a brief review of a number of stereoscopic 3-D hardware and software solutions for creating and displaying online maps and virtual globes (such as Google Earth) in "true 3D", with costs ranging from almost free to multi-thousand pounds sterling. A practical account is also given of the experience of the USGS BRD UMESC (United States Geological Survey's Biological Resources Division, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center) in setting up a low-cost, full-colour stereoscopic 3-D system. PMID:19849837

  17. A Voice and Mouse Input Interface for 3D Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David L.; Bryson, Steve T.

    2003-01-01

    There have been many successful stories on how 3D input devices can be fully integrated into an immersive virtual environment. Electromagnetic trackers, optical trackers, gloves, and flying mice are just some of these input devices. Though we can use existing 3D input devices that are commonly used for VR applications, there are several factors that prevent us from choosing these input devices for our applications. One main factor is that most of these tracking devices are not suitable for prolonged use due to human fatigue associated with using them. A second factor is that many of them would occupy additional office space. Another factor is that many of the 3D input devices are expensive due to the unusual hardware that are required. For our VR applications, we want a user interface that would work naturally with standard equipment. In this paper, we demonstrate applications or our proposed muitimodal interface using a 3D dome display. We also show that effective data analysis can be achieved while the scientists view their data rendered inside the dome display and perform user interactions simply using the mouse and voice input. Though the sphere coordinate grid seems to be ideal for interaction using a 3D dome display, we can also use other non-spherical grids as well.

  18. Analysis of scalability of high-performance 3D image processing platform for virtual colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Wu, Yin; Cai, Wenli

    2014-03-01

    One of the key challenges in three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is to enable the fast turn-around time, which is often required for interactive or real-time response. This inevitably requires not only high computational power but also high memory bandwidth due to the massive amount of data that need to be processed. For this purpose, we previously developed a software platform for high-performance 3D medical image processing, called HPC 3D-MIP platform, which employs increasingly available and affordable commodity computing systems such as the multicore, cluster, and cloud computing systems. To achieve scalable high-performance computing, the platform employed size-adaptive, distributable block volumes as a core data structure for efficient parallelization of a wide range of 3D-MIP algorithms, supported task scheduling for efficient load distribution and balancing, and consisted of a layered parallel software libraries that allow image processing applications to share the common functionalities. We evaluated the performance of the HPC 3D-MIP platform by applying it to computationally intensive processes in virtual colonoscopy. Experimental results showed a 12-fold performance improvement on a workstation with 12-core CPUs over the original sequential implementation of the processes, indicating the efficiency of the platform. Analysis of performance scalability based on the Amdahl's law for symmetric multicore chips showed the potential of a high performance scalability of the HPC 3DMIP platform when a larger number of cores is available.

  19. Web GIS in practice VII: stereoscopic 3-D solutions for online maps and virtual globes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boulos, Maged N.K.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2009-01-01

    Because our pupils are about 6.5 cm apart, each eye views a scene from a different angle and sends a unique image to the visual cortex, which then merges the images from both eyes into a single picture. The slight difference between the right and left images allows the brain to properly perceive the 'third dimension' or depth in a scene (stereopsis). However, when a person views a conventional 2-D (two-dimensional) image representation of a 3-D (three-dimensional) scene on a conventional computer screen, each eye receives essentially the same information. Depth in such cases can only be approximately inferred from visual clues in the image, such as perspective, as only one image is offered to both eyes. The goal of stereoscopic 3-D displays is to project a slightly different image into each eye to achieve a much truer and realistic perception of depth, of different scene planes, and of object relief. This paper presents a brief review of a number of stereoscopic 3-D hardware and software solutions for creating and displaying online maps and virtual globes (such as Google Earth) in "true 3D", with costs ranging from almost free to multi-thousand pounds sterling. A practical account is also given of the experience of the USGS BRD UMESC (United States Geological Survey's Biological Resources Division, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center) in setting up a low-cost, full-colour stereoscopic 3-D system.

  20. Blood Pool Segmentation Results in Superior Virtual Cardiac Models than Myocardial Segmentation for 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Kanwal M; Lengua, Carlos Gonzalez; Weinberg, Alan D; Nielsen, James C; Sanz, Javier

    2016-08-01

    The method of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) three-dimensional (3D) image acquisition and post-processing which should be used to create optimal virtual models for 3D printing has not been studied systematically. Patients (n = 19) who had undergone CMR including both 3D balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were retrospectively identified. Post-processing for the creation of virtual 3D models involved using both myocardial (MS) and blood pool (BP) segmentation, resulting in four groups: Group 1-bSSFP/MS, Group 2-bSSFP/BP, Group 3-MRA/MS and Group 4-MRA/BP. The models created were assessed by two raters for overall quality (1-poor; 2-good; 3-excellent) and ability to identify predefined vessels (1-5: superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, main pulmonary artery, ascending aorta and at least one pulmonary vein). A total of 76 virtual models were created from 19 patient CMR datasets. The mean overall quality scores for Raters 1/2 were 1.63 ± 0.50/1.26 ± 0.45 for Group 1, 2.12 ± 0.50/2.26 ± 0.73 for Group 2, 1.74 ± 0.56/1.53 ± 0.61 for Group 3 and 2.26 ± 0.65/2.68 ± 0.48 for Group 4. The numbers of identified vessels for Raters 1/2 were 4.11 ± 1.32/4.05 ± 1.31 for Group 1, 4.90 ± 0.46/4.95 ± 0.23 for Group 2, 4.32 ± 1.00/4.47 ± 0.84 for Group 3 and 4.74 ± 0.56/4.63 ± 0.49 for Group 4. Models created using BP segmentation (Groups 2 and 4) received significantly higher ratings than those created using MS for both overall quality and number of vessels visualized (p < 0.05), regardless of the acquisition technique. There were no significant differences between Groups 1 and 3. The ratings for Raters 1 and 2 had good correlation for overall quality (ICC = 0.63) and excellent correlation for the total number of vessels visualized (ICC = 0.77). The intra-rater reliability was good for Rater A (ICC = 0.65). Three models were successfully printed

  1. Blood Pool Segmentation Results in Superior Virtual Cardiac Models than Myocardial Segmentation for 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Kanwal M; Lengua, Carlos Gonzalez; Weinberg, Alan D; Nielsen, James C; Sanz, Javier

    2016-08-01

    The method of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) three-dimensional (3D) image acquisition and post-processing which should be used to create optimal virtual models for 3D printing has not been studied systematically. Patients (n = 19) who had undergone CMR including both 3D balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were retrospectively identified. Post-processing for the creation of virtual 3D models involved using both myocardial (MS) and blood pool (BP) segmentation, resulting in four groups: Group 1-bSSFP/MS, Group 2-bSSFP/BP, Group 3-MRA/MS and Group 4-MRA/BP. The models created were assessed by two raters for overall quality (1-poor; 2-good; 3-excellent) and ability to identify predefined vessels (1-5: superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, main pulmonary artery, ascending aorta and at least one pulmonary vein). A total of 76 virtual models were created from 19 patient CMR datasets. The mean overall quality scores for Raters 1/2 were 1.63 ± 0.50/1.26 ± 0.45 for Group 1, 2.12 ± 0.50/2.26 ± 0.73 for Group 2, 1.74 ± 0.56/1.53 ± 0.61 for Group 3 and 2.26 ± 0.65/2.68 ± 0.48 for Group 4. The numbers of identified vessels for Raters 1/2 were 4.11 ± 1.32/4.05 ± 1.31 for Group 1, 4.90 ± 0.46/4.95 ± 0.23 for Group 2, 4.32 ± 1.00/4.47 ± 0.84 for Group 3 and 4.74 ± 0.56/4.63 ± 0.49 for Group 4. Models created using BP segmentation (Groups 2 and 4) received significantly higher ratings than those created using MS for both overall quality and number of vessels visualized (p < 0.05), regardless of the acquisition technique. There were no significant differences between Groups 1 and 3. The ratings for Raters 1 and 2 had good correlation for overall quality (ICC = 0.63) and excellent correlation for the total number of vessels visualized (ICC = 0.77). The intra-rater reliability was good for Rater A (ICC = 0.65). Three models were successfully printed

  2. Dynamic WIFI-Based Indoor Positioning in 3D Virtual World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, S.; Sohn, G.; Wang, L.; Lee, W.

    2013-11-01

    A web-based system based on the 3DTown project was proposed using Google Earth plug-in that brings information from indoor positioning devices and real-time sensors into an integrated 3D indoor and outdoor virtual world to visualize the dynamics of urban life within the 3D context of a city. We addressed limitation of the 3DTown project with particular emphasis on video surveillance camera used for indoor tracking purposes. The proposed solution was to utilize wireless local area network (WLAN) WiFi as a replacement technology for localizing objects of interest due to the wide spread availability and large coverage area of WiFi in indoor building spaces. Indoor positioning was performed using WiFi without modifying existing building infrastructure or introducing additional access points (AP)s. A hybrid probabilistic approach was used for indoor positioning based on previously recorded WiFi fingerprint database in the Petrie Science and Engineering building at York University. In addition, we have developed a 3D building modeling module that allows for efficient reconstruction of outdoor building models to be integrated with indoor building models; a sensor module for receiving, distributing, and visualizing real-time sensor data; and a web-based visualization module for users to explore the dynamic urban life in a virtual world. In order to solve the problems in the implementation of the proposed system, we introduce approaches for integration of indoor building models with indoor positioning data, as well as real-time sensor information and visualization on the web-based system. In this paper we report the preliminary results of our prototype system, demonstrating the system's capability for implementing a dynamic 3D indoor and outdoor virtual world that is composed of discrete modules connected through pre-determined communication protocols.

  3. A video, text, and speech-driven realistic 3-d virtual head for human-machine interface.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Wang, Zeng-Fu

    2015-05-01

    A multiple inputs-driven realistic facial animation system based on 3-D virtual head for human-machine interface is proposed. The system can be driven independently by video, text, and speech, thus can interact with humans through diverse interfaces. The combination of parameterized model and muscular model is used to obtain a tradeoff between computational efficiency and high realism of 3-D facial animation. The online appearance model is used to track 3-D facial motion from video in the framework of particle filtering, and multiple measurements, i.e., pixel color value of input image and Gabor wavelet coefficient of illumination ratio image, are infused to reduce the influence of lighting and person dependence for the construction of online appearance model. The tri-phone model is used to reduce the computational consumption of visual co-articulation in speech synchronized viseme synthesis without sacrificing any performance. The objective and subjective experiments show that the system is suitable for human-machine interaction. PMID:25122851

  4. A video, text, and speech-driven realistic 3-d virtual head for human-machine interface.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Wang, Zeng-Fu

    2015-05-01

    A multiple inputs-driven realistic facial animation system based on 3-D virtual head for human-machine interface is proposed. The system can be driven independently by video, text, and speech, thus can interact with humans through diverse interfaces. The combination of parameterized model and muscular model is used to obtain a tradeoff between computational efficiency and high realism of 3-D facial animation. The online appearance model is used to track 3-D facial motion from video in the framework of particle filtering, and multiple measurements, i.e., pixel color value of input image and Gabor wavelet coefficient of illumination ratio image, are infused to reduce the influence of lighting and person dependence for the construction of online appearance model. The tri-phone model is used to reduce the computational consumption of visual co-articulation in speech synchronized viseme synthesis without sacrificing any performance. The objective and subjective experiments show that the system is suitable for human-machine interaction.

  5. Characteristics of visual fatigue under the effect of 3D animation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Shuo; Hsueh, Ya-Hsin; Tung, Kwong-Chung; Jhou, Fong-Yi; Lin, David Pei-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Visual fatigue is commonly encountered in modern life. Clinical visual fatigue characteristics caused by 2-D and 3-D animations may be different, but have not been characterized in detail. This study tried to distinguish the differential effects on visual fatigue caused by 2-D and 3-D animations. A total of 23 volunteers were subjected to accommodation and vergence assessments, followed by a 40-min video game program designed to aggravate their asthenopic symptoms. The volunteers were then assessed for accommodation and vergence parameters again and directed to watch a 5-min 3-D video program, and then assessed again for the parameters. The results support that the 3-D animations caused similar characteristics in vision fatigue parameters in some specific aspects as compared to that caused by 2-D animations. Furthermore, 3-D animations may lead to more exhaustion in both ciliary and extra-ocular muscles, and such differential effects were more evident in the high demand of near vision work. The current results indicated that an arbitrary set of indexes may be promoted in the design of 3-D display or equipments.

  6. Avalanche for shape and feature-based virtual screening with 3D alignment.

    PubMed

    Diller, David J; Connell, Nancy D; Welsh, William J

    2015-11-01

    This report introduces a new ligand-based virtual screening tool called Avalanche that incorporates both shape- and feature-based comparison with three-dimensional (3D) alignment between the query molecule and test compounds residing in a chemical database. Avalanche proceeds in two steps. The first step is an extremely rapid shape/feature based comparison which is used to narrow the focus from potentially millions or billions of candidate molecules and conformations to a more manageable number that are then passed to the second step. The second step is a detailed yet still rapid 3D alignment of the remaining candidate conformations to the query conformation. Using the 3D alignment, these remaining candidate conformations are scored, re-ranked and presented to the user as the top hits for further visualization and evaluation. To provide further insight into the method, the results from two prospective virtual screens are presented which show the ability of Avalanche to identify hits from chemical databases that would likely be missed by common substructure-based or fingerprint-based search methods. The Avalanche method is extended to enable patent landscaping, i.e., structural refinements to improve the patentability of hits for deployment in drug discovery campaigns. PMID:26458937

  7. Load Assembly of the Ignitor Machine with 3D Interactive Virtual Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliori, S.; Pierattini, S.

    2003-10-01

    The main purpose of this work is to assist the Ignitor team in every phase of the project using the new Virtual Reality Technology (VR). Through the VR it is possible to see, plan and test the machine assembly sequence and the total layout. We are also planning to simulate in VR the remote handling systems. The complexity of the system requires a large and powerful graphical device. The ENEA?s "Advanced Visualization Technology" team has implemented a repository file data structure integrated with the CATIA drawing cams from the designer of Ignitor. The 3D virtual mockup software is used to view and analyze all objects that compose the mockup and also to analyze the correct assembly sequences. The ENEA?s 3D immersive system and software are fully integrated in the ENEA?s supercomputing GRID infrastructure. At any time all members of the Ignitor Project can view the status of the mockup in 3D (draft and/or final objects) through the net. During the conference examples of the assembly sequence and load assembly structure will be presented.

  8. Research on 3D virtual campus scene modeling based on 3ds Max and VRML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Chuanli; Zhou, Yanliu; Liang, Xianyue

    2015-12-01

    With the rapid development of modem technology, the digital information management and the virtual reality simulation technology has become a research hotspot. Virtual campus 3D model can not only express the real world objects of natural, real and vivid, and can expand the campus of the reality of time and space dimension, the combination of school environment and information. This paper mainly uses 3ds Max technology to create three-dimensional model of building and on campus buildings, special land etc. And then, the dynamic interactive function is realized by programming the object model in 3ds Max by VRML .This research focus on virtual campus scene modeling technology and VRML Scene Design, and the scene design process in a variety of real-time processing technology optimization strategy. This paper guarantees texture map image quality and improve the running speed of image texture mapping. According to the features and architecture of Guilin University of Technology, 3ds Max, AutoCAD and VRML were used to model the different objects of the virtual campus. Finally, the result of virtual campus scene is summarized.

  9. Virtual reality hardware for use in interactive 3D data fusion and visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourley, Christopher S.; Abidi, Mongi A.

    1997-09-01

    Virtual reality has become a tool for use in many areas of research. We have designed and built a VR system for use in range data fusion and visualization. One major VR tool is the CAVE. This is the ultimate visualization tool, but comes with a large price tag. Our design uses a unique CAVE whose graphics are powered by a desktop computer instead of a larger rack machine making it much less costly. The system consists of a screen eight feet tall by twenty-seven feet wide giving a variable field-of-view currently set at 160 degrees. A silicon graphics Indigo2 MaxImpact with the impact channel option is used for display. This gives the capability to drive three projectors at a resolution of 640 by 480 for use in displaying the virtual environment and one 640 by 480 display for a user control interface. This machine is also the first desktop package which has built-in hardware texture mapping. This feature allows us to quickly fuse the range and intensity data and other multi-sensory data. The final goal is a complete 3D texture mapped model of the environment. A dataglove, magnetic tracker, and spaceball are to be used for manipulation of the data and navigation through the virtual environment. This system gives several users the ability to interactively create 3D models from multiple range images.

  10. Advances in animal ecology from 3D ecosystem mapping with LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The advent and recent advances of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have enabled accurate measurement of 3D ecosystem structure. Although the use of LiDAR data is widespread in vegetation science, it has only recently (< 14 years) been applied to animal ecology. Despite such recent application, LiDAR has enabled new insights in the field and revealed the fundamental importance of 3D ecosystem structure for animals. We reviewed the studies to date that have used LiDAR in animal ecology, synthesising the insights gained. Structural heterogeneity is most conducive to increased animal richness and abundance, and increased complexity of vertical vegetation structure is more positively influential than traditionally measured canopy cover, which produces mixed results. However, different taxonomic groups interact with a variety of 3D canopy traits and some groups with 3D topography. LiDAR technology can be applied to animal ecology studies in a wide variety of environments to answer an impressive array of questions. Drawing on case studies from vastly different groups, termites and lions, we further demonstrate the applicability of LiDAR and highlight new understanding, ranging from habitat preference to predator-prey interactions, that would not have been possible from studies restricted to field based methods. We conclude with discussion of how future studies will benefit by using LiDAR to consider 3D habitat effects in a wider variety of ecosystems and with more taxa to develop a better understanding of animal dynamics.

  11. Qualitative Assessment of a 3D Simulation Program: Faculty, Students, and Bio-Organic Reaction Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Günersel, Adalet B.; Fleming, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that computer-based simulations and animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry where concepts are abstract and cannot be directly observed. Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA) is a freely available 3D visualization software program developed to help students understand the chemistry of biomolecular events.…

  12. An efficient 3D R-tree spatial index method for virtual geographic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qing; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Yeting

    A three-dimensional (3D) spatial index is required for real time applications of integrated organization and management in virtual geographic environments of above ground, underground, indoor and outdoor objects. Being one of the most promising methods, the R-tree spatial index has been paid increasing attention in 3D geospatial database management. Since the existing R-tree methods are usually limited by their weakness of low efficiency, due to the critical overlap of sibling nodes and the uneven size of nodes, this paper introduces the k-means clustering method and employs the 3D overlap volume, 3D coverage volume and the minimum bounding box shape value of nodes as the integrative grouping criteria. A new spatial cluster grouping algorithm and R-tree insertion algorithm is then proposed. Experimental analysis on comparative performance of spatial indexing shows that by the new method the overlap of R-tree sibling nodes is minimized drastically and a balance in the volumes of the nodes is maintained.

  13. 3D QSAR Studies, Pharmacophore Modeling and Virtual Screening on a Series of Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Huiding; Qiu, Kaixiong; Xie, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors are the most important targets in treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. In order to search for potent steroidal aromatase inhibitors (SAIs) with lower side effects and overcome cellular resistance, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were performed on a series of SAIs to build 3D QSAR models. The reliable and predictive CoMFA and CoMSIA models were obtained with statistical results (CoMFA: q2 = 0.636, r2ncv = 0.988, r2pred = 0.658; CoMSIA: q2 = 0.843, r2ncv = 0.989, r2pred = 0.601). This 3D QSAR approach provides significant insights that can be used to develop novel and potent SAIs. In addition, Genetic algorithm with linear assignment of hypermolecular alignment of database (GALAHAD) was used to derive 3D pharmacophore models. The selected pharmacophore model contains two acceptor atoms and four hydrophobic centers, which was used as a 3D query for virtual screening against NCI2000 database. Six hit compounds were obtained and their biological activities were further predicted by the CoMFA and CoMSIA models, which are expected to design potent and novel SAIs. PMID:25405729

  14. Virtual Sculpting and 3D Printing for Young People with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mcloughlin, Leigh; Fryazinov, Oleg; Moseley, Mark; Sanchez, Mathieu; Adzhiev, Valery; Comninos, Peter; Pasko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The SHIVA project was designed to provide virtual sculpting tools for young people with complex disabilities, allowing them to engage with artistic and creative activities that they might otherwise never be able to access. Their creations are then physically built using 3D printing. To achieve this, the authors built a generic, accessible GUI and a suitable geometric modeling system and used these to produce two prototype modeling exercises. These tools were deployed in a school for students with complex disabilities and are now being used for a variety of educational and developmental purposes. This article presents the project's motivations, approach, and implementation details together with initial results, including 3D printed objects designed by young people with disabilities. PMID:26780761

  15. Virtual Sculpting and 3D Printing for Young People with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mcloughlin, Leigh; Fryazinov, Oleg; Moseley, Mark; Sanchez, Mathieu; Adzhiev, Valery; Comninos, Peter; Pasko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The SHIVA project was designed to provide virtual sculpting tools for young people with complex disabilities, allowing them to engage with artistic and creative activities that they might otherwise never be able to access. Their creations are then physically built using 3D printing. To achieve this, the authors built a generic, accessible GUI and a suitable geometric modeling system and used these to produce two prototype modeling exercises. These tools were deployed in a school for students with complex disabilities and are now being used for a variety of educational and developmental purposes. This article presents the project's motivations, approach, and implementation details together with initial results, including 3D printed objects designed by young people with disabilities.

  16. Function of pretribosphenic and tribosphenic mammalian molars inferred from 3D animation.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Julia A; Martin, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Appearance of the tribosphenic molar in the Late Jurassic (160 Ma) is a crucial innovation for food processing in mammalian evolution. This molar type is characterized by a protocone, a talonid basin and a two-phased chewing cycle, all of which are apomorphic. In this functional study on the teeth of Late Jurassic Dryolestes leiriensis and the living marsupial Monodelphis domestica, we demonstrate that pretribosphenic and tribosphenic molars show fundamental differences of food reduction strategies, representing a shift in dental function during the transition of tribosphenic mammals. By using the Occlusal Fingerprint Analyser (OFA), we simulated the chewing motions of the pretribosphenic Dryolestes that represents an evolutionary precursor condition to such tribosphenic mammals as Monodelphis. Animation of chewing path and detection of collisional contacts between virtual models of teeth suggests that Dryolestes differs from the classical two-phased chewing movement of tribosphenidans, due to the narrowing of the interdental space in cervical (crown-root transition) direction, the inclination angle of the hypoflexid groove, and the unicuspid talonid. The pretribosphenic chewing cycle is equivalent to phase I of the tribosphenic chewing cycle, but the former lacks phase II of the tribosphenic chewing. The new approach can analyze the chewing cycle of the jaw by using polygonal 3D models of tooth surfaces, in a way that is complementary to the electromyography and strain gauge studies of muscle function of living animals. The technique allows alignment and scaling of isolated fossil teeth and utilizes the wear facet orientation and striation of the teeth to reconstruct the chewing path of extinct mammals.

  17. Function of pretribosphenic and tribosphenic mammalian molars inferred from 3D animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Julia A.; Martin, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Appearance of the tribosphenic molar in the Late Jurassic (160 Ma) is a crucial innovation for food processing in mammalian evolution. This molar type is characterized by a protocone, a talonid basin and a two-phased chewing cycle, all of which are apomorphic. In this functional study on the teeth of Late Jurassic Dryolestes leiriensis and the living marsupial Monodelphis domestica, we demonstrate that pretribosphenic and tribosphenic molars show fundamental differences of food reduction strategies, representing a shift in dental function during the transition of tribosphenic mammals. By using the Occlusal Fingerprint Analyser (OFA), we simulated the chewing motions of the pretribosphenic Dryolestes that represents an evolutionary precursor condition to such tribosphenic mammals as Monodelphis. Animation of chewing path and detection of collisional contacts between virtual models of teeth suggests that Dryolestes differs from the classical two-phased chewing movement of tribosphenidans, due to the narrowing of the interdental space in cervical (crown-root transition) direction, the inclination angle of the hypoflexid groove, and the unicuspid talonid. The pretribosphenic chewing cycle is equivalent to phase I of the tribosphenic chewing cycle, but the former lacks phase II of the tribosphenic chewing. The new approach can analyze the chewing cycle of the jaw by using polygonal 3D models of tooth surfaces, in a way that is complementary to the electromyography and strain gauge studies of muscle function of living animals. The technique allows alignment and scaling of isolated fossil teeth and utilizes the wear facet orientation and striation of the teeth to reconstruct the chewing path of extinct mammals.

  18. Going Virtual… or Not: Development and Testing of a 3D Virtual Astronomy Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhitskaya, L.; Speck, A.; Ding, N.; Baldridge, S.; Witzig, S.; Laffey, J.

    2013-04-01

    We present our preliminary results of a pilot study of students' knowledge transfer of an astronomy concept into a new environment. We also share our discoveries on what aspects of a 3D environment students consider being motivational and discouraging for their learning. This study was conducted among 64 non-science major students enrolled in an astronomy laboratory course. During the course, students learned the concept and applications of Kepler's laws using a 2D interactive environment. Later in the semester, the students were placed in a 3D environment in which they were asked to conduct observations and to answers a set of questions pertaining to the Kepler's laws of planetary motion. In this study, we were interested in observing scrutinizing and assessing students' behavior: from choices that they made while creating their avatars (virtual representations) to tools they choose to use, to their navigational patterns, to their levels of discourse in the environment. These helped us to identify what features of the 3D environment our participants found to be helpful and interesting and what tools created unnecessary clutter and distraction. The students' social behavior patterns in the virtual environment together with their answers to the questions helped us to determine how well they understood Kepler's laws, how well they could transfer the concepts to a new situation, and at what point a motivational tool such as a 3D environment becomes a disruption to the constructive learning. Our founding confirmed that students construct deeper knowledge of a concept when they are fully immersed in the environment.

  19. 3-D Imaging In Virtual Environment: A Scientific Clinical and Teaching Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The advent of powerful graphics workstations and computers has led to the advancement of scientific knowledge through three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction and imaging of biological cells and tissues. The Biocomputation Center at NASA Ames Research Center pioneered the effort to produce an entirely computerized method for reconstruction of objects from serial sections studied in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The software developed, ROSS (Reconstruction of Serial Sections), is now being distributed to users across the United States through Space Act Agreements. The software is in widely disparate fields such as geology, botany, biology and medicine. In the Biocomputation Center, ROSS serves as the basis for development of virtual environment technologies for scientific and medical use. This report will describe the Virtual Surgery Workstation Project that is ongoing with clinicians at Stanford University Medical Center, and the role of the Visible Human data in the project.

  20. Dynamic 3-D virtual fixtures for minimally invasive beating heart procedures.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Patel, Rajni V; McIsaac, Kenneth A; Guiraudon, Gerard; Peters, Terry M

    2008-08-01

    Two-dimensional or 3-D visual guidance is often used for minimally invasive cardiac surgery and diagnosis. This visual guidance suffers from several drawbacks such as limited field of view, loss of signal from time to time, and in some cases, difficulty of interpretation. These limitations become more evident in beating-heart procedures when the surgeon has to perform a surgical procedure in the presence of heart motion. In this paper, we propose dynamic 3-D virtual fixtures (DVFs) to augment the visual guidance system with haptic feedback, to provide the surgeon with more helpful guidance by constraining the surgeon's hand motions thereby protecting sensitive structures. DVFs can be generated from preoperative dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomograph (CT) images and then mapped to the patient during surgery. We have validated the feasibility of the proposed method on several simulated surgical tasks using a volunteer's cardiac image dataset. Validation results show that the integration of visual and haptic guidance can permit a user to perform surgical tasks more easily and with reduced error rate. We believe this is the first work presented in the field of virtual fixtures that explicitly considers heart motion.

  1. Utilising a Collaborative Macro-Script to Enhance Student Engagement: A Mixed Method Study in a 3D Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouta, Hara; Retalis, Symeon; Paraskeva, Fotini

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect of using an online 3D virtual environment in teaching Mathematics in Primary Education. In particular, it explores the extent to which student engagement--behavioral, affective and cognitive--is fostered by such tools in order to enhance collaborative learning. For the study we used a purpose-created 3D virtual…

  2. The cranial nerve skywalk: A 3D tutorial of cranial nerves in a virtual platform.

    PubMed

    Richardson-Hatcher, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Ramirez-Yanez, German

    2014-01-01

    Visualization of the complex courses of the cranial nerves by students in the health-related professions is challenging through either diagrams in books or plastic models in the gross laboratory. Furthermore, dissection of the cranial nerves in the gross laboratory is an extremely meticulous task. Teaching and learning the cranial nerve pathways is difficult using two-dimensional (2D) illustrations alone. Three-dimensional (3D) models aid the teacher in describing intricate and complex anatomical structures and help students visualize them. The study of the cranial nerves can be supplemented with 3D, which permits the students to fully visualize their distribution within the craniofacial complex. This article describes the construction and usage of a virtual anatomy platform in Second Life™, which contains 3D models of the cranial nerves III, V, VII, and IX. The Cranial Nerve Skywalk features select cranial nerves and the associated autonomic pathways in an immersive online environment. This teaching supplement was introduced to groups of pre-healthcare professional students in gross anatomy courses at both institutions and student feedback is included.

  3. The cranial nerve skywalk: A 3D tutorial of cranial nerves in a virtual platform.

    PubMed

    Richardson-Hatcher, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Ramirez-Yanez, German

    2014-01-01

    Visualization of the complex courses of the cranial nerves by students in the health-related professions is challenging through either diagrams in books or plastic models in the gross laboratory. Furthermore, dissection of the cranial nerves in the gross laboratory is an extremely meticulous task. Teaching and learning the cranial nerve pathways is difficult using two-dimensional (2D) illustrations alone. Three-dimensional (3D) models aid the teacher in describing intricate and complex anatomical structures and help students visualize them. The study of the cranial nerves can be supplemented with 3D, which permits the students to fully visualize their distribution within the craniofacial complex. This article describes the construction and usage of a virtual anatomy platform in Second Life™, which contains 3D models of the cranial nerves III, V, VII, and IX. The Cranial Nerve Skywalk features select cranial nerves and the associated autonomic pathways in an immersive online environment. This teaching supplement was introduced to groups of pre-healthcare professional students in gross anatomy courses at both institutions and student feedback is included. PMID:24678025

  4. Virtual bronchoscopic approach for combining 3D CT and endoscopic video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherbondy, Anthony J.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Austin, Allen L.; Helferty, James P.; Wan, Shu-Yen; Turlington, Janice Z.; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Chao; Hoffman, Eric A.; McLennan, Geoffrey; Higgins, William E.

    2000-04-01

    To improve the care of lung-cancer patients, we are devising a diagnostic paradigm that ties together three-dimensional (3D) high-resolution computed-tomographic (CT) imaging and bronchoscopy. The system expands upon the new concept of virtual endoscopy that has seen recent application to the chest, colon, and other anatomical regions. Our approach applies computer-graphics and image-processing tools to the analysis of 3D CT chest images and complementary bronchoscopic video. It assumes a two-stage assessment of a lung-cancer patient. During Stage 1 (CT assessment), the physician interacts with a number of visual and quantitative tools to evaluate the patient's 'virtual anatomy' (3D CT scan). Automatic analysis gives navigation paths through major airways and to pre-selected suspect sites. These paths provide useful guidance during Stage-1 CT assessment. While interacting with these paths and other software tools, the user builds a multimedia Case Study, capturing telling snapshot views, movies, and quantitative data. The Case Study contains a report on the CT scan and also provides planning information for subsequent bronchoscopic evaluation. During Stage 2 (bronchoscopy), the physician uses (1) the original CT data, (2) software graphical tools, (3) the Case Study, and (4) a standard bronchoscopy suite to have an augmented vision for bronchoscopic assessment and treatment. To use the two data sources (CT and bronchoscopic video) simultaneously, they must be registered. We perform this registration using both manual interaction and an automated matching approach based on mutual information. We demonstrate our overall progress to date using human CT cases and CT-video from a bronchoscopy- training device.

  5. Accident or homicide--virtual crime scene reconstruction using 3D methods.

    PubMed

    Buck, Ursula; Naether, Silvio; Räss, Beat; Jackowski, Christian; Thali, Michael J

    2013-02-10

    The analysis and reconstruction of forensically relevant events, such as traffic accidents, criminal assaults and homicides are based on external and internal morphological findings of the injured or deceased person. For this approach high-tech methods are gaining increasing importance in forensic investigations. The non-contact optical 3D digitising system GOM ATOS is applied as a suitable tool for whole body surface and wound documentation and analysis in order to identify injury-causing instruments and to reconstruct the course of event. In addition to the surface documentation, cross-sectional imaging methods deliver medical internal findings of the body. These 3D data are fused into a whole body model of the deceased. Additional to the findings of the bodies, the injury inflicting instruments and incident scene is documented in 3D. The 3D data of the incident scene, generated by 3D laser scanning and photogrammetry, is also included into the reconstruction. Two cases illustrate the methods. In the fist case a man was shot in his bedroom and the main question was, if the offender shot the man intentionally or accidentally, as he declared. In the second case a woman was hit by a car, driving backwards into a garage. It was unclear if the driver drove backwards once or twice, which would indicate that he willingly injured and killed the woman. With this work, we demonstrate how 3D documentation, data merging and animation enable to answer reconstructive questions regarding the dynamic development of patterned injuries, and how this leads to a real data based reconstruction of the course of event. PMID:22727689

  6. Accident or homicide--virtual crime scene reconstruction using 3D methods.

    PubMed

    Buck, Ursula; Naether, Silvio; Räss, Beat; Jackowski, Christian; Thali, Michael J

    2013-02-10

    The analysis and reconstruction of forensically relevant events, such as traffic accidents, criminal assaults and homicides are based on external and internal morphological findings of the injured or deceased person. For this approach high-tech methods are gaining increasing importance in forensic investigations. The non-contact optical 3D digitising system GOM ATOS is applied as a suitable tool for whole body surface and wound documentation and analysis in order to identify injury-causing instruments and to reconstruct the course of event. In addition to the surface documentation, cross-sectional imaging methods deliver medical internal findings of the body. These 3D data are fused into a whole body model of the deceased. Additional to the findings of the bodies, the injury inflicting instruments and incident scene is documented in 3D. The 3D data of the incident scene, generated by 3D laser scanning and photogrammetry, is also included into the reconstruction. Two cases illustrate the methods. In the fist case a man was shot in his bedroom and the main question was, if the offender shot the man intentionally or accidentally, as he declared. In the second case a woman was hit by a car, driving backwards into a garage. It was unclear if the driver drove backwards once or twice, which would indicate that he willingly injured and killed the woman. With this work, we demonstrate how 3D documentation, data merging and animation enable to answer reconstructive questions regarding the dynamic development of patterned injuries, and how this leads to a real data based reconstruction of the course of event.

  7. Evaluation of 3D reconstruction algorithms for a small animal PET camera

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.A.; Gandler, W.R.; Seidel, J.

    1996-12-31

    The use of paired, opposing position-sensitive phototube scintillation cameras (SCs) operating in coincidence for small animal imaging with positron emitters is currently under study. Because of the low sensitivity of the system even in 3D mode and the need to produce images with high resolution, it was postulated that a 3D expectation maximization (EM) reconstruction algorithm might be well suited for this application. We investigated four reconstruction algorithms for the 3D SC PET camera: 2D filtered back-projection (FBP), 2D ordered subset EM (OSEM), 3D reprojection (3DRP), and 3D OSEM. Noise was assessed for all slices by the coefficient of variation in a simulated uniform cylinder. Resolution was assessed from a simulation of 15 point sources in the warm background of the uniform cylinder. At comparable noise levels, the resolution achieved with OSEM (0.9-mm to 1.2-mm) is significantly better than that obtained with FBP or 3DRP (1.5-mm to 2.0-mm.) Images of a rat skull labeled with {sup 18}F-fluoride suggest that 3D OSEM can improve image quality of a small animal PET camera.

  8. The effectiveness of 3D animations to enhance understanding of cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Clements, Dylan N; Broadhurst, Henry; Clarke, Stephen P; Farrell, Michael; Bennett, David; Mosley, John R; Mellanby, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture is one of the most important orthopedic diseases taught to veterinary undergraduates. The complexity of the anatomy of the canine stifle joint combined with the plethora of different surgical interventions available for the treatment of the disease means that undergraduate veterinary students often have a poor understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of CCL rupture. We designed, developed, and tested a three dimensional (3D) animation to illustrate the pertinent clinical anatomy of the stifle joint, the effects of CCL rupture, and the mechanisms by which different surgical techniques can stabilize the joint with CCL rupture. When compared with a non-animated 3D presentation, students' short-term retention of functional anatomy improved although they could not impart a better explanation of how different surgical techniques worked. More students found the animation useful than those who viewed a comparable non-animated 3D presentation. Multiple peer-review testing is required to maximize the usefulness of 3D animations during development. Free and open access to such tools should improve student learning and client understanding through wide-spread uptake and use. PMID:23475409

  9. Instructors' Perceptions of Three-Dimensional (3D) Virtual Worlds: Instructional Use, Implementation and Benefits for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Sophia Jeffries

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation research study was to explore instructors' perceptions of the educational application of three-dimensional (3D) virtual worlds in a variety of academic discipline areas and to assess the strengths and limitations this virtual environment presents for teaching adult learners. The guiding research question for this…

  10. Using a Quest in a 3D Virtual Environment for Student Interaction and Vocabulary Acquisition in Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastoudi, Denise

    2011-01-01

    The gaming and interactional nature of the virtual environment of Second Life offers opportunities for language learning beyond the traditional pedagogy. This study case examined the potential of 3D virtual quest games to enhance vocabulary acquisition through interaction, negotiation of meaning and noticing. Four adult students of English at…

  11. Building a 3D Virtual Liver: Methods for Simulating Blood Flow and Hepatic Clearance on 3D Structures.

    PubMed

    White, Diana; Coombe, Dennis; Rezania, Vahid; Tuszynski, Jack

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a spatio-temporal modeling approach to describe blood and drug flow, as well as drug uptake and elimination, on an approximation of the liver. Extending on previously developed computational approaches, we generate an approximation of a liver, which consists of a portal and hepatic vein vasculature structure, embedded in the surrounding liver tissue. The vasculature is generated via constrained constructive optimization, and then converted to a spatial grid of a selected grid size. Estimates for surrounding upscaled lobule tissue properties are then presented appropriate to the same grid size. Simulation of fluid flow and drug metabolism (hepatic clearance) are completed using discretized forms of the relevant convective-diffusive-reactive partial differential equations for these processes. This results in a single stage, uniformly consistent method to simulate equations for blood and drug flow, as well as drug metabolism, on a 3D structure representative of a liver. PMID:27649537

  12. Building a 3D Virtual Liver: Methods for Simulating Blood Flow and Hepatic Clearance on 3D Structures

    PubMed Central

    Rezania, Vahid; Tuszynski, Jack

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a spatio-temporal modeling approach to describe blood and drug flow, as well as drug uptake and elimination, on an approximation of the liver. Extending on previously developed computational approaches, we generate an approximation of a liver, which consists of a portal and hepatic vein vasculature structure, embedded in the surrounding liver tissue. The vasculature is generated via constrained constructive optimization, and then converted to a spatial grid of a selected grid size. Estimates for surrounding upscaled lobule tissue properties are then presented appropriate to the same grid size. Simulation of fluid flow and drug metabolism (hepatic clearance) are completed using discretized forms of the relevant convective-diffusive-reactive partial differential equations for these processes. This results in a single stage, uniformly consistent method to simulate equations for blood and drug flow, as well as drug metabolism, on a 3D structure representative of a liver. PMID:27649537

  13. Virtual ethology of aquatic animal heterogeneous behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, ChenKim; Tan, KianLam

    2016-08-01

    In the virtual world, the simulation of flocking behaviour has been actively investigated since the 1980 through the boid models. However, ethology is a niche study of animal behaviour from the biological perspective that is rarely instil in the interest of the younger learners nowadays. The keystone of the research is to be able to disseminate the study of animal behaviours through the boid model with the aid of technology. Through the simulation, complex movement of animal behaviours are reproduced based on the extension of basic behaviours of boid algorithm. The techniques here are to (i) Analyse a high-level behavioural framework of motion in the animal behaviours and (ii) Evolves particles to other animal representations to portray more real-time examples of steering behaviours. Although the generality of the results is limited by the number of case study, it also supports the hypothesis that interactive simulation system of virtual ethology can aid the improvement of animal studies.

