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Sample records for 3-d culture systems

  1. 3d Modeling of cultural heritage objects with a structured light system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akca, Devrim

    3D modeling of cultural heritage objects is an expanding application area. The selection of the right technology is very important and strictly related to the project requirements, budget and user's experience. The triangulation based active sensors, e.g. structured light systems are used for many kinds of 3D object reconstruction tasks and in particular for 3D recording of cultural heritage objects. This study presents the experiences in the results of two such projects in which a close-range structured light system is used for the 3D digitization. The paper includes the essential steps of the 3D object modeling pipeline, i.e. digitization, registration, surface triangulation, editing, texture mapping and visualization. The capabilities of the used hardware and software are addressed. Particular emphasis is given to a coded structured light system as an option for data acquisition.

  2. A 3D modeling and measurement system for cultural heritage preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guoguang; Zhou, Mingquan; Ren, Pu; Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Pengbo; Wu, Zhongke

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Heritage reflects the human production, life style and environmental conditions of various historical periods. It exists as one of the major national carriers of national history and culture. In order to do better protection and utilization for these cultural heritages, a system of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and statistical measurement is proposed in this paper. The system solves the problems of cultural heritage's data storage, measurement and analysis. Firstly, for the high precision modeling and measurement problems, range data registration and integration algorithm used to achieve high precision 3D reconstruction. Secondly, multi-view stereo reconstruction method is used to solve the problem of rapid reconstruction by procedures such as the original image data pre-processing, camera calibration, point cloud modeling. At last, the artifacts' measure underlying database is established by calculating the measurements of the 3D model's surface. These measurements contain Euclidean distance between the points on the surface, geodesic distance between the points, normal and curvature in each point, superficial area of a region, volume of model's part and some other measurements. These measurements provide a basis for carrying out information mining of cultural heritage. The system has been applied to the applications of 3D modeling, data measurement of the Terracotta Warriors relics, Tibetan architecture and some other relics.

  3. A 3D human neural cell culture system for modeling Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Hye; Choi, Se Hoon; D’Avanzo, Carla; Hebisch, Matthias; Sliwinski, Christopher; Bylykbashi, Enjana; Washicosky, Kevin J.; Klee, Justin B.; Brüstle, Oliver; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Kim, Doo Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell technologies have facilitated the development of human cellular disease models that can be used to study pathogenesis and test therapeutic candidates. These models hold promise for complex neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) because existing animal models have been unable to fully recapitulate all aspects of pathology. We recently reported the characterization of a novel three-dimensional (3D) culture system that exhibits key events in AD pathogenesis, including extracellular aggregation of β-amyloid and accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau. Here we provide instructions for the generation and analysis of 3D human neural cell cultures, including the production of genetically modified human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) with familial AD mutations, the differentiation of the hNPCs in a 3D matrix, and the analysis of AD pathogenesis. The 3D culture generation takes 1–2 days. The aggregation of β-amyloid is observed after 6-weeks of differentiation followed by robust tau pathology after 10–14 weeks. PMID:26068894

  4. Spatially monitoring oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems using optical oxygen sensing beads.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Acosta, Miguel A; Leach, Jennie B; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2013-04-21

    Capability of measuring and monitoring local oxygen concentration at the single cell level (tens of microns scale) is often desirable but difficult to achieve in cell culture. In this study, biocompatible oxygen sensing beads were prepared and tested for their potential for real-time monitoring and mapping of local oxygen concentration in 3D micro-patterned cell culture systems. Each oxygen sensing bead is composed of a silica core loaded with both an oxygen sensitive Ru(Ph2phen3)Cl2 dye and oxygen insensitive Nile blue reference dye, and a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) shell rendering biocompatibility. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were cultivated on a series of PDMS and type I collagen based substrates patterned with micro-well arrays for 3 or 7 days, and then brought into contact with oxygen sensing beads. Using an image analysis algorithm to convert florescence intensity of beads to partial oxygen pressure in the culture system, tens of microns-size oxygen sensing beads enabled the spatial measurement of local oxygen concentration in the microfabricated system. Results generally indicated lower oxygen level inside wells than on top of wells, and local oxygen level dependence on structural features of cell culture surfaces. Interestingly, chemical composition of cell culture substrates also appeared to affect oxygen level, with type-I collagen based cell culture systems having lower oxygen concentration compared to PDMS based cell culture systems. In general, results suggest that oxygen sensing beads can be utilized to achieve real-time and local monitoring of micro-environment oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems.

  5. Genetically Encoded Sender–Receiver System in 3D Mammalian Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Engineering spatial patterning in mammalian cells, employing entirely genetically encoded components, requires solving several problems. These include how to code secreted activator or inhibitor molecules and how to send concentration-dependent signals to neighboring cells, to control gene expression. The Madin–Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line is a potential engineering scaffold as it forms hollow spheres (cysts) in 3D culture and tubulates in response to extracellular hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We first aimed to graft a synthetic patterning system onto single developing MDCK cysts. We therefore developed a new localized transfection method to engineer distinct sender and receiver regions. A stable reporter line enabled reversible EGFP activation by HGF and modulation by a secreted repressor (a truncated HGF variant, NK4). By expanding the scale to wide fields of cysts, we generated morphogen diffusion gradients, controlling reporter gene expression. Together, these components provide a toolkit for engineering cell–cell communication networks in 3D cell culture. PMID:24313393

  6. 3D cell culture systems modeling tumor growth determinants in cancer target discovery.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Claudio R; Zimmermann, Miriam; Agarkova, Irina; Kelm, Jens M; Krek, Wilhelm

    2014-04-01

    Phenotypic heterogeneity of cancer cells, cell biological context, heterotypic crosstalk and the microenvironment are key determinants of the multistep process of tumor development. They sign responsible, to a significant extent, for the limited response and resistance of cancer cells to molecular-targeted therapies. Better functional knowledge of the complex intra- and intercellular signaling circuits underlying communication between the different cell types populating a tumor tissue and of the systemic and local factors that shape the tumor microenvironment is therefore imperative. Sophisticated 3D multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) systems provide an emerging tool to model the phenotypic and cellular heterogeneity as well as microenvironmental aspects of in vivo tumor growth. In this review we discuss the cellular, chemical and physical factors contributing to zonation and cellular crosstalk within tumor masses. On this basis, we further describe 3D cell culture technologies for growth of MCTS as advanced tools for exploring molecular tumor growth determinants and facilitating drug discovery efforts. We conclude with a synopsis on technological aspects for on-line analysis and post-processing of 3D MCTS models.

  7. Micro 3D cell culture systems for cellular behavior studies: Culture matrices, devices, substrates, and in-situ sensing methods.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jonghoon; Lee, Eun Kyu; Choo, Jaebum; Yuh, Junhan; Hong, Jong Wook

    2015-09-01

    Microfabricated systems equipped with 3D cell culture devices and in-situ cellular biosensing tools can be a powerful bionanotechnology platform to investigate a variety of biomedical applications. Various construction substrates such as plastics, glass, and paper are used for microstructures. When selecting a construction substrate, a key consideration is a porous microenvironment that allows for spheroid growth and mimics the extracellular matrix (ECM) of cell aggregates. Various bio-functionalized hydrogels are ideal candidates that mimic the natural ECM for 3D cell culture. When selecting an optimal and appropriate microfabrication method, both the intended use of the system and the characteristics and restrictions of the target cells should be carefully considered. For highly sensitive and near-cell surface detection of excreted cellular compounds, SERS-based microsystems capable of dual modal imaging have the potential to be powerful tools; however, the development of optical reporters and nanoprobes remains a key challenge. We expect that the microsystems capable of both 3D cell culture and cellular response monitoring would serve as excellent tools to provide fundamental cellular behavior information for various biomedical applications such as metastasis, wound healing, high throughput screening, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug discovery and development. PMID:26358782

  8. A biofidelic 3D culture model to study the development of brain cellular systems

    PubMed Central

    Ren, M.; Du, C.; Herrero Acero, E.; Tang-Schomer, M. D.; Özkucur, N.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how cells assemble as systems during corticogenesis to generate collective functions. We built a neurobiology platform that consists of fetal rat cerebral cortical cells grown within 3D silk scaffolds (SF). Ivermectin (Ivm), a glycine receptor (GLR) agonist, was used to modulate cell resting membrane potential (Vmem) according to methods described in a previous work that implicated Ivm in the arrangement and connectivity of cortical cell assemblies. The cells developed into distinct populations of neuroglial stem/progenitor cells, mature neurons or epithelial-mesenchymal cells. Importantly, the synchronized electrical activity in the newly developed cortical assemblies could be recorded as local field potential (LFP) measurements. This study therefore describes the first example of the development of a biologically relevant cortical plate assembly outside of the body. This model provides i) a preclinical basis for engineering cerebral cortex tissue autografts and ii) a biofidelic 3D culture model for investigating biologically relevant processes during the functional development of cerebral cortical cellular systems. PMID:27112667

  9. The famous versus the inconvenient - or the dawn and the rise of 3D-culture systems

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Brigitte; Welle, Alexander; Giselbrecht, Stefan; Truckenmüller, Roman; Gottwald, Eric

    2009-01-01

    One of the greatest impacts on in vitro cell biology was the introduction of three-dimensional (3D) culture systems more than six decades ago and this era may be called the dawn of 3D-tissue culture. Although the advantages were obvious, this field of research was a “sleeping beauty” until the 1970s when multicellular spheroids were discovered as ideal tumor models. With this rebirth, organotypical culture systems became valuable tools and this trend continues to increase. While in the beginning, simple approaches, such as aggregation culture techniques, were favored due to their simplicity and convenience, now more sophisticated systems are used and are still being developed. One of the boosts in the development of new culture techniques arises from elaborate manufacturing and surface modification techniques, especially micro and nano system technologies that have either improved dramatically or have evolved very recently. With the help of these tools, it will soon be possible to generate even more sophisticated and more organotypic-like culture systems. Since 3D perfused or superfused systems are much more complex to set up and maintain compared to use of petri dishes and culture flasks, the added value of 3D approaches still needs to be demonstrated. PMID:21607106

  10. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  11. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue. PMID:27600217

  12. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  13. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-03-24

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell-matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  14. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  15. A 3D Sphere Culture System Containing Functional Polymers for Large-Scale Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Production

    PubMed Central

    Otsuji, Tomomi G.; Bin, Jiang; Yoshimura, Azumi; Tomura, Misayo; Tateyama, Daiki; Minami, Itsunari; Yoshikawa, Yoshihiro; Aiba, Kazuhiro; Heuser, John E.; Nishino, Taito; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Nakatsuji, Norio

    2014-01-01

    Summary Utilizing human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in cell-based therapy and drug discovery requires large-scale cell production. However, scaling up conventional adherent cultures presents challenges of maintaining a uniform high quality at low cost. In this regard, suspension cultures are a viable alternative, because they are scalable and do not require adhesion surfaces. 3D culture systems such as bioreactors can be exploited for large-scale production. However, the limitations of current suspension culture methods include spontaneous fusion between cell aggregates and suboptimal passaging methods by dissociation and reaggregation. 3D culture systems that dynamically stir carrier beads or cell aggregates should be refined to reduce shearing forces that damage hPSCs. Here, we report a simple 3D sphere culture system that incorporates mechanical passaging and functional polymers. This setup resolves major problems associated with suspension culture methods and dynamic stirring systems and may be optimal for applications involving large-scale hPSC production. PMID:24936458

  16. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor.

  17. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor. PMID:26386332

  18. Optimization of a 3D Dynamic Culturing System for In Vitro Modeling of Frontotemporal Neurodegeneration-Relevant Pathologic Features.

    PubMed

    Tunesi, Marta; Fusco, Federica; Fiordaliso, Fabio; Corbelli, Alessandro; Biella, Gloria; Raimondi, Manuela T

    2016-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder that is diagnosed with increasing frequency in clinical setting. Currently, no therapy is available and in addition the molecular basis of the disease are far from being elucidated. Consequently, it is of pivotal importance to develop reliable and cost-effective in vitro models for basic research purposes and drug screening. To this respect, recent results in the field of Alzheimer's disease have suggested that a tridimensional (3D) environment is an added value to better model key pathologic features of the disease. Here, we have tried to add complexity to the 3D cell culturing concept by using a microfluidic bioreactor, where cells are cultured under a continuous flow of medium, thus mimicking the interstitial fluid movement that actually perfuses the body tissues, including the brain. We have implemented this model using a neuronal-like cell line (SH-SY5Y), a widely exploited cell model for neurodegenerative disorders that shows some basic features relevant for FTLD modeling, such as the release of the FTLD-related protein progranulin (PRGN) in specific vesicles (exosomes). We have efficiently seeded the cells on 3D scaffolds, optimized a disease-relevant oxidative stress experiment (by targeting mitochondrial function that is one of the possible FTLD-involved pathological mechanisms) and evaluated cell metabolic activity in dynamic culture in comparison to static conditions, finding that SH-SY5Y cells cultured in 3D scaffold are susceptible to the oxidative damage triggered by a mitochondrial-targeting toxin (6-OHDA) and that the same cells cultured in dynamic conditions kept their basic capacity to secrete PRGN in exosomes once recovered from the bioreactor and plated in standard 2D conditions. We think that a further improvement of our microfluidic system may help in providing a full device where assessing basic FTLD-related features (including PRGN dynamic secretion) that may be

  19. Development of a Novel 3D Culture System for Screening Features of a Complex Implantable Device for CNS Repair

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Tubular scaffolds which incorporate a variety of micro- and nanotopographies have a wide application potential in tissue engineering especially for the repair of spinal cord injury (SCI). We aim to produce metabolically active differentiated tissues within such tubes, as it is crucially important to evaluate the biological performance of the three-dimensional (3D) scaffold and optimize the bioprocesses for tissue culture. Because of the complex 3D configuration and the presence of various topographies, it is rarely possible to observe and analyze cells within such scaffolds in situ. Thus, we aim to develop scaled down mini-chambers as simplified in vitro simulation systems, to bridge the gap between two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures on structured substrates and three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture. The mini-chambers were manipulated to systematically simulate and evaluate the influences of gravity, topography, fluid flow, and scaffold dimension on three exemplary cell models that play a role in CNS repair (i.e., cortical astrocytes, fibroblasts, and myelinating cultures) within a tubular scaffold created by rolling up a microstructured membrane. Since we use CNS myelinating cultures, we can confirm that the scaffold does not affect neural cell differentiation. It was found that heterogeneous cell distribution within the tubular constructs was caused by a combination of gravity, fluid flow, topography, and scaffold configuration, while cell survival was influenced by scaffold length, porosity, and thickness. This research demonstrates that the mini-chambers represent a viable, novel, scale down approach for the evaluation of complex 3D scaffolds as well as providing a microbioprocessing strategy for tissue engineering and the potential repair of SCI. PMID:24279373

  20. Optimization of a 3D Dynamic Culturing System for In Vitro Modeling of Frontotemporal Neurodegeneration-Relevant Pathologic Features.

    PubMed

    Tunesi, Marta; Fusco, Federica; Fiordaliso, Fabio; Corbelli, Alessandro; Biella, Gloria; Raimondi, Manuela T

    2016-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder that is diagnosed with increasing frequency in clinical setting. Currently, no therapy is available and in addition the molecular basis of the disease are far from being elucidated. Consequently, it is of pivotal importance to develop reliable and cost-effective in vitro models for basic research purposes and drug screening. To this respect, recent results in the field of Alzheimer's disease have suggested that a tridimensional (3D) environment is an added value to better model key pathologic features of the disease. Here, we have tried to add complexity to the 3D cell culturing concept by using a microfluidic bioreactor, where cells are cultured under a continuous flow of medium, thus mimicking the interstitial fluid movement that actually perfuses the body tissues, including the brain. We have implemented this model using a neuronal-like cell line (SH-SY5Y), a widely exploited cell model for neurodegenerative disorders that shows some basic features relevant for FTLD modeling, such as the release of the FTLD-related protein progranulin (PRGN) in specific vesicles (exosomes). We have efficiently seeded the cells on 3D scaffolds, optimized a disease-relevant oxidative stress experiment (by targeting mitochondrial function that is one of the possible FTLD-involved pathological mechanisms) and evaluated cell metabolic activity in dynamic culture in comparison to static conditions, finding that SH-SY5Y cells cultured in 3D scaffold are susceptible to the oxidative damage triggered by a mitochondrial-targeting toxin (6-OHDA) and that the same cells cultured in dynamic conditions kept their basic capacity to secrete PRGN in exosomes once recovered from the bioreactor and plated in standard 2D conditions. We think that a further improvement of our microfluidic system may help in providing a full device where assessing basic FTLD-related features (including PRGN dynamic secretion) that may be

  1. Hydrogel Based 3-Dimensional (3D) System for Toxicity and High-Throughput (HTP) Analysis for Cultured Murine Ovarian Follicles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong; Malik, Malika Amattullah; Arab, Aarthi; Hill, Matthew Thomas; Shikanov, Ariella

    2015-01-01

    Various toxicants, drugs and their metabolites carry potential ovarian toxicity. Ovarian follicles, the functional unit of the ovary, are susceptible to this type of damage at all stages of their development. However, despite of the large scale of potential negative impacts, assays that study ovarian toxicity are limited. Exposure of cultured ovarian follicles to toxicants of interest served as an important tool for evaluation of toxic effects for decades. Mouse follicles cultured on the bottom of a culture dish continue to serve an important approach for mechanistic studies. In this paper, we demonstrated the usefulness of a hydrogel based 3-dimensional (3D) mouse ovarian follicle culture as a tool to study ovarian toxicity in a different setup. The 3D in vitro culture, based on fibrin alginate interpenetrating network (FA-IPN), preserves the architecture of the ovarian follicle and physiological structure-function relationship. We applied the novel 3D high-throughput (HTP) in vitro ovarian follicle culture system to study the ovotoxic effects of an anti-cancer drug, Doxorobucin (DXR). The fibrin component in the system is degraded by plasmin and appears as a clear circle around the encapsulated follicle. The degradation area of the follicle is strongly correlated with follicle survival and growth. To analyze fibrin degradation in a high throughput manner, we created a custom MATLAB® code that converts brightfield micrographs of follicles encapsulated in FA-IPN to binary images, followed by image analysis. We did not observe any significant difference between manually processed images to the automated MATLAB® method, thereby confirming that the automated program is suitable to measure fibrin degradation to evaluate follicle health. The cultured follicles were treated with DXR at concentrations ranging from 0.005 nM to 200 nM, corresponding to the therapeutic plasma levels of DXR in patients. Follicles treated with DXR demonstrated decreased survival rate in

  2. Hydrogel Based 3-Dimensional (3D) System for Toxicity and High-Throughput (HTP) Analysis for Cultured Murine Ovarian Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hong; Malik, Malika Amattullah; Arab, Aarthi; Hill, Matthew Thomas; Shikanov, Ariella

    2015-01-01

    Various toxicants, drugs and their metabolites carry potential ovarian toxicity. Ovarian follicles, the functional unit of the ovary, are susceptible to this type of damage at all stages of their development. However, despite of the large scale of potential negative impacts, assays that study ovarian toxicity are limited. Exposure of cultured ovarian follicles to toxicants of interest served as an important tool for evaluation of toxic effects for decades. Mouse follicles cultured on the bottom of a culture dish continue to serve an important approach for mechanistic studies. In this paper, we demonstrated the usefulness of a hydrogel based 3-dimensional (3D) mouse ovarian follicle culture as a tool to study ovarian toxicity in a different setup. The 3D in vitro culture, based on fibrin alginate interpenetrating network (FA-IPN), preserves the architecture of the ovarian follicle and physiological structure-function relationship. We applied the novel 3D high-throughput (HTP) in vitro ovarian follicle culture system to study the ovotoxic effects of an anti-cancer drug, Doxorobucin (DXR). The fibrin component in the system is degraded by plasmin and appears as a clear circle around the encapsulated follicle. The degradation area of the follicle is strongly correlated with follicle survival and growth. To analyze fibrin degradation in a high throughput manner, we created a custom MATLAB® code that converts brightfield micrographs of follicles encapsulated in FA-IPN to binary images, followed by image analysis. We did not observe any significant difference between manually processed images to the automated MATLAB® method, thereby confirming that the automated program is suitable to measure fibrin degradation to evaluate follicle health. The cultured follicles were treated with DXR at concentrations ranging from 0.005 nM to 200 nM, corresponding to the therapeutic plasma levels of DXR in patients. Follicles treated with DXR demonstrated decreased survival rate in

  3. Effect of Aflatoxin B1 on Growth of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells in 3D and Monolayer Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Forouharmehr, Ali; Harkinezhad, Taher; Qasemi-Panahi, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Many studies have been showed transfer of aflatoxins, toxins produced by Aspergillus flvaus and Aspergillus parasiticus fungi, into milk. These toxins are transferred into the milk through digestive system by eating contaminated food. Due to the toxicity of these materials, it seems that it has side effects on the growth of mammary cells. Therefore, the present work aimed to investigate possible toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on bovine mammary epithelial cells in monolayer and three-dimensional cultures. Methods: Specimens of the mammary tissue of bovine were sized out in size 2×2 cm in slaughterhouse. After disinfection and washing in sterile PBS, primary cell culture was performed by enzymatic digestion of tissue with collagenase. When proper numbers of cells were achieved in monolayer culture, cells were seeded in a 24-well culture plate for three-dimensional (3D) culture in Matrigel matrix. After 21 days of 3D culture and reaching the required number of cells, the concentrations of 15, 25 and 35 µL of AFB1 were added to the culture in quadruplicate and incubated for 8 hours. Cellular cytotoxicity was examined using standard colorimetric assay and finally, any change in the morphology of the cells was studied by microscopic technique. Results: Microscopic investigations showed necrosis of the AFB1-exposed cells compared to the control cells. Also, bovine mammary epithelial cells were significantly affected by AFB1 in dose and time dependent manner in cell viability assays. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that AFB1 can induce cytotoxicity and necrosis in bovine mammary epithelial cells. PMID:24312827

  4. Validation of the BacT/ALERT®3D automated culture system for the detection of microbial contamination of epithelial cell culture medium.

    PubMed

    Plantamura, E; Huyghe, G; Panterne, B; Delesalle, N; Thépot, A; Reverdy, M E; Damour, O; Auxenfans, Céline

    2012-08-01

    Living tissue engineering for regenerative therapy cannot withstand the usual pharmacopoeia methods of purification and terminal sterilization. Consequently, these products must be manufactured under aseptic conditions at microbiologically controlled environment facilities. This study was proposed to validate BacT/ALERT(®)3D automated culture system for microbiological control of epithelial cell culture medium (ECCM). Suspensions of the nine microorganisms recommended by the European Pharmacopoeia (Chap. 2.6.27: "Microbiological control of cellular products"), plus one species from oral mucosa and two negative controls with no microorganisms were prepared in ECCM. They were inoculated in FA (anaerobic) and SN (aerobic) culture bottles (Biomérieux, Lyon, France) and incubated in a BacT/ALERT(®)3D automated culture system. For each species, five sets of bottles were inoculated for reproducibility testing: one sample was incubated at the French Health Products Agency laboratory (reference) and the four others at Cell and Tissue Bank of Lyon, France. The specificity of the positive culture bottles was verified by Gram staining and then subcultured to identify the microorganism grown. The BacT/ALERT(®)3D system detected all the inoculated microorganisms in less than 2 days except Propionibacterium acnes which was detected in 3 days. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the BacT/ALERT(®)3D system can detect both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial and fungal contamination of an epithelial cell culture medium consistent with the European Pharmacopoeia chapter 2.6.27 recommendations. It showed the specificity, sensitivity, and precision of the BacT/ALERT(®)3D method, since all the microorganisms seeded were detected in both sites and the uncontaminated medium ECCM remained negative at 7 days. PMID:22160810

  5. Optimization of a 3D Dynamic Culturing System for In Vitro Modeling of Frontotemporal Neurodegeneration-Relevant Pathologic Features

    PubMed Central

    Tunesi, Marta; Fusco, Federica; Fiordaliso, Fabio; Corbelli, Alessandro; Biella, Gloria; Raimondi, Manuela T.

    2016-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder that is diagnosed with increasing frequency in clinical setting. Currently, no therapy is available and in addition the molecular basis of the disease are far from being elucidated. Consequently, it is of pivotal importance to develop reliable and cost-effective in vitro models for basic research purposes and drug screening. To this respect, recent results in the field of Alzheimer’s disease have suggested that a tridimensional (3D) environment is an added value to better model key pathologic features of the disease. Here, we have tried to add complexity to the 3D cell culturing concept by using a microfluidic bioreactor, where cells are cultured under a continuous flow of medium, thus mimicking the interstitial fluid movement that actually perfuses the body tissues, including the brain. We have implemented this model using a neuronal-like cell line (SH-SY5Y), a widely exploited cell model for neurodegenerative disorders that shows some basic features relevant for FTLD modeling, such as the release of the FTLD-related protein progranulin (PRGN) in specific vesicles (exosomes). We have efficiently seeded the cells on 3D scaffolds, optimized a disease-relevant oxidative stress experiment (by targeting mitochondrial function that is one of the possible FTLD-involved pathological mechanisms) and evaluated cell metabolic activity in dynamic culture in comparison to static conditions, finding that SH-SY5Y cells cultured in 3D scaffold are susceptible to the oxidative damage triggered by a mitochondrial-targeting toxin (6-OHDA) and that the same cells cultured in dynamic conditions kept their basic capacity to secrete PRGN in exosomes once recovered from the bioreactor and plated in standard 2D conditions. We think that a further improvement of our microfluidic system may help in providing a full device where assessing basic FTLD-related features (including PRGN dynamic secretion) that may

  6. Assessment of different 3D culture systems to study tumor phenotype and chemosensitivity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zeeberg, Katrine; Cardone, Rosa Angela; Greco, Maria Raffaella; Saccomano, Mara; Nøhr-Nielsen, Asbjørn; Alves, Frauke; Pedersen, Stine Falsig; Reshkin, Stephan Joel

    2016-07-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly malignant disease with a very poor prognosis, due to the influence of the tumor stroma, which promotes tumor growth, early invasion and chemoradiation resistance. Efforts to develop models for identifying novel anticancer therapeutic compounds have been hampered by the limited ability of in vitro models to mimic these in vivo tumor-stroma interactions. This has led to the development of various three-dimensional (3D) culture platforms recapitulating the in vivo tumor-stroma crosstalk and designed to better understand basic cancer processes and screen drug action. However, a consensus for different experimental 3D platforms is still missing in PDAC. We compared four PDAC cell lines of different malignancy grown in 2D monolayers to three of the more commonly used 3D techniques (ultralow adhesion concave microwells, Matrigel inclusion and organotypic systems) and to tumors derived from their orthotopic implantation in mice. In these 3D platforms, we observed that cells grow with very different tumor morphologies and the organotypic setting most closely resembles the tumor cytoarchitecture obtained by orthotopically implanting the four cell lines in mice. We then analyzed the molecular and cellular responses of one of these cell lines to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) stimulation with EGF and inhibition with erlotinib and found that only in the 3D platforms, and especially the organotypic, cells: i) responded to EGF by changing the expression of signalling components underlying cell-stroma crosstalk and tissue architecture, growth, invasion and drug resistance (E-cadherin, EGFR, ezrin, β1 integrin, NHERF1 and HIF-1α) similar to those reported in vivo; ii) had stimulated growth and increased erlotinib sensitivity in response to EGF, more faithfully mimicking their known in vivo behaviour. Altogether, these results, indicate the organotypic as the most relevant physiological 3D system to study the

  7. A fully defined and scalable 3D culture system for human pluripotent stem cell expansion and differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yuguo; Schaffer, David V.

    2013-12-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, are promising for numerous biomedical applications, such as cell replacement therapies, tissue and whole-organ engineering, and high-throughput pharmacology and toxicology screening. Each of these applications requires large numbers of cells of high quality; however, the scalable expansion and differentiation of hPSCs, especially for clinical utilization, remains a challenge. We report a simple, defined, efficient, scalable, and good manufacturing practice-compatible 3D culture system for hPSC expansion and differentiation. It employs a thermoresponsive hydrogel that combines easy manipulation and completely defined conditions, free of any human- or animal-derived factors, and entailing only recombinant protein factors. Under an optimized protocol, the 3D system enables long-term, serial expansion of multiple hPSCs lines with a high expansion rate (∼20-fold per 5-d passage, for a 1072-fold expansion over 280 d), yield (∼2.0 × 107 cells per mL of hydrogel), and purity (∼95% Oct4+), even with single-cell inoculation, all of which offer considerable advantages relative to current approaches. Moreover, the system enabled 3D directed differentiation of hPSCs into multiple lineages, including dopaminergic neuron progenitors with a yield of ∼8 × 107 dopaminergic progenitors per mL of hydrogel and ∼80-fold expansion by the end of a 15-d derivation. This versatile system may be useful at numerous scales, from basic biological investigation to clinical development.

  8. A fully defined and scalable 3D culture system for human pluripotent stem cell expansion and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yuguo; Schaffer, David V

    2013-12-24

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, are promising for numerous biomedical applications, such as cell replacement therapies, tissue and whole-organ engineering, and high-throughput pharmacology and toxicology screening. Each of these applications requires large numbers of cells of high quality; however, the scalable expansion and differentiation of hPSCs, especially for clinical utilization, remains a challenge. We report a simple, defined, efficient, scalable, and good manufacturing practice-compatible 3D culture system for hPSC expansion and differentiation. It employs a thermoresponsive hydrogel that combines easy manipulation and completely defined conditions, free of any human- or animal-derived factors, and entailing only recombinant protein factors. Under an optimized protocol, the 3D system enables long-term, serial expansion of multiple hPSCs lines with a high expansion rate (~20-fold per 5-d passage, for a 10(72)-fold expansion over 280 d), yield (~2.0 × 10(7) cells per mL of hydrogel), and purity (~95% Oct4+), even with single-cell inoculation, all of which offer considerable advantages relative to current approaches. Moreover, the system enabled 3D directed differentiation of hPSCs into multiple lineages, including dopaminergic neuron progenitors with a yield of ~8 × 10(7) dopaminergic progenitors per mL of hydrogel and ~80-fold expansion by the end of a 15-d derivation. This versatile system may be useful at numerous scales, from basic biological investigation to clinical development. PMID:24248365

  9. Genotoxicity assessment of reactive and disperse textile dyes using human dermal equivalent (3D cell culture system).

    PubMed

    Leme, Daniela Morais; Primo, Fernando Lucas; Gobo, Graciely Gomides; da Costa, Cleber Rafael Vieira; Tedesco, Antonio Claudio; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of dyes are marketed daily for different purposes, including textile dyeing. However, there are several studies reporting attributing to dyes deleterious human effects such as DNA damage. Humans may be exposed to toxic dyes through either ingestion of contaminated waters or dermal contact with colored garments. With respect to dermal exposure, human skin equivalents are promising tools to assess in vitro genotoxicity of dermally applied chemicals using a three-dimensional (3D) model to mimic tissue behavior. This study investigated the sensitivity of an in-house human dermal equivalent (DE) for detecting genotoxicity of textile dyes. Two azo (reactive green 19 [RG19] and disperse red 1[DR1]) dyes and one anthraquinone (reactive blue 2 [RB2]) dye were analyzed. RG19 was genotoxic for DE in a dose-responsive manner, whereas RB2 and DR1 were nongenotoxic under the conditions tested. These findings are not in agreement with previous genotoxicological assessment of these dyes carried out using two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures, which showed that DR1 was genotoxic in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and RG19 was nongenotoxic for normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). These discrepant results probably may be due to differences between metabolic activities of each cell type (organ-specific genotoxicity, HepG2 and fibroblasts) and the test setup systems used in each study (fibroblasts cultured at 2D and three-dimensional [3D] culture systems). Genotoxicological assessment of textile dyes in context of organ-specific genotoxicity and using in vitro models that more closely resemble in vivo tissue architecture and physiology may provide more reliable estimates of genotoxic potential of these chemicals. PMID:25785560

  10. Genotoxicity assessment of reactive and disperse textile dyes using human dermal equivalent (3D cell culture system).

    PubMed

    Leme, Daniela Morais; Primo, Fernando Lucas; Gobo, Graciely Gomides; da Costa, Cleber Rafael Vieira; Tedesco, Antonio Claudio; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of dyes are marketed daily for different purposes, including textile dyeing. However, there are several studies reporting attributing to dyes deleterious human effects such as DNA damage. Humans may be exposed to toxic dyes through either ingestion of contaminated waters or dermal contact with colored garments. With respect to dermal exposure, human skin equivalents are promising tools to assess in vitro genotoxicity of dermally applied chemicals using a three-dimensional (3D) model to mimic tissue behavior. This study investigated the sensitivity of an in-house human dermal equivalent (DE) for detecting genotoxicity of textile dyes. Two azo (reactive green 19 [RG19] and disperse red 1[DR1]) dyes and one anthraquinone (reactive blue 2 [RB2]) dye were analyzed. RG19 was genotoxic for DE in a dose-responsive manner, whereas RB2 and DR1 were nongenotoxic under the conditions tested. These findings are not in agreement with previous genotoxicological assessment of these dyes carried out using two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures, which showed that DR1 was genotoxic in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and RG19 was nongenotoxic for normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). These discrepant results probably may be due to differences between metabolic activities of each cell type (organ-specific genotoxicity, HepG2 and fibroblasts) and the test setup systems used in each study (fibroblasts cultured at 2D and three-dimensional [3D] culture systems). Genotoxicological assessment of textile dyes in context of organ-specific genotoxicity and using in vitro models that more closely resemble in vivo tissue architecture and physiology may provide more reliable estimates of genotoxic potential of these chemicals.

  11. Metabolic response of lung cancer cells to radiation in a paper-based 3D cell culture system.

    PubMed

    Simon, Karen A; Mosadegh, Bobak; Minn, Kyaw Thu; Lockett, Matthew R; Mohammady, Marym R; Boucher, Diane M; Hall, Amy B; Hillier, Shawn M; Udagawa, Taturo; Eustace, Brenda K; Whitesides, George M

    2016-07-01

    This work demonstrates the application of a 3D culture system-Cells-in-Gels-in-Paper (CiGiP)-in evaluating the metabolic response of lung cancer cells to ionizing radiation. The 3D tissue-like construct-prepared by stacking multiple sheets of paper containing cell-embedded hydrogels-generates a gradient of oxygen and nutrients that decreases monotonically in the stack. Separating the layers of the stack after exposure enabled analysis of the cellular response to radiation as a function of oxygen and nutrient availability; this availability is dictated by the distance between the cells and the source of oxygenated medium. As the distance between the cells and source of oxygenated media increased, cells show increased levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, decreased proliferation, and reduced sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Each of these cellular responses are characteristic of cancer cells observed in solid tumors. With this setup we were able to differentiate three isogenic variants of A549 cells based on their metabolic radiosensitivity; these three variants have known differences in their metastatic behavior in vivo. This system can, therefore, capture some aspects of radiosensitivity of populations of cancer cells related to mass-transport phenomenon, carry out systematic studies of radiation response in vitro that decouple effects from migration and proliferation of cells, and regulate the exposure of oxygen to subpopulations of cells in a tissue-like construct either before or after irradiation. PMID:27116031

  12. Cell therapy, 3D culture systems and tissue engineering for cardiac regeneration.

    PubMed

    Emmert, Maximilian Y; Hitchcock, Robert W; Hoerstrup, Simon P

    2014-04-01

    Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) still represents the "Number One Killer" worldwide accounting for the death of numerous patients. However the capacity for self-regeneration of the adult heart is very limited and the loss of cardiomyocytes in the infarcted heart leads to continuous adverse cardiac-remodeling which often leads to heart-failure (HF). The concept of regenerative medicine comprising cell-based therapies, bio-engineering technologies and hybrid solutions has been proposed as a promising next-generation approach to address IHD and HF. Numerous strategies are under investigation evaluating the potential of regenerative medicine on the failing myocardium including classical cell-therapy concepts, three-dimensional culture techniques and tissue-engineering approaches. While most of these regenerative strategies have shown great potential in experimental studies, the translation into a clinical setting has either been limited or too rapid leaving many key questions unanswered. This review summarizes the current state-of-the-art, important challenges and future research directions as to regenerative approaches addressing IHD and resulting HF.

  13. Collagen esterification enhances the function and survival of pancreatic β cells in 2D and 3D culture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Jae Hyung; Kim, Yang Hee; Jeong, Seong Hee; Lee, Song; Park, Si-Nae; Shim, In Kyong; Kim, Song Cheol

    2015-08-07

    Collagen, one of the most important components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), may play a role in the survival of pancreatic islet cells. In addition, chemical modifications that change the collagen charge profile to a net positive charge by esterification have been shown to increase the adhesion and proliferation of various cell types. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare the effects of native collagen (NC) and esterified collagen (EC) on β cell function and survival. After isolation by the collagenase digestion technique, rat islets were cultured with NC and EC in 2 dimensional (2D) and 3 dimensional (3D) environments for a long-term duration in vitro. The cells were assessed for islet adhesion, morphology, viability, glucose-induced insulin secretion, and mRNA expression of glucose metabolism-related genes, and visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Islet cells attached tightly in the NC group, but islet cell viability was similar in both the NC and EC groups. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was higher in the EC group than in the NC group in both 2D and 3D culture. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of glucokinase in the EC group were higher than those in the NC group and were associated with glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Finally, SEM observation confirmed that islets had more intact component cells on EC sponges than on NC sponges. These results indicate that modification of collagen may offer opportunities to improve function and viability of islet cells. - Highlights: • We changed the collagen charge profile to a net positive charge by esterification. • Islets cultured on esterified collagen improved survival in both 2D and 3D culture. • Islets cultured on esterified collagen enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin release. • High levels of glucokinase mRNA may be associated with increased insulin release.

  14. Filling gaps in cultural heritage documentation by 3D photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.

    2015-08-01

    geometry" and to multistage concepts of 3D photographs in Cultural Heritage just started. Furthermore a revised list of the 3D visualization principles, claiming completeness, has been carried out. Beside others in an outlook *It is highly recommended, to list every historical and current stereo view with relevance to Cultural Heritage in a global Monument Information System (MIS), like in google earth. *3D photographs seem to be very suited, to complete and/or at least partly to replace manual archaeological sketches. In this concern the still underestimated 3D effect will be demonstrated, which even allows, e.g., the spatial perception of extremely small scratches etc... *A consequent dealing with 3D Technology even seems to indicate, currently we experience the beginning of a new age of "real 3DPC- screens", which at least could add or even partly replace the conventional 2D screens. Here the spatial visualization is verified without glasses in an all-around vitreous body. In this respect nowadays widespread lasered crystals showing monuments are identified as "Early Bird" 3D products, which, due to low resolution and contrast and due to lack of color, currently might even remember to the status of the invention of photography by Niepce (1827), but seem to promise a great future also in 3D Cultural Heritage documentation. *Last not least 3D printers more and more seem to conquer the IT-market, obviously showing an international competition.