  14. Towards a Transcription System of Sign Language for 3D Virtual Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Amaral, Wanessa Machado; de Martino, José Mario

    Accessibility is a growing concern in computer science. Since virtual information is mostly presented visually, it may seem that access for deaf people is not an issue. However, for prelingually deaf individuals, those who were deaf since before acquiring and formally learn a language, written information is often of limited accessibility than if presented in signing. Further, for this community, signing is their language of choice, and reading text in a spoken language is akin to using a foreign language. Sign language uses gestures and facial expressions and is widely used by deaf communities. To enabling efficient production of signed content on virtual environment, it is necessary to make written records of signs. Transcription systems have been developed to describe sign languages in written form, but these systems have limitations. Since they were not originally designed with computer animation in mind, in general, the recognition and reproduction of signs in these systems is an easy task only to those who deeply know the system. The aim of this work is to develop a transcription system to provide signed content in virtual environment. To animate a virtual avatar, a transcription system requires explicit enough information, such as movement speed, signs concatenation, sequence of each hold-and-movement and facial expressions, trying to articulate close to reality. Although many important studies in sign languages have been published, the transcription problem remains a challenge. Thus, a notation to describe, store and play signed content in virtual environments offers a multidisciplinary study and research tool, which may help linguistic studies to understand the sign languages structure and grammar.

  15. Sensor Spatial Distortion, Visual Latency, and Update Rate Effects on 3D Tracking in Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Baumeler, S.; Jense, G. J.; Jacoby, R. H.; Trejo, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Several common defects that we have sought to minimize in immersing virtual environments are: static sensor spatial distortion, visual latency, and low update rates. Human performance within our environments during large amplitude 3D tracking was assessed by objective and subjective methods in the presence and absence of these defects. Results show that 1) removal of our relatively small spatial sensor distortion had minor effects on the tracking activity, 2) an Adapted Cooper-Harper controllability scale proved the most sensitive subjective indicator of the degradation of dynamic fidelity caused by increasing latency and decreasing frame rates, and 3) performance, as measured by normalized RMS tracking error or subjective impressions, was more markedly influenced by changing visual latency than by update rate.

  16. Combinatorial Pharmacophore-Based 3D-QSAR Analysis and Virtual Screening of FGFR1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nannan; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Xian; Wang, Yulan; Peng, Jianlong; Luo, Xiaomin; Zheng, Mingyue; Chen, Kaixian; Jiang, Hualiang

    2015-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor/fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGF/FGFR) signaling pathway plays crucial roles in cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and survival. Aberration in FGFRs correlates with several malignancies and disorders. FGFRs have proved to be attractive targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer, and it is of high interest to find FGFR inhibitors with novel scaffolds. In this study, a combinatorial three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model was developed based on previously reported FGFR1 inhibitors with diverse structural skeletons. This model was evaluated for its prediction performance on a diverse test set containing 232 FGFR inhibitors, and it yielded a SD value of 0.75 pIC50 units from measured inhibition affinities and a Pearson’s correlation coefficient R2 of 0.53. This result suggests that the combinatorial 3D-QSAR model could be used to search for new FGFR1 hit structures and predict their potential activity. To further evaluate the performance of the model, a decoy set validation was used to measure the efficiency of the model by calculating EF (enrichment factor). Based on the combinatorial pharmacophore model, a virtual screening against SPECS database was performed. Nineteen novel active compounds were successfully identified, which provide new chemical starting points for further structural optimization of FGFR1 inhibitors. PMID:26110383

  17. Combinatorial Pharmacophore-Based 3D-QSAR Analysis and Virtual Screening of FGFR1 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nannan; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Xian; Wang, Yulan; Peng, Jianlong; Luo, Xiaomin; Zheng, Mingyue; Chen, Kaixian; Jiang, Hualiang

    2015-06-11

    The fibroblast growth factor/fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGF/FGFR) signaling pathway plays crucial roles in cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and survival. Aberration in FGFRs correlates with several malignancies and disorders. FGFRs have proved to be attractive targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer, and it is of high interest to find FGFR inhibitors with novel scaffolds. In this study, a combinatorial three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model was developed based on previously reported FGFR1 inhibitors with diverse structural skeletons. This model was evaluated for its prediction performance on a diverse test set containing 232 FGFR inhibitors, and it yielded a SD value of 0.75 pIC50 units from measured inhibition affinities and a Pearson's correlation coefficient R2 of 0.53. This result suggests that the combinatorial 3D-QSAR model could be used to search for new FGFR1 hit structures and predict their potential activity. To further evaluate the performance of the model, a decoy set validation was used to measure the efficiency of the model by calculating EF (enrichment factor). Based on the combinatorial pharmacophore model, a virtual screening against SPECS database was performed. Nineteen novel active compounds were successfully identified, which provide new chemical starting points for further structural optimization of FGFR1 inhibitors.

  18. 3D modeling of the Strasbourg's Cathedral basements for interdisciplinary research and virtual visits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landes, T.; Kuhnle, G.; Bruna, R.

    2015-08-01

    On the occasion of the millennium celebration of Strasbourg Cathedral, a transdisciplinary research group composed of archaeologists, surveyors, architects, art historians and a stonemason revised the 1966-1972 excavations under the St. Lawrence's Chapel of the Cathedral having remains of Roman and medieval masonry. The 3D modeling of the Chapel has been realized based on the combination of conventional surveying techniques for the network creation, laser scanning for the model creation and photogrammetric techniques for the texturing of a few parts. According to the requirements and the end-user of the model, the level of detail and level of accuracy have been adapted and assessed for every floor. The basement has been acquired and modeled with more details and a higher accuracy than the other parts. Thanks to this modeling work, archaeologists can confront their assumptions to those of other disciplines by simulating constructions of other worship edifices on the massive stones composing the basement. The virtual reconstructions provided evidence in support of these assumptions and served for communication via virtual visits.

  19. Design and implementation of a 3D ocean virtual reality and visualization engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ge; Li, Bo; Tian, Fenglin; Ji, Pengbo; Li, Wenqing

    2012-12-01

    In this study, a 3D virtual reality and visualization engine for rendering the ocean, named VV-Ocean, is designed for marine applications. The design goals of VV-Ocean aim at high fidelity simulation of ocean environment, visualization of massive and multidimensional marine data, and imitation of marine lives. VV-Ocean is composed of five modules, i.e. memory management module, resources management module, scene management module, rendering process management module and interaction management module. There are three core functions in VV-Ocean: reconstructing vivid virtual ocean scenes, visualizing real data dynamically in real time, imitating and simulating marine lives intuitively. Based on VV-Ocean, we establish a sea-land integration platform which can reproduce drifting and diffusion processes of oil spilling from sea bottom to surface. Environment factors such as ocean current and wind field have been considered in this simulation. On this platform oil spilling process can be abstracted as movements of abundant oil particles. The result shows that oil particles blend with water well and the platform meets the requirement for real-time and interactive rendering. VV-Ocean can be widely used in ocean applications such as demonstrating marine operations, facilitating maritime communications, developing ocean games, reducing marine hazards, forecasting the weather over oceans, serving marine tourism, and so on. Finally, further technological improvements of VV-Ocean are discussed.

  20. Error control in the set-up of stereo camera systems for 3d animal tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, A.; Creato, C.; Del Castello, L.; Giardina, I.; Melillo, S.; Parisi, L.; Viale, M.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional tracking of animal systems is the key to the comprehension of collective behavior. Experimental data collected via a stereo camera system allow the reconstruction of the 3d trajectories of each individual in the group. Trajectories can then be used to compute some quantities of interest to better understand collective motion, such as velocities, distances between individuals and correlation functions. The reliability of the retrieved trajectories is strictly related to the accuracy of the 3d reconstruction. In this paper, we perform a careful analysis of the most significant errors affecting 3d reconstruction, showing how the accuracy depends on the camera system set-up and on the precision of the calibration parameters.

  1. 3D-ANTLERS: Virtual Reconstruction and Three-Dimensional Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba, S.; Fiorillo, F.; De Feo, E.

    2013-02-01

    . In the ARTEC digital mock-up for example, it shows the ability to select the individual frames, already polygonal and geo-referenced at the time of capture; however, it is not possible to make an automated texturization differently from the low-cost environment which allows to produce a good graphics' definition. Once the final 3D models were obtained, we have proceeded to do a geometric and graphic comparison of the results. Therefore, in order to provide an accuracy requirement and an assessment for the 3D reconstruction we have taken into account the following benchmarks: cost, captured points, noise (local and global), shadows and holes, operability, degree of definition, quality and accuracy. Subsequently, these studies carried out in an empirical way on the virtual reconstructions, a 3D documentation was codified with a procedural method endorsing the use of terrestrial sensors for the documentation of antlers. The results thus pursued were compared with the standards set by the current provisions (see "Manual de medición" of Government of Andalusia-Spain); to date, in fact, the identification is based on data such as length, volume, colour, texture, openness, tips, structure, etc. Data, which is currently only appreciated with traditional instruments, such as tape measure, would be well represented by a process of virtual reconstruction and cataloguing.

  2. 3D animation of facial plastic surgery based on computer graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zonghua; Zhao, Yan

    2013-12-01

    More and more people, especial women, are getting desired to be more beautiful than ever. To some extent, it becomes true because the plastic surgery of face was capable in the early 20th and even earlier as doctors just dealing with war injures of face. However, the effect of post-operation is not always satisfying since no animation could be seen by the patients beforehand. In this paper, by combining plastic surgery of face and computer graphics, a novel method of simulated appearance of post-operation will be given to demonstrate the modified face from different viewpoints. The 3D human face data are obtained by using 3D fringe pattern imaging systems and CT imaging systems and then converted into STL (STereo Lithography) file format. STL file is made up of small 3D triangular primitives. The triangular mesh can be reconstructed by using hash function. Top triangular meshes in depth out of numbers of triangles must be picked up by ray-casting technique. Mesh deformation is based on the front triangular mesh in the process of simulation, which deforms interest area instead of control points. Experiments on face model show that the proposed 3D animation facial plastic surgery can effectively demonstrate the simulated appearance of post-operation.

  3. NanTroSEIZE in 3-D: Creating a Virtual Research Experience in Undergraduate Geoscience Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. L.; Bangs, N. L.; Moore, G. F.; Tobin, H.

    2009-12-01

    Marine research programs, both large and small, have increasingly added a web-based component to facilitate outreach to K-12 and the public, in general. These efforts have included, among other activities, information-rich websites, ship-to-shore communication with scientists during expeditions, blogs at sea, clips on YouTube, and information about daily shipboard activities. Our objective was to leverage a portion of the vast collection of data acquired through the NSF-MARGINS program to create a learning tool with a long lifespan for use in undergraduate geoscience courses. We have developed a web-based virtual expedition, NanTroSEIZE in 3-D, based on a seismic survey associated with the NanTroSEIZE program of NSF-MARGINS and IODP to study the properties of the plate boundary fault system in the upper limit of the seismogenic zone off Japan. The virtual voyage can be used in undergraduate classes at anytime, since it is not directly tied to the finite duration of a specific seagoing project. The website combines text, graphics, audio and video to place learning in an experiential framework as students participate on the expedition and carry out research. Students learn about the scientific background of the program, especially the critical role of international collaboration, and meet the chief scientists before joining the sea-going expedition. Students are presented with the principles of 3-D seismic imaging, data processing and interpretation while mapping and identifying the active faults that were the likely sources of devastating earthquakes and tsunamis in Japan in 1944 and 1948. They also learn about IODP drilling that began in 2007 and will extend through much of the next decade. The website is being tested in undergraduate classes in fall 2009 and will be distributed through the NSF-MARGINS website (http://www.nsf-margins.org/) and the MARGINS Mini-lesson section of the Science Education Resource Center (SERC) (http

  4. A new dynamic 3D virtual methodology for teaching the mechanics of atrial septation as seen in the human heart

    PubMed Central

    Schleich, Jean-Marc; Dillenseger, Jean-Louis; Houyel, Lucile; Almange, Claude; Anderson, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Learning embryology remains difficult, since it requires understanding of many complex phenomena. The temporal evolution of developmental events has classically been illustrated using cartoons, which create difficulty in linking spatial and temporal aspects, such correlation being the keystone of descriptive embryology. Methods We synthesized the bibliographic data from recent studies of atrial septal development. On the basis of this synthesis, consensus on the stages of atrial septation as seen in the human heart has been reached by a group of experts in cardiac embryology and paediatric cardiology. This has permitted the preparation of three-dimensional (3-D) computer graphic objects for the anatomical components involved in the different stages of normal human atrial septation. Results We have provided a virtual guide to the process of normal atrial septation, the animation providing an appreciation of the temporal and morphologic events necessary to separate the systemic and pulmonary venous returns. Conclusion We have shown that our animations of normal human atrial septation increase significantly the teaching of the complex developmental processes involved, and provide a new dynamic for the process of learning. PMID:19363807

  5. A new dynamic 3D virtual methodology for teaching the mechanics of atrial septation as seen in the human heart.

    PubMed

    Schleich, Jean-Marc; Dillenseger, Jean-Louis; Houyel, Lucile; Almange, Claude; Anderson, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    Learning embryology remains difficult, since it requires understanding of many complex phenomena. The temporal evolution of developmental events has classically been illustrated using cartoons, which create difficulty in linking spatial and temporal aspects, such correlation being the keystone of descriptive embryology. We synthesized the bibliographic data from recent studies of atrial septal development. On the basis of this synthesis, consensus on the stages of atrial septation as seen in the human heart has been reached by a group of experts in cardiac embryology and pediatric cardiology. This has permitted the preparation of three-dimensional (3D) computer graphic objects for the anatomical components involved in the different stages of normal human atrial septation. We have provided a virtual guide to the process of normal atrial septation, the animation providing an appreciation of the temporal and morphologic events necessary to separate the systemic and pulmonary venous returns. We have shown that our animations of normal human atrial septation increase significantly the teaching of the complex developmental processes involved, and provide a new dynamic for the process of learning. PMID:19363807

  6. Sound For Animation And Virtual Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, James K.; Docter, Pete; Foster, Scott H.; Mangini, Mark; Myers, Tom; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Null, Cynthia (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Sound is an integral part of the experience in computer animation and virtual reality. In this course, we will present some of the important technical issues in sound modeling, rendering, and synchronization as well as the "art" and business of sound that are being applied in animations, feature films, and virtual reality. The central theme is to bring leading researchers and practitioners from various disciplines to share their experiences in this interdisciplinary field. The course will give the participants an understanding of the problems and techniques involved in producing and synchronizing sounds, sound effects, dialogue, and music. The problem spans a number of domains including computer animation and virtual reality. Since sound has been an integral part of animations and films much longer than for computer-related domains, we have much to learn from traditional animation and film production. By bringing leading researchers and practitioners from a wide variety of disciplines, the course seeks to give the audience a rich mixture of experiences. It is expected that the audience will be able to apply what they have learned from this course in their research or production.

  7. Assessing the precision of gaze following using a stereoscopic 3D virtual reality setting.

    PubMed

    Atabaki, Artin; Marciniak, Karolina; Dicke, Peter W; Thier, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Despite the ecological importance of gaze following, little is known about the underlying neuronal processes, which allow us to extract gaze direction from the geometric features of the eye and head of a conspecific. In order to understand the neuronal mechanisms underlying this ability, a careful description of the capacity and the limitations of gaze following at the behavioral level is needed. Previous studies of gaze following, which relied on naturalistic settings have the disadvantage of allowing only very limited control of potentially relevant visual features guiding gaze following, such as the contrast of iris and sclera, the shape of the eyelids and--in the case of photographs--they lack depth. Hence, in order to get full control of potentially relevant features we decided to study gaze following of human observers guided by the gaze of a human avatar seen stereoscopically. To this end we established a stereoscopic 3D virtual reality setup, in which we tested human subjects' abilities to detect at which target a human avatar was looking at. Following the gaze of the avatar showed all the features of the gaze following of a natural person, namely a substantial degree of precision associated with a consistent pattern of systematic deviations from the target. Poor stereo vision affected performance surprisingly little (only in certain experimental conditions). Only gaze following guided by targets at larger downward eccentricities exhibited a differential effect of the presence or absence of accompanying movements of the avatar's eyelids and eyebrows. PMID:25982719

  8. Assessing endocranial variations in great apes and humans using 3D data from virtual endocasts.

    PubMed

    Bienvenu, Thibaut; Guy, Franck; Coudyzer, Walter; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Roualdès, Georges; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2011-06-01

    Modern humans are characterized by their large, complex, and specialized brain. Human brain evolution can be addressed through direct evidence provided by fossil hominid endocasts (i.e. paleoneurology), or through indirect evidence of extant species comparative neurology. Here we use the second approach, providing an extant comparative framework for hominid paleoneurological studies. We explore endocranial size and shape differences among great apes and humans, as well as between sexes. We virtually extracted 72 endocasts, sampling all extant great ape species and modern humans, and digitized 37 landmarks on each for 3D generalized Procrustes analysis. All species can be differentiated by their endocranial shape. Among great apes, endocranial shapes vary from short (orangutans) to long (gorillas), perhaps in relation to different facial orientations. Endocranial shape differences among African apes are partly allometric. Major endocranial traits distinguishing humans from great apes are endocranial globularity, reflecting neurological reorganization, and features linked to structural responses to posture and bipedal locomotion. Human endocasts are also characterized by posterior location of foramina rotunda relative to optic canals, which could be correlated to lesser subnasal prognathism compared to living great apes. Species with larger brains (gorillas and humans) display greater sexual dimorphism in endocranial size, while sexual dimorphism in endocranial shape is restricted to gorillas, differences between males and females being at least partly due to allometry. Our study of endocranial variations in extant great apes and humans provides a new comparative dataset for studies of fossil hominid endocasts.

  9. The effects of task difficulty on visual search strategy in virtual 3D displays.

    PubMed

    Pomplun, Marc; Garaas, Tyler W; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing the factors that determine our choice of visual search strategy may shed light on visual behavior in everyday situations. Previous results suggest that increasing task difficulty leads to more systematic search paths. Here we analyze observers' eye movements in an "easy" conjunction search task and a "difficult" shape search task to study visual search strategies in stereoscopic search displays with virtual depth induced by binocular disparity. Standard eye-movement variables, such as fixation duration and initial saccade latency, as well as new measures proposed here, such as saccadic step size, relative saccadic selectivity, and x-y target distance, revealed systematic effects on search dynamics in the horizontal-vertical plane throughout the search process. We found that in the "easy" task, observers start with the processing of display items in the display center immediately after stimulus onset and subsequently move their gaze outwards, guided by extrafoveally perceived stimulus color. In contrast, the "difficult" task induced an initial gaze shift to the upper-left display corner, followed by a systematic left-right and top-down search process. The only consistent depth effect was a trend of initial saccades in the easy task with smallest displays to the items closest to the observer. The results demonstrate the utility of eye-movement analysis for understanding search strategies and provide a first step toward studying search strategies in actual 3D scenarios. PMID:23986539

  10. Toward virtual anatomy: a stereoscopic 3-D interactive multimedia computer program for cranial osteology.

    PubMed

    Trelease, R B

    1996-01-01

    Advances in computer visualization and user interface technologies have enabled development of "virtual reality" programs that allow users to perceive and to interact with objects in artificial three-dimensional environments. Such technologies were used to create an image database and program for studying the human skull, a specimen that has become increasingly expensive and scarce. Stereoscopic image pairs of a museum-quality skull were digitized from multiple views. For each view, the stereo pairs were interlaced into a single, field-sequential stereoscopic picture using an image processing program. The resulting interlaced image files are organized in an interactive multimedia program. At run-time, gray-scale 3-D images are displayed on a large-screen computer monitor and observed through liquid-crystal shutter goggles. Users can then control the program and change views with a mouse and cursor to point-and-click on screen-level control words ("buttons"). For each view of the skull, an ID control button can be used to overlay pointers and captions for important structures. Pointing and clicking on "hidden buttons" overlying certain structures triggers digitized audio spoken word descriptions or mini lectures.

  11. The effects of task difficulty on visual search strategy in virtual 3D displays.

    PubMed

    Pomplun, Marc; Garaas, Tyler W; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-08-28

    Analyzing the factors that determine our choice of visual search strategy may shed light on visual behavior in everyday situations. Previous results suggest that increasing task difficulty leads to more systematic search paths. Here we analyze observers' eye movements in an "easy" conjunction search task and a "difficult" shape search task to study visual search strategies in stereoscopic search displays with virtual depth induced by binocular disparity. Standard eye-movement variables, such as fixation duration and initial saccade latency, as well as new measures proposed here, such as saccadic step size, relative saccadic selectivity, and x-y target distance, revealed systematic effects on search dynamics in the horizontal-vertical plane throughout the search process. We found that in the "easy" task, observers start with the processing of display items in the display center immediately after stimulus onset and subsequently move their gaze outwards, guided by extrafoveally perceived stimulus color. In contrast, the "difficult" task induced an initial gaze shift to the upper-left display corner, followed by a systematic left-right and top-down search process. The only consistent depth effect was a trend of initial saccades in the easy task with smallest displays to the items closest to the observer. The results demonstrate the utility of eye-movement analysis for understanding search strategies and provide a first step toward studying search strategies in actual 3D scenarios.

  12. Quick, Accurate, Smart: 3D Computer Vision Technology Helps Assessing Confined Animals' Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Shanis; Calderara, Simone; Pistocchi, Simone; Cucchiara, Rita; Podaliri-Vulpiani, Michele; Messori, Stefano; Ferri, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Mankind directly controls the environment and lifestyles of several domestic species for purposes ranging from production and research to conservation and companionship. These environments and lifestyles may not offer these animals the best quality of life. Behaviour is a direct reflection of how the animal is coping with its environment. Behavioural indicators are thus among the preferred parameters to assess welfare. However, behavioural recording (usually from video) can be very time consuming and the accuracy and reliability of the output rely on the experience and background of the observers. The outburst of new video technology and computer image processing gives the basis for promising solutions. In this pilot study, we present a new prototype software able to automatically infer the behaviour of dogs housed in kennels from 3D visual data and through structured machine learning frameworks. Depth information acquired through 3D features, body part detection and training are the key elements that allow the machine to recognise postures, trajectories inside the kennel and patterns of movement that can be later labelled at convenience. The main innovation of the software is its ability to automatically cluster frequently observed temporal patterns of movement without any pre-set ethogram. Conversely, when common patterns are defined through training, a deviation from normal behaviour in time or between individuals could be assessed. The software accuracy in correctly detecting the dogs' behaviour was checked through a validation process. An automatic behaviour recognition system, independent from human subjectivity, could add scientific knowledge on animals' quality of life in confinement as well as saving time and resources. This 3D framework was designed to be invariant to the dog's shape and size and could be extended to farm, laboratory and zoo quadrupeds in artificial housing. The computer vision technique applied to this software is innovative in non

  13. Quick, Accurate, Smart: 3D Computer Vision Technology Helps Assessing Confined Animals' Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Shanis; Calderara, Simone; Pistocchi, Simone; Cucchiara, Rita; Podaliri-Vulpiani, Michele; Messori, Stefano; Ferri, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Mankind directly controls the environment and lifestyles of several domestic species for purposes ranging from production and research to conservation and companionship. These environments and lifestyles may not offer these animals the best quality of life. Behaviour is a direct reflection of how the animal is coping with its environment. Behavioural indicators are thus among the preferred parameters to assess welfare. However, behavioural recording (usually from video) can be very time consuming and the accuracy and reliability of the output rely on the experience and background of the observers. The outburst of new video technology and computer image processing gives the basis for promising solutions. In this pilot study, we present a new prototype software able to automatically infer the behaviour of dogs housed in kennels from 3D visual data and through structured machine learning frameworks. Depth information acquired through 3D features, body part detection and training are the key elements that allow the machine to recognise postures, trajectories inside the kennel and patterns of movement that can be later labelled at convenience. The main innovation of the software is its ability to automatically cluster frequently observed temporal patterns of movement without any pre-set ethogram. Conversely, when common patterns are defined through training, a deviation from normal behaviour in time or between individuals could be assessed. The software accuracy in correctly detecting the dogs' behaviour was checked through a validation process. An automatic behaviour recognition system, independent from human subjectivity, could add scientific knowledge on animals' quality of life in confinement as well as saving time and resources. This 3D framework was designed to be invariant to the dog's shape and size and could be extended to farm, laboratory and zoo quadrupeds in artificial housing. The computer vision technique applied to this software is innovative in non

  14. 3D reconstruction of internal structure of animal body using near-infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Trung Nghia; Yamamoto, Kohei; Namita, Takeshi; Kato, Yuji; Shimizu, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    To realize three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging of the internal structure of animal body, we have developed a new technique to reconstruct CT images from two-dimensional (2D) transillumination images. In transillumination imaging, the image is blurred due to the strong scattering in the tissue. We had developed a scattering suppression technique using the point spread function (PSF) for a fluorescent light source in the body. In this study, we have newly proposed a technique to apply this PSF for a light source to the image of unknown light-absorbing structure. The effectiveness of the proposed technique was examined in the experiments with a model phantom and a mouse. In the phantom experiment, the absorbers were placed in the tissue-equivalent medium to simulate the light-absorbing organs in mouse body. Near-infrared light was illuminated from one side of the phantom and the image was recorded with CMOS camera from another side. Using the proposed techniques, the scattering effect was efficiently suppressed and the absorbing structure can be visualized in the 2D transillumination image. Using the 2D images obtained in many different orientations, we could reconstruct the 3D image. In the mouse experiment, an anesthetized mouse was held in an acrylic cylindrical holder. We can visualize the internal organs such as kidneys through mouse's abdomen using the proposed technique. The 3D image of the kidneys and a part of the liver were reconstructed. Through these experimental studies, the feasibility of practical 3D imaging of the internal light-absorbing structure of a small animal was verified.

  15. A 3-D Virtual Reality Model of the Sun and the Moon for E-Learning at Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Koun-Tem; Lin, Ching-Ling; Wang, Sheng-Min

    2010-01-01

    The relative positions of the sun, moon, and earth, their movements, and their relationships are abstract and difficult to understand astronomical concepts in elementary school science. This study proposes a three-dimensional (3-D) virtual reality (VR) model named the "Sun and Moon System." This e-learning resource was designed by combining…

  16. An Australian and New Zealand Scoping Study on the Use of 3D Immersive Virtual Worlds in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgarno, Barney; Lee, Mark J. W.; Carlson, Lauren; Gregory, Sue; Tynan, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the research design of, and reports selected findings from, a scoping study aimed at examining current and planned applications of 3D immersive virtual worlds at higher education institutions across Australia and New Zealand. The scoping study is the first of its kind in the region, intended to parallel and complement a…

  17. Re-Dimensional Thinking in Earth Science: From 3-D Virtual Reality Panoramas to 2-D Contour Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, John; Carter, Glenda; Butler, Susan; Slykhuis, David; Reid-Griffin, Angelia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of gender and spatial perception on student interactivity with contour maps and non-immersive virtual reality. Eighteen eighth-grade students elected to participate in a six-week activity-based course called "3-D GeoMapping." The course included nine days of activities related to topographic mapping. At the end…

  18. The Effect of 3D Virtual Learning Environment on Secondary School Third Grade Students' Attitudes toward Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Irfan

    2016-01-01

    With this research, in Second Life environment which is a three dimensional online virtual world, it is aimed to reveal the effects of student attitudes toward mathematics courses and design activities which will enable the third grade students of secondary school (primary education seventh grade) to see the 3D objects in mathematics courses in a…

  19. Fusion of image and laser-scanning data in a large-scale 3D virtual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Jhih-Syuan; Lin, Ta-Te

    2013-05-01

    Construction of large-scale 3D virtual environment is important in many fields such as robotic navigation, urban planning, transportation, and remote sensing, etc. Laser scanning approach is the most common method used in constructing 3D models. This paper proposes an automatic method to fuse image and laser-scanning data in a large-scale 3D virtual environment. The system comprises a laser-scanning device installed on a robot platform and the software for data fusion and visualization. The algorithms of data fusion and scene integration are presented. Experiments were performed for the reconstruction of outdoor scenes to test and demonstrate the functionality of the system. We also discuss the efficacy of the system and technical problems involved in this proposed method.

  20. A cone-beam CT based technique to augment the 3D virtual skull model with a detailed dental surface.

    PubMed

    Swennen, G R J; Mommaerts, M Y; Abeloos, J; De Clercq, C; Lamoral, P; Neyt, N; Casselman, J; Schutyser, F

    2009-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is used for maxillofacial imaging. 3D virtual planning of orthognathic and facial orthomorphic surgery requires detailed visualisation of the interocclusal relationship. This study aimed to introduce and evaluate the use of a double CBCT scan procedure with a modified wax bite wafer to augment the 3D virtual skull model with a detailed dental surface. The impressions of the dental arches and the wax bite wafer were scanned for ten patient separately using a high resolution standardized CBCT scanning protocol. Surface-based rigid registration using ICP (iterative closest points) was used to fit the virtual models on the wax bite wafer. Automatic rigid point-based registration of the wax bite wafer on the patient scan was performed to implement the digital virtual dental arches into the patient's skull model. Probability error histograms showed errors of < or =0.22 mm (25% percentile), < or =0.44 mm (50% percentile) and < or =1.09 mm (90% percentile) for ICP surface matching. The mean registration error for automatic point-based rigid registration was 0.18+/-0.10 mm (range 0.13-0.26 mm). The results show the potential for a double CBCT scan procedure with a modified wax bite wafer to set-up a 3D virtual augmented model of the skull with detailed dental surface.

  1. A Second Life for eHealth: Prospects for the Use of 3-D Virtual Worlds in Clinical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Vigna, Cinzia; Riva, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to describe the role played by three-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds in eHealth applications, addressing some potential advantages and issues related to the use of this emerging medium in clinical practice. Due to the enormous diffusion of the World Wide Web (WWW), telepsychology, and telehealth in general, have become accepted and validated methods for the treatment of many different health care concerns. The introduction of the Web 2.0 has facilitated the development of new forms of collaborative interaction between multiple users based on 3-D virtual worlds. This paper describes the development and implementation of a form of tailored immersive e-therapy called p-health whose key factor is interreality, that is, the creation of a hybrid augmented experience merging physical and virtual worlds. We suggest that compared with conventional telehealth applications such as emails, chat, and videoconferences, the interaction between real and 3-D virtual worlds may convey greater feelings of presence, facilitate the clinical communication process, positively influence group processes and cohesiveness in group-based therapies, and foster higher levels of interpersonal trust between therapists and patients. However, challenges related to the potentially addictive nature of such virtual worlds and questions related to privacy and personal safety will also be discussed. PMID:18678557

  2. A second life for eHealth: prospects for the use of 3-D virtual worlds in clinical psychology.

    PubMed

    Gorini, Alessandra; Gaggioli, Andrea; Vigna, Cinzia; Riva, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to describe the role played by three-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds in eHealth applications, addressing some potential advantages and issues related to the use of this emerging medium in clinical practice. Due to the enormous diffusion of the World Wide Web (WWW), telepsychology, and telehealth in general, have become accepted and validated methods for the treatment of many different health care concerns. The introduction of the Web 2.0 has facilitated the development of new forms of collaborative interaction between multiple users based on 3-D virtual worlds. This paper describes the development and implementation of a form of tailored immersive e-therapy called p-health whose key factor is interreality, that is, the creation of a hybrid augmented experience merging physical and virtual worlds. We suggest that compared with conventional telehealth applications such as emails, chat, and videoconferences, the interaction between real and 3-D virtual worlds may convey greater feelings of presence, facilitate the clinical communication process, positively influence group processes and cohesiveness in group-based therapies, and foster higher levels of interpersonal trust between therapists and patients. However, challenges related to the potentially addictive nature of such virtual worlds and questions related to privacy and personal safety will also be discussed.

  3. A 3D HIDAC-PET camera with sub-millimeter resolution for imaging small animals

    SciTech Connect

    Jeavons, A.P.; Chandler, R.A.; Dettmar, C.A.R.

    1999-06-01

    A HIDAC-PET camera consisting essentially of 5 million 0.5 mm gas avalanching detectors has been constructed for small-animal imaging. The particular HIDAC advantage--a high 3D spatial resolution--has been improved to 0.95 mm fwhm and to 0.7 mm fwhm when reconstructing with 3D-OSEM methods incorporating resolution recovery. A depth-of-interaction resolution of 2.5 mm is implicit, due to the laminar construction. Scatter-corrected sensitivity, at 8.9 cps/kBq (i.e. 0.9%) from a central point source, or 7.2 cps/kBq (543 cps/kBq/cm{sup 3}) from a distributed (40 mm diameter, 60 mm long) source is now much higher than previous, and other, work. A field-of-view of 100 mm (adjustable to 200 mm) diameter by 210 mm axially permits whole-body imaging of small animals, containing typically 4MBqs of activity, at 40 kcps of which 16% are random coincidences, with a typical scatter fraction of 44%. Throughout the field-of-view there are no positional distortions and relative quantitation is uniform to {+-} 3.5%, but some variation of spatial resolution is found. The performance demonstrates that HIDAC technology is quite appropriate for small-animal PET cameras.

  4. A 3D- and 4D-ESR imaging system for small animals.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, K; Ogata, T; Togashi, H; Yokoyama, H; Ohya-Nishiguchi, H; Kamada, H

    1996-01-01

    A new version of in vivo ESR-CT system composed of custom-made 0.7 GHz ESR spectrometer, air-core magnet with a field-scanning coil, three field-gradient coils, and two computers enables up- and down-field, and rapid magnetic-field scanning linearly controlled by computer. 3D-pictures of distribution of nitroxide radicals injected in brains and livers of rats and mice were obtained in 1.5 min with resolution of 1 mm. We have also succeeded in obtaining spatial-time imagings of the animals.

  5. Visuomotor learning in immersive 3D virtual reality in Parkinson's disease and in aging.

    PubMed

    Messier, Julie; Adamovich, Sergei; Jack, David; Hening, Wayne; Sage, Jacob; Poizner, Howard

    2007-05-01

    Successful adaptation to novel sensorimotor contexts critically depends on efficient sensory processing and integration mechanisms, particularly those required to combine visual and proprioceptive inputs. If the basal ganglia are a critical part of specialized circuits that adapt motor behavior to new sensorimotor contexts, then patients who are suffering from basal ganglia dysfunction, as in Parkinson's disease should show sensorimotor learning impairments. However, this issue has been under-explored. We tested the ability of 8 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), off medication, ten healthy elderly subjects and ten healthy young adults to reach to a remembered 3D location presented in an immersive virtual environment. A multi-phase learning paradigm was used having four conditions: baseline, initial learning, reversal learning and aftereffect. In initial learning, the computer altered the position of a simulated arm endpoint used for movement feedback by shifting its apparent location diagonally, requiring thereby both horizontal and vertical compensations. This visual distortion forced subjects to learn new coordinations between what they saw in the virtual environment and the actual position of their limbs, which they had to derive from proprioceptive information (or efference copy). In reversal learning, the sign of the distortion was reversed. Both elderly subjects and PD patients showed learning phase-dependent difficulties. First, elderly controls were slower than young subjects when learning both dimensions of the initial biaxial discordance. However, their performance improved during reversal learning and as a result elderly and young controls showed similar adaptation rates during reversal learning. Second, in striking contrast to healthy elderly subjects, PD patients were more profoundly impaired during the reversal phase of learning. PD patients were able to learn the initial biaxial discordance but were on average slower than age-matched controls

  6. Magnetic resonance virtual histology for embryos: 3D atlases for automated high-throughput phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Jon O; Modat, Marc; Norris, Francesca C; Price, Anthony N; Jayakody, Sujatha A; Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro; Greene, Nicholas D E; Hawkes, David J; Ordidge, Roger J; Scambler, Peter J; Ourselin, Sebastien; Lythgoe, Mark F

    2011-01-15

    Ambitious international efforts are underway to produce gene-knockout mice for each of the 25,000 mouse genes, providing a new platform to study mammalian development and disease. Robust, large-scale methods for morphological assessment of prenatal mice will be essential to this work. Embryo phenotyping currently relies on histological techniques but these are not well suited to large volume screening. The qualitative nature of these approaches also limits the potential for detailed group analysis. Advances in non-invasive imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may surmount these barriers. We present a high-throughput approach to generate detailed virtual histology of the whole embryo, combined with the novel use of a whole-embryo atlas for automated phenotypic assessment. Using individual 3D embryo MRI histology, we identified new pituitary phenotypes in Hesx1 mutant mice. Subsequently, we used advanced computational techniques to produce a whole-body embryo atlas from 6 CD-1 embryos, creating an average image with greatly enhanced anatomical detail, particularly in CNS structures. This methodology enabled unsupervised assessment of morphological differences between CD-1 embryos and Chd7 knockout mice (n=5 Chd7(+/+) and n=8 Chd7(+/-), C57BL/6 background). Using a new atlas generated from these three groups, quantitative organ volumes were automatically measured. We demonstrated a difference in mean brain volumes between Chd7(+/+) and Chd7(+/-) mice (42.0 vs. 39.1mm(3), p<0.05). Differences in whole-body, olfactory and normalised pituitary gland volumes were also found between CD-1 and Chd7(+/+) mice (C57BL/6 background). Our work demonstrates the feasibility of combining high-throughput embryo MRI with automated analysis techniques to distinguish novel mouse phenotypes. PMID:20656039

  7. Hsp90 inhibitors, part 1: definition of 3-D QSAutogrid/R models as a tool for virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Ballante, Flavio; Caroli, Antonia; Wickersham, Richard B; Ragno, Rino

    2014-03-24

    The multichaperone heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 complex mediates the maturation and stability of a variety of oncogenic signaling proteins. For this reason, Hsp90 has emerged as a promising target for anticancer drug development. Herein, we describe a complete computational procedure for building several 3-D QSAR models used as a ligand-based (LB) component of a comprehensive ligand-based (LB) and structure-based (SB) virtual screening (VS) protocol to identify novel molecular scaffolds of Hsp90 inhibitors. By the application of the 3-D QSAutogrid/R method, eight SB PLS 3-D QSAR models were generated, leading to a final multiprobe (MP) 3-D QSAR pharmacophoric model capable of recognizing the most significant chemical features for Hsp90 inhibition. Both the monoprobe and multiprobe models were optimized, cross-validated, and tested against an external test set. The obtained statistical results confirmed the models as robust and predictive to be used in a subsequent VS.

  8. Special Section: New Ways to Detect Colon Cancer 3-D virtual screening now being used

    MedlinePlus

    ... tech medical fields of biomedical visualization, computer graphics, virtual reality, and multimedia. The year was 1994. Kaufman's "two- ... organ, like the colon—and view it in virtual reality." Later, he and his team used it with ...

  9. 3D modeling method for computer animate based on modified weak structured light method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Xiangwei

    2010-11-01

    A simple and affordable 3D scanner is designed in this paper. Three-dimensional digital models are playing an increasingly important role in many fields, such as computer animate, industrial design, artistic design and heritage conservation. For many complex shapes, optical measurement systems are indispensable to acquiring the 3D information. In the field of computer animate, such an optical measurement device is too expensive to be widely adopted, and on the other hand, the precision is not as critical a factor in that situation. In this paper, a new cheap 3D measurement system is implemented based on modified weak structured light, using only a video camera, a light source and a straight stick rotating on a fixed axis. For an ordinary weak structured light configuration, one or two reference planes are required, and the shadows on these planes must be tracked in the scanning process, which destroy the convenience of this method. In the modified system, reference planes are unnecessary, and size range of the scanned objects is expanded widely. A new calibration procedure is also realized for the proposed method, and points cloud is obtained by analyzing the shadow strips on the object. A two-stage ICP algorithm is used to merge the points cloud from different viewpoints to get a full description of the object, and after a series of operations, a NURBS surface model is generated in the end. A complex toy bear is used to verify the efficiency of the method, and errors range from 0.7783mm to 1.4326mm comparing with the ground truth measurement.

  10. Toward real-time endoscopically-guided robotic navigation based on a 3D virtual surgical field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Hu, Danying; Hannaford, Blake; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-03-01

    The challenge is to accurately guide the surgical tool within the three-dimensional (3D) surgical field for roboticallyassisted operations such as tumor margin removal from a debulked brain tumor cavity. The proposed technique is 3D image-guided surgical navigation based on matching intraoperative video frames to a 3D virtual model of the surgical field. A small laser-scanning endoscopic camera was attached to a mock minimally-invasive surgical tool that was manipulated toward a region of interest (residual tumor) within a phantom of a debulked brain tumor. Video frames from the endoscope provided features that were matched to the 3D virtual model, which were reconstructed earlier by raster scanning over the surgical field. Camera pose (position and orientation) is recovered by implementing a constrained bundle adjustment algorithm. Navigational error during the approach to fluorescence target (residual tumor) is determined by comparing the calculated camera pose to the measured camera pose using a micro-positioning stage. From these preliminary results, computation efficiency of the algorithm in MATLAB code is near real-time (2.5 sec for each estimation of pose), which can be improved by implementation in C++. Error analysis produced 3-mm distance error and 2.5 degree of orientation error on average. The sources of these errors come from 1) inaccuracy of the 3D virtual model, generated on a calibrated RAVEN robotic platform with stereo tracking; 2) inaccuracy of endoscope intrinsic parameters, such as focal length; and 3) any endoscopic image distortion from scanning irregularities. This work demonstrates feasibility of micro-camera 3D guidance of a robotic surgical tool.

  11. Scripting human animations in a virtual environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Michael E.; Pandya, Abhilash K.; Maida, James C.

    1994-01-01

    The current deficiencies of virtual environment (VE) are well known: annoying lag time in drawing the current view, drastically simplified environments to reduce that time lag, low resolution and narrow field of view. Animation scripting is an application of VE technology which can be carried out successfully despite these deficiencies. The final product is a smoothly moving high resolution animation displaying detailed models. In this system, the user is represented by a human computer model with the same body proportions. Using magnetic tracking, the motions of the model's upper torso, head and arms are controlled by the user's movements (18 degrees of freedom). The model's lower torso and global position and orientation are controlled by a spaceball and keypad (12 degrees of freedom). Using this system human motion scripts can be extracted from the user's movements while immersed in a simplified virtual environment. Recorded data is used to define key frames; motion is interpolated between them and post processing adds a more detailed environment. The result is a considerable savings in time and a much more natural-looking movement of a human figure in a smooth and seamless animation.

  12. Calculation of the virtual current in an electromagnetic flow meter with one bubble using 3D model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Zhang; Li, Yantao

    2004-04-01

    Based on the theory of electromagnetic induction flow measurement, the Laplace equation in a complicated three-dimensional (3D) domain is solved by an alternating method. Virtual current potentials are obtained for an electromagnetic flow meter with one spherical bubble inside. The solutions are used to investigate the effects of bubble size and bubble position on the virtual current. Comparisons are done among the cases of 2D and 3D models, and of point electrode and large electrode. The results show that the 2D model overestimates the effect, while large electrodes are least sensitive to the bubble. This paper offers fundamentals for the study of the behavior of an electromagnetic flow meter in multiphase flow. For application, the results provide a possible way to estimate errors of the flow meter caused by multiphase flow.

  13. Using virtual reality technology and hand tracking technology to create software for training surgical skills in 3D game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakirova, A. A.; Ganiev, B. A.; Mullin, R. I.

    2015-11-01

    The lack of visible and approachable ways of training surgical skills is one of the main problems in medical education. Existing simulation training devices are not designed to teach students, and are not available due to the high cost of the equipment. Using modern technologies such as virtual reality and hands movements fixation technology we want to create innovative method of learning the technics of conducting operations in 3D game format, which can make education process interesting and effective. Creating of 3D format virtual simulator will allow to solve several conceptual problems at once: opportunity of practical skills improvement unlimited by the time without the risk for patient, high realism of environment in operational and anatomic body structures, using of game mechanics for information perception relief and memorization of methods acceleration, accessibility of this program.

  14. 3D animations explaining the rotation, libration, and tides of planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Marcke de Lummen, J.; de Viron, O.; Dehant, V.; Defraigne, P.; Rosenblatt, P.; Karatekin, O.; van Hoolst, T.

    Space missions have always been appealing to the broad audience. In addition, the recent success of several experiments, revealing fascinating new information about the planets of the Solar System has had wide media coverage. For that reason, our team, involved in the preparation and analysis of missions such as Mars Express and BepiColombo is in contact with the press and with the public on a regular basis. It is not always an easy task to explain to a broad audience what we are doing on planets and why, because our science involves rather complicated computations of the deformations of the planet in response to gravitational forces, and of the variations of its orientation in space. Consequently, we decided to create computer animations to explain our work. These animations show how and why the rotations of the planets are not uniform and how and why the planets are changing their orientation in space. The films describe the precession, nutations, and polar motion, characteristics of the terrestrial planets such as the Earth and Mars, and the librations, characteristic of the terrestrial bodies such as Mercury and the icy satellites. The animations also describe the gravitational effects on a spacecraft orbiting around a planet as well as the tides induced by the Sun or the planets on the planets themselves. These films have the advantage of allowing the press and the public to have a correct and appealing representation of phenomena as complex as planetary tides, gravity perturbation on an ˇ orbit, precession, etcE The concept of the animations is a result of many discussions between scientists, and the movies have been generated on Blender, which is an open source software for 3D modeling, animation, rendering, post-production, interactive creation and playback (available on www.blender3D.org). Those movies have been shown very helpful when meeting the press (some of them aired on television), or the science decision makers, which fully justifies the work

  15. A small animal image guided irradiation system study using 3D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xin; Admovics, John; Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    In a high resolution image-guided small animal irradiation platform, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is integrated with an irradiation unit for precise targeting. Precise quality assurance is essential for both imaging and irradiation components. The conventional commissioning techniques with films face major challenges due to alignment uncertainty and labour intensive film preparation and scanning. In addition, due to the novel design of this platform the mouse stage rotation for CBCT imaging is perpendicular to the gantry rotation for irradiation. Because these two rotations are associated with different mechanical systems, discrepancy between rotation isocenters exists. In order to deliver x-ray precisely, it is essential to verify coincidence of the imaging and the irradiation isocenters. A 3D PRESAGE dosimeter can provide an excellent tool for checking dosimetry and verifying coincidence of irradiation and imaging coordinates in one system. Dosimetric measurements were performed to obtain beam profiles and percent depth dose (PDD). Isocentricity and coincidence of the mouse stage and gantry rotations were evaluated with starshots acquired using PRESAGE dosimeters. A single PRESAGE dosimeter can provide 3 -D information in both geometric and dosimetric uncertainty, which is crucial for translational studies.

  16. Building a virtual archive using brain architecture and Web 3D to deliver neuropsychopharmacology content over the Internet.

    PubMed

    Mongeau, R; Casu, M A; Pani, L; Pillolla, G; Lianas, L; Giachetti, A

    2008-05-01

    The vast amount of heterogeneous data generated in various fields of neurosciences such as neuropsychopharmacology can hardly be classified using traditional databases. We present here the concept of a virtual archive, spatially referenced over a simplified 3D brain map and accessible over the Internet. A simple prototype (available at http://aquatics.crs4.it/neuropsydat3d) has been realized using current Web-based virtual reality standards and technologies. It illustrates how primary literature or summary information can easily be retrieved through hyperlinks mapped onto a 3D schema while navigating through neuroanatomy. Furthermore, 3D navigation and visualization techniques are used to enhance the representation of brain's neurotransmitters, pathways and the involvement of specific brain areas in any particular physiological or behavioral functions. The system proposed shows how the use of a schematic spatial organization of data, widely exploited in other fields (e.g. Geographical Information Systems) can be extremely useful to develop efficient tools for research and teaching in neurosciences. PMID:18262677

  17. Building a virtual archive using brain architecture and Web 3D to deliver neuropsychopharmacology content over the Internet.

    PubMed

    Mongeau, R; Casu, M A; Pani, L; Pillolla, G; Lianas, L; Giachetti, A

    2008-05-01

    The vast amount of heterogeneous data generated in various fields of neurosciences such as neuropsychopharmacology can hardly be classified using traditional databases. We present here the concept of a virtual archive, spatially referenced over a simplified 3D brain map and accessible over the Internet. A simple prototype (available at http://aquatics.crs4.it/neuropsydat3d) has been realized using current Web-based virtual reality standards and technologies. It illustrates how primary literature or summary information can easily be retrieved through hyperlinks mapped onto a 3D schema while navigating through neuroanatomy. Furthermore, 3D navigation and visualization techniques are used to enhance the representation of brain's neurotransmitters, pathways and the involvement of specific brain areas in any particular physiological or behavioral functions. The system proposed shows how the use of a schematic spatial organization of data, widely exploited in other fields (e.g. Geographical Information Systems) can be extremely useful to develop efficient tools for research and teaching in neurosciences.

  18. On the Usability and Usefulness of 3d (geo)visualizations - a Focus on Virtual Reality Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çöltekin, A.; Lokka, I.; Zahner, M.

    2016-06-01

    Whether and when should we show data in 3D is an on-going debate in communities conducting visualization research. A strong opposition exists in the information visualization (Infovis) community, and seemingly unnecessary/unwarranted use of 3D, e.g., in plots, bar or pie charts, is heavily criticized. The scientific visualization (Scivis) community, on the other hand, is more supportive of the use of 3D as it allows `seeing' invisible phenomena, or designing and printing things that are used in e.g., surgeries, educational settings etc. Geographic visualization (Geovis) stands between the Infovis and Scivis communities. In geographic information science, most visuo-spatial analyses have been sufficiently conducted in 2D or 2.5D, including analyses related to terrain and much of the urban phenomena. On the other hand, there has always been a strong interest in 3D, with similar motivations as in Scivis community. Among many types of 3D visualizations, a popular one that is exploited both for visual analysis and visualization is the highly realistic (geo)virtual environments. Such environments may be engaging and memorable for the viewers because they offer highly immersive experiences. However, it is not yet well-established if we should opt to show the data in 3D; and if yes, a) what type of 3D we should use, b) for what task types, and c) for whom. In this paper, we identify some of the central arguments for and against the use of 3D visualizations around these three considerations in a concise interdisciplinary literature review.

  19. Virtual Reality: The Future of Animated Virtual Instructor, the Technology and Its Emergence to a Productive E-Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiman, Juhanita

    This paper discusses the use of Virtual Reality (VR) in e-learning environments where an intelligent three-dimensional (3D) virtual person plays the role of an instructor. With the existence of this virtual instructor, it is hoped that the teaching and learning in the e-environment will be more effective and productive. This virtual 3D animated…

  20. L2 Immersion in 3D Virtual Worlds: The Next Thing to Being There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paillat, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Second Life is one of the many three-dimensional virtual environments accessible through a computer and a fast broadband connection. Thousands of participants connect to this platform to interact virtually with the world, join international communities of practice and, for some, role play groups. Unlike online role play games however, Second Life…

  1. Three-Dimensional Reconstructions Come to Life – Interactive 3D PDF Animations in Functional Morphology

    PubMed Central

    van de Kamp, Thomas; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Vagovič, Patrik; Baumbach, Tilo; Riedel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Digital surface mesh models based on segmented datasets have become an integral part of studies on animal anatomy and functional morphology; usually, they are published as static images, movies or as interactive PDF files. We demonstrate the use of animated 3D models embedded in PDF documents, which combine the advantages of both movie and interactivity, based on the example of preserved Trigonopterus weevils. The method is particularly suitable to simulate joints with largely deterministic movements due to precise form closure. We illustrate the function of an individual screw-and-nut type hip joint and proceed to the complex movements of the entire insect attaining a defence position. This posture is achieved by a specific cascade of movements: Head and legs interlock mutually and with specific features of thorax and the first abdominal ventrite, presumably to increase the mechanical stability of the beetle and to maintain the defence position with minimal muscle activity. The deterministic interaction of accurately fitting body parts follows a defined sequence, which resembles a piece of engineering. PMID:25029366

  2. Three-dimensional reconstructions come to life--interactive 3D PDF animations in functional morphology.

    PubMed

    van de Kamp, Thomas; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Vagovič, Patrik; Baumbach, Tilo; Riedel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Digital surface mesh models based on segmented datasets have become an integral part of studies on animal anatomy and functional morphology; usually, they are published as static images, movies or as interactive PDF files. We demonstrate the use of animated 3D models embedded in PDF documents, which combine the advantages of both movie and interactivity, based on the example of preserved Trigonopterus weevils. The method is particularly suitable to simulate joints with largely deterministic movements due to precise form closure. We illustrate the function of an individual screw-and-nut type hip joint and proceed to the complex movements of the entire insect attaining a defence position. This posture is achieved by a specific cascade of movements: Head and legs interlock mutually and with specific features of thorax and the first abdominal ventrite, presumably to increase the mechanical stability of the beetle and to maintain the defence position with minimal muscle activity. The deterministic interaction of accurately fitting body parts follows a defined sequence, which resembles a piece of engineering. PMID:25029366

  3. Brave New (Interactive) Worlds: A Review of the Design Affordances and Constraints of Two 3D Virtual Worlds as Interactive Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Michele D.

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional virtual worlds are an emerging medium currently being used in both traditional classrooms and for distance education. Three-dimensional (3D) virtual worlds are a combination of desk-top interactive Virtual Reality within a chat environment. This analysis provides an overview of Active Worlds Educational Universe and Adobe…

  4. Using a 3D Virtual Supermarket to Measure Food Purchase Behavior: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yannan; Steenhuis, Ingrid Hendrika Margaretha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition that supermarkets are an important environment for health-promoting interventions such as fiscal food policies or front-of-pack nutrition labeling. However, due to the complexities of undertaking such research in the real world, well-designed randomized controlled trials on these kinds of interventions are lacking. The Virtual Supermarket is a 3-dimensional computerized research environment designed to enable experimental studies in a supermarket setting without the complexity or costs normally associated with undertaking such research. Objective The primary objective was to validate the Virtual Supermarket by comparing virtual and real-life food purchasing behavior. A secondary objective was to obtain participant feedback on perceived sense of “presence” (the subjective experience of being in one place or environment even if physically located in another) in the Virtual Supermarket. Methods Eligible main household shoppers (New Zealand adults aged ≥18 years) were asked to conduct 3 shopping occasions in the Virtual Supermarket over 3 consecutive weeks, complete the validated Presence Questionnaire Items Stems, and collect their real supermarket grocery till receipts for that same period. Proportional expenditure (NZ$) and the proportion of products purchased over 18 major food groups were compared between the virtual and real supermarkets. Data were analyzed using repeated measures mixed models. Results A total of 123 participants consented to take part in the study. In total, 69.9% (86/123) completed 1 shop in the Virtual Supermarket, 64.2% (79/123) completed 2 shops, 60.2% (74/123) completed 3 shops, and 48.8% (60/123) returned their real supermarket till receipts. The 4 food groups with the highest relative expenditures were the same for the virtual and real supermarkets: fresh fruit and vegetables (virtual estimate: 14.3%; real: 17.4%), bread and bakery (virtual: 10.0%; real: 8.2%), dairy (virtual: 19.1%; real

  5. Quality of Grasping and the Role of Haptics in a 3-D Immersive Virtual Reality Environment in Individuals With Stroke.

    PubMed

    Levin, Mindy F; Magdalon, Eliane C; Michaelsen, Stella M; Quevedo, Antonio A F

    2015-11-01

    Reaching and grasping parameters with and without haptic feedback were characterized in people with chronic post-stroke behaviors. Twelve (67 ± 10 years) individuals with chronic stroke and arm/hand paresis (Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Arm: ≥ 46/66 pts) participated. Three dimensional (3-D) temporal and spatial kinematics of reaching and grasping movements to three objects (can: cylindrical grasp; screwdriver: power grasp; pen: precision grasp) in a physical environment (PE) with and without additional haptic feedback and a 3-D virtual environment (VE) with haptic feedback were recorded. Participants reached, grasped and transported physical and virtual objects using similar movement strategies in all conditions. Reaches made in VE were less smooth and slower compared to the PE. Arm and trunk kinematics were similar in both environments and glove conditions. For grasping, stroke subjects preserved aperture scaling to object size but used wider hand apertures with longer delays between times to maximal reaching velocity and maximal grasping aperture. Wearing the glove decreased reaching velocity. Our results in a small group of subjects suggest that providing haptic information in the VE did not affect the validity of reaching and grasping movement. Small disparities in movement parameters between environments may be due to differences in perception of object distance in VE. Reach-to-grasp kinematics to smaller objects may be improved by better 3-D rendering. Comparable kinematics between environments and conditions is encouraging for the incorporation of high quality VEs in rehabilitation programs aimed at improving upper limb recovery.

  6. Proteopedia: A Collaborative, Virtual 3D Web-Resource for Protein and Biomolecule Structure and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodis, Eran; Prilusky, Jaime, Sussman, Joel L.

    2010-01-01

    Protein structures are hard to represent on paper. They are large, complex, and three-dimensional (3D)--four-dimensional if conformational changes count! Unlike most of their substrates, which can easily be drawn out in full chemical formula, drawing every atom in a protein would usually be a mess. Simplifications like showing only the surface of…

  7. Source fields reconstruction with 3D mapping by means of the virtual acoustic volume concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, S.; Totaro, N.; Guyader, J. L.; Schaeffer, M.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the theoretical framework of the virtual acoustic volume concept and two related inverse Patch Transfer Functions (iPTF) identification methods (called u-iPTF and m-iPTF depending on the chosen boundary conditions for the virtual volume). They are based on the application of Green's identity on an arbitrary closed virtual volume defined around the source. The reconstruction of sound source fields combines discrete acoustic measurements performed at accessible positions around the source with the modal behavior of the chosen virtual acoustic volume. The mode shapes of the virtual volume can be computed by a Finite Element solver to handle the geometrical complexity of the source. As a result, it is possible to identify all the acoustic source fields at the real surface of an irregularly shaped structure and irrespective of its acoustic environment. The m-iPTF method is introduced for the first time in this paper. Conversely to the already published u-iPTF method, the m-iPTF method needs only acoustic pressure and avoids particle velocity measurements. This paper is focused on its validation, both with numerical computations and by experiments on a baffled oil pan.

  8. Design and application of real-time visual attention model for the exploration of 3D virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Hillaire, Sébastien; Lécuyer, Anatole; Regia-Corte, Tony; Cozot, Rémi; Royan, Jérôme; Breton, Gaspard

    2012-03-01

    This paper studies the design and application of a novel visual attention model designed to compute user's gaze position automatically, i.e., without using a gaze-tracking system. The model we propose is specifically designed for real-time first-person exploration of 3D virtual environments. It is the first model adapted to this context which can compute in real time a continuous gaze point position instead of a set of 3D objects potentially observed by the user. To do so, contrary to previous models which use a mesh-based representation of visual objects, we introduce a representation based on surface-elements. Our model also simulates visual reflexes and the cognitive processes which take place in the brain such as the gaze behavior associated to first-person navigation in the virtual environment. Our visual attention model combines both bottom-up and top-down components to compute a continuous gaze point position on screen that hopefully matches the user's one. We conducted an experiment to study and compare the performance of our method with a state-of-the-art approach. Our results are found significantly better with sometimes more than 100 percent of accuracy gained. This suggests that computing a gaze point in a 3D virtual environment in real time is possible and is a valid approach, compared to object-based approaches. Finally, we expose different applications of our model when exploring virtual environments. We present different algorithms which can improve or adapt the visual feedback of virtual environments based on gaze information. We first propose a level-of-detail approach that heavily relies on multiple-texture sampling. We show that it is possible to use the gaze information of our visual attention model to increase visual quality where the user is looking, while maintaining a high-refresh rate. Second, we introduce the use of the visual attention model in three visual effects inspired by the human visual system namely: depth-of-field blur, camera

  9. Design and application of real-time visual attention model for the exploration of 3D virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Hillaire, Sébastien; Lécuyer, Anatole; Regia-Corte, Tony; Cozot, Rémi; Royan, Jérôme; Breton, Gaspard

    2012-03-01

    This paper studies the design and application of a novel visual attention model designed to compute user's gaze position automatically, i.e., without using a gaze-tracking system. The model we propose is specifically designed for real-time first-person exploration of 3D virtual environments. It is the first model adapted to this context which can compute in real time a continuous gaze point position instead of a set of 3D objects potentially observed by the user. To do so, contrary to previous models which use a mesh-based representation of visual objects, we introduce a representation based on surface-elements. Our model also simulates visual reflexes and the cognitive processes which take place in the brain such as the gaze behavior associated to first-person navigation in the virtual environment. Our visual attention model combines both bottom-up and top-down components to compute a continuous gaze point position on screen that hopefully matches the user's one. We conducted an experiment to study and compare the performance of our method with a state-of-the-art approach. Our results are found significantly better with sometimes more than 100 percent of accuracy gained. This suggests that computing a gaze point in a 3D virtual environment in real time is possible and is a valid approach, compared to object-based approaches. Finally, we expose different applications of our model when exploring virtual environments. We present different algorithms which can improve or adapt the visual feedback of virtual environments based on gaze information. We first propose a level-of-detail approach that heavily relies on multiple-texture sampling. We show that it is possible to use the gaze information of our visual attention model to increase visual quality where the user is looking, while maintaining a high-refresh rate. Second, we introduce the use of the visual attention model in three visual effects inspired by the human visual system namely: depth-of-field blur, camera

  10. Virtually supportive: A feasibility pilot study of an online support group for dementia caregivers in a 3D virtual environment

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Mary-Frances; Arizmendi, Brian J.; Kaszniak, Alfred W.

    2014-01-01

    Caregiver support groups effectively reduce stress from caring for someone with dementia. These same demands can prevent participation in a group. The present feasibility study investigated a virtual online caregiver support group to bring the support group into the home. While online groups have been shown to be helpful, submissions to a message board (vs. live conversation) can feel impersonal. By using avatars, participants interacted via real-time chat in a virtual environment in an 8-week support group. Data indicated lower levels of perceived stress, depression and loneliness across participants. Importantly, satisfaction reports also indicate that caregivers overcame the barriers to participation, and had a strong sense of the group’s presence. This study provides the framework for an accessible and low cost online support group for a dementia caregiver. The study demonstrates the feasibility of interactive group in a virtual environment for engaging members in meaningful interaction. PMID:24984911

  11. Identification of potential influenza virus endonuclease inhibitors through virtual screening based on the 3D-QSAR model.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Lee, C; Chong, Y

    2009-01-01

    Influenza endonucleases have appeared as an attractive target of antiviral therapy for influenza infection. With the purpose of designing a novel antiviral agent with enhanced biological activities against influenza endonuclease, a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR) model was generated based on 34 influenza endonuclease inhibitors. The comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) with a steric, electrostatic and hydrophobic (SEH) model showed the best correlative and predictive capability (q(2) = 0.763, r(2) = 0.969 and F = 174.785), which provided a pharmacophore composed of the electronegative moiety as well as the bulky hydrophobic group. The CoMSIA model was used as a pharmacophore query in the UNITY search of the ChemDiv compound library to give virtual active compounds. The 3D-QSAR model was then used to predict the activity of the selected compounds, which identified three compounds as the most likely inhibitor candidates.

  12. Enhancing Time-Connectives with 3D Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passig, David; Eden, Sigal

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to test the most efficient representation mode with which children with hearing impairment could express a story while producing connectives indicating relations of time and of cause and effect. Using Bruner's (1973, 1986, 1990) representation stages, we tested the comparative effectiveness of Virtual Reality (VR) as a mode of…

  13. "The Evolution of e-Learning in the Context of 3D Virtual Worlds"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsilieris, Theodore; Dimopoulou, Nikoletta

    2013-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) offer new approaches towards knowledge acquisition and collaboration through distance learning processes. Web-based Learning Management Systems (LMS) have transformed the way that education is conducted nowadays. At the same time, the adoption of Virtual Worlds in the educational process is of great…

  14. Determinants of Presence in 3D Virtual Worlds: A Structural Equation Modelling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Meyrick

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that feeling present in virtual environments contributes to effective learning. Presence is a psychological state of the user; hence, it is generally agreed that individual differences in user characteristics can lead to different experiences of presence. Despite the fact that user characteristics can play a…

  15. The Use of 3D Virtual Learning Environments in Training Foreign Language Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can, Tuncer; Simsek, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    The recent developments in computer and Internet technologies and in three dimensional modelling necessitates the new approaches and methods in the education field and brings new opportunities to the higher education. The Internet and virtual learning environments have changed the learning opportunities by diversifying the learning options not…

  16. Virtual Presence and the Mind's Eye in 3-D Online Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beacham, R. C.; Denard, H.; Baker, D.

    2011-09-01

    Digital technologies have introduced fundamental changes in the forms, content, and media of communication. Indeed, some have suggested we are in the early stages of a seismic shift comparable to that in antiquity with the transition from a primarily oral culture to one based upon writing. The digital transformation is rapidly displacing the long-standing hegemony of text, and restoring in part social, bodily, oral and spatial elements, but in radically reconfigured forms and formats. Contributing to and drawing upon such changes and possibilities, scholars and those responsible for sites preserving or displaying cultural heritage, have undertaken projects to explore the properties and potential of the online communities enabled by "Virtual Worlds" and related platforms for teaching, collaboration, publication, and new modes of disciplinary research. Others, keenly observing and evaluating such work, are poised to contribute to it. It is crucial that leadership be provided to ensure that serious and sustained investigation be undertaken by scholars who have experience, and achievements, in more traditional forms of research, and who perceive the emerging potential of Virtual World work to advance their investigations. The Virtual Museums Transnational Network will seek to engage such scholars and provide leadership in this emerging and immensely attractive new area of cultural heritage exploration and experience. This presentation reviews examples of the current "state of the art" in heritage based Virtual World initiatives, looking at the new modes of social interaction and experience enabled by such online communities, and some of the achievements and future aspirations of this work.

  17. Collaboration and Knowledge Sharing Using 3D Virtual World on "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahim, Noor Faridah A.

    2013-01-01

    A collaborative and knowledge sharing virtual activity on "Second Life" using a learner-centred teaching methodology was initiated between Temasek Polytechnic and The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (HK PolyU) in the October 2011 semester. This paper highlights the author's experience in designing and implementing this e-learning…

  18. A 3D Planetary Neocartographic Tool in Education: A Game on Virtual Moon and Mars Globes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargitai, H.; Simonné-Dombóvári, E.; Gede, M.

    2012-03-01

    The paper describes the educational use of online virtual globes of Mars and the Moon. The game uses topographic globes of Mars (MOLA) and the Moon (LRO DTM) that includes IAU nomenclature + informal names. Students have to position the points described.

  19. The Input-Interface of Webcam Applied in 3D Virtual Reality Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Huey-Min; Cheng, Wen-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Our research explores a virtual reality application based on Web camera (Webcam) input-interface. The interface can replace with the mouse to control direction intention of a user by the method of frame difference. We divide a frame into nine grids from Webcam and make use of the background registration to compute the moving object. In order to…

  20. Generic precise augmented reality guiding system and its calibration method based on 3D virtual model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miao; Yang, Shourui; Wang, Zhangying; Huang, Shujun; Liu, Yue; Niu, Zhenqi; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zhu, Jigui; Zhang, Zonghua

    2016-05-30

    Augmented reality system can be applied to provide precise guidance for various kinds of manual works. The adaptability and guiding accuracy of such systems are decided by the computational model and the corresponding calibration method. In this paper, a novel type of augmented reality guiding system and the corresponding designing scheme are proposed. Guided by external positioning equipment, the proposed system can achieve high relative indication accuracy in a large working space. Meanwhile, the proposed system is realized with a digital projector and the general back projection model is derived with geometry relationship between digitized 3D model and the projector in free space. The corresponding calibration method is also designed for the proposed system to obtain the parameters of projector. To validate the proposed back projection model, the coordinate data collected by a 3D positioning equipment is used to calculate and optimize the extrinsic parameters. The final projecting indication accuracy of the system is verified with subpixel pattern projecting technique.

  1. Model-based 3D human shape estimation from silhouettes for virtual fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shunta; Kouchi, Makiko; Mochimaru, Masaaki; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2014-03-01

    We propose a model-based 3D human shape reconstruction system from two silhouettes. Firstly, we synthesize a deformable body model from 3D human shape database consists of a hundred whole body mesh models. Each mesh model is homologous, so that it has the same topology and same number of vertices among all models. We perform principal component analysis (PCA) on the database and synthesize an Active Shape Model (ASM). ASM allows changing the body type of the model with a few parameters. The pose changing of our model can be achieved by reconstructing the skeleton structures from implanted joints of the model. By applying pose changing after body type deformation, our model can represents various body types and any pose. We apply the model to the problem of 3D human shape reconstruction from front and side silhouette. Our approach is simply comparing the contours between the model's and input silhouettes', we then use only torso part contour of the model to reconstruct whole shape. We optimize the model parameters by minimizing the difference between corresponding silhouettes by using a stochastic, derivative-free non-linear optimization method, CMA-ES.

  2. Integrated VR platform for 3D and image-based models: a step toward interactive image-based virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jayoung; Kim, Gerard J.

    2003-04-01

    Traditionally, three dimension models have been used for building virtual worlds, and a data structure called the "scene graph" is often employed to organize these 3D objects in the virtual space. On the other hand, image-based rendering has recently been suggested as a probable alternative VR platform for its photo-realism, however, due to limited interactivity, it has only been used for simple navigation systems. To combine the merits of these two approaches to object/scene representations, this paper proposes for a scene graph structure in which both 3D models and various image-based scenes/objects can be defined, traversed, and rendered together. In fact, as suggested by Shade et al., these different representations can be used as different LOD's for a given object. For instance, an object might be rendered using a 3D model at close range, a billboard at an intermediate range, and as part of an environment map at far range. The ultimate objective of this mixed platform is to breath more interactivity into the image based rendered VE's by employing 3D models as well. There are several technical challenges in devising such a platform: designing scene graph nodes for various types of image based techniques, establishing criteria for LOD/representation selection, handling their transitions, implementing appropriate interaction schemes, and correctly rendering the overall scene. Currently, we have extended the scene graph structure of the Sense8's WorldToolKit, to accommodate new node types for environment maps billboards, moving textures and sprites, "Tour-into-the-Picture" structure, and view interpolated objects. As for choosing the right LOD level, the usual viewing distance and image space criteria are used, however, the switching between the image and 3D model occurs at a distance from the user where the user starts to perceive the object's internal depth. Also, during interaction, regardless of the viewing distance, a 3D representation would be used, it if

  3. Generic precise augmented reality guiding system and its calibration method based on 3D virtual model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miao; Yang, Shourui; Wang, Zhangying; Huang, Shujun; Liu, Yue; Niu, Zhenqi; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zhu, Jigui; Zhang, Zonghua

    2016-05-30

    Augmented reality system can be applied to provide precise guidance for various kinds of manual works. The adaptability and guiding accuracy of such systems are decided by the computational model and the corresponding calibration method. In this paper, a novel type of augmented reality guiding system and the corresponding designing scheme are proposed. Guided by external positioning equipment, the proposed system can achieve high relative indication accuracy in a large working space. Meanwhile, the proposed system is realized with a digital projector and the general back projection model is derived with geometry relationship between digitized 3D model and the projector in free space. The corresponding calibration method is also designed for the proposed system to obtain the parameters of projector. To validate the proposed back projection model, the coordinate data collected by a 3D positioning equipment is used to calculate and optimize the extrinsic parameters. The final projecting indication accuracy of the system is verified with subpixel pattern projecting technique. PMID:27410124

  4. Comparative brain morphology of Neotropical parrots (Aves, Psittaciformes) inferred from virtual 3D endocasts.

    PubMed

    Carril, Julieta; Tambussi, Claudia Patricia; Degrange, Federico Javier; Benitez Saldivar, María Juliana; Picasso, Mariana Beatriz Julieta

    2016-08-01

    Psittaciformes are a very diverse group of non-passerine birds, with advanced cognitive abilities and highly developed locomotor and feeding behaviours. Using computed tomography and three-dimensional (3D) visualization software, the endocasts of 14 extant Neotropical parrots were reconstructed, with the aim of analysing, comparing and exploring the morphology of the brain within the clade. A 3D geomorphometric analysis was performed, and the encephalization quotient (EQ) was calculated. Brain morphology character states were traced onto a Psittaciformes tree in order to facilitate interpretation of morphological traits in a phylogenetic context. Our results indicate that: (i) there are two conspicuously distinct brain morphologies, one considered walnut type (quadrangular and wider than long) and the other rounded (narrower and rostrally tapered); (ii) Psittaciformes possess a noticeable notch between hemisphaeria that divides the bulbus olfactorius; (iii) the plesiomorphic and most frequently observed characteristics of Neotropical parrots are a rostrally tapered telencephalon in dorsal view, distinctly enlarged dorsal expansion of the eminentia sagittalis and conspicuous fissura mediana; (iv) there is a positive correlation between body mass and brain volume; (v) psittacids are characterized by high EQ values that suggest high brain volumes in relation to their body masses; and (vi) the endocranial morphology of the Psittaciformes as a whole is distinctive relative to other birds. This new knowledge of brain morphology offers much potential for further insight in paleoneurological, phylogenetic and evolutionary studies.

  5. Three‐dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues

    PubMed Central

    Baghabra, Jumana; Boges, Daniya J.; Holst, Glendon R.; Kreshuk, Anna; Hamprecht, Fred A.; Srinivasan, Madhusudhanan; Lehväslaiho, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Advances in the application of electron microscopy (EM) to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow us to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three‐dimensions. From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room in which we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug‐ins for visualization and analysis of EM preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to the observation of a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:23–38, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26179415

  6. Three-dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues.

    PubMed

    Calì, Corrado; Baghabra, Jumana; Boges, Daniya J; Holst, Glendon R; Kreshuk, Anna; Hamprecht, Fred A; Srinivasan, Madhusudhanan; Lehväslaiho, Heikki; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2016-01-01

    Advances in the application of electron microscopy (EM) to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow us to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three-dimensions. From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room in which we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug-ins for visualization and analysis of EM preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to the observation of a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. PMID:26179415

  7. Animal testing using 3D microwave tomography system for breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Moon; Son, Sung Ho; Kim, Hyuk Je; Kim, Bo Ra; Choi, Heyng Do; Jeon, Soon Ik

    2014-01-01

    The three dimensional microwave tomography (3D MT) system of the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) comprises an antenna array, transmitting receiving module, switch matrix module and a signal processing component. This system also includes a patient interface bed as well as a 3D reconstruction algorithm. Here, we perform a comparative analysis of image reconstruction results using the assembled system and MRI results, which is used to image the breasts of dogs. Microwave imaging reconstruction results (at 1,500 MHz) obtained using the ETRI 3D MT system are presented. The system provides computationally reliable diagnosis results from the reconstructed MT Image. PMID:25160233

  8. A Combined Pharmacophore Modeling, 3D QSAR and Virtual Screening Studies on Imidazopyridines as B-Raf Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Huiding; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Jianqiang; Xie, Xiaoguang; Qiu, Kaixiong; Fu, Jijun

    2015-01-01

    B-Raf kinase is an important target in treatment of cancers. In order to design and find potent B-Raf inhibitors (BRIs), 3D pharmacophore models were created using the Genetic Algorithm with Linear Assignment of Hypermolecular Alignment of Database (GALAHAD). The best pharmacophore model obtained which was used in effective alignment of the data set contains two acceptor atoms, three donor atoms and three hydrophobes. In succession, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were performed on 39 imidazopyridine BRIs to build three dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) models based on both pharmacophore and docking alignments. The CoMSIA model based on the pharmacophore alignment shows the best result (q2 = 0.621, r2pred = 0.885). This 3D QSAR approach provides significant insights that are useful for designing potent BRIs. In addition, the obtained best pharmacophore model was used for virtual screening against the NCI2000 database. The hit compounds were further filtered with molecular docking, and their biological activities were predicted using the CoMSIA model, and three potential BRIs with new skeletons were obtained. PMID:26035757

  9. Techniques for Revealing 3d Hidden Archeological Features: Morphological Residual Models as Virtual-Polynomial Texture Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, H.; Martínez Rubio, J.; Elorza Arana, A.

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments in 3D scanning technologies are not been accompanied by visualization interfaces. We are still using the same types of visual codes as when maps and drawings were made by hand. The available information in 3D scanning data sets is not being fully exploited by current visualization techniques. In this paper we present recent developments regarding the use of 3D scanning data sets for revealing invisible information from archaeological sites. These sites are affected by a common problem, decay processes, such as erosion, that never ceases its action and endangers the persistence of last vestiges of some peoples and cultures. Rock art engravings, or epigraphical inscriptions, are among the most affected by these processes because they are, due to their one nature, carved at the surface of rocks often exposed to climatic agents. The study and interpretation of these motifs and texts is strongly conditioned by the degree of conservation of the imprints left by our ancestors. Every single detail in the remaining carvings can make a huge difference in the conclusions taken by specialists. We have selected two case-studies severely affected by erosion to present the results of the on-going work dedicated to explore in new ways the information contained in 3D scanning data sets. A new method for depicting subtle morphological features in the surface of objects or sites has been developed. It allows to contrast human patterns still present at the surface but invisible to naked eye or by any other archaeological inspection technique. It was called Morphological Residual Model (MRM) because of its ability to contrast the shallowest morphological details, to which we refer as residuals, contained in the wider forms of the backdrop. Afterwards, we have simulated the process of building Polynomial Texture Maps - a widespread technique that as been contributing to archaeological studies for some years - in a 3D virtual environment using the results of MRM

  10. Simulating Navigation with Virtual 3d Geovisualizations - a Focus on Memory Related Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokka, I.; Çöltekin, A.

    2016-06-01

    The use of virtual environments (VE) for navigation-related studies, such as spatial cognition and path retrieval has been widely adopted in cognitive psychology and related fields. What motivates the use of VEs for such studies is that, as opposed to real-world, we can control for the confounding variables in simulated VEs. When simulating a geographic environment as a virtual world with the intention to train navigational memory in humans, an effective and efficient visual design is important to facilitate the amount of recall. However, it is not yet clear what amount of information should be included in such visual designs intended to facilitate remembering: there can be too little or too much of it. Besides the amount of information or level of detail, the types of visual features (`elements' in a visual scene) that should be included in the representations to create memorable scenes and paths must be defined. We analyzed the literature in cognitive psychology, geovisualization and information visualization, and identified the key factors for studying and evaluating geovisualization designs for their function to support and strengthen human navigational memory. The key factors we identified are: i) the individual abilities and age of the users, ii) the level of realism (LOR) included in the representations and iii) the context in which the navigation is performed, thus specific tasks within a case scenario. Here we present a concise literature review and our conceptual development for follow-up experiments.

  11. 3D chromosome rendering from Hi-C data using virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yixin; Selvaraj, Siddarth; Weber, Philip; Fang, Jennifer; Schulze, Jürgen P.; Ren, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Most genome browsers display DNA linearly, using single-dimensional depictions that are useful to examine certain epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. However, these representations are insufficient to visualize intrachromosomal interactions and relationships between distal genome features. Relationships between DNA regions may be difficult to decipher or missed entirely if those regions are distant in one dimension but could be spatially proximal when mapped to three-dimensional space. For example, the visualization of enhancers folding over genes is only fully expressed in three-dimensional space. Thus, to accurately understand DNA behavior during gene expression, a means to model chromosomes is essential. Using coordinates generated from Hi-C interaction frequency data, we have created interactive 3D models of whole chromosome structures and its respective domains. We have also rendered information on genomic features such as genes, CTCF binding sites, and enhancers. The goal of this article is to present the procedure, findings, and conclusions of our models and renderings.

  12. Inspiring Equal Contribution and Opportunity in a 3D Multi-User Virtual Environment: Bringing Together Men Gamers and Women Non-Gamers in Second Life[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deNoyelles, Aimee; Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju

    2012-01-01

    A 3D multi-user virtual environment holds promise to support and enhance student online learning communities due to its ability to promote global synchronous interaction and collaboration, rich multisensory experience and expression, and elaborate design capabilities. Second Life[R], a multi-user virtual environment intended for adult users 18 and…

  13. Cross-Cultural Discussions in a 3D Virtual Environment and Their Affordances for Learners' Motivation and Foreign Language Discussion Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauregi, Kristi; Kuure, Leena; Bastian, Pim; Reinhardt, Dennis; Koivisto, Tuomo

    2015-01-01

    Within the European TILA project a case study was carried out where pupils from schools in Finland and the Netherlands engaged in debating sessions using the 3D virtual world of OpenSim once a week for a period of 5 weeks. The case study had two main objectives: (1) to study the impact that the discussion tasks undertaken in a virtual environment…

  14. Effectiveness of Applying 2D Static Depictions and 3D Animations to Orthographic Views Learning in Graphical Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chih-Fu; Chiang, Ming-Chin

    2013-01-01

    This study provides experiment results as an educational reference for instructors to help student obtain a better way to learn orthographic views in graphical course. A visual experiment was held to explore the comprehensive differences between 2D static and 3D animation object features; the goal was to reduce the possible misunderstanding…

  15. Stamping Line Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms and Virtual 3D Line Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Sedano, Javier A.; Bernardo, Jon Alzola; González, Asier González; de Gauna, Óscar Berasategui Ruiz; de Mendivil, Rafael Yuguero González

    This paper describes the use of a genetic algorithm (GA) in order to optimize the trajectory followed by industrial robots (IRs) in stamping lines. The objective is to generate valid paths or trajectories without collisions in order to minimize the cycle time required to complete all the operations in an individual stamping cell of the line. A commercial software tool is used to simulate the virtual trajectories and potential collisions, taking into account the specific geometries of the different parts involved: robot arms, columns, dies and manipulators. Then, a genetic algorithm is proposed to optimize trajectories. Both systems, the GA and the simulator, communicate as client - server in order to evaluate solutions proposed by the GA. The novelty of the idea is to consider the geometry of the specific components to adjust robot paths to optimize cycle time in a given stamping cell.