  15. Automation of 3D cell culture using chemically defined hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Rimann, Markus; Angres, Brigitte; Patocchi-Tenzer, Isabel; Braum, Susanne; Graf-Hausner, Ursula

    2014-04-01

    Drug development relies on high-throughput screening involving cell-based assays. Most of the assays are still based on cells grown in monolayer rather than in three-dimensional (3D) formats, although cells behave more in vivo-like in 3D. To exemplify the adoption of 3D techniques in drug development, this project investigated the automation of a hydrogel-based 3D cell culture system using a liquid-handling robot. The hydrogel technology used offers high flexibility of gel design due to a modular composition of a polymer network and bioactive components. The cell inert degradation of the gel at the end of the culture period guaranteed the harmless isolation of live cells for further downstream processing. Human colon carcinoma cells HCT-116 were encapsulated and grown in these dextran-based hydrogels, thereby forming 3D multicellular spheroids. Viability and DNA content of the cells were shown to be similar in automated and manually produced hydrogels. Furthermore, cell treatment with toxic Taxol concentrations (100 nM) had the same effect on HCT-116 cell viability in manually and automated hydrogel preparations. Finally, a fully automated dose-response curve with the reference compound Taxol showed the potential of this hydrogel-based 3D cell culture system in advanced drug development.

  16. 3D Tissue Culturing: Tissue in Cube: In Vitro 3D Culturing Platform with Hybrid Gel Cubes for Multidirectional Observations (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 13/2016).

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Kawahara, Tomohiro; Nobata, Rina

    2016-07-01

    An in vitro 3D culturing platform enabling multidirectional observations of 3D biosamples is presented by M. Hagiwara and co-workers on page 1566. 3D recognition of a sample structure can be achieved by facilitating multi-directional views using a standard microscope without a laser system. The cubic platform has the potential to promote 3D culture studies, offering easy handling and compatibility with commercial culture plates at a low price tag. PMID:27384934

  17. 3D Tissue Culturing: Tissue in Cube: In Vitro 3D Culturing Platform with Hybrid Gel Cubes for Multidirectional Observations (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 13/2016).

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Kawahara, Tomohiro; Nobata, Rina

    2016-07-01

    An in vitro 3D culturing platform enabling multidirectional observations of 3D biosamples is presented by M. Hagiwara and co-workers on page 1566. 3D recognition of a sample structure can be achieved by facilitating multi-directional views using a standard microscope without a laser system. The cubic platform has the potential to promote 3D culture studies, offering easy handling and compatibility with commercial culture plates at a low price tag.

  18. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  19. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  20. A 3D ex vivo mandible slice system for longitudinal culturing of transplanted dental pulp progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Colombo, John S; Howard-Jones, Rachel A; Young, Fraser I; Waddington, Rachel J; Errington, Rachel J; Sloan, Alastair J

    2015-10-01

    Harnessing mesenchymal stem cells for tissue repair underpins regenerative medicine. However, how the 3D tissue matrix maintains such cells in a quiescent state whilst at the same time primed to respond to tissue damage remains relatively unknown. Developing more physiologically relevant 3D models would allow us to better understand the matrix drivers and influence on cell-lineage differentiation in situ. In this study, we have developed an ex vivo organotypic rat mandible slice model; a technically defined platform for the culture and characterization of dental pulp progenitor cells expressing GFP driven by the β-actin promoter (cGFP DPPCs). Using confocal microscopy we have characterized how the native environment influences the progenitor cells transplanted into the dental pulp. Injected cGFP-DPPCs were highly viable and furthermore differentially proliferated in unique regions of the mandible slice; in the dentine region, cGFP-DPPCs showed a columnar morphology indicative of expansion and lineage differentiation. Hence, we demonstrated the systematic capacity for establishing a dental pulp cell-micro-community, phenotypically modified in the tooth (the "biology"); and at the same time addressed technical challenges enabling the mandible slice to be accessible on platforms for high-content imaging (the biology in a "multiplex" format). PMID:25963448

  1. Collagen esterification enhances the function and survival of pancreatic β cells in 2D and 3D culture systems.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jae Hyung; Kim, Yang Hee; Jeong, Seong Hee; Lee, Song; Park, Si-Nae; Shim, In Kyong; Kim, Song Cheol

    2015-08-01

    Collagen, one of the most important components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), may play a role in the survival of pancreatic islet cells. In addition, chemical modifications that change the collagen charge profile to a net positive charge by esterification have been shown to increase the adhesion and proliferation of various cell types. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare the effects of native collagen (NC) and esterified collagen (EC) on β cell function and survival. After isolation by the collagenase digestion technique, rat islets were cultured with NC and EC in 2 dimensional (2D) and 3 dimensional (3D) environments for a long-term duration in vitro. The cells were assessed for islet adhesion, morphology, viability, glucose-induced insulin secretion, and mRNA expression of glucose metabolism-related genes, and visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Islet cells attached tightly in the NC group, but islet cell viability was similar in both the NC and EC groups. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was higher in the EC group than in the NC group in both 2D and 3D culture. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of glucokinase in the EC group were higher than those in the NC group and were associated with glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Finally, SEM observation confirmed that islets had more intact component cells on EC sponges than on NC sponges. These results indicate that modification of collagen may offer opportunities to improve function and viability of islet cells.

  2. Nanomagnetic Levitation 3-D Cultures of Breast and Colorectal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Bumpers, Harvey L.; Janagama, Dasharatham G.; Manne, Upender; Basson, Marc D.; Katkoori, Venkat

    2014-01-01

    Background Innovative technologies for drug discovery and development, cancer models, stem cell research, tissue engineering, and drug testing in various cell-based platforms require an application similar to the in vivo system. Materials and Methods We developed for the first time nanomagnetically levitated three dimensional (3-D) cultures of breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells using carbon encapsulated cobalt magnetic nanoparticles. BC and CRC xenografts grown in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were evaluated for N-cadherin and Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expressions. These phenotypes were compared with 2-D cultures and 3-D cultures grown in a gel matrix. Results The BC and CRC cells grown by magnetic levitation formed microtissues. The levitated cultures had high viability and were maintained in culture for long periods of time. It has been observed that N-cadherin and EGFR activities were highly expressed in the levitated 3-D tumor spheres and xenografts of CRC and BC cells. Conclusions Nanomagnetically levitated 3-D cultures tend to form stable microtissues of BC and CRC and may be more feasible for a range of applications in drug discovery or regenerative medicine. PMID:25617973

  3. Alzheimer’s in 3D culture: Challenges and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    D'Avanzo, Carla; Aronson, Jenna; Kim, Young Hye; Choi, Se Hoon; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Kim, Doo Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Summary Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, and there is currently no cure. The “β-amyloid cascade hypothesis” of AD is the basis of current understanding of AD pathogenesis and drug discovery. However, no AD models have fully validated this hypothesis. We recently developed a human stem cell culture model of AD by cultivating genetically modified human neural stem cells in a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture system. These cells were able to recapitulate key events of AD pathology including β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In this review, we will discuss the progress and current limitations of AD mouse models and human stem cell models as well as explore the breakthroughs of 3D cell culture systems. We will also share our perspective on the potential of dish models of neurodegenerative diseases for studying pathogenic cascades and therapeutic drug discovery. PMID:26252541

  4. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  5. Microfluidic titer plate for stratified 3D cell culture.

    PubMed

    Trietsch, Sebastiaan J; Israëls, Guido D; Joore, Jos; Hankemeier, Thomas; Vulto, Paul

    2013-09-21

    Human tissues and organs are inherently heterogeneous. Their functionality is determined by the interplay between different cell types, their secondary architecture, vascular system and gradients of signaling molecules and metabolites. Here we propose a stratified 3D cell culture platform, in which adjacent lanes of gels and liquids are patterned by phaseguides to capture this tissue heterogeneity. We demonstrate 3D cell culture of HepG2 hepatocytes under continuous perfusion, a rifampicin toxicity assay and co-culture with fibroblasts. 4T1 breast cancer cells are used to demonstrate invasion and aggregation models. The platform is incorporated in a microtiter plate format that renders it fully compatible with automation and high-content screening equipment. The extended functionality, ease of handling and full compatibility to standard equipment is an important step towards adoption of Organ-on-a-Chip technology for screening in an industrial setting.

  6. Generation of Microtumors Using 3D Human Biogel Culture System and Patient-derived Glioblastoma Cells for Kinomic Profiling and Drug Response Testing.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Ashley N; Shevin, Rachael S; Anderson, Joshua C; Langford, Catherine P; Eustace, Nicholas; Gillespie, G Yancey; Singh, Raj; Willey, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    The use of patient-derived xenografts for modeling cancers has provided important insight into cancer biology and drug responsiveness. However, they are time consuming, expensive, and labor intensive. To overcome these obstacles, many research groups have turned to spheroid cultures of cancer cells. While useful, tumor spheroids or aggregates do not replicate cell-matrix interactions as found in vivo. As such, three-dimensional (3D) culture approaches utilizing an extracellular matrix scaffold provide a more realistic model system for investigation. Starting from subcutaneous or intracranial xenografts, tumor tissue is dissociated into a single cell suspension akin to cancer stem cell neurospheres. These cells are then embedded into a human-derived extracellular matrix, 3D human biogel, to generate a large number of microtumors. Interestingly, microtumors can be cultured for about a month with high viability and can be used for drug response testing using standard cytotoxicity assays such as 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and live cell imaging using Calcein-AM. Moreover, they can be analyzed via immunohistochemistry or harvested for molecular profiling, such as array-based high-throughput kinomic profiling, which is detailed here as well. 3D microtumors, thus, represent a versatile high-throughput model system that can more closely replicate in vivo tumor biology than traditional approaches. PMID:27341166

  7. Modeling human development in 3D culture.

    PubMed

    Ader, Marius; Tanaka, Elly M

    2014-12-01

    Recently human embryonic stem cell research has taken on a new dimension - the third dimension. Capitalizing on increasing knowledge on directing pluripotent cells along different lineages, combined with ECM supported three-dimensional culture conditions, it has become possible to generate highly organized tissues of the central nervous system, gut, liver and kidney. Each system has been used to study different aspects of organogenesis and function including physical forces underlying optic cup morphogenesis, the function of disease related genes in progenitor cell control, as well as interaction of the generated tissues with host tissue upon transplantation. Pluripotent stem cell derived organoids represent powerful systems for the study of how cells self-organize to generate tissues with a given shape, pattern and form. PMID:25033469

  8. Synthetic 3D multicellular systems for drug development.

    PubMed

    Rimann, Markus; Graf-Hausner, Ursula

    2012-10-01

    Since the 1970s, the limitations of two dimensional (2D) cell culture and the relevance of appropriate three dimensional (3D) cell systems have become increasingly evident. Extensive effort has thus been made to move cells from a flat world to a 3D environment. While 3D cell culture technologies are meanwhile widely used in academia, 2D culture technologies are still entrenched in the (pharmaceutical) industry for most kind of cell-based efficacy and toxicology tests. However, 3D cell culture technologies will certainly become more applicable if biological relevance, reproducibility and high throughput can be assured at acceptable costs. Most recent innovations and developments clearly indicate that the transition from 2D to 3D cell culture for industrial purposes, for example, drug development is simply a question of time.

  9. 3D Porous Calcium-Alginate Scaffolds Cell Culture System Improved Human Osteoblast Cell Clusters for Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ching-Yun; Ke, Cherng-Jyh; Yen, Ko-Chung; Hsieh, Hui-Chen; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Age-related orthopedic disorders and bone defects have become a critical public health issue, and cell-based therapy is potentially a novel solution for issues surrounding bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Long-term cultures of primary bone cells exhibit phenotypic and functional degeneration; therefore, culturing cells or tissues suitable for clinical use remain a challenge. A platform consisting of human osteoblasts (hOBs), calcium-alginate (Ca-Alginate) scaffolds, and a self-made bioreactor system was established for autologous transplantation of human osteoblast cell clusters. The Ca-Alginate scaffold facilitated the growth and differentiation of human bone cell clusters, and the functionally-closed process bioreactor system supplied the soluble nutrients and osteogenic signals required to maintain the cell viability. This system preserved the proliferative ability of cells and cell viability and up-regulated bone-related gene expression and biological apatite crystals formation. The bone-like tissue generated could be extracted by removal of calcium ions via ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelation, and exhibited a size suitable for injection. The described strategy could be used in therapeutic application and opens new avenues for surgical interventions to correct skeletal defects. PMID:25825603

  10. Multizone Paper Platform for 3D Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Derda, Ratmir; Hong, Estrella; Mwangi, Martin; Mammoto, Akiko; Ingber, Donald E.; Whitesides, George M.

    2011-01-01

    In vitro 3D culture is an important model for tissues in vivo. Cells in different locations of 3D tissues are physiologically different, because they are exposed to different concentrations of oxygen, nutrients, and signaling molecules, and to other environmental factors (temperature, mechanical stress, etc). The majority of high-throughput assays based on 3D cultures, however, can only detect the average behavior of cells in the whole 3D construct. Isolation of cells from specific regions of 3D cultures is possible, but relies on low-throughput techniques such as tissue sectioning and micromanipulation. Based on a procedure reported previously (“cells-in-gels-in-paper” or CiGiP), this paper describes a simple method for culture of arrays of thin planar sections of tissues, either alone or stacked to create more complex 3D tissue structures. This procedure starts with sheets of paper patterned with hydrophobic regions that form 96 hydrophilic zones. Serial spotting of cells suspended in extracellular matrix (ECM) gel onto the patterned paper creates an array of 200 micron-thick slabs of ECM gel (supported mechanically by cellulose fibers) containing cells. Stacking the sheets with zones aligned on top of one another assembles 96 3D multilayer constructs. De-stacking the layers of the 3D culture, by peeling apart the sheets of paper, “sections” all 96 cultures at once. It is, thus, simple to isolate 200-micron-thick cell-containing slabs from each 3D culture in the 96-zone array. Because the 3D cultures are assembled from multiple layers, the number of cells plated initially in each layer determines the spatial distribution of cells in the stacked 3D cultures. This capability made it possible to compare the growth of 3D tumor models of different spatial composition, and to examine the migration of cells in these structures. PMID:21573103

  11. Establishment of a heterotypic 3D culture system to evaluate the interaction of TREG lymphocytes and NK cells with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Tanya N; Dix-Peek, Thérèse; Duarte, Raquel; Candy, Geoffrey P

    2015-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) culture approaches to investigate breast tumour progression are yielding information more reminiscent of the in vivo microenvironment. We have established a 3D Matrigel system to determine the interactions of luminal phenotype MCF-7 cells and basal phenotype MDA-MB-231 cells with regulatory T lymphocytes and Natural Killer cells. Immune cells were isolated from peripheral blood using magnetic cell sorting and their phenotype validated using flow cytometry both before and after activation with IL-2 and phytohaemagglutinin. Following the establishment of the heterotypic culture system, tumour cells displayed morphologies and cell-cell associations distinct to that observed in 2D monolayer cultures, and associated with tissue remodelling and invasion processes. We found that the level of CCL4 secretion was influenced by breast cancer phenotype and immune stimulation. We further established that for RNA extraction, the use of proteinase K in conjunction with the Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit and only off-column DNA digestion gave the best RNA yield, purity and integrity. We also investigated the efficacy of the culture system for immunolocalisation of the biomarkers oestrogen receptor-α and the glycoprotein mucin 1 in luminal phenotype breast cancer cells; and epidermal growth factor receptor in basal phenotype breast cancer cells, in formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax embedded cultures. The expression of these markers was shown to vary under immune mediation. We thus demonstrate the feasibility of using this co-culture system for downstream applications including cytokine analysis, immunolocalisation of tumour biomarkers on serial sections and RNA extraction in accordance with MIQE guidelines. PMID:26215372

  12. Establishment of a heterotypic 3D culture system to evaluate the interaction of TREG lymphocytes and NK cells with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Tanya N; Dix-Peek, Thérèse; Duarte, Raquel; Candy, Geoffrey P

    2015-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) culture approaches to investigate breast tumour progression are yielding information more reminiscent of the in vivo microenvironment. We have established a 3D Matrigel system to determine the interactions of luminal phenotype MCF-7 cells and basal phenotype MDA-MB-231 cells with regulatory T lymphocytes and Natural Killer cells. Immune cells were isolated from peripheral blood using magnetic cell sorting and their phenotype validated using flow cytometry both before and after activation with IL-2 and phytohaemagglutinin. Following the establishment of the heterotypic culture system, tumour cells displayed morphologies and cell-cell associations distinct to that observed in 2D monolayer cultures, and associated with tissue remodelling and invasion processes. We found that the level of CCL4 secretion was influenced by breast cancer phenotype and immune stimulation. We further established that for RNA extraction, the use of proteinase K in conjunction with the Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit and only off-column DNA digestion gave the best RNA yield, purity and integrity. We also investigated the efficacy of the culture system for immunolocalisation of the biomarkers oestrogen receptor-α and the glycoprotein mucin 1 in luminal phenotype breast cancer cells; and epidermal growth factor receptor in basal phenotype breast cancer cells, in formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax embedded cultures. The expression of these markers was shown to vary under immune mediation. We thus demonstrate the feasibility of using this co-culture system for downstream applications including cytokine analysis, immunolocalisation of tumour biomarkers on serial sections and RNA extraction in accordance with MIQE guidelines.

  13. Type conversion of secretomes in a 3D TAM2 and HCC cell co-culture system and functional importance of CXCL2 in HCC

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yu; Li, Shan; Ma, Liping; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaolian; Peng, Qiliu; Mo, Cuiju; Huang, Li; Qin, Xue; Liu, Yinkun

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages play important roles in the tumor microenvironment, driving cancer progression and metastasis, particularly in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, few studies have assessed the exact secretome composition in HCC. In the present study, the impact of different phenotype of macrophages on HCC cells was investigated. Alternatively activated macrophages (M2) were found to significantly increase the proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities of SMMC7721 cells (all P < 0.05). M2 were then co-cultured with SMMC7721 cells to reconstruct the tumor microenvironment. Conditioned medium from 3D single cultures of M2, SMMC7721 cells, and their co-culture system were analyzed using quantitative proteomics via iTRAQ labeling combined with mass spectrometric analysis. Secretome analysis revealed a total of 159 differential secreted proteins in the co-culture system compared to the single culture systems, with 63 being up-regulated (>1.3-fold) and 96 down-regulated (<0.7-fold). CXCL2 was confirmed to have higher expression in the co-culture system and HCC tissues, and was selected for further investigation. Functional effects data suggested that recombinant human CXCL2 significantly enhanced the migration, invasion ability of SMMC7721 cells, and weakened adhesion ability. While CXCL2 neutralization and CXCR2 blockage significantly inhibited the effects of CXCL2 on SMMC7721 cells, indicating that CXCL2 may play pivotal role in HCC metastasis. PMID:27117207

  14. Wnt5a-mediating neurogenesis of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells in a 3D microfluidic cell culture system.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeein; Kim, Sohyeun; Jung, Jinsun; Lim, Youngbin; Kang, Kyungsun; Park, Seungsu; Kang, Sookyung

    2011-10-01

    In stem cell biology, cell plasticity refers to the ability of stem cells to differentiate into a variety of cell lineages. Recently, cell plasticity has been used to refer to the ability of a given cell type to reversibly de-differentiate, re-differentiate, or transdifferentiate in response to specific stimuli. These processes are regulated by multiple intracellular and extracellular growth and differentiation factors, including low oxygen. Our recent study showed that 3D microfluidic cell culture induces activation of the Wnt5A/β-catenin signaling pathway in hATSCs (human Adipose Tissue-derived Stem Cells). This resulted in self renewal and transdifferentiation of hATSCs into neurons. To improve neurogenic potency of hATSCs in response to low oxygen and other unknown physical factors, we developed a gel-free 3D microfluidic cell culture system (3D-μFCCS). The functional structure was developed for the immobilization of 3D multi-cellular aggregates in a microfluidic channel without the use of a matrix on the chip. Growth of hATSCs neurosphere grown on a chip was higher than the growth of control cells grown in a culture dish. Induction of differentiation in the Chip system resulted in a significant increase in the induction of neuronal-like cell structures and the presentation of TuJ or NF160 positive long neuritis compared to control cells after active migration from the center of the microfluidic channel layer to the outside of the microfluidic channel layer. We also observed that the chip neurogenesis system induced a significantly higher level of GABA secreting neurons and, in addition, almost 60% of cells were GABA + cells. Finally, we observed that 1 month of after the transplantation of each cell type in a mouse SCI lesion, chip cultured and neuronal differentiated hATSCs exhibited the ability to effectively transdifferentiate into NF160 + motor neurons at a high ratio. Interestingly, our CHIP/PCR analysis revealed that HIF1α-induced hATSCs neurogenesis

  15. Low-cost 3D rangefinder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bor-Tow; Lou, Wen-Shiou; Chen, Chia-Chen; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    1998-06-01

    Nowadays, 3D data are popularly performed in computer, and 3D browsers manipulate 3D model in the virtual world. Yet, till now, 3D digitizer is still a high-cost product and not a familiar equipment. In order to meet the requirement of 3D fancy world, in this paper, the concept of a low-cost 3D digitizer system is proposed to catch 3D range data from objects. The specified optical design of the 3D extraction is effective to depress the size, and the processing software of the system is compatible with PC to promote its portable capability. Both features contribute a low-cost system in PC environment in contrast to a large system bundled in an expensive workstation platform. In the structure of 3D extraction, laser beam and CCD camera are adopted to construct a 3D sensor. Instead of 2 CCD cameras for capturing laser lines twice before, a 2-in-1 system is proposed to merge 2 images in one CCD which still retains the information of two fields of views to inhibit occlusion problems. Besides, optical paths of two camera views are reflected by mirror in order that the volume of the system can be minified with one rotary axis only. It makes a portable system be more possible to work. Combined with the processing software executable in PC windows system, the proposed system not only saves hardware cost but also processing time of software. The system performance achieves 0.05 mm accuracy. It shows that a low- cost system is more possible to be high-performance.

  16. 3D Backscatter Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, D. Clark (Inventor); Whitaker, Ross (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for imaging an object using backscattered radiation are described. The imaging system comprises both a radiation source for irradiating an object that is rotationally movable about the object, and a detector for detecting backscattered radiation from the object that can be disposed on substantially the same side of the object as the source and which can be rotationally movable about the object. The detector can be separated into multiple detector segments with each segment having a single line of sight projection through the object and so detects radiation along that line of sight. Thus, each detector segment can isolate the desired component of the backscattered radiation. By moving independently of each other about the object, the source and detector can collect multiple images of the object at different angles of rotation and generate a three dimensional reconstruction of the object. Other embodiments are described.

  17. Beyond 3D culture models of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Kandice; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the spatiotemporal evolution of tumor ecosystems present a challenge in evaluating drug efficacy. In this Perspective, we address the use of three-dimensional in vitro culture models to delineate the dynamic interplay between the tumor and the host microenvironment in an effort to attain realistic platforms for assessing pharmaceutical efficacy in patients. PMID:25877888

  18. Enhanced Metabolizing Activity of Human ES Cell-Derived Hepatocytes Using a 3D Culture System with Repeated Exposures to Xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Jang, Yu Jin; An, Su Yeon; Son, Jeongsang; Lee, Jaehun; Lee, Gyunggyu; Park, Ji Young; Park, Han-Jin; Hwang, Dong-Youn; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Han, Jiyou

    2015-09-01

    Highly homogeneous and functional stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) are considered a promising option in the cell-based therapy of liver disease and the development of effective in vitro toxicity screening tools. However, the purity of cells and expression and/or activity of drug metabolizing enzymes in stem cell-derived HLCs are usually too low to be useful for clinical or in vitro applications. Here, we describe a highly optimized hepatic differentiation protocol, which produces >90% (BGO1 and CHA15) albumin-positive HLCs with no purification process from human embryonic stem cell lines. In addition, we show that hepatic enzyme gene expressions and activities were significantly improved by generating 3D spheroidal aggregate of HLCs, compared with 2D HLCs. The 3D differentiation method increased expression of nuclear receptors (NRs) that regulate the proper expression of key hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, significantly increased hepatic functions such as albumin and urea secretion were observed in 3D hepatic spheroids, compared with 2D HLCs. HLCs in the spheroid exhibited morphological and ultrastructural features of normal hepatocytes. Importantly, we show that repeated exposures to xenobiotics facilitated further functional maturation of HLC, as confirmed by increased expression of genes for drug metabolizing enzymes and transcription factors. In conclusion, the 3D culture system with repeated exposures to xenobiotics may be a new strategy for enhancing hepatic metabolizing ability of stem cell-derived HLCs as a cell source for in vitro high-throughput hepatotoxicity models. PMID:26089346

  19. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  20. Microfabricated polymeric vessel mimetics for 3-D cancer cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Ashley A.; Das, Chandan K.; Morgan, Nicole Y.; Pursley, Randall H.; McQueen, Philip G.; Hall, Matthew D.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling tumor growth in vitro is essential for cost-effective testing of hypotheses in preclinical cancer research. 3-D cell culture offers an improvement over monolayer culture for studying cellular processes in cancer biology because of the preservation of cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions. Oxygen transport poses a major barrier to mimicking in vivo environments and is not replicated in conventional cell culture systems. We hypothesized that we can better mimic the tumor microenvironment using a bioreactor system for controlling gas exchange in cancer cell cultures with silicone hydrogel synthetic vessels. Soft-lithography techniques were used to fabricate oxygen-permeable silicone hydrogel membranes containing arrays of micropillars. These membranes were inserted into a bioreactor and surrounded by basement membrane extract (BME) within which fluorescent ovarian cancer (OVCAR8) cells were cultured. Cell clusters oxygenated by synthetic vessels showed a ∼100um drop-off to anoxia, consistent with in vivo studies of tumor nodules fed by the microvasculature. We showed oxygen tension gradients inside the clusters oxygenated by synthetic vessels had a ∼100 µm drop-off to anoxia, which is consistent with in vivo studies. Oxygen transport in the bioreactor system was characterized by experimental testing with a dissolved oxygen probe and finite element modeling of convective flow. Our study demonstrates differing growth patterns associated with controlling gas distributions to better mimic in vivo conditions. PMID:23911071

  1. 3D holoscopic video imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steurer, Johannes H.; Pesch, Matthias; Hahne, Christopher

    2012-03-01

    Since many years, integral imaging has been discussed as a technique to overcome the limitations of standard still photography imaging systems where a three-dimensional scene is irrevocably projected onto two dimensions. With the success of 3D stereoscopic movies, a huge interest in capturing three-dimensional motion picture scenes has been generated. In this paper, we present a test bench integral imaging camera system aiming to tailor the methods of light field imaging towards capturing integral 3D motion picture content. We estimate the hardware requirements needed to generate high quality 3D holoscopic images and show a prototype camera setup that allows us to study these requirements using existing technology. The necessary steps that are involved in the calibration of the system as well as the technique of generating human readable holoscopic images from the recorded data are discussed.

  2. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  3. Evaluation of the 3D BacT/ALERT automated culture system for the detection of microbial contamination of platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    McDonald, C P; Rogers, A; Cox, M; Smith, R; Roy, A; Robbins, S; Hartley, S; Barbara, J A J; Rothenberg, S; Stutzman, L; Widders, G

    2002-10-01

    Bacterial transmission remains the major component of morbidity and mortality associated with transfusion-transmitted infections. Platelet concentrates are the most common cause of bacterial transmission. The BacT/ALERT 3D automated blood culture system has the potential to screen platelet concentrates for the presence of bacteria. Evaluation of this system was performed by spiking day 2 apheresis platelet units with individual bacterial isolates at final concentrations of 10 and 100 colony-forming units (cfu) mL-1. Fifteen organisms were used which had been cited in platelet transmission and monitoring studies. BacT/ALERT times to detection were compared with thioglycollate broth cultures, and the performance of five types of BacT/ALERT culture bottles was evaluated. Sampling was performed immediately after the inoculation of the units, and 10 replicates were performed per organism concentration for each of the five types of BacT/ALERT bottles. The mean times for the detection of these 15 organisms by BacT/ALERT, with the exception of Propionibacterium acnes, ranged from 9.1 to 48.1 h (all 10 replicates were positive). In comparison, the time range found using thioglycollate was 12.0-32.3 h (all 10 replicates were positive). P. acnes' BacT/ALERT mean detection times ranged from 89.0 to 177.6 h compared with 75.6-86.4 h for the thioglycollate broth. BacT/ALERT, with the exception of P. acnes, which has dubious clinical significance, gave equivalent or shorter detection times when compared with the thioglycollate broth system. The BacT/ALERT system detected a range of organisms at levels of 10 and 100 cfu mL-1. This study validates the BacT/ALERT microbial detection system for screening platelets. Currently, the system is the only practically viable option available for routinely screening platelet concentrates to prevent bacterial transmission.

  4. Evaluation of the 3D BacT/ALERT automated culture system for the detection of microbial contamination of platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    McDonald, C P; Rogers, A; Cox, M; Smith, R; Roy, A; Robbins, S; Hartley, S; Barbara, J A J; Rothenberg, S; Stutzman, L; Widders, G

    2002-10-01

    Bacterial transmission remains the major component of morbidity and mortality associated with transfusion-transmitted infections. Platelet concentrates are the most common cause of bacterial transmission. The BacT/ALERT 3D automated blood culture system has the potential to screen platelet concentrates for the presence of bacteria. Evaluation of this system was performed by spiking day 2 apheresis platelet units with individual bacterial isolates at final concentrations of 10 and 100 colony-forming units (cfu) mL-1. Fifteen organisms were used which had been cited in platelet transmission and monitoring studies. BacT/ALERT times to detection were compared with thioglycollate broth cultures, and the performance of five types of BacT/ALERT culture bottles was evaluated. Sampling was performed immediately after the inoculation of the units, and 10 replicates were performed per organism concentration for each of the five types of BacT/ALERT bottles. The mean times for the detection of these 15 organisms by BacT/ALERT, with the exception of Propionibacterium acnes, ranged from 9.1 to 48.1 h (all 10 replicates were positive). In comparison, the time range found using thioglycollate was 12.0-32.3 h (all 10 replicates were positive). P. acnes' BacT/ALERT mean detection times ranged from 89.0 to 177.6 h compared with 75.6-86.4 h for the thioglycollate broth. BacT/ALERT, with the exception of P. acnes, which has dubious clinical significance, gave equivalent or shorter detection times when compared with the thioglycollate broth system. The BacT/ALERT system detected a range of organisms at levels of 10 and 100 cfu mL-1. This study validates the BacT/ALERT microbial detection system for screening platelets. Currently, the system is the only practically viable option available for routinely screening platelet concentrates to prevent bacterial transmission. PMID:12383336

  5. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  6. Apple Derived Cellulose Scaffolds for 3D Mammalian Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Modulevsky, Daniel J.; Lefebvre, Cory; Haase, Kristina; Al-Rekabi, Zeinab; Pelling, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    There are numerous approaches for producing natural and synthetic 3D scaffolds that support the proliferation of mammalian cells. 3D scaffolds better represent the natural cellular microenvironment and have many potential applications in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that 3D cellulose scaffolds produced by decellularizing apple hypanthium tissue can be employed for in vitro 3D culture of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, mouse C2C12 muscle myoblasts and human HeLa epithelial cells. We show that these cells can adhere, invade and proliferate in the cellulose scaffolds. In addition, biochemical functionalization or chemical cross-linking can be employed to control the surface biochemistry and/or mechanical properties of the scaffold. The cells retain high viability even after 12 continuous weeks of culture and can achieve cell densities comparable with other natural and synthetic scaffold materials. Apple derived cellulose scaffolds are easily produced, inexpensive and originate from a renewable source. Taken together, these results demonstrate that naturally derived cellulose scaffolds offer a complementary approach to existing techniques for the in vitro culture of mammalian cells in a 3D environment. PMID:24842603

  7. Embedding Knowledge in 3D Data Frameworks in Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughenour, C. M.; Vincent, M. L.; de Kramer, M.; Senecal, S.; Fritsch, D.; Flores Gutirrez, M.; Lopez-Menchero Bendicho, V. M.; Ioannides, M.

    2015-08-01

    At present, where 3D modeling and visualisation in cultural heritage are concerned, an object's documentation lacks its interconnected memory provided by multidisciplinary examination and linked data. As the layers of paint, wood, and brick recount a structure's physical properties, the intangible, such as the forms of worship through song, dance, burning incense, and oral traditions, contributes to the greater story of its cultural heritage import. Furthermore, as an object or structure evolves through time, external political, religious, or environmental forces can affect it as well. As tangible and intangible entities associated with the structure transform, its narrative becomes dynamic and difficult to easily record. The Initial Training Network for Digital Cultural Heritage (ITN-DCH), a Marie Curie Actions project under the EU 7th Framework Programme, seeks to challenge this complexity by developing a novel methodology capable of offering such a holistic framework. With the integration of digitisation, conservation, linked data, and retrieval systems for DCH, the nature of investigation and dissemination will be augmented significantly. Examples of utilisating and evaluating this framework will range from a UNESCOWorld Heritage site, the Byzantine church of Panagia Forviotissa Asinou in the Troodos Mountains of Cyprus, to various religious icons and a monument located at the Monastery of Saint Neophytos. The application of this effort to the Asinou church, representing the first case study of the ITN-DCH project, is used as a template example in order to assess the technical challenges involved in the creation of such a framework.

  8. Metabolic alteration of HepG2 in scaffold-based 3-D culture: proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun; Lirdprapamongkol, Kriengsak; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Subhasitanont, Pantipa; Chiablaem, Khajeelak; Svasti, Jisnuson; Srisomsap, Chantragan

    2010-11-01

    3-D cell culture models are important in cancer biology since they provide improved understanding of tumor microenvironment. We have established a 3-D culture model using HepG2 in natural collagen-based scaffold to mimic the development of small avascular tumor in vivo. Morphological characterization showed that HepG2 colonies grew within the interior of the scaffold and showed enhanced extracellular matrix deposition. High levels of cell proliferation in the outermost regions of the scaffold created a hypoxic microenvironment in the 3-D culture system, as indicated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α stabilization, detectable by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Proteomic studies showed decreased expression of several mitochondrial proteins and increased expression of proteins in anaerobic glycolysis under 3-D culture compared to monolayer culture. Creatine kinase was also upregulated in 3-D culture, indicating its possible role as an important energy buffer system under hypoxic microenvironment. Increased levels of proteins in nucleotide metabolism may relate to cellular energy. Thus, our results suggest that HepG2 cells under 3-D culture adapt their energy metabolism in response to hypoxic conditions. Metabolic alterations in the 3-D culture model may relate to physiological changes relevant to development of small avascular tumor in vivo and their study may improve future therapeutic strategies.

  9. 3D Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wilkinson, Curt; Mercer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts farther into the solar system than ever before, with human exploration of Mars as its ultimate goal. One of the technologies required to enable this advanced, Apollo-shaped capsule is a 3-dimensional quartz fiber composite for the vehicle's compression pad. During its mission, the compression pad serves first as a structural component and later as an ablative heat shield, partially consumed on Earth re-entry. This presentation will summarize the development of a new 3D quartz cyanate ester composite material, 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D-MAT), designed to meet the mission requirements for the Orion compression pad. Manufacturing development, aerothermal (arc-jet) testing, structural performance, and the overall status of material development for the 2018 EM-1 flight test will be discussed.

  10. Fabricating gradient hydrogel scaffolds for 3D cell culture.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Kaushik; Young, Marian F; Simon, Carl G

    2011-05-01

    Optimizing cell-material interactions is critical for maximizing regeneration in tissue engineering. Combinatorial and high-throughput (CHT) methods can be used to systematically screen tissue scaffolds to identify optimal biomaterial properties. Previous CHT platforms in tissue engineering have involved a two-dimensional (2D) cell culture format where cells were cultured on material surfaces. However, these platforms are inadequate to predict cellular response in a three-dimensional (3D) tissue scaffold. We have developed a simple CHT platform to screen cell-material interactions in 3D culture format that can be applied to screen hydrogel scaffolds. Herein we provide detailed instructions on a method to prepare gradients in elastic modulus of photopolymerizable hydrogels.

  11. Exploring Cultural Heritage Resources in a 3d Collaborative Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Respaldiza, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Vázquez Hoehne, A.

    2012-06-01

    Cultural heritage is a complex and diverse concept, which brings together a wide domain of information. Resources linked to a cultural heritage site may consist of physical artefacts, books, works of art, pictures, historical maps, aerial photographs, archaeological surveys and 3D models. Moreover, all these resources are listed and described by a set of a variety of metadata specifications that allow their online search and consultation on the most basic characteristics of them. Some examples include Norma ISO 19115, Dublin Core, AAT, CDWA, CCO, DACS, MARC, MoReq, MODS, MuseumDat, TGN, SPECTRUM, VRA Core and Z39.50. Gateways are in place to fit in these metadata standards into those used in a SDI (ISO 19115 or INSPIRE), but substantial work still remains to be done for the complete incorporation of cultural heritage information. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate how the complexity of cultural heritage resources can be dealt with by a visual exploration of their metadata within a 3D collaborative environment. The 3D collaborative environments are promising tools that represent the new frontier of our capacity of learning, understanding, communicating and transmitting culture.

  12. 3D spheroid cultures improve the metabolic gene expression profiles of HepaRG cells

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yu; Hori, Yuji; Yamamoto, Tomohisa; Urashima, Toshiki; Ohara, Yasunori; Tanaka, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    3D (three-dimensional) cultures are considered to be an effective method for toxicological studies; however, little evidence has been reported whether 3D cultures have an impact on hepatocellular physiology regarding lipid or glucose metabolism. In the present study, we conducted physiological characterization of hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and HepaRG cells cultured in 3D conditions using a hanging drop method to verify the effect of culture environment on cellular responses. Apo (Apolipoprotein)B as well as albumin secretion was augmented by 3D cultures. Expression of genes related to not only drug, but also glucose and lipid metabolism were significantly enhanced in 3D cultured HepaRG spheroids. Furthermore, mRNA levels of CYP (cytochrome P450) enzymes following exposure to corresponding inducers increased under the 3D condition. These data suggest that this simple 3D culture system without any special biomaterials can improve liver-specific characteristics including lipid metabolism. Considering that the system enables high-throughput assay, it may become a powerful tool for compound screening concerning hepatocellular responses in order to identify potential drugs. PMID:26182370

  13. Combining 3D technologies for cultural heritage interpretation and entertainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Picard, Michel; El-Hakim, Sabry F.; Godin, Guy; Valzano, Virginia; Bandiera, Adriana

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents a summary of the 3D modeling work that was accomplished in preparing multimedia products for cultural heritage interpretation and entertainment. The three cases presented are the Byzantine Crypt of Santa Cristina, Apulia, temple C of Selinunte, Sicily, and a bronze sculpture from the 6th century BC found in Ugento, Apulia. The core of the approach is based upon high-resolution photo-realistic texture mapping onto 3D models generated from range images. It is shown that three-dimensional modeling from range imaging is an effective way to present the spatial information for environments and artifacts. Spatial sampling and range measurement uncertainty considerations are addressed by giving the results of a number of tests on different range cameras. The integration of both photogrammetric and CAD modeling complements this approach. Results on a CDROM, a DVD, virtual 3D theatre, holograms, video animations and web pages have been prepared for these projects.