  16. 3D graphics, virtual reality, and motion-onset visual evoked potentials in neurogaming.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, R; Wilson, S; Coyle, D

    2016-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) offers movement-free control of a computer application and is achieved by reading and translating the cortical activity of the brain into semantic control signals. Motion-onset visual evoked potentials (mVEP) are neural potentials employed in BCIs and occur when motion-related stimuli are attended visually. mVEP dynamics are correlated with the position and timing of the moving stimuli. To investigate the feasibility of utilizing the mVEP paradigm with video games of various graphical complexities including those of commercial quality, we conducted three studies over four separate sessions comparing the performance of classifying five mVEP responses with variations in graphical complexity and style, in-game distractions, and display parameters surrounding mVEP stimuli. To investigate the feasibility of utilizing contemporary presentation modalities in neurogaming, one of the studies compared mVEP classification performance when stimuli were presented using the oculus rift virtual reality headset. Results from 31 independent subjects were analyzed offline. The results show classification performances ranging up to 90% with variations in conditions in graphical complexity having limited effect on mVEP performance; thus, demonstrating the feasibility of using the mVEP paradigm within BCI-based neurogaming. PMID:27590974

  17. 3D graphics, virtual reality, and motion-onset visual evoked potentials in neurogaming.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, R; Wilson, S; Coyle, D

    2016-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) offers movement-free control of a computer application and is achieved by reading and translating the cortical activity of the brain into semantic control signals. Motion-onset visual evoked potentials (mVEP) are neural potentials employed in BCIs and occur when motion-related stimuli are attended visually. mVEP dynamics are correlated with the position and timing of the moving stimuli. To investigate the feasibility of utilizing the mVEP paradigm with video games of various graphical complexities including those of commercial quality, we conducted three studies over four separate sessions comparing the performance of classifying five mVEP responses with variations in graphical complexity and style, in-game distractions, and display parameters surrounding mVEP stimuli. To investigate the feasibility of utilizing contemporary presentation modalities in neurogaming, one of the studies compared mVEP classification performance when stimuli were presented using the oculus rift virtual reality headset. Results from 31 independent subjects were analyzed offline. The results show classification performances ranging up to 90% with variations in conditions in graphical complexity having limited effect on mVEP performance; thus, demonstrating the feasibility of using the mVEP paradigm within BCI-based neurogaming.

  18. Effect of 3D animation videos over 2D video projections in periodontal health education among dental students

    PubMed Central

    Dhulipalla, Ravindranath; Marella, Yamuna; Katuri, Kishore Kumar; Nagamani, Penupothu; Talada, Kishore; Kakarlapudi, Anusha

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is limited evidence about the distinguished effect of 3D oral health education videos over conventional 2 dimensional projections in improving oral health knowledge. This randomized controlled trial was done to test the effect of 3 dimensional oral health educational videos among first year dental students. Materials and Methods: 80 first year dental students were enrolled and divided into two groups (test and control). In the test group, 3D animation and in the control group, regular 2D video projections pertaining to periodontal anatomy, etiology, presenting conditions, preventive measures and treatment of periodontal problems were shown. Effect of 3D animation was evaluated by using a questionnaire consisting of 10 multiple choice questions given to all participants at baseline, immediately after and 1month after the intervention. Clinical parameters like Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), and Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S) were measured at baseline and 1 month follow up. Results: A significant difference in the post intervention knowledge scores was found between the groups as assessed by unpaired t-test (p<0.001) at baseline, immediate and after 1 month. At baseline, all the clinical parameters in the both the groups were similar and showed a significant reduction (p<0.001)p after 1 month, whereas no significant difference was noticed post intervention between the groups. Conclusion: 3D animation videos are more effective over 2D videos in periodontal disease education and knowledge recall. The application of 3D animation results also demonstrate a better visual comprehension for students and greater health care outcomes. PMID:26759805

  19. Development of a system based on 3D vision, interactive virtual environments, ergonometric signals and a humanoid for stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ibarra Zannatha, Juan Manuel; Tamayo, Alejandro Justo Malo; Sánchez, Angel David Gómez; Delgado, Jorge Enrique Lavín; Cheu, Luis Eduardo Rodríguez; Arévalo, Wilson Alexander Sierra

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a stroke rehabilitation (SR) system for the upper limbs, developed as an interactive virtual environment (IVE) based on a commercial 3D vision system (a Microsoft Kinect), a humanoid robot (an Aldebaran's Nao), and devices producing ergonometric signals. In one environment, the rehabilitation routines, developed by specialists, are presented to the patient simultaneously by the humanoid and an avatar inside the IVE. The patient follows the rehabilitation task, while his avatar copies his gestures that are captured by the Kinect 3D vision system. The information of the patient movements, together with the signals obtained from the ergonometric measurement devices, is used also to supervise and to evaluate the rehabilitation progress. The IVE can also present an RGB image of the patient. In another environment, that uses the same base elements, four game routines--Touch the balls 1 and 2, Simon says, and Follow the point--are used for rehabilitation. These environments are designed to create a positive influence in the rehabilitation process, reduce costs, and engage the patient. PMID:23827333

  20. Development of a system based on 3D vision, interactive virtual environments, ergonometric signals and a humanoid for stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ibarra Zannatha, Juan Manuel; Tamayo, Alejandro Justo Malo; Sánchez, Angel David Gómez; Delgado, Jorge Enrique Lavín; Cheu, Luis Eduardo Rodríguez; Arévalo, Wilson Alexander Sierra

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a stroke rehabilitation (SR) system for the upper limbs, developed as an interactive virtual environment (IVE) based on a commercial 3D vision system (a Microsoft Kinect), a humanoid robot (an Aldebaran's Nao), and devices producing ergonometric signals. In one environment, the rehabilitation routines, developed by specialists, are presented to the patient simultaneously by the humanoid and an avatar inside the IVE. The patient follows the rehabilitation task, while his avatar copies his gestures that are captured by the Kinect 3D vision system. The information of the patient movements, together with the signals obtained from the ergonometric measurement devices, is used also to supervise and to evaluate the rehabilitation progress. The IVE can also present an RGB image of the patient. In another environment, that uses the same base elements, four game routines--Touch the balls 1 and 2, Simon says, and Follow the point--are used for rehabilitation. These environments are designed to create a positive influence in the rehabilitation process, reduce costs, and engage the patient.

  1. Pharmacophore modeling, virtual screening and 3D-QSAR studies of 5-tetrahydroquinolinylidine aminoguanidine derivatives as sodium hydrogen exchanger inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Hardik G; Patel, Paresh K

    2012-06-01

    Sodium hydrogen exchanger (SHE) inhibitor is one of the most important targets in treatment of myocardial ischemia. In the course of our research into new types of non-acylguanidine, SHE inhibitory activities of 5-tetrahydroquinolinylidine aminoguanidine derivatives were used to build pharmacophore and 3D-QSAR models. Genetic Algorithm Similarity Program (GASP) was used to derive a 3D pharmacophore model which was used in effective alignment of data set. Eight molecules were selected on the basis of structure diversity to build 10 different pharmacophore models. Model 1 was considered as the best model as it has highest fitness score compared to other nine models. The obtained model contained two acceptor sites, two donor atoms and one hydrophobic region. Pharmacophore modeling was followed by substructure searching and virtual screening. The best CoMFA model, representing steric and electrostatic fields, obtained for 30 training set molecules was statistically significant with cross-validated coefficient (q(2)) of 0.673 and conventional coefficient (r(2)) of 0.988. In addition to steric and electrostatic fields observed in CoMFA, CoMSIA also represents hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor and hydrogen bond acceptor fields. CoMSIA model was also significant with cross-validated coefficient (q(2)) and conventional coefficient (r(2)) of 0.636 and 0.986, respectively. Both models were validated by an external test set of eight compounds and gave satisfactory prediction (r(pred)(2)) of 0.772 and 0.701 for CoMFA and CoMSIA models, respectively. This pharmacophore based 3D-QSAR approach provides significant insights that can be used to design novel, potent and selective SHE inhibitors. PMID:22546667

  2. Psychophysical estimation of 3D virtual depth of united, synthesized and mixed type stereograms by means of simultaneous observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Masayuki; Ookuma, Yoshio; Nakashima, Yoshio; Takamatsu, Mamoru

    2007-02-01

    Recently, many types of computer-generated stereograms (CGSs), i.e. various works of art produced by using computer are published for hobby and entertainment. It is said that activation of brain, improvement of visual eye sight, decrease of mental stress, effect of healing, etc. are expected when properly appreciating a kind of CGS as the stereoscopic view. There is a lot of information on the internet web site concerning all aspects of stereogram history, science, social organization, various types of stereograms, and free software for generating CGS. Generally, the CGS is classified into nine types: (1) stereo pair type, (2) anaglyph type, (3) repeated pattern type, (4) embedded type, (5) random dot stereogram (RDS), (6) single image stereogram (SIS), (7) united stereogram, (8) synthesized stereogram, and (9) mixed or multiple type stereogram. Each stereogram has advantages and disadvantages when viewing directly the stereogram with two eyes by training with a little patience. In this study, the characteristics of united, synthesized and mixed type stereograms, the role and composition of depth map image (DMI) called hidden image or picture, and the effect of irregular shift of texture pattern image called wall paper are discussed from the viewpoint of psychophysical estimation of 3D virtual depth and visual quality of virtual image by means of simultaneous observation in the case of the parallel viewing method.

  3. The development of a virtual 3D model of the renal corpuscle from serial histological sections for E-learning environments.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jeremy A; Wilson, Timothy D; Sandig, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a core subject in the anatomical sciences where learners are challenged to interpret two-dimensional (2D) information (gained from histological sections) to extrapolate and understand the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of cells, tissues, and organs. In gross anatomical education 3D models and learning tools have been associated with improved learning outcomes, but similar tools have not been created for histology education to visualize complex cellular structure-function relationships. This study outlines steps in creating a virtual 3D model of the renal corpuscle from serial, semi-thin, histological sections obtained from epoxy resin-embedded kidney tissue. The virtual renal corpuscle model was generated by digital segmentation to identify: Bowman's capsule, nuclei of epithelial cells in the parietal capsule, afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, glomerular capillaries, podocyte nuclei, nuclei of extraglomerular mesangial cells, nuclei of epithelial cells of the macula densa in the distal convoluted tubule. In addition to the imported images of the original sections the software generates, and allows for visualization of, images of virtual sections generated in any desired orientation, thus serving as a "virtual microtome". These sections can be viewed separately or with the 3D model in transparency. This approach allows for the development of interactive e-learning tools designed to enhance histology education of microscopic structures with complex cellular interrelationships. Future studies will focus on testing the efficacy of interactive virtual 3D models for histology education.

  4. The development of a virtual 3D model of the renal corpuscle from serial histological sections for E-learning environments.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jeremy A; Wilson, Timothy D; Sandig, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a core subject in the anatomical sciences where learners are challenged to interpret two-dimensional (2D) information (gained from histological sections) to extrapolate and understand the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of cells, tissues, and organs. In gross anatomical education 3D models and learning tools have been associated with improved learning outcomes, but similar tools have not been created for histology education to visualize complex cellular structure-function relationships. This study outlines steps in creating a virtual 3D model of the renal corpuscle from serial, semi-thin, histological sections obtained from epoxy resin-embedded kidney tissue. The virtual renal corpuscle model was generated by digital segmentation to identify: Bowman's capsule, nuclei of epithelial cells in the parietal capsule, afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, glomerular capillaries, podocyte nuclei, nuclei of extraglomerular mesangial cells, nuclei of epithelial cells of the macula densa in the distal convoluted tubule. In addition to the imported images of the original sections the software generates, and allows for visualization of, images of virtual sections generated in any desired orientation, thus serving as a "virtual microtome". These sections can be viewed separately or with the 3D model in transparency. This approach allows for the development of interactive e-learning tools designed to enhance histology education of microscopic structures with complex cellular interrelationships. Future studies will focus on testing the efficacy of interactive virtual 3D models for histology education. PMID:25808044

  5. Denoising of high resolution small animal 3D PET data using the non-subsampled Haar wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa Domínguez, Humberto de Jesús; Máynez, Leticia O.; Vergara Villegas, Osslan O.; Mederos, Boris; Mejía, José M.; Cruz Sánchez, Vianey G.

    2015-06-01

    PET allows functional imaging of the living tissue. However, one of the most serious technical problems affecting the reconstructed data is the noise, particularly in images of small animals. In this paper, a method for high-resolution small animal 3D PET data is proposed with the aim to reduce the noise and preserve details. The method is based on the estimation of the non-subsampled Haar wavelet coefficients by using a linear estimator. The procedure is applied to the volumetric images, reconstructed without correction factors (plane reconstruction). Results show that the method preserves the structures and drastically reduces the noise that contaminates the image.

  6. Animation Strategies for Smooth Transformations Between Discrete Lods of 3d Building Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kada, Martin; Wichmann, Andreas; Filippovska, Yevgeniya; Hermes, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    The cartographic 3D visualization of urban areas has experienced tremendous progress over the last years. An increasing number of applications operate interactively in real-time and thus require advanced techniques to improve the quality and time response of dynamic scenes. The main focus of this article concentrates on the discussion of strategies for smooth transformation between two discrete levels of detail (LOD) of 3D building models that are represented as restricted triangle meshes. Because the operation order determines the geometrical and topological properties of the transformation process as well as its visual perception by a human viewer, three different strategies are proposed and subsequently analyzed. The simplest one orders transformation operations by the length of the edges to be collapsed, while the other two strategies introduce a general transformation direction in the form of a moving plane. This plane either pushes the nodes that need to be removed, e.g. during the transformation of a detailed LOD model to a coarser one, towards the main building body, or triggers the edge collapse operations used as transformation paths for the cartographic generalization.

  7. 3D virtual planning in orthognathic surgery and CAD/CAM surgical splints generation in one patient with craniofacial microsomia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Francisco; Scherzberg, Jessica; Cavaleiro, João; Sanz, David; Caramelo, Francisco; Maló, Luísa; Marcelino, João Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this case report, the feasibility and precision of tridimensional (3D) virtual planning in one patient with craniofacial microsomia is tested using Nemoceph 3D-OS software (Software Nemotec SL, Madrid, Spain) to predict postoperative outcomes on hard tissue and produce CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) surgical splints. Methods: The clinical protocol consists of 3D data acquisition of the craniofacial complex by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and surface scanning of the plaster dental casts. The ''virtual patient'' created underwent virtual surgery and a simulation of postoperative results on hard tissues. Surgical splints were manufactured using CAD/CAM technology in order to transfer the virtual surgical plan to the operating room. Intraoperatively, both CAD/CAM and conventional surgical splints are comparable. A second set of 3D images was obtained after surgery to acquire linear measurements and compare them with measurements obtained when predicting postoperative results virtually. Results: It was found a high similarity between both types of surgical splints with equal fitting on the dental arches. The linear measurements presented some discrepancies between the actual surgical outcomes and the predicted results from the 3D virtual simulation, but caution must be taken in the analysis of these results due to several variables. Conclusions: The reported case confirms the clinical feasibility of the described computer-assisted orthognathic surgical protocol. Further progress in the development of technologies for 3D image acquisition and improvements on software programs to simulate postoperative changes on soft tissue are required. PMID:27007767

  8. Teaching 3D computer animation to illustrators: the instructor as translator and technical director.

    PubMed

    Koning, Wobbe F

    2012-01-01

    An art instructor discusses the difficulties he's encountered teaching computer graphics skills to undergraduate art students. To help the students, he introduced an automated-rigging script for character animation. PMID:24806989

  9. Creating photo-realistic works in a 3D scene using layers styles to create an animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramescu, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Creating realist objects in a 3D scene is not an easy work. We have to be very careful to make the creation very detailed. If we don't know how to make these photo-realistic works, by using the techniques and a good reference photo we can create an amazing amount of detail and realism. For example, in this article there are some of these detailed methods from which we can learn the techniques necessary to make beautiful and realistic objects in a scene. More precisely, in this paper, we present how to create a 3D animated scene, mainly using the Pen Tool and Blending Options. Indeed, this work is based on teaching some simple ways of using the Layer Styles to create some great shadows, lights, textures and a realistic sense of 3 Dimension. The present work involves also showing how some interesting ways of using the illuminating and rendering options can create a realistic effect in a scene. Moreover, this article shows how to create photo realistic 3D models from a digital image. The present work proposes to present how to use Illustrator paths, texturing, basic lighting and rendering, how to apply textures and how to parent the building and objects components. We also propose to use this proposition to recreate smaller details or 3D objects from a 2D image. After a critic art stage, we are able now to present in this paper the architecture of a design method that proposes to create an animation. The aim is to create a conceptual and methodological tutorial to address this issue both scientifically and in practice. This objective also includes proposing, on strong scientific basis, a model that gives the possibility of a better understanding of the techniques necessary to create a realistic animation.

  10. 3D Virtual Reality Applied in Tectonic Geomorphic Study of the Gombori Range of Greater Caucasus Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhishvili, Lasha; Javakhishvili, Zurab

    2016-04-01

    Gombori Range represents the southern part of the young Greater Caucasus Mountains and stretches from NW to SE. The range separates Alazani and Iori basins within the eastern Georgian province of Kakheti. The active phase of Caucasian orogeny started in the Pliocene, but according to alluvial sediments of Gombori range (mapped in the Soviet geologic map), we observe its uplift process to be Quaternary event. The highest peak of the Gombori range has an absolute elevation of 1991 m, while its neighboring Alazani valley gains only 400 m. We assume the range has a very fast uplift rate and it could trigger streams flow direction course reverse in Quaternary. To check this preliminary assumptions we are going to use a tectonic and fluvial geomorphic and stratigraphic approaches including paleocurrent analyses and various affordable absolute dating techniques to detect the evidence of river course reverses and date them. For these purposes we have selected river Turdo outcrop. The river itself flows northwards from the Gombori range and nearby region`s main city of Telavi generates 30-40 m high continuous outcrop along 1 km section. Turdo outcrop has very steep walls and requires special climbing skills to work on it. The goal of this particularly study is to avoid time and resource consuming ground survey process of this steep, high and wide outcrop and test 3D aerial and ground base photogrammetric modelling and analyzing approaches in initial stage of the tectonic geomorphic study. Using this type of remote sensing and virtual lab analyses of 3D outcrop model, we roughly delineated stratigraphic layers, selected exact locations for applying various research techniques and planned safe and suitable climbing routes for getting to the investigation sites.

  11. Extension of the Optimized Virtual Fields Method to estimate viscoelastic material parameters from 3D dynamic displacement fields

    PubMed Central

    Connesson, N.; Clayton, E.H.; Bayly, P.V.; Pierron, F.

    2015-01-01

    In-vivo measurement of the mechanical properties of soft tissues is essential to provide necessary data in biomechanics and medicine (early cancer diagnosis, study of traumatic brain injuries, etc.). Imaging techniques such as Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) can provide 3D displacement maps in the bulk and in vivo, from which, using inverse methods, it is then possible to identify some mechanical parameters of the tissues (stiffness, damping etc.). The main difficulties in these inverse identification procedures consist in dealing with the pressure waves contained in the data and with the experimental noise perturbing the spatial derivatives required during the processing. The Optimized Virtual Fields Method (OVFM) [1], designed to be robust to noise, present natural and rigorous solution to deal with these problems. The OVFM has been adapted to identify material parameter maps from Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) data consisting of 3-dimensional displacement fields in harmonically loaded soft materials. In this work, the method has been developed to identify elastic and viscoelastic models. The OVFM sensitivity to spatial resolution and to noise has been studied by analyzing 3D analytically simulated displacement data. This study evaluates and describes the OVFM identification performances: different biases on the identified parameters are induced by the spatial resolution and experimental noise. The well-known identification problems in the case of quasi-incompressible materials also find a natural solution in the OVFM. Moreover, an a posteriori criterion to estimate the local identification quality is proposed. The identification results obtained on actual experiments are briefly presented. PMID:26146416

  12. Effect of Visuo-Motor Co-location on 3D Fitts' Task Performance in Physical and Virtual Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Michael J.; Hershberger, Andrew D.; Sano, Kumiko; Çavuşoğlu, M. Cenk

    2013-01-01

    Given the ease that humans have with using a keyboard and mouse in typical, non-colocated computer interaction, many studies have investigated the value of co-locating the visual field and motor workspaces using immersive display modalities. Significant understanding has been gained by previous work comparing physical tasks against virtual tasks, visuo-motor co-location versus non-colocation, and even visuo-motor rotational misalignments in virtual environments (VEs). However, few studies have explored all of these paradigms in context with each other and it is difficult to perform inter-study comparisons because of the variation in tested motor tasks. Therefore, using a stereoscopic fish tank display setup, the goal for the current study was to characterize human performance of a 3D Fitts' point-to-point reaching task using a stylus-based haptic interface in the physical, co-located/non-colocated, and rotated VE visualization conditions.Five performance measures – throughput, initial movement error, corrective movements, and peak velocity – were measured and used to evaluate task performance. These measures were studied in 22 subjects (11 male, 11 female, ages 20–32) performing a 3D variant of Fitts' serial task under 10 task conditions: physical, co-located VE, non-colocated VE, and rotated VEs from 45–315° in 45° increments. Hypotheses All performance measures in the co-located VE were expected to reflect significantly reduced task performance over the real condition, but also reflect increased performance over the non-colocated VE condition. For rotational misalignments, all performance measures were expected to reflect highest performance at 0°, reduce to lowest performance at 90° and rise again to a local maximum at 180° (symmetric about 0°). Results All performance measures showed that the co-located VE condition resulted in significantly lower task performance than the physical condition and higher mean performance than the non-colocated VE

  13. Learning Science in a Virtual Reality Application: The Impacts of Animated-Virtual Actors' Visual Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartiko, Iwan; Kavakli, Manolya; Cheng, Ken

    2010-01-01

    As the technology in computer graphics advances, Animated-Virtual Actors (AVAs) in Virtual Reality (VR) applications become increasingly rich and complex. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) suggests that complex visual materials could hinder novice learners from attending to the lesson properly. On the other hand, previous studies have…

  14. Design Virtual Reality Scene Roam for Tour Animations Base on VRML and Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zaihui; hu, Zhongyan

    Virtual reality has been involved in a wide range of academic and commercial applications. It can give users a natural feeling of the environment by creating realistic virtual worlds. Implementing a virtual tour through a model of a tourist area on the web has become fashionable. In this paper, we present a web-based application that allows a user to, walk through, see, and interact with a fully three-dimensional model of the tourist area. Issues regarding navigation and disorientation areaddressed and we suggest a combination of the metro map and an intuitive navigation system. Finally we present a prototype which implements our ideas. The application of VR techniques integrates the visualization and animation of the three dimensional modelling to landscape analysis. The use of the VRML format produces the possibility to obtain some views of the 3D model and to explore it in real time. It is an important goal for the spatial information sciences.

  15. Sign Language for K-8 Mathematics by 3D Interactive Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta; Doublestein, John; Martin, Zachary

    2005-01-01

    We present a new highly interactive computer animation tool to increase the mathematical skills of deaf children. We aim at increasing the effectiveness of (hearing) parents in teaching arithmetic to their deaf children, and the opportunity of deaf children to learn arithmetic via interactive media. Using state-of-the-art computer animation…

  16. 3-D Computer Animation vs. Live-Action Video: Differences in Viewers' Response to Instructional Vignettes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dennie; McLaughlin, Tim; Brown, Irving

    2012-01-01

    This study explored computer animation vignettes as a replacement for live-action video scenarios of classroom behavior situations previously used as an instructional resource in teacher education courses in classroom management strategies. The focus of the research was to determine if the embedded behavioral information perceived in a live-action…

  17. SU-E-T-376: 3-D Commissioning for An Image-Guided Small Animal Micro- Irradiation Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, X; Wuu, C; Admovics, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A 3-D radiochromic plastic dosimeter has been used to cross-test the isocentricity of a high resolution image-guided small animal microirradiation platform. In this platform, the mouse stage rotating for cone beam CT imaging is perpendicular to the gantry rotation for sub-millimeter radiation delivery. A 3-D dosimeter can be used to verify both imaging and irradiation coordinates. Methods: A 3-D dosimeter and optical CT scanner were used in this study. In the platform, both mouse stage and gantry can rotate 360° with rotation axis perpendicular to each other. Isocentricity and coincidence of mouse stage and gantry rotations were evaluated using star patterns. A 3-D dosimeter was placed on mouse stage with center at platform isocenter approximately. For CBCT isocentricity, with gantry moved to 90°, the mouse stage rotated horizontally while the x-ray was delivered to the dosimeter at certain angles. For irradiation isocentricity, the gantry rotated 360° to deliver beams to the dosimeter at certain angles for star patterns. The uncertainties and agreement of both CBCT and irradiation isocenters can be determined from the star patterns. Both procedures were repeated 3 times using 3 dosimeters to determine short-term reproducibility. Finally, dosimeters were scanned using optical CT scanner to obtain the results. Results: The gantry isocentricity is 0.9 ± 0.1 mm and mouse stage rotation isocentricity is about 0.91 ± 0.11 mm. Agreement between the measured isocenters of irradiation and imaging coordinates was determined. The short-term reproducibility test yielded 0.5 ± 0.1 mm between the imaging isocenter and the irradiation isocenter, with a maximum displacement of 0.7 ± 0.1 mm. Conclusion: The 3-D dosimeter can be very useful in precise verification of targeting for a small animal irradiation research. In addition, a single 3-D dosimeter can provide information in both geometric and dosimetric uncertainty, which is crucial for translational studies.

  18. A Learner-Centered Approach for Training Science Teachers through Virtual Reality and 3D Visualization Technologies: Practical Experience for Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Yau-Yuen

    2004-01-01

    This paper presentation will report on how some science educators at the Science Department of The Hong Kong Institute of Education have successfully employed an array of innovative learning media such as three-dimensional (3D) and virtual reality (VR) technologies to create seven sets of resource kits, most of which are being placed on the…

  19. Three Dimensional (3D) Printing: A Straightforward, User-Friendly Protocol to Convert Virtual Chemical Models to Real-Life Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Sergio; Benaglia, Maurizio; Brenna, Davide; Porta, Riccardo; Orlandi, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A simple procedure to convert protein data bank files (.pdb) into a stereolithography file (.stl) using VMD software (Virtual Molecular Dynamic) is reported. This tutorial allows generating, with a very simple protocol, three-dimensional customized structures that can be printed by a low-cost 3D-printer, and used for teaching chemical education…

  20. The use of a new 3D splint and double CT scan procedure to obtain an accurate anatomic virtual augmented model of the skull.

    PubMed

    Swennen, G R J; Barth, E-L; Eulzer, C; Schutyser, F

    2007-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) virtual planning of orthognathic surgery requires detailed visualization of the interocclusal relationship. The purpose of this study was to introduce the modification of the double computed tomography (CT) scan procedure using a newly designed 3D splint in order to obtain a detailed anatomic 3D virtual augmented model of the skull. A total of 10 dry adult human cadaver skulls were used to evaluate the accuracy of the automatic rigid registration method for fusion of both CT datasets (Maxilim, version 1.3.0). The overall mean registration error was 0.1355+/-0.0323 mm (range 0.0760-0.1782 mm). Analysis of variance showed a registration method error of 0.0564 mm (P < 0.001; 95% confidence interval = 0.0491-0.0622). The combination of the newly designed 3D splint with the double CT scan procedure allowed accurate registration and the set-up of an accurate anatomic 3D virtual augmented model of the skull with detailed dental surface.

  1. Precise Animated 3-D Displays Of The Heart Constructed From X-Ray Scatter Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInerney, J. J.; Herr, M. D.; Copenhaver, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    A technique, based upon the interrogation of x-ray scatter, has been used to construct precise animated displays of the three-dimensional surface of the heart throughout the cardiac cycle. With the selection of motion amplification, viewing orientation, beat rate, and repetitive playbacks of isolated segments of the cardiac cycle, these displays are used to directly visualize epicardial surface velocity and displacement patterns, to construct regional maps of old or new myocardial infarction, and to visualize diastolic stiffening of the ventricle associated with acute ischemia. The procedure is non-invasive. Cut-downs or injections are not required.

  2. Development of 3D multimedia with advanced computer animation tools for outreach activities related to Meteor Science and Meteoritics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    Documentaries related to Astronomy and Planetary Sciences are a common and very attractive way to promote the interest of the public in these areas. These educational tools can get benefit from new advanced computer animation software and 3D technologies, as these allow making these documentaries even more attractive. However, special care must be taken in order to guarantee that the information contained in them is serious and objective. In this sense, an additional value is given when the footage is produced by the own researchers. With this aim, a new documentary produced and directed by Prof. Madiedo has been developed. The documentary, which has been entirely developed by means of advanced computer animation tools, is dedicated to several aspects of Meteor Science and Meteoritics. The main features of this outreach and education initiative are exposed here.

  3. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  4. Eye-tracking and EMG supported 3D Virtual Reality - an integrated tool for perceptual and motor development of children with severe physical disabilities: a research concept.

    PubMed

    Pulay, Márk Ágoston

    2015-01-01

    Letting children with severe physical disabilities (like Tetraparesis spastica) to get relevant motional experiences of appropriate quality and quantity is now the greatest challenge for us in the field of neurorehabilitation. These motional experiences may establish many cognitive processes, but may also cause additional secondary cognitive dysfunctions such as disorders in body image, figure invariance, visual perception, auditory differentiation, concentration, analytic and synthetic ways of thinking, visual memory etc. Virtual Reality is a technology that provides a sense of presence in a real environment with the help of 3D pictures and animations formed in a computer environment and enable the person to interact with the objects in that environment. One of our biggest challenges is to find a well suited input device (hardware) to let the children with severe physical disabilities to interact with the computer. Based on our own experiences and a thorough literature review we have come to the conclusion that an effective combination of eye-tracking and EMG devices should work well.

  5. The use of a low-cost visible light 3D scanner to create virtual reality environment models of actors and objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    A low-cost 3D scanner has been developed with a parts cost of approximately USD $5,000. This scanner uses visible light sensing to capture both structural as well as texture and color data of a subject. This paper discusses the use of this type of scanner to create 3D models for incorporation into a virtual reality environment. It describes the basic scanning process (which takes under a minute for a single scan), which can be repeated to collect multiple positions, if needed for actor model creation. The efficacy of visible light versus other scanner types is also discussed.

  6. Images of Soft-bodied Animals with External Hard Shell: 3D Visualization of the Embedded Soft Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Donepudi V.; Akatsuka, Takao; Tromba, Giuliana

    2004-05-12

    Images of soft-bodied animals (snails) of various types with external hard shell are obtained for 25, 27 and 29 keV synchrotron X-rays. The SYRMEP facility at Elettra,Trieste, Italy and the associated detection system has been used for the image acquisition. The interior properties of the embedded soft tissue are analysed utilizing the software. From the reconstructed images, the soft tissue distribution, void spaces associated with the soft tissue and external hard shell are identified. 3D images are reconstructed at these energies and optimum energy is chosen based on the quality of the image for further analysis. The optimum energy allowed us to visualize the visibility of low absorbing details and interior microstructure of the embedded soft tissue.

  7. A Second Chance at Health: How a 3D Virtual World Can Improve Health Self-Efficacy for Weight Loss Management Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Lewallen, Jennifer; Choi, Grace

    2016-02-01

    Health self-efficacy, or the beliefs in one's capabilities to perform health behaviors, is a significant factor in eliciting health behavior change, such as weight loss. Research has demonstrated that virtual embodiment has the potential to alter one's psychology and physicality, particularly in health contexts; however, little is known about the impacts embodiment in a virtual world has on health self-efficacy. The present research is a randomized controlled trial (N = 90) examining the effectiveness of virtual embodiment and play in a social virtual world (Second Life [SL]) for increasing health self-efficacy (exercise and nutrition efficacy) among overweight adults. Participants were randomly assigned to a 3D social virtual world (avatar virtual interaction experimental condition), 2D social networking site (no avatar virtual interaction control condition), or no intervention (no virtual interaction control condition). The findings of this study provide initial evidence for the use of SL to improve exercise efficacy and to support weight loss. Results also suggest that individuals who have higher self-presence with their avatar reap more benefits. Finally, quantitative findings are triangulated with qualitative data to increase confidence in the results and provide richer insight into the perceived effectiveness and limitations of SL for meeting weight loss goals. Themes resulting from the qualitative analysis indicate that participation in SL can improve motivation and efficacy to try new physical activities; however, individuals who have a dislike for video games may not be benefitted by avatar-based virtual interventions. Implications for research on the transformative potential of virtual embodiment and self-presence in general are discussed.

  8. A Second Chance at Health: How a 3D Virtual World Can Improve Health Self-Efficacy for Weight Loss Management Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Lewallen, Jennifer; Choi, Grace

    2016-02-01

    Health self-efficacy, or the beliefs in one's capabilities to perform health behaviors, is a significant factor in eliciting health behavior change, such as weight loss. Research has demonstrated that virtual embodiment has the potential to alter one's psychology and physicality, particularly in health contexts; however, little is known about the impacts embodiment in a virtual world has on health self-efficacy. The present research is a randomized controlled trial (N = 90) examining the effectiveness of virtual embodiment and play in a social virtual world (Second Life [SL]) for increasing health self-efficacy (exercise and nutrition efficacy) among overweight adults. Participants were randomly assigned to a 3D social virtual world (avatar virtual interaction experimental condition), 2D social networking site (no avatar virtual interaction control condition), or no intervention (no virtual interaction control condition). The findings of this study provide initial evidence for the use of SL to improve exercise efficacy and to support weight loss. Results also suggest that individuals who have higher self-presence with their avatar reap more benefits. Finally, quantitative findings are triangulated with qualitative data to increase confidence in the results and provide richer insight into the perceived effectiveness and limitations of SL for meeting weight loss goals. Themes resulting from the qualitative analysis indicate that participation in SL can improve motivation and efficacy to try new physical activities; however, individuals who have a dislike for video games may not be benefitted by avatar-based virtual interventions. Implications for research on the transformative potential of virtual embodiment and self-presence in general are discussed. PMID:26882324

  9. Atom pair 2D-fingerprints perceive 3D-molecular shape and pharmacophores for very fast virtual screening of ZINC and GDB-17.

    PubMed

    Awale, Mahendra; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2014-07-28

    Three-dimensional (3D) molecular shape and pharmacophores are important determinants of the biological activity of organic molecules; however, a precise computation of 3D-shape is generally too slow for virtual screening of very large databases. A reinvestigation of the concept of atom pairs initially reported by Carhart et al. and extended by Schneider et al. showed that a simple atom pair fingerprint (APfp) counting atom pairs at increasing topological distances in 2D-structures without atom property assignment correlates with various representations of molecular shape extracted from the 3D-structures. A related 55-dimensional atom pair fingerprint extended with atom properties (Xfp) provided an efficient pharmacophore fingerprint with good performance for ligand-based virtual screening such as the recovery of active compounds from decoys in DUD, and overlap with the ROCS 3D-pharmacophore scoring function. The APfp and Xfp data were organized for web-based extremely fast nearest-neighbor searching in ZINC (13.5 M compounds) and GDB-17 (50 M random subset) freely accessible at www.gdb.unibe.ch .

  10. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  11. Coming down to Earth: Helping Teachers Use 3D Virtual Worlds in Across-Spaces Learning Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz-Cristóbal, Juan A.; Prieto, Luis P.; Asensio-Pérez, Juan I.; Martínez-Monés, Alejandra; Jorrín-Abellán, Iván M.; Dimitriadis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Different approaches have explored how to provide seamless learning across multiple ICT-enabled physical and virtual spaces, including three-dimensional virtual worlds (3DVW). However, these approaches present limitations that may reduce their acceptance in authentic educational practice: The difficulties of authoring and sharing teacher-created…

  12. A Comparative Analysis of 2D and 3D Tasks for Virtual Reality Therapies Based on Robotic-Assisted Neurorehabilitation for Post-stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Lledó, Luis D; Díez, Jorge A; Bertomeu-Motos, Arturo; Ezquerro, Santiago; Badesa, Francisco J; Sabater-Navarro, José M; García-Aracil, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke neurorehabilitation based on virtual therapies are performed completing repetitive exercises shown in visual electronic devices, whose content represents imaginary or daily life tasks. Currently, there are two ways of visualization of these task. 3D virtual environments are used to get a three dimensional space that represents the real world with a high level of detail, whose realism is determinated by the resolucion and fidelity of the objects of the task. Furthermore, 2D virtual environments are used to represent the tasks with a low degree of realism using techniques of bidimensional graphics. However, the type of visualization can influence the quality of perception of the task, affecting the patient's sensorimotor performance. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if there were differences in patterns of kinematic movements when post-stroke patients performed a reach task viewing a virtual therapeutic game with two different type of visualization of virtual environment: 2D and 3D. Nine post-stroke patients have participated in the study receiving a virtual therapy assisted by PUPArm rehabilitation robot. Horizontal movements of the upper limb were performed to complete the aim of the tasks, which consist in reaching peripheral or perspective targets depending on the virtual environment shown. Various parameter types such as the maximum speed, reaction time, path length, or initial movement are analyzed from the data acquired objectively by the robotic device to evaluate the influence of the task visualization. At the end of the study, a usability survey was provided to each patient to analysis his/her satisfaction level. For all patients, the movement trajectories were enhanced when they completed the therapy. This fact suggests that patient's motor recovery was increased. Despite of the similarity in majority of the kinematic parameters, differences in reaction time and path length were higher using the 3D task. Regarding the success rates

  13. A Comparative Analysis of 2D and 3D Tasks for Virtual Reality Therapies Based on Robotic-Assisted Neurorehabilitation for Post-stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Lledó, Luis D; Díez, Jorge A; Bertomeu-Motos, Arturo; Ezquerro, Santiago; Badesa, Francisco J; Sabater-Navarro, José M; García-Aracil, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke neurorehabilitation based on virtual therapies are performed completing repetitive exercises shown in visual electronic devices, whose content represents imaginary or daily life tasks. Currently, there are two ways of visualization of these task. 3D virtual environments are used to get a three dimensional space that represents the real world with a high level of detail, whose realism is determinated by the resolucion and fidelity of the objects of the task. Furthermore, 2D virtual environments are used to represent the tasks with a low degree of realism using techniques of bidimensional graphics. However, the type of visualization can influence the quality of perception of the task, affecting the patient's sensorimotor performance. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if there were differences in patterns of kinematic movements when post-stroke patients performed a reach task viewing a virtual therapeutic game with two different type of visualization of virtual environment: 2D and 3D. Nine post-stroke patients have participated in the study receiving a virtual therapy assisted by PUPArm rehabilitation robot. Horizontal movements of the upper limb were performed to complete the aim of the tasks, which consist in reaching peripheral or perspective targets depending on the virtual environment shown. Various parameter types such as the maximum speed, reaction time, path length, or initial movement are analyzed from the data acquired objectively by the robotic device to evaluate the influence of the task visualization. At the end of the study, a usability survey was provided to each patient to analysis his/her satisfaction level. For all patients, the movement trajectories were enhanced when they completed the therapy. This fact suggests that patient's motor recovery was increased. Despite of the similarity in majority of the kinematic parameters, differences in reaction time and path length were higher using the 3D task. Regarding the success rates

  14. A Comparative Analysis of 2D and 3D Tasks for Virtual Reality Therapies Based on Robotic-Assisted Neurorehabilitation for Post-stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lledó, Luis D.; Díez, Jorge A.; Bertomeu-Motos, Arturo; Ezquerro, Santiago; Badesa, Francisco J.; Sabater-Navarro, José M.; García-Aracil, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke neurorehabilitation based on virtual therapies are performed completing repetitive exercises shown in visual electronic devices, whose content represents imaginary or daily life tasks. Currently, there are two ways of visualization of these task. 3D virtual environments are used to get a three dimensional space that represents the real world with a high level of detail, whose realism is determinated by the resolucion and fidelity of the objects of the task. Furthermore, 2D virtual environments are used to represent the tasks with a low degree of realism using techniques of bidimensional graphics. However, the type of visualization can influence the quality of perception of the task, affecting the patient's sensorimotor performance. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if there were differences in patterns of kinematic movements when post-stroke patients performed a reach task viewing a virtual therapeutic game with two different type of visualization of virtual environment: 2D and 3D. Nine post-stroke patients have participated in the study receiving a virtual therapy assisted by PUPArm rehabilitation robot. Horizontal movements of the upper limb were performed to complete the aim of the tasks, which consist in reaching peripheral or perspective targets depending on the virtual environment shown. Various parameter types such as the maximum speed, reaction time, path length, or initial movement are analyzed from the data acquired objectively by the robotic device to evaluate the influence of the task visualization. At the end of the study, a usability survey was provided to each patient to analysis his/her satisfaction level. For all patients, the movement trajectories were enhanced when they completed the therapy. This fact suggests that patient's motor recovery was increased. Despite of the similarity in majority of the kinematic parameters, differences in reaction time and path length were higher using the 3D task. Regarding the success rates

  15. A Comparative Analysis of 2D and 3D Tasks for Virtual Reality Therapies Based on Robotic-Assisted Neurorehabilitation for Post-stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lledó, Luis D.; Díez, Jorge A.; Bertomeu-Motos, Arturo; Ezquerro, Santiago; Badesa, Francisco J.; Sabater-Navarro, José M.; García-Aracil, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke neurorehabilitation based on virtual therapies are performed completing repetitive exercises shown in visual electronic devices, whose content represents imaginary or daily life tasks. Currently, there are two ways of visualization of these task. 3D virtual environments are used to get a three dimensional space that represents the real world with a high level of detail, whose realism is determinated by the resolucion and fidelity of the objects of the task. Furthermore, 2D virtual environments are used to represent the tasks with a low degree of realism using techniques of bidimensional graphics. However, the type of visualization can influence the quality of perception of the task, affecting the patient's sensorimotor performance. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if there were differences in patterns of kinematic movements when post-stroke patients performed a reach task viewing a virtual therapeutic game with two different type of visualization of virtual environment: 2D and 3D. Nine post-stroke patients have participated in the study receiving a virtual therapy assisted by PUPArm rehabilitation robot. Horizontal movements of the upper limb were performed to complete the aim of the tasks, which consist in reaching peripheral or perspective targets depending on the virtual environment shown. Various parameter types such as the maximum speed, reaction time, path length, or initial movement are analyzed from the data acquired objectively by the robotic device to evaluate the influence of the task visualization. At the end of the study, a usability survey was provided to each patient to analysis his/her satisfaction level. For all patients, the movement trajectories were enhanced when they completed the therapy. This fact suggests that patient's motor recovery was increased. Despite of the similarity in majority of the kinematic parameters, differences in reaction time and path length were higher using the 3D task. Regarding the success rates

  16. 3D reconstructions with pixel-based images are made possible by digitally clearing plant and animal tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reconstruction of 3D images from a series of 2D images has been restricted by the limited capacity to decrease the opacity of surrounding tissue. Commercial software that allows color-keying and manipulation of 2D images in true 3D space allowed us to produce 3D reconstructions from pixel based imag...

  17. Estimation of bisphenol A-Human toxicity by 3D cell culture arrays, high throughput alternatives to animal tests.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Woo; Oh, Woo-Yeon; Yi, Sang Hyun; Ku, Bosung; Lee, Moo-Yeal; Cho, Yoon Hee; Yang, Mihi

    2016-09-30

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been widely used for manufacturing polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins and has been extensively tested in animals to predict human toxicity. In order to reduce the use of animals for toxicity assessment and provide further accurate information on BPA toxicity in humans, we encapsulated Hep3B human hepatoma cells in alginate and cultured them in three dimensions (3D) on a micropillar chip coupled to a panel of metabolic enzymes on a microwell chip. As a result, we were able to assess the toxicity of BPA under various metabolic enzyme conditions using a high-throughput and micro assay; sample volumes were nearly 2,000 times less than that required for a 96-well plate. We applied a total of 28 different enzymes to each chip, including 10 cytochrome P450s (CYP450s), 10 UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), 3 sulfotransferases (SULTs), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). Phase I enzyme mixtures, phase II enzyme mixtures, and a combination of phase I and phase II enzymes were also applied to the chip. BPA toxicity was higher in samples containing CYP2E1 than controls, which contained no enzymes (IC50, 184±16μM and 270±25.8μM, respectively, p<0.01). However, BPA-induced toxicity was alleviated in the presence of ADH (IC50, 337±17.9μM), ALDH2 (335±13.9μM), and SULT1E1 (318±17.7μM) (p<0.05). CYP2E1-mediated cytotoxicity was confirmed by quantifying unmetabolized BPA using HPLC/FD. Therefore, we suggest the present micropillar/microwell chip platform as an effective alternative to animal testing for estimating BPA toxicity via human metabolic systems. PMID:27491884

  18. The Effect of the Use of the 3-D Multi-User Virtual Environment "Second Life" on Student Motivation and Language Proficiency in Courses of Spanish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pares-Toral, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    The ever increasing popularity of virtual worlds, also known as 3-D multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) or simply virtual worlds provides language instructors with a new tool they can exploit in their courses. For now, "Second Life" is one of the most popular MUVEs used for teaching and learning, and although "Second Life"…

  19. A New Approach to Improve Cognition, Muscle Strength, and Postural Balance in Community-Dwelling Elderly with a 3-D Virtual Reality Kayak Program.

    PubMed

    Park, Junhyuck; Yim, JongEun

    2016-01-01

    Aging is usually accompanied with deterioration of physical abilities, such as muscular strength, sensory sensitivity, and functional capacity. Recently, intervention methods with virtual reality have been introduced, providing an enjoyable therapy for elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 3-D virtual reality kayak program could improve the cognitive function, muscle strength, and balance of community-dwelling elderly. Importantly, kayaking involves most of the upper body musculature and needs the balance control. Seventy-two participants were randomly allocated into the kayak program group (n = 36) and the control group (n = 36). The two groups were well matched with respect to general characteristics at baseline. The participants in both groups performed a conventional exercise program for 30 min, and then the 3-D virtual reality kayak program was performed in the kayak program group for 20 min, two times a week for 6 weeks. Cognitive function was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Muscle strength was measured using the arm curl and handgrip strength tests. Standing and sitting balance was measured using the Good Balance system. The post-test was performed in the same manner as the pre-test; the overall outcomes such as cognitive function (p < 0.05), muscle strength (p < 0.05), and balance (standing and sitting balance, p < 0.05) were significantly improved in kayak program group compared to the control group. We propose that the 3-D virtual reality kayak program is a promising intervention method for improving the cognitive function, muscle strength, and balance of elderly.

  20. Searching for anthranilic acid-based thumb pocket 2 HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitors through a combination of molecular docking, 3D-QSAR and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Vrontaki, Eleni; Melagraki, Georgia; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Afantitis, Antreas

    2016-01-01

    A combination of the following computational methods: (i) molecular docking, (ii) 3-D Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (3D-QSAR CoMFA), (iii) similarity search and (iv) virtual screening using PubChem database was applied to identify new anthranilic acid-based inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. A number of known inhibitors were initially docked into the "Thumb Pocket 2" allosteric site of the crystal structure of the enzyme HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B GT1b). Then, the CoMFA fields were generated through a receptor-based alignment of docking poses to build a validated and stable 3D-QSAR CoMFA model. The proposed model can be first utilized to get insight into the molecular features that promote bioactivity, and then within a virtual screening procedure, it can be used to estimate the activity of novel potential bioactive compounds prior to their synthesis and biological tests.

  1. Applying microCT and 3D visualization to Jurassic silicified conifer seed cones: A virtual advantage over thin-sectioning1

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Carole T.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: As an alternative to conventional thin-sectioning, which destroys fossil material, high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (also called microtomography or microCT) integrated with scientific visualization, three-dimensional (3D) image segmentation, size analysis, and computer animation is explored as a nondestructive method of imaging the internal anatomy of 150-million-year-old conifer seed cones from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation, USA, and of recent and other fossil cones. • Methods: MicroCT was carried out on cones using a General Electric phoenix v|tome|x s 240D, and resulting projections were processed with visualization software to produce image stacks of serial single sections for two-dimensional (2D) visualization, 3D segmented reconstructions with targeted structures in color, and computer animations. • Results: If preserved in differing densities, microCT produced images of internal fossil tissues that showed important characters such as seed phyllotaxy or number of seeds per cone scale. Color segmentation of deeply embedded seeds highlighted the arrangement of seeds in spirals. MicroCT of recent cones was even more effective. • Conclusions: This is the first paper on microCT integrated with 3D segmentation and computer animation applied to silicified seed cones, which resulted in excellent 2D serial sections and segmented 3D reconstructions, revealing features requisite to cone identification and understanding of strobilus construction. PMID:25202495

  2. 3D-Reconstructions and Virtual 4D-Visualization to Study Metamorphic Brain Development in the Sphinx Moth Manduca Sexta.

    PubMed

    Huetteroth, Wolf; El Jundi, Basil; El Jundi, Sirri; Schachtner, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    DURING METAMORPHOSIS, THE TRANSITION FROM THE LARVA TO THE ADULT, THE INSECT BRAIN UNDERGOES CONSIDERABLE REMODELING: new neurons are integrated while larval neurons are remodeled or eliminated. One well acknowledged model to study metamorphic brain development is the sphinx moth Manduca sexta. To further understand mechanisms involved in the metamorphic transition of the brain we generated a 3D standard brain based on selected brain areas of adult females and 3D reconstructed the same areas during defined stages of pupal development. Selected brain areas include for example mushroom bodies, central complex, antennal- and optic lobes. With this approach we eventually want to quantify developmental changes in neuropilar architecture, but also quantify changes in the neuronal complement and monitor the development of selected neuronal populations. Furthermore, we used a modeling software (Cinema 4D) to create a virtual 4D brain, morphing through its developmental stages. Thus the didactical advantages of 3D visualization are expanded to better comprehend complex processes of neuropil formation and remodeling during development. To obtain datasets of the M. sexta brain areas, we stained whole brains with an antiserum against the synaptic vesicle protein synapsin. Such labeled brains were then scanned with a confocal laser scanning microscope and selected neuropils were reconstructed with the 3D software AMIRA 4.1.

  3. Transforming Clinical Imaging and 3D Data for Virtual Reality Learning Objects: HTML5 and Mobile Devices Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trelease, Robert B.; Nieder, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Web deployable anatomical simulations or "virtual reality learning objects" can easily be produced with QuickTime VR software, but their use for online and mobile learning is being limited by the declining support for web browser plug-ins for personal computers and unavailability on popular mobile devices like Apple iPad and Android…

  4. Implementing Advanced Characteristics of X3D Collaborative Virtual Environments for Supporting e-Learning: The Case of EVE Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouras, Christos; Triglianos, Vasileios; Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional Collaborative Virtual Environments are a powerful form of collaborative telecommunication applications, enabling the users to share a common three-dimensional space and interact with each other as well as with the environment surrounding them, in order to collaboratively solve problems or aid learning processes. Such an…

  5. Effects of 3D virtual haptics force feedback on brand personality perception: the mediating role of physical presence in advergames.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seung-A Annie

    2010-06-01

    This study gauged the effects of force feedback in the Novint Falcon haptics system on the sensory and cognitive dimensions of a virtual test-driving experience. First, in order to explore the effects of tactile stimuli with force feedback on users' sensory experience, feelings of physical presence (the extent to which virtual physical objects are experienced as actual physical objects) were measured after participants used the haptics interface. Second, to evaluate the effects of force feedback on the cognitive dimension of consumers' virtual experience, this study investigated brand personality perception. The experiment utilized the Novint Falcon haptics controller to induce immersive virtual test-driving through tactile stimuli. The author designed a two-group (haptics stimuli with force feedback versus no force feedback) comparison experiment (N = 238) by manipulating the level of force feedback. Users in the force feedback condition were exposed to tactile stimuli involving various force feedback effects (e.g., terrain effects, acceleration, and lateral forces) while test-driving a rally car. In contrast, users in the control condition test-drove the rally car using the Novint Falcon but were not given any force feedback. Results of ANOVAs indicated that (a) users exposed to force feedback felt stronger physical presence than those in the no force feedback condition, and (b) users exposed to haptics stimuli with force feedback perceived the brand personality of the car to be more rugged than those in the control condition. Managerial implications of the study for product trial in the business world are discussed.

  6. Caring in the Dynamics of Design and Languaging: Exploring Second Language Learning in 3D Virtual Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Dongping

    2012-01-01

    This study provides concrete evidence of ecological, dialogical views of languaging within the dynamics of coordination and cooperation in a virtual world. Beginning level second language learners of Chinese engaged in cooperative activities designed to provide them opportunities to refine linguistic actions by way of caring for others, for the…

  7. i-BRUSH: a gaze-contingent virtual paintbrush for dense 3D reconstruction in robotic assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Visentini-Scarzanella, Marco; Mylonas, George P; Stoyanov, Danail; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    With increasing demand on intra-operative navigation and motion compensation during robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery, real-time 3D deformation recovery remains a central problem. Currently the majority of existing methods rely on salient features, where the inherent paucity of distinctive landmarks implies either a semi-dense reconstruction or the use of strong geometrical constraints. In this study, we propose a gaze-contingent depth reconstruction scheme by integrating human perception with semi-dense stereo and p-q based shading information. Depth inference is carried out in real-time through a novel application of Bayesian chains without smoothness priors. The practical value of the scheme is highlighted by detailed validation using a beating heart phantom model with known geometry to verify the performance of gaze-contingent 3D surface reconstruction and deformation recovery. PMID:20426007

  8. i-BRUSH: a gaze-contingent virtual paintbrush for dense 3D reconstruction in robotic assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Visentini-Scarzanella, Marco; Mylonas, George P; Stoyanov, Danail; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    With increasing demand on intra-operative navigation and motion compensation during robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery, real-time 3D deformation recovery remains a central problem. Currently the majority of existing methods rely on salient features, where the inherent paucity of distinctive landmarks implies either a semi-dense reconstruction or the use of strong geometrical constraints. In this study, we propose a gaze-contingent depth reconstruction scheme by integrating human perception with semi-dense stereo and p-q based shading information. Depth inference is carried out in real-time through a novel application of Bayesian chains without smoothness priors. The practical value of the scheme is highlighted by detailed validation using a beating heart phantom model with known geometry to verify the performance of gaze-contingent 3D surface reconstruction and deformation recovery.

  9. Lengthening Temporalis Myoplasty: Virtual Animation-Assisted Technical Video.

    PubMed

    Aljudaibi, Nawaf; Bennis, Yasmine; Duquennoy-Martinot, Veronique; Labbé, Daniel; Guerreschi, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Lengthening temporalis myoplasty is a well-established procedure for dynamic palliative reanimation of the lip in facial palsy sequelae. The particularity of this technique is that the entire temporal muscle is transferred from the coronoid process to the upper half of the lip without interposition of aponeurotic tissue. To date, no video describing the technique was available. This is the first video describing the entire procedure, from preoperative markings through postoperative rehabilitation. In the video presented herein, the authors craft virtual three-dimensional animations in addition to a live operation on a patient performed by Daniel Labbé, who first described this technique 20 years ago.

  10. Effects of 3D virtual haptics force feedback on brand personality perception: the mediating role of physical presence in advergames.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seung-A Annie

    2010-06-01

    This study gauged the effects of force feedback in the Novint Falcon haptics system on the sensory and cognitive dimensions of a virtual test-driving experience. First, in order to explore the effects of tactile stimuli with force feedback on users' sensory experience, feelings of physical presence (the extent to which virtual physical objects are experienced as actual physical objects) were measured after participants used the haptics interface. Second, to evaluate the effects of force feedback on the cognitive dimension of consumers' virtual experience, this study investigated brand personality perception. The experiment utilized the Novint Falcon haptics controller to induce immersive virtual test-driving through tactile stimuli. The author designed a two-group (haptics stimuli with force feedback versus no force feedback) comparison experiment (N = 238) by manipulating the level of force feedback. Users in the force feedback condition were exposed to tactile stimuli involving various force feedback effects (e.g., terrain effects, acceleration, and lateral forces) while test-driving a rally car. In contrast, users in the control condition test-drove the rally car using the Novint Falcon but were not given any force feedback. Results of ANOVAs indicated that (a) users exposed to force feedback felt stronger physical presence than those in the no force feedback condition, and (b) users exposed to haptics stimuli with force feedback perceived the brand personality of the car to be more rugged than those in the control condition. Managerial implications of the study for product trial in the business world are discussed. PMID:20557250

  11. Workflows and the Role of Images for Virtual 3d Reconstruction of no Longer Extant Historic Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münster, S.

    2013-07-01

    3D reconstruction technologies have gained importance as tools for the research and visualization of no longer extant historic objects during the last decade. Within such reconstruction processes, visual media assumes several important roles: as the most important sources especially for a reconstruction of no longer extant objects, as a tool for communication and cooperation within the production process, as well as for a communication and visualization of results. While there are many discourses about theoretical issues of depiction as sources and as visualization outcomes of such projects, there is no systematic research about the importance of depiction during a 3D reconstruction process and based on empirical findings. Moreover, from a methodological perspective, it would be necessary to understand which role visual media plays during the production process and how it is affected by disciplinary boundaries and challenges specific to historic topics. Research includes an analysis of published work and case studies investigating reconstruction projects. This study uses methods taken from social sciences to gain a grounded view of how production processes would take place in practice and which functions and roles images would play within them. For the investigation of these topics, a content analysis of 452 conference proceedings and journal articles related to 3D reconstruction modeling in the field of humanities has been completed. Most of the projects described in those publications dealt with data acquisition and model building for existing objects. Only a small number of projects focused on structures that no longer or never existed physically. Especially that type of project seems to be interesting for a study of the importance of pictures as sources and as tools for interdisciplinary cooperation during the production process. In the course of the examination the authors of this paper applied a qualitative content analysis for a sample of 26 previously

  12. Building Analysis for Urban Energy Planning Using Key Indicators on Virtual 3d City Models - the Energy Atlas of Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, A.; Kolbe, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    In the context of increasing greenhouse gas emission and global demographic change with the simultaneous trend to urbanization, it is a big challenge for cities around the world to perform modifications in energy supply chain and building characteristics resulting in reduced energy consumption and carbon dioxide mitigation. Sound knowledge of energy resource demand and supply including its spatial distribution within urban areas is of great importance for planning strategies addressing greater energy efficiency. The understanding of the city as a complex energy system affects several areas of the urban living, e.g. energy supply, urban texture, human lifestyle, and climate protection. With the growing availability of 3D city models around the world based on the standard language and format CityGML, energy system modelling, analysis and simulation can be incorporated into these models. Both domains will profit from that interaction by bringing together official and accurate building models including building geometries, semantics and locations forming a realistic image of the urban structure with systemic energy simulation models. A holistic view on the impacts of energy planning scenarios can be modelled and analyzed including side effects on urban texture and human lifestyle. This paper focuses on the identification, classification, and integration of energy-related key indicators of buildings and neighbourhoods within 3D building models. Consequent application of 3D city models conforming to CityGML serves the purpose of deriving indicators for this topic. These will be set into the context of urban energy planning within the Energy Atlas Berlin. The generation of indicator objects covering the indicator values and related processing information will be presented on the sample scenario estimation of heating energy consumption in buildings and neighbourhoods. In their entirety the key indicators will form an adequate image of the local energy situation for

  13. ARC+(Registered Trademark) and ARC PC Welding Simulators: Teach Welders with Virtual Interactive 3D Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choquet, Claude

    2011-01-01

    123 Certification Inc., a Montreal based company, has developed an innovative hands-on welding simulator solution to help build the welding workforce in the most simple way. The solution lies in virtual reality technology, which has been fully tested since the early 90's. President and founder of 123 Certification Inc., Mr. Claude Choquet Ing. Msc. IWE. acts as a bridge between the welding and the programming world. Working in these fields for more than 20 years. he has filed 12 patents world-wide for a gesture control platform with leading edge hardware related to simulation. In the summer of 2006. Mr Choquet was proud to be invited to the annual IIW International Weld ing Congress in Quebec City to launch the ARC+ welding simulator. A 100% virtual reality system and web based training center was developed to simulate multi process. multi-materiaL multi-position and multi pass welding. The simulator is intended to train welding students and apprentices in schools or industries. The welding simulator is composed of a real welding e[eetrode holder (SMAW-GTAW) and gun (GMAW-FCAW). a head mounted display (HMD), a 6 degrees of freedom tracking system for interaction between the user's hands and head. as well as external audio speakers. Both guns and HMD are interacting online and simultaneously. The welding simulation is based on the law of physics and empirical results from detailed analysis of a series of welding tests based on industrial applications tested over the last 20 years. The simulation runs in real-time, using a local logic network to determine the quality and shape of the created weld. These results are based on the orientation distance. and speed of the welding torch and depth of penetration. The welding process and resulting weld bc.1d are displayed in a virtual environment with screenplay interactive training modules. For review. weld quality and recorded process values can be displayed and diagnosed after welding. To help in the le.tming process, a

  14. In silico exploration of c-KIT inhibitors by pharmaco-informatics methodology: pharmacophore modeling, 3D QSAR, docking studies, and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Prashant; Bari, Sanjay

    2016-02-01

    c-KIT is a component of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor family, classified as type-III receptor tyrosine kinase. c-KIT has been reported to be involved in, small cell lung cancer, other malignant human cancers, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases associated with mast cells. Available c-KIT inhibitors suffer from tribulations of growing resistance or cardiac toxicity. A combined in silico pharmacophore and structure-based virtual screening was performed to identify novel potential c-KIT inhibitors. In the present study, five molecules from the ZINC database were retrieved as new potential c-KIT inhibitors, using Schrödinger's Maestro 9.0 molecular modeling suite. An atom-featured 3D QSAR model was built using previously reported c-KIT inhibitors containing the indolin-2-one scaffold. The developed 3D QSAR model ADHRR.24 was found to be significant (R2 = 0.9378, Q2 = 0.7832) and instituted to be sufficiently robust with good predictive accuracy, as confirmed through external validation approaches, Y-randomization and GH approach [GH score 0.84 and Enrichment factor (E) 4.964]. The present QSAR model was further validated for the OECD principle 3, in that the applicability domain was calculated using a "standardization approach." Molecular docking of the QSAR dataset molecules and final ZINC hits were performed on the c-KIT receptor (PDB ID: 3G0E). Docking interactions were in agreement with the developed 3D QSAR model. Model ADHRR.24 was explored for ligand-based virtual screening followed by in silico ADME prediction studies. Five molecules from the ZINC database were obtained as potential c-KIT inhibitors with high in -silico predicted activity and strong key binding interactions with the c-KIT receptor.

  15. High precision analysis of an embryonic extensional fault-related fold using 3D orthorectified virtual outcrops: The viewpoint importance in structural geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavani, Stefano; Corradetti, Amerigo; Billi, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Image-based 3D modeling has recently opened the way to the use of virtual outcrop models in geology. An intriguing application of this method involves the production of orthorectified images of outcrops using almost any user-defined point of view, so that photorealistic cross-sections suitable for numerous geological purposes and measurements can be easily generated. These purposes include the accurate quantitative analysis of fault-fold relationships starting from imperfectly oriented and partly inaccessible real outcrops. We applied the method of image-based 3D modeling and orthorectification to a case study from the northern Apennines, Italy, where an incipient extensional fault affecting well-layered limestones is exposed on a 10-m-high barely accessible cliff. Through a few simple steps, we constructed a high-quality image-based 3D model of the outcrop. In the model, we made a series of measurements including fault and bedding attitudes, which allowed us to derive the bedding-fault intersection direction. We then used this direction as viewpoint to obtain a distortion-free photorealistic cross-section, on which we measured bed dips and thicknesses as well as fault stratigraphic separations. These measurements allowed us to identify a slight difference (i.e. only 0.5°) between the hangingwall and footwall cutoff angles. We show that the hangingwall strain required to compensate the upward-decreasing displacement of the fault was accommodated by this 0.5° rotation (i.e. folding) and coeval 0.8% thickening of strata in the hangingwall relatively to footwall strata. This evidence is consistent with trishear fault-propagation folding. Our results emphasize the viewpoint importance in structural geology and therefore the potential of using orthorectified virtual outcrops.

  16. Cortical correlate of spatial presence in 2D and 3D interactive virtual reality: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Kober, Silvia Erika; Kurzmann, Jürgen; Neuper, Christa

    2012-03-01

    The present study is the first that examined neuronal underpinnings of spatial presence using multi-channel EEG in an interactive virtual reality (VR). We compared two VR-systems: a highly immersive Single-Wall-VR-system (three-dimensional view, large screen) and a less immersive Desktop-VR-system (two-dimensional view, small screen). Twenty-nine participants performed a spatial navigation task in a virtual maze and had to state their sensation of "being there" on a 5-point rating scale. Task-related power decrease/increase (TRPD/TRPI) in the Alpha band (8-12Hz) and coherence analyses in different frequency bands were used to analyze the EEG data. The Single-Wall-VR-system caused a more intense presence experience than the Desktop-VR-system. This increased feeling of presence in the Single-Wall-VR-condition was accompanied by an increased parietal TRPD in the Alpha band, which is associated with cortical activation. The lower presence experience in the Desktop-VR-group was accompanied by a stronger functional connectivity between frontal and parietal brain regions indicating that the communication between these two brain areas is crucial for the presence experience. Hence, we found a positive relationship between presence and parietal brain activation and a negative relationship between presence and frontal brain activation in an interactive VR-paradigm, supporting the results of passive non-interactive VR-studies.

  17. Virtualizing ancient Rome: 3D acquisition and modeling of a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Frischer, Bernard; De Simone, Monica; Cioci, Andrea; Spinetti, Alessandro; Carosso, Luca; Micoli, Laura L.; Russo, Michele; Grasso, Tommaso

    2004-12-01

    Computer modeling through digital range images has been used for many applications, including 3D modeling of objects belonging to our cultural heritage. The scales involved range from small objects (e.g. pottery), to middle-sized works of art (statues, architectural decorations), up to very large structures (architectural and archaeological monuments). For any of these applications, suitable sensors and methodologies have been explored by different authors. The object to be modeled within this project is the "Plastico di Roma antica," a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome (16x17 meters) created in the last century. Its overall size therefore demands an acquisition approach typical of large structures, but it also is characterized extremely tiny details typical of small objects (houses are a few centimeters high; their doors, windows, etc. are smaller than 1 centimeter). This paper gives an account of the procedures followed for solving this "contradiction" and describes how a huge 3D model was acquired and generated by using a special metrology Laser Radar. The procedures for reorienting in a single reference system the huge point clouds obtained after each acquisition phase, thanks to the measurement of fixed redundant references, are described. The data set was split in smaller sub-areas 2 x 2 meters each for purposes of mesh editing. This subdivision was necessary owing to the huge number of points in each individual scan (50-60 millions). The final merge of the edited parts made it possible to create a single mesh. All these processes were made with software specifically designed for this project since no commercial package could be found that was suitable for managing such a large number of points. Preliminary models are presented. Finally, the significance of the project is discussed in terms of the overall project known as "Rome Reborn," of which the present acquisition is an important component.

  18. Virtualizing ancient Rome: 3D acquisition and modeling of a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Frischer, Bernard; De Simone, Monica; Cioci, Andrea; Spinetti, Alessandro; Carosso, Luca; Micoli, Laura L.; Russo, Michele; Grasso, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    Computer modeling through digital range images has been used for many applications, including 3D modeling of objects belonging to our cultural heritage. The scales involved range from small objects (e.g. pottery), to middle-sized works of art (statues, architectural decorations), up to very large structures (architectural and archaeological monuments). For any of these applications, suitable sensors and methodologies have been explored by different authors. The object to be modeled within this project is the "Plastico di Roma antica," a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome (16x17 meters) created in the last century. Its overall size therefore demands an acquisition approach typical of large structures, but it also is characterized extremely tiny details typical of small objects (houses are a few centimeters high; their doors, windows, etc. are smaller than 1 centimeter). This paper gives an account of the procedures followed for solving this "contradiction" and describes how a huge 3D model was acquired and generated by using a special metrology Laser Radar. The procedures for reorienting in a single reference system the huge point clouds obtained after each acquisition phase, thanks to the measurement of fixed redundant references, are described. The data set was split in smaller sub-areas 2 x 2 meters each for purposes of mesh editing. This subdivision was necessary owing to the huge number of points in each individual scan (50-60 millions). The final merge of the edited parts made it possible to create a single mesh. All these processes were made with software specifically designed for this project since no commercial package could be found that was suitable for managing such a large number of points. Preliminary models are presented. Finally, the significance of the project is discussed in terms of the overall project known as "Rome Reborn," of which the present acquisition is an important component.

  19. Development of microgravity, full body functional reach envelope using 3-D computer graphic models and virtual reality technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Patricia F.

    1994-01-01

    In microgravity conditions mobility is greatly enhanced and body stability is difficult to achieve. Because of these difficulties, optimum placement and accessibility of objects and controls can be critical to required tasks on board shuttle flights or on the proposed space station. Anthropometric measurement of the maximum reach of occupants of a microgravity environment provide knowledge about maximum functional placement for tasking situations. Calculations for a full body, functional reach envelope for microgravity environments are imperative. To this end, three dimensional computer modeled human figures, providing a method of anthropometric measurement, were used to locate the data points that define the full body, functional reach envelope. Virtual reality technology was utilized to enable an occupant of the microgravity environment to experience movement within the reach envelope while immersed in a simulated microgravity environment.

  20. Drug Design for CNS Diseases: Polypharmacological Profiling of Compounds Using Cheminformatic, 3D-QSAR and Virtual Screening Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Katarina; Mavridis, Lazaros; Djikic, Teodora; Vucicevic, Jelica; Agbaba, Danica; Yelekci, Kemal; Mitchell, John B O

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Many CNS targets are being explored for multi-target drug designNew databases and cheminformatic methods enable prediction of primary pharmaceutical target and off-targets of compoundsQSAR, virtual screening and docking methods increase the potential of rational drug design The diverse cerebral mechanisms implicated in Central Nervous System (CNS) diseases together with the heterogeneous and overlapping nature of phenotypes indicated that multitarget strategies may be appropriate for the improved treatment of complex brain diseases. Understanding how the neurotransmitter systems interact is also important in optimizing therapeutic strategies. Pharmacological intervention on one target will often influence another one, such as the well-established serotonin-dopamine interaction or the dopamine-glutamate interaction. It is now accepted that drug action can involve plural targets and that polypharmacological interaction with multiple targets, to address disease in more subtle and effective ways, is a key concept for development of novel drug candidates against complex CNS diseases. A multi-target therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease resulted in the development of very effective Multi-Target Designed Ligands (MTDL) that act on both the cholinergic and monoaminergic systems, and also retard the progression of neurodegeneration by inhibiting amyloid aggregation. Many compounds already in databases have been investigated as ligands for multiple targets in drug-discovery programs. A probabilistic method, the Parzen-Rosenblatt Window approach, was used to build a "predictor" model using data collected from the ChEMBL database. The model can be used to predict both the primary pharmaceutical target and off-targets of a compound based on its structure. Several multi-target ligands were selected for further study, as compounds with possible additional beneficial pharmacological activities. Based on all these findings, it is concluded that multipotent ligands

  1. Drug Design for CNS Diseases: Polypharmacological Profiling of Compounds Using Cheminformatic, 3D-QSAR and Virtual Screening Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Katarina; Mavridis, Lazaros; Djikic, Teodora; Vucicevic, Jelica; Agbaba, Danica; Yelekci, Kemal; Mitchell, John B. O.

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Many CNS targets are being explored for multi-target drug designNew databases and cheminformatic methods enable prediction of primary pharmaceutical target and off-targets of compoundsQSAR, virtual screening and docking methods increase the potential of rational drug design The diverse cerebral mechanisms implicated in Central Nervous System (CNS) diseases together with the heterogeneous and overlapping nature of phenotypes indicated that multitarget strategies may be appropriate for the improved treatment of complex brain diseases. Understanding how the neurotransmitter systems interact is also important in optimizing therapeutic strategies. Pharmacological intervention on one target will often influence another one, such as the well-established serotonin-dopamine interaction or the dopamine-glutamate interaction. It is now accepted that drug action can involve plural targets and that polypharmacological interaction with multiple targets, to address disease in more subtle and effective ways, is a key concept for development of novel drug candidates against complex CNS diseases. A multi-target therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer‘s disease resulted in the development of very effective Multi-Target Designed Ligands (MTDL) that act on both the cholinergic and monoaminergic systems, and also retard the progression of neurodegeneration by inhibiting amyloid aggregation. Many compounds already in databases have been investigated as ligands for multiple targets in drug-discovery programs. A probabilistic method, the Parzen-Rosenblatt Window approach, was used to build a “predictor” model using data collected from the ChEMBL database. The model can be used to predict both the primary pharmaceutical target and off-targets of a compound based on its structure. Several multi-target ligands were selected for further study, as compounds with possible additional beneficial pharmacological activities. Based on all these findings, it is concluded that multipotent

  2. Transforming clinical imaging and 3D data for virtual reality learning objects: HTML5 and mobile devices implementation.

    PubMed

    Trelease, Robert B; Nieder, Gary L

    2013-01-01

    Web deployable anatomical simulations or "virtual reality learning objects" can easily be produced with QuickTime VR software, but their use for online and mobile learning is being limited by the declining support for web browser plug-ins for personal computers and unavailability on popular mobile devices like Apple iPad and Android tablets. This article describes complementary methods for creating comparable, multiplatform VR learning objects in the new HTML5 standard format, circumventing platform-specific limitations imposed by the QuickTime VR multimedia file format. Multiple types or "dimensions" of anatomical information can be embedded in such learning objects, supporting different kinds of online learning applications, including interactive atlases, examination questions, and complex, multi-structure presentations. Such HTML5 VR learning objects are usable on new mobile devices that do not support QuickTime VR, as well as on personal computers. Furthermore, HTML5 VR learning objects can be embedded in "ebook" document files, supporting the development of new types of electronic textbooks on mobile devices that are increasingly popular and self-adopted for mobile learning.

  3. Transforming clinical imaging and 3D data for virtual reality learning objects: HTML5 and mobile devices implementation.

    PubMed

    Trelease, Robert B; Nieder, Gary L

    2013-01-01

    Web deployable anatomical simulations or "virtual reality learning objects" can easily be produced with QuickTime VR software, but their use for online and mobile learning is being limited by the declining support for web browser plug-ins for personal computers and unavailability on popular mobile devices like Apple iPad and Android tablets. This article describes complementary methods for creating comparable, multiplatform VR learning objects in the new HTML5 standard format, circumventing platform-specific limitations imposed by the QuickTime VR multimedia file format. Multiple types or "dimensions" of anatomical information can be embedded in such learning objects, supporting different kinds of online learning applications, including interactive atlases, examination questions, and complex, multi-structure presentations. Such HTML5 VR learning objects are usable on new mobile devices that do not support QuickTime VR, as well as on personal computers. Furthermore, HTML5 VR learning objects can be embedded in "ebook" document files, supporting the development of new types of electronic textbooks on mobile devices that are increasingly popular and self-adopted for mobile learning. PMID:23212750

  4. Urban Archaeology: how to Communicate a Story of a Site, 3d Virtual Reconstruction but not Only

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, M.

    2011-09-01

    Over the past few years experimental systems have been developed to introduce new ways of enjoying cultural heritage using digital media. Technology had a lead role in this testing ground increasing the need to develop new way of communication according to contemporary iconography culture. Most applications are aimed at creating online databases that allow free access to information, that helps to spread the culture and simplify the study about cultural heritage. To this type of application are added others, which are aimed at defining new and different ways of cultural heritage enjoyment. Very interesting applications are those regarding to reconstruction of archaeological landscape. The target of these applications is to develop a new level of knowledge that increases the value of the archaeological find and the level of understanding. In fact, digital media can bridge the gap of communication associated to archaeological find: the virtual simulation offers the possibility to put it in the context and it defines a new way to enjoy the cultural heritage. In most of these cases the spectacular and recreational factor generally prevails. We believe that experimentation is needed in this area, particularly for the development of Urban Archaeology. In this case, another trouble to enjoy is added to the lack of communication, typical of archaeological finds, because it is "hidden" in an irreversible way: it is under water or under city. So, our research is mainly oriented to define a methodological path to elaborate a communication strategy to increase interest about Urban Archaeology.

  5. 3D-QSAR studies and shape based virtual screening for identification of novel hits to inhibit MbtA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Maganti, Lakshmi; Ghoshal, Nanda

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the pathogen responsible for tuberculosis, uses various strategies to survive in a variety of host lesions. The re-emergence of multi-drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis underlines the necessity to discover new molecules. Inhibitors of aryl acid adenylating enzyme, MbtA, involved in siderophore biosynthesis in M. tuberculosis, are being explored as potential anti tubercular agents. In this study, we have used 3D-QSAR models and shape based virtual screening to identify novel MbtA inhibitors. 3D-QSAR studies were carried out on nucleoside bisubstrate derivatives. Both Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (r(2) = .944 and r(2)(pred) = .938) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (r(2) = .892 and r(2)(pred) = .842) models, developed using Gasteiger charges with all fields, predicted efficiently. A total of 13 hits were identified as novel prospective inhibitors for MbtA by utilizing an insilico workflow. Out of 13 hits, five top ranked hits were used for further molecular dynamics studies to gain more insights about the stability of the complexes. PMID:24417439

  6. Modeling and Accuracy Assessment for 3D-VIRTUAL Reconstruction in Cultural Heritage Using Low-Cost Photogrammetry: Surveying of the "santa MARÍA Azogue" Church's Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robleda Prieto, G.; Pérez Ramos, A.

    2015-02-01

    Sometimes it could be difficult to represent "on paper" an architectural idea, a solution, a detail or a newly created element, depending on the complexity what it want be conveyed through its graphical representation but it may be even harder to represent the existing reality. (a building, a detail,...), at least with an acceptable degree of definition and accuracy. As a solution to this hypothetical problem, this paper try to show a methodology to collect measure data by combining different methods or techniques, to obtain the characteristic geometry of architectonic elements, especially in those highly decorated and/or complex geometry, as well as to assess the accuracy of the results obtained, but in an accuracy level enough and not very expensive costs. In addition, we can obtain a 3D recovery model that allows us a strong support, beyond point clouds obtained through another more expensive methods as using laser scanner, to obtain orthoimages. This methodology was used in the study case of the 3D-virtual reconstruction of a main medieval church façade because of the geometrical complexity in many elements as the existing main doorway with archivolts and many details, as well as the rose window located above it so it's inaccessible due to the height.

  7. Integrated computational tools for identification of CCR5 antagonists as potential HIV-1 entry inhibitors: homology modeling, virtual screening, molecular dynamics simulations and 3D QSAR analysis.

    PubMed

    Moonsamy, Suri; Dash, Radha Charan; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2014-04-23

    Using integrated in-silico computational techniques, including homology modeling, structure-based and pharmacophore-based virtual screening, molecular dynamic simulations, per-residue energy decomposition analysis and atom-based 3D-QSAR analysis, we proposed ten novel compounds as potential CCR5-dependent HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Via validated docking calculations, binding free energies revealed that novel leads demonstrated better binding affinities with CCR5 compared to maraviroc, an FDA-approved HIV-1 entry inhibitor and in clinical use. Per-residue interaction energy decomposition analysis on the averaged MD structure showed that hydrophobic active residues Trp86, Tyr89 and Tyr108 contributed the most to inhibitor binding. The validated 3D-QSAR model showed a high cross-validated rcv2 value of 0.84 using three principal components and non-cross-validated r2 value of 0.941. It was also revealed that almost all compounds in the test set and training set yielded a good predicted value. Information gained from this study could shed light on the activity of a new series of lead compounds as potential HIV entry inhibitors and serve as a powerful tool in the drug design and development machinery.