  14. Combining 3D technologies for cultural heritage interpretation and entertainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Picard, Michel; El-Hakim, Sabry F.; Godin, Guy; Valzano, Virginia; Bandiera, Adriana

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the 3D modeling work that was accomplished in preparing multimedia products for cultural heritage interpretation and entertainment. The three cases presented are the Byzantine Crypt of Santa Cristina, Apulia, temple C of Selinunte, Sicily, and a bronze sculpture from the 6th century BC found in Ugento, Apulia. The core of the approach is based upon high-resolution photo-realistic texture mapping onto 3D models generated from range images. It is shown that three-dimensional modeling from range imaging is an effective way to present the spatial information for environments and artifacts. Spatial sampling and range measurement uncertainty considerations are addressed by giving the results of a number of tests on different range cameras. The integration of both photogrammetric and CAD modeling complements this approach. Results on a CDROM, a DVD, virtual 3D theatre, holograms, video animations and web pages have been prepared for these projects.

  15. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  16. Tool 3D geometry measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huijie; Ni, Jun; Sun, Yi; Lin, Xuewen

    2001-10-01

    A new non-contact tool 3D geometry measurement system based on machine vision is described. In this system, analytical and optimization methods are used respectively to achieve system calibration, which can determine the rotation center of the drill. The data merging method is fully studied which can translate the scattered different groups of raw data in sensor coordinates into drill coordinates and get 3-D topography of the drill body. Corresponding data processing methods for drill geometry are also studied. Statistical methods are used to remove the outliers. Laplacian of Gaussian operator are used to detect the boundary on drill cross-section and drill tip profile. The arithmetic method for calculating the parameters is introduced. The initial measurement results are presented. The cross-section profile, drill tips geometry are shown. Pictures of drill wear on drill tip are given. Parameters extracted from the cross-section are listed. Compared with the measurement results using CMM, the difference between this drill geometry measurement system and CMM is, Radius of drill: 0.020mm, Helix angle: 1.310, Web thickness: 0.034mm.

  17. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  18. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  19. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  20. Culturing Cells in 3D Ordered Cellular Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Keng-Hui; Lin, Wang-Jung; Lin, Jing-Ying

    2011-03-01

    Constructing a well-defined 3D microenvironment for cell growth is a key step for tissue engineering and mechanobiology. We demonstrate high-throughput fabrication of gelatin-based ordered cellular solids with tunable pore size and solid fraction. This process involves generating monodisperse liquid foam with a cross-flow microfluidic device. The monodisperse liquid foam was further processed into open-cell solid foam, which was used as scaffolds for 3D cell culture. Three distinct cell types were cultured under these conditions and displayed appropriate physiological, morphological, and functional characteristics. Epithelial cells formed cyst-like structures and were polarized inside pores, myoblasts adopted a tubular structure and fused into myotubes, and fibroblasts exhibited wide varieties of morphologies depending on their location inside the scaffolds. These ordered cellular solids therefore make possible the study of pore-size effects on cells.

  1. A dynamic 3D foot reconstruction system.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Ali K; Trucco, Emanuele; Salvi, Joaquim; Wang, Weijie; Abboud, Rami J

    2011-01-01

    Foot problems are varied and range from simple disorders through to complex diseases and joint deformities. Wherever possible, the use of insoles, or orthoses, is preferred over surgery. Current insole design techniques are based on static measurements of the foot, despite the fact that orthoses are prevalently used in dynamic conditions while walking or running. This paper presents the design and implementation of a structured-light prototype system providing dense three dimensional (3D) measurements of the foot in motion, and its use to show that foot measurements in dynamic conditions differ significantly from their static counterparts. The input to the system is a video sequence of a foot during a single step; the output is a 3D reconstruction of the plantar surface of the foot for each frame of the input. Engineering and clinical tests were carried out for the validation of the system. The accuracy of the system was found to be 0.34 mm with planar test objects. In tests with real feet, the system proved repeatable, with reconstruction differences between trials one week apart averaging 2.44 mm (static case) and 2.81 mm (dynamic case). Furthermore, a study was performed to compare the effective length of the foot between static and dynamic reconstructions using the 4D system. Results showed an average increase of 9 mm for the dynamic case. This increase is substantial for orthotics design, cannot be captured by a static system, and its subject-specific measurement is crucial for the design of effective foot orthoses.

  2. A study of electrochemical biosensor for analysis of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Se Hoon; Lee, Dong Woo; Kim, Sanghyo; Kim, Jhingook; Ku, Bosung

    2012-05-15

    Cell culture has a fundamental role not only in regenerative medicine but also in biotechnology, pharmacology, impacting both drug discovery and manufacturing. Although cell culture has been generally developed for only two-dimensional (2D) culture systems, three-dimensional (3D) culture is being spotlighted as the means to mimic in vivo cellular conditions. In this study, a method for cytotoxicity assay using an electrochemical biosensor applying 3D cell culture is presented. In order to strengthen the advantage of a 3D cell culture, the experimental condition of gelation between several types of sol-gels (alginate, collagen, matrigel) and cancer cells can be optimized to make a 3D cell structure on the electrode, which will show the reproducibility of electrical measurement for long-term monitoring. Moreover, cytotoxicity test results applying this method showed IC(50) value of A549 lung cancer cells to erlotinib. Thus, this study evaluates the feasibility of application of the electrochemical biosensor for 3D cell culture to cytotoxicity assay for investigation of 3D cell response to drug compounds. PMID:22410483

  3. Microscale 3D collagen cell culture assays in conventional flat-bottom 384-well plates.

    PubMed

    Leung, Brendan M; Moraes, Christopher; Cavnar, Stephen P; Luker, Kathryn E; Luker, Gary D; Takayama, Shuichi

    2015-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) culture systems such as cell-laden hydrogels are superior to standard two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures for many drug-screening applications. However, their adoption into high-throughput screening (HTS) has been lagging, in part because of the difficulty of incorporating these culture formats into existing robotic liquid handling and imaging infrastructures. Dispensing cell-laden prepolymer solutions into 2D well plates is a potential solution but typically requires large volumes of reagents to avoid evaporation during polymerization, which (1) increases costs, (2) makes drug penetration variable and (3) complicates imaging. Here we describe a technique to efficiently produce 3D microgels using automated liquid-handling systems and standard, nonpatterned, flat-bottomed, 384-well plates. Sub-millimeter-diameter, cell-laden collagen gels are deposited on the bottom of a ~2.5 mm diameter microwell with no concerns about evaporation or meniscus effects at the edges of wells, using aqueous two-phase system patterning. The microscale cell-laden collagen-gel constructs are readily imaged and readily penetrated by drugs. The cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutics was monitored by bioluminescence and demonstrated that 3D cultures confer chemoresistance as compared with similar 2D cultures. Hence, these data demonstrate the importance of culturing cells in 3D to obtain realistic cellular responses. Overall, this system provides a simple and inexpensive method for integrating 3D culture capability into existing HTS infrastructure. PMID:25510473

  4. Molecular Predictors of 3D Morphogenesis by Breast Cancer Cell Lines in 3D Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Ju; Chang, Hang; Giricz, Orsi; Lee, Genee; Baehner, Frederick; Gray, Joe; Bissell, Mina; Kenny, Paraic; Parvin, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Correlative analysis of molecular markers with phenotypic signatures is the simplest model for hypothesis generation. In this paper, a panel of 24 breast cell lines was grown in 3D culture, their morphology was imaged through phase contrast microscopy, and computational methods were developed to segment and represent each colony at multiple dimensions. Subsequently, subpopulations from these morphological responses were identified through consensus clustering to reveal three clusters of round, grape-like, and stellate phenotypes. In some cases, cell lines with particular pathobiological phenotypes clustered together (e.g., ERBB2 amplified cell lines sharing the same morphometric properties as the grape-like phenotype). Next, associations with molecular features were realized through (i) differential analysis within each morphological cluster, and (ii) regression analysis across the entire panel of cell lines. In both cases, the dominant genes that are predictive of the morphological signatures were identified. Specifically, PPAR? has been associated with the invasive stellate morphological phenotype, which corresponds to triple-negative pathobiology. PPAR? has been validated through two supporting biological assays.

  5. Ideal Positions: 3D Sonography, Medical Visuality, Popular Culture.

    PubMed

    Seiber, Tim

    2016-03-01

    As digital technologies are integrated into medical environments, they continue to transform the experience of contemporary health care. Importantly, medicine is increasingly visual. In the history of sonography, visibility has played an important role in accessing fetal bodies for diagnostic and entertainment purposes. With the advent of three-dimensional (3D) rendering, sonography presents the fetus visually as already a child. The aesthetics of this process and the resulting imagery, made possible in digital networks, discloses important changes in the relationship between technology and biology, reproductive health and political debates, and biotechnology and culture.

  6. Surface modified alginate microcapsules for 3D cell culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chiung Wen; Chueh, Di-Yen; Chen, Peilin

    2016-06-01

    Culture as three dimensional cell aggregates or spheroids can offer an ideal platform for tissue engineering applications and for pharmaceutical screening. Such 3D culture models, however, may suffer from the problems such as immune response and ineffective and cumbersome culture. This paper describes a simple method for producing microcapsules with alginate cores and a thin shell of poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) to encapsulate mouse induced pluripotent stem (miPS) cells, generating a non-fouling surface as an effective immunoisolation barrier. We demonstrated the trapping of the alginate microcapsules in a microwell array for the continuous observation and culture of a large number of encapsulated miPS cells in parallel. miPS cells cultured in the microcapsules survived well and proliferated to form a single cell aggregate. Droplet formation of monodisperse microcapsules with controlled size combined with flow cytometry provided an efficient way to quantitatively analyze the growth of encapsulated cells in a high-throughput manner. The simple and cost-effective coating technique employed to produce the core-shell microcapsules could be used in the emerging field of cell therapy. The microwell array would provide a convenient, user friendly and high-throughput platform for long-term cell culture and monitoring.

  7. Peptide Hydrogels – Versatile Matrices for 3D Cell Culture in Cancer Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, Peter; Pochan, Darrin J.; Langhans, Sigrid A.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture systems have contributed tremendously to our understanding of cancer biology but have significant limitations in mimicking in vivo conditions such as the tumor microenvironment. In vitro, three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models represent a more accurate, intermediate platform between simplified 2D culture models and complex and expensive in vivo models. 3D in vitro models can overcome 2D in vitro limitations caused by the oversupply of nutrients, and unphysiological cell–cell and cell–material interactions, and allow for dynamic interactions between cells, stroma, and extracellular matrix. In addition, 3D cultures allow for the development of concentration gradients, including oxygen, metabolites, and growth factors, with chemical gradients playing an integral role in many cellular functions ranging from development to signaling in normal epithelia and cancer environments in vivo. Currently, the most common matrices used for 3D culture are biologically derived materials such as matrigel and collagen. However, in recent years, more defined, synthetic materials have become available as scaffolds for 3D culture with the advantage of forming well-defined, designed, tunable materials to control matrix charge, stiffness, porosity, nanostructure, degradability, and adhesion properties, in addition to other material and biological properties. One important area of synthetic materials currently available for 3D cell culture is short sequence, self-assembling peptide hydrogels. In addition to the review of recent work toward the control of material, structure, and mechanical properties, we will also discuss the biochemical functionalization of peptide hydrogels and how this functionalization, coupled with desired hydrogel material characteristics, affects tumor cell behavior in 3D culture. PMID:25941663

  8. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  9. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on 3D cultures of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Meaburn, Karen J

    2010-01-01

    Genomes are spatially highly organized within interphase nuclei. Spatial genome organization is increasingly linked to genome function. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allows the visualization of specific regions of the genome for spatial mapping. While most gene localization studies have been performed on cultured cells, genome organization is likely to be different in the context of tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) culture model systems provide a powerful tool to study the contribution of tissue organization to gene expression and organization. However, FISH on 3D cultures is technically more challenging than on monocultures. Here, we describe an optimized protocol for interphase DNA FISH on 3D cultures of the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A.B2, which forms breast acini and can be used as a model for early breast cancer. PMID:20809324

  10. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M. A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D. W.; Hallquist, J. O.; Rainsberger, R. B

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  11. Controlled 3D culture in Matrigel microbeads to analyze clonal acinar development.

    PubMed

    Dolega, Monika E; Abeille, Fabien; Picollet-D'hahan, Nathalie; Gidrol, Xavier

    2015-06-01

    3D culture systems are a valuable tool for modeling morphogenesis and carcinogenesis of epithelial tissue in a structurally appropriate context. We present a novel approach for 3D cell culture based on a flow-focusing microfluidic system that encapsulates epithelial cells in Matrigel beads. As a model we use prostatic and breast cells and assay for development of acini, polarized cellular spheres enclosing lumen. Each individual bead on average acts as a single 3D cell culture compartment generating one acinus per bead. Compared to standard protocols microfluidics provides increased control over the environment leading to more a uniform acini population. The increased facility of bead manipulation allowed us to isolate single cells which are self-sufficient to fully develop into acini in presence of Matrigel. Furthermore, combination of our microfluidic approach with large particle FACS opens new avenues in high throughput screening on single acini or spheroids.

  12. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surfacemore » equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.« less

  13. BioSig3D: High Content Screening of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Cemal Cagatay; Fontenay, Gerald; Cheng, Qingsu; Chang, Hang; Han, Ju; Parvin, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    BioSig3D is a computational platform for high-content screening of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models that are imaged in full 3D volume. It provides an end-to-end solution for designing high content screening assays, based on colony organization that is derived from segmentation of nuclei in each colony. BioSig3D also enables visualization of raw and processed 3D volumetric data for quality control, and integrates advanced bioinformatics analysis. The system consists of multiple computational and annotation modules that are coupled together with a strong use of controlled vocabularies to reduce ambiguities between different users. It is a web-based system that allows users to: design an experiment by defining experimental variables, upload a large set of volumetric images into the system, analyze and visualize the dataset, and either display computed indices as a heatmap, or phenotypic subtypes for heterogeneity analysis, or download computed indices for statistical analysis or integrative biology. BioSig3D has been used to profile baseline colony formations with two experiments: (i) morphogenesis of a panel of human mammary epithelial cell lines (HMEC), and (ii) heterogeneity in colony formation using an immortalized non-transformed cell line. These experiments reveal intrinsic growth properties of well-characterized cell lines that are routinely used for biological studies. BioSig3D is being released with seed datasets and video-based documentation. PMID:26978075

  14. BioSig3D: High Content Screening of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Cemal Cagatay; Fontenay, Gerald; Cheng, Qingsu; Chang, Hang; Han, Ju; Parvin, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    BioSig3D is a computational platform for high-content screening of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models that are imaged in full 3D volume. It provides an end-to-end solution for designing high content screening assays, based on colony organization that is derived from segmentation of nuclei in each colony. BioSig3D also enables visualization of raw and processed 3D volumetric data for quality control, and integrates advanced bioinformatics analysis. The system consists of multiple computational and annotation modules that are coupled together with a strong use of controlled vocabularies to reduce ambiguities between different users. It is a web-based system that allows users to: design an experiment by defining experimental variables, upload a large set of volumetric images into the system, analyze and visualize the dataset, and either display computed indices as a heatmap, or phenotypic subtypes for heterogeneity analysis, or download computed indices for statistical analysis or integrative biology. BioSig3D has been used to profile baseline colony formations with two experiments: (i) morphogenesis of a panel of human mammary epithelial cell lines (HMEC), and (ii) heterogeneity in colony formation using an immortalized non-transformed cell line. These experiments reveal intrinsic growth properties of well-characterized cell lines that are routinely used for biological studies. BioSig3D is being released with seed datasets and video-based documentation.

  15. 3D Viewer Platform of Cloud Clustering Management System: Google Map 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sung-Ja; Lee, Gang-Soo

    The new management system of framework for cloud envrionemnt is needed by the platfrom of convergence according to computing environments of changes. A ISV and small business model is hard to adapt management system of platform which is offered from super business. This article suggest the clustering management system of cloud computing envirionments for ISV and a man of enterprise in small business model. It applies the 3D viewer adapt from map3D & earth of google. It is called 3DV_CCMS as expand the CCMS[1].

  16. Tissue in Cube: In Vitro 3D Culturing Platform with Hybrid Gel Cubes for Multidirectional Observations.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Kawahara, Tomohiro; Nobata, Rina

    2016-07-01

    An in vitro 3D culturing platform enabling multidirectional observations of 3D biosamples is presented. The 3D structure of biosamples can be recognized without fluorescence. The cubic platform employs two types of hydrogels that are compatible with conventional culture dishes or well plates, facilitating growth in culture, ease of handling, and viewing at multiple angles. PMID:27128576

  17. Tissue in Cube: In Vitro 3D Culturing Platform with Hybrid Gel Cubes for Multidirectional Observations.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Kawahara, Tomohiro; Nobata, Rina

    2016-07-01

    An in vitro 3D culturing platform enabling multidirectional observations of 3D biosamples is presented. The 3D structure of biosamples can be recognized without fluorescence. The cubic platform employs two types of hydrogels that are compatible with conventional culture dishes or well plates, facilitating growth in culture, ease of handling, and viewing at multiple angles.

  18. Random-profiles-based 3D face recognition system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joongrock; Yu, Sunjin; Lee, Sangyoun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a noble nonintrusive three-dimensional (3D) face modeling system for random-profile-based 3D face recognition is presented. Although recent two-dimensional (2D) face recognition systems can achieve a reliable recognition rate under certain conditions, their performance is limited by internal and external changes, such as illumination and pose variation. To address these issues, 3D face recognition, which uses 3D face data, has recently received much attention. However, the performance of 3D face recognition highly depends on the precision of acquired 3D face data, while also requiring more computational power and storage capacity than 2D face recognition systems. In this paper, we present a developed nonintrusive 3D face modeling system composed of a stereo vision system and an invisible near-infrared line laser, which can be directly applied to profile-based 3D face recognition. We further propose a novel random-profile-based 3D face recognition method that is memory-efficient and pose-invariant. The experimental results demonstrate that the reconstructed 3D face data consists of more than 50 k 3D point clouds and a reliable recognition rate against pose variation.

  19. Random-Profiles-Based 3D Face Recognition System

    PubMed Central

    Joongrock, Kim; Sunjin, Yu; Sangyoun, Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a noble nonintrusive three-dimensional (3D) face modeling system for random-profile-based 3D face recognition is presented. Although recent two-dimensional (2D) face recognition systems can achieve a reliable recognition rate under certain conditions, their performance is limited by internal and external changes, such as illumination and pose variation. To address these issues, 3D face recognition, which uses 3D face data, has recently received much attention. However, the performance of 3D face recognition highly depends on the precision of acquired 3D face data, while also requiring more computational power and storage capacity than 2D face recognition systems. In this paper, we present a developed nonintrusive 3D face modeling system composed of a stereo vision system and an invisible near-infrared line laser, which can be directly applied to profile-based 3D face recognition. We further propose a novel random-profile-based 3D face recognition method that is memory-efficient and pose-invariant. The experimental results demonstrate that the reconstructed 3D face data consists of more than 50 k 3D point clouds and a reliable recognition rate against pose variation. PMID:24691101

  20. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Sharath Makki, S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Mohan Vasu, Ram; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-01

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  1. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki, S Sharath; Kumar, Rajesh; Vasu, Ram Mohan; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-21

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  2. Polymer-Based Mesh as Supports for Multi-layered 3D Cell Culture and Assays

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Karen A.; Park, Kyeng Min; Mosadegh, Bobak; Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Mazzeo, Aaron; Ngo, Phil M.; Whitesides, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) culture systems can mimic certain aspects of the cellular microenvironment found in vivo, but generation, analysis and imaging of current model systems for 3D cellular constructs and tissues remain challenging. This work demonstrates a 3D culture system – Cells-in-Gels-in-Mesh (CiGiM) – that uses stacked sheets of polymer-based mesh to support cells embedded in gels to form tissue-like constructs; the stacked sheets can be disassembled by peeling the sheets apart to analyze cultured cells—layer-by-layer—within the construct. The mesh sheets leave openings large enough for light to pass through with minimal scattering, and thus allowing multiple options for analysis—(i) using straightforward analysis by optical light microscopy, (ii) by high-resolution analysis with fluorescence microscopy, or (iii) with a fluorescence gel scanner. The sheets can be patterned into separate zones with paraffin film-based decals, in order to conduct multiple experiments in parallel; the paraffin-based decal films also block lateral diffusion of oxygen effectively. CiGiM simplifies the generation and analysis of 3D culture without compromising throughput, and quality of the data collected: it is especially useful in experiments that require control of oxygen levels, and isolation of adjacent wells in a multi-zone format. PMID:24095253

  3. Computer-aided 3D display system and its application in 3D vision test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, XiaoYun; Ma, Lan; Hou, Chunping; Wang, Jiening; Tang, Da; Li, Chang

    1998-08-01

    The computer aided 3D display system, flicker-free field sequential stereoscopic image display system, is newly developed. This system is composed of personal computer, liquid crystal glasses driving card, stereoscopic display software and liquid crystal glasses. It can display field sequential stereoscopic images at refresh rate of 70 Hz to 120 Hz. A typical application of this system, 3D vision test system, is mainly discussed in this paper. This stereoscopic vision test system can test stereoscopic acuity, cross disparity, uncross disparity and dynamic stereoscopic vision quantitatively. We have taken the use of random-dot- stereograms as stereoscopic vision test charts. Through practical test experiment between Anaglyph Stereoscopic Vision Test Charts and this stereoscopic vision test system, the statistical figures and test result is given out.

  4. 3D Cultures of prostate cancer cells cultured in a novel high-throughput culture platform are more resistant to chemotherapeutics compared to cells cultured in monolayer.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Karen F; Mosaad, Eman M O; Russell, Pamela J; Clements, Judith A; Doran, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Despite monolayer cultures being widely used for cancer drug development and testing, 2D cultures tend to be hypersensitive to chemotherapy and are relatively poor predictors of whether a drug will provide clinical benefit. Whilst generally more complicated, three dimensional (3D) culture systems often better recapitulate true cancer architecture and provide a more accurate drug response. As a step towards making 3D cancer cultures more accessible, we have developed a microwell platform and surface modification protocol to enable high throughput manufacture of 3D cancer aggregates. Herein we use this novel system to characterize prostate cancer cell microaggregates, including growth kinetics and drug sensitivity. Our results indicate that prostate cancer cells are viable in this system, however some non-cancerous prostate cell lines are not. This system allows us to consistently control for the presence or absence of an apoptotic core in the 3D cancer microaggregates. Similar to tumor tissues, the 3D microaggregates display poor polarity. Critically the response of 3D microaggregates to the chemotherapeutic drug, docetaxel, is more consistent with in vivo results than the equivalent 2D controls. Cumulatively, our results demonstrate that these prostate cancer microaggregates better recapitulate the morphology of prostate tumors compared to 2D and can be used for high-throughput drug testing. PMID:25380249

  5. A 3-D organoid kidney culture model engineered for high-throughput nephrotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Astashkina, Anna I; Mann, Brenda K; Prestwich, Glenn D; Grainger, David W

    2012-06-01

    Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions control cell phenotypes and functions in vivo. Maintaining these interactions in vitro is essential to both produce and retain cultured cell fidelity to normal phenotype and function in the context of drug efficacy and toxicity screening. Two-dimensional (2-D) cultures on culture plastics rarely recapitulate any of these desired conditions. Three dimensional (3-D) culture systems provide a critical junction between traditional, yet often irrelevant, in vitro cell cultures and more accurate, yet costly, in vivo models. This study describes development of an organoid-derived 3-D culture of kidney proximal tubules (PTs) that maintains native cellular interactions in tissue context, regulating phenotypic stability of primary cells in vitro for up to 6 weeks. Furthermore, unlike immortalized cells on plastic, these 3-D organoid kidney cultures provide a more physiologically-relevant response to nephrotoxic agent exposure, with production of toxicity biomarkers found in vivo. This biomimetic primary kidney model has broad applicability to high-throughput drug and biomarker nephrotoxicity screening, as well as more mechanistic drug toxicology, pharmacology, and metabolism studies.

  6. 3D cultured immortalized human hepatocytes useful to develop drugs for blood-borne HCV

    SciTech Connect

    Aly, Hussein Hassan; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Hijikata, Makoto

    2009-02-06

    Due to the high polymorphism of natural hepatitis C virus (HCV) variants, existing recombinant HCV replication models have failed to be effective in developing effective anti-HCV agents. In the current study, we describe an in vitro system that supports the infection and replication of natural HCV from patient blood using an immortalized primary human hepatocyte cell line cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Comparison of the gene expression profile of cells cultured in the 3D system to those cultured in the existing 2D system demonstrated an up-regulation of several genes activated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}) signaling. Furthermore, using PPAR{alpha} agonists and antagonists, we also analyzed the effect of PPAR{alpha} signaling on the modulation of HCV replication using this system. The 3D in vitro system described in this study provides significant insight into the search for novel anti-HCV strategies that are specific to various strains of HCV.

  7. Registration of 3D and multispectral data for the study of cultural heritage surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chane, Camille Simon; Schütze, Rainer; Boochs, Frank; Marzani, Franck S

    2013-01-01

    We present a technique for the multi-sensor registration of featureless datasets based on the photogrammetric tracking of the acquisition systems in use. This method is developed for the in situ study of cultural heritage objects and is tested by digitizing a small canvas successively with a 3D digitization system and a multispectral camera while simultaneously tracking the acquisition systems with four cameras and using a cubic target frame with a side length of 500 mm. The achieved tracking accuracy is better than 0.03 mm spatially and 0.150 mrad angularly. This allows us to seamlessly register the 3D acquisitions and to project the multispectral acquisitions on the 3D model. PMID:23322103

  8. Adaptive fuzzy system for 3-D vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitra, Sunanda

    1993-01-01

    An adaptive fuzzy system using the concept of the Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) type neural network architecture and incorporating fuzzy c-means (FCM) system equations for reclassification of cluster centers was developed. The Adaptive Fuzzy Leader Clustering (AFLC) architecture is a hybrid neural-fuzzy system which learns on-line in a stable and efficient manner. The system uses a control structure similar to that found in the Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART-1) network to identify the cluster centers initially. The initial classification of an input takes place in a two stage process; a simple competitive stage and a distance metric comparison stage. The cluster prototypes are then incrementally updated by relocating the centroid positions from Fuzzy c-Means (FCM) system equations for the centroids and the membership values. The operational characteristics of AFLC and the critical parameters involved in its operation are discussed. The performance of the AFLC algorithm is presented through application of the algorithm to the Anderson Iris data, and laser-luminescent fingerprint image data. The AFLC algorithm successfully classifies features extracted from real data, discrete or continuous, indicating the potential strength of this new clustering algorithm in analyzing complex data sets. The hybrid neuro-fuzzy AFLC algorithm will enhance analysis of a number of difficult recognition and control problems involved with Tethered Satellite Systems and on-orbit space shuttle attitude controller.

  9. 3D Microperiodic Hydrogel Scaffolds for Robust Neuronal Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hanson Shepherd, Jennifer N.; Parker, Sara T.; Shepherd, Robert F.; Gillette, Martha U.; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) microperiodic scaffolds of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) have been fabricated by direct-write assembly of a photopolymerizable hydrogel ink. The ink is initially composed of physically entangled pHEMA chains dissolved in a solution of HEMA monomer, comonomer, photoinitiator and water. Upon printing 3D scaffolds of varying architecture, the ink filaments are exposed to UV light, where they are transformed into an interpenetrating hydrogel network of chemically cross-linked and physically entangled pHEMA chains. These 3D microperiodic scaffolds are rendered growth compliant for primary rat hippocampal neurons by absorption of polylysine. Neuronal cells thrive on these scaffolds, forming differentiated, intricately branched networks. Confocal laser scanning microscopy reveals that both cell distribution and extent of neuronal process alignment depend upon scaffold architecture. This work provides an important step forward in the creation of suitable platforms for in vitro study of sensitive cell types. PMID:21709750

  10. Developmental neurotoxic effects of Malathion on 3D neurosphere system

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Mohamed; Lotfy, Ahmed; Fathy, Khaled; Makar, Maria; El-emam, Mona; El-gamal, Aya; El-gamal, Mohamed; Badawy, Ahmad; Mohamed, Wael M.Y.; Sobh, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) refers to the toxic effects induced by various chemicals on brain during the early childhood period. As human brains are vulnerable during this period, various chemicals would have significant effects on brains during early childhood. Some toxicants have been confirmed to induce developmental toxic effects on CNS; however, most of agents cannot be identified with certainty. This is because available animal models do not cover the whole spectrum of CNS developmental periods. A novel alternative method that can overcome most of the limitations of the conventional techniques is the use of 3D neurosphere system. This in-vitro system can recapitulate many of the changes during the period of brain development making it an ideal model for predicting developmental neurotoxic effects. In the present study we verified the possible DNT of Malathion, which is one of organophosphate pesticides with suggested possible neurotoxic effects on nursing children. Three doses of Malathion (0.25 μM, 1 μM and 10 μM) were used in cultured neurospheres for a period of 14 days. Malathion was found to affect proliferation, differentiation and viability of neurospheres, these effects were positively correlated to doses and time progress. This study confirms the DNT effects of Malathion on 3D neurosphere model. Further epidemiological studies will be needed to link these results to human exposure and effects data. PMID:27054080

  11. Quantitative data quality metrics for 3D laser radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Jeffrey R.; Lopez, Norman A.; Burton, Robin R.

    2011-06-01

    Several quantitative data quality metrics for three dimensional (3D) laser radar systems are presented, namely: X-Y contrast transfer function, Z noise, Z resolution, X-Y edge & line spread functions, 3D point spread function and data voids. These metrics are calculated from both raw and/or processed point cloud data, providing different information regarding the performance of 3D imaging laser radar systems and the perceptual quality attributes of 3D datasets. The discussion is presented within the context of 3D imaging laser radar systems employing arrays of Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode (GmAPD) detectors, but the metrics may generally be applied to linear mode systems as well. An example for the role of these metrics in comparison of noise removal algorithms is also provided.

  12. Mackay campus of environmental education and digital cultural construction: the application of 3D virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Shao-Chi; Chung, Yu-Wei; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Huang, Jun-Yi; Chang, Jhih-Ting; He, Cai-Ying; Cheng, Yi-Wen

    2012-04-01

    This study uses 3D virtual reality technology to create the "Mackay campus of the environmental education and digital cultural 3D navigation system" for local historical sites in the Tamsui (Hoba) area, in hopes of providing tourism information and navigation through historical sites using a 3D navigation system. We used Auto CAD, Sketch Up, and SpaceEyes 3D software to construct the virtual reality scenes and create the school's historical sites, such as the House of Reverends, the House of Maidens, the Residence of Mackay, and the Education Hall. We used this technology to complete the environmental education and digital cultural Mackay campus . The platform we established can indeed achieve the desired function of providing tourism information and historical site navigation. The interactive multimedia style and the presentation of the information will allow users to obtain a direct information response. In addition to showing the external appearances of buildings, the navigation platform can also allow users to enter the buildings to view lifelike scenes and textual information related to the historical sites. The historical sites are designed according to their actual size, which gives users a more realistic feel. In terms of the navigation route, the navigation system does not force users along a fixed route, but instead allows users to freely control the route they would like to take to view the historical sites on the platform.

  13. Lensfree diffractive tomography for the imaging of 3D cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Momey, F.; Berdeu, A.; Bordy, T.; Dinten, J.-M.; Marcel, F. Kermarrec; Picollet-D’hahan, N.; Gidrol, X.; Allier, C.

    2016-01-01

    New microscopes are needed to help realize the full potential of 3D organoid culture studies. In order to image large volumes of 3D organoid cultures while preserving the ability to catch every single cell, we propose a new imaging platform based on lensfree microscopy. We have built a lensfree diffractive tomography setup performing multi-angle acquisitions of 3D organoid culture embedded in Matrigel and developed a dedicated 3D holographic reconstruction algorithm based on the Fourier diffraction theorem. With this new imaging platform, we have been able to reconstruct a 3D volume as large as 21.5 mm3 of a 3D organoid culture of prostatic RWPE1 cells showing the ability of these cells to assemble in 3D intricate cellular network at the mesoscopic scale. Importantly, comparisons with 2D images show that it is possible to resolve single cells isolated from the main cellular structure with our lensfree diffractive tomography setup. PMID:27231600

  14. Lensfree diffractive tomography for the imaging of 3D cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Momey, F; Berdeu, A; Bordy, T; Dinten, J-M; Marcel, F Kermarrec; Picollet-D'hahan, N; Gidrol, X; Allier, C

    2016-03-01

    New microscopes are needed to help realize the full potential of 3D organoid culture studies. In order to image large volumes of 3D organoid cultures while preserving the ability to catch every single cell, we propose a new imaging platform based on lensfree microscopy. We have built a lensfree diffractive tomography setup performing multi-angle acquisitions of 3D organoid culture embedded in Matrigel and developed a dedicated 3D holographic reconstruction algorithm based on the Fourier diffraction theorem. With this new imaging platform, we have been able to reconstruct a 3D volume as large as 21.5 mm (3) of a 3D organoid culture of prostatic RWPE1 cells showing the ability of these cells to assemble in 3D intricate cellular network at the mesoscopic scale. Importantly, comparisons with 2D images show that it is possible to resolve single cells isolated from the main cellular structure with our lensfree diffractive tomography setup. PMID:27231600

  15. Thermally induced apoptosis, necrosis, and heat shock protein expression in 3D culture.

    PubMed

    Song, Alfred S; Najjar, Amer M; Diller, Kenneth R

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to compare the heat shock responses of cells grown in 2D and 3D culture environments as indicated by the level of heat shock protein 70 expression and the incidence of apoptosis and necrosis of prostate cancer cell lines in response to graded hyperthermia. PC3 cells were stably transduced with a dual reporter system composed of two tandem expression cassettes-a conditional heat shock protein promoter driving the expression of green fluorescent protein (HSPp-GFP) and a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter controlling the constitutive expression of a "beacon" red fluorescent protein (CMVp-RFP). Two-dimensional and three-dimensional cultures of PC3 prostate cancer cells were grown in 96-well plates for evaluation of their time-dependent response to supraphysiological temperature. To induce controlled hyperthermia, culture plates were placed on a flat copper surface of a circulating water manifold that maintained the specimens within ±0.1°C of a target temperature. Hyperthermia protocols included various combinations of temperature, ranging from 37°C to 57°C, and exposure times of up to 2 h. The majority of protocols were focused on temperature and time permutations, where the response gradient was greatest. Post-treatment analysis by flow cytometry analysis was used to measure the incidences of apoptosis (annexin V-FITC stain), necrosis (propidium iodide (PI) stain), and HSP70 transcription (GFP expression). Cells grown in 3D compared with 2D culture showed reduced incidence of apoptosis and necrosis and a higher level of HSP70 expression in response to heat shock at the temperatures tested. Cells responded differently to hyperthermia when grown in 2D and 3D cultures. Three-dimensional culture appears to enhance survival plausibly by activating protective processes related to enhanced-HSP70 expression. These differences highlight the importance of selecting physiologically relevant 3D models in assessing cellular responses to hyperthermia in

  16. Education System Using Interactive 3D Computer Graphics (3D-CG) Animation and Scenario Language for Teaching Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Shindo, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    The 3D computer graphics (3D-CG) animation using a virtual actor's speaking is very effective as an educational medium. But it takes a long time to produce a 3D-CG animation. To reduce the cost of producing 3D-CG educational contents and improve the capability of the education system, we have developed a new education system using Virtual Actor.…

  17. Multi-camera system for 3D forensic documentation.

    PubMed

    Leipner, Anja; Baumeister, Rilana; Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dobler, Erika; Ebert, Lars C

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface documentation is well established in forensic documentation. The most common systems include laser scanners and surface scanners with optical 3D cameras. An additional documentation tool is photogrammetry. This article introduces the botscan© (botspot GmbH, Berlin, Germany) multi-camera system for the forensic markerless photogrammetric whole body 3D surface documentation of living persons in standing posture. We used the botscan© multi-camera system to document a person in 360°. The system has a modular design and works with 64 digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. The cameras were evenly distributed in a circular chamber. We generated 3D models from the photographs using the PhotoScan© (Agisoft LLC, St. Petersburg, Russia) software. Our results revealed that the botscan© and PhotoScan© produced 360° 3D models with detailed textures. The 3D models had very accurate geometries and could be scaled to full size with the help of scale bars. In conclusion, this multi-camera system provided a rapid and simple method for documenting the whole body of a person to generate 3D data with Photoscan©. PMID:26921815

  18. Multi-camera system for 3D forensic documentation.

    PubMed

    Leipner, Anja; Baumeister, Rilana; Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dobler, Erika; Ebert, Lars C

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface documentation is well established in forensic documentation. The most common systems include laser scanners and surface scanners with optical 3D cameras. An additional documentation tool is photogrammetry. This article introduces the botscan© (botspot GmbH, Berlin, Germany) multi-camera system for the forensic markerless photogrammetric whole body 3D surface documentation of living persons in standing posture. We used the botscan© multi-camera system to document a person in 360°. The system has a modular design and works with 64 digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. The cameras were evenly distributed in a circular chamber. We generated 3D models from the photographs using the PhotoScan© (Agisoft LLC, St. Petersburg, Russia) software. Our results revealed that the botscan© and PhotoScan© produced 360° 3D models with detailed textures. The 3D models had very accurate geometries and could be scaled to full size with the help of scale bars. In conclusion, this multi-camera system provided a rapid and simple method for documenting the whole body of a person to generate 3D data with Photoscan©.

  19. Decoupling diffusional from dimensional control of signaling in 3D culture reveals a role for myosin in tubulogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Srivatsan; Shen, Colette J.; Desai, Ravi A.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.; Nelson, Celeste M.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel microfabricated platform to culture cells within arrays of micrometer-scale three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix scaffolds (microgels). These microscale cultures eliminate diffusion barriers that are intrinsic to traditional 3D culture systems (macrogels) and enable uniform cytokine stimulation of the entire culture population, as well as allow immunolabeling, imaging and population-based biochemical assays across the relatively coplanar microgels. Examining early signaling associated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-mediated scattering and tubulogenesis of MDCK cells revealed that 3D culture modulates cellular responses both through dimensionality and altered stimulation rates. Comparing responses in 2D culture, microgels and macrogels demonstrated that HGF-induced ERK signaling was driven by the dynamics of stimulation and not by whether cells were in a 2D or 3D environment, and that this ERK signaling was equally important for HGF-induced cell scattering on 2D substrates and tubulogenesis in 3D. By contrast, we discovered a specific HGF-induced increase in myosin expression leading to sustained downregulation of myosin activity that occurred only within 3D contexts and was required for 3D tubulogenesis but not 2D scattering. Interestingly, although absent in cells on collagen-coated plates, downregulation of myosin activity also occurred for cells on collagen gels, but was transient and mediated by a combination of myosin dephosphorylation and enhanced myosin expression. Furthermore, upregulating myosin activity via siRNA targeted to a myosin phosphatase did not attenuate scattering in 2D but did inhibit tubulogenesis in 3D. Together, these results demonstrate that cellular responses to soluble cues in 3D culture are regulated by both rates of stimulation and by matrix dimensionality, and highlight the importance of decoupling these effects to identify early signals relevant to cellular function in 3D environments. PMID:20682635

  20. Universal lab-on-a-chip platform for complex, perfused 3D cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonntag, F.; Schmieder, F.; Ströbel, J.; Grünzner, S.; Busek, M.; Günther, K.; Steege, T.; Polk, C.; Klotzbach, U.