  8. A novel orthogonal transmission-virtual grating method and its applications in measuring micro 3-D shape of deformed liquid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhanwei; Huang, Xianfu; Xie, Huimin

    2013-02-01

    Deformed liquid surface directly involves the surface tension, which can always be used to account for the kinematics of aquatic insects in gas-liquid interface and the light metal floating on the water surface. In this paper a novel method based upon deformed transmission-virtual grating is proposed for determination of deformed liquid surface. By addressing an orthogonal grating (1-5 line/mm) under the transparent water groove and then capturing images from upset of the deformed water surface, a displacement vector of full-field which directly associates the 3-D deformed liquid surface then can be evaluated by processing the recorded deformed fringe pattern in the two directions (x- and y-direction). Theories and equations for the method are thoroughly delivered. Validation test to measure the deformed water surface caused by a Chinese 1-cent coin has been conducted to demonstrate the ability of the developed method. The obtained results show that the method is robust in determination of micro 3-D surface of deformed liquid with a submicron scale resolution and with a wide range application scope.

  9. Weapon identification using antemortem computed tomography with virtual 3D and rapid prototype modeling--a report in a case of blunt force head injury.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Krzysztof; Rzepecka-Woźniak, Ewa; Moskała, Artur; Pohl, Jerzy; Latacz, Katarzyna; Dybała, Bogdan

    2012-10-10

    A frequent request of a prosecutor referring to forensic autopsy is to determine the mechanism of an injury and to identify the weapons used to cause those injuries. This task could be problematic in many ways, including changes in the primary injury caused by medical intervention and the process of healing. To accomplish this task, the forensic pathologist has to gather all possible information during the post-mortem examination. The more data is collected, the easier it is to obtain an accurate answer to the prosecutor's question. The authors present a case of head injuries that the victim sustained under unknown circumstances. The patient underwent neurosurgical treatment which resulted in alteration of the bone fracture pattern. The only way to evaluate this injury was to analyze antemortem clinical data, especially CT scans, with virtual 3D reconstruction of the fractured skull. A physical model of a part of the broken skull was created with the use of 3D printing. These advanced techniques, applied for the first time in Poland for forensic purposes, allowed investigators to extract enough data to develop a hypothesis about the mechanism of injury and the weapon most likely used.

  10. The discovery of a novel and selective inhibitor of PTP1B over TCPTP: 3D QSAR pharmacophore modeling, virtual screening, synthesis, and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Jin, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Ye-Liu; Wang, Run-Ling; Lu, Xin-Hua; Kong, De-Xin; Xu, Wei-Ren

    2014-06-01

    Given the special role of insulin and leptin signaling in various biological responses, protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) was regarded as a novel therapeutic target for treating type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, owing to the highly conserved (sequence identity of about 74%) in active pocket, targeting PTP1B for drug discovery is a great challenge. In this study, we employed the software package Discovery Studio to develop 3D QSAR pharmacophore models for PTP1B and TCPTP inhibitors. It was further validated by three methods (cost analysis, test set prediction, and Fisher's test) to show that the models can be used to predict the biological activities of compounds without costly and time-consuming synthesis. The criteria for virtual screening were also validated by testing the selective PTP1B inhibitors. Virtual screening experiments and subsequent in vitro evaluation of promising hits revealed a novel and selective inhibitor of PTP1B over TCPTP. After that, a most likely binding mode was proposed. Thus, the findings reported here may provide a new strategy in discovering selective PTP1B inhibitors.

  11. Sniffing Out Efficacy: Sniffy Lite, a Virtual Animal Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venneman, Sandy S.; Knowles, Laura, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the benefits of using a virtual laboratory, Sniffy Lite CD-ROM (Alloway, Wilson, Graham, & Krames, 2000), as a supplemental teaching tool to present schedules of reinforcement in operant conditioning. Our results suggest that using the virtual laboratory significantly enhanced understanding. Students who used the virtual laboratory…

  12. Simultaneous real-time 3D photoacoustic tomography and EEG for neurovascular coupling study in an animal model of epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Xiao, Jiaying; Jiang, Huabei

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Neurovascular coupling in epilepsy is poorly understood; its study requires simultaneous monitoring of hemodynamic changes and neural activity in the brain. Approach. Here for the first time we present a combined real-time 3D photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and electrophysiology/electroencephalography (EEG) system for the study of neurovascular coupling in epilepsy, whose ability was demonstrated with a pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced generalized seizure model in rats. Two groups of experiments were carried out with different wavelengths to detect the changes of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HbR) signals in the rat brain. We extracted the average PAT signals of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), and compared them with the EEG signal. Main results. Results showed that the seizure process can be divided into three stages. A ‘dip’ lasting for 1-2 min in the first stage and the following hyperfusion in the second stage were observed. The HbO2 signal and the HbR signal were generally negatively correlated. The change of blood flow was also estimated. All the acquired results here were in accordance with other published results. Significance. Compared to other existing functional neuroimaging tools, the method proposed here enables reliable tracking of hemodynamic signal with both high spatial and high temporal resolution in 3D, so it is more suitable for neurovascular coupling study of epilepsy.

  13. Material decomposition and virtual non-contrast imaging in photon counting computed tomography: an animal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutjahr, R.; Polster, C.; Kappler, S.; Pietsch, H.; Jost, G.; Hahn, K.; Schöck, F.; Sedlmair, M.; Allmendinger, T.; Schmidt, B.; Krauss, B.; Flohr, T. G.

    2016-03-01

    The energy resolving capabilities of Photon Counting Detectors (PCD) in Computed Tomography (CT) facilitate energy-sensitive measurements. The provided image-information can be processed with Dual Energy and Multi Energy algorithms. A research PCD-CT firstly allows acquiring images with a close to clinical configuration of both the X-ray tube and the CT-detector. In this study, two algorithms (Material Decomposition and Virtual Non-Contrast-imaging (VNC)) are applied on a data set acquired from an anesthetized rabbit scanned using the PCD-CT system. Two contrast agents (CA) are applied: A gadolinium (Gd) based CA used to enhance contrasts for vascular imaging, and xenon (Xe) and air as a CA used to evaluate local ventilation of the animal's lung. Four different images are generated: a) A VNC image, suppressing any traces of the injected Gd imitating a native scan, b) a VNC image with a Gd-image as an overlay, where contrast enhancements in the vascular system are highlighted using colored labels, c) another VNC image with a Xe-image as an overlay, and d) a 3D rendered image of the animal's lung, filled with Xe, indicating local ventilation characteristics. All images are generated from two images based on energy bin information. It is shown that a modified version of a commercially available dual energy software framework is capable of providing images with diagnostic value obtained from the research PCD-CT system.

  14. Enhancing Scientific Collaboration, Transparency, and Public Access: Utilizing the Second Life Platform to Convene a Scientific Conference in 3-D Virtual Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, B. W.

    2006-12-01

    Recent studies reveal a general mistrust of science as well as a distorted perception of the scientific method by the public at-large. Concurrently, the number of science undergraduate and graduate students is in decline. By taking advantage of emergent technologies not only for direct public outreach but also to enhance public accessibility to the science process, it may be possible to both begin a reversal of popular scientific misconceptions and to engage a new generation of scientists. The Second Life platform is a 3-D virtual world produced and operated by Linden Research, Inc., a privately owned company instituted to develop new forms of immersive entertainment. Free and downloadable to the public, Second Life offers an imbedded physics engine, streaming audio and video capability, and unlike other "multiplayer" software, the objects and inhabitants of Second Life are entirely designed and created by its users, providing an open-ended experience without the structure of a traditional video game. Already, educational institutions, virtual museums, and real-world businesses are utilizing Second Life for teleconferencing, pre-visualization, and distance education, as well as to conduct traditional business. However, the untapped potential of Second Life lies in its versatility, where the limitations of traditional scientific meeting venues do not exist, and attendees need not be restricted by prohibitive travel costs. It will be shown that the Second Life system enables scientific authors and presenters at a "virtual conference" to display figures and images at full resolution, employ audio-visual content typically not available to conference organizers, and to perform demonstrations or premier three-dimensional renderings of objects, processes, or information. An enhanced presentation like those possible with Second Life would be more engaging to non- scientists, and such an event would be accessible to the general users of Second Life, who could have an

  15. Sounds of silence: How to animate virtual worlds with sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Sounds are an integral and sometimes annoying part of our daily life. Virtual worlds which imitate natural environments gain a lot of authenticity from fast, high quality visualization combined with sound effects. Sounds help to increase the degree of immersion for human dwellers in imaginary worlds significantly. The virtual reality toolkit of IGD (Institute for Computer Graphics) features a broad range of standard visual and advanced real-time audio components which interpret an object-oriented definition of the scene. The virtual reality system 'Virtual Design' realized with the toolkit enables the designer of virtual worlds to create a true audiovisual environment. Several examples on video demonstrate the usage of the audio features in Virtual Design.

  16. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  17. A full-field and real-time 3D surface imaging augmented DOT system for in-vivo small animal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Steven X.; Yang, Bingcheng; Yin, Gongjie

    2010-02-01

    A crucial parameter in Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is the construction of an accurate forward model, which greatly depends on tissue boundary. Since photon propagation is a three-dimensional volumetric problem, extraction and subsequent modeling of three-dimensional boundaries is essential. Original experimental demonstration of the feasibility of DOT to reconstruct absorbers, scatterers and fluorochromes used phantoms or tissues confined appropriately to conform to easily modeled geometries such as a slab or a cylinder. In later years several methods have been developed to model photon propagation through diffuse media with complex boundaries using numerical solutions of the diffusion or transport equation (finite elements or differences) or more recently analytical methods based on the tangent-plane method . While optical examinations performed simultaneously with anatomical imaging modalities such as MRI provide well-defined boundaries, very limited progress has been done so far in extracting full-field (360 degree) boundaries for in-vivo three-dimensional DOT stand-alone imaging. In this paper, we present a desktop multi-spectrum in-vivo 3D DOT system for small animal imaging. This system is augmented with Technest's full-field 3D cameras. The built system has the capability of acquiring 3D object surface profiles in real time and registering 3D boundary with diffuse tomography. Extensive experiments are performed on phantoms and small animals by our collaborators at the Center for Molecular Imaging Research (CMIR) at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Harvard Medical School. Data has shown successful reconstructed DOT data with improved accuracy.

  18. In vivo 3D analysis of systemic effects after local heavy-ion beam irradiation in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Kento; Hashimoto, Chika; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Itoh, Kazusa; Yasuda, Takako; Ohta, Kousaku; Oonishi, Hisako; Igarashi, Kento; Suzuki, Michiyo; Funayama, Tomoo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Nishimaki, Toshiyuki; Katsumura, Takafumi; Oota, Hiroki; Ogawa, Motoyuki; Oga, Atsunori; Ikemoto, Kenzo; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Oda, Shoji; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is widely used in cancer treatment. In addition to inducing effects in the irradiated area, irradiation may induce effects on tissues close to and distant from the irradiated area. Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes, is a small teleost fish and a model organism for evaluating the environmental effects of radiation. In this study, we applied low-energy carbon-ion (26.7 MeV/u) irradiation to adult medaka to a depth of approximately 2.2 mm from the body surface using an irradiation system at the National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology. We histologically evaluated the systemic alterations induced by irradiation using serial sections of the whole body, and conducted a heart rate analysis. Tissues from the irradiated side showed signs of serious injury that corresponded with the radiation dose. A 3D reconstruction analysis of the kidney sections showed reductions in the kidney volume and blood cell mass along the irradiated area, reflecting the precise localization of the injuries caused by carbon-beam irradiation. Capillary aneurysms were observed in the gill in both ventrally and dorsally irradiated fish, suggesting systemic irradiation effects. The present study provides an in vivo model for further investigation of the effects of irradiation beyond the locally irradiated area. PMID:27345436

  19. 2.5D/3D Models for the enhancement of architectural-urban heritage. An Virtual Tour of design of the Fascist headquarters in Littoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ippoliti, E.; Calvano, M.; Mores, L.

    2014-05-01

    Enhancement of cultural heritage is not simply a matter of preserving material objects but comes full circle only when the heritage can be enjoyed and used by the community. This is the rationale behind this presentation: an urban Virtual Tour to explore the 1937 design of the Fascist Headquarters in Littoria, now part of Latina, by the architect Oriolo Frezzotti. Although the application is deliberately "simple", it was part of a much broader framework of goals. One such goal was to create "friendly and perceptively meaningful" interfaces by integrating different "3D models" and so enriching. In fact, by exploiting the activation of natural mechanisms of visual perception and the ensuing emotional emphasis associated with vision, the illusionistic simulation of the scene facilitates access to the data even for "amateur" users. A second goal was to "contextualise the information" on which the concept of cultural heritage is based. In the application, communication of the heritage is linked to its physical and linguistic context; the latter is then used as a basis from which to set out to explore and understand the historical evidence. A third goal was to foster the widespread dissemination and sharing of this heritage of knowledge. On the one hand we worked to make the application usable from the Web, on the other, we established a reliable, rapid operational procedure with high quality processed data and ensuing contents. The procedure was also repeatable on a large scale.

  20. A common feature-based 3D-pharmacophore model generation and virtual screening: identification of potential PfDHFR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Adane, Legesse; Bharatam, Prasad V; Sharma, Vikas

    2010-10-01

    A four-feature 3D-pharmacophore model was built from a set of 24 compounds whose activities were reported against the V1/S strain of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (PfDHFR) enzyme. This is an enzyme harboring Asn51Ile + Cys59Arg + Ser108Asn + Ile164Leu mutations. The HipHop module of the Catalyst program was used to generate the model. Selection of the best model among the 10 hypotheses generated by HipHop was carried out based on rank and best-fit values or alignments of the training set compounds onto a particular hypothesis. The best model (hypo1) consisted of two H-bond donors, one hydrophobic aromatic, and one hydrophobic aliphatic features. Hypo1 was used as a query to virtually screen Maybridge2004 and NCI2000 databases. The hits obtained from the search were subsequently subjected to FlexX and Glide docking studies. Based on the binding scores and interactions in the active site of quadruple-mutant PfDHFR, a set of nine hits were identified as potential inhibitors. PMID:19995305

  1. A common feature-based 3D-pharmacophore model generation and virtual screening: identification of potential PfDHFR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Adane, Legesse; Bharatam, Prasad V; Sharma, Vikas

    2010-10-01

    A four-feature 3D-pharmacophore model was built from a set of 24 compounds whose activities were reported against the V1/S strain of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (PfDHFR) enzyme. This is an enzyme harboring Asn51Ile + Cys59Arg + Ser108Asn + Ile164Leu mutations. The HipHop module of the Catalyst program was used to generate the model. Selection of the best model among the 10 hypotheses generated by HipHop was carried out based on rank and best-fit values or alignments of the training set compounds onto a particular hypothesis. The best model (hypo1) consisted of two H-bond donors, one hydrophobic aromatic, and one hydrophobic aliphatic features. Hypo1 was used as a query to virtually screen Maybridge2004 and NCI2000 databases. The hits obtained from the search were subsequently subjected to FlexX and Glide docking studies. Based on the binding scores and interactions in the active site of quadruple-mutant PfDHFR, a set of nine hits were identified as potential inhibitors.

  2. Animal Companions: Fostering Children's Effort-Making by Nurturing Virtual Pets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhi-Hong; Liao, Calvin; Chien, Tzu-Chao; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2011-01-01

    Virtual character is a significant application in the research field of technology-enhanced learning. In this study, the concept of animal companions, "non-smart" virtual characters, is proposed as a way to encourage students to promote effort-making learning behaviours. The two underpinning design rationales are first discussed followed by the…

  3. Effects of virtual human animation on emotion contagion in simulated inter-personal experiences.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanxiang; Babu, Sabarish V; Armstrong, Rowan; Bertrand, Jeffrey W; Luo, Jun; Roy, Tania; Daily, Shaundra B; Dukes, Lauren Cairco; Hodges, Larry F; Fasolino, Tracy

    2014-04-01

    We empirically examined the impact of virtual human animation on the emotional responses of participants in a medical virtual reality system for education in the signs and symptoms of patient deterioration. Participants were presented with one of two virtual human conditions in a between-subjects experiment, static (non-animated) and dynamic (animated). Our objective measures included the use of psycho-physical Electro Dermal Activity (EDA) sensors, and subjective measures inspired by social psychology research included the Differential Emotions Survey (DES IV) and Positive and Negative Affect Survey (PANAS). We analyzed the quantitative and qualitative measures associated with participants’ emotional state at four distinct time-steps in the simulated interpersonal experience as the virtual patient’s medical condition deteriorated. Results suggest that participants in the dynamic condition with animations exhibited a higher sense of co-presence and greater emotional response as compared to participants in the static condition, corresponding to the deterioration in the medical condition of the virtual patient. Negative affect of participants in the dynamic condition increased at a higher rate than for participants in the static condition. The virtual human animations elicited a stronger response in negative emotions such as anguish, fear, and anger as the virtual patient’s medical condition worsened.

  4. Effects of virtual human animation on emotion contagion in simulated inter-personal experiences.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanxiang; Babu, Sabarish V; Armstrong, Rowan; Bertrand, Jeffrey W; Luo, Jun; Roy, Tania; Daily, Shaundra B; Dukes, Lauren Cairco; Hodges, Larry F; Fasolino, Tracy

    2014-04-01

    We empirically examined the impact of virtual human animation on the emotional responses of participants in a medical virtual reality system for education in the signs and symptoms of patient deterioration. Participants were presented with one of two virtual human conditions in a between-subjects experiment, static (non-animated) and dynamic (animated). Our objective measures included the use of psycho-physical Electro Dermal Activity (EDA) sensors, and subjective measures inspired by social psychology research included the Differential Emotions Survey (DES IV) and Positive and Negative Affect Survey (PANAS). We analyzed the quantitative and qualitative measures associated with participants’ emotional state at four distinct time-steps in the simulated interpersonal experience as the virtual patient’s medical condition deteriorated. Results suggest that participants in the dynamic condition with animations exhibited a higher sense of co-presence and greater emotional response as compared to participants in the static condition, corresponding to the deterioration in the medical condition of the virtual patient. Negative affect of participants in the dynamic condition increased at a higher rate than for participants in the static condition. The virtual human animations elicited a stronger response in negative emotions such as anguish, fear, and anger as the virtual patient’s medical condition worsened. PMID:24650990

  5. Comparison of 3D Maximum A Posteriori and Filtered Backprojection algorithms for high resolution animal imaging in microPET

    SciTech Connect

    Chatziioannou, A.; Qi, J.; Moore, A.; Annala, A.; Nguyen, K.; Leahy, R.M.; Cherry, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    We have evaluated the performance of two three dimensional reconstruction algorithms with data acquired from microPET, a high resolution tomograph dedicated to small animal imaging. The first was a linear filtered-backprojection algorithm (FBP) with reprojection of the missing data and the second was a statistical maximum-aposteriori probability algorithm (MAP). The two algorithms were evaluated in terms of their resolution performance, both in phantoms and in vivo. Sixty independent realizations of a phantom simulating the brain of a baby monkey were acquired, each containing 3 million counts. Each of these realizations was reconstructed independently with both algorithms. The ensemble of the sixty reconstructed realizations was used to estimate the standard deviation as a measure of the noise for each reconstruction algorithm. More detail was recovered in the MAP reconstruction without an increase in noise relative to FBP. Studies in a simple cylindrical compartment phantom demonstrated improved recovery of known activity ratios with MAP. Finally in vivo studies also demonstrated a clear improvement in spatial resolution using the MAP algorithm. The quantitative accuracy of the MAP reconstruction was also evaluated by comparison with autoradiography and direct well counting of tissue samples and was shown to be superior.

  6. 3D reservoir visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Van, B.T.; Pajon, J.L.; Joseph, P. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper shows how some simple 3D computer graphics tools can be combined to provide efficient software for visualizing and analyzing data obtained from reservoir simulators and geological simulations. The animation and interactive capabilities of the software quickly provide a deep understanding of the fluid-flow behavior and an accurate idea of the internal architecture of a reservoir.

  7. Discovery of new inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA enzyme using virtual screening and a 3D-pharmacophore-based approach.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Ivani; dos Santos, Ricardo N; Rostirolla, Diana C; Martinelli, Leonardo K; Ducati, Rodrigo G; Timmers, Luís F S M; Basso, Luiz A; Santos, Diógenes S; Guido, Rafael V C; Andricopulo, Adriano D; Norberto de Souza, Osmar

    2013-09-23

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA (MtInhA) is an attractive enzyme to drug discovery efforts due to its validation as an effective biological target for tuberculosis therapy. In this work, two different virtual-ligand-screening approaches were applied in order to identify new InhA inhibitors' candidates from a library of ligands selected from the ZINC database. First, a 3-D pharmacophore model was built based on 36 available MtInhA crystal structures. By combining structure-based and ligand-based information, four pharmacophoric points were designed to select molecules able to satisfy the binding features of MtInhA substrate-binding cavity. The second approach consisted of using four well established docking programs, with different search algorithms, to compare the binding mode and score of the selected molecules from the aforementioned library. After detailed analyses of the results, six ligands were selected for in vitro analysis. Three of these molecules presented a satisfactory inhibitory activity with IC50 values ranging from 24 (±2) μM to 83 (±5) μM. The best compound presented an uncompetitive inhibition mode to NADH and 2-trans-dodecenoyl-CoA substrates, with Ki values of 24 (±3) μM and 20 (±2) μM, respectively. These molecules were not yet described as antituberculars or as InhA inhibitors, making its novelty interesting to start efforts on ligand optimization in order to identify new effective drugs against tuberculosis having InhA as a target. More studies are underway to dissect the discovered uncompetitive inhibitor interactions with MtInhA.

  8. SU-C-BRE-01: 3D Conformal Micro Irradiation Results of Four Treatment Sites for Preclinical Small Animal and Clinical Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S; Yaddanapudi, S; Rangaraj, D; Izaguirre, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Small animal irradiation can provide preclinical insights necessary for clinical advancement. In order to provide clinically relevant data, these small animal irradiations must be designed such that the treatment methods and results are comparable to clinical protocols, regardless of variations in treatment size and modality. Methods: Small animal treatments for four treatment sites (brain, liver, lung and spine) were investigated, accounting for change in treatment energy and target size. Up to five orthovoltage (300kVp) beams were used in the preclinical treatments, using circular, square, and conformal tungsten apertures, based on the treatment site. Treatments were delivered using the image guided micro irradiator (microIGRT). The plans were delivered to a mouse sized phantom and dose measurements in axial and coronal planes were performed using radiochromic film. The results of the clinical and preclinical protocols were characterized in terms of conformality number, CTV coverage, dose nonuniformity ratio, and organ at risk sparing. Results: Preclinical small animal treatment conformality was within 1–16% of clinical results for all treatment sites. The volume of the CTV receiving 100% of the prescription dose was typically within 10% of clinical values. The dose non-uniformity was consistently higher for preclinical treatments compared to clinical treatments, indicating hot spots in the target. The ratios of the mean dose in the target to the mean dose in an organ at risk were comparable if not better for preclinical versus clinical treatments. Finally, QUANTEC dose constraints were applied and the recommended morbidity limits were satisfied in each small animal treatment site. Conclusion: We have shown that for four treatment sites, preclinical 3D conformal small animal treatments can be clinically comparable if clinical protocols are followed. Using clinical protocols as the standard, preclinical irradiation methods can be altered and iteratively

  9. A Smart Cage With Uniform Wireless Power Distribution in 3D for Enabling Long-Term Experiments With Freely Moving Animals.

    PubMed

    Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Bahrami, Hadi; Sawan, Mohamad; Gosselin, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a novel experimental chamber with uniform wireless power distribution in 3D for enabling long-term biomedical experiments with small freely moving animal subjects. The implemented power transmission chamber prototype is based on arrays of parallel resonators and multicoil inductive links, to form a novel and highly efficient wireless power transmission system. The power transmitter unit includes several identical resonators enclosed in a scalable array of overlapping square coils which are connected in parallel to provide uniform power distribution along x and y. Moreover, the proposed chamber uses two arrays of primary resonators, facing each other, and connected in parallel to achieve uniform power distribution along the z axis. Each surface includes 9 overlapped coils connected in parallel and implemented into two layers of FR4 printed circuit board. The chamber features a natural power localization mechanism, which simplifies its implementation and ease its operation by avoiding the need for active detection and control mechanisms. A single power surface based on the proposed approach can provide a power transfer efficiency (PTE) of 69% and a power delivered to the load (PDL) of 120 mW, for a separation distance of 4 cm, whereas the complete chamber prototype provides a uniform PTE of 59% and a PDL of 100 mW in 3D, everywhere inside the chamber with a size of 27×27×16 cm(3). PMID:26011866

  10. A Smart Cage With Uniform Wireless Power Distribution in 3D for Enabling Long-Term Experiments With Freely Moving Animals.

    PubMed

    Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Bahrami, Hadi; Sawan, Mohamad; Gosselin, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a novel experimental chamber with uniform wireless power distribution in 3D for enabling long-term biomedical experiments with small freely moving animal subjects. The implemented power transmission chamber prototype is based on arrays of parallel resonators and multicoil inductive links, to form a novel and highly efficient wireless power transmission system. The power transmitter unit includes several identical resonators enclosed in a scalable array of overlapping square coils which are connected in parallel to provide uniform power distribution along x and y. Moreover, the proposed chamber uses two arrays of primary resonators, facing each other, and connected in parallel to achieve uniform power distribution along the z axis. Each surface includes 9 overlapped coils connected in parallel and implemented into two layers of FR4 printed circuit board. The chamber features a natural power localization mechanism, which simplifies its implementation and ease its operation by avoiding the need for active detection and control mechanisms. A single power surface based on the proposed approach can provide a power transfer efficiency (PTE) of 69% and a power delivered to the load (PDL) of 120 mW, for a separation distance of 4 cm, whereas the complete chamber prototype provides a uniform PTE of 59% and a PDL of 100 mW in 3D, everywhere inside the chamber with a size of 27×27×16 cm(3).

  11. The Development of a Virtual 3D Model of the Renal Corpuscle from Serial Histological Sections for E-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Jeremy A.; Wilson, Timothy D.; Sandig, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a core subject in the anatomical sciences where learners are challenged to interpret two-dimensional (2D) information (gained from histological sections) to extrapolate and understand the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of cells, tissues, and organs. In gross anatomical education 3D models and learning tools have been associated…

  12. Improved attenuation correction for freely moving animal brain PET studies using a virtual scanner geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelis, Georgios I.; Ryder, William J.; Kyme, Andre Z.; Fulton, Roger R.; Meikle, Steven R.

    2014-03-01

    Attenuation correction in positron emission tomography brain imaging of freely moving animals can be very challenging since the body of the animal is often within the field of view and introduces a non negligible atten- uating factor that can degrade the quantitative accuracy of the reconstructed images. An attractive approach that avoids the need for a transmission scan involves the generation of the convex hull of the animal's head based on the reconstructed emission images. However, this approach ignores the potential attenuation introduced by the animal's body. In this work, we propose a virtual scanner geometry, which moves in synchrony with the animal's head and discriminates between those events that traverse only the animal's head (and therefore can be accurately compensated for attenuation) and those that might have also traversed the animal's body. For each pose a new virtual scanner geometry was defined and therefore a new system matrix was calculated leading to a time-varying system matrix. This new approach was evaluated on phantom data acquired on the microPET Focus 220 scanner using a custom-made rat phantom. Results showed that when the animal's body is within the FOV and not accounted for during attenuation correction it can lead to bias of up to 10%. On the contrary, at- tenuation correction was more accurate when the virtual scanner was employed leading to improved quantitative estimates (bias <2%), without the need to account for the animal's body.

  13. 3-D reconstruction and virtual ductoscopy of high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast with casting type calcifications using refraction-based X-ray CT.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Shu; Ando, Masami; Maksimenko, Anton; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Eiko; Yamasaki, Katsuhito; Mori, Kensaku; Arai, Yoshinori; Endo, Tokiko

    2008-01-01

    Stereomicroscopic observations of thick sections, or three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions from serial sections, have provided insights into histopathology. However, they generally require time-consuming and laborious procedures. Recently, we have developed a new algorithm for refraction-based X-ray computed tomography (CT). The aim of this study is to apply this emerging technology to visualize the 3-D structure of a high-grade ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS) of the breast. The high-resolution two-dimensional images of the refraction-based CT were validated by comparing them with the sequential histological sections. Without adding any contrast medium, the new CT showed strong contrast and was able to depict the non-calcified fine structures such as duct walls and intraductal carcinoma itself, both of which were barely visible in a conventional absorption-based CT. 3-D reconstruction and virtual endoscopy revealed that the high-grade DCIS was located within the dichotomatous branches of the ducts. Multiple calcifications occurred in the necrotic core of the continuous DCIS, resulting in linear and branching (casting type) calcifications, a hallmark of high-grade DCIS on mammograms. In conclusion, refraction-based X-ray CT approaches the low-power light microscopic view of the histological sections. It provides high quality slice data for 3-D reconstruction and virtual ductosocpy.

  14. Use of Three-Dimensional (3-D) Immersive Virtual Worlds in K-12 And Higher Education Settings: A Review of the Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we review past empirical research studies on the use of three-dimensional immersive virtual worlds in education settings such as K-12 and higher education. Three questions guided our review: (1) How are virtual worlds (eg, "Active Worlds", "Second Life") used by students and teachers? (2) What types of research methods have been…

  15. Analyzing Visitors' Discourse, Attitudes, Perceptions, and Knowledge Acquisition in an Art Museum Tour after Using a 3D Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alba, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this mixed methods research was to explore and analyze visitors' overall experience while they attended a museum exhibition, and examine how this experience was affected by previously using a virtual 3dimensional representation of the museum itself. The research measured knowledge acquisition in a virtual museum, and…

  16. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  17. The New 3D Printed Left Atrial Appendage Closure with a Novel Holdfast Device: A Pre-Clinical Feasibility Animal Study

    PubMed Central

    Brzeziński, M.; Bury, K.; Dąbrowski, L.; Holak, P.; Sejda, A.; Pawlak, M.; Jagielak, D.; Adamiak, Z.; Rogowski, J.

    2016-01-01

    surrounding tissues. No pericarditis or macroscopic signs of inflammation at the site of the device were found. All pigs were in good condition with normal weight gain and no other clinical symptoms. Conclusion This novel 3D printed left atrial appendage closure technique with a novel holdfast device was proven to be safe and feasible in all pigs. A benign healing process without inflammation and damage to the surrounding structures or evidence of new thrombi formation was observed. Moreover, the uncomplicated survival and full LAA exclusion in all animals demonstrate the efficacy of this novel and relatively cheap device. Further clinical evaluation and implementation studies should be performed to introduce this new technology into clinical practice. PMID:27219618

  18. Age and gestural differences in the ease of rotating a virtual 3D image on a large, multi-touch screen.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chao-Jen; Chen, Li-Chieh

    2013-04-01

    Providing a natural mapping between multi-touch gestures and manipulations of digital content is important for user-friendly interfaces. Although there are some guidelines for 2D digital content available in the literature, a guideline for manipulation of 3D content has yet to be developed. In this research, two sets of gestures were developed for experiments in the ease of manipulating 3D content on a touchscreen. As there typically are large differences between age groups in the ease of learning new interfaces, we compared a group of adults with a group of children. Each person carried out three tasks linked to rotating the digital model of a green turtle to inspect major characteristics of its body. Task completion time, subjective evaluations, and gesture changing frequency were measured. Results showed that using the conventional gestures for 2D object rotation was not appropriate in the 3D environment. Gestures that required multiple touch points hampered the real-time visibility of rotational effects on a large screen. While the cumulative effects of 3D rotations became complicated after intensive operations, simpler gestures facilitated the mapping between 2D control movements and 3D content displays. For rotation in Cartesian coordinates, moving one fingertip horizontally or vertically on a 2D touchscreen corresponded to the rotation angles of two axes for 3D content, while the relative movement between two fingertips was used to control the rotation angleof the third axis. Based on behavior analysis, adults and children differed in the diversity of gesture types and in the touch points with respect to the object's contours. Offering a robust mechanism for gestural inputs is necessary for universal control of such a system.

  19. Transnational organizational considerations for sociocultural differences in ethics and virtual team functioning in laboratory animal science.

    PubMed

    Pritt, Stacy L; Mackta, Jayne

    2010-05-01

    Business models for transnational organizations include linking different geographies through common codes of conduct, policies, and virtual teams. Global companies with laboratory animal science activities (whether outsourced or performed inhouse) often see the need for these business activities in relation to animal-based research and benefit from them. Global biomedical research organizations can learn how to better foster worldwide cooperation and teamwork by understanding and working with sociocultural differences in ethics and by knowing how to facilitate appropriate virtual team actions. Associated practices include implementing codes and policies transcend cultural, ethnic, or other boundaries and equipping virtual teams with the needed technology, support, and rewards to ensure timely and productive work that ultimately promotes good science and patient safety in drug development.

  20. Transnational organizational considerations for sociocultural differences in ethics and virtual team functioning in laboratory animal science.

    PubMed

    Pritt, Stacy L; Mackta, Jayne

    2010-05-01

    Business models for transnational organizations include linking different geographies through common codes of conduct, policies, and virtual teams. Global companies with laboratory animal science activities (whether outsourced or performed inhouse) often see the need for these business activities in relation to animal-based research and benefit from them. Global biomedical research organizations can learn how to better foster worldwide cooperation and teamwork by understanding and working with sociocultural differences in ethics and by knowing how to facilitate appropriate virtual team actions. Associated practices include implementing codes and policies transcend cultural, ethnic, or other boundaries and equipping virtual teams with the needed technology, support, and rewards to ensure timely and productive work that ultimately promotes good science and patient safety in drug development. PMID:20587155

  1. Overestimation of heights in virtual reality is influenced more by perceived distal size than by the 2-D versus 3-D dimensionality of the display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, Melissa W.; Proffitt, Dennis R.; Kaiser, M. K. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    One important aspect of the pictorial representation of a scene is the depiction of object proportions. Yang, Dixon, and Proffitt (1999 Perception 28 445-467) recently reported that the magnitude of the vertical-horizontal illusion was greater for vertical extents presented in three-dimensional (3-D) environments compared to two-dimensional (2-D) displays. However, because all of the 3-D environments were large and all of the 2-D displays were small, the question remains whether the observed magnitude differences were due solely to the dimensionality of the displays (2-D versus 3-D) or to the perceived distal size of the extents (small versus large). We investigated this question by comparing observers' judgments of vertical relative to horizontal extents on a large but 2-D display compared to the large 3-D and the small 2-D displays used by Yang et al (1999). The results confirmed that the magnitude differences for vertical overestimation between display media are influenced more by the perceived distal object size rather than by the dimensionality of the display.

  2. The virtual human face: superimposing the simultaneously captured 3D photorealistic skin surface of the face on the untextured skin image of the CBCT scan.

    PubMed

    Naudi, K B; Benramadan, R; Brocklebank, L; Ju, X; Khambay, B; Ayoub, A

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of simultaneous capture of the three-dimensional (3D) surface of the face and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan of the skull on the accuracy of their registration and superimposition. 3D facial images were acquired in 14 patients using the Di3d (Dimensional Imaging, UK) imaging system and i-CAT CBCT scanner. One stereophotogrammetry image was captured at the same time as the CBCT and another 1h later. The two stereophotographs were individually superimposed over the CBCT using VRmesh. Seven patches were isolated on the final merged surfaces. For the whole face and each individual patch: maximum and minimum range of deviation between surfaces; absolute average distance between surfaces; and standard deviation for the 90th percentile of the distance errors were calculated. The superimposition errors of the whole face for both captures revealed statistically significant differences (P=0.00081). The absolute average distances in both separate and simultaneous captures were 0.47 and 0.27mm, respectively. The level of superimposition accuracy in patches from separate captures was 0.3-0.9mm, while that of simultaneous captures was 0.4mm. Simultaneous capture of Di3d and CBCT images significantly improved the accuracy of superimposition of these image modalities.

  3. Andragogical Characteristics and Expectations of University of Hawai'i Adult Learners in a 3D Multi-User Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeder, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover which andragogical characteristics and expectations of adult learners manifested themselves in the three-dimensional, multi-user virtual environment known as Second Life. This digital ethnographic study focused specifically on adult students within the University of Hawai'i Second Life group and their…

  4. [Documentation of course and results of crime scene reconstruction and virtual crime scene reconstruction possibility by means of 3D laser scanning technology].

    PubMed

    Maksymowicz, Krzysztof; Zołna, Małgorzata M; Kościuk, Jacek; Dawidowicz, Bartosz

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to present both the possibilities of documenting the course and results of crime scene reconstruction using 3D laser scanning technology and the legal basis for application of this technology in evidence collection. The authors present the advantages of the aforementioned method, such as precision, objectivity, resistance of the measurement parameters to manipulation (comparing to other methods), high imaging resolution, touchless data recording, nondestructive testing, etc. Moreover, trough the analysis of the current legal regulations concerning image recording in criminal proceedings, the authors show 3D laser scanning technology to have a full complete ability to be applied in practice in documentation of the course and results of crime scene reconstruction. PMID:21863738

  5. Digital Geology from field to 3D modelling and Google Earth virtual environment: methods and goals from the Furlo Gorge (Northern Apennines - Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Susini, Sara

    2014-05-01

    A new map of the Furlo Gorge was surveyed and elaborated in a digital way. In every step of work we used digital tools as mobile GIS and 3D modelling software. Phase 1st Starting in the lab, planning the field project development, base cartography, forms and data base were designed in the way we thought was the best for collecting and store data in order of producing a digital n­-dimensional map. Bedding attitudes, outcrops sketches and description, stratigraphic logs, structural features and other informations were collected and organised in a structured database using rugged tablet PC, GPS receiver, digital cameras and later also an Android smartphone with some survey apps in-­house developed. A new mobile GIS (BeeGIS) was developed starting from an open source GIS (uDig): a number of tools like GPS connection, pen drawing annotations, geonotes, fieldbook, photo synchronization and geotagging were originally designed. Phase 2nd After some month of digital field work, all the informations were elaborated for drawing a geologic map in GIS environment. For that we use both commercial (ArcGIS) and open source (gvSig, QGIS, uDig) without big technical problems. Phase 3rd When we get to the step of building a 3D model (using 3DMove), passing trough the assisted drawing of cross-­sections (2DMove), we discovered a number of problems in the interpretation of geological structures (thrusts, normal faults) and more in the interpretation of stratigraphic thickness and boundaries and their relationships with topography. Phase 4th Before an "on­-armchair" redrawing of map, we decide to go back to the field and check directly what was wrong. Two main vantages came from this: (1) the mistakes we found could be reinterpreted and corrected directly in the field having all digital tools we need; (2) previous interpretations could be stored in GIS layers keeping memory of the previous work (also mistakes). Phase 5th A 3D model built with 3D Move is already almost self

  6. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  7. Rats in Virtual Space: The development and implementation of a multimodal virtual reality system for small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharoni, Daniel Benjamin

    The integration of multimodal sensory information into a common neural code is a critical function of all complex nervous systems. This process is required for adaptive responding to incoming stimuli as well as the formation of a cognitive map of the external sensory environment. The underlying neural mechanisms of multimodal integration are poorly understood due, in part, to the technical difficulties of manipulating multimodal sensory information in combination with simultaneous in-vivo electrophysiological recording in awake behaving animals. We therefore developed a non-invasive multimodal virtual reality system that is conducive to wired electrophysiological recording techniques. This system allows for the dynamic presentation of highly immersive audiovisual virtual environments to rats maintained in a body fixed position on top of a quiet spherical treadmill. Notably, this allows the rats to remain at the same spatial location in the real world without the need for head fixation. This method opens the door for a wide array of future studies aimed at elucidating the underlying neural mechanisms of multimodal integration.

  8. Combining 3D technologies for cultural heritage interpretation and entertainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Picard, Michel; El-Hakim, Sabry F.; Godin, Guy; Valzano, Virginia; Bandiera, Adriana

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents a summary of the 3D modeling work that was accomplished in preparing multimedia products for cultural heritage interpretation and entertainment. The three cases presented are the Byzantine Crypt of Santa Cristina, Apulia, temple C of Selinunte, Sicily, and a bronze sculpture from the 6th century BC found in Ugento, Apulia. The core of the approach is based upon high-resolution photo-realistic texture mapping onto 3D models generated from range images. It is shown that three-dimensional modeling from range imaging is an effective way to present the spatial information for environments and artifacts. Spatial sampling and range measurement uncertainty considerations are addressed by giving the results of a number of tests on different range cameras. The integration of both photogrammetric and CAD modeling complements this approach. Results on a CDROM, a DVD, virtual 3D theatre, holograms, video animations and web pages have been prepared for these projects.

  9. Combining 3D technologies for cultural heritage interpretation and entertainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Picard, Michel; El-Hakim, Sabry F.; Godin, Guy; Valzano, Virginia; Bandiera, Adriana

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the 3D modeling work that was accomplished in preparing multimedia products for cultural heritage interpretation and entertainment. The three cases presented are the Byzantine Crypt of Santa Cristina, Apulia, temple C of Selinunte, Sicily, and a bronze sculpture from the 6th century BC found in Ugento, Apulia. The core of the approach is based upon high-resolution photo-realistic texture mapping onto 3D models generated from range images. It is shown that three-dimensional modeling from range imaging is an effective way to present the spatial information for environments and artifacts. Spatial sampling and range measurement uncertainty considerations are addressed by giving the results of a number of tests on different range cameras. The integration of both photogrammetric and CAD modeling complements this approach. Results on a CDROM, a DVD, virtual 3D theatre, holograms, video animations and web pages have been prepared for these projects.

  10. Algorithms for Haptic Rendering of 3D Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basdogan, Cagatay; Ho, Chih-Hao; Srinavasan, Mandayam

    2003-01-01

    Algorithms have been developed to provide haptic rendering of three-dimensional (3D) objects in virtual (that is, computationally simulated) environments. The goal of haptic rendering is to generate tactual displays of the shapes, hardnesses, surface textures, and frictional properties of 3D objects in real time. Haptic rendering is a major element of the emerging field of computer haptics, which invites comparison with computer graphics. We have already seen various applications of computer haptics in the areas of medicine (surgical simulation, telemedicine, haptic user interfaces for blind people, and rehabilitation of patients with neurological disorders), entertainment (3D painting, character animation, morphing, and sculpting), mechanical design (path planning and assembly sequencing), and scientific visualization (geophysical data analysis and molecular manipulation).

  11. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  12. Full Immersive Virtual Environment Cave[TM] in Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limniou, M.; Roberts, D.; Papadopoulos, N.

    2008-01-01

    By comparing two-dimensional (2D) chemical animations designed for computer's desktop with three-dimensional (3D) chemical animations designed for the full immersive virtual reality environment CAVE[TM] we studied how virtual reality environments could raise student's interest and motivation for learning. By using the 3ds max[TM], we can visualize…

  13. Identification of Potent Virtual Leads Specific to S1' Loop of ADAMTS4: Pharmacophore Modeling, 3D-QSAR, Molecular Docking and Dynamic Studies.

    PubMed

    Suganya, P Rathi; Kalva, Sukesh; Saleena, Lilly M

    2016-01-01

    ADAMTS4 (Aggrecanase-1) is an important enzyme, which belongs to ADAMTS family. Aggrecanase-1 is involved in aggrecan degradation of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Overall variability of S1' domain of ADAMTS4 has been the main selectivity determinant to design the unique inhibitors. 34 inhibitors from Binding database and literature were used to develop the pharmacophore model. The five featured pharmacophore model AHHRR had the best survival score of 3.493 and post-hoc score of 2.545, indicating that the model is highly reliable. The 3D-QSAR acquired had excellent r(2) value of 0.99 and GH score of 0.839. The validated pharmacophore model was used for insilico screening of Asinex and ZINC database for finding the potential lead compounds. ZINC00987406 and ASN04459656 which pose high glide score i.e >7 Kcal/mol and H-bond and hydrophobic interactions in the S1'loop residues of ADAMTS4 were subjected to Molecular Dynamics Simulation studies. Molecular dynamic simulation result indicates that the RMSD and RMSF of backbone atoms for the above complexes were within the limit of 2.0 A˚. These compounds can be potential candidates for osteoarthritis by inhibiting ADAMTS4. PMID:26813685

  14. Developing and Evaluating of Non-Realistic Three-Dimensional (3d-Nr) and Two-Dimensional (2d) Talking-Head Animation Courseware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdan, Mohd Najib; Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    The talking-head animation is an instructional animation capable of improving the communication skills through enhancing the pronunciation skills; whereby a word is pronounced correctly and accurately. This had been proven by several researches, which indicate that learning with interactive animation is much more advantageous than conventional…

  15. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  16. Attenuation correction for freely moving small animal brain PET studies based on a virtual scanner geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelis, G. I.; Kyme, A. Z.; Ryder, W. J.; Fulton, R. R.; Meikle, S. R.

    2014-10-01

    Attenuation correction in positron emission tomography brain imaging of freely moving animals is a very challenging problem since the torso of the animal is often within the field of view and introduces a non negligible attenuating factor that can degrade the quantitative accuracy of the reconstructed images. In the context of unrestrained small animal imaging, estimation of the attenuation correction factors without the need for a transmission scan is highly desirable. An attractive approach that avoids the need for a transmission scan involves the generation of the hull of the animal’s head based on the reconstructed motion corrected emission images. However, this approach ignores the attenuation introduced by the animal’s torso. In this work, we propose a virtual scanner geometry which moves in synchrony with the animal’s head and discriminates between those events that traversed only the animal’s head (and therefore can be accurately compensated for attenuation) and those that might have also traversed the animal’s torso. For each recorded pose of the animal’s head a new virtual scanner geometry is defined and therefore a new system matrix must be calculated leading to a time-varying system matrix. This new approach was evaluated on phantom data acquired on the microPET Focus 220 scanner using a custom-made phantom and step-wise motion. Results showed that when the animal’s torso is within the FOV and not appropriately accounted for during attenuation correction it can lead to bias of up to 10% . Attenuation correction was more accurate when the virtual scanner was employed leading to improved quantitative estimates (bias < 2%), without the need to account for the attenuation introduced by the extraneous compartment. Although the proposed method requires increased computational resources, it can provide a reliable approach towards quantitatively accurate attenuation correction for freely moving animal studies.

  17. Structural properties of spatial representations in blind people: Scanning images constructed from haptic exploration or from locomotion in a 3-D audio virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Amandine; Blum, Alan; Katz, Brian F G; Tarroux, Philippe; Borst, Grégoire; Denis, Michel

    2010-07-01

    When people scan mental images, their response times increase linearly with increases in the distance to be scanned, which is generally taken as reflecting the fact that their internal representations incorporate the metric properties of the corresponding objects. In view of this finding, we investigated the structural properties of spatial mental images created from nonvisual sources in three groups (blindfolded sighted, late blind, and congenitally blind). In Experiment 1, blindfolded sighted and late blind participants created metrically accurate spatial representations of a small-scale spatial configuration under both verbal and haptic learning conditions. In Experiment 2, late and congenitally blind participants generated accurate spatial mental images after both verbal and locomotor learning of a full-scale navigable space (created by an immersive audio virtual reality system), whereas blindfolded sighted participants were selectively impaired in their ability to generate precise spatial representations from locomotor experience. These results attest that in the context of a permanent lack of sight, encoding spatial information on the basis of the most reliable currently functional system (the sensorimotor system) is crucial for building a metrically accurate representation of a spatial environment. The results also highlight the potential of spatialized audio-rendering technology for exploring the spatial representations of visually impaired participants.

  18. Structural properties of spatial representations in blind people: Scanning images constructed from haptic exploration or from locomotion in a 3-D audio virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Amandine; Blum, Alan; Katz, Brian F G; Tarroux, Philippe; Borst, Grégoire; Denis, Michel

    2010-07-01

    When people scan mental images, their response times increase linearly with increases in the distance to be scanned, which is generally taken as reflecting the fact that their internal representations incorporate the metric properties of the corresponding objects. In view of this finding, we investigated the structural properties of spatial mental images created from nonvisual sources in three groups (blindfolded sighted, late blind, and congenitally blind). In Experiment 1, blindfolded sighted and late blind participants created metrically accurate spatial representations of a small-scale spatial configuration under both verbal and haptic learning conditions. In Experiment 2, late and congenitally blind participants generated accurate spatial mental images after both verbal and locomotor learning of a full-scale navigable space (created by an immersive audio virtual reality system), whereas blindfolded sighted participants were selectively impaired in their ability to generate precise spatial representations from locomotor experience. These results attest that in the context of a permanent lack of sight, encoding spatial information on the basis of the most reliable currently functional system (the sensorimotor system) is crucial for building a metrically accurate representation of a spatial environment. The results also highlight the potential of spatialized audio-rendering technology for exploring the spatial representations of visually impaired participants. PMID:20551339

  19. An Augmented Reality based 3D Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Ryo; Kishimoto, Katsumi

    This paper presents a 3D catalog system that uses Augmented Reality technology. The use of Web-based catalog systems that present products in 3D form is increasing in various fields, along with the rapid and widespread adoption of Electronic Commerce. However, 3D shapes could previously only be seen in a virtual space, and it was difficult to understand how the products would actually look in the real world. To solve this, we propose a method that combines the virtual and real worlds simply and intuitively. The method applies Augmented Reality technology, and the system developed based on the method enables users to evaluate 3D virtual products in a real environment.

  20. A new algorithm to diagnose atrial ectopic origin from multi lead ECG systems--insights from 3D virtual human atria and torso.

    PubMed

    Alday, Erick A Perez; Colman, Michael A; Langley, Philip; Butters, Timothy D; Higham, Jonathan; Workman, Antony J; Hancox, Jules C; Zhang, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Rapid atrial arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF) predispose to ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death and stroke. Identifying the origin of atrial ectopic activity from the electrocardiogram (ECG) can help to diagnose the early onset of AF in a cost-effective manner. The complex and rapid atrial electrical activity during AF makes it difficult to obtain detailed information on atrial activation using the standard 12-lead ECG alone. Compared to conventional 12-lead ECG, more detailed ECG lead configurations may provide further information about spatio-temporal dynamics of the body surface potential (BSP) during atrial excitation. We apply a recently developed 3D human atrial model to simulate electrical activity during normal sinus rhythm and ectopic pacing. The atrial model is placed into a newly developed torso model which considers the presence of the lungs, liver and spinal cord. A boundary element method is used to compute the BSP resulting from atrial excitation. Elements of the torso mesh corresponding to the locations of the placement of the electrodes in the standard 12-lead and a more detailed 64-lead ECG configuration were selected. The ectopic focal activity was simulated at various origins across all the different regions of the atria. Simulated BSP maps during normal atrial excitation (i.e. sinoatrial node excitation) were compared to those observed experimentally (obtained from the 64-lead ECG system), showing a strong agreement between the evolution in time of the simulated and experimental data in the P-wave morphology of the ECG and dipole evolution. An algorithm to obtain the location of the stimulus from a 64-lead ECG system was developed. The algorithm presented had a success rate of 93%, meaning that it correctly identified the origin of atrial focus in 75/80 simulations, and involved a general approach relevant to any multi-lead ECG system. This represents a significant improvement over previously developed algorithms. PMID

  1. A new algorithm to diagnose atrial ectopic origin from multi lead ECG systems--insights from 3D virtual human atria and torso.

    PubMed

    Alday, Erick A Perez; Colman, Michael A; Langley, Philip; Butters, Timothy D; Higham, Jonathan; Workman, Antony J; Hancox, Jules C; Zhang, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Rapid atrial arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF) predispose to ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death and stroke. Identifying the origin of atrial ectopic activity from the electrocardiogram (ECG) can help to diagnose the early onset of AF in a cost-effective manner. The complex and rapid atrial electrical activity during AF makes it difficult to obtain detailed information on atrial activation using the standard 12-lead ECG alone. Compared to conventional 12-lead ECG, more detailed ECG lead configurations may provide further information about spatio-temporal dynamics of the body surface potential (BSP) during atrial excitation. We apply a recently developed 3D human atrial model to simulate electrical activity during normal sinus rhythm and ectopic pacing. The atrial model is placed into a newly developed torso model which considers the presence of the lungs, liver and spinal cord. A boundary element method is used to compute the BSP resulting from atrial excitation. Elements of the torso mesh corresponding to the locations of the placement of the electrodes in the standard 12-lead and a more detailed 64-lead ECG configuration were selected. The ectopic focal activity was simulated at various origins across all the different regions of the atria. Simulated BSP maps during normal atrial excitation (i.e. sinoatrial node excitation) were compared to those observed experimentally (obtained from the 64-lead ECG system), showing a strong agreement between the evolution in time of the simulated and experimental data in the P-wave morphology of the ECG and dipole evolution. An algorithm to obtain the location of the stimulus from a 64-lead ECG system was developed. The algorithm presented had a success rate of 93%, meaning that it correctly identified the origin of atrial focus in 75/80 simulations, and involved a general approach relevant to any multi-lead ECG system. This represents a significant improvement over previously developed algorithms.

  2. A New Algorithm to Diagnose Atrial Ectopic Origin from Multi Lead ECG Systems - Insights from 3D Virtual Human Atria and Torso

    PubMed Central

    Alday, Erick A. Perez; Colman, Michael A.; Langley, Philip; Butters, Timothy D.; Higham, Jonathan; Workman, Antony J.; Hancox, Jules C.; Zhang, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Rapid atrial arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF) predispose to ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death and stroke. Identifying the origin of atrial ectopic activity from the electrocardiogram (ECG) can help to diagnose the early onset of AF in a cost-effective manner. The complex and rapid atrial electrical activity during AF makes it difficult to obtain detailed information on atrial activation using the standard 12-lead ECG alone. Compared to conventional 12-lead ECG, more detailed ECG lead configurations may provide further information about spatio-temporal dynamics of the body surface potential (BSP) during atrial excitation. We apply a recently developed 3D human atrial model to simulate electrical activity during normal sinus rhythm and ectopic pacing. The atrial model is placed into a newly developed torso model which considers the presence of the lungs, liver and spinal cord. A boundary element method is used to compute the BSP resulting from atrial excitation. Elements of the torso mesh corresponding to the locations of the placement of the electrodes in the standard 12-lead and a more detailed 64-lead ECG configuration were selected. The ectopic focal activity was simulated at various origins across all the different regions of the atria. Simulated BSP maps during normal atrial excitation (i.e. sinoatrial node excitation) were compared to those observed experimentally (obtained from the 64-lead ECG system), showing a strong agreement between the evolution in time of the simulated and experimental data in the P-wave morphology of the ECG and dipole evolution. An algorithm to obtain the location of the stimulus from a 64-lead ECG system was developed. The algorithm presented had a success rate of 93%, meaning that it correctly identified the origin of atrial focus in 75/80 simulations, and involved a general approach relevant to any multi-lead ECG system. This represents a significant improvement over previously developed algorithms. PMID

  3. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  4. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  5. The Transverse Musculocutaneous Gracilis Free Flap: Virtual Animation-Assisted Dissection and Application in Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gabert, Pierre-Elliott; Bodin, Frederic; Aljudaibi, Nawaf; Duquennoy-Martinot, Veronique; Guerreschi, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    The transverse musculocutaneous gracilis free flap is a valuable choice for autologous tissue, unilateral or bilateral breast reconstruction. This procedure is an excellent and customized option for immediate or delayed breast reconstruction in patients with small to moderate size breasts. Few descriptions of flap dissection and breast mound shaping are available. In this first educational video, the authors report the original dissection of the transverse musculocutaneous gracilis free flap used for breast reconstruction. Virtual animations insist on surgical key points and relevant details of the harvesting of the flap.

  6. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  7. From 3D Bioprinters to a fully integrated Organ Biofabrication Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passamai, V. E.; Dernowsek, J. A.; Nogueira, J.; Lara, V.; Vilalba, F.; Mironov, V. A.; Rezende, R. A.; da Silva, J. V.

    2016-04-01

    About 30 years ago, the 3D printing technique appeared. From that time on, engineers in medical science field started to look at 3D printing as a partner. Firstly, biocompatible and biodegradable 3D structures for cell seeding called “scaffolds” were fabricated for in vitro and in vivo animal trials. The advances proved to be of great importance, but, the use of scaffolds faces some limitations, such as low homogeneity and low density of cell aggregates. In the last decade, 3D bioprinting technology emerged as a promising approach to overcome these limitations and as one potential solution to the challenge of organ fabrication, to obtain very similar 3D human tissues, not only for transplantation, but also for drug discovery, disease research and to decrease the usage of animals in laboratory experimentation. 3D bioprinting allowed the fabrication of 3D alive structures with higher and controllable cell density and homogeneity. Other advantage of biofabrication is that the tissue constructs are solid scaffold-free. This paper presents the 3D bioprinting technology; equipment development, stages and components of a complex Organ Bioprinting Line (OBL) and the importance of developing a Virtual OBL.

  8. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  9. Scanning 3D full human bodies using Kinects.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jing; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Ligang; Pan, Zhigeng; Yan, Hao

    2012-04-01

    Depth camera such as Microsoft Kinect, is much cheaper than conventional 3D scanning devices, and thus it can be acquired for everyday users easily. However, the depth data captured by Kinect over a certain distance is of extreme low quality. In this paper, we present a novel scanning system for capturing 3D full human body models by using multiple Kinects. To avoid the interference phenomena, we use two Kinects to capture the upper part and lower part of a human body respectively without overlapping region. A third Kinect is used to capture the middle part of the human body from the opposite direction. We propose a practical approach for registering the various body parts of different views under non-rigid deformation. First, a rough mesh template is constructed and used to deform successive frames pairwisely. Second, global alignment is performed to distribute errors in the deformation space, which can solve the loop closure problem efficiently. Misalignment caused by complex occlusion can also be handled reasonably by our global alignment algorithm. The experimental results have shown the efficiency and applicability of our system. Our system obtains impressive results in a few minutes with low price devices, thus is practically useful for generating personalized avatars for everyday users. Our system has been used for 3D human animation and virtual try on, and can further facilitate a range of home–oriented virtual reality (VR) applications. PMID:22402692

  10. Virtual reality, augmented reality, and robotics applied to digestive operative procedures: from in vivo animal preclinical studies to clinical use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Luc; Marescaux, Jacques

    2006-04-01

    Technological innovations of the 20 th century provided medicine and surgery with new tools, among which virtual reality and robotics belong to the most revolutionary ones. Our work aims at setting up new techniques for detection, 3D delineation and 4D time follow-up of small abdominal lesions from standard mecial images (CT scsan, MRI). It also aims at developing innovative systems making tumor resection or treatment easier with the use of augmented reality and robotized systems, increasing gesture precision. It also permits a realtime great distance connection between practitioners so they can share a same 3D reconstructed patient and interact on a same patient, virtually before the intervention and for real during the surgical procedure thanks to a telesurgical robot. In preclinical studies, our first results obtained from a micro-CT scanner show that these technologies provide an efficient and precise 3D modeling of anatomical and pathological structures of rats and mice. In clinical studies, our first results show the possibility to improve the therapeutic choice thanks to a better detection and and representation of the patient before performing the surgical gesture. They also show the efficiency of augmented reality that provides virtual transparency of the patient in real time during the operative procedure. In the near future, through the exploitation of these systems, surgeons will program and check on the virtual patient clone an optimal procedure without errors, which will be replayed on the real patient by the robot under surgeon control. This medical dream is today about to become reality.

  11. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  12. Emergent Stratification in Solid Tumors Selects for Reduced Cohesion of Tumor Cells: A Multi-Cell, Virtual-Tissue Model of Tumor Evolution Using CompuCell3D.

    PubMed

    Swat, Maciej H; Thomas, Gilberto L; Shirinifard, Abbas; Clendenon, Sherry G; Glazier, James A

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells and structure both evolve due to heritable variation of cell behaviors and selection over periods of weeks to years (somatic evolution). Micro-environmental factors exert selection pressures on tumor-cell behaviors, which influence both the rate and direction of evolution of specific behaviors, especially the development of tumor-cell aggression and resistance to chemotherapies. In this paper, we present, step-by-step, the development of a multi-cell, virtual-tissue model of tumor somatic evolution, simulated using the open-source CompuCell3D modeling environment. Our model includes essential cell behaviors, microenvironmental components and their interactions. Our model provides a platform for exploring selection pressures leading to the evolution of tumor-cell aggression, showing that emergent stratification into regions with different cell survival rates drives the evolution of less cohesive cells with lower levels of cadherins and higher levels of integrins. Such reduced cohesivity is a key hallmark in the progression of many types of solid tumors.

  13. A 3D interactive method for estimating body segmental parameters in animals: application to the turning and running performance of Tyrannosaurus rex.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, John R; Ng-Thow-Hing, Victor; Anderson, Frank C

    2007-06-21

    We developed a method based on interactive B-spline solids for estimating and visualizing biomechanically important parameters for animal body segments. Although the method is most useful for assessing the importance of unknowns in extinct animals, such as body contours, muscle bulk, or inertial parameters, it is also useful for non-invasive measurement of segmental dimensions in extant animals. Points measured directly from bodies or skeletons are digitized and visualized on a computer, and then a B-spline solid is fitted to enclose these points, allowing quantification of segment dimensions. The method is computationally fast enough so that software implementations can interactively deform the shape of body segments (by warping the solid) or adjust the shape quantitatively (e.g., expanding the solid boundary by some percentage or a specific distance beyond measured skeletal coordinates). As the shape changes, the resulting changes in segment mass, center of mass (CM), and moments of inertia can be recomputed immediately. Volumes of reduced or increased density can be embedded to represent lungs, bones, or other structures within the body. The method was validated by reconstructing an ostrich body from a fleshed and defleshed carcass and comparing the estimated dimensions to empirically measured values from the original carcass. We then used the method to calculate the segmental masses, centers of mass, and moments of inertia for an adult Tyrannosaurus rex, with measurements taken directly from a complete skeleton. We compare these results to other estimates, using the model to compute the sensitivities of unknown parameter values based upon 30 different combinations of trunk, lung and air sac, and hindlimb dimensions. The conclusion that T. rex was not an exceptionally fast runner remains strongly supported by our models-the main area of ambiguity for estimating running ability seems to be estimating fascicle lengths, not body dimensions. Additionally, the

  14. Menagerie: designing a virtual experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Scott S.; Amkraut, Susan; Girard, Michael; Trayle, Mark

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes an ongoing effort to develop one of the first fully immersive virtual environment installations that is inhabited by virtual characters and presences specially designed to respond to and interact with its users. This experience allows a visitor to become visually and aurally immersed in a 3D computer generated environment that is inhabited by many virtual animals. As a user explores the virtual space, he/she encounters several species of computer generated animals, birds, and insects that move about independently, and interactively respond to the user's presence in various ways. The hardware configuration of this system includes a head-coupled, stereoscopic color viewer, and special DSP hardware that provides realistic, 3D localized sound cues linked to characters and events in the virtual space. Also, the virtual environment and characters surrounding the user are generated by a high performance, real-time computer graphics platform. The paper describes the computer programs that model the motion of the animals, the system configuration that supports the experience, and the design issues involved in developing a virtual environment system for public installation.

  15. Online virtual isocenter based radiation field targeting for high performance small animal microirradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, James M. P.; Ansell, Steve; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in precision microirradiators for small animal radiation oncology studies have provided the framework for novel translational radiobiological studies. Such systems target radiation fields at the scale required for small animal investigations, typically through a combination of on-board computed tomography image guidance and fixed, interchangeable collimators. Robust targeting accuracy of these radiation fields remains challenging, particularly at the millimetre scale field sizes achievable by the majority of microirradiators. Consistent and reproducible targeting accuracy is further hindered as collimators are removed and inserted during a typical experimental workflow. This investigation quantified this targeting uncertainty and developed an online method based on a virtual treatment isocenter to actively ensure high performance targeting accuracy for all radiation field sizes. The results indicated that the two-dimensional field placement uncertainty was as high as 1.16 mm at isocenter, with simulations suggesting this error could be reduced to 0.20 mm using the online correction method. End-to-end targeting analysis of a ball bearing target on radiochromic film sections showed an improved targeting accuracy with the three-dimensional vector targeting error across six different collimators reduced from 0.56+/- 0.05 mm (mean  ±  SD) to 0.05+/- 0.05 mm for an isotropic imaging voxel size of 0.1 mm.

  16. The gut microbiome as a virtual endocrine organ with implications for farm and domestic animal endocrinology.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, T F; Ross, R P; Stanton, C; Clarke, G

    2016-07-01

    The gut microbiome exerts a marked influence on host physiology, and manipulation of its composition has repeatedly been shown to influence host metabolism and body composition. This virtual endocrine organ also has a role in the regulation of the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, an essential amino acid and precursor to serotonin, a key neurotransmitter within both the enteric and central nervous systems. Control over the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis also appears to be under the influence of the gut microbiota. This is clear from studies in microbiota-deficient germ-free animals with exaggerated responses to psychological stress that can be normalized by monocolonization with certain bacterial species including Bifidobacterium infantis. Therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota may thus be useful in treating or preventing stress-related microbiome-gut-brain axis disorders and metabolic diseases, much the same way as redirections of metabolopathies can be achieved through more traditional endocrine hormone-based interventions. Moreover, the implications of these findings need to be considered in the context of farm and domestic animal physiology, behavior, and food safety. PMID:27345323

  17. Online virtual isocenter based radiation field targeting for high performance small animal microirradiation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, James M P; Ansell, Steve; Lindsay, Patricia E; Jaffray, David A

    2015-12-01

    Advances in precision microirradiators for small animal radiation oncology studies have provided the framework for novel translational radiobiological studies. Such systems target radiation fields at the scale required for small animal investigations, typically through a combination of on-board computed tomography image guidance and fixed, interchangeable collimators. Robust targeting accuracy of these radiation fields remains challenging, particularly at the millimetre scale field sizes achievable by the majority of microirradiators. Consistent and reproducible targeting accuracy is further hindered as collimators are removed and inserted during a typical experimental workflow. This investigation quantified this targeting uncertainty and developed an online method based on a virtual treatment isocenter to actively ensure high performance targeting accuracy for all radiation field sizes. The results indicated that the two-dimensional field placement uncertainty was as high as 1.16 mm at isocenter, with simulations suggesting this error could be reduced to 0.20 mm using the online correction method. End-to-end targeting analysis of a ball bearing target on radiochromic film sections showed an improved targeting accuracy with the three-dimensional vector targeting error across six different collimators reduced from [Formula: see text] mm (mean  ±  SD) to [Formula: see text] mm for an isotropic imaging voxel size of 0.1 mm. PMID:26540304

  18. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  19. 3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2014-02-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

  20. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  1. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  2. Energy-Based Pharmacophore and Three-Dimensional Quantitative Structure--Activity Relationship (3D-QSAR) Modeling Combined with Virtual Screening To Identify Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Silent Mating-Type Information Regulation 2 Homologue 1 (SIRT1).

    PubMed

    Pulla, Venkat Koushik; Sriram, Dinavahi Saketh; Viswanadha, Srikant; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal

    2016-01-25

    Silent mating-type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1), being the homologous enzyme of silent information regulator-2 gene in yeast, has multifaceted functions. It deacetylates a wide range of histone and nonhistone proteins; hence, it has good therapeutic importance. SIRT1 was believed to be overexpressed in many cancers (prostate, colon) and inflammatory disorders (rheumatoid arthritis). Hence, designing inhibitors against SIRT1 could be considered valuable. Both structure-based and ligand-based drug design strategies were employed to design novel inhibitors utilizing high-throughput virtual screening of chemical databases. An energy-based pharmacophore was generated using the crystal structure of SIRT1 bound with a small molecule inhibitor and compared with a ligand-based pharmacophore model that showed four similar features. A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model was developed and validated to be employed in the virtual screening protocol. Among the designed compounds, Lead 17 emerged as a promising SIRT1 inhibitor with IC50 of 4.34 μM and, at nanomolar concentration (360 nM), attenuated the proliferation of prostate cancer cells (LnCAP). In addition, Lead 17 significantly reduced production of reactive oxygen species, thereby reducing pro inflammatory cytokines such as IL6 and TNF-α. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory potential of the compound was ascertained using an animal paw inflammation model induced by carrageenan. Thus, the identified SIRT1 inhibitors could be considered as potent leads to treat both cancer and inflammation.

  3. Energy-Based Pharmacophore and Three-Dimensional Quantitative Structure--Activity Relationship (3D-QSAR) Modeling Combined with Virtual Screening To Identify Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Silent Mating-Type Information Regulation 2 Homologue 1 (SIRT1).

    PubMed

    Pulla, Venkat Koushik; Sriram, Dinavahi Saketh; Viswanadha, Srikant; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal

    2016-01-25

    Silent mating-type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1), being the homologous enzyme of silent information regulator-2 gene in yeast, has multifaceted functions. It deacetylates a wide range of histone and nonhistone proteins; hence, it has good therapeutic importance. SIRT1 was believed to be overexpressed in many cancers (prostate, colon) and inflammatory disorders (rheumatoid arthritis). Hence, designing inhibitors against SIRT1 could be considered valuable. Both structure-based and ligand-based drug design strategies were employed to design novel inhibitors utilizing high-throughput virtual screening of chemical databases. An energy-based pharmacophore was generated using the crystal structure of SIRT1 bound with a small molecule inhibitor and compared with a ligand-based pharmacophore model that showed four similar features. A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model was developed and validated to be employed in the virtual screening protocol. Among the designed compounds, Lead 17 emerged as a promising SIRT1 inhibitor with IC50 of 4.34 μM and, at nanomolar concentration (360 nM), attenuated the proliferation of prostate cancer cells (LnCAP). In addition, Lead 17 significantly reduced production of reactive oxygen species, thereby reducing pro inflammatory cytokines such as IL6 and TNF-α. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory potential of the compound was ascertained using an animal paw inflammation model induced by carrageenan. Thus, the identified SIRT1 inhibitors could be considered as potent leads to treat both cancer and inflammation. PMID:26636371

  4. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  5. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  6. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  7. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  8. Tissue-plastinated vs. celloidin-embedded large serial sections in video, analog and digital photographic on-screen reproduction: a preliminary step to exact virtual 3D modelling, exemplified in the normal midface and cleft-lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Landes, Constantin A; Weichert, Frank; Geis, Philipp; Wernstedt, Katrin; Wilde, Anja; Fritsch, Helga; Wagner, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses tissue-plastinated vs. celloidin-embedded large serial sections, their inherent artefacts and aptitude with common video, analog or digital photographic on-screen reproduction. Subsequent virtual 3D microanatomical reconstruction will increase our knowledge of normal and pathological microanatomy for cleft-lip-palate (clp) reconstructive surgery. Of 18 fetal (six clp, 12 control) specimens, six randomized specimens (two clp) were BiodurE12-plastinated, sawn, burnished 90 µm thick transversely (five) or frontally (one), stained with azureII/methylene blue, and counterstained with basic-fuchsin (TP-AMF). Twelve remaining specimens (four clp) were celloidin-embedded, microtome-sectioned 75 µm thick transversely (ten) or frontally (two), and stained with haematoxylin–eosin (CE-HE). Computed-planimetry gauged artefacts, structure differentiation was compared with light microscopy on video, analog and digital photography. Total artefact was 0.9% (TP-AMF) and 2.1% (CE-HE); TP-AMF showed higher colour contrast, gamut and luminance, and CE-HE more red contrast, saturation and hue (P < 0.4). All (100%) structures of interest were light microscopically discerned, 83% on video, 76% on analog photography and 98% in digital photography. Computed image analysis assessed the greatest colour contrast, gamut, luminance and saturation on video; the most detailed, colour-balanced and sharpest images were obatined with digital photography (P < 0.02). TP-AMF retained spatial oversight, covered the entire area of interest and should be combined in different specimens with CE-HE which enables more refined muscle fibre reproduction. Digital photography is preferred for on-screen analysis. PMID:16050904

  9. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  10. Venus in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, J. J.

    1993-08-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  11. SU-C-213-07: Fabrication and Testing of a 3D-Printed Small Animal Rectal Cooling Device to Evaluate Local Hypothermia as a Radioprotector During Prostate SBRT

    SciTech Connect

    Hrycushko, B; Chopra, R; Futch, C; Bing, C; Wodzak, M; Stojadinovic, S; Jiang, S; Medin, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The protective effects of induced or even accidental hypothermia on the human body are widespread with several medical uses currently under active research. In vitro experiments using human cell lines have shown hypothermia provides a radioprotective effect that becomes more pronounced at large, single-fraction doses common to SBRT treatments. Relevant to prostate SBRT, this work details the fabrication and testing of a 3D-printed cooling device to facilitate the investigation of the radioprotective effect of local hypothermia on the rat rectum. Methods: A 3cm long, two-channel rectal cooling device was designed in SOLIDWORKS CAD for 3D printing. The water intake nozzle is connected to a 1mm diameter brass pipe from which water flows and circulates back around to the exit nozzle. Both nozzles are connected by plastic tubing to a water chiller pump. Following leak-proof testing, fiber optic temperature probes were used to evaluate the temperature over time when placed adjacent to the cooling device within a rat rectum. MRI thermometry characterized the relative temperature distribution in concentric ROIs surrounding the probe. CBCT images from a small-animal irradiator were evaluated for imaging artifacts which could affect Monte Carlo dose calculations during treatment planning. Results: The rectal temperature adjacent to the cooling device decreased from body temperature (37°C) to 15°C in 10–20 minutes from device insertion. Rectal temperature was maintained at 15±3°C during active cooling. MRI thermometry tests revealed a steep temperature gradient with increasing distance from the cooling device, with the desired temperature range maintained within the surrounding few millimeters. Conclusion: A 3D printed rectal cooling device was fabricated for the purpose of inducing local hypothermia in rat rectums. Rectal cooling capabilities were characterized in-vivo to facilitate an investigation of the radioprotective effect of hypothermia for late rectal

  12. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  13. Low-cost 3D rangefinder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bor-Tow; Lou, Wen-Shiou; Chen, Chia-Chen; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    1998-06-01

    Nowadays, 3D data are popularly performed in computer, and 3D browsers manipulate 3D model in the virtual world. Yet, till now, 3D digitizer is still a high-cost product and not a familiar equipment. In order to meet the requirement of 3D fancy world, in this paper, the concept of a low-cost 3D digitizer system is proposed to catch 3D range data from objects. The specified optical design of the 3D extraction is effective to depress the size, and the processing software of the system is compatible with PC to promote its portable capability. Both features contribute a low-cost system in PC environment in contrast to a large system bundled in an expensive workstation platform. In the structure of 3D extraction, laser beam and CCD camera are adopted to construct a 3D sensor. Instead of 2 CCD cameras for capturing laser lines twice before, a 2-in-1 system is proposed to merge 2 images in one CCD which still retains the information of two fields of views to inhibit occlusion problems. Besides, optical paths of two camera views are reflected by mirror in order that the volume of the system can be minified with one rotary axis only. It makes a portable system be more possible to work. Combined with the processing software executable in PC windows system, the proposed system not only saves hardware cost but also processing time of software. The system performance achieves 0.05 mm accuracy. It shows that a low- cost system is more possible to be high-performance.

  14. The New Realm of 3-D Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

  15. 3DVEM Software Modules for Efficient Management of Point Clouds and Photorealistic 3d Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabado, S.; Seguí, A. E.; Cabrelles, M.; Navarro, S.; García-De-San-Miguel, D.; Lerma, J. L.

    2013-07-01

    Cultural heritage managers in general and information users in particular are not usually used to deal with high-technological hardware and software. On the contrary, information providers of metric surveys are most of the times applying latest developments for real-life conservation and restoration projects. This paper addresses the software issue of handling and managing either 3D point clouds or (photorealistic) 3D models to bridge the gap between information users and information providers as regards the management of information which users and providers share as a tool for decision-making, analysis, visualization and management. There are not many viewers specifically designed to handle, manage and create easily animations of architectural and/or archaeological 3D objects, monuments and sites, among others. 3DVEM - 3D Viewer, Editor & Meter software will be introduced to the scientific community, as well as 3DVEM - Live and 3DVEM - Register. The advantages of managing projects with both sets of data, 3D point cloud and photorealistic 3D models, will be introduced. Different visualizations of true documentation projects in the fields of architecture, archaeology and industry will be presented. Emphasis will be driven to highlight the features of new userfriendly software to manage virtual projects. Furthermore, the easiness of creating controlled interactive animations (both walkthrough and fly-through) by the user either on-the-fly or as a traditional movie file will be demonstrated through 3DVEM - Live.

  16. 3D rapid mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksson, Folke; Borg, Johan; Haglund, Leif

    2008-04-01

    In this paper the performance of passive range measurement imaging using stereo technique in real time applications is described. Stereo vision uses multiple images to get depth resolution in a similar way as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses multiple measurements to obtain better spatial resolution. This technique has been used in photogrammetry for a long time but it will be shown that it is now possible to do the calculations, with carefully designed image processing algorithms, in e.g. a PC in real time. In order to get high resolution and quantitative data in the stereo estimation a mathematical camera model is used. The parameters to the camera model are settled in a calibration rig or in the case of a moving camera the scene itself can be used for calibration of most of the parameters. After calibration an ordinary TV camera has an angular resolution like a theodolite, but to a much lower price. The paper will present results from high resolution 3D imagery from air to ground. The 3D-results from stereo calculation of image pairs are stitched together into a large database to form a 3D-model of the area covered.

  17. Taming supersymmetric defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-07-01

    We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group {SL}(N,{{C}}), in the context of its relation with 3d { N }=2 theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d (2,0) theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold \\hat{M}. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d {SL}(N,{{C}}) CS theory, in 3d { N }=2 theory, in 5d { N }=2 super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper [1], which contains more details and more results.

  18. Surviving sepsis--a 3D integrative educational simulator.

    PubMed

    Ježek, Filip; Tribula, Martin; Kulhánek, Tomáš; Mateják, Marek; Privitzer, Pavol; Šilar, Jan; Kofránek, Jiří; Lhotská, Lenka

    2015-08-01

    Computer technology offers greater educational possibilities, notably simulation and virtual reality. This paper presents a technology which serves to integrate multiple modalities, namely 3D virtual reality, node-based simulator, Physiomodel explorer and explanatory physiological simulators employing Modelica language and Unity3D platform. This emerging tool chain should allow the authors to concentrate more on educational content instead of application development. The technology is demonstrated through Surviving sepsis educational scenario, targeted on Microsoft Windows Store platform. PMID:26737091

  19. Surviving sepsis--a 3D integrative educational simulator.

    PubMed

    Ježek, Filip; Tribula, Martin; Kulhánek, Tomáš; Mateják, Marek; Privitzer, Pavol; Šilar, Jan; Kofránek, Jiří; Lhotská, Lenka

    2015-08-01

    Computer technology offers greater educational possibilities, notably simulation and virtual reality. This paper presents a technology which serves to integrate multiple modalities, namely 3D virtual reality, node-based simulator, Physiomodel explorer and explanatory physiological simulators employing Modelica language and Unity3D platform. This emerging tool chain should allow the authors to concentrate more on educational content instead of application development. The technology is demonstrated through Surviving sepsis educational scenario, targeted on Microsoft Windows Store platform.

  20. Effects of Presence, Copresence, and Flow on Learning Outcomes in 3D Learning Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassell, Martin D.; Goyal, Sandeep; Limayem, Moez; Boughzala, Imed

    2012-01-01

    The level of satisfaction and effectiveness of 3D virtual learning environments were examined. Additionally, 3D virtual learning environments were compared with face-to-face learning environments. Students that experienced higher levels of flow and presence also experienced more satisfaction but not necessarily more effectiveness with 3D virtual…

  1. Exploring interaction with 3D volumetric displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Tovi; Wigdor, Daniel; Balakrishnan, Ravin

    2005-03-01

    Volumetric displays generate true volumetric 3D images by actually illuminating points in 3D space. As a result, viewing their contents is similar to viewing physical objects in the real world. These displays provide a 360 degree field of view, and do not require the user to wear hardware such as shutter glasses or head-trackers. These properties make them a promising alternative to traditional display systems for viewing imagery in 3D. Because these displays have only recently been made available commercially (e.g., www.actuality-systems.com), their current use tends to be limited to non-interactive output-only display devices. To take full advantage of the unique features of these displays, however, it would be desirable if the 3D data being displayed could be directly interacted with and manipulated. We investigate interaction techniques for volumetric display interfaces, through the development of an interactive 3D geometric model building application. While this application area itself presents many interesting challenges, our focus is on the interaction techniques that are likely generalizable to interactive applications for other domains. We explore a very direct style of interaction where the user interacts with the virtual data using direct finger manipulations on and around the enclosure surrounding the displayed 3D volumetric image.

  2. PRIMAS: a real-time 3D motion-analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabel, Jan C.; van Veenendaal, Hans L. J.; Furnee, E. Hans

    1994-03-01

    The paper describes a CCD TV-camera-based system for real-time multicamera 2D detection of retro-reflective targets and software for accurate and fast 3D reconstruction. Applications of this system can be found in the fields of sports, biomechanics, rehabilitation research, and various other areas of science and industry. The new feature of real-time 3D opens an even broader perspective of application areas; animations in virtual reality are an interesting example. After presenting an overview of the hardware and the camera calibration method, the paper focuses on the real-time algorithms used for matching of the images and subsequent 3D reconstruction of marker positions. When using a calibrated setup of two cameras, it is now possible to track at least ten markers at 100 Hz. Limitations in the performance are determined by the visibility of the markers, which could be improved by adding a third camera.