    2016-03-01

    The miniaturization, rapid prototyping and automation of lab-on-a-chip technology play nowadays a very important role. Lab-on-a-chip technology is successfully implemented not only for environmental analysis and medical diagnostics, but also as replacement of animals used for the testing of substances in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. For that purpose the Fraunhofer IWS and partners developed a lab-on-a-chip platform for perfused cell-based assays in the last years, which includes different micropumps, valves, channels, reservoirs and customized cell culture modules. This technology is already implemented for the characterization of different human cell cultures and organoids, like skin, liver, endothelium, hair follicle and nephron. The advanced universal lab-on-a-chip platform for complex, perfused 3D cell cultures is divided into a multilayer basic chip with integrated micropump and application-specific 3D printed cell culture modules. Moreover a technology for surface modification of the printed cell culture modules by laser micro structuring and a complex and flexibly programmable controlling device based on an embedded Linux system was developed. A universal lab-on-a-chip platform with an optional oxygenator and a cell culture module for cubic scaffolds as well as first cell culture experiments within the cell culture device will be presented. The module is designed for direct interaction with robotic dispenser systems. This offers the opportunity to combine direct organ printing of cells and scaffolds with the microfluidic cell culture module. The characterization of the developed system was done by means of Micro-Particle Image Velocimetry (μPIV) and an optical oxygen measuring system.

  1. High-throughput screening with nanoimprinting 3D culture for efficient drug development by mimicking the tumor environment.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Yukie; Furukawa, Takako; Waki, Atsuo; Okuyama, Hiroaki; Inoue, Masahiro; Itoh, Manabu; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Sogawa, Chizuru; Kiyono, Yasushi; Yoshii, Hiroshi; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2015-05-01

    Anti-cancer drug development typically utilizes high-throughput screening with two-dimensional (2D) cell culture. However, 2D culture induces cellular characteristics different from tumors in vivo, resulting in inefficient drug development. Here, we report an innovative high-throughput screening system using nanoimprinting 3D culture to simulate in vivo conditions, thereby facilitating efficient drug development. We demonstrated that cell line-based nanoimprinting 3D screening can more efficiently select drugs that effectively inhibit cancer growth in vivo as compared to 2D culture. Metabolic responses after treatment were assessed using positron emission tomography (PET) probes, and revealed similar characteristics between the 3D spheroids and in vivo tumors. Further, we developed an advanced method to adopt cancer cells from patient tumor tissues for high-throughput drug screening with nanoimprinting 3D culture, which we termed Cancer tissue-Originated Uniformed Spheroid Assay (COUSA). This system identified drugs that were effective in xenografts of the original patient tumors. Nanoimprinting 3D spheroids showed low permeability and formation of hypoxic regions inside, similar to in vivo tumors. Collectively, the nanoimprinting 3D culture provides easy-handling high-throughput drug screening system, which allows for efficient drug development by mimicking the tumor environment. The COUSA system could be a useful platform for drug development with patient cancer cells.

  2. NoSQL Based 3D City Model Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, B.; Harrie, L.; Cao, J.; Wu, Z.; Shen, J.

    2014-04-01

    To manage increasingly complicated 3D city models, a framework based on NoSQL database is proposed in this paper. The framework supports import and export of 3D city model according to international standards such as CityGML, KML/COLLADA and X3D. We also suggest and implement 3D model analysis and visualization in the framework. For city model analysis, 3D geometry data and semantic information (such as name, height, area, price and so on) are stored and processed separately. We use a Map-Reduce method to deal with the 3D geometry data since it is more complex, while the semantic analysis is mainly based on database query operation. For visualization, a multiple 3D city representation structure CityTree is implemented within the framework to support dynamic LODs based on user viewpoint. Also, the proposed framework is easily extensible and supports geoindexes to speed up the querying. Our experimental results show that the proposed 3D city management system can efficiently fulfil the analysis and visualization requirements.

  3. Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Current display technology has relied on flat, 2D screens that cannot truly convey the third dimension of visual information: depth. In contrast to conventional visualization that is primarily based on 2D flat screens, the volumetric 3D display possesses a true 3D display volume, and places physically each 3D voxel in displayed 3D images at the true 3D (x,y,z) spatial position. Each voxel, analogous to a pixel in a 2D image, emits light from that position to form a real 3D image in the eyes of the viewers. Such true volumetric 3D display technology provides both physiological (accommodation, convergence, binocular disparity, and motion parallax) and psychological (image size, linear perspective, shading, brightness, etc.) depth cues to human visual systems to help in the perception of 3D objects. In a volumetric 3D display, viewers can watch the displayed 3D images from a completely 360 view without using any special eyewear. The volumetric 3D display techniques may lead to a quantum leap in information display technology and can dramatically change the ways humans interact with computers, which can lead to significant improvements in the efficiency of learning and knowledge management processes. Within a block of glass, a large amount of tiny dots of voxels are created by using a recently available machining technique called laser subsurface engraving (LSE). The LSE is able to produce tiny physical crack points (as small as 0.05 mm in diameter) at any (x,y,z) location within the cube of transparent material. The crack dots, when illuminated by a light source, scatter the light around and form visible voxels within the 3D volume. The locations of these tiny voxels are strategically determined such that each can be illuminated by a light ray from a high-resolution digital mirror device (DMD) light engine. The distribution of these voxels occupies the full display volume within the static 3D glass screen. This design eliminates any moving screen seen in previous

  4. Culturing and Applications of Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor Derived 3D Epithelial Cell Models

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Andrea L.; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M.

    2012-01-01

    Cells and tissues in the body experience environmental conditions that influence their architecture, intercellular communications, and overall functions. For in vitro cell culture models to accurately mimic the tissue of interest, the growth environment of the culture is a critical aspect to consider. Commonly used conventional cell culture systems propagate epithelial cells on flat two-dimensional (2-D) impermeable surfaces. Although much has been learned from conventional cell culture systems, many findings are not reproducible in human clinical trials or tissue explants, potentially as a result of the lack of a physiologically relevant microenvironment. Here, we describe a culture system that overcomes many of the culture condition boundaries of 2-D cell cultures, by using the innovative rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor technology. We and others have shown that organotypic RWV-derived models can recapitulate structure, function, and authentic human responses to external stimuli similarly to human explant tissues 1-6. The RWV bioreactor is a suspension culture system that allows for the growth of epithelial cells under low physiological fluid shear conditions. The bioreactors come in two different formats, a high-aspect rotating vessel (HARV) or a slow-turning lateral vessel (STLV), in which they differ by their aeration source. Epithelial cells are added to the bioreactor of choice in combination with porous, collagen-coated microcarrier beads (Figure 1A). The cells utilize the beads as a growth scaffold during the constant free fall in the bioreactor (Figure 1B). The microenvironment provided by the bioreactor allows the cells to form three-dimensional (3-D) aggregates displaying in vivo-like characteristics often not observed under standard 2-D culture conditions (Figure 1D). These characteristics include tight junctions, mucus production, apical/basal orientation, in vivo protein localization, and additional epithelial cell-type specific properties. The

  5. Culturing and applications of rotating wall vessel bioreactor derived 3D epithelial cell models.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Andrea L; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2012-04-03

    Cells and tissues in the body experience environmental conditions that influence their architecture, intercellular communications, and overall functions. For in vitro cell culture models to accurately mimic the tissue of interest, the growth environment of the culture is a critical aspect to consider. Commonly used conventional cell culture systems propagate epithelial cells on flat two-dimensional (2-D) impermeable surfaces. Although much has been learned from conventional cell culture systems, many findings are not reproducible in human clinical trials or tissue explants, potentially as a result of the lack of a physiologically relevant microenvironment. Here, we describe a culture system that overcomes many of the culture condition boundaries of 2-D cell cultures, by using the innovative rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor technology. We and others have shown that organotypic RWV-derived models can recapitulate structure, function, and authentic human responses to external stimuli similarly to human explant tissues (1-6). The RWV bioreactor is a suspension culture system that allows for the growth of epithelial cells under low physiological fluid shear conditions. The bioreactors come in two different formats, a high-aspect rotating vessel (HARV) or a slow-turning lateral vessel (STLV), in which they differ by their aeration source. Epithelial cells are added to the bioreactor of choice in combination with porous, collagen-coated microcarrier beads (Figure 1A). The cells utilize the beads as a growth scaffold during the constant free fall in the bioreactor (Figure 1B). The microenvironment provided by the bioreactor allows the cells to form three-dimensional (3-D) aggregates displaying in vivo-like characteristics often not observed under standard 2-D culture conditions (Figure 1D). These characteristics include tight junctions, mucus production, apical/basal orientation, in vivo protein localization, and additional epithelial cell-type specific properties

  6. Culturing and applications of rotating wall vessel bioreactor derived 3D epithelial cell models.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Andrea L; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2012-01-01

    Cells and tissues in the body experience environmental conditions that influence their architecture, intercellular communications, and overall functions. For in vitro cell culture models to accurately mimic the tissue of interest, the growth environment of the culture is a critical aspect to consider. Commonly used conventional cell culture systems propagate epithelial cells on flat two-dimensional (2-D) impermeable surfaces. Although much has been learned from conventional cell culture systems, many findings are not reproducible in human clinical trials or tissue explants, potentially as a result of the lack of a physiologically relevant microenvironment. Here, we describe a culture system that overcomes many of the culture condition boundaries of 2-D cell cultures, by using the innovative rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor technology. We and others have shown that organotypic RWV-derived models can recapitulate structure, function, and authentic human responses to external stimuli similarly to human explant tissues (1-6). The RWV bioreactor is a suspension culture system that allows for the growth of epithelial cells under low physiological fluid shear conditions. The bioreactors come in two different formats, a high-aspect rotating vessel (HARV) or a slow-turning lateral vessel (STLV), in which they differ by their aeration source. Epithelial cells are added to the bioreactor of choice in combination with porous, collagen-coated microcarrier beads (Figure 1A). The cells utilize the beads as a growth scaffold during the constant free fall in the bioreactor (Figure 1B). The microenvironment provided by the bioreactor allows the cells to form three-dimensional (3-D) aggregates displaying in vivo-like characteristics often not observed under standard 2-D culture conditions (Figure 1D). These characteristics include tight junctions, mucus production, apical/basal orientation, in vivo protein localization, and additional epithelial cell-type specific properties

  7. A 3D digital medical photography system in paediatric medicine.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susanne K; Ellis, Lloyd A; Williams, Gigi

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, traditional clinical photography services at the Educational Resource Centre were extended using new technology. This paper describes the establishment of a 3D digital imaging system in a paediatric setting at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne.

  8. a 3d Campus Information System - Initial Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman, I.; Karas, I. R.; Alizadehasharfi, B.; Abdul-Rahman, A.

    2013-08-01

    This paper discusses the method of developing Campus Information System. The system can handle 3D spatial data within desktop and web environment. The method consists of texturing of building facades for 3D building models and modeling 3D Campus Information System. In this paper, some of these steps are carried out; modelling 3D buildings, toggling these models on the terrain and ortho-photo, integration with a geo-database, transferring to the CityServer3D environment by using CityGML format and designing the service, etc. In addition to this, a simple but novel method of texturing of building façades for 3D city modeling that is based on Dynamic Pulse Function (DPF) is used for synthetic and procedural texturing. DPF is very fast compared to other photo realistic texturing methods. Last but not least, it is aimed to present this project on web using web mapping services. This makes 3D analysis easy for decision makers.

  9. 3D in vitro cell culture models of tube formation.

    PubMed

    Zegers, Mirjam M

    2014-07-01

    Building the complex architecture of tubular organs is a highly dynamic process that involves cell migration, polarization, shape changes, adhesion to neighboring cells and the extracellular matrix, physicochemical characteristics of the extracellular matrix and reciprocal signaling with the mesenchyme. Understanding these processes in vivo has been challenging as they take place over extended time periods deep within the developing organism. Here, I will discuss 3D in vitro models that have been crucial to understand many of the molecular and cellular mechanisms and key concepts underlying branching morphogenesis in vivo. PMID:24613912

  10. Preparation of 3D fibrin scaffolds for stem cell culture applications.

    PubMed

    Kolehmainen, Kathleen; Willerth, Stephanie M

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are found in naturally occurring 3D microenvironments in vivo, which are often referred to as the stem cell niche. Culturing stem cells inside of 3D biomaterial scaffolds provides a way to accurately mimic these microenvironments, providing an advantage over traditional 2D culture methods using polystyrene as well as a method for engineering replacement tissues. While 2D tissue culture polystrene has been used for the majority of cell culture experiments, 3D biomaterial scaffolds can more closely replicate the microenvironments found in vivo by enabling more accurate establishment of cell polarity in the environment and possessing biochemical and mechanical properties similar to soft tissue. A variety of naturally derived and synthetic biomaterial scaffolds have been investigated as 3D environments for supporting stem cell growth. While synthetic scaffolds can be synthesized to have a greater range of mechanical and chemical properties and often have greater reproducibility, natural biomaterials are often composed of proteins and polysaccharides found in the extracelluar matrix and as a result contain binding sites for cell adhesion and readily support cell culture. Fibrin scaffolds, produced by polymerizing the protein fibrinogen obtained from plasma, have been widely investigated for a variety of tissue engineering applications both in vitro and in vivo. Such scaffolds can be modified using a variety of methods to incorporate controlled release systems for delivering therapeutic factors. Previous work has shown that such scaffolds can be used to successfully culture embryonic stem cells and this scaffold-based culture system can be used to screen the effects of various growth factors on the differentiation of the stem cells seeded inside. This protocol details the process of polymerizing fibrin scaffolds from fibrinogen solutions using the enzymatic activity of thrombin. The process takes 2 days to complete, including an overnight dialysis step for the

  11. Preparation of 3D Fibrin Scaffolds for Stem Cell Culture Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kolehmainen, Kathleen; Willerth, Stephanie M.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are found in naturally occurring 3D microenvironments in vivo, which are often referred to as the stem cell niche 1. Culturing stem cells inside of 3D biomaterial scaffolds provides a way to accurately mimic these microenvironments, providing an advantage over traditional 2D culture methods using polystyrene as well as a method for engineering replacement tissues 2. While 2D tissue culture polystrene has been used for the majority of cell culture experiments, 3D biomaterial scaffolds can more closely replicate the microenvironments found in vivo by enabling more accurate establishment of cell polarity in the environment and possessing biochemical and mechanical properties similar to soft tissue.3 A variety of naturally derived and synthetic biomaterial scaffolds have been investigated as 3D environments for supporting stem cell growth. While synthetic scaffolds can be synthesized to have a greater range of mechanical and chemical properties and often have greater reproducibility, natural biomaterials are often composed of proteins and polysaccharides found in the extracelluar matrix and as a result contain binding sites for cell adhesion and readily support cell culture. Fibrin scaffolds, produced by polymerizing the protein fibrinogen obtained from plasma, have been widely investigated for a variety of tissue engineering applications both in vitro and in vivo4. Such scaffolds can be modified using a variety of methods to incorporate controlled release systems for delivering therapeutic factors 5. Previous work has shown that such scaffolds can be used to successfully culture embryonic stem cells and this scaffold-based culture system can be used to screen the effects of various growth factors on the differentiation of the stem cells seeded inside 6,7. This protocol details the process of polymerizing fibrin scaffolds from fibrinogen solutions using the enzymatic activity of thrombin. The process takes 2 days to complete, including an overnight dialysis

  12. Thermal 3D modeling system based on 3-view geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Joongrock; Lee, Sangyoun

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel thermal three-dimensional (3D) modeling system that includes 3D shape, visual, and thermal infrared information and solves a registration problem among these three types of information. The proposed system consists of a projector, a visual camera and, a thermal camera (PVT). To generate 3D shape information, we use a structured light technique, which consists of a visual camera and a projector. A thermal camera is added to the structured light system in order to provide thermal information. To solve the correspondence problem between the three sensors, we use three-view geometry. Finally, we obtain registered PVT data, which includes visual, thermal, and 3D shape information. Among various potential applications such as industrial measurements, biological experiments, military usage, and so on, we have adapted the proposed method to biometrics, particularly for face recognition. With the proposed method, we obtain multi-modal 3D face data that includes not only textural information but also data regarding head pose, 3D shape, and thermal information. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed face recognition system is not limited by head pose variation which is a serious problem in face recognition.

  13. Advanced 3D Sensing and Visualization System for Unattended Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.J.; Little, C.Q.; Nelson, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to create a reliable, 3D sensing and visualization system for unattended monitoring. The system provides benefits for several of Sandia's initiatives including nonproliferation, treaty verification, national security and critical infrastructure surety. The robust qualities of the system make it suitable for both interior and exterior monitoring applications. The 3D sensing system combines two existing sensor technologies in a new way to continuously maintain accurate 3D models of both static and dynamic components of monitored areas (e.g., portions of buildings, roads, and secured perimeters in addition to real-time estimates of the shape, location, and motion of humans and moving objects). A key strength of this system is the ability to monitor simultaneous activities on a continuous basis, such as several humans working independently within a controlled workspace, while also detecting unauthorized entry into the workspace. Data from the sensing system is used to identi~ activities or conditions that can signi~ potential surety (safety, security, and reliability) threats. The system could alert a security operator of potential threats or could be used to cue other detection, inspection or warning systems. An interactive, Web-based, 3D visualization capability was also developed using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). The intex%ace allows remote, interactive inspection of a monitored area (via the Internet or Satellite Links) using a 3D computer model of the area that is rendered from actual sensor data.

  14. Comparative evaluation of the role of single and multiple blood specimens in the outcome of blood cultures using BacT/ALERT 3D (automated) blood culture system in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Elantamilan, D.; Lyngdoh, Valarie Wihiwot; Khyriem, Annie B.; Rajbongshi, Jyotismita; Bora, Ishani; Devi, Surbala Thingujam; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis; Barman, Himesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a leading cause of mortality in critically ill patients. The mortality directly attributable to BSI has been estimated to be around 16% and 40% in general hospital population and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) population, respectively. The detection rate of these infections increases with the number of blood samples obtained for culture. The newer continuous monitoring automated blood culture systems with enhanced culture media show increased yield and sensitivity. Hence, we aimed at studying the role of single and multiple blood specimens from different sites at the same time in the outcome of automated blood culture system. Materials and Methods and Results: A total of 1054 blood culture sets were analyzed over 1 year, the sensitivity of one, two, and three samples in a set was found to be 85.67%, 96.59%, and 100%, respectively, which showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001). Similar findings were seen in few more studies, however, among individual organisms in contrast to other studies, the isolation rates of Gram-positive bacteria were less than that of Gram-negative Bacilli with one (or first) sample in a blood culture set. In our study, despite using BacT/ALERT three-dimensional continuous culture monitoring system with FAN plus culture bottles, 15% of positive cultures would have been missed if only a single sample was collected in a blood culture set. Conclusion: The variables like the volume of blood and number of samples collected from different sites still play a major role in the outcome of these automated blood culture systems.

  15. An annotation system for 3D fluid flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughlin, Maria M.; Hughes, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Annotation is a key activity of data analysis. However, current systems for data analysis focus almost exclusively on visualization. We propose a system which integrates annotations into a visualization system. Annotations are embedded in 3D data space, using the Post-it metaphor. This embedding allows contextual-based information storage and retrieval, and facilitates information sharing in collaborative environments. We provide a traditional database filter and a Magic Lens filter to create specialized views of the data. The system has been customized for fluid flow applications, with features which allow users to store parameters of visualization tools and sketch 3D volumes.

  16. Microscale screening systems for 3D cellular microenvironments: platforms, advances, and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Montanez-Sauri, Sara I.; Beebe, David J.; Sung, Kyung Eun

    2015-01-01

    The increasing interest in studying cells using more in vivo-like three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments has created a need for advanced 3D screening platforms with enhanced functionalities and increased throughput. 3D screening platforms that better mimic in vivo microenvironments with enhanced throughput would provide more in-depth understanding of the complexity and heterogeneity of microenvironments. The platforms would also better predict the toxicity and efficacy of potential drugs in physiologically relevant conditions. Traditional 3D culture models (e.g. spinner flasks, gyratory rotation devices, non-adhesive surfaces, polymers) were developed to create 3D multicellular structures. However, these traditional systems require large volumes of reagents and cells, and are not compatible with high throughput screening (HTS) systems. Microscale technology offers the miniaturization of 3D cultures and allows efficient screening of various conditions. This review will discuss the development, most influential works, and current advantages and challenges of microscale culture systems for screening cells in 3D microenvironments. PMID:25274061

  17. A 3D surface imaging system for assessing human obesity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, B.; Yu, W.; Yao, M.; Yao, X.; Li, Q.; Pepper, M. R.; Freeland-Graves, J. H.

    2009-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity suggests a need to develop a convenient, reliable and economical tool for assessment of this condition. Three-dimensional (3D) body surface imaging has emerged as an exciting technology for estimation of body composition. This paper presents a new 3D body imaging system, which was designed for enhanced portability, affordability, and functionality. In this system, stereo vision technology was used to satisfy the requirements for a simple hardware setup and fast image acquisitions. The portability of the system was created via a two-stand configuration, and the accuracy of body volume measurements was improved by customizing stereo matching and surface reconstruction algorithms that target specific problems in 3D body imaging. Body measurement functions dedicated to body composition assessment also were developed. The overall performance of the system was evaluated in human subjects by comparison to other conventional anthropometric methods, as well as air displacement plethysmography, for body fat assessment.

  18. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3D vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.B.; Gallman, P.G.; Slotwinski, A.R.; Wagner, K.; Weaver, S.; Xu, Jieping

    1996-12-31

    This CLVS will provide a substantial advance in high speed computer vision performance to support robotic Environmental Management (EM) operations. This 3D system employs a compact fiber optic based scanner and operator at a 128 x 128 pixel frame at one frame per second with a range resolution of 1 mm over its 1.5 meter working range. Using acousto-optic deflectors, the scanner is completely randomly addressable. This can provide live 3D monitoring for situations where it is necessary to update once per second. This can be used for decontamination and decommissioning operations in which robotic systems are altering the scene such as in waste removal, surface scarafacing, or equipment disassembly and removal. The fiber- optic coherent laser radar based system is immune to variations in lighting, color, or surface shading, which have plagued the reliability of existing 3D vision systems, while providing substantially superior range resolution.

  19. Fibroblasts Influence Survival and Therapeutic Response in a 3D Co-Culture Model.

    PubMed

    Majety, Meher; Pradel, Leon P; Gies, Manuela; Ries, Carola H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evidence has indicated that the tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a significant role in tumor progression. Fibroblasts represent an abundant cell population in the TME and produce several growth factors and cytokines. Fibroblasts generate a suitable niche for tumor cell survival and metastasis under the influence of interactions between fibroblasts and tumor cells. Investigating these interactions requires suitable experimental systems to understand the cross-talk involved. Most in vitro experimental systems use 2D cell culture and trans-well assays to study these interactions even though these paradigms poorly represent the tumor, in which direct cell-cell contacts in 3D spaces naturally occur. Investigating these interactions in vivo is of limited value due to problems regarding the challenges caused by the species-specificity of many molecules. Thus, it is essential to use in vitro models in which human fibroblasts are co-cultured with tumor cells to understand their interactions. Here, we developed a 3D co-culture model that enables direct cell-cell contacts between pancreatic, breast and or lung tumor cells and human fibroblasts/ or tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs). We found that co-culturing with fibroblasts/TAFs increases the proliferation in of several types of cancer cells. We also observed that co-culture induces differential expression of soluble factors in a cancer type-specific manner. Treatment with blocking antibodies against selected factors or their receptors resulted in the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in the co-cultures. Using our co-culture model, we further revealed that TAFs can influence the response to therapeutic agents in vitro. We suggest that this model can be reliably used as a tool to investigate the interactions between a tumor and the TME.

  20. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture.

  1. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  2. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  3. Design of a single projector multiview 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jason

    2014-03-01

    Multiview three-dimensional (3D) display is able to provide horizontal parallax to viewers with high-resolution and fullcolor images being presented to each view. Most multiview 3D display systems are designed and implemented using multiple projectors, each generating images for one view. Although this multi-projector design strategy is conceptually straightforward, implementation of such multi-projector design often leads to a very expensive system and complicated calibration procedures. Even for a multiview system with a moderate number of projectors (e.g., 32 or 64 projectors), the cost of a multi-projector 3D display system may become prohibitive due to the cost and complexity of integrating multiple projectors. In this article, we describe an optical design technique for a class of multiview 3D display systems that use only a single projector. In this single projector multiview (SPM) system design, multiple views for the 3D display are generated in a time-multiplex fashion by the single high speed projector with specially designed optical components, a scanning mirror, and a reflective mirror array. Images of all views are generated sequentially and projected via the specially design optical system from different viewing directions towards a 3D display screen. Therefore, the single projector is able to generate equivalent number of multiview images from multiple viewing directions, thus fulfilling the tasks of multiple projectors. An obvious advantage of the proposed SPM technique is the significant reduction of cost, size, and complexity, especially when the number of views is high. The SPM strategy also alleviates the time-consuming procedures for multi-projector calibration. The design method is flexible and scalable and can accommodate systems with different number of views.

  4. Video lensfree microscopy of 2D and 3D culture of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allier, C. P.; Vinjimore Kesavan, S.; Coutard, J.-G.; Cioni, O.; Momey, F.; Navarro, F.; Menneteau, M.; Chalmond, B.; Obeid, P.; Haguet, V.; David-Watine, B.; Dubrulle, N.; Shorte, S.; van der Sanden, B.; Di Natale, C.; Hamard, L.; Wion, D.; Dolega, M. E.; Picollet-D'hahan, N.; Gidrol, X.; Dinten, J.-M.

    2014-03-01

    Innovative imaging methods are continuously developed to investigate the function of biological systems at the microscopic scale. As an alternative to advanced cell microscopy techniques, we are developing lensfree video microscopy that opens new ranges of capabilities, in particular at the mesoscopic level. Lensfree video microscopy allows the observation of a cell culture in an incubator over a very large field of view (24 mm2) for extended periods of time. As a result, a large set of comprehensive data can be gathered with strong statistics, both in space and time. Video lensfree microscopy can capture images of cells cultured in various physical environments. We emphasize on two different case studies: the quantitative analysis of the spontaneous network formation of HUVEC endothelial cells, and by coupling lensfree microscopy with 3D cell culture in the study of epithelial tissue morphogenesis. In summary, we demonstrate that lensfree video microscopy is a powerful tool to conduct cell assays in 2D and 3D culture experiments. The applications are in the realms of fundamental biology, tissue regeneration, drug development and toxicology studies.

  5. Systems biology in 3D space--enter the morphome.

    PubMed

    Lucocq, John M; Mayhew, Terry M; Schwab, Yannick; Steyer, Anna M; Hacker, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Systems-based understanding of living organisms depends on acquiring huge datasets from arrays of genes, transcripts, proteins, and lipids. These data, referred to as 'omes', are assembled using 'omics' methodologies. Currently a comprehensive, quantitative view of cellular and organellar systems in 3D space at nanoscale/molecular resolution is missing. We introduce here the term 'morphome' for the distribution of living matter within a 3D biological system, and 'morphomics' for methods of collecting 3D data systematically and quantitatively. A sampling-based approach termed stereology currently provides rapid, precise, and minimally biased morphomics. We propose that stereology solves the 'big data' problem posed by emerging wide-scale electron microscopy (EM) and can establish quantitative links between the newer nanoimaging platforms such as electron tomography, cryo-EM, and correlative microscopy.

  6. Transcriptional profiles of valvular interstitial cells cultured on tissue culture polystyrene, on 2D hydrogels, or within 3D hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Mabry, Kelly M.; Payne, Samuel Z.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2015-01-01

    Valvular interstitial cells (VICs) actively maintain and repair heart valve tissue; however, persistent activation of VICs to a myofibroblast phenotype can lead to aortic stenosis (Chen and Simmons, 2011) [1]. To better understand and quantify how microenvironmental cues influence VIC phenotype, we compared expression profiles of VICs cultured on/in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) gels to those cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), as well as fresh isolates. Here, we present both the raw and processed microarray data from these culture conditions. Interpretation of this data can be found in a research article entitled “Microarray analyses to quantify advantages of 2D and 3D hydrogel culture systems in maintaining the native valvular interstitial cell phenotype” (Mabry et al., 2015) [2]. PMID:26702427

  7. NGT-3D: a simple nematode cultivation system to study Caenorhabditis elegans biology in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tong Young; Yoon, Kyoung-hye; Lee, Jin Il

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the premier experimental model organisms today. In the laboratory, they display characteristic development, fertility, and behaviors in a two dimensional habitat. In nature, however, C. elegans is found in three dimensional environments such as rotting fruit. To investigate the biology of C. elegans in a 3D controlled environment we designed a nematode cultivation habitat which we term the nematode growth tube or NGT-3D. NGT-3D allows for the growth of both nematodes and the bacteria they consume. Worms show comparable rates of growth, reproduction and lifespan when bacterial colonies in the 3D matrix are abundant. However, when bacteria are sparse, growth and brood size fail to reach levels observed in standard 2D plates. Using NGT-3D we observe drastic deficits in fertility in a sensory mutant in 3D compared to 2D, and this defect was likely due to an inability to locate bacteria. Overall, NGT-3D will sharpen our understanding of nematode biology and allow scientists to investigate questions of nematode ecology and evolutionary fitness in the laboratory. PMID:26962047

  8. NGT-3D: a simple nematode cultivation system to study Caenorhabditis elegans biology in 3D.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tong Young; Yoon, Kyoung-Hye; Lee, Jin Il

    2016-01-01

    The nematodeCaenorhabditiselegansis one of the premier experimental model organisms today. In the laboratory, they display characteristic development, fertility, and behaviors in a two dimensional habitat. In nature, however,C. elegansis found in three dimensional environments such as rotting fruit. To investigate the biology ofC. elegansin a 3D controlled environment we designed a nematode cultivation habitat which we term the nematode growth tube or NGT-3D. NGT-3D allows for the growth of both nematodes and the bacteria they consume. Worms show comparable rates of growth, reproduction and lifespan when bacterial colonies in the 3D matrix are abundant. However, when bacteria are sparse, growth and brood size fail to reach levels observed in standard 2D plates. Using NGT-3D we observe drastic deficits in fertility in a sensory mutant in 3D compared to 2D, and this defect was likely due to an inability to locate bacteria. Overall, NGT-3D will sharpen our understanding of nematode biology and allow scientists to investigate questions of nematode ecology and evolutionary fitness in the laboratory. PMID:26962047

  9. A Simple Hanging Drop Cell Culture Protocol for Generation of 3D Spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Foty, Ramsey

    2011-01-01

    Studies of cell-cell cohesion and cell-substratum adhesion have historically been performed on monolayer cultures adherent to rigid substrates. Cells within a tissue, however, are typically encased within a closely packed tissue mass in which cells establish intimate connections with many near-neighbors and with extracellular matrix components. Accordingly, the chemical milieu and physical forces experienced by cells within a 3D tissue are fundamentally different than those experienced by cells grown in monolayer culture. This has been shown to markedly impact cellular morphology and signaling. Several methods have been devised to generate 3D cell cultures including encapsulation of cells in collagen gels1or in biomaterial scaffolds2. Such methods, while useful, do not recapitulate the intimate direct cell-cell adhesion architecture found in normal tissues. Rather, they more closely approximate culture systems in which single cells are loosely dispersed within a 3D meshwork of ECM products. Here, we describe a simple method in which cells are placed in hanging drop culture and incubated under physiological conditions until they form true 3D spheroids in which cells are in direct contact with each other and with extracellular matrix components. The method requires no specialized equipment and can be adapted to include addition of any biological agent in very small quantities that may be of interest in elucidating effects on cell-cell or cell-ECM interaction. The method can also be used to co-culture two (or more) different cell populations so as to elucidate the role of cell-cell or cell-ECM interactions in specifying spatial relationships between cells. Cell-cell cohesion and cell-ECM adhesion are the cornerstones of studies of embryonic development, tumor-stromal cell interaction in malignant invasion, wound healing, and for applications to tissue engineering. This simple method will provide a means of generating tissue-like cellular aggregates for measurement of

  10. Mechanically assisted 3D ultrasound guided prostate biopsy system.

    PubMed

    Bax, Jeffrey; Cool, Derek; Gardi, Lori; Knight, Kerry; Smith, David; Montreuil, Jacques; Sherebrin, Shi; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron

    2008-12-01

    There are currently limitations associated with the prostate biopsy procedure, which is the most commonly used method for a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. With the use of two-dimensional (2D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for needle-guidance in this procedure, the physician has restricted anatomical reference points for guiding the needle to target sites. Further, any motion of the physician's hand during the procedure may cause the prostate to move or deform to a prohibitive extent. These variations make it difficult to establish a consistent reference frame for guiding a needle. We have developed a 3D navigation system for prostate biopsy, which addresses these shortcomings. This system is composed of a 3D US imaging subsystem and a passive mechanical arm to minimize prostate motion. To validate our prototype, a series of experiments were performed on prostate phantoms. The 3D scan of the string phantom produced minimal geometric distortions, and the geometric error of the 3D imaging subsystem was 0.37 mm. The accuracy of 3D prostate segmentation was determined by comparing the known volume in a certified phantom to a reconstructed volume generated by our system and was shown to estimate the volume with less then 5% error. Biopsy needle guidance accuracy tests in agar prostate phantoms showed that the mean error was 2.1 mm and the 3D location of the biopsy core was recorded with a mean error of 1.8 mm. In this paper, we describe the mechanical design and validation of the prototype system using an in vitro prostate phantom. Preliminary results from an ongoing clinical trial show that prostate motion is small with an in-plane displacement of less than 1 mm during the biopsy procedure.

  11. The 3D laser radar vision processor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebok, T. M.

    1990-01-01

    Loral Defense Systems (LDS) developed a 3D Laser Radar Vision Processor system capable of detecting, classifying, and identifying small mobile targets as well as larger fixed targets using three dimensional laser radar imagery for use with a robotic type system. This processor system is designed to interface with the NASA Johnson Space Center in-house Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever robot program and provide to it needed information so it can fetch and grasp targets in a space-type scenario.

  12. A 3-D measurement system using object-oriented FORTH

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, K.B.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a system for storing 3-D measurements of points that relates the coordinate system of the measurement device to the global coordinate system. The program described here used object-oriented FORTH to store the measured points as sons of the measuring device location. Conversion of local coordinates to absolute coordinates is performed by passing messages to the point objects. Modifications to the object-oriented FORTH system are also described. 1 ref.

  13. Biomek Cell Workstation: A Flexible System for Automated 3D Cell Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, R; Gallert, C; Roddelkopf, T; Junginger, S; Thurow, K

    2016-08-01

    The shift from 2D cultures to 3D cultures enables improvement in cell culture research due to better mimicking of in vivo cell behavior and environmental conditions. Different cell lines and applications require altered 3D constructs. The automation of the manufacturing and screening processes can advance the charge stability, quality, repeatability, and precision. In this study we integrated the automated production of three 3D cell constructs (alginate beads, spheroid cultures, pellet cultures) using the Biomek Cell Workstation and compared them with the traditional manual methods and their consequent bioscreening processes (proliferation, toxicity; days 14 and 35) using a high-throughput screening system. Moreover, the possible influence of antibiotics (penicillin/streptomycin) on the production and screening processes was investigated. The cytotoxicity of automatically produced 3D cell cultures (with and without antibiotics) was mainly decreased. The proliferation showed mainly similar or increased results for the automatically produced 3D constructs. We concluded that the traditional manual methods can be replaced by the automated processes. Furthermore, the formation, cultivation, and screenings can be performed without antibiotics to prevent possible effects.

  14. 3D-Pathology: a real-time system for quantitative diagnostic pathology and visualisation in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottrup, Christian; Beckett, Mark G.; Hager, Henrik; Locht, Peter

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents the results of the 3D-Pathology project conducted under the European EC Framework 5. The aim of the project was, through the application of 3D image reconstruction and visualization techniques, to improve the diagnostic and prognostic capabilities of medical personnel when analyzing pathological specimens using transmitted light microscopy. A fully automated, computer-controlled microscope system has been developed to capture 3D images of specimen content. 3D image reconstruction algorithms have been implemented and applied to the acquired volume data in order to facilitate the subsequent 3D visualization of the specimen. Three potential application fields, immunohistology, cromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and cytology, have been tested using the prototype system. For both immunohistology and CISH, use of the system furnished significant additional information to the pathologist.

  15. Structured Light-Based 3D Reconstruction System for Plants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy Tuong; Slaughter, David C; Max, Nelson; Maloof, Julin N; Sinha, Neelima

    2015-07-29

    Camera-based 3D reconstruction of physical objects is one of the most popular computer vision trends in recent years. Many systems have been built to model different real-world subjects, but there is lack of a completely robust system for plants. This paper presents a full 3D reconstruction system that incorporates both hardware structures (including the proposed structured light system to enhance textures on object surfaces) and software algorithms (including the proposed 3D point cloud registration and plant feature measurement). This paper demonstrates the ability to produce 3D models of whole plants created from multiple pairs of stereo images taken at different viewing angles, without the need to destructively cut away any parts of a plant. The ability to accurately predict phenotyping features, such as the number of leaves, plant height, leaf size and internode distances, is also demonstrated. Experimental results show that, for plants having a range of leaf sizes and a distance between leaves appropriate for the hardware design, the algorithms successfully predict phenotyping features in the target crops, with a recall of 0.97 and a precision of 0.89 for leaf detection and less than a 13-mm error for plant size, leaf size and internode distance.

  16. Structured Light-Based 3D Reconstruction System for Plants

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thuy Tuong; Slaughter, David C.; Max, Nelson; Maloof, Julin N.; Sinha, Neelima

    2015-01-01

    Camera-based 3D reconstruction of physical objects is one of the most popular computer vision trends in recent years. Many systems have been built to model different real-world subjects, but there is lack of a completely robust system for plants.This paper presents a full 3D reconstruction system that incorporates both hardware structures (including the proposed structured light system to enhance textures on object surfaces) and software algorithms (including the proposed 3D point cloud registration and plant feature measurement). This paper demonstrates the ability to produce 3D models of whole plants created from multiple pairs of stereo images taken at different viewing angles, without the need to destructively cut away any parts of a plant. The ability to accurately predict phenotyping features, such as the number of leaves, plant height, leaf size and internode distances, is also demonstrated. Experimental results show that, for plants having a range of leaf sizes and a distance between leaves appropriate for the hardware design, the algorithms successfully predict phenotyping features in the target crops, with a recall of 0.97 and a precision of 0.89 for leaf detection and less than a 13-mm error for plant size, leaf size and internode distance. PMID:26230701

  17. Visualizing Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems in 3-D

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental modeling community has a long-standing need for affordable, easy-to-use tools that support 3-D visualization of complex spatial and temporal model output. The Visualization of Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems project (VISTAS) aims to help scientists produce effe...

  18. Photo-crosslinkable hydrogel-based 3D microfluidic culture device.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youlee; Lee, Jong Min; Bae, Pan-Kee; Chung, Il Yup; Chung, Bong Hyun; Chung, Bong Geun

    2015-04-01

    We developed the photo-crosslinkable hydrogel-based 3D microfluidic device to culture neural stem cells (NSCs) and tumors. The photo-crosslinkable gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) polymer was used as a physical barrier in the microfluidic device and collagen type I gel was employed to culture NSCs in a 3D manner. We demonstrated that the pore size was inversely proportional to concentrations of GelMA hydrogels, showing the pore sizes of 5 and 25 w/v% GelMA hydrogels were 34 and 4 μm, respectively. It also revealed that the morphology of pores in 5 w/v% GelMA hydrogels was elliptical shape, whereas we observed circular-shaped pores in 25 w/v% GelMA hydrogels. To culture NSCs and tumors in the 3D microfluidic device, we investigated the molecular diffusion properties across GelMA hydrogels, indicating that 25 w/v% GelMA hydrogels inhibited the molecular diffusion for 6 days in the 3D microfluidic device. In contrast, the chemicals were diffused in 5 w/v% GelMA hydrogels. Finally, we cultured NSCs and tumors in the hydrogel-based 3D microfluidic device, showing that 53-75% NSCs differentiated into neurons, while tumors were cultured in the collagen gels. Therefore, this photo-crosslinkable hydrogel-based 3D microfluidic culture device could be a potentially powerful tool for regenerative tissue engineering applications.

  19. Robust 3D reconstruction system for human jaw modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamany, Sameh M.; Farag, Aly A.; Tazman, David; Farman, Allan G.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a model-based vision system for dentistry that will replace traditional approaches used in diagnosis, treatment planning and surgical simulation. Dentistry requires accurate 3D representation of the teeth and jaws for many diagnostic and treatment purposes. For example orthodontic treatment involves the application of force systems to teeth over time to correct malocclusion. In order to evaluate tooth movement progress, the orthodontists monitors this movement by means of visual inspection, intraoral measurements, fabrication of plastic models, photographs and radiographs, a process which is both costly and time consuming. In this paper an integrate system has been developed to record the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data is acquired with an intraoral video camera. A modified shape from shading (SFS) technique, using perspective projection and camera calibration, is used to extract accurate 3D information from a sequence of 2D images of the jaw. A new technique for 3D data registration, using a Grid Closest Point transform and genetic algorithms, is used to register the SFS output. Triangulization is then performed, and a solid 3D model is obtained via a rapid prototype machine.

  20. Panoramic, large-screen, 3-D flight display system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Henry; Larson, Brent; Johnson, Michael; Droessler, Justin; Reinhart, William F.

    1995-01-01

    The report documents and summarizes the results of the required evaluations specified in the SOW and the design specifications for the selected display system hardware. Also included are the proposed development plan and schedule as well as the estimated rough order of magnitude (ROM) cost to design, fabricate, and demonstrate a flyable prototype research flight display system. The thrust of the effort was development of a complete understanding of the user/system requirements for a panoramic, collimated, 3-D flyable avionic display system and the translation of the requirements into an acceptable system design for fabrication and demonstration of a prototype display in the early 1997 time frame. Eleven display system design concepts were presented to NASA LaRC during the program, one of which was down-selected to a preferred display system concept. A set of preliminary display requirements was formulated. The state of the art in image source technology, 3-D methods, collimation methods, and interaction methods for a panoramic, 3-D flight display system were reviewed in depth and evaluated. Display technology improvements and risk reductions associated with maturity of the technologies for the preferred display system design concept were identified.

  1. Advanced system for 3D dental anatomy reconstruction and 3D tooth movement simulation during orthodontic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monserrat, Carlos; Alcaniz-Raya, Mariano L.; Juan, M. Carmen; Grau Colomer, Vincente; Albalat, Salvador E.

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes a new method for 3D orthodontics treatment simulation developed for an orthodontics planning system (MAGALLANES). We develop an original system for 3D capturing and reconstruction of dental anatomy that avoid use of dental casts in orthodontic treatments. Two original techniques are presented, one direct in which data are acquired directly form patient's mouth by mean of low cost 3D digitizers, and one mixed in which data are obtained by 3D digitizing of hydrocollids molds. FOr this purpose we have designed and manufactured an optimized optical measuring system based on laser structured light. We apply these 3D dental models to simulate 3D movement of teeth, including rotations, during orthodontic treatment. The proposed algorithms enable to quantify the effect of orthodontic appliance on tooth movement. The developed techniques has been integrated in a system named MAGALLANES. This original system present several tools for 3D simulation and planning of orthodontic treatments. The prototype system has been tested in several orthodontic clinic with very good results.

  2. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  3. 3D vision system for intelligent milking robot automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhloufi, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    In a milking robot, the correct localization and positioning of milking teat cups is of very high importance. The milking robots technology has not changed since a decade and is based primarily on laser profiles for teats approximate positions estimation. This technology has reached its limit and does not allow optimal positioning of the milking cups. Also, in the presence of occlusions, the milking robot fails to milk the cow. These problems, have economic consequences for producers and animal health (e.g. development of mastitis). To overcome the limitations of current robots, we have developed a new system based on 3D vision, capable of efficiently positioning the milking cups. A prototype of an intelligent robot system based on 3D vision for real-time positioning of a milking robot has been built and tested under various conditions on a synthetic udder model (in static and moving scenarios). Experimental tests, were performed using 3D Time-Of-Flight (TOF) and RGBD cameras. The proposed algorithms permit the online segmentation of teats by combing 2D and 3D visual information. The obtained results permit the teat 3D position computation. This information is then sent to the milking robot for teat cups positioning. The vision system has a real-time performance and monitors the optimal positioning of the cups even in the presence of motion. The obtained results, with both TOF and RGBD cameras, show the good performance of the proposed system. The best performance was obtained with RGBD cameras. This latter technology will be used in future real life experimental tests.

  4. Measurement system for 3-D foot coordinates and parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guozhong; Li, Yunhui; Wang, Boxiong; Shi, Hui; Luo, Xiuzhi

    2008-12-01

    The 3-D foot-shape measurement system based on laser-line-scanning principle and the model of the measurement system were presented. Errors caused by nonlinearity of CCD cameras and caused by installation can be eliminated by using the global calibration method for CCD cameras, which based on nonlinear coordinate mapping function and the optimized method. A local foot coordinate system is defined with the Pternion and the Acropodion extracted from the boundaries of foot projections. The characteristic points can thus be located and foot parameters be extracted automatically by the local foot coordinate system and the related sections. Foot measurements for about 200 participants were conducted and the measurement results for male and female participants were presented. 3-D foot coordinates and parameters measurement makes it possible to realize custom-made shoe-making and shows great prosperity in shoe design, foot orthopaedic treatment, shoe size standardization, and establishment of a feet database for consumers.

  5. Effect of Blood Volume in Standard Anaerobic Blood Culture Bottles of the BacT/ALERT 3D System Used for the Detection of Pathogens and Time to Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Chun; Kim, Sunjoo; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Choi, Sae-Rom; Kim, Jeong-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood volume may profoundly affect the isolation of microorganisms in blood cultures. The effect of blood volume in standard anaerobic bottles of the BacT/ALERT 3D system was investigated. Methods Adult patients who visited the emergency department and referred for blood culture (n = 824) were enrolled from June to September 2013. Two sets of blood cultures were obtained from each patient. One set consisted of 5 mL that was collected in a standard aerobic bottle (SA5), 5 mL that was collected in a standard anaerobic bottle (SN5), and 10 mL that was collected in a standard anaerobic bottle (SN10). The growth of clinically significant pathogens and the time to detection (TTD) were compared between the SN5 and SN10 samples. Results Increasing the volume of blood collected from 5 to 10 mL yielded a 14.7% improvement in the isolation of microorganisms. There was a statistically significant difference in the isolation of pathogens (14 vs. 30, P = 0.023) between the SN5 and SN10 samples. Gram-positive microorganisms were detected earlier in the SN10 samples than the SN5 samples (P = 0.052). The mean TTD of all pathogens was 13.5 h for the SN5 samples and 12.9 h for the SN10 samples (P = 0.099). Conclusion Increased blood volume in the SN bottle yielded a significantly higher pathogen detection rate. However, there was no difference in the frequency of earlier detection or TTD between the SN5 and SN10 samples. PMID:25646758

  6. Development of an advanced 3D cone beam tomographic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sire, Pascal; Rizo, Philippe; Martin, M.; Grangeat, Pierre; Morisseau, P.

    Due to its high spatial resolution, the 3D X-ray cone-beam tomograph (CT) maximizes understanding of test object microstructure. In order for the present X-ray CT NDT system to control ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites, its spatial resolution must exceed 50 microns. Attention is given to two experimental data reconstructions that have been conducted to illustrate system capabilities.

  7. Peptide Hydrogelation and Cell Encapsulation for 3D Culture of MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiuzhi S.; Nguyen, Thu A.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture plays an invaluable role in tumor biology by providing in vivo like microenviroment and responses to therapeutic agents. Among many established 3D scaffolds, hydrogels demonstrate a distinct property as matrics for 3D cell culture. Most of the existing pre-gel solutions are limited under physiological conditions such as undesirable pH or temperature. Here, we report a peptide hydrogel that shows superior physiological properties as an in vitro matrix for 3D cell culture. The 3D matrix can be accomplished by mixing a self-assembling peptide directly with a cell culture medium without any pH or temperature adjustment. Results of dynamic rheological studies showed that this hydrogel can be delivered multiple times via pipetting without permanently destroying the hydrogel architecture, indicating the deformability and remodeling ability of the hydrogel. Human epithelial cancer cells, MCF-7, are encapsulated homogeneously in the hydrogel matrix during hydrogelation. Compared with two-dimensional (2D) monolayer culture, cells residing in the hydrogel matrix grow as tumor-like clusters in 3D formation. Relevant parameters related to cell morphology, survival, proliferation, and apoptosis were analyzed using MCF-7 cells in 3D hydrogels. Interestingly, treatment of cisplatin, an anti-cancer drug, can cause a significant decrease of cell viability of MCF-7 clusters in hydrogels. The responses to cisplatin were dose- and time-dependent, indicating the potential usage of hydrogels for drug testing. Results of confocal microscopy and Western blotting showed that cells isolated from hydrogels are suitable for downstream proteomic analysis. The results provided evidence that this peptide hydrogel is a promising 3D cell culture material for drug testing. PMID:23527204

  8. 3D gel printing for soft-matter systems innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Kawakami, Masaru; Gong, Jin; Makino, Masato; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Saito, Azusa

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, several high-strength gels have been developed, especially from Japan. These gels are expected to use as a kind of new engineering materials in the fields of industry and medical as substitutes to polyester fibers, which are materials of artificial blood vessels. We consider if various gel materials including such high-strength gels are 3D-printable, many new soft and wet systems will be developed since the most intricate shape gels can be printed regardless of the quite softness and brittleness of gels. Recently we have tried to develop an optical 3D gel printer to realize the free-form formation of gel materials. We named this apparatus Easy Realizer of Soft and Wet Industrial Materials (SWIM-ER). The SWIM-ER will be applied to print bespoke artificial organs, including artificial blood vessels, which will be possibly used for both surgery trainings and actual surgery. The SWIM-ER can print one of the world strongest gels, called Double-Network (DN) gels, by using UV irradiation through an optical fiber. Now we also are developing another type of 3D gel printer for foods, named E-Chef. We believe these new 3D gel printers will broaden the applications of soft-matter gels.

  9. Calcium signaling in response to fluid flow by chondrocytes in 3D alginate culture.

    PubMed

    Degala, Satish; Williams, Rebecca; Zipfel, Warren; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2012-05-01

    Quantifying the effects of mechanical loading on the metabolic response of chondrocytes is difficult due to complicated structure of cartilage ECM and the coupled nature of the mechanical stimuli presented to the cells. In this study we describe the effects of fluid flow, particularly hydrostatic pressure and wall shear stress, on the Ca(2+) signaling response of bovine articular chondrocytes in 3D culture. Using well-established alginate hydrogel system to maintain spherical chondrocyte morphology, we altered solid volume fraction to change scaffold mechanics. Fluid velocities in the bulk of the scaffolds were directly measured via an optical technique and scaffold permeability and aggregate modulus was characterized to quantify the mechanical stimuli presented to cells. Ca(2+) signaling response to direct perfusion of chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds increased monotonically with flow rate and was found more directly dependent on fluid velocity rather than shear stress or hydrostatic pressure. Chondrocytes in alginate scaffolds responded to fluid flow at velocities and shear stresses 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than seen in previous monolayer studies. Our data suggest that flow-induced Ca(2+) signaling response of chondrocytes in alginate culture may be due to mechanical signaling pathways, which is influenced by the 3D nature of cell shape.

  10. a Semi-Automated Point Cloud Processing Methodology for 3d Cultural Heritage Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kıvılcım, C. Ö.; Duran, Z.

    2016-06-01

    The preliminary phase in any architectural heritage project is to obtain metric measurements and documentation of the building and its individual elements. On the other hand, conventional measurement techniques require tremendous resources and lengthy project completion times for architectural surveys and 3D model production. Over the past two decades, the widespread use of laser scanning and digital photogrammetry have significantly altered the heritage documentation process. Furthermore, advances in these technologies have enabled robust data collection and reduced user workload for generating various levels of products, from single buildings to expansive cityscapes. More recently, the use of procedural modelling methods and BIM relevant applications for historic building documentation purposes has become an active area of research, however fully automated systems in cultural heritage documentation still remains open. In this paper, we present a semi-automated methodology, for 3D façade modelling of cultural heritage assets based on parametric and procedural modelling techniques and using airborne and terrestrial laser scanning data. We present the contribution of our methodology, which we implemented in an open source software environment using the example project of a 16th century early classical era Ottoman structure, Sinan the Architect's Şehzade Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey.

  11. Advancements in 3D Structural Analysis of Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E; Mayhew, Brett; McNamara, David

    2013-06-23

    Robust geothermal activity in the Great Basin, USA is a product of both anomalously high regional heat flow and active fault-controlled extension. Elevated permeability associated with some fault systems provides pathways for circulation of geothermal fluids. Constraining the local-scale 3D geometry of these structures and their roles as fluid flow conduits is crucial in order to mitigate both the costs and risks of geothermal exploration and to identify blind (no surface expression) geothermal resources. Ongoing studies have indicated that much of the robust geothermal activity in the Great Basin is associated with high density faulting at structurally complex fault intersection/interaction areas, such as accommodation/transfer zones between discrete fault systems, step-overs or relay ramps in fault systems, intersection zones between faults with different strikes or different senses of slip, and horse-tailing fault terminations. These conceptualized models are crucial for locating and characterizing geothermal systems in a regional context. At the local scale, however, pinpointing drilling targets and characterizing resource potential within known or probable geothermal areas requires precise 3D characterization of the system. Employing a variety of surface and subsurface data sets, we have conducted detailed 3D geologic analyses of two Great Basin geothermal systems. Using EarthVision (Dynamic Graphics Inc., Alameda, CA) we constructed 3D geologic models of both the actively producing Brady’s geothermal system and a ‘greenfield’ geothermal prospect at Astor Pass, NV. These 3D models allow spatial comparison of disparate data sets in 3D and are the basis for quantitative structural analyses that can aid geothermal resource assessment and be used to pinpoint discrete drilling targets. The relatively abundant data set at Brady’s, ~80 km NE of Reno, NV, includes 24 wells with lithologies interpreted from careful analysis of cuttings and core, a 1

  12. Chemotherapeutic efficiency of drugs in vitro: Comparison of doxorubicin exposure in 3D and 2D culture matrices.

    PubMed

    Casey, A; Gargotti, M; Bonnier, F; Byrne, H J

    2016-06-01

    The interest in the use of 3D matrices for in vitro analysis, with a view to increasing the relevance of in vitro studies and reducing the dependence on in vivo studies, has been growing in recent years. Cells grown in a 3D in vitro matrix environment have been reported to exhibit significantly different properties to those in a conventional 2D culture environment. However, comparison of 2D and 3D cell culture models have recently been noted to result in differing responses of cytotoxic assays, without any associated change in viability. The effect was attributed to differing conversion rates and effective concentrations of the resazurin assay in 2D and 3D environments, rather than differences in cellular metabolism. In this study, the efficacy of a chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin, is monitored and compared in conventional 2D and 3D collagen gel exposures of immortalized human cervical cells. Viability was monitored with the aid of the Alamar Blue assay and drug internalisation was verified using confocal microscopy. Drug uptake and retention within the collagen matrix was monitored by absorption spectroscopy. The viability studies showed apparent differences between the 2D and 3D culture systems, the differences attributed in part to the physical transition from 2D to a 3D environment causing alterations to dye resazurin uptake and conversion rates. The use of 3D culture matrices has widely been interpreted to result in "reduced" toxicity or cellular "resistance" to the chemotherapeutic agent. The results of this study show that the reduced efficiency of the drug to cells grown in the 3D environment can be accounted for by a sequential reduction of the effective concentration of the test compound and assay. This is due to absorption within the collagen gel inducing a higher uptake of both drug and assay thereby influencing the toxic impact of the drug and conversion rate of resazurin, and. The increased effective surface area of the cell exposed to the drug

  13. Modelling of 3D fractured geological systems - technique and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacace, M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Cherubini, Y.; Kaiser, B. O.; Bloecher, G.

    2011-12-01

    All rocks in the earth's crust are fractured to some extent. Faults and fractures are important in different scientific and industry fields comprising engineering, geotechnical and hydrogeological applications. Many petroleum, gas and geothermal and water supply reservoirs form in faulted and fractured geological systems. Additionally, faults and fractures may control the transport of chemical contaminants into and through the subsurface. Depending on their origin and orientation with respect to the recent and palaeo stress field as well as on the overall kinematics of chemical processes occurring within them, faults and fractures can act either as hydraulic conductors providing preferential pathways for fluid to flow or as barriers preventing flow across them. The main challenge in modelling processes occurring in fractured rocks is related to the way of describing the heterogeneities of such geological systems. Flow paths are controlled by the geometry of faults and their open void space. To correctly simulate these processes an adequate 3D mesh is a basic requirement. Unfortunately, the representation of realistic 3D geological environments is limited by the complexity of embedded fracture networks often resulting in oversimplified models of the natural system. A technical description of an improved method to integrate generic dipping structures (representing faults and fractures) into a 3D porous medium is out forward. The automated mesh generation algorithm is composed of various existing routines from computational geometry (e.g. 2D-3D projection, interpolation, intersection, convex hull calculation) and meshing (e.g. triangulation in 2D and tetrahedralization in 3D). All routines have been combined in an automated software framework and the robustness of the approach has been tested and verified. These techniques and methods can be applied for fractured porous media including fault systems and therefore found wide applications in different geo-energy related

  14. Laboratory 3D Micro-XRF/Micro-CT Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruyndonckx, P.; Sasov, A.; Liu, X.

    2011-09-01

    A prototype micro-XRF laboratory system based on pinhole imaging was developed to produce 3D elemental maps. The fluorescence x-rays are detected by a deep-depleted CCD camera operating in photon-counting mode. A charge-clustering algorithm, together with dynamically adjusted exposure times, ensures a correct energy measurement. The XRF component has a spatial resolution of 70 μm and an energy resolution of 180 eV at 6.4 keV. The system is augmented by a micro-CT imaging modality. This is used for attenuation correction of the XRF images and to co-register features in the 3D XRF images with morphological structures visible in the volumetric CT images of the object.

  15. 3D Culture Assays of Murine Mammary Branching Morphogenesis and Epithelial Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Ngoc, Kim-Vy; Shamir, Eliah R.; Huebner, Robert J.; Beck, Jennifer N.; Cheung, Kevin J.; Ewald, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelia are fundamental tissues that line cavities, glands, and outer body surfaces. We use three-dimensional (3D) embedded culture of primary murine mammary epithelial ducts, called “organoids,” to recapitulate in days in culture epithelial programs that occur over weeks deep within the body. Modulating the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) allows us to model cell- and tissue-level behaviors observed in normal development, such as branching morphogenesis, and in cancer, such as invasion and dissemination. Here, we describe a collection of protocols for 3D culture of mammary organoids in different ECMs and for immunofluorescence staining of 3D culture samples and mammary gland tissue sections. We illustrate expected phenotypic outcomes of each assay and provide troubleshooting tips for commonly encountered technical problems. PMID:25245692

  16. In vivo biomarker expression patterns are preserved in 3D cultures of Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Windus, Louisa C.E.; Kiss, Debra L.; Glover, Tristan; Avery, Vicky M.

    2012-11-15

    Here we report that Prostate Cancer (PCa) cell-lines DU145, PC3, LNCaP and RWPE-1 grown in 3D matrices in contrast to conventional 2D monolayers, display distinct differences in cell morphology, proliferation and expression of important biomarker proteins associated with cancer progression. Consistent with in vivo growth rates, in 3D cultures, all PCa cell-lines were found to proliferate at significantly lower rates in comparison to their 2D counterparts. Moreover, when grown in a 3D matrix, metastatic PC3 cell-lines were found to mimic more precisely protein expression patterns of metastatic tumour formation as found in vivo. In comparison to the prostate epithelial cell-line RWPE-1, metastatic PC3 cell-lines exhibited a down-regulation of E-cadherin and {alpha}6 integrin expression and an up-regulation of N-cadherin, Vimentin and {beta}1 integrin expression and re-expressed non-transcriptionally active AR. In comparison to the non-invasive LNCaP cell-lines, PC3 cells were found to have an up-regulation of chemokine receptor CXCR4, consistent with a metastatic phenotype. In 2D cultures, there was little distinction in protein expression between metastatic, non-invasive and epithelial cells. These results suggest that 3D cultures are more representative of in vivo morphology and may serve as a more biologically relevant model in the drug discovery pipeline. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed and optimised 3D culturing techniques for Prostate Cancer cell-lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated biomarker expression in 2D versus 3D culture techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metastatic PC3 cells re-expressed non-transcriptionally active androgen receptor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metastatic PCa cell lines retain in vivo-like antigenic profiles in 3D cultures.

  17. Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform with spatial data and query processing capabilities of geographic information systems, multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized directional replacement policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in digital surface modeling and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g., X3-D and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.

  18. 3D-LZ helicopter ladar imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, James; Harrington, Walter; McKinley, R. Andrew; Burns, H. N.; Braddom, Steven; Szoboszlay, Zoltan

    2010-04-01

    A joint-service team led by the Air Force Research Laboratory's Munitions and Sensors Directorates completed a successful flight test demonstration of the 3D-LZ Helicopter LADAR Imaging System. This was a milestone demonstration in the development of technology solutions for a problem known as "helicopter brownout", the loss of situational awareness caused by swirling sand during approach and landing. The 3D-LZ LADAR was developed by H.N. Burns Engineering and integrated with the US Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate's Brown-Out Symbology System aircraft state symbology aboard a US Army EH-60 Black Hawk helicopter. The combination of these systems provided an integrated degraded visual environment landing solution with landing zone situational awareness as well as aircraft guidance and obstacle avoidance information. Pilots from the U.S. Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps achieved a 77% landing rate in full brownout conditions at a test range at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. This paper will focus on the LADAR technology used in 3D-LZ and the results of this milestone demonstration.

  19. 3D temperature field reconstruction using ultrasound sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuqian; Ma, Tong; Cao, Chengyu; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-04-01

    3D temperature field reconstruction is of practical interest to the power, transportation and aviation industries and it also opens up opportunities for real time control or optimization of high temperature fluid or combustion process. In our paper, a new distributed optical fiber sensing system consisting of a series of elements will be used to generate and receive acoustic signals. This system is the first active temperature field sensing system that features the advantages of the optical fiber sensors (distributed sensing capability) and the acoustic sensors (non-contact measurement). Signals along multiple paths will be measured simultaneously enabled by a code division multiple access (CDMA) technique. Then a proposed Gaussian Radial Basis Functions (GRBF)-based approach can approximate the temperature field as a finite summation of space-dependent basis functions and time-dependent coefficients. The travel time of the acoustic signals depends on the temperature of the media. On this basis, the Gaussian functions are integrated along a number of paths which are determined by the number and distribution of sensors. The inversion problem to estimate the unknown parameters of the Gaussian functions can be solved with the measured times-of-flight (ToF) of acoustic waves and the length of propagation paths using the recursive least square method (RLS). The simulation results show an approximation error less than 2% in 2D and 5% in 3D respectively. It demonstrates the availability and efficiency of our proposed 3D temperature field reconstruction mechanism.

  20. 3D culture broadly regulates tumor cell hypoxia response and angiogenesis via pro-inflammatory pathways

    PubMed Central

    DelNero, Peter; Lane, Maureen; Verbridge, Scott S.; Kwee, Brian; Kermani, Pouneh; Hempstead, Barbara; Stroock, Abraham; Fischbach, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen status and tissue dimensionality are critical determinants of tumor angiogenesis, a hallmark of cancer and an enduring target for therapeutic intervention. However, it is unclear how these microenvironmental conditions interact to promote neovascularization, due in part to a lack of comprehensive, unbiased data sets describing tumor cell gene expression as a function of oxygen levels within three-dimensional (3D) culture. Here, we utilized alginate-based, oxygen-controlled 3D tumor models to study the interdependence of culture context and the hypoxia response. Microarray gene expression analysis of tumor cells cultured in 2D versus 3D under ambient or hypoxic conditions revealed striking interdependence between culture dimensionality and hypoxia response, which was mediated in part by pro-inflammatory signaling pathways. In particular, interleukin-8 (IL-8) emerged as a major player in the microenvironmental regulation of the hypoxia program. Notably, this interaction between dimensionality and oxygen status via IL-8 increased angiogenic sprouting in a 3D endothelial invasion assay. Taken together, our data suggest that pro-inflammatory pathways are critical regulators of tumor hypoxia response within 3D environments that ultimately impact tumor angiogenesis, potentially providing important therapeutic targets. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of pathologically relevant tissue culture models to study the complex physical and chemical processes by which the cancer microenvironment mediates new vessel formation. PMID:25934456

  1. 3D culture broadly regulates tumor cell hypoxia response and angiogenesis via pro-inflammatory pathways.

    PubMed

    DelNero, Peter; Lane, Maureen; Verbridge, Scott S; Kwee, Brian; Kermani, Pouneh; Hempstead, Barbara; Stroock, Abraham; Fischbach, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    Oxygen status and tissue dimensionality are critical determinants of tumor angiogenesis, a hallmark of cancer and an enduring target for therapeutic intervention. However, it is unclear how these microenvironmental conditions interact to promote neovascularization, due in part to a lack of comprehensive, unbiased data sets describing tumor cell gene expression as a function of oxygen levels within three-dimensional (3D) culture. Here, we utilized alginate-based, oxygen-controlled 3D tumor models to study the interdependence of culture context and the hypoxia response. Microarray gene expression analysis of tumor cells cultured in 2D versus 3D under ambient or hypoxic conditions revealed striking interdependence between culture dimensionality and hypoxia response, which was mediated in part by pro-inflammatory signaling pathways. In particular, interleukin-8 (IL-8) emerged as a major player in the microenvironmental regulation of the hypoxia program. Notably, this interaction between dimensionality and oxygen status via IL-8 increased angiogenic sprouting in a 3D endothelial invasion assay. Taken together, our data suggest that pro-inflammatory pathways are critical regulators of tumor hypoxia response within 3D environments that ultimately impact tumor angiogenesis, potentially providing important therapeutic targets. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of pathologically relevant tissue culture models to study the complex physical and chemical processes by which the cancer microenvironment mediates new vessel formation.

  2. 3D Modeling from Multi-views Images for Cultural Heritage in Wat-Pho, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soontranon, N.; Srestasathiern, P.; Lawawirojwong, S.

    2015-08-01

    In Thailand, there are several types of (tangible) cultural heritages. This work focuses on 3D modeling of the heritage objects from multi-views images. The images are acquired by using a DSLR camera which costs around 1,500 (camera and lens). Comparing with a 3D laser scanner, the camera is cheaper and lighter than the 3D scanner. Hence, the camera is available for public users and convenient for accessing narrow areas. The acquired images consist of various sculptures and architectures in Wat-Pho which is a Buddhist temple located behind the Grand Palace (Bangkok, Thailand). Wat-Pho is known as temple of the reclining Buddha and the birthplace of traditional Thai massage. To compute the 3D models, a diagram is separated into following steps; Data acquisition, Image matching, Image calibration and orientation, Dense matching and Point cloud processing. For the initial work, small heritages less than 3 meters height are considered for the experimental results. A set of multi-views images of an interested object is used as input data for 3D modeling. In our experiments, 3D models are obtained from MICMAC (open source) software developed by IGN, France. The output of 3D models will be represented by using standard formats of 3D point clouds and triangulated surfaces such as .ply, .off, .obj, etc. To compute for the efficient 3D models, post-processing techniques are required for the final results e.g. noise reduction, surface simplification and reconstruction. The reconstructed 3D models can be provided for public access such as website, DVD, printed materials. The high accurate 3D models can also be used as reference data of the heritage objects that must be restored due to deterioration of a lifetime, natural disasters, etc.

  3. FROMS3D: New Software for 3-D Visualization of Fracture Network System in Fractured Rock Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Y. H.; Um, J. G.; Choi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    A new software (FROMS3D) is presented to visualize fracture network system in 3-D. The software consists of several modules that play roles in management of borehole and field fracture data, fracture network modelling, visualization of fracture geometry in 3-D and calculation and visualization of intersections and equivalent pipes between fractures. Intel Parallel Studio XE 2013, Visual Studio.NET 2010 and the open source VTK library were utilized as development tools to efficiently implement the modules and the graphical user interface of the software. The results have suggested that the developed software is effective in visualizing 3-D fracture network system, and can provide useful information to tackle the engineering geological problems related to strength, deformability and hydraulic behaviors of the fractured rock masses.

  4. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.B.; Simonson, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  5. Inspection, 3D modelling, and rapid prototyping of cultural heritage by means of a 3D optical digitiser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docchio, F.; Sansoni, G.; Trebeschi, M.

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents the activity carried out to perform the three-dimensional acquisition of the "Vittoria Alata", a 2m-high, bronze statue, symbol of our City, located at the Civici Musei di Arte e Storia (S. Giulia) of Brescia. The acquisition of the statue has been performed by using a three-dimensional vision system based on active triangulation and on the projection of non-coherent light. This system, called OPL-3D, represents one of the research products of our Laboratory, which has been active for years in the development of techniques and systems for the contactless acquisition of free-form, complex shapes. The study, originally motivated by the need to explore a new hypothesis on the origin of the "Vittoria Alata", led to its complete digitization and description in terms of both polygonal and NURBS-based models. A suite of copies of the whole statue has been obtained in the framework of the collaboration between the City Museum and the EOS Electro Optical Systems GmbH, located in Munich, Germany. As a first step, one 30 cm-high replica of the whole statue has been produced using a low-resolution triangle model of the statue (3.5 millions of triangles). As a second step, two 1:1 scale copies of the statue have been produced. For them, the Laboratory has provided the high resolution STL file (16 millions of triangles). The paper discusses in detail the hardware and the software facilities used to implement the whole process, and gives a comprehensive description of the results.

  6. Imaging of Metabolic Status in 3D Cultures with an Improved AMPK FRET Biosensor for FLIM.

    PubMed

    Chennell, George; Willows, Robin J W; Warren, Sean C; Carling, David; French, Paul M W; Dunsby, Chris; Sardini, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We describe an approach to non-invasively map spatiotemporal biochemical and physiological changes in 3D cell culture using Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) biosensors expressed in tumour spheroids. In particular, we present an improved Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP) Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) FRET biosensor, mTurquoise2 AMPK Activity Reporter (T2AMPKAR), for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) readouts that we have evaluated in 2D and 3D cultures. Our results in 2D cell culture indicate that replacing the FRET donor, enhanced Cyan Fluorescent Protein (ECFP), in the original FRET biosensor, AMPK activity reporter (AMPKAR), with mTurquoise2 (mTq2FP), increases the dynamic range of the response to activation of AMPK, as demonstrated using the direct AMPK activator, 991. We demonstrated 3D FLIM of this T2AMPKAR FRET biosensor expressed in tumour spheroids using two-photon excitation. PMID:27548185

  7. Imaging of Metabolic Status in 3D Cultures with an Improved AMPK FRET Biosensor for FLIM

    PubMed Central

    Chennell, George; Willows, Robin J. W.; Warren, Sean C.; Carling, David; French, Paul M. W.; Dunsby, Chris; Sardini, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We describe an approach to non-invasively map spatiotemporal biochemical and physiological changes in 3D cell culture using Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) biosensors expressed in tumour spheroids. In particular, we present an improved Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP) Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) FRET biosensor, mTurquoise2 AMPK Activity Reporter (T2AMPKAR), for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) readouts that we have evaluated in 2D and 3D cultures. Our results in 2D cell culture indicate that replacing the FRET donor, enhanced Cyan Fluorescent Protein (ECFP), in the original FRET biosensor, AMPK activity reporter (AMPKAR), with mTurquoise2 (mTq2FP), increases the dynamic range of the response to activation of AMPK, as demonstrated using the direct AMPK activator, 991. We demonstrated 3D FLIM of this T2AMPKAR FRET biosensor expressed in tumour spheroids using two-photon excitation. PMID:27548185

  8. User-Appropriate Viewer for High Resolution Interactive Engagement with 3d Digital Cultural Artefacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, D.; La Pensée, A.; Cooper, M.

    2013-07-01

    Three dimensional (3D) laser scanning is an important documentation technique for cultural heritage. This technology has been adopted from the engineering and aeronautical industry and is an invaluable tool for the documentation of objects within museum collections (La Pensée, 2008). The datasets created via close range laser scanning are extremely accurate and the created 3D dataset allows for a more detailed analysis in comparison to other documentation technologies such as photography. The dataset can be used for a range of different applications including: documentation; archiving; surface monitoring; replication; gallery interactives; educational sessions; conservation and visualization. However, the novel nature of a 3D dataset is presenting a rather unique challenge with respect to its sharing and dissemination. This is in part due to the need for specialised 3D software and a supported graphics card to display high resolution 3D models. This can be detrimental to one of the main goals of cultural institutions, which is to share knowledge and enable activities such as research, education and entertainment. This has limited the presentation of 3D models of cultural heritage objects to mainly either images or videos. Yet with recent developments in computer graphics, increased internet speed and emerging technologies such as Adobe's Stage 3D (Adobe, 2013) and WebGL (Khronos, 2013), it is now possible to share a dataset directly within a webpage. This allows website visitors to interact with the 3D dataset allowing them to explore every angle of the object, gaining an insight into its shape and nature. This can be very important considering that it is difficult to offer the same level of understanding of the object through the use of traditional mediums such as photographs and videos. Yet this presents a range of problems: this is a very novel experience and very few people have engaged with 3D objects outside of 3D software packages or games. This paper

  9. Assessing Drug Efficacy in a Miniaturized Pancreatic Cancer In Vitro 3D Cell Culture Model.

    PubMed

    Shelper, Todd B; Lovitt, Carrie J; Avery, Vicky M

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer continues to have one of the poorest prognoses among all cancers. The drug discovery efforts for this disease have largely failed, with no significant improvement in survival outcomes for advanced pancreatic cancer patients over the past 20 years. Traditional in vitro cell culture techniques have been used extensively in both basic and early drug discovery; however, these systems offer poor models to assess emerging therapeutics. More predictive cell-based models, which better capture the cellular heterogeneity and complexities of solid pancreatic tumors, are urgently needed not only to improve drug discovery success but also to provide insight into the tumor biology. Pancreatic tumors are characterized by a unique micro-environment that is surrounded by a dense stroma. A complex network of interactions between extracellular matrix (ECM) components and the effects of cell-to-cell contacts may enhance survival pathways within in vivo tumors. This biological and physical complexity is lost in traditional cell monolayer models. To explore the predictive potential of a more complex cellular system, a three-dimensional (3D) micro-tumor assay was evaluated. Efficacy of six current chemotherapeutics was determined against a panel of primary and metastatic pancreatic tumor cell lines in a miniaturized ECM-based 3D cell culture system. Suitability for potential use in high-throughput screening applications was assessed, including ascertaining the effects that miniaturization and automation had on assay robustness. Cellular health was determined by utilizing an indirect population-based metabolic activity assay and a direct imaging-based cell viability assay. PMID:27552143

  10. 3D laser optoacoustic ultrasonic imaging system for preclinical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermilov, Sergey A.; Conjusteau, André; Hernandez, Travis; Su, Richard; Nadvoretskiy, Vyacheslav; Tsyboulski, Dmitri; Anis, Fatima; Anastasio, Mark A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we introduce a novel three-dimensional imaging system for in vivo high-resolution anatomical and functional whole-body visualization of small animal models developed for preclinical or other type of biomedical research. The system (LOUIS-3DM) combines a multi-wavelength optoacoustic and ultrawide-band laser ultrasound tomographies to obtain coregistered maps of tissue optical absorption and acoustic properties, displayed within the skin outline of the studied animal. The most promising applications of the LOUIS-3DM include 3D angiography, cancer research, and longitudinal studies of biological distribution of optoacoustic contrast agents (carbon nanotubes, metal plasmonic nanoparticles, etc.).

  11. Facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairunnisaa, Aida; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yazid, Haniza; Basri, Hassrizal Hassan; Yaacob, Sazali; Chin, Lim Chee

    2015-05-01

    The diagnostic process of facial paralysis requires qualitative assessment for the classification and treatment planning. This result is inconsistent assessment that potential affect treatment planning. We developed a facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction of RGB and depth data using a standard structured-light camera - Kinect 360 - and implementation of Active Appearance Models (AAM). We also proposed a quantitative assessment for facial paralysis based on triangular model. In this paper, we report on the design and development process, including preliminary experimental results. Our preliminary experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our quantitative assessment system to diagnose facial paralysis.

  12. High Content Imaging (HCI) on Miniaturized Three-Dimensional (3D) Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Pranav; Lee, Moo-Yeal

    2015-01-01

    High content imaging (HCI) is a multiplexed cell staining assay developed for better understanding of complex biological functions and mechanisms of drug action, and it has become an important tool for toxicity and efficacy screening of drug candidates. Conventional HCI assays have been carried out on two-dimensional (2D) cell monolayer cultures, which in turn limit predictability of drug toxicity/efficacy in vivo; thus, there has been an urgent need to perform HCI assays on three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures. Although 3D cell cultures better mimic in vivo microenvironments of human tissues and provide an in-depth understanding of the morphological and functional features of tissues, they are also limited by having relatively low throughput and thus are not amenable to high-throughput screening (HTS). One attempt of making 3D cell culture amenable for HTS is to utilize miniaturized cell culture platforms. This review aims to highlight miniaturized 3D cell culture platforms compatible with current HCI technology. PMID:26694477

  13. Three-Dimensional Air Quality System (3D-AQS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel-Cox, J.; Hoff, R.; Weber, S.; Zhang, H.; Prados, A.

    2007-12-01

    The 3-Dimensional Air Quality System (3DAQS) integrates remote sensing observations from a variety of platforms into air quality decision support systems at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with a focus on particulate air pollution. The decision support systems are the Air Quality System (AQS) / AirQuest database at EPA, Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) system, the U.S. Air Quality weblog (Smog Blog) at UMBC, and the Regional East Atmospheric Lidar Mesonet (REALM). The project includes an end user advisory group with representatives from the air quality community providing ongoing feedback. The 3DAQS data sets are UMBC ground based LIDAR, and NASA and NOAA satellite data from MODIS, OMI, AIRS, CALIPSO, MISR, and GASP. Based on end user input, we are co-locating these measurements to the EPA's ground-based air pollution monitors as well as re-gridding to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model grid. These data provide forecasters and the scientific community with a tool for assessment, analysis, and forecasting of U.S Air Quality. The third dimension and the ability to analyze the vertical transport of particulate pollution are provided by aerosol extinction profiles from the UMBC LIDAR and CALIPSO. We present examples of a 3D visualization tool we are developing to facilitate use of this data. We also present two specific applications of 3D-AQS data. The first is comparisons between PM2.5 monitor data and remote sensing aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, which show moderate agreement but variation with EPA region. The second is a case study for Baltimore, Maryland, as an example of 3D-analysis for a metropolitan area. In that case, some improvement is found in the PM2.5 /LIDAR correlations when using vertical aerosol information to calculate an AOD below the boundary layer.

  14. Drug penetration and metabolism in 3D cell cultures treated in a 3D printed fluidic device: assessment of irinotecan via MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    LaBonia, Gabriel J; Lockwood, Sarah Y; Heller, Andrew A; Spence, Dana M; Hummon, Amanda B

    2016-06-01

    Realistic in vitro models are critical in the drug development process. In this study, a novel in vitro platform is employed to assess drug penetration and metabolism. This platform, which utilizes a 3D printed fluidic device, allows for dynamic dosing of three dimensional cell cultures, also known as spheroids. The penetration of the chemotherapeutic irinotecan into HCT 116 colon cancer spheroids was examined with MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). The active metabolite of irinotecan, SN-38, was also detected. After twenty-four hours of treatment, SN-38 was concentrated to the outside of the spheroid, a region of actively dividing cells. The irinotecan prodrug localization contrasted with SN-38 and was concentrated to the necrotic core of the spheroids, a region containing mostly dead and dying cells. These results demonstrate that this unique in vitro platform is an effective means to assess drug penetration and metabolism in 3D cell cultures. This innovative system can have a transformative impact on the preclinical evaluation of drug candidates due to its cost effectiveness and high throughput. PMID:27198560

  15. Defining an optimal surface chemistry for pluripotent stem cell culture in 2D and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonca, Michael R., Jr.

    Surface chemistry is critical for growing pluripotent stem cells in an undifferentiated state. There is great potential to engineer the surface chemistry at the nanoscale level to regulate stem cell adhesion. However, the challenge is to identify the optimal surface chemistry of the substrata for ES cell attachment and maintenance. Using a high-throughput polymerization and screening platform, a chemically defined, synthetic polymer grafted coating that supports strong attachment and high expansion capacity of pluripotent stem cells has been discovered using mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells as a model system. This optimal substrate, N-[3-(Dimethylamino)propyl] methacrylamide (DMAPMA) that is grafted on 2D synthetic poly(ether sulfone) (PES) membrane, sustains the self-renewal of ES cells (up to 7 passages). DMAPMA supports cell attachment of ES cells through integrin beta1 in a RGD-independent manner and is similar to another recently reported polymer surface. Next, DMAPMA has been able to be transferred to 3D by grafting to synthetic, polymeric, PES fibrous matrices through both photo-induced and plasma-induced polymerization. These 3D modified fibers exhibited higher cell proliferation and greater expression of pluripotency markers of mouse ES cells than 2D PES membranes. Our results indicated that desirable surfaces in 2D can be scaled to 3D and that both surface chemistry and structural dimension strongly influence the growth and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. Lastly, the feasibility of incorporating DMAPMA into a widely used natural polymer, alginate, has been tested. Novel adhesive alginate hydrogels have been successfully synthesized by either direct polymerization of DMAPMA and methacrylic acid blended with alginate, or photo-induced DMAPMA polymerization on alginate nanofibrous hydrogels. In particular, DMAPMA-coated alginate hydrogels support strong ES cell attachment, exhibiting a concentration dependency of DMAPMA. This research provides a

  16. 3D culture of murine neural stem cells on decellularized mouse brain sections.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jorrit; Reekmans, Kristien; Daans, Jasmijn; Goossens, Herman; Berneman, Zwi; Ponsaerts, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSC) in diseased or injured brain tissue is widely studied as a potential treatment for various neurological pathologies. However, effective cell replacement therapy relies on the intrinsic capacity of cellular grafts to overcome hypoxic and/or immunological barriers after transplantation. In this context, it is hypothesized that structural support for grafted NSC will be of utmost importance. With this study, we present a novel decellularization protocol for 1.5 mm thick mouse brain sections, resulting in the generation of acellular three-dimensional (3D) brain sections. Next, the obtained 3D brain sections were seeded with murine NSC expressing both the eGFP and luciferase reporter proteins (NSC-eGFP/Luc). Using real-time bioluminescence imaging, the survival and growth of seeded NSC-eGFP/Luc cells was longitudinally monitored for 1-7 weeks in culture, indicating the ability of the acellular brain sections to support sustained ex vivo growth of NSC. Next, the organization of a 3D maze-like cellular structure was examined using confocal microscopy. Moreover, under mitogenic stimuli (EGF and hFGF-2), most cells in this 3D culture retained their NSC phenotype. Concluding, we here present a novel protocol for decellularization of mouse brain sections, which subsequently support long-term 3D culture of undifferentiated NSC.

  17. 3D in vitro modeling of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Amy M; DeSimone, Elise; Chwalek, Karolina; Kaplan, David L

    2015-02-01

    There are currently more than 600 diseases characterized as affecting the central nervous system (CNS) which inflict neural damage. Unfortunately, few of these conditions have effective treatments available. Although significant efforts have been put into developing new therapeutics, drugs which were promising in the developmental phase have high attrition rates in late stage clinical trials. These failures could be circumvented if current 2D in vitro and in vivo models were improved. 3D, tissue-engineered in vitro systems can address this need and enhance clinical translation through two approaches: (1) bottom-up, and (2) top-down (developmental/regenerative) strategies to reproduce the structure and function of human tissues. Critical challenges remain including biomaterials capable of matching the mechanical properties and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of neural tissues, compartmentalized scaffolds that support heterogeneous tissue architectures reflective of brain organization and structure, and robust functional assays for in vitro tissue validation. The unique design parameters defined by the complex physiology of the CNS for construction and validation of 3D in vitro neural systems are reviewed here.

  18. 3D in vitro modeling of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Amy M.; DeSimone, Elise; Chwalek, Karolina; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    There are currently more than 600 diseases characterized as affecting the central nervous system (CNS) which inflict neural damage. Unfortunately, few of these conditions have effective treatments available. Although significant efforts have been put into developing new therapeutics, drugs which were promising in the developmental phase have high attrition rates in late stage clinical trials. These failures could be circumvented if current 2D in vitro and in vivo models were improved. 3D, tissue-engineered in vitro systems can address this need and enhance clinical translation through two approaches: (1) bottom-up, and (2) top-down (developmental/regenerative) strategies to reproduce the structure and function of human tissues. Critical challenges remain including biomaterials capable of matching the mechanical properties and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of neural tissues, compartmentalized scaffolds that support heterogeneous tissue architectures reflective of brain organization and structure, and robust functional assays for in vitro tissue validation. The unique design parameters defined by the complex physiology of the CNS for construction and validation of 3D in vitro neural systems are reviewed here. PMID:25461688

  19. Rapid prototyping with optical 3D measurement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaessler, J.; Blount, G. N.; Jones, R. M.

    1994-11-01

    One of the important tools for speeding up the prototyping of an new industrial or consumer product is the rapid generation of CAD data from hand-made styling models and moulds. We present a new optical 3D digitizing system which produces in a fully automatic way non- ambiguous, absolute and complete surface coordinate data of very complex objects in a short time. The system named `OptoShape' is based on a projection of sinusoidal fringes with a true grey-level matrix projector. The system measures both non-ambiguous and absolute XYZ surface data with a pronounced robustness towards optical surface properties. By moving the 3D sensor head around the object to be digitized with a 3/5 axes manipulator, multiple range images are obtained and automatically merged into a unified cloud of point coordinates. This set of surface coordinates are transferred to a software package where interactive manipulation, sectioning and semi-automatic generation of CAD surface descriptions are performed. CNC data can also be directly generated from the point surface coordinate data set.

  20. From "sapienza" to "sapienza, State Archives in Rome". a Looping Effect Bringing Back to the Original Source Comunication and Culture by Innovative and Low Cost 3d Surveying, Imaging Systems and GIS Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolini, P.; Forti, G.; Catalani, G.; Lucchetti, S.; Menghini, A.; Mirandola, A.; Pistacchio, S.; Porzia, U.; Roberti, M.

    2016-04-01

    High Quality survey models, realized by multiple Low Cost methods and technologies, as a container to sharing Cultural and Archival Heritage, this is the aim guiding our research, here described in its primary applications. The SAPIENZA building, a XVI century masterpiece that represented the first unified headquarters of University in Rome, plays since year 1936, when the University moved to its newly edified campus, the role of the main venue for the State Archives. By the collaboration of a group of students of the Architecture Faculty, some integrated survey methods were applied on the monument with success. The beginning was the topographic survey, creating a reference on ground and along the monument for the upcoming applications, a GNNS RTK survey followed georeferencing points on the internal courtyard. Dense stereo matching photogrammetry is nowadays an accepted method for generating 3D survey models, accurate and scalable; it often substitutes 3D laser scanning for its low cost, so that it became our choice. Some 360° shots were planned for creating panoramic views of the double portico from the courtyard, plus additional single shots of some lateral spans and of pillars facing the court, as a single operation with a double finality: to create linked panotours with hotspots to web-linked databases, and 3D textured and georeferenced surface models, allowing to study the harmonic proportions of the classical architectural order. The use of free web Gis platforms, to load the work in Google Earth and the realization of low cost 3D prototypes of some representative parts, has been even performed.

  1. Handheld camera 3D modeling system using multiple reference panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, Kouta; Oue, Yasuhiro; Terauchi, Tomoya; Emi, Tetsuichi

    2002-03-01

    A novel 3D modeling system in which a target object is easily captured and modeled by using a hand-held camera with several reference panels is presented in this paper. The reference panels are designed to be able to obtain the camera position and discriminate between each other. A conventional 3D modeling system using a reference panel has several restrictions regarding the target object, specifically the size and its location. Our system uses multiple reference panels, which are set around the target object to remove these restrictions. The main features of this system are as follows: 1) The whole shape and photo-realistic textures of the target object can be digitized based on several still images or a movie captured by using a hand-held camera; as well as each location of the camera that can be calculated using the reference panels. 2) Our system can be provided as a software product only. That means there are no special requirements for hardware; even the reference panels , because they can be printed from image files or software. 3) This system can be applied to digitize a larger object. In the experiments, we developed and used an interactive region selection tool to detect the silhouette on each image instead of using the chroma -keying method. We have tested our system with a toy object. The calculation time is about 10 minutes (except for the capturing the images and extracting the silhouette by using our tool) on a personal computer with a Pentium-III processor (600MHz) and 320MB memory. However, it depends on how complex the images are and how many images you use. Our future plan is to evaluate the system with various kind of objects, specifically, large ones in outdoor environments.

  2. Nuclear Factor-kappaB controls the reaggregation of 3D neurosphere cultures in vitro.

    PubMed

    Widera, D; Mikenberg, I; Kaus, A; Kaltschmidt, C; Kaltschmidt, B

    2006-01-01

    The approach of reaggregation involves the regeneration and self-renewal of histotypical 3D spheres from isolated tissue kept in suspension culture. Reaggregated spheres can be used as tumour, genetic, biohybrid and neurosphere models. In addition the functional superiority of 3D aggregates over conventional 2D cultures developed the use of neurospheres for brain engineering of CNS diseases. Thus 3D aggregate cultures created enormous interest in mechanisms that regulate the formation of multicellular aggregates in vitro. Here we analyzed mechanisms guiding the development of 3D neurosphere cultures. Adult neural stem cells can be cultured as self-adherent clusters, called neurospheres. Neurospheres are characterised as heterogeneous clusters containing unequal stem cell sub-types. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha is one of the crucial inflammatory cytokines with multiple actions on several cell types. TNF-alpha strongly activates the canonical Nuclear Factor Kappa-B (NF- kappaB) pathway. In order to investigate further functions of TNF in neural stem cells (NSCs) we tested the hypothesis that TNF is able to modulate the motility and/or migratory behaviour of SVZ derived adult neural stem cells. We observed a significantly faster sphere formation in TNF treated cultures than in untreated controls. The very fast aggregation of isolated NSCs (<2h) is a commonly observed phenomenon, though the mechanisms of 3D neurosphere formation remain largely unclear. Here we demonstrate for the first time, increased aggregation and enhanced motility of isolated NSCs in response to the TNF-stimulus. Moreover, this phenomenon is largely dependent on activated transcription factor NF-kappaB. Both, the pharmacological blockade of NF-kappaB pathway by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or Bay11-7082 and genetic blockade by expression of a transdominant-negative super-repressor IkappaB-AA1 led to decreased aggregation.

  3. Inertial Pocket Navigation System: Unaided 3D Positioning.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Estefania Munoz

    2015-01-01

    Inertial navigation systems use dead-reckoning to estimate the pedestrian's position. There are two types of pedestrian dead-reckoning, the strapdown algorithm and the step-and-heading approach. Unlike the strapdown algorithm, which consists of the double integration of the three orthogonal accelerometer readings, the step-and-heading approach lacks the vertical displacement estimation. We propose the first step-and-heading approach based on unaided inertial data solving 3D positioning. We present a step detector for steps up and down and a novel vertical displacement estimator. Our navigation system uses the sensor introduced in the front pocket of the trousers, a likely location of a smartphone. The proposed algorithms are based on the opening angle of the leg or pitch angle. We analyzed our step detector and compared it with the state-of-the-art, as well as our already proposed step length estimator. Lastly, we assessed our vertical displacement estimator in a real-world scenario. We found that our algorithms outperform the literature step and heading algorithms and solve 3D positioning using unaided inertial data. Additionally, we found that with the pitch angle, five activities are distinguishable: standing, sitting, walking, walking up stairs and walking down stairs. This information complements the pedestrian location and is of interest for applications, such as elderly care. PMID:25897501

  4. Inertial Pocket Navigation System: Unaided 3D Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Munoz Diaz, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    Inertial navigation systems use dead-reckoning to estimate the pedestrian's position. There are two types of pedestrian dead-reckoning, the strapdown algorithm and the step-and-heading approach. Unlike the strapdown algorithm, which consists of the double integration of the three orthogonal accelerometer readings, the step-and-heading approach lacks the vertical displacement estimation. We propose the first step-and-heading approach based on unaided inertial data solving 3D positioning. We present a step detector for steps up and down and a novel vertical displacement estimator. Our navigation system uses the sensor introduced in the front pocket of the trousers, a likely location of a smartphone. The proposed algorithms are based on the opening angle of the leg or pitch angle. We analyzed our step detector and compared it with the state-of-the-art, as well as our already proposed step length estimator. Lastly, we assessed our vertical displacement estimator in a real-world scenario. We found that our algorithms outperform the literature step and heading algorithms and solve 3D positioning using unaided inertial data. Additionally, we found that with the pitch angle, five activities are distinguishable: standing, sitting, walking, walking up stairs and walking down stairs. This information complements the pedestrian location and is of interest for applications, such as elderly care. PMID:25897501

  5. Dynamical Systems Analysis of Fully 3D Ocean Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Dynamical systems analysis of transport and stirring processes has been developed most thoroughly for 2D flow fields. The calculation of manifolds, turnstile lobes, transport barriers, etc. based on observations of the ocean is most often conducted near the sea surface, whereas analyses at depth, usually carried out with model output, is normally confined to constant-z surfaces. At the meoscale and larger, ocean flows are quasi 2D, but smaller scale (submesoscale) motions, including mixed layer phenomena with significant vertical velocity, may be predominantly 3D. The zoology of hyperbolic trajectories becomes richer in such cases and their attendant manifolds are much more difficult to calculate. I will describe some of the basic geometrical features and corresponding Lagrangian Coherent Features expected to arise in upper ocean fronts, eddies, and Langmuir circulations. Traditional GFD models such as the rotating can flow may capture the important generic features. The dynamical systems approach is most helpful when these features are coherent and persistent and the implications and difficulties for this requirement in fully 3D flows will also be discussed.

  6. Engineering a 3D microfluidic culture platform for tumor-treating field application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavesi, Andrea; Adriani, Giulia; Tay, Andy; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Yeap, Wei Hseun; Wong, Siew Cheng; Kamm, Roger D.

    2016-05-01

    The limitations of current cancer therapies highlight the urgent need for a more effective therapeutic strategy. One promising approach uses an alternating electric field; however, the mechanisms involved in the disruption of the cancer cell cycle as well as the potential adverse effects on non-cancerous cells must be clarified. In this study, we present a novel microfluidic device with embedded electrodes that enables the application of an alternating electric field therapy to cancer cells in a 3D extracellular matrix. To demonstrate the potential of our system to aid in designing and testing new therapeutic approaches, cancer cells and cancer cell aggregates were cultured individually or co-cultured with endothelial cells. The metastatic potential of the cancer cells was reduced after electric field treatment. Moreover, the proliferation rate of the treated cancer cells was lower compared with that of the untreated cells, whereas the morphologies and proliferative capacities of the endothelial cells were not significantly affected. These results demonstrate that our novel system can be used to rapidly screen the effect of an alternating electric field on cancer and normal cells within an in vivo-like microenvironment with the potential to optimize treatment protocols and evaluate synergies between tumor-treating field treatment and chemotherapy.

  7. Engineering a 3D microfluidic culture platform for tumor-treating field application

    PubMed Central

    Pavesi, Andrea; Adriani, Giulia; Tay, Andy; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Yeap, Wei Hseun; Wong, Siew Cheng; Kamm, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    The limitations of current cancer therapies highlight the urgent need for a more effective therapeutic strategy. One promising approach uses an alternating electric field; however, the mechanisms involved in the disruption of the cancer cell cycle as well as the potential adverse effects on non-cancerous cells must be clarified. In this study, we present a novel microfluidic device with embedded electrodes that enables the application of an alternating electric field therapy to cancer cells in a 3D extracellular matrix. To demonstrate the potential of our system to aid in designing and testing new therapeutic approaches, cancer cells and cancer cell aggregates were cultured individually or co-cultured with endothelial cells. The metastatic potential of the cancer cells was reduced after electric field treatment. Moreover, the proliferation rate of the treated cancer cells was lower compared with that of the untreated cells, whereas the morphologies and proliferative capacities of the endothelial cells were not significantly affected. These results demonstrate that our novel system can be used to rapidly screen the effect of an alternating electric field on cancer and normal cells within an in vivo-like microenvironment with the potential to optimize treatment protocols and evaluate synergies between tumor-treating field treatment and chemotherapy. PMID:27215466

  8. Optimization of liquid overlay technique to formulate heterogenic 3D co-cultures models.

    PubMed

    Costa, Elisabete C; Gaspar, Vítor M; Coutinho, Paula; Correia, Ilídio J

    2014-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models of solid tumors are currently having a tremendous impact in the in vitro screening of candidate anti-tumoral therapies. These 3D models provide more reliable results than those provided by standard 2D in vitro cell cultures. However, 3D manufacturing techniques need to be further optimized in order to increase the robustness of these models and provide data that can be properly correlated with the in vivo situation. Therefore, in the present study the parameters used for producing multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) by liquid overlay technique (LOT) were optimized in order to produce heterogeneous cellular agglomerates comprised of cancer cells and stromal cells, during long periods. Spheroids were produced under highly controlled conditions, namely: (i) agarose coatings; (ii) horizontal stirring, and (iii) a known initial cell number. The simultaneous optimization of these parameters promoted the assembly of 3D characteristic cellular organization similar to that found in the in vivo solid tumors. Such improvements in the LOT technique promoted the assembly of highly reproducible, individual 3D spheroids, with a low cost of production and that can be used for future in vitro drug screening assays.

  9. Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW)-Based Biosensing for Quantification of Cell Growth in 2D and 3D Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Green, Ryan; Nair, Rajesh Ramakrishnan; Howell, Mark; Mohapatra, Subhra; Guldiken, Rasim; Mohapatra, Shyam Sundar

    2015-01-01

    Detection and quantification of cell viability and growth in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures commonly involve harvesting of cells and therefore requires a parallel set-up of several replicates for time-lapse or dose–response studies. Thus, developing a non-invasive and touch-free detection of cell growth in longitudinal studies of 3D tumor spheroid cultures or of stem cell regeneration remains a major unmet need. Since surface acoustic waves (SAWs) permit mass loading-based biosensing and have been touted due to their many advantages including low cost, small size and ease of assembly, we examined the potential of SAW-biosensing to detect and quantify cell growth. Herein, we demonstrate that a shear horizontal-surface acoustic waves (SH-SAW) device comprising two pairs of resonators consisting of interdigital transducers and reflecting fingers can be used to quantify mass loading by the cells in suspension as well as within a 3D cell culture platform. A 3D COMSOL model was built to simulate the mass loading response of increasing concentrations of cells in suspension in the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) well in order to predict the characteristics and optimize the design of the SH-SAW biosensor. The simulated relative frequency shift from the two oscillatory circuit systems (one of which functions as control) were found to be concordant to experimental data generated with RAW264.7 macrophage and A549 cancer cells. In addition, results showed that SAW measurements per se did not affect viability of cells. Further, SH-SAW biosensing was applied to A549 cells cultured on a 3D electrospun nanofiber scaffold that generate tumor spheroids (tumoroids) and the results showed the device's ability to detect changes in tumor spheroid growth over the course of eight days. Taken together, these results demonstrate the use of SH-SAW device for detection and quantification of cell growth changes over time in 2D suspension cultures and in 3D cell

  10. Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW)-Based Biosensing for Quantification of Cell Growth in 2D and 3D Cultures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Green, Ryan; Nair, Rajesh Ramakrishnan; Howell, Mark; Mohapatra, Subhra; Guldiken, Rasim; Mohapatra, Shyam Sundar

    2015-01-01

    Detection and quantification of cell viability and growth in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures commonly involve harvesting of cells and therefore requires a parallel set-up of several replicates for time-lapse or dose-response studies. Thus, developing a non-invasive and touch-free detection of cell growth in longitudinal studies of 3D tumor spheroid cultures or of stem cell regeneration remains a major unmet need. Since surface acoustic waves (SAWs) permit mass loading-based biosensing and have been touted due to their many advantages including low cost, small size and ease of assembly, we examined the potential of SAW-biosensing to detect and quantify cell growth. Herein, we demonstrate that a shear horizontal-surface acoustic waves (SH-SAW) device comprising two pairs of resonators consisting of interdigital transducers and reflecting fingers can be used to quantify mass loading by the cells in suspension as well as within a 3D cell culture platform. A 3D COMSOL model was built to simulate the mass loading response of increasing concentrations of cells in suspension in the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) well in order to predict the characteristics and optimize the design of the SH-SAW biosensor. The simulated relative frequency shift from the two oscillatory circuit systems (one of which functions as control) were found to be concordant to experimental data generated with RAW264.7 macrophage and A549 cancer cells. In addition, results showed that SAW measurements per se did not affect viability of cells. Further, SH-SAW biosensing was applied to A549 cells cultured on a 3D electrospun nanofiber scaffold that generate tumor spheroids (tumoroids) and the results showed the device's ability to detect changes in tumor spheroid growth over the course of eight days. Taken together, these results demonstrate the use of SH-SAW device for detection and quantification of cell growth changes over time in 2D suspension cultures and in 3D cell

  11. Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW)-Based Biosensing for Quantification of Cell Growth in 2D and 3D Cultures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Green, Ryan; Nair, Rajesh Ramakrishnan; Howell, Mark; Mohapatra, Subhra; Guldiken, Rasim; Mohapatra, Shyam Sundar

    2015-12-19

    Detection and quantification of cell viability and growth in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures commonly involve harvesting of cells and therefore requires a parallel set-up of several replicates for time-lapse or dose-response studies. Thus, developing a non-invasive and touch-free detection of cell growth in longitudinal studies of 3D tumor spheroid cultures or of stem cell regeneration remains a major unmet need. Since surface acoustic waves (SAWs) permit mass loading-based biosensing and have been touted due to their many advantages including low cost, small size and ease of assembly, we examined the potential of SAW-biosensing to detect and quantify cell growth. Herein, we demonstrate that a shear horizontal-surface acoustic waves (SH-SAW) device comprising two pairs of resonators consisting of interdigital transducers and reflecting fingers can be used to quantify mass loading by the cells in suspension as well as within a 3D cell culture platform. A 3D COMSOL model was built to simulate the mass loading response of increasing concentrations of cells in suspension in the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) well in order to predict the characteristics and optimize the design of the SH-SAW biosensor. The simulated relative frequency shift from the two oscillatory circuit systems (one of which functions as control) were found to be concordant to experimental data generated with RAW264.7 macrophage and A549 cancer cells. In addition, results showed that SAW measurements per se did not affect viability of cells. Further, SH-SAW biosensing was applied to A549 cells cultured on a 3D electrospun nanofiber scaffold that generate tumor spheroids (tumoroids) and the results showed the device's ability to detect changes in tumor spheroid growth over the course of eight days. Taken together, these results demonstrate the use of SH-SAW device for detection and quantification of cell growth changes over time in 2D suspension cultures and in 3D cell

  12. Modeling moving systems with RELAP5-3D

    DOE PAGES

    Mesina, G. L.; Aumiller, David L.; Buschman, Francis X.; Kyle, Matt R.

    2015-12-04

    RELAP5-3D is typically used to model stationary, land-based reactors. However, it can also model reactors in other inertial and accelerating frames of reference. By changing the magnitude of the gravitational vector through user input, RELAP5-3D can model reactors on a space station or the moon. The field equations have also been modified to model reactors in a non-inertial frame, such as occur in land-based reactors during earthquakes or onboard spacecraft. Transient body forces affect fluid flow in thermal-fluid machinery aboard accelerating crafts during rotational and translational accelerations. It is useful to express the equations of fluid motion in the acceleratingmore » frame of reference attached to the moving craft. However, careful treatment of the rotational and translational kinematics is required to accurately capture the physics of the fluid motion. Correlations for flow at angles between horizontal and vertical are generated via interpolation where no experimental studies or data exist. The equations for three-dimensional fluid motion in a non-inertial frame of reference are developed. As a result, two different systems for describing rotational motion are presented, user input is discussed, and an example is given.« less

  13. Modeling moving systems with RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Mesina, G. L.; Aumiller, David L.; Buschman, Francis X.; Kyle, Matt R.

    2015-12-04

    RELAP5-3D is typically used to model stationary, land-based reactors. However, it can also model reactors in other inertial and accelerating frames of reference. By changing the magnitude of the gravitational vector through user input, RELAP5-3D can model reactors on a space station or the moon. The field equations have also been modified to model reactors in a non-inertial frame, such as occur in land-based reactors during earthquakes or onboard spacecraft. Transient body forces affect fluid flow in thermal-fluid machinery aboard accelerating crafts during rotational and translational accelerations. It is useful to express the equations of fluid motion in the accelerating frame of reference attached to the moving craft. However, careful treatment of the rotational and translational kinematics is required to accurately capture the physics of the fluid motion. Correlations for flow at angles between horizontal and vertical are generated via interpolation where no experimental studies or data exist. The equations for three-dimensional fluid motion in a non-inertial frame of reference are developed. As a result, two different systems for describing rotational motion are presented, user input is discussed, and an example is given.

  14. 3D Additive Construction with Regolith for Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Planetary surface exploration on Asteroids, the Moon, Mars and Martian Moons will require the stabilization of loose, fine, dusty regolith to avoid the effects of vertical lander rocket plume impingement, to keep abrasive and harmful dust from getting lofted and for dust free operations. In addition, the same regolith stabilization process can be used for 3 Dimensional ( 3D) printing, additive construction techniques by repeating the 2D stabilization in many vertical layers. This will allow in-situ construction with regolith so that materials will not have to be transported from Earth. Recent work in the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Surface Systems Office (NE-S) Swamp Works and at the University of Southern California (USC) under two NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) awards have shown promising results with regolith (crushed basalt rock) materials for in-situ heat shields, bricks, landing/launch pads, berms, roads, and other structures that could be fabricated using regolith that is sintered or mixed with a polymer binder. The technical goals and objectives of this project are to prove the feasibility of 3D printing additive construction using planetary regolith simulants and to show that they have structural integrity and practical applications in space exploration.

  15. Hybrid additive manufacturing of 3D electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Wasley, T.; Nguyen, T. T.; Ta, V. D.; Shephard, J. D.; Stringer, J.; Smith, P.; Esenturk, E.; Connaughton, C.; Kay, R.

    2016-10-01

    A novel hybrid additive manufacturing (AM) technology combining digital light projection (DLP) stereolithography (SL) with 3D micro-dispensing alongside conventional surface mount packaging is presented in this work. This technology overcomes the inherent limitations of individual AM processes and integrates seamlessly with conventional packaging processes to enable the deposition of multiple materials. This facilitates the creation of bespoke end-use products with complex 3D geometry and multi-layer embedded electronic systems. Through a combination of four-point probe measurement and non-contact focus variation microscopy, it was identified that there was no obvious adverse effect of DLP SL embedding process on the electrical conductivity of printed conductors. The resistivity maintained to be less than 4  ×  10-4 Ω · cm before and after DLP SL embedding when cured at 100 °C for 1 h. The mechanical strength of SL specimens with thick polymerized layers was also identified through tensile testing. It was found that the polymerization thickness should be minimised (less than 2 mm) to maximise the bonding strength. As a demonstrator a polymer pyramid with embedded triple-layer 555 LED blinking circuitry was successfully fabricated to prove the technical viability.

  16. Comparison of 3d Reconstruction Services and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Cultural Heritage Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasztovits, S.; Dorninger, P.

    2013-07-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) is an established method to reconstruct the geometrical surface of given objects. Current systems allow for fast and efficient determination of 3D models with high accuracy and richness in detail. Alternatively, 3D reconstruction services are using images to reconstruct the surface of an object. While the instrumental expenses for laser scanning systems are high, upcoming free software services as well as open source software packages enable the generation of 3D models using digital consumer cameras. In addition, processing TLS data still requires an experienced user while recent web-services operate completely automatically. An indisputable advantage of image based 3D modeling is its implicit capability for model texturing. However, the achievable accuracy and resolution of the 3D models is lower than those of laser scanning data. Within this contribution, we investigate the results of automated web-services for image based 3D model generation with respect to a TLS reference model. For this, a copper sculpture was acquired using a laser scanner and using image series of different digital cameras. Two different webservices, namely Arc3D and AutoDesk 123D Catch were used to process the image data. The geometric accuracy was compared for the entire model and for some highly structured details. The results are presented and interpreted based on difference models. Finally, an economical comparison of the generation of the models is given considering the interactive and processing time costs.

  17. Code System to Simulate 3D Tracer Dispersion in Atmosphere.

    2002-01-25

    Version 00 SHREDI is a shielding code system which executes removal-diffusion computations for bi-dimensional shields in r-z or x-y geometries. It may also deal with monodimensional problems (infinitely high cylinders or slabs). MESYST can simulate 3D tracer dispersion in the atmosphere. Three programs are part of this system: CRE_TOPO prepares the terrain data for MESYST. NOABL calculates three-dimensional free divergence windfields over complex terrain. PAS computes tracer concentrations and depositions on a given domain. Themore » purpose of this work is to develop a reliable simulation tool for pollutant atmospheric dispersion, which gives a realistic approach and allows one to compute the pollutant concentrations over complex terrains with good accuracy. The factional brownian model, which furnishes more accurate concentration values, is introduced to calculate pollutant atmospheric dispersion. The model was validated on SIESTA international experiments.« less

  18. An Efficient 3D Imaging using Structured Light Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Deokwoo

    Structured light 3D surface imaging has been crucial in the fields of image processing and computer vision, particularly in reconstruction, recognition and others. In this dissertation, we propose the approaches to development of an efficient 3D surface imaging system using structured light patterns including reconstruction, recognition and sampling criterion. To achieve an efficient reconstruction system, we address the problem in its many dimensions. In the first, we extract geometric 3D coordinates of an object which is illuminated by a set of concentric circular patterns and reflected to a 2D image plane. The relationship between the original and the deformed shape of the light patterns due to a surface shape provides sufficient 3D coordinates information. In the second, we consider system efficiency. The efficiency, which can be quantified by the size of data, is improved by reducing the number of circular patterns to be projected onto an object of interest. Akin to the Shannon-Nyquist Sampling Theorem, we derive the minimum number of circular patterns which sufficiently represents the target object with no considerable information loss. Specific geometric information (e.g. the highest curvature) of an object is key to deriving the minimum sampling density. In the third, the object, represented using the minimum number of patterns, has incomplete color information (i.e. color information is given a priori along with the curves). An interpolation is carried out to complete the photometric reconstruction. The results can be approximately reconstructed because the minimum number of the patterns may not exactly reconstruct the original object. But the result does not show considerable information loss, and the performance of an approximate reconstruction is evaluated by performing recognition or classification. In an object recognition, we use facial curves which are deformed circular curves (patterns) on a target object. We simply carry out comparison between the

  19. Application of 3D hydrodynamic and particle tracking models for better environmental management of finfish culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Navas, Juan; Telfer, Trevor C.; Ross, Lindsay G.

    2011-04-01

    Hydrographic conditions, and particularly current speeds, have a strong influence on the management of fish cage culture. These hydrodynamic conditions can be used to predict particle movement within the water column and the results used to optimise environmental conditions for effective site selection, setting of environmental quality standards, waste dispersion, and potential disease transfer. To this end, a 3D hydrodynamic model, MOHID, has been coupled to a particle tracking model to study the effects of mean current speed, quiescent water periods and bulk water circulation in Mulroy Bay, Co. Donegal Ireland, an Irish fjard (shallow fjordic system) important to the aquaculture industry. A Lagangrian method simulated the instantaneous release of "particles" emulating discharge from finfish cages to show the behaviour of waste in terms of water circulation and water exchange. The 3D spatial models were used to identify areas of mixed and stratified water using a version of the Simpson-Hunter criteria, and to use this in conjunction with models of current flow for appropriate site selection for salmon aquaculture. The modelled outcomes for stratification were in good agreement with the direct measurements of water column stratification based on observed density profiles. Calculations of the Simpson-Hunter tidal parameter indicated that most of Mulroy Bay was potentially stratified with a well mixed region over the shallow channels where the water is faster flowing. The fjard was characterised by areas of both very low and high mean current speeds, with some areas having long periods of quiescent water. The residual current and the particle tracking animations created through the models revealed an anticlockwise eddy that may influence waste dispersion and potential for disease transfer, among salmon cages and which ensures that the retention time of waste substances from cages is extended. The hydrodynamic model results were incorporated into the ArcView TM GIS

  20. Additively Manufactured Device for Dynamic Culture of Large Arrays of 3D Tissue Engineered Constructs.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro F; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Theodoropoulos, Christina; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L; Vaquette, Cédryck

    2015-04-22

    The ability to test large arrays of cell and biomaterial combinations in 3D environments is still rather limited in the context of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This limitation can be generally addressed by employing highly automated and reproducible methodologies. This study reports on the development of a highly versatile and upscalable method based on additive manufacturing for the fabrication of arrays of scaffolds, which are enclosed into individualized perfusion chambers. Devices containing eight scaffolds and their corresponding bioreactor chambers are simultaneously fabricated utilizing a dual extrusion additive manufacturing system. To demonstrate the versatility of the concept, the scaffolds, while enclosed into the device, are subsequently surface-coated with a biomimetic calcium phosphate layer by perfusion with simulated body fluid solution. 96 scaffolds are simultaneously seeded and cultured with human osteoblasts under highly controlled bidirectional perfusion dynamic conditions over 4 weeks. Both coated and noncoated resulting scaffolds show homogeneous cell distribution and high cell viability throughout the 4 weeks culture period and CaP-coated scaffolds result in a significantly increased cell number. The methodology developed in this work exemplifies the applicability of additive manufacturing as a tool for further automation of studies in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  1. Modulation of Wnt Signaling Enhances Inner Ear Organoid Development in 3D Culture.

    PubMed

    DeJonge, Rachel E; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Deig, Christopher R; Heller, Stefan; Koehler, Karl R; Hashino, Eri

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell-derived inner ear sensory epithelia are a promising source of tissues for treating patients with hearing loss and dizziness. We recently demonstrated how to generate inner ear sensory epithelia, designated as inner ear organoids, from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in a self-organizing 3D culture. Here we improve the efficiency of this culture system by elucidating how Wnt signaling activity can drive the induction of otic tissue. We found that a carefully timed treatment with the potent Wnt agonist CHIR99021 promotes induction of otic vesicles-a process that was previously self-organized by unknown mechanisms. The resulting otic-like vesicles have a larger lumen size and contain a greater number of Pax8/Pax2-positive otic progenitor cells than organoids derived without the Wnt agonist. Additionally, these otic-like vesicles give rise to large inner ear organoids with hair cells whose morphological, biochemical and functional properties are indistinguishable from those of vestibular hair cells in the postnatal mouse inner ear. We conclude that Wnt signaling plays a similar role during inner ear organoid formation as it does during inner ear development in the embryo. PMID:27607106

  2. Modulation of Wnt Signaling Enhances Inner Ear Organoid Development in 3D Culture

    PubMed Central

    DeJonge, Rachel E.; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Deig, Christopher R.; Heller, Stefan; Koehler, Karl R.; Hashino, Eri

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell-derived inner ear sensory epithelia are a promising source of tissues for treating patients with hearing loss and dizziness. We recently demonstrated how to generate inner ear sensory epithelia, designated as inner ear organoids, from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in a self-organizing 3D culture. Here we improve the efficiency of this culture system by elucidating how Wnt signaling activity can drive the induction of otic tissue. We found that a carefully timed treatment with the potent Wnt agonist CHIR99021 promotes induction of otic vesicles—a process that was previously self-organized by unknown mechanisms. The resulting otic-like vesicles have a larger lumen size and contain a greater number of Pax8/Pax2-positive otic progenitor cells than organoids derived without the Wnt agonist. Additionally, these otic-like vesicles give rise to large inner ear organoids with hair cells whose morphological, biochemical and functional properties are indistinguishable from those of vestibular hair cells in the postnatal mouse inner ear. We conclude that Wnt signaling plays a similar role during inner ear organoid formation as it does during inner ear development in the embryo. PMID:27607106

  3. State-of-the-art of 3D cultures (organs-on-a-chip) in safety testing and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Alépée, Natalie; Bahinski, Anthony; Daneshian, Mardas; De Wever, Bart; Fritsche, Ellen; Goldberg, Alan; Hansmann, Jan; Hartung, Thomas; Haycock, John; Hogberg, Helena; Hoelting, Lisa; Kelm, Jens M; Kadereit, Suzanne; McVey, Emily; Landsiedel, Robert; Leist, Marcel; Lübberstedt, Marc; Noor, Fozia; Pellevoisin, Christian; Petersohn, Dirk; Pfannenbecker, Uwe; Reisinger, Kerstin; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Zeilinger, Katrin; Zurich, Marie-Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Integrated approaches using different in vitro methods in combination with bioinformatics can (i) increase the success rate and speed of drug development; (ii) improve the accuracy of toxicological risk assessment; and (iii) increase our understanding of disease. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models are important building blocks of this strategy which has emerged during the last years. The majority of these models are organotypic, i.e., they aim to reproduce major functions of an organ or organ system. This implies in many cases that more than one cell type forms the 3D structure, and often matrix elements play an important role. This review summarizes the state of the art concerning commonalities of the different models. For instance, the theory of mass transport/metabolite exchange in 3D systems and the special analytical requirements for test endpoints in organotypic cultures are discussed in detail. In the next part, 3D model systems for selected organs--liver, lung, skin, brain--are presented and characterized in dedicated chapters. Also, 3D approaches to the modeling of tumors are presented and discussed. All chapters give a historical background, illustrate the large variety of approaches, and highlight up- and downsides as well as specific requirements. Moreover, they refer to the application in disease modeling, drug discovery and safety assessment. Finally, consensus recommendations indicate a roadmap for the successful implementation of 3D models in routine screening. It is expected that the use of such models will accelerate progress by reducing error rates and wrong predictions from compound testing. PMID:25027500

  4. 3D cultures of human neural progenitor cells: dopaminergic differentiation and genetic modification. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Brito, Catarina; Simão, Daniel; Costa, Inês; Malpique, Rita; Pereira, Cristina I; Fernandes, Paulo; Serra, Margarida; Schwarz, Sigrid C; Schwarz, Johannes; Kremer, Eric J; Alves, Paula M

    2012-03-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) disorders remain a formidable challenge for the development of efficient therapies. Cell and gene therapy approaches are promising alternatives that can have a tremendous impact by treating the causes of the disease rather than the symptoms, providing specific targeting and prolonged duration of action. Hampering translation of gene-based therapeutic treatments of neurodegenerative diseases from experimental to clinical gene therapy is the lack of valid and reliable pre-clinical models that can contribute to evaluate feasibility and safety. Herein we describe a robust and reproducible methodology for the generation of 3D in vitro models of the human CNS following a systematic technological approach based on stirred culture systems. We took advantage of human midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (hmNPCs) capability to differentiate into the various neural phenotypes and of their commitment to the dopaminergic lineage to generate differentiated neurospheres enriched in dopaminergic neurons. Furthermore, we describe a protocol for efficient gene transfer into differentiated neurospheres using CAV-2 viral vectors and stable expression of the transgene for at least 10 days. CAV-2 vectors, derived from canine adenovirus type 2, are promising tools to understand and treat neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Parkinson's disease. CAV-2 vectors preferentially transduce neurons and have an impressive level of axonal retrograde transport in vivo. Our model provides a practical and versatile in vitro approach to study the CNS in a 3D cellular context. With the successful differentiation and subsequent genetic modification of neurospheres we are increasing the collection of tools available for neuroscience research and contributing for the implementation and widespread utilization of 3D cellular CNS models. These can be applied to study neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease; to study the interaction of viral vectors of

  5. 3D cultures of human neural progenitor cells: dopaminergic differentiation and genetic modification. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Brito, Catarina; Simão, Daniel; Costa, Inês; Malpique, Rita; Pereira, Cristina I; Fernandes, Paulo; Serra, Margarida; Schwarz, Sigrid C; Schwarz, Johannes; Kremer, Eric J; Alves, Paula M

    2012-03-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) disorders remain a formidable challenge for the development of efficient therapies. Cell and gene therapy approaches are promising alternatives that can have a tremendous impact by treating the causes of the disease rather than the symptoms, providing specific targeting and prolonged duration of action. Hampering translation of gene-based therapeutic treatments of neurodegenerative diseases from experimental to clinical gene therapy is the lack of valid and reliable pre-clinical models that can contribute to evaluate feasibility and safety. Herein we describe a robust and reproducible methodology for the generation of 3D in vitro models of the human CNS following a systematic technological approach based on stirred culture systems. We took advantage of human midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (hmNPCs) capability to differentiate into the various neural phenotypes and of their commitment to the dopaminergic lineage to generate differentiated neurospheres enriched in dopaminergic neurons. Furthermore, we describe a protocol for efficient gene transfer into differentiated neurospheres using CAV-2 viral vectors and stable expression of the transgene for at least 10 days. CAV-2 vectors, derived from canine adenovirus type 2, are promising tools to understand and treat neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Parkinson's disease. CAV-2 vectors preferentially transduce neurons and have an impressive level of axonal retrograde transport in vivo. Our model provides a practical and versatile in vitro approach to study the CNS in a 3D cellular context. With the successful differentiation and subsequent genetic modification of neurospheres we are increasing the collection of tools available for neuroscience research and contributing for the implementation and widespread utilization of 3D cellular CNS models. These can be applied to study neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease; to study the interaction of viral vectors of

  6. Localizing Protein in 3D Neural Stem Cell Culture: a Hybrid Visualization Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A.L.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of 3-dimensional (3D) topography in influencing neural stem and progenitor cell (NPC) phenotype is widely acknowledged yet challenging to study. When dissociated from embryonic or post-natal brain, single NPCs will proliferate in suspension to form neurospheres. Daughter cells within these cultures spontaneously adopt distinct developmental lineages (neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes) over the course of expansion despite being exposed to the same extracellular milieu. This progression recapitulates many of the stages observed over the course of neurogenesis and gliogenesis in post-natal brain and is often used to study basic NPC biology within a controlled environment. Assessing the full impact of 3D topography and cellular positioning within these cultures on NPC fate is, however, difficult. To localize target proteins and identify NPC lineages by immunocytochemistry, free-floating neurospheres must be plated on a substrate or serially sectioned. This processing is required to ensure equivalent cell permeabilization and antibody access throughout the sphere. As a result, 2D epifluorescent images of cryosections or confocal reconstructions of 3D Z-stacks can only provide spatial information about cell position within discrete physical or digital 3D slices and do not visualize cellular position in the intact sphere. Here, to reiterate the topography of the neurosphere culture and permit spatial analysis of protein expression throughout the entire culture, we present a protocol for isolation, expansion, and serial sectioning of post-natal hippocampal neurospheres suitable for epifluorescent or confocal immunodetection of target proteins. Connexin29 (Cx29) is analyzed as an example. Next, using a hybrid of graphic editing and 3D modelling softwares rigorously applied to maintain biological detail, we describe how to re-assemble the 3D structural positioning of these images and digitally map labelled cells within the complete neurosphere. This

  7. 3D KLT compression algorithm for camera security systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Lukás; Páta, Petr

    2008-11-01

    This paper deals with an image compression algorithm based on the three- dimensional Karhunen- Loeve transform (3D KLT), whose task is to reduce time redundancy for an image data. There are many cases for which the reduction of time redundancy is very efficient and brings perceptible bitstream reduction. This is very desirable for transfering image data through telephone links, GSM networks etc. The time redundancy is very perceptible e.g. in camera security systems where relative unchanging frames are very conventional. The time evolution of grabbed scene is reviews according an energy content in eigenimages. These eigenimages are obtained in KLT for a suitable number of incoming frames. Required number of transfered eigenimages and eigenvectors is determined on the basis of the energy content in eigenimages.

  8. MIMO based 3D imaging system at 360 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herschel, R.; Nowok, S.; Zimmermann, R.; Lang, S. A.; Pohl, N.

    2016-05-01

    A MIMO radar imaging system at 360 GHz is presented as a part of the comprehensive approach of the European FP7 project TeraSCREEN, using multiple frequency bands for active and passive imaging. The MIMO system consists of 16 transmitter and 16 receiver antennas within one single array. Using a bandwidth of 30 GHz, a range resolution up to 5 mm is obtained. With the 16×16 MIMO system 256 different azimuth bins can be distinguished. Mechanical beam steering is used to measure 130 different elevation angles where the angular resolution is obtained by a focusing elliptical mirror. With this system a high resolution 3D image can be generated with 4 frames per second, each containing 16 million points. The principle of the system is presented starting from the functional structure, covering the hardware design and including the digital image generation. This is supported by simulated data and discussed using experimental results from a preliminary 90 GHz system underlining the feasibility of the approach.

  9. Spheroid culture as a tool for creating 3D complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Fennema, Eelco; Rivron, Nicolas; Rouwkema, Jeroen; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2013-02-01

    3D cell culture methods confer a high degree of clinical and biological relevance to in vitro models. This is specifically the case with the spheroid culture, where a small aggregate of cells grows free of foreign materials. In spheroid cultures, cells secrete the extracellular matrix (ECM) in which they reside, and they can interact with cells from their original microenvironment. The value of spheroid cultures is increasing quickly due to novel microfabricated platforms amenable to high-throughput screening (HTS) and advances in cell culture. Here, we review new possibilities that combine the strengths of spheroid culture with new microenvironment fabrication methods that allow for the creation of large numbers of highly reproducible, complex tissues.

  10. Analysis of Wnt signalling dynamics during colon crypt development in 3D culture

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chin Wee; Hirokawa, Yumiko; Burgess, Antony W.

    2015-01-01

    Many systems biology studies lack context-relevant data and as a consequence the predictive capabilities can be limited in developing targeted cancer therapeutics. Production of colon crypt in vitro is ideal for studying colon systems biology. This report presents the first production of, to our knowledge, physiologically-shaped, functional colon crypts in vitro (i.e. single crypts with cells expressing Mucin 2 and Chromogranin A). Time-lapsed monitoring of crypt formation revealed an increased frequency of single-crypt formation in the absence of noggin. Using quantitative 3D immunofluorescence of β-catenin and E-cadherin, spatial-temporal dynamics of these proteins in normal colon crypt cells stimulated with Wnt3A or inhibited by cycloheximide has been measured. Colon adenoma cultures established from APCmin/+ mouse have developmental differences and β-catenin spatial localization compared to normal crypts. Quantitative data describing the effects of signalling pathways and proteins dynamics for both normal and adenomatous colon crypts is now within reach to inform a systems approach to colon crypt biology. PMID:26087250

  11. 3D Hydrogel Scaffolds for Articular Chondrocyte Culture and Cartilage Generation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Bhutani, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Human articular cartilage is highly susceptible to damage and has limited self-repair and regeneration potential. Cell-based strategies to engineer cartilage tissue offer a promising solution to repair articular cartilage. To select the optimal cell source for tissue repair, it is important to develop an appropriate culture platform to systematically examine the biological and biomechanical differences in the tissue-engineered cartilage by different cell sources. Here we applied a three-dimensional (3D) biomimetic hydrogel culture platform to systematically examine cartilage regeneration potential of juvenile, adult, and osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes. The 3D biomimetic hydrogel consisted of synthetic component poly(ethylene glycol) and bioactive component chondroitin sulfate, which provides a physiologically relevant microenvironment for in vitro culture of chondrocytes. In addition, the scaffold may be potentially used for cell delivery for cartilage repair in vivo. Cartilage tissue engineered in the scaffold can be evaluated using quantitative gene expression, immunofluorescence staining, biochemical assays, and mechanical testing. Utilizing these outcomes, we were able to characterize the differential regenerative potential of chondrocytes of varying age, both at the gene expression level and in the biochemical and biomechanical properties of the engineered cartilage tissue. The 3D culture model could be applied to investigate the molecular and functional differences among chondrocytes and progenitor cells from different stages of normal or aberrant development. PMID:26484414

  12. 3D rotating wall vessel and 2D cell culture of four veterinary virus pathogens: A comparison of virus yields, portions of infectious particles and virus growth curves.

    PubMed

    Malenovská, Hana

    2016-02-01

    Only very few comparative studies have been performed that evaluate general trends of virus growth under 3D in comparison with 2D cell culture conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate differences when four animal viruses are cultured in 2D and 3D. Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSIV), Bovine adenovirus (BAdV) and Bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (BPIV-3) were cultivated in 3D rotating wall vessels (RWVs) and conventional 2D cultures. The production of virus particles, the portion of infectious particles, and the infectious growth curves were compared. For all viruses, the production of virus particles (related to cell density), including the non-infectious ones, was lower in 3D than in 2D culture. The production of only infectious particles was significantly lower in BAdV and BPIV-3 in 3D cultures in relation to cell density. The two cultivation approaches resulted in significantly different virus particle-to-TCID50 ratios in three of the four viruses: lower in SuHV-1 and BPIV-3 and higher in BAdV in 3D culture. The infectious virus growth rates were not significantly different in all viruses. Although 3D RWV culture resulted in lower production of virus particles compared to 2D systems, the portion of infectious particles was higher for some viruses.

  13. Optical 3D-coordinate measuring system using structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Wolfgang; Notni, Gunther; Kuehmstedt, Peter; Gerber, Joerg; Kowarschik, Richard M.

    1996-09-01

    The paper is aimed at the description of an optical shape measuring technique based on a consistent principle using fringe projection technique. We demonstrate a real 3D- coordinate measuring system where the sale of coordinates is given only by the illumination-structures. This method has the advantages that the aberration of the observing system and the depth-dependent imaging scale have no influence on the measuring accuracy and, moreover, the measurements are independent of the position of the camera with respect to the object under test. Furthermore, it is shown that the influence of specular effects of the surface on the measuring result can be eliminated. Moreover, we developed a very simple algorithm to calibrate the measuring system. The measuring examples show that a measuring accuracy of 10-4 (i.e. 10 micrometers ) within an object volume of 100 X 100 X 70 mm3 is achievable. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the set of coordinate values can be processed in CNC- and CAD-systems.

  14. 3D active stabilization system with sub-micrometer resolution.

    PubMed

    Kursu, Olli; Tuukkanen, Tuomas; Rahkonen, Timo; Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Stable positioning between a measurement probe and its target from sub- to few micrometer scales has become a prerequisite in precision metrology and in cellular level measurements from biological tissues. Here we present a 3D stabilization system based on an optoelectronic displacement sensor and custom piezo-actuators driven by a feedback control loop that constantly aims to zero the relative movement between the sensor and the target. We used simulations and prototyping to characterize the developed system. Our results show that 95% attenuation of movement artifacts is achieved at 1 Hz with stabilization performance declining to ca. 70% attenuation at 10 Hz. Stabilization bandwidth is limited by mechanical resonances within the displacement sensor that occur at relatively low frequencies, and are attributable to the sensor's high force sensitivity. We successfully used brain derived micromotion trajectories as a demonstration of complex movement stabilization. The micromotion was reduced to a level of ∼1 µm with nearly 100 fold attenuation at the lower frequencies that are typically associated with physiological processes. These results, and possible improvements of the system, are discussed with a focus on possible ways to increase the sensor's force sensitivity without compromising overall system bandwidth. PMID:22900045

  15. 3D X-Ray Luggage-Screening System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) x-ray luggage- screening system has been proposed to reduce the fatigue experienced by human inspectors and increase their ability to detect weapons and other contraband. The system and variants thereof could supplant thousands of xray scanners now in use at hundreds of airports in the United States and other countries. The device would be applicable to any security checkpoint application where current two-dimensional scanners are in use. A conventional x-ray luggage scanner generates a single two-dimensional (2D) image that conveys no depth information. Therefore, a human inspector must scrutinize the image in an effort to understand ambiguous-appearing objects as they pass by at high speed on a conveyor belt. Such a high level of concentration can induce fatigue, causing the inspector to reduce concentration and vigilance. In addition, because of the lack of depth information, contraband objects could be made more difficult to detect by positioning them near other objects so as to create x-ray images that confuse inspectors. The proposed system would make it unnecessary for a human inspector to interpret 2D images, which show objects at different depths as superimposed. Instead, the system would take advantage of the natural human ability to infer 3D information from stereographic or stereoscopic images. The inspector would be able to perceive two objects at different depths, in a more nearly natural manner, as distinct 3D objects lying at different depths. Hence, the inspector could recognize objects with greater accuracy and less effort. The major components of the proposed system would be similar to those of x-ray luggage scanners now in use. As in a conventional x-ray scanner, there would be an x-ray source. Unlike in a conventional scanner, there would be two x-ray image sensors, denoted the left and right sensors, located at positions along the conveyor that are upstream and downstream, respectively (see figure). X-ray illumination

  16. Repositioning accuracy of two different mask systems-3D revisited: Comparison using true 3D/3D matching with cone-beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Boda-Heggemann, Judit . E-mail: judit.boda-heggemann@radonk.ma.uni-heidelberg.de; Walter, Cornelia; Rahn, Angelika; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Loeb, Iris; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: The repositioning accuracy of mask-based fixation systems has been assessed with two-dimensional/two-dimensional or two-dimensional/three-dimensional (3D) matching. We analyzed the accuracy of commercially available head mask systems, using true 3D/3D matching, with X-ray volume imaging and cone-beam CT. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients receiving radiotherapy (intracranial/head-and-neck tumors) were evaluated (14 patients with rigid and 7 with thermoplastic masks). X-ray volume imaging was analyzed online and offline separately for the skull and neck regions. Translation/rotation errors of the target isocenter were analyzed. Four patients were treated to neck sites. For these patients, repositioning was aided by additional body tattoos. A separate analysis of the setup error on the basis of the registration of the cervical vertebra was performed. The residual error after correction and intrafractional motility were calculated. Results: The mean length of the displacement vector for rigid masks was 0.312 {+-} 0.152 cm (intracranial) and 0.586 {+-} 0.294 cm (neck). For the thermoplastic masks, the value was 0.472 {+-} 0.174 cm (intracranial) and 0.726 {+-} 0.445 cm (neck). Rigid masks with body tattoos had a displacement vector length in the neck region of 0.35 {+-} 0.197 cm. The intracranial residual error and intrafractional motility after X-ray volume imaging correction for rigid masks was 0.188 {+-} 0.074 cm, and was 0.134 {+-} 0.14 cm for thermoplastic masks. Conclusions: The results of our study have demonstrated that rigid masks have a high intracranial repositioning accuracy per se. Given the small residual error and intrafractional movement, thermoplastic masks may also be used for high-precision treatments when combined with cone-beam CT. The neck region repositioning accuracy was worse than the intracranial accuracy in both cases. However, body tattoos and image guidance improved the accuracy. Finally, the combination of both mask

  17. A 3D visualization system for molecular structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Terry J.

    1989-01-01

    The properties of molecules derive in part from their structures. Because of the importance of understanding molecular structures various methodologies, ranging from first principles to empirical technique, were developed for computing the structure of molecules. For large molecules such as polymer model compounds, the structural information is difficult to comprehend by examining tabulated data. Therefore, a molecular graphics display system, called MOLDS, was developed to help interpret the data. MOLDS is a menu-driven program developed to run on the LADC SNS computer systems. This program can read a data file generated by the modeling programs or data can be entered using the keyboard. MOLDS has the following capabilities: draws the 3-D representation of a molecule using stick, ball and ball, or space filled model from Cartesian coordinates, draws different perspective views of the molecule; rotates the molecule on the X, Y, Z axis or about some arbitrary line in space, zooms in on a small area of the molecule in order to obtain a better view of a specific region; and makes hard copy representation of molecules on a graphic printer. In addition, MOLDS can be easily updated and readily adapted to run on most computer systems.

  18. Gel tomography for 3D acquisition of plant root systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Kevin N.; Heyenga, Anthony G.

    1998-03-01

    A system for three-dimensional, non-destructive acquisition of the structure of plant root systems is described. The plants are grown in a transparent medium (a 'gel pack') and are then placed on a rotating stage. The stage is rotated in 5-degree increments while images are captured using either traditional photography or a CCD camera. The individual images are then used as input to a tomographic (backprojection) algorithm to recover the original volumetric data. This reconstructed volume is then used as input to a 3D-reconstruction system. The software performs segmentation and mesh generation to derive a tessellated mesh of the root structure. This mesh can then be visualized using computer graphics, or used to derive measurements of root thickness and length. For initial validation studies, a wire model of known length and gauge was used as a calibration sample. The use of the transparent gel- pack media, together with the gel tomography software, allows the plant biologist a method for non-destructive visualization and measurement of root structure that has previously been unattainable.

  19. New 3D-Culture Approaches to Study Interactions of Bone Marrow Adipocytes with Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Herroon, Mackenzie Katheryn; Diedrich, Jonathan Driscoll; Podgorski, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Adipocytes are a major component of the bone marrow that can critically affect metastatic progression in bone. Understanding how the marrow fat cells influence growth, behavior, and survival of tumor cells requires utilization of in vitro cell systems that can closely mimic the physiological microenvironment. Herein, we present two new three-dimensional (3D) culture approaches to study adipocyte–tumor cell interactions in vitro. The first is a transwell-based system composed of the marrow-derived adipocytes in 3D collagen I gels and reconstituted basement membrane-overlayed prostate tumor cell spheroids. Tumor cells cultured under these 3D conditions are continuously exposed to adipocyte-derived factors, and their response can be evaluated by morphological and immunohistochemical analyses. We show via immunofluorescence analysis of metabolism-associated proteins that under 3D conditions tumor cells have significantly different metabolic response to adipocytes than tumor cells grown in 2D culture. We also demonstrate that this model allows for incorporation of other cell types, such as bone marrow macrophages, and utilization of dye-quenched collagen substrates for examination of proteolysis-driven responses to adipocyte- and macrophage-derived factors. Our second 3D culture system is designed to study tumor cell invasion toward the adipocytes and the consequent interaction between the two cell types. In this model, marrow adipocytes are separated from the fluorescently labeled tumor cells by a layer of collagen I. At designated time points, adipocytes are stained with BODIPY and confocal z-stacks are taken through the depth of the entire culture to determine the distance traveled between the two cell types over time. We demonstrate that this system can be utilized to study effects of candidate factors on tumor invasion toward the adipocytes. We also show that immunohistochemical analyses can be performed to evaluate the impact of direct interaction of prostate

  20. Radiation Quality Effects on Transcriptome Profiles in 3-d Cultures After Particle Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Z. S.; Kidane, Y. H.; Huff, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the differential effects of low- and high-LET radiation on 3-D organotypic cultures in order to investigate radiation quality impacts on gene expression and cellular responses. Reducing uncertainties in current risk models requires new knowledge on the fundamental differences in biological responses (the so-called radiation quality effects) triggered by heavy ion particle radiation versus low-LET radiation associated with Earth-based exposures. We are utilizing novel 3-D organotypic human tissue models that provide a format for study of human cells within a realistic tissue framework, thereby bridging the gap between 2-D monolayer culture and animal models for risk extrapolation to humans. To identify biological pathway signatures unique to heavy ion particle exposure, functional gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used with whole transcriptome profiling. GSEA has been used extensively as a method to garner biological information in a variety of model systems but has not been commonly used to analyze radiation effects. It is a powerful approach for assessing the functional significance of radiation quality-dependent changes from datasets where the changes are subtle but broad, and where single gene based analysis using rankings of fold-change may not reveal important biological information. We identified 45 statistically significant gene sets at 0.05 q-value cutoff, including 14 gene sets common to gamma and titanium irradiation, 19 gene sets specific to gamma irradiation, and 12 titanium-specific gene sets. Common gene sets largely align with DNA damage, cell cycle, early immune response, and inflammatory cytokine pathway activation. The top gene set enriched for the gamma- and titanium-irradiated samples involved KRAS pathway activation and genes activated in TNF-treated cells, respectively. Another difference noted for the high-LET samples was an apparent enrichment in gene sets involved in cycle cycle/mitotic control. It is

  1. a 3d Information System for the Documentation of Archaeologica L Excavations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardissone, P.; Bornaz, L.; Degattis, G.; Domaine, R.

    2013-07-01

    Documentation of archaeological and cultural heritage sites is at the heart of the archaeological process and an important component in cultural heritage research, presentation and restorations. In 2012 the Superintendence of Cultural Heritage of Aosta Valley - IT (Soprintendenza per i Beni e le Attività Culturali della Region e Autonoma Valle d'Aosta) carried out a complex archaeological excavation in a composite archaeological context, situated an urban background: the Aosta city centre. This archaeological excavation has been characterized by the classical urban archaeological issues: little space, short time, complex stratigraphy. Moreover the investigations have come out several structures and walls that required safety and conservation measures. Ad hoc 3D solutions carried out a complete 3D survey of the area in 10 different time/situations of the Archaeological digs, chosen in collaborations with the archaeological staff. In this way a multi temporal 3D description of the site has been provided for the archaeological analysis and for the project of the restorations activities. The 3D surveys has been carried out integrating GPS, laser scanner technology and photogrammetry. In order to meet the needs of the site, and its complex logistics and to obtain products that guarantee the high quality and detail required for archaeological analysis, we have developed different procedures and methodologies: hdr imaging for 3D model with correct, consistent and uniform colours, noise filtering and people filtering, for the removal of interference between laser instrument and object of the survey, Advanced laser scanner triangulation, in order to consider both artificial and natural tie points, for a correct registration of a huge amount of scans. Single image orientation on 3D data, in order to integrate the laser data with data coming from digital photogrammetry (faster on the field than the laser scanner survey, than used in certain situations). The results of all

  2. Phenomenological modelling and simulation of cell clusters in 3D cultures.

    PubMed

    González-Valverde, I; Semino, C; García-Aznar, J M

    2016-10-01

    Cell clustering and aggregation are fundamental processes in the development of several tissues and the progression of many diseases. The formation of these aggregates also has a direct impact on the oxygen concentration in their surroundings due to cellular respiration and poor oxygen diffusion through clusters. In this work, we propose a mathematical model that is capable of simulating cell cluster formation in 3D cultures through combining a particle-based and a finite element approach to recreate complex experimental conditions. Cells are modelled considering cell proliferation, cell death and cell-cell mechanical interactions. Additionally, the oxygen concentration profile is calculated through finite element analysis using a reaction-diffusion model that considers cell oxygen consumption and diffusion through the extracellular matrix and the cell clusters. In our model, the local oxygen concentration in the medium determines both cell proliferation and cell death. Numerical predictions are also compared with experimental data from the literature. The simulation results indicate that our model can predict cell clustering, cluster growth and oxygen distribution in 3D cultures. We conclude that the initial cell distribution, cell death and cell proliferation dynamics determine the size and density of clusters. Moreover, these phenomena are directly affected by the oxygen transport in the 3D culture. PMID:27615191

  3. Accuracy of cultural heritage 3D models by RPAS and terrestrial photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognesi, M.; Furini, A.; Russo, V.; Pellegrinelli, A.; Russo, P.

    2014-06-01

    The combined use of high-resolution digital images taken from ground as well as from RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems) have significantly increased the potential of close range digital photogrammetry applications in Cultural Heritage surveying and modeling. It is in fact possible, thanks to SfM (Structure from Motion), to simultaneously process great numbers of aerial and terrestrial images for the production of a dense point cloud of an object. In order to analyze the accuracy of results, we started numerous tests based on the comparison between 3D digital models of a monumental complex realized by the integration of aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry and an accurate TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) reference model of the same object. A lot of digital images of a renaissance castle, assumed as test site, have been taken both by ground level and by RPAS at different distances and flight altitudes and with different flight patterns. As first step of the experimentation, the images were previously processed with Agisoft PhotoScan, one of the most popular photogrammetric software. The comparison between the photogrammetric DSM of the monument and a TLS reference one was carried out by evaluating the average deviation between the points belonging to the two entities, both globally and locally, on individual façades and architectural elements (sections and particular). In this paper the results of the first test are presented. A good agreement between photogrammetric and TLS digital models of the castle is pointed out.

  4. MAPLE deposition of 3D micropatterned polymeric substrates for cell culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paun, Irina Alexandra; Mihailescu, Mona; Calenic, Bogdan; Luculescu, Catalin Romeo; Greabu, Maria; Dinescu, Maria

    2013-08-01

    3D micropatterned poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/polyurethane (PLGA/PU) substrates were produced by MAPLE deposition through masks and used for regulating the behavior of oral keratinocyte stem cells in response to topography. Flat PLGA/PU substrates were produced for comparison. 3D imaging of the PLGA/PU substrates and of the cultured cells was performed by Digital Holographic Microscopy. The micropatterns were in the shape of squares of 50 × 50 and 80 × 80 μm2 areas, ~1.8 μm in height and separated by 20 μm wide channels. It was found that substrate topography guided the adhesion of the cultured cells: on the smooth substrates the cells adhered randomly and showed no preferred orientation; in contrast, on the micropatterned substrates the cells adhered preferentially onto the squares and not in the separating channels. Furthermore, key properties of the cells (size, viability, proliferation rate and stem cell marker expression) did not show any dependence on substrate topography. The size of the cultured cells, their viability, the proportions of actively/slow proliferating cells, as well as the stem cell markers expressions, were similar for both flat and micropatterned substrates. Finally, it was found that the cells cultured on the PLGA/PU substrates deposited by MAPLE exhibited similar properties as the controls (i.e. cells cultured on glass slides), indicating the capability of the former to preserve the properties of the keratinocyte stem cells.

  5. The Maintenance Of 3-D Scene Databases Using The Analytical Imagery Matching System (Aims)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovey, Stanford T.

    1987-06-01

    The increased demand for multi-resolution displays of simulated scene data for aircraft training or mission planning has led to a need for digital databases of 3-dimensional topography and geographically positioned objects. This data needs to be at varying resolutions or levels of detail as well as be positionally accurate to satisfy close-up and long distance scene views. The generation and maintenance processes for this type of digital database requires that relative and absolute spatial positions of geographic and cultural features be carefully controlled in order for the scenes to be representative and useful for simulation applications. Autometric, Incorporated has designed a modular Analytical Image Matching System (AIMS) which allows digital 3-D terrain feature data to be derived from cartographic and imagery sources by a combination of automatic and man-machine techniques. This system provides a means for superimposing the scenes of feature information in 3-D over imagery for updating. It also allows for real-time operator interaction between a monoscopic digital imagery display, a digital map display, a stereoscopic digital imagery display and automatically detected feature changes for transferring 3-D data from one coordinate system's frame of reference to another for updating the scene simulation database. It is an advanced, state-of-the-art means for implementing a modular, 3-D scene database maintenance capability, where original digital or converted-to-digital analog source imagery is used as a basic input to perform accurate updating.

  6. 3D spectral imaging system for anterior chamber metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Trevor; Segref, Armin; Frisken, Grant; Frisken, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Accurate metrology of the anterior chamber of the eye is useful for a number of diagnostic and clinical applications. In particular, accurate corneal topography and corneal thickness data is desirable for fitting contact lenses, screening for diseases and monitoring corneal changes. Anterior OCT systems can be used to measure anterior chamber surfaces, however accurate curvature measurements for single point scanning systems are known to be very sensitive to patient movement. To overcome this problem we have developed a parallel 3D spectral metrology system that captures simultaneous A-scans on a 2D lateral grid. This approach enables estimates of the elevation and curvature of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces that are robust to sample movement. Furthermore, multiple simultaneous surface measurements greatly improve the ability to register consecutive frames and enable aggregate measurements over a finer lateral grid. A key element of our approach has been to exploit standard low cost optical components including lenslet arrays and a 2D sensor to provide a path towards low cost implementation. We demonstrate first prototypes based on 6 Mpixel sensor using a 250 μm pitch lenslet array with 300 sample beams to achieve an RMS elevation accuracy of 1μm with 95 dB sensitivity and a 7.0 mm range. Initial tests on Porcine eyes, model eyes and calibration spheres demonstrate the validity of the concept. With the next iteration of designs we expect to be able to achieve over 1000 simultaneous A-scans in excess of 75 frames per second.

  7. Validation of an in vitro 3D bone culture model with perfused and mechanically stressed ceramic scaffold.

    PubMed

    Bouet, G; Cruel, M; Laurent, C; Vico, L; Malaval, L; Marchat, D

    2015-01-01

    An engineered three dimensional (3D) in vitro cell culture system was designed with the goal of inducing and controlling in vitro osteogenesis in a reproducible manner under conditions more similar to the in vivo bone microenvironment than traditional two-dimensional (2D) models. This bioreactor allows efficient mechanical loading and perfusion of an original cubic calcium phosphate bioceramic of highly controlled composition and structure. This bioceramic comprises an internal portion containing homogeneously interconnected macropores surrounded by a dense layer, which minimises fluid flow bypass around the scaffold. This dense and flat layer permits the application of a homogeneous loading on the bioceramic while also enhancing its mechanical strength. Numerical modelling of constraints shows that the system provides direct mechanical stimulation of cells within the scaffold. Experimental results establish that under perfusion at a steady flow of 2 µL/min, corresponding to 3 ≤ Medium velocity ≤ 23 µm/s, mouse calvarial cells grow and differentiate as osteoblasts in a reproducible manner, and lay down a mineralised matrix. Moreover, cells respond to mechanical loading by increasing C-fos expression, which demonstrates the effective mechanical stimulation of the culture within the scaffold. In summary, we provide a "proof-of-concept" for osteoblastic cell culture in a controlled 3D culture system under perfusion and mechanical loading. This model will be a tool to analyse bone cell functions in vivo, and will provide a bench testing system for the clinical assessment of bioactive bone-targeting molecules under load.

  8. 3D characterization of the Astor Pass geothermal system, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhew, Brett; Faulds, James E

    2013-10-19

    The Astor Pass geothermal system resides in the northwestern part of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Reservation, on the margins of the Basin and Range and Walker Lane tectonic provinces in northwestern Nevada. Seismic reflection interpretation, detailed analysis of well cuttings, stress field analysis, and construction of a 3D geologic model have been used in the characterization of the stratigraphic and structural framework of the geothermal area. The area is primarily comprised of middle Miocene Pyramid sequence volcanic and sedimentary rocks, nonconformably overlying Mesozoic metamorphic and granitic rocks. Wells drilled at Astor Pass show a ~1 km thick section of highly transmissive Miocene volcanic reservoir with temperatures of ~95°C. Seismic reflection interpretation confirms a high fault density in the geothermal area, with many possible fluid pathways penetrating into the relatively impermeable Mesozoic basement. Stress field analysis using borehole breakout data reveals a complex transtensional faulting regime with a regionally consistent west-northwest-trending least principal stress direction. Considering possible strike-slip and normal stress regimes, the stress data were utilized in a slip and dilation tendency analysis of the fault model, which suggests two promising fault areas controlling upwelling geothermal fluids. Both of these fault intersection areas show positive attributes for controlling geothermal fluids, but hydrologic tests show the ~1 km thick volcanic section is highly transmissive. Thus, focused upwellings along discrete fault conduits may be confined to the Mesozoic basement before fluids diffuse into the Miocene volcanic reservoir above. This large diffuse reservoir in the faulted Miocene volcanic rocks is capable of sustaining high pump rates. Understanding this type of system may be helpful in examining large, permeable reservoirs in deep sedimentary basins of the eastern Basin and Range and the highly fractured volcanic geothermal

  9. A 3D polarizing display system base on backlight control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pu; Huang, Ziqiang

    2011-08-01

    In this paper a new three-dimensional (3D) liquid crystal display (LCD) display mode based on backlight control is presented to avoid the left and right eye images crosstalk in 3D display. There are two major issues in this new black frame 3D display mode. One is continuously playing every frame images twice. The other is controlling the backlight switch periodically. First, this paper explains the cause of the left and right eye images crosstalk, and presents a solution to avoid this problem. Then, we propose to play the entire frame images twice by repeating each frame image after it was played instead of playing the left images and the right images frame by frame alternately. Finally, the backlight is switched periodically instead of turned on all the time. The backlight is turned off while a frame of image is played for the first time, then turned on during the second time, after that it will be turned off again and run the next period with the next frame of image start to refresh. Controlling the backlight switch periodically like this is the key to achieve the black frame 3D display mode. This mode can not only achieve better 3D display effect by avoid the left and right image crosstalk, but also save the backlight power consumption. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that our method is reasonable and efficient.

  10. Keratinocyte-releasable factors increased the expression of MMP1 and MMP3 in co-cultured fibroblasts under both 2D and 3D culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Moeen Rezakhanlou, Alireza; Chavez-Munoz, Claudia; Lai, Amy; Ghahary, Aziz

    2009-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key elements in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and scar remodeling during the wound-healing process. Our previous data revealed that keratinocyte-releasable factors significantly increased the expression of fibroblast MMPs in monolayer-cultured fibroblasts. In this study, we analyzed the differences in the MMP expressions of fibroblasts in a three-dimensional fibroblast-populated collagen gel (3D FPCG) from that in a two-dimensional monolayer-cultured fibroblasts when both co-cultured with keratinocytes. Differential mRNA and protein expression of fibroblasts were examined by microarray, RT-PCR, and western blot. Our results showed that fibroblasts co-cultured with keratinocytes in a 3D FPCG expressed significantly higher MMP1 and MMP3 at the gene and protein levels. Due to the physiological advantages of a 3D FPCG model to a 2D system, we concluded that the 3D FPCG model may provide a better means of understanding the fibroblast-keratinocyte cross-talk during the wound-healing process. PMID:19521668

  11. Articular chondrocyte redifferentiation in 3D co-cultures with mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Meretoja, Ville V; Dahlin, Rebecca L; Wright, Sarah; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we evaluated the ability of 3D co-cultures with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to redifferentiate monolayer expanded articular chondrocytes (ACs) and produce cartilaginous extracellular matrix at varying stages of the dedifferentiation process and further examined the dependency of this effect on the culture medium composition. Primary bovine ACs were expanded in monolayers for up to nine population doublings to obtain seven cell stocks with gradually increasing levels of dedifferentiation. Culture expanded ACs were then seeded as monocultures and co-cultures with rabbit bone marrow-derived MSCs (30:70 ratio of ACs-to-MSCs) on porous scaffolds. Parallel cultures were established for each cell population in serum-containing growth medium and serum-free induction medium supplemented with dexamethasone and TGF-β3. After 3 weeks, all groups were analyzed for DNA content, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and hydroxyproline (HYP) production, and chondrogenic gene expression. Significant enhancements in cellularity, GAG content and GAG/HYP ratio, and chondrogenic phenotype were observed in the induction medium compared to growth medium at all levels of AC expansion. Furthermore, primary co-cultures showed similarly enhanced chondrogenesis compared to monocultures in both culture media, whereas passaged ACs benefitted from co-culturing only in the induction medium. We conclude that co-cultures of ACs and MSCs can produce superior in vitro engineered cartilage in comparison to pure AC cultures, due to both heterotypic cellular interactions and decreased need for monolayer expansion of biopsied chondrocytes. While the initial level of AC dedifferentiation affected the quality of the engineered constructs, co-culture benefits were realized at all stages of AC expansion when suitable chondroinductive culture medium was used.

  12. Quantification of Dynamic Morphological Drug Responses in 3D Organotypic Cell Cultures by Automated Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Härmä, Ville; Schukov, Hannu-Pekka; Happonen, Antti; Ahonen, Ilmari; Virtanen, Johannes; Siitari, Harri; Åkerfelt, Malin; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Nees, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Glandular epithelial cells differentiate into complex multicellular or acinar structures, when embedded in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix. The spectrum of different multicellular morphologies formed in 3D is a sensitive indicator for the differentiation potential of normal, non-transformed cells compared to different stages of malignant progression. In addition, single cells or cell aggregates may actively invade the matrix, utilizing epithelial, mesenchymal or mixed modes of motility. Dynamic phenotypic changes involved in 3D tumor cell invasion are sensitive to specific small-molecule inhibitors that target the actin cytoskeleton. We have used a panel of inhibitors to demonstrate the power of automated image analysis as a phenotypic or morphometric readout in cell-based assays. We introduce a streamlined stand-alone software solution that supports large-scale high-content screens, based on complex and organotypic cultures. AMIDA (Automated Morphometric Image Data Analysis) allows quantitative measurements of large numbers of images and structures, with a multitude of different spheroid shapes, sizes, and textures. AMIDA supports an automated workflow, and can be combined with quality control and statistical tools for data interpretation and visualization. We have used a representative panel of 12 prostate and breast cancer lines that display a broad spectrum of different spheroid morphologies and modes of invasion, challenged by a library of 19 direct or indirect modulators of the actin cytoskeleton which induce systematic changes in spheroid morphology and differentiation versus invasion. These results were independently validated by 2D proliferation, apoptosis and cell motility assays. We identified three drugs that primarily attenuated the invasion and formation of invasive processes in 3D, without affecting proliferation or apoptosis. Two of these compounds block Rac signalling, one affects cellular cAMP/cGMP accumulation. Our approach supports

  13. Minimal camera networks for 3D image based modeling of cultural heritage objects.

    PubMed

    Alsadik, Bashar; Gerke, Markus; Vosselman, George; Daham, Afrah; Jasim, Luma

    2014-03-25

    3D modeling of cultural heritage objects like artifacts, statues and buildings is nowadays an important tool for virtual museums, preservation and restoration. In this paper, we introduce a method to automatically design a minimal imaging network for the 3D modeling of cultural heritage objects. This becomes important for reducing the image capture time and processing when documenting large and complex sites. Moreover, such a minimal camera network design is desirable for imaging non-digitally documented artifacts in museums and other archeological sites to avoid disturbing the visitors for a long time and/or moving delicate precious objects to complete the documentation task. The developed method is tested on the Iraqi famous statue "Lamassu". Lamassu is a human-headed winged bull of over 4.25 m in height from the era of Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC). Close-range photogrammetry is used for the 3D modeling task where a dense ordered imaging network of 45 high resolution images were captured around Lamassu with an object sample distance of 1 mm. These images constitute a dense network and the aim of our study was to apply our method to reduce the number of images for the 3D modeling and at the same time preserve pre-defined point accuracy. Temporary control points were fixed evenly on the body of Lamassu and measured by using a total station for the external validation and scaling purpose. Two network filtering methods are implemented and three different software packages are used to investigate the efficiency of the image orientation and modeling of the statue in the filtered (reduced) image networks. Internal and external validation results prove that minimal image networks can provide highly accurate records and efficiency in terms of visualization, completeness, processing time (>60% reduction) and the final accuracy of 1 mm.

  14. Minimal Camera Networks for 3D Image Based Modeling of Cultural Heritage Objects

    PubMed Central

    Alsadik, Bashar; Gerke, Markus; Vosselman, George; Daham, Afrah; Jasim, Luma

    2014-01-01

    3D modeling of cultural heritage objects like artifacts, statues and buildings is nowadays an important tool for virtual museums, preservation and restoration. In this paper, we introduce a method to automatically design a minimal imaging network for the 3D modeling of cultural heritage objects. This becomes important for reducing the image capture time and processing when documenting large and complex sites. Moreover, such a minimal camera network design is desirable for imaging non-digitally documented artifacts in museums and other archeological sites to avoid disturbing the visitors for a long time and/or moving delicate precious objects to complete the documentation task. The developed method is tested on the Iraqi famous statue “Lamassu”. Lamassu is a human-headed winged bull of over 4.25 m in height from the era of Ashurnasirpal II (883–859 BC). Close-range photogrammetry is used for the 3D modeling task where a dense ordered imaging network of 45 high resolution images were captured around Lamassu with an object sample distance of 1 mm. These images constitute a dense network and the aim of our study was to apply our method to reduce the number of images for the 3D modeling and at the same time preserve pre-defined point accuracy. Temporary control points were fixed evenly on the body of Lamassu and measured by using a total station for the external validation and scaling purpose. Two network filtering methods are implemented and three different software packages are used to investigate the efficiency of the image orientation and modeling of the statue in the filtered (reduced) image networks. Internal and external validation results prove that minimal image networks can provide highly accurate records and efficiency in terms of visualization, completeness, processing time (>60% reduction) and the final accuracy of 1 mm. PMID:24670718

  15. Presenting Cultural Heritage Landscapes - from GIS via 3d Models to Interactive Presentation Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prechtel, N.; Münster, S.; Kröber, C.; Schubert, C.; Schietzold, S.

    2013-07-01

    Two current projects of the authors try to approach cultural heritage landscapes from both cultural sciences and geography through a combination of customised geo-information (GIS) and visualisation/presentation technology. In excess of a mere academic use, easyto- handle virtual 3D web presentations may contribute to knowledge, esteem, commemoration and preservation. The examples relate to pre-historic Scythian burial sites in the South-Siberian Altay Mountains ("Uch Enmek") as well as to a "virtual memorial" of contemporary history ("GEPAM"), a chapter of Jewish prosecution in the "Third Reich", which historically connects the town of Dresden with the Czech Terezin (Theresienstadt). It is common knowledge that a profound understanding of (pre-)historic artefacts and places may reflect a larger environment as well as an individual geographic setting. Coming from this background, the presented projects try to find technical solutions. They start from GIS models and aim at customised interactive presentations of 3D models. In using the latter a widely-spanned public is invited to a land- or townscape of specific cultural importance. The geographic space is thought to work as a door to a repository of educational exhibits under the umbrella of a web application. Within this concept a landscape/townscape also accounts for the time dimension in different scales (time of construction/operation versus actual state, and in sense of a season and time of the day as a principal modulator of visual perception of space).

  16. Development and characterization of a 3D multicell microtissue culture model of airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Nishat; Cole, Darren J.; Walker, Matthew J.; Legant, Wesley R.; Boudou, Thomas; Chen, Christopher S.; Favreau, John T.; Gaudette, Glenn R.; Cowley, Elizabeth A.; Maksym, Geoffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cellular and molecular biology is typically studied with single-cell cultures grown on flat 2D substrates. However, cells in vivo exist as part of complex 3D structures, and it is well established in other cell types that altering substrate geometry exerts potent effects on phenotype and function. These factors may be especially relevant to asthma, a disease characterized by structural remodeling of the airway wall, and highlights a need for more physiologically relevant models of ASM function. We utilized a tissue engineering platform known as microfabricated tissue gauges to develop a 3D culture model of ASM featuring arrays of ∼0.4 mm long, ∼350 cell “microtissues” capable of simultaneous contractile force measurement and cell-level microscopy. ASM-only microtissues generated baseline tension, exhibited strong cellular organization, and developed actin stress fibers, but lost structural integrity and dissociated from the cantilevers within 3 days. Addition of 3T3-fibroblasts dramatically improved survival times without affecting tension development or morphology. ASM-3T3 microtissues contracted similarly to ex vivo ASM, exhibiting reproducible responses to a range of contractile and relaxant agents. Compared with 2D cultures, microtissues demonstrated identical responses to acetylcholine and KCl, but not histamine, forskolin, or cytochalasin D, suggesting that contractility is regulated by substrate geometry. Microtissues represent a novel model for studying ASM, incorporating a physiological 3D structure, realistic mechanical environment, coculture of multiple cells types, and comparable contractile properties to existing models. This new model allows for rapid screening of biochemical and mechanical factors to provide insight into ASM dysfunction in asthma. PMID:23125251

  17. Recording, Visualization and Documentation of 3D Spatial Data for Monitoring Topography in Areas of Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelakis, Emmanouel; Konstantaras, Antonios; Axaridou, Anastasia; Chrysakis, Ioannis; Xinogalos, Michalis

    2014-05-01

    This research investigates the application of new system for 3D documentation of land degradation and its effect [1,2] on areas of cultural heritage via complete 3D data acquisition, 3D modeling and metadata recording using terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) [3,4,5]. As land degradation progresses through time it is important to be able to map and exactly replicate with great precision the entire 3D shape of the physical objects of interest, such as landslides, ground erosion, river boundaries, mad accumulation, etc. [1,2] TLS enables the extraction and recording of a very large number of points in space with great precision and without the need for any physical contact with the object of interest. Field specialists can then examine the produced models and comment on them both on the overall object of interest and on specific features of it by inserting annotations on certain parts of the model [6]. This process could be proven to be very cost effective as it can be repeated as often as necessary and produce a well catalogued documentation of the progress of land degradation at particular areas. The problem with repeating TLS models lies on the various types of hardware equipment and software systems that might be used for the extraction of point clouds, and the different people that might be called to analyze the findings. These often result in a large volume of interim and final products with little if no standardization, multiple different metadata and vague documentation [7], which makes metadata recordings [8] crucial both for one scientist to be able to follow upon the work of the other as well as being able to repeat the same work when deemed necessary. This makes the need for a repository tool proposed by the authors essential in order to record all work that is done in every TLS scanning, and makes the technology accessible to scientists of various different fields [9,10], eg. geologists, physicists, topographers, remote sensing engineers, archaeologists etc

  18. Biodynamic Doppler imaging of subcellular motion inside 3D living tissue culture and biopsies (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, David D.

    2016-03-01

    Biodynamic imaging is an emerging 3D optical imaging technology that probes up to 1 mm deep inside three-dimensional living tissue using short-coherence dynamic light scattering to measure the intracellular motions of cells inside their natural microenvironments. Biodynamic imaging is label-free and non-invasive. The information content of biodynamic imaging is captured through tissue dynamics spectroscopy that displays the changes in the Doppler signatures from intracellular constituents in response to applied compounds. The affected dynamic intracellular mechanisms include organelle transport, membrane undulations, cytoskeletal restructuring, strain at cellular adhesions, cytokinesis, mitosis, exo- and endo-cytosis among others. The development of 3D high-content assays such as biodynamic profiling can become a critical new tool for assessing efficacy of drugs and the suitability of specific types of tissue growth for drug discovery and development. The use of biodynamic profiling to predict clinical outcome of living biopsies to cancer therapeutics can be developed into a phenotypic companion diagnostic, as well as a new tool for therapy selection in personalized medicine. This invited talk will present an overview of the optical, physical and physiological processes involved in biodynamic imaging. Several different biodynamic imaging modalities include motility contrast imaging (MCI), tissue-dynamics spectroscopy (TDS) and tissue-dynamics imaging (TDI). A wide range of potential applications will be described that include process monitoring for 3D tissue culture, drug discovery and development, cancer therapy selection, embryo assessment for in-vitro fertilization and artificial reproductive technologies, among others.

  19. Ionic osmolytes and intracellular calcium regulate tissue production in chondrocytes cultured in a 3D charged hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Farnsworth, Nikki L; Mead, Benjamin E; Antunez, Lorena R; Palmer, Amy E; Bryant, Stephanie J

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the role of fixed negative charges in regulating cartilage-like tissue production by chondrocytes under static and dynamic three-dimensional culture, and to determine whether intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) is involved in mediating this response. Initial experiments using the 3D neutral hydrogel were conducted in static isotonic culture with ionic and non-ionic osmolytes added to the culture medium. Tissue production by bovine chondrocytes with non-ionic osmolytes was 1.9-fold greater than with ionic osmolytes, suggesting that the ionic nature of the osmolyte is an important regulator of tissue production. To investigate fixed negative charges, a 3D culture system containing encapsulated chondrocytes was employed based on a synthetic and neutral hydrogel platform within which negatively charged chondroitin sulfate was incorporated in a controlled manner. Incorporation of negative charges did not affect the mechanical properties of the hydrogel; however, intracellular ion concentration was elevated from the culture medium (330 mOsm) and estimated to be similar to that in ~400 mOsm culture medium. With dynamic loading, GAG synthesis decreased by 26% in neutral hydrogels cultured in 400mOsm medium, and increased by 26% in charged gels cultured in 330 mOsm. Treatment of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels with the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM decreased GAG synthesis by 32-46% and was similar among all conditions, suggesting multiple roles for Ca(2+) mediated tissue production including with ionic osmolytes. In conclusion, findings from this study suggest that a dynamic ionic environment regulates tissue synthesis and points to [Ca(2+)]i signaling as a potential mediator. PMID:25128592

  20. 3D reconstruction of tropospheric cirrus clouds by stereovision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadjib Kouahla, Mohamed; Moreels, Guy; Seridi, Hamid

    2016-07-01

    A stereo imaging method is applied to measure the altitude of cirrus clouds and provide a 3D map of the altitude of the layer centroid. They are located in the high troposphere and, sometimes in the lower stratosphere, between 6 and 10 km high. Two simultaneous images of the same scene are taken with Canon cameras (400D) in two sites distant of 37 Km. Each image processed in order to invert the perspective effect and provide a satellite-type view of the layer. Pairs of matched points that correspond to a physical emissive point in the common area are identified in calculating a correlation coefficient (ZNCC: Zero mean Normalized Cross-correlation or ZSSD: as Zero mean Sum of Squared Differences). This method is suitable for obtaining 3D representations in the case of low-contrast objects. An observational campaign was conducted in June 2014 in France. The images were taken simultaneously at Marnay (47°17'31.5" N, 5°44'58.8" E; altitude 275 m) 25 km northwest of Besancon and in Mont poupet (46°58'31.5" N, 5°52'22.7" E; altitude 600 m) southwest of Besancon at 43 km. 3D maps of the Natural cirrus clouds and artificial like "aircraft trails" are retrieved. They are compared with pseudo-relief intensity maps of the same region. The mean altitude of the cirrus barycenter is located at 8.5 ± 1km on June 11.

  1. Differentiation capacity and maintenance of differentiated phenotypes of human mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on two distinct types of 3D polymeric scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Leferink, A M; Santos, D; Karperien, M; Truckenmüller, R K; van Blitterswijk, C A; Moroni, L

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have shown the influence of soluble factors and material properties on the differentiation capacity of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) cultured as monolayers. These types of two-dimensional (2D) studies can be used as simplified models to understand cell processes related to stem cell sensing and mechano-transduction in a three-dimensional (3D) context. For several other mechanisms such as cell-cell signaling, cell proliferation and cell morphology, it is well-known that cells behave differently on a planar surface compared to cells in 3D environments. In classical tissue engineering approaches, a combination of cells, 3D scaffolds and soluble factors are considered as the key ingredients for the generation of mechanically stable 3D tissue constructs. However, when MSCs are used for tissue engineering strategies, little is known about the maintenance of their differentiation potential in 3D scaffolds after the removal of differentiation soluble factors. In this study, the differentiation potential of human MSCs (hMSCs) into the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages on two distinct 3D scaffolds, additive manufactured electrospun scaffolds, was assessed and compared to conventional 2D culture. Human MSCs cultured in the presence of soluble factors in 3D showed to differentiate to the same extent as hMSCs cultured as 2D monolayers or as scaffold-free pellets, indicating that the two scaffolds do not play a consistent role in the differentiation process. In the case of phenotypic changes, the achieved differentiated phenotype was not maintained after the removal of soluble factors, suggesting that the plasticity of hMSCs is retained in 3D cell culture systems. This finding can have implications for future tissue engineering approaches in which the validation of hMSC differentiation on 3D scaffolds will not be sufficient to ensure the maintenance of the functionality of the cells in the absence of appropriate differentiation signals. PMID:26566169

  2. Individual versus Collective Fibroblast Spreading and Migration: Regulation by Matrix Composition in 3-D Culture

    PubMed Central

    Miron-Mendoza, Miguel; Lin, Xihui; Ma, Lisha; Ririe, Peter; Petroll, W. Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) supplies both physical and chemical signals to cells and provides a substrate through which fibroblasts migrate during wound repair. To directly assess how ECM composition regulates this process, we used a nested 3D matrix model in which cell-populated collagen buttons were embedded in cell-free collagen or fibrin matrices. Time-lapse microscopy was used to record the dynamic pattern of cell migration into the outer matrices, and 3-D confocal imaging was used to assess cell connectivity and cytoskeletal organization. Corneal fibroblasts stimulated with PDGF migrated more rapidly into collagen as compared to fibrin. In addition, the pattern of fibroblast migration into fibrin and collagen ECMs was strikingly different. Corneal fibroblasts migrating into collagen matrices developed dendritic processes and moved independently, whereas cells migrating into fibrin matrices had a more fusiform morphology and formed an interconnected meshwork. A similar pattern was observed when using dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that this response in not unique to corneal cells. We next cultured corneal fibroblasts within and on top of standard collagen and fibrin matrices to assess the impact of ECM composition on the cell spreading response. Similar differences in cell morphology and connectivity were observed – cells remained separated on collagen but coalesced into clusters on fibrin. Cadherin was localized to junctions between interconnected cells, whereas fibronectin was present both between cells and at the tips of extending cell processes. Cells on fibrin matrices also developed more prominent stress fibers than those on collagen matrices. Importantly, these spreading and migration patterns were consistently observed on both rigid and compliant substrates, thus differences in ECM mechanical stiffness were not the underlying cause. Overall, these results demonstrate for the first time that ECM protein composition alone (collagen vs. fibrin) can

  3. Efficient Use of Video for 3d Modelling of Cultural Heritage Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsadik, B.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.

    2015-03-01

    Currently, there is a rapid development in the techniques of the automated image based modelling (IBM), especially in advanced structure-from-motion (SFM) and dense image matching methods, and camera technology. One possibility is to use video imaging to create 3D reality based models of cultural heritage architectures and monuments. Practically, video imaging is much easier to apply when compared to still image shooting in IBM techniques because the latter needs a thorough planning and proficiency. However, one is faced with mainly three problems when video image sequences are used for highly detailed modelling and dimensional survey of cultural heritage objects. These problems are: the low resolution of video images, the need to process a large number of short baseline video images and blur effects due to camera shake on a significant number of images. In this research, the feasibility of using video images for efficient 3D modelling is investigated. A method is developed to find the minimal significant number of video images in terms of object coverage and blur effect. This reduction in video images is convenient to decrease the processing time and to create a reliable textured 3D model compared with models produced by still imaging. Two experiments for modelling a building and a monument are tested using a video image resolution of 1920×1080 pixels. Internal and external validations of the produced models are applied to find out the final predicted accuracy and the model level of details. Related to the object complexity and video imaging resolution, the tests show an achievable average accuracy between 1 - 5 cm when using video imaging, which is suitable for visualization, virtual museums and low detailed documentation.

  4. 3D fingerprint imaging system based on full-field fringe projection profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua; Zhao, Yan; Dai, Jie; Chen, Chao; Xu, Yongjia; Zhang, E.; Xie, Lili

    2014-01-01

    As an unique, unchangeable and easily acquired biometrics, fingerprint has been widely studied in academics and applied in many fields over the years. The traditional fingerprint recognition methods are based on the obtained 2D feature of fingerprint. However, fingerprint is a 3D biological characteristic. The mapping from 3D to 2D loses 1D information and causes nonlinear distortion of the captured fingerprint. Therefore, it is becoming more and more important to obtain 3D fingerprint information for recognition. In this paper, a novel 3D fingerprint imaging system is presented based on fringe projection technique to obtain 3D features and the corresponding color texture information. A series of color sinusoidal fringe patterns with optimum three-fringe numbers are projected onto a finger surface. From another viewpoint, the fringe patterns are deformed by the finger surface and captured by a CCD camera. 3D shape data of the finger can be obtained from the captured fringe pattern images. This paper studies the prototype of the 3D fingerprint imaging system, including principle of 3D fingerprint acquisition, hardware design of the 3D imaging system, 3D calibration of the system, and software development. Some experiments are carried out by acquiring several 3D fingerprint data. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed 3D fingerprint imaging system.

  5. Intracellular ROS mediates gas plasma-facilitated cellular transfection in 2D and 3D cultures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dehui; Wang, Biqing; Xu, Yujing; Chen, Zeyu; Cui, Qinjie; Yang, Yanjie; Chen, Hailan; Kong, Michael G

    2016-06-14

    This study reports the potential of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) as a versatile tool for delivering oligonucleotides into mammalian cells. Compared to lipofection and electroporation methods, plasma transfection showed a better uptake efficiency and less cell death in the transfection of oligonucleotides. We demonstrated that the level of extracellular aqueous reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by gas plasma is correlated with the uptake efficiency and that this is achieved through an increase of intracellular ROS levels and the resulting increase in cell membrane permeability. This finding was supported by the use of ROS scavengers, which reduced CAP-based uptake efficiency. In addition, we found that cold atmospheric plasma could transfer oligonucleotides such as siRNA and miRNA into cells even in 3D cultures, thus suggesting the potential for unique applications of CAP beyond those provided by standard transfection techniques. Together, our results suggest that cold plasma might provide an efficient technique for the delivery of siRNA and miRNA in 2D and 3D culture models.

  6. Intracellular ROS mediates gas plasma-facilitated cellular transfection in 2D and 3D cultures

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dehui; Wang, Biqing; Xu, Yujing; Chen, Zeyu; Cui, Qinjie; Yang, Yanjie; Chen, Hailan; Kong, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the potential of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) as a versatile tool for delivering oligonucleotides into mammalian cells. Compared to lipofection and electroporation methods, plasma transfection showed a better uptake efficiency and less cell death in the transfection of oligonucleotides. We demonstrated that the level of extracellular aqueous reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by gas plasma is correlated with the uptake efficiency and that this is achieved through an increase of intracellular ROS levels and the resulting increase in cell membrane permeability. This finding was supported by the use of ROS scavengers, which reduced CAP-based uptake efficiency. In addition, we found that cold atmospheric plasma could transfer oligonucleotides such as siRNA and miRNA into cells even in 3D cultures, thus suggesting the potential for unique applications of CAP beyond those provided by standard transfection techniques. Together, our results suggest that cold plasma might provide an efficient technique for the delivery of siRNA and miRNA in 2D and 3D culture models. PMID:27296089

  7. Intracellular ROS mediates gas plasma-facilitated cellular transfection in 2D and 3D cultures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dehui; Wang, Biqing; Xu, Yujing; Chen, Zeyu; Cui, Qinjie; Yang, Yanjie; Chen, Hailan; Kong, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the potential of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) as a versatile tool for delivering oligonucleotides into mammalian cells. Compared to lipofection and electroporation methods, plasma transfection showed a better uptake efficiency and less cell death in the transfection of oligonucleotides. We demonstrated that the level of extracellular aqueous reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by gas plasma is correlated with the uptake efficiency and that this is achieved through an increase of intracellular ROS levels and the resulting increase in cell membrane permeability. This finding was supported by the use of ROS scavengers, which reduced CAP-based uptake efficiency. In addition, we found that cold atmospheric plasma could transfer oligonucleotides such as siRNA and miRNA into cells even in 3D cultures, thus suggesting the potential for unique applications of CAP beyond those provided by standard transfection techniques. Together, our results suggest that cold plasma might provide an efficient technique for the delivery of siRNA and miRNA in 2D and 3D culture models. PMID:27296089

  8. The Niha Sites (lebanon) Cultural Landscape: a 3d Model of Sanctuaries and Their Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasmine, J.

    2013-07-01

    The paper aims at presenting the historical sites of Niha (Beqaa valley, Lebanon), their cultural values, and the methodology applied in the assessment of these values through the use of 3D modelling. The whole cultural landscape comprises the current village of Niha (altitude 1100 m), the archaeological site of Hosn-Niha (altitude 1350m), and the area located between these two sites. Two rural sanctuaries constitute the major archaeological remains present in the landscape: the first, located in the village of Niha, is composed of two roman temples with various archaeological structures; the second is located at the top of an antique settlement 2,5 km above the village of Niha. This second sanctuary Hosn-Niha, includes two temples, one church, remnants of numerous structures, and remains of an antique village. The cultural and religious values of both these sites are clear. However, questions arise regarding the choice for establishing the sanctuaries in these locations. The aim of the research is to try to understand the reasons for the various settlements in relationship with the topography and the landscape. The methodology applied in the research addresses two levels: a - The landscape level, and b - the built-up archaeology level. The global 3D models of both the landscape and the sanctuaries allow us to understand the various relations between the landscape, the sanctuaries and the various archaeological structures. An assessment of the various cultural resources found around the sanctuaries, while considering the reasons for their specific placement in the landscape can shed light on the reasons of these choices.

  9. Implementation of wireless 3D stereo image capture system and 3D exaggeration algorithm for the region of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Woonchul; Song, Chulgyu; Lee, Kangsan; Badarch, Luubaatar

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce the mobile embedded system implemented for capturing stereo image based on two CMOS camera module. We use WinCE as an operating system and capture the stereo image by using device driver for CMOS camera interface and Direct Draw API functions. We aslo comments on the GPU hardware and CUDA programming for implementation of 3D exaggeraion algorithm for ROI by adjusting and synthesizing the disparity value of ROI (region of interest) in real time. We comment on the pattern of aperture for deblurring of CMOS camera module based on the Kirchhoff diffraction formula and clarify the reason why we can get more sharp and clear image by blocking some portion of aperture or geometric sampling. Synthesized stereo image is real time monitored on the shutter glass type three-dimensional LCD monitor and disparity values of each segment are analyzed to prove the validness of emphasizing effect of ROI.

  10. System and method for 3D printing of aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Duoss, Eric; Kuntz, Joshua; Spadaccini, Christopher; Zhu, Cheng

    2016-03-08

    A method of forming an aerogel. The method may involve providing a graphene oxide powder and mixing the graphene oxide powder with a solution to form an ink. A 3D printing technique may be used to write the ink into a catalytic solution that is contained in a fluid containment member to form a wet part. The wet part may then be cured in a sealed container for a predetermined period of time at a predetermined temperature. The cured wet part may then be dried to form a finished aerogel part.

  11. Conference Report The State of the Art of 3D Cell Cultures DECHEMA Conference in Freiburg on April 19-21, 2016.

    PubMed

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2016-01-01

    Where are we today with 3D cell cultures as predictive, physiologically relevant model systems? Are there any successful applications, innovative developments or yawning gaps? The DECHEMA April conference assembled international experts to take a look behind the scenes and reveal relevant disease models, applications of 3D models in clinical practice and industry, predictive cell models for compound characterization and enabling technologies. PMID:27363380

  12. The Representation of Cultural Heritage from Traditional Drawing to 3d Survey: the Case Study of Casamary's Abbey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canciani, M.; Saccone, M.

    2016-06-01

    In 3D survey the aspects most discussed in the scientific community are those related to the acquisition of data from integrated survey (laser scanner, photogrammetric, topographic and traditional direct), rather than those relating to the interpretation of the data. Yet in the methods of traditional representation, the data interpretation, such as that of the philological reconstruction, constitutes the most important aspect. It is therefore essential in modern systems of survey and representation, filter the information acquired. In the system, based on the integrated survey that we have adopted, the 3D object, characterized by a cloud of georeferenced points, defined but their color values, defines the core of the elaboration. It allows to carry out targeted analysis, using section planes as a tool of selection and filtering data, comparable with those of traditional drawings. In the case study of the Abbey of Casamari (Veroli), one of the most important Cistercian Settlement in Italy, the survey made for an Agreement with the Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism (MiBACT) and University of RomaTre, within the project "Accessment of the sismic safety of the state museum", the reference 3D model, consisting of the superposition and geo-references data from various surveys, is the tool with which yo develop representative models comparable to traditional ones. It provides the necessary spatial environment for drawing up plans and sections with a definition such as to develop thematic analysis related to phases of construction, state of deterioration and structural features.

  13. Simulated Microgravity and 3D Culture Enhance Induction, Viability, Proliferation and Differentiation of Cardiac Progenitors from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Rajneesh; Wu, Qingling; Singh, Monalisa; Preininger, Marcela K.; Han, Pengcheng; Ding, Gouliang; Cho, Hee Cheol; Jo, Hanjoong; Maher, Kevin O.; Wagner, Mary B.; Xu, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    Efficient generation of cardiomyocytes from human pluripotent stem cells is critical for their regenerative applications. Microgravity and 3D culture can profoundly modulate cell proliferation and survival. Here, we engineered microscale progenitor cardiac spheres from human pluripotent stem cells and exposed the spheres to simulated microgravity using a random positioning machine for 3 days during their differentiation to cardiomyocytes. This process resulted in the production of highly enriched cardiomyocytes (99% purity) with high viability (90%) and expected functional properties, with a 1.5 to 4-fold higher yield of cardiomyocytes from each undifferentiated stem cell as compared with 3D-standard gravity culture. Increased induction, proliferation and viability of cardiac progenitors as well as up-regulation of genes associated with proliferation and survival at the early stage of differentiation were observed in the 3D culture under simulated microgravity. Therefore, a combination of 3D culture and simulated microgravity can be used to efficiently generate highly enriched cardiomyocytes. PMID:27492371

  14. Simulated Microgravity and 3D Culture Enhance Induction, Viability, Proliferation and Differentiation of Cardiac Progenitors from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Jha, Rajneesh; Wu, Qingling; Singh, Monalisa; Preininger, Marcela K; Han, Pengcheng; Ding, Gouliang; Cho, Hee Cheol; Jo, Hanjoong; Maher, Kevin O; Wagner, Mary B; Xu, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    Efficient generation of cardiomyocytes from human pluripotent stem cells is critical for their regenerative applications. Microgravity and 3D culture can profoundly modulate cell proliferation and survival. Here, we engineered microscale progenitor cardiac spheres from human pluripotent stem cells and exposed the spheres to simulated microgravity using a random positioning machine for 3 days during their differentiation to cardiomyocytes. This process resulted in the production of highly enriched cardiomyocytes (99% purity) with high viability (90%) and expected functional properties, with a 1.5 to 4-fold higher yield of cardiomyocytes from each undifferentiated stem cell as compared with 3D-standard gravity culture. Increased induction, proliferation and viability of cardiac progenitors as well as up-regulation of genes associated with proliferation and survival at the early stage of differentiation were observed in the 3D culture under simulated microgravity. Therefore, a combination of 3D culture and simulated microgravity can be used to efficiently generate highly enriched cardiomyocytes. PMID:27492371

  15. High-Throughput Microfluidic Platform for 3D Cultures of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Towards Engineering Developmental Processes

    PubMed Central

    Occhetta, Paola; Centola, Matteo; Tonnarelli, Beatrice; Redaelli, Alberto; Martin, Ivan; Rasponi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The development of in vitro models to screen the effect of different concentrations, combinations and temporal sequences of morpho-regulatory factors on stem/progenitor cells is crucial to investigate and possibly recapitulate developmental processes with adult cells. Here, we designed and validated a microfluidic platform to (i) allow cellular condensation, (ii) culture 3D micromasses of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs) under continuous flow perfusion, and (ii) deliver defined concentrations of morphogens to specific culture units. Condensation of hBM-MSCs was obtained within 3 hours, generating micromasses in uniform sizes (56.2 ± 3.9 μm). As compared to traditional macromass pellet cultures, exposure to morphogens involved in the first phases of embryonic limb development (i.e. Wnt and FGF pathways) yielded more uniform cell response throughout the 3D structures of perfused micromasses (PMMs), and a 34-fold higher percentage of proliferating cells at day 7. The use of a logarithmic serial dilution generator allowed to identify an unexpected concentration of TGFβ3 (0.1 ng/ml) permissive to hBM-MSCs proliferation and inductive to chondrogenesis. This proof-of-principle study supports the described microfluidic system as a tool to investigate processes involved in mesenchymal progenitor cells differentiation, towards a ‘developmental engineering’ approach for skeletal tissue regeneration. PMID:25983217

  16. Dynamic Assessment of Fibroblast Mechanical Activity during Rac-induced Cell Spreading in 3-D Culture

    PubMed Central

    Petroll, W. Matthew; Ma, Lisha; Kim, Areum; Ly, Linda; Vishwanath, Mridula

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the morphological and sub-cellular mechanical effects of Rac activation on fibroblasts within 3-D collagen matrices. Corneal fibroblasts were plated at low density inside 100 μm thick fibrillar collagen matrices and cultured for 1 to 2 days in serum-free media. Time-lapse imaging was then performed using Nomarski DIC. After an acclimation period, perfusion was switched to media containing PDGF. In some experiments, Y-27632 or blebbistatin were used to inhibit Rho-kinase (ROCK) or myosin II, respectively. PDGF activated Rac and induced cell spreading, which resulted in an increase in cell length, cell area, and the number of pseudopodial processes. Tractional forces were generated by extending pseudopodia, as indicated by centripetal displacement and realignment of collagen fibrils. Interestingly, the pattern of pseudopodial extension and local collagen fibril realignment was highly dependent upon the initial orientation of fibrils at the leading edge. Following ROCK or myosin II inhibition, significant ECM relaxation was observed, but small displacements of collagen fibrils continued to be detected at the tips of pseudopodia. Taken together, the data suggests that during Rac-induced cell spreading within 3-D matrices, there is a shift in the distribution of forces from the center to the periphery of corneal fibroblasts. ROCK mediates the generation of large myosin II-based tractional forces during cell spreading within 3-D collagen matrices, however residual forces can be generated at the tips of extending pseudopodia that are both ROCK and myosin II-independent. PMID:18452153

  17. Development of a Bioreactor to Culture Tissue Engineered Ureters Based on the Application of Tubular OPTIMAIX 3D Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Seifarth, Volker; Gossmann, Matthias; Janke, Heinz Peter; Grosse, Joachim O; Becker, Christoph; Heschel, Ingo; Artmann, Gerhard M; Temiz Artmann, Aysegül

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and biomedical research give hope to many patients who need bio-implants. Tissue engineering applications have already been developed based on bioreactors. Physiological ureter implants, however, do not still function sufficiently, as they represent tubular hollow structures with very specific cellular structures and alignments consisting of several cell types. The aim of this study was to a develop a new bioreactor system based on seamless, collagenous, tubular OPTIMAIX 3D prototype sponge as scaffold material for ex-vivo culturing of a tissue engineered ureter replacement for future urological applications. Particular emphasis was given to a great extent to mimic the physiological environment similar to the in vivo situation of a ureter. NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, C2C12, Urotsa and primary genitourinary tract cells were applied as co-cultures on the scaffold and the penetration of cells into the collagenous material was followed. By the end of this study, the bioreactor was functioning, physiological parameter as temperature and pH and the newly developed BIOREACTOR system is applicable to tubular scaffold materials with different lengths and diameters. The automatized incubation system worked reliably. The tubular OPTIMAIX 3D sponge was a suitable scaffold material for tissue engineering purposes and co-cultivation procedures.

  18. Endodermal differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to insulin-producing cells in 3D culture.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hiroki; Nakatsuji, Norio; Suemori, Hirofumi

    2014-03-27

    Insulin-producing cells (IPCs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) may be useful in cell therapy and drug discovery for diabetes. Here, we examined various growth factors and small molecules including those previously reported to develop a robust differentiation method for induction of mature IPCs from hPSCs. We established a protocol that induced PDX1-positive pancreatic progenitor cells at high efficiency, and further induced mature IPCs by treatment with forskolin, dexamethasone, Alk5 inhibitor II and nicotinamide in 3D culture. The cells that differentiated into INSULIN-positive and C-PEPTIDE-positive cells secreted insulin in response to glucose stimulation, indicating a functional IPC phenotype. We also found that this method was applicable to different types of hPSCs.

  19. Accuracy of typical photogrammetric networks in cultural heritage 3D modeling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocerino, E.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.

    2014-06-01

    The easy generation of 3D geometries (point clouds or polygonal models) with fully automated image-based methods poses nontrivial problems on how to check a posteriori the quality of the achieved results. Clear statements and procedures on how to plan the camera network, execute the survey and use automatic tools to achieve the prefixed requirements are still an open issue. Although such issues had been discussed and solved some years ago, the importance of camera network geometry is today often underestimated or neglected in the cultural heritage field. In this paper different camera network geometries, with normal and convergent images, are analyzed and the accuracy of the produced results are compared to ground truth measurements.

  20. Evaluating the performance of close-range 3D active vision systems for industrial design applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Gaiani, Marco

    2004-12-01

    In recent years, active three-dimensional (3D) active vision systems or range cameras for short have come out of research laboratories to find niche markets in application fields as diverse as industrial design, automotive manufacturing, geomatics, space exploration and cultural heritage to name a few. Many publications address different issues link to 3D sensing and processing but currently these technologies pose a number of challenges to many recent users, i.e., "what are they, how good are they and how do they compare?". The need to understand, test and integrate those range cameras with other technologies, e.g. photogrammetry, CAD, etc. is driven by the quest for optimal resolution, accuracy, speed and cost. Before investing, users want to be certain that a given range camera satisfy their operational requirements. The understanding of the basic theory and best practices associated with those cameras are in fact fundamental to fulfilling the requirements listed above in an optimal way. This paper addresses the evaluation of active 3D range cameras as part of a study to better understand and select one or a number of them to fulfill the needs of industrial design applications. In particular, object material and surface features effect, calibration and performance evaluation are discussed. Results are given for six different range cameras for close range applications.

  1. Evaluating the performance of close-range 3D active vision systems for industrial design applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Gaiani, Marco

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, active three-dimensional (3D) active vision systems or range cameras for short have come out of research laboratories to find niche markets in application fields as diverse as industrial design, automotive manufacturing, geomatics, space exploration and cultural heritage to name a few. Many publications address different issues link to 3D sensing and processing but currently