  3. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  4. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M. A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D. W.; Hallquist, J. O.; Rainsberger, R. B

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  5. i3Drive, a 3D interactive driving simulator.

    PubMed

    Ambroz, Miha; Prebil, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    i3Drive, a wheeled-vehicle simulator, can accurately simulate vehicles of various configurations with up to eight wheels in real time on a desktop PC. It presents the vehicle dynamics as an interactive animation in a virtual 3D environment. The application is fully GUI-controlled, giving users an easy overview of the simulation parameters and letting them adjust those parameters interactively. It models all relevant vehicle systems, including the mechanical models of the suspension, power train, and braking and steering systems. The simulation results generally correspond well with actual measurements, making the system useful for studying vehicle performance in various driving scenarios. i3Drive is thus a worthy complement to other, more complex tools for vehicle-dynamics simulation and analysis.

  6. New approach to the perception of 3D shape based on veridicality, complexity, symmetry and volume.

    PubMed

    Pizlo, Zygmunt; Sawada, Tadamasa; Li, Yunfeng; Kropatsch, Walter G; Steinman, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress towards understanding 3D shape perception made possible by appreciating the significant role that veridicality and complexity play in the natural visual environment. The ability to see objects as they really are "out there" is derived from the complexity inherent in the 3D object's shape. The importance of both veridicality and complexity was ignored in most prior research. Appreciating their importance made it possible to devise a computational model that recovers the 3D shape of an object from only one of its 2D images. This model uses a simplicity principle consisting of only four a priori constraints representing properties of 3D shapes, primarily their symmetry and volume. The model recovers 3D shapes from a single 2D image as well, and sometimes even better, than a human being. In the rare recoveries in which errors are observed, the errors made by the model and human subjects are very similar. The model makes no use of depth, surfaces or learning. Recent elaborations of this model include: (i) the recovery of the shapes of natural objects, including human and animal bodies with limbs in varying positions (ii) providing the model with two input images that allowed it to achieve virtually perfect shape constancy from almost all viewing directions. The review concludes with a comparison of some of the highlights of our novel, successful approach to the recovery of 3D shape from a 2D image with prior, less successful approaches. PMID:19800910

  7. Enhanced External Counterpulsation Treatment May Intervene The Advanced Atherosclerotic Plaque Progression by Inducing The Variations of Mechanical Factors: A 3D FSI Study Based on in vivo Animal Experiment.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianhang; Wang, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Growing evidences suggest that long-term enhanced external counter-pulsation (EECP) treatment can inhibit the initiation of atherosclerotic lesion by improving the hemodynamic environment in aortas. However, whether this kind procedure will intervene the progression of advanced atherosclerotic plaque remains elusive and causes great concern in its clinical application presently. In the current paper, a pilot study combining animal experiment and numerical simulation was conducted to investigate the acute mechanical stress variations during EECP intervention, and then to assess the possible chronic effects. An experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic porcine model was developed and the basic hemodynamic measurement was performed in vivo before and during EECP treatment. Meanwhile, A 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of blood vessel with symmetric local stenosis was developed for the numerical calculation of some important mechanical factors. The results show that EECP augmented 12.21% of the plaque wall stress (PWS), 57.72% of the time average wall shear stress (AWSS) and 43.67% of the non-dimensional wall shear stress gradient (WSSGnd) at throat site of the stenosis. We suggest that long-term EECP treatment may intervene the advanced plaque progression by inducing the significant variations of some important mechanical factors, but its proper effects will need a further research combined follow-up observation in clinic. PMID:27263260

  8. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  9. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  10. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  11. AGGRESCAN3D (A3D): server for prediction of aggregation properties of protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, Rafael; Jamroz, Michal; Szczasiuk, Agata; Pujols, Jordi; Kmiecik, Sebastian; Ventura, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation underlies an increasing number of disorders and constitutes a major bottleneck in the development of therapeutic proteins. Our present understanding on the molecular determinants of protein aggregation has crystalized in a series of predictive algorithms to identify aggregation-prone sites. A majority of these methods rely only on sequence. Therefore, they find difficulties to predict the aggregation properties of folded globular proteins, where aggregation-prone sites are often not contiguous in sequence or buried inside the native structure. The AGGRESCAN3D (A3D) server overcomes these limitations by taking into account the protein structure and the experimental aggregation propensity scale from the well-established AGGRESCAN method. Using the A3D server, the identified aggregation-prone residues can be virtually mutated to design variants with increased solubility, or to test the impact of pathogenic mutations. Additionally, A3D server enables to take into account the dynamic fluctuations of protein structure in solution, which may influence aggregation propensity. This is possible in A3D Dynamic Mode that exploits the CABS-flex approach for the fast simulations of flexibility of globular proteins. The A3D server can be accessed at http://biocomp.chem.uw.edu.pl/A3D/. PMID:25883144

  12. fVisiOn: 360-degree viewable glasses-free tabletop 3D display composed of conical screen and modular projector arrays.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shunsuke

    2016-06-13

    A novel glasses-free tabletop 3D display to float virtual objects on a flat tabletop surface is proposed. This method employs circularly arranged projectors and a conical rear-projection screen that serves as an anisotropic diffuser. Its practical implementation installs them beneath a round table and produces horizontal parallax in a circumferential direction without the use of high speed or a moving apparatus. Our prototype can display full-color, 5-cm-tall 3D characters on the table. Multiple viewers can share and enjoy its real-time animation from any angle of 360 degrees with appropriate perspectives as if the animated figures were present.

  13. fVisiOn: 360-degree viewable glasses-free tabletop 3D display composed of conical screen and modular projector arrays.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shunsuke

    2016-06-13

    A novel glasses-free tabletop 3D display to float virtual objects on a flat tabletop surface is proposed. This method employs circularly arranged projectors and a conical rear-projection screen that serves as an anisotropic diffuser. Its practical implementation installs them beneath a round table and produces horizontal parallax in a circumferential direction without the use of high speed or a moving apparatus. Our prototype can display full-color, 5-cm-tall 3D characters on the table. Multiple viewers can share and enjoy its real-time animation from any angle of 360 degrees with appropriate perspectives as if the animated figures were present. PMID:27410336

  14. An efficient and robust 3D mesh compression based on 3D watermarking and wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrouba, Ezzeddine; Ben Jabra, Saoussen; Didi, Yosra

    2011-06-01

    The compression and watermarking of 3D meshes are very important in many areas of activity including digital cinematography, virtual reality as well as CAD design. However, most studies on 3D watermarking and 3D compression are done independently. To verify a good trade-off between protection and a fast transfer of 3D meshes, this paper proposes a new approach which combines 3D mesh compression with mesh watermarking. This combination is based on a wavelet transformation. In fact, the used compression method is decomposed to two stages: geometric encoding and topologic encoding. The proposed approach consists to insert a signature between these two stages. First, the wavelet transformation is applied to the original mesh to obtain two components: wavelets coefficients and a coarse mesh. Then, the geometric encoding is done on these two components. The obtained coarse mesh will be marked using a robust mesh watermarking scheme. This insertion into coarse mesh allows obtaining high robustness to several attacks. Finally, the topologic encoding is applied to the marked coarse mesh to obtain the compressed mesh. The combination of compression and watermarking permits to detect the presence of signature after a compression of the marked mesh. In plus, it allows transferring protected 3D meshes with the minimum size. The experiments and evaluations show that the proposed approach presents efficient results in terms of compression gain, invisibility and robustness of the signature against of many attacks.

  15. Multibaseline IFSAR for 3D target reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertin, Emre; Moses, Randolph L.; Potter, Lee C.

    2008-04-01

    We consider three dimensional target construction from SAR data collected on multiple complete circular apertures at different elevation angle. The 3-D resolution of circular SAR systems is constrained by two factors: the sparse sampling in elevation and the limited azimuthal persistence of the reflectors in the scene. Three dimensional target reconstruction with multipass circular SAR data is further complicated by nonuniform elevation spacing in real flight paths and non-constant elevation angle throughout the circular pass. In this paper we first develop parametric spectral estimation methods that extend standard IFSAR method of height estimation to apertures at more than two elevation angles. Next, we show that linear interpolation of the phase history data leads to unsatisfactory performance in 3-D reconstruction from nonuniformly sampled elevation passes. We then present a new sparsity regularized interpolation algorithm to preprocess nonuniform elevation samples to create a virtual uniform linear array geometry. We illustrate the performance of the proposed method using simulated backscatter data.

  16. Zebrafish response to 3D printed shoals of conspecifics: the effect of body size.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, Tiziana; Mwaffo, Violet; Showler, Ashleigh; Macrì, Simone; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Recent progress in three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has enabled rapid prototyping of complex models at a limited cost. Virtually every research laboratory has access to a 3D printer, which can assist in the design and implementation of hypothesis-driven studies on animal behavior. In this study, we explore the possibility of using 3D printing technology to understand the role of body size in the social behavior of the zebrafish model organism. In a dichotomous preference test, we study the behavioral response of zebrafish to shoals of 3D printed replicas of varying size. We systematically vary the size of each replica without altering the coloration, aspect ratio, and stripe patterns, which are all selected to closely mimic zebrafish morphophysiology. The replicas are actuated through a robotic manipulator, mimicking the natural motion of live subjects. Zebrafish preference is assessed by scoring the time spent in the vicinity of the shoal of replicas, and the information theoretic construct of transfer entropy is used to further elucidate the influence of the replicas on zebrafish motion. Our results demonstrate that zebrafish adjust their behavior in response to variations in the size of the replicas. Subjects exhibit an avoidance reaction for larger replicas, and they are attracted toward and influenced by smaller replicas. The approach presented in this study, integrating 3D printing technology, robotics, and information theory, is expected to significantly aid preclinical research on zebrafish behavior. PMID:26891476

  17. Development of a High Resolution 3D Infant Stomach Model for Surgical Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudry, Qaiser; Raza, S. Hussain; Lee, Jeonggyu; Xu, Yan; Wulkan, Mark; Wang, May D.

    Medical surgical procedures have not changed much during the past century due to the lack of accurate low-cost workbench for testing any new improvement. The increasingly cheaper and powerful computer technologies have made computer-based surgery planning and training feasible. In our work, we have developed an accurate 3D stomach model, which aims to improve the surgical procedure that treats the infant pediatric and neonatal gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). We generate the 3-D infant stomach model based on in vivo computer tomography (CT) scans of an infant. CT is a widely used clinical imaging modality that is cheap, but with low spatial resolution. To improve the model accuracy, we use the high resolution Visible Human Project (VHP) in model building. Next, we add soft muscle material properties to make the 3D model deformable. Then we use virtual reality techniques such as haptic devices to make the 3D stomach model deform upon touching force. This accurate 3D stomach model provides a workbench for testing new GERD treatment surgical procedures. It has the potential to reduce or eliminate the extensive cost associated with animal testing when improving any surgical procedure, and ultimately, to reduce the risk associated with infant GERD surgery.

  18. The virtual cell animation collection: tools for teaching molecular and cellular biology.

    PubMed

    Reindl, Katie M; White, Alan R; Johnson, Christina; Vender, Bradley; Slator, Brian M; McClean, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    A cell is a minifactory in which structures and molecules are assembled, rearranged, disassembled, packaged, sorted, and transported. Because cellular structures and molecules are invisible to the human eye, students often have difficulty conceptualizing the dynamic nature of cells that function at multiple scales across time and space. To represent these dynamic cellular processes, the Virtual Cell Productions team at North Dakota State University develops freely available multimedia materials to support molecular and cellular biology learning inside and outside the high school and university classroom.

  19. The Virtual Cell Animation Collection: Tools for Teaching Molecular and Cellular Biology

    PubMed Central

    Reindl, Katie M.; White, Alan R.; Johnson, Christina; Vender, Bradley; Slator, Brian M.; McClean, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    A cell is a minifactory in which structures and molecules are assembled, rearranged, disassembled, packaged, sorted, and transported. Because cellular structures and molecules are invisible to the human eye, students often have difficulty conceptualizing the dynamic nature of cells that function at multiple scales across time and space. To represent these dynamic cellular processes, the Virtual Cell Productions team at North Dakota State University develops freely available multimedia materials to support molecular and cellular biology learning inside and outside the high school and university classroom. PMID:25856580

  20. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  1. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGES

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  2. Design of 3D simulation engine for oilfield safety training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua-Ming; Kang, Bao-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Aiming at the demand for rapid custom development of 3D simulation system for oilfield safety training, this paper designs and implements a 3D simulation engine based on script-driven method, multi-layer structure, pre-defined entity objects and high-level tools such as scene editor, script editor, program loader. A scripting language been defined to control the system's progress, events and operating results. Training teacher can use this engine to edit 3D virtual scenes, set the properties of entity objects, define the logic script of task, and produce a 3D simulation training system without any skills of programming. Through expanding entity class, this engine can be quickly applied to other virtual training areas.

  3. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  4. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  5. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  6. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  7. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible.

  8. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  9. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  10. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  11. Dissection of C. elegans behavioral genetics in 3-D environments.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Namseop; Hwang, Ara B; You, Young-Jai; V Lee, Seung-Jae; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a widely used model for genetic dissection of animal behaviors. Despite extensive technical advances in imaging methods, it remains challenging to visualize and quantify C. elegans behaviors in three-dimensional (3-D) natural environments. Here we developed an innovative 3-D imaging method that enables quantification of C. elegans behavior in 3-D environments. Furthermore, for the first time, we characterized 3-D-specific behavioral phenotypes of mutant worms that have defects in head movement or mechanosensation. This approach allowed us to reveal previously unknown functions of genes in behavioral regulation. We expect that our 3-D imaging method will facilitate new investigations into genetic basis of animal behaviors in natural 3-D environments.

  12. Dissection of C. elegans behavioral genetics in 3-D environments

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Namseop; Hwang, Ara B.; You, Young-Jai; V. Lee, Seung-Jae; Ho Je, Jung

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a widely used model for genetic dissection of animal behaviors. Despite extensive technical advances in imaging methods, it remains challenging to visualize and quantify C. elegans behaviors in three-dimensional (3-D) natural environments. Here we developed an innovative 3-D imaging method that enables quantification of C. elegans behavior in 3-D environments. Furthermore, for the first time, we characterized 3-D-specific behavioral phenotypes of mutant worms that have defects in head movement or mechanosensation. This approach allowed us to reveal previously unknown functions of genes in behavioral regulation. We expect that our 3-D imaging method will facilitate new investigations into genetic basis of animal behaviors in natural 3-D environments. PMID:25955271

  13. Virtual Laboratories and Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Piet

    2008-05-01

    Since we cannot put stars in a laboratory, astrophysicists had to wait till the invention of computers before becoming laboratory scientists. For half a century now, we have been conducting experiments in our virtual laboratories. However, we ourselves have remained behind the keyboard, with the screen of the monitor separating us from the world we are simulating. Recently, 3D on-line technology, developed first for games but now deployed in virtual worlds like Second Life, is beginning to make it possible for astrophysicists to enter their virtual labs themselves, in virtual form as avatars. This has several advantages, from new possibilities to explore the results of the simulations to a shared presence in a virtual lab with remote collaborators on different continents. I will report my experiences with the use of Qwaq Forums, a virtual world developed by a new company (see http://www.qwaq.com).

  14. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  15. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  16. Immersive 3D Visualization of Astronomical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaff, A.; Berthier, J.; Da Rocha, J.; Deparis, N.; Derriere, S.; Gaultier, P.; Houpin, R.; Normand, J.; Ocvirk, P.

    2015-09-01

    The immersive-3D visualization, or Virtual Reality in our study, was previously dedicated to specific uses (research, flight simulators, etc.) The investment in infrastructure and its cost was reserved to large laboratories or companies. Lately we saw the development of immersive-3D masks intended for wide distribution, for example the Oculus Rift and the Sony Morpheus projects. The usual reaction is to say that these tools are primarily intended for games since it is easy to imagine a player in a virtual environment and the added value to conventional 2D screens. Yet it is likely that there are many applications in the professional field if these tools are becoming common. Introducing this technology into existing applications or new developments makes sense only if interest is properly evaluated. The use in Astronomy is clear for education, it is easy to imagine mobile and light planetariums or to reproduce poorly accessible environments (e.g., large instruments). In contrast, in the field of professional astronomy the use is probably less obvious and it requires to conduct studies to determine the most appropriate ones and to assess the contributions compared to the other display modes.

  17. Projecting 2D gene expression data into 3D and 4D space.

    PubMed

    Gerth, Victor E; Katsuyama, Kaori; Snyder, Kevin A; Bowes, Jeff B; Kitayama, Atsushi; Ueno, Naoto; Vize, Peter D

    2007-04-01

    Video games typically generate virtual 3D objects by texture mapping an image onto a 3D polygonal frame. The feeling of movement is then achieved by mathematically simulating camera movement relative to the polygonal frame. We have built customized scripts that adapt video game authoring software to texture mapping images of gene expression data onto b-spline based embryo models. This approach, known as UV mapping, associates two-dimensional (U and V) coordinates within images to the three dimensions (X, Y, and Z) of a b-spline model. B-spline model frameworks were built either from confocal data or de novo extracted from 2D images, once again using video game authoring approaches. This system was then used to build 3D models of 182 genes expressed in developing Xenopus embryos and to implement these in a web-accessible database. Models can be viewed via simple Internet browsers and utilize openGL hardware acceleration via a Shockwave plugin. Not only does this database display static data in a dynamic and scalable manner, the UV mapping system also serves as a method to align different images to a common framework, an approach that may make high-throughput automated comparisons of gene expression patterns possible. Finally, video game systems also have elegant methods for handling movement, allowing biomechanical algorithms to drive the animation of models. With further development, these biomechanical techniques offer practical methods for generating virtual embryos that recapitulate morphogenesis.

  18. Projecting 2D gene expression data into 3D and 4D space.

    PubMed

    Gerth, Victor E; Katsuyama, Kaori; Snyder, Kevin A; Bowes, Jeff B; Kitayama, Atsushi; Ueno, Naoto; Vize, Peter D

    2007-04-01

    Video games typically generate virtual 3D objects by texture mapping an image onto a 3D polygonal frame. The feeling of movement is then achieved by mathematically simulating camera movement relative to the polygonal frame. We have built customized scripts that adapt video game authoring software to texture mapping images of gene expression data onto b-spline based embryo models. This approach, known as UV mapping, associates two-dimensional (U and V) coordinates within images to the three dimensions (X, Y, and Z) of a b-spline model. B-spline model frameworks were built either from confocal data or de novo extracted from 2D images, once again using video game authoring approaches. This system was then used to build 3D models of 182 genes expressed in developing Xenopus embryos and to implement these in a web-accessible database. Models can be viewed via simple Internet browsers and utilize openGL hardware acceleration via a Shockwave plugin. Not only does this database display static data in a dynamic and scalable manner, the UV mapping system also serves as a method to align different images to a common framework, an approach that may make high-throughput automated comparisons of gene expression patterns possible. Finally, video game systems also have elegant methods for handling movement, allowing biomechanical algorithms to drive the animation of models. With further development, these biomechanical techniques offer practical methods for generating virtual embryos that recapitulate morphogenesis. PMID:17366623

  19. 3D Modeling Techniques for Print and Digital Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Megan Ashley

    In developing my thesis, I looked to gain skills using ZBrush to create 3D models, 3D scanning, and 3D printing. The models created compared the hearts of several vertebrates and were intended for students attending Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. I used several resources to create a model of the human heart and was able to work from life while creating heart models from other vertebrates. I successfully learned ZBrush and 3D scanning, and successfully printed 3D heart models. ZBrush allowed me to create several intricate models for use in both animation and print media. The 3D scanning technique did not fit my needs for the project, but may be of use for later projects. I was able to 3D print using two different techniques as well.

  20. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    calculations on a supercomputer, the Supercomputer/IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers advanced 3-D, view manipulation, and animation capabilities. Shading and hidden line/surface removal can be used to enhance depth perception and other aspects of the graphical displays. A mouse can be used to translate, rotate, or zoom in on views. Files for several types of output can be produced. Two animation options are available. Simple animation sequences can be created on the IRIS, or,if an appropriately modified version of ARCGRAPH (ARC-12350) is accesible on the supercomputer, files can be created for use in GAS (Graphics Animation System, ARC-12379), an IRIS program which offers more complex rendering and animation capabilities and options for recording images to digital disk, video tape, or 16-mm film. The version 3.6b+ Supercomputer/IRIS implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12779) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12784) are suitable for use on CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and ALLIANT computers with a remote Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstation. These programs are distributed on .25 inch magnetic tape cartridges in IRIS TAR format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstations (ARC-12783, ARC-12782); (2) VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC12777, ARC-12781); (3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 - which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates

  1. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    calculations on a supercomputer, the Supercomputer/IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers advanced 3-D, view manipulation, and animation capabilities. Shading and hidden line/surface removal can be used to enhance depth perception and other aspects of the graphical displays. A mouse can be used to translate, rotate, or zoom in on views. Files for several types of output can be produced. Two animation options are available. Simple animation sequences can be created on the IRIS, or,if an appropriately modified version of ARCGRAPH (ARC-12350) is accesible on the supercomputer, files can be created for use in GAS (Graphics Animation System, ARC-12379), an IRIS program which offers more complex rendering and animation capabilities and options for recording images to digital disk, video tape, or 16-mm film. The version 3.6b+ Supercomputer/IRIS implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12779) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12784) are suitable for use on CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and ALLIANT computers with a remote Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstation. These programs are distributed on .25 inch magnetic tape cartridges in IRIS TAR format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstations (ARC-12783, ARC-12782); (2) VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC12777, ARC-12781); (3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 - which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates

  2. 3D Imaging by Mass Spectrometry: A New Frontier

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Erin H.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Imaging mass spectrometry can generate three-dimensional volumes showing molecular distributions in an entire organ or animal through registration and stacking of serial tissue sections. Here we review the current state of 3D imaging mass spectrometry as well as provide insights and perspectives on the process of generating 3D mass spectral data along with a discussion of the process necessary to generate a 3D image volume. PMID:22276611

  3. 2D and 3D Traveling Salesman Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haxhimusa, Yll; Carpenter, Edward; Catrambone, Joseph; Foldes, David; Stefanov, Emil; Arns, Laura; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2011-01-01

    When a two-dimensional (2D) traveling salesman problem (TSP) is presented on a computer screen, human subjects can produce near-optimal tours in linear time. In this study we tested human performance on a real and virtual floor, as well as in a three-dimensional (3D) virtual space. Human performance on the real floor is as good as that on a…

  4. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  5. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surfacemore » equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.« less

  6. 3D augmented reality with integral imaging display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xin; Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging display for augmented reality is presented. By implementing the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion method, elemental image arrays with different capturing parameters can be transferred into the identical format for 3D display. With the proposed merging algorithm, a new set of elemental images for augmented reality display is generated. The newly generated elemental images contain both the virtual objects and real world scene with desired depth information and transparency parameters. The experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed 3D augmented reality with integral imaging.

  7. Navigation in Orthognathic Surgery: 3D Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Badiali, Giovanni; Roncari, Andrea; Bianchi, Alberto; Taddei, Fulvia; Marchetti, Claudio; Schileo, Enrico

    2015-10-01

    This article aims to determine the absolute accuracy of maxillary repositioning during orthognathic surgery according to simulation-guided navigation, that is, the combination of navigation and three-dimensional (3D) virtual surgery. We retrospectively studied 15 patients treated for asymmetric dentofacial deformities at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of the S.Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from January 2010 to January 2012. Patients were scanned with a cone-beam computed tomography before and after surgery. The virtual surgical simulation was realized with a dedicated software and loaded on a navigation system to improve intraoperative reproducibility of the preoperative planning. We analyzed the outcome following two protocols: (1) planning versus postoperative 3D surface analysis; (2) planning versus postoperative point-based analysis. For 3D surface comparison, the mean Hausdorff distance was measured, and median among cases was 0.99 mm. Median reproducibility < 1 mm was 61.88% and median reproducibility < 2 mm was 85.46%. For the point-based analysis, with sign, the median distance was 0.75 mm in the frontal axis, -0.05 mm in the caudal-cranial axis, -0.35 mm in the lateral axis. In absolute value, the median distance was 1.19 mm in the frontal axis, 0.59 mm in the caudal-cranial axis, and 1.02 mm in the lateral axis. We suggest that simulation-guided navigation makes accurate postoperative outcomes possible for maxillary repositioning in orthognathic surgery, if compared with the surgical computer-designed project realized with a dedicated software, particularly for the vertical dimension, which is the most challenging to manage.

  8. A 3D Geometry Model Search Engine to Support Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Gary K. L.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Zhao, Jianmin

    2009-01-01

    Due to the popularity of 3D graphics in animation and games, usage of 3D geometry deformable models increases dramatically. Despite their growing importance, these models are difficult and time consuming to build. A distance learning system for the construction of these models could greatly facilitate students to learn and practice at different…

  9. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    well as 2-D and 3-D lines, but does not support graphics features requiring 3-D polygons (shading and hidden line removal, for example). Views can be manipulated using keyboard commands. This version of PLOT3D is potentially able to produce files for a variety of output devices; however, site-specific capabilities will vary depending on the device drivers supplied with the user's DISSPLA library. If ARCGRAPH (ARC-12350) is installed on the user's VAX, the VMS/DISSPLA version of PLOT3D can also be used to create files for use in GAS (Graphics Animation System, ARC-12379), an IRIS program capable of animating and recording images on film. The version 3.6b+ VMS/DISSPLA implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12777) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12781) were developed for use on VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0. The standard distribution media for each of these programs is a 9-track, 6250 bpi magnetic tape in DEC VAX BACKUP format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) generic UNIX Supercomputer and IRIS, suitable for CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and Alliant with remote IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12779, ARC-12784); (2) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12783, ARC12782); (3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates. CRAY 2 and UNICOS are trademarks of CRAY Research, Incorporated. CONVEX is a trademark of Convex Computer Corporation. Alliant is a

  10. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    well as 2-D and 3-D lines, but does not support graphics features requiring 3-D polygons (shading and hidden line removal, for example). Views can be manipulated using keyboard commands. This version of PLOT3D is potentially able to produce files for a variety of output devices; however, site-specific capabilities will vary depending on the device drivers supplied with the user's DISSPLA library. If ARCGRAPH (ARC-12350) is installed on the user's VAX, the VMS/DISSPLA version of PLOT3D can also be used to create files for use in GAS (Graphics Animation System, ARC-12379), an IRIS program capable of animating and recording images on film. The version 3.6b+ VMS/DISSPLA implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12777) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12781) were developed for use on VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0. The standard distribution media for each of these programs is a 9-track, 6250 bpi magnetic tape in DEC VAX BACKUP format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) generic UNIX Supercomputer and IRIS, suitable for CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and Alliant with remote IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12779, ARC-12784); (2) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12783, ARC12782); (3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates. CRAY 2 and UNICOS are trademarks of CRAY Research, Incorporated. CONVEX is a trademark of Convex Computer Corporation. Alliant is a

  11. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    advanced features which aid visualization efforts. Shading and hidden line/surface removal can be used to enhance depth perception and other aspects of the graphical displays. A mouse can be used to translate, rotate, or zoom in on views. Files for several types of output can be produced. Two animation options are even offered: creation of simple animation sequences without the need for other software; and, creation of files for use in GAS (Graphics Animation System, ARC-12379), an IRIS program which offers more complex rendering and animation capabilities and can record images to digital disk, video tape, or 16-mm film. The version 3.6b+ SGI implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12783) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12782) were developed for use on Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstations. These programs are each distributed on one .25 inch magnetic tape cartridge in IRIS TAR format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) generic UNIX Supercomputer and IRIS, suitable for CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and Alliant with remote IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12779, ARC-12784); (2) VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12777,ARC-12781); (3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates. CRAY 2 and UNICOS are trademarks of CRAY Research, Incorporated. CONVEX is a trademark of Convex Computer Corporation. Alliant is a trademark of Alliant. Apollo and GMR3D are

  12. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    advanced features which aid visualization efforts. Shading and hidden line/surface removal can be used to enhance depth perception and other aspects of the graphical displays. A mouse can be used to translate, rotate, or zoom in on views. Files for several types of output can be produced. Two animation options are even offered: creation of simple animation sequences without the need for other software; and, creation of files for use in GAS (Graphics Animation System, ARC-12379), an IRIS program which offers more complex rendering and animation capabilities and can record images to digital disk, video tape, or 16-mm film. The version 3.6b+ SGI implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12783) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12782) were developed for use on Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstations. These programs are each distributed on one .25 inch magnetic tape cartridge in IRIS TAR format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) generic UNIX Supercomputer and IRIS, suitable for CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and Alliant with remote IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12779, ARC-12784); (2) VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12777,ARC-12781); (3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates. CRAY 2 and UNICOS are trademarks of CRAY Research, Incorporated. CONVEX is a trademark of Convex Computer Corporation. Alliant is a trademark of Alliant. Apollo and GMR3D are

  13. Can Force Feedback and Science Learning Enhance the Effectiveness of Neuro-Rehabilitation? An Experimental Study on Using a Low-Cost 3D Joystick and a Virtual Visit to a Zoo

    PubMed Central

    Cappa, Paolo; Clerico, Andrea; Nov, Oded; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that healthy adults respond differentially to the administration of force feedback and the presentation of scientific content in a virtual environment, where they interact with a low-cost haptic device. Subjects are tasked with controlling the movement of a cursor on a predefined trajectory that is superimposed on a map of New York City’s Bronx Zoo. The system is characterized in terms of a suite of objective indices quantifying the subjects’ dexterity in planning and generating the multijoint visuomotor tasks. We find that force feedback regulates the smoothness, accuracy, and duration of the subject’s movement, whereby converging or diverging force fields influence the range of variations of the hand speed. Finally, our findings provide preliminary evidence that using educational content increases subjects’ satisfaction. Improving the level of interest through the inclusion of learning elements can increase the time spent performing rehabilitation tasks and promote learning in a new context. PMID:24349562

  14. Spatially resolved 3D noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefner, David P.; Preece, Bradley L.; Doe, Joshua M.; Burks, Stephen D.

    2016-05-01

    When evaluated with a spatially uniform irradiance, an imaging sensor exhibits both spatial and temporal variations, which can be described as a three-dimensional (3D) random process considered as noise. In the 1990s, NVESD engineers developed an approximation to the 3D power spectral density (PSD) for noise in imaging systems known as 3D noise. In this correspondence, we describe how the confidence intervals for the 3D noise measurement allows for determination of the sampling necessary to reach a desired precision. We then apply that knowledge to create a smaller cube that can be evaluated spatially across the 2D image giving the noise as a function of position. The method presented here allows for both defective pixel identification and implements the finite sampling correction matrix. In support of the reproducible research effort, the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].

  15. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  16. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  17. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  18. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  19. A 3-D Look at Post-Tropical Cyclone Hermine

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby animation of GPM imagery shows Post-Tropical Storm Hermine on Sept. 6. Rain was falling at a rate of over 1.1 inches (27 mm) per hour between the Atlantic coast and Hermine's center ...

  20. NASA Provides a 3-D Look at Typhoon Chaba

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby animation of Typhoon Chaba was created using data from NASA/JAXA's Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite. On Oct. 2, the GPM satellite saw some precipitation...

  1. A NASA 3-D Flyby of Hurricane Seymour

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D Flyby animation from data gathered by the GPM core observatory satellite is from its view of Hurricane Seymour on Oct. 25 at 7:46 am PDT (1646 UTC). GPM showed rain falling at the extreme ...

  2. NASA Sees Tropical Storm Malakas in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animated 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Malakas was created by radar data from the GPM core satellite. On Sept. 13 at 0111 UTC GPM's instruments showed that Malakas contained exceptionally heavy ...

  3. Virtual Worlds? "Outlook Good"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelton, AJ

    2008-01-01

    Many people believed that virtual worlds would end up like the eight-track audiotape: a memory of something no longer used (or useful). Yet today there are hundreds of higher education institutions represented in three-dimensional (3D) virtual worlds such as Active Worlds and Second Life. The movement toward the virtual realm as a viable teaching…

  4. A study of the viability of obtaining a generic animation of the foot while walking for the virtual testing of footwear using dorsal pressures.

    PubMed

    Rupérez, M J; Alemany, S; Monserrat, C; Olaso, J; Alcañíz, M; González, J C

    2009-09-18

    Establishing the appropriate pressure exerted by the shoe upper over the foot surface is fundamental for the design of specific footwear, although measuring the dorsal pressures can also provide important additional information. In previous works, a virtual simulator to perform studies of comfort and functionality in CAD footwear design was presented. This paper describes the procedure carried out to obtain the foot animations used in this simulator. The virtual feet used in the simulator are feet without a standard form scanned in a static way. Their movements are rebuilt from the register of movements of several foot anatomical points during a complete step. The dorsal pressures exerted by some shoe uppers on these anatomical points were measured for several subjects and used to establish the viability of the use of these animations in a virtual simulator for footwear. PMID:19679310

  5. An Evaluative Review of Simulated Dynamic Smart 3d Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeijn, H.; Sheth, F.; Pettit, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of plants can be an asset for creating agricultural based visualisation products. The continuum of 3D plants models ranges from static to dynamic objects, also known as smart 3D objects. There is an increasing requirement for smarter simulated 3D objects that are attributed mathematically and/or from biological inputs. A systematic approach to plant simulation offers significant advantages to applications in agricultural research, particularly in simulating plant behaviour and the influences of external environmental factors. This approach of 3D plant object visualisation is primarily evident from the visualisation of plants using photographed billboarded images, to more advanced procedural models that come closer to simulating realistic virtual plants. However, few programs model physical reactions of plants to external factors and even fewer are able to grow plants based on mathematical and/or biological parameters. In this paper, we undertake an evaluation of plant-based object simulation programs currently available, with a focus upon the components and techniques involved in producing these objects. Through an analytical review process we consider the strengths and weaknesses of several program packages, the features and use of these programs and the possible opportunities in deploying these for creating smart 3D plant-based objects to support agricultural research and natural resource management. In creating smart 3D objects the model needs to be informed by both plant physiology and phenology. Expert knowledge will frame the parameters and procedures that will attribute the object and allow the simulation of dynamic virtual plants. Ultimately, biologically smart 3D virtual plants that react to changes within an environment could be an effective medium to visually represent landscapes and communicate land management scenarios and practices to planners and decision-makers.

  6. INCORPORATING DYNAMIC 3D SIMULATION INTO PRA

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R Prescott; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    Through continued advancement in computational resources, development that was previously done by trial and error production is now performed through computer simulation. These virtual physical representations have the potential to provide accurate and valid modeling results and are being used in many different technical fields. Risk assessment now has the opportunity to use 3D simulation to improve analysis results and insights, especially for external event analysis. By using simulations, the modeler only has to determine the likelihood of an event without having to also predict the results of that event. The 3D simulation automatically determines not only the outcome of the event, but when those failures occur. How can we effectively incorporate 3D simulation into traditional PRA? Most PRA plant modeling is made up of components with different failure modes, probabilities, and rates. Typically, these components are grouped into various systems and then are modeled together (in different combinations) as a “system” with logic structures to form fault trees. Applicable fault trees are combined through scenarios, typically represented by event tree models. Though this method gives us failure results for a given model, it has limitations when it comes to time-based dependencies or dependencies that are coupled to physical processes which may themselves be space- or time-dependent. Since, failures from a 3D simulation are naturally time related, they should be used in that manner. In our simulation approach, traditional static models are converted into an equivalent state diagram representation with start states, probabilistic driven movements between states and terminal states. As the state model is run repeatedly, it converges to the same results as the PRA model in cases where time-related factors are not important. In cases where timing considerations are important (e.g., when events are dependent upon each other), then the simulation approach will typically

  7. LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2004-01-01

    Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

  8. A 3D Serious City Building Game on Waste Disposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuccurullo, Stefania; Francese, Rita; Passero, Ignazio; Tortora, Genoveffa

    2013-01-01

    The environmental priority requires structural interventions that will be effective in the long period only if they are accompanied by modifications of behaviors, orientations and beliefs, specially investing in the new generations. This paper presents a 3D Virtual World serious game named Pappi World, designed according to pedagogical theories…

  9. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  10. Physical sensor difference-based method and virtual sensor difference-based method for visual and quantitative estimation of lower limb 3D gait posture using accelerometers and magnetometers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Inoue, Yoshio; Shibata, Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    An approach using a physical sensor difference-based algorithm and a virtual sensor difference-based algorithm to visually and quantitatively confirm lower limb posture was proposed. Three accelerometers and two MAG(3)s (inertial sensor module) were used to measure the accelerations and magnetic field data for the calculation of flexion/extension (FE) and abduction/adduction (AA) angles of hip joint and FE, AA and internal/external rotation (IE) angles of knee joint; then, the trajectories of knee and ankle joints were obtained with the joint angles and segment lengths. There was no integration of acceleration or angular velocity for the joint rotations and positions, which is an improvement on the previous method in recent literature. Compared with the camera motion capture system, the correlation coefficients in five trials were above 0.91 and 0.92 for the hip FE and AA, respectively, and higher than 0.94, 0.93 and 0.93 for the knee joint FE, AA and IE, respectively.

  11. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  12. Microfluidic 3D models of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Kyung Eun; Beebe, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in medicine and biomedical sciences, cancer still remains a major health issue. Complex interactions between tumors and their microenvironment contribute to tumor initiation and progression and also contribute to the development of drug resistant tumor cell populations. The complexity and heterogeneity of tumors and their microenvironment make it challenging to both study and treat cancer. Traditional animal cancer models and in vitro cancer models are limited in their ability to recapitulate human structures and functions, thus hindering the identification of appropriate drug targets and therapeutic strategies. The development and application of microfluidic 3D cancer models has the potential to overcome some of the limitations inherent to traditional models. This review summarizes the progress in microfluidic 3D cancer models, their benefits, and their broad application to basic cancer biology, drug screening, and drug discovery. PMID:25017040

  13. Microfluidic 3D models of cancer.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kyung Eun; Beebe, David J

    2014-12-15

    Despite advances in medicine and biomedical sciences, cancer still remains a major health issue. Complex interactions between tumors and their microenvironment contribute to tumor initiation and progression and also contribute to the development of drug resistant tumor cell populations. The complexity and heterogeneity of tumors and their microenvironment make it challenging to both study and treat cancer. Traditional animal cancer models and in vitro cancer models are limited in their ability to recapitulate human structures and functions, thus hindering the identification of appropriate drug targets and therapeutic strategies. The development and application of microfluidic 3D cancer models have the potential to overcome some of the limitations inherent to traditional models. This review summarizes the progress in microfluidic 3D cancer models, their benefits, and their broad application to basic cancer biology, drug screening, and drug discovery.

  14. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  15. Restoring Fort Frontenac in 3D: Effective Usage of 3D Technology for Heritage Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, M.; Goins, E.; Jackson, C.; Halbstein, D.; Foster, S.; Bazely, S.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is composed of three elements: 3D modeling, web design, and heritage visualization. The aim is to use computer graphics design to inform and create an interest in historical visualization by rebuilding Fort Frontenac using 3D modeling and interactive design. The final model will be integr ated into an interactive website to learn more about the fort's historic imp ortance. It is apparent that using computer graphics can save time and money when it comes to historical visualization. Visitors do not have to travel to the actual archaeological buildings. They can simply use the Web in their own home to learn about this information virtually. Meticulously following historical records to create a sophisticated restoration of archaeological buildings will draw viewers into visualizations, such as the historical world of Fort Frontenac. As a result, it allows the viewers to effectively understand the fort's social sy stem, habits, and historical events.

  16. Real time 3D scanner: investigations and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Taoufik; Pflug, Leopold

    1993-12-01

    This article presents a concept of reconstruction of 3-D objects using non-invasive and touch loss techniques. The principle of this method is to display parallel interference optical fringes on an object and then to record the object under two angles of view. According to an appropriated treatment one reconstructs the 3-D object even when the object has no symmetrical plan. The 3-D surface data is available immediately in digital form for computer- visualization and for analysis software tools. The optical set-up for recording the 3-D object, the 3-D data extraction and treatment, as well as the reconstruction of the 3-D object are reported and commented on. This application is dedicated for reconstructive/cosmetic surgery, CAD, animation and research purposes.

  17. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia.

  18. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  19. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  20. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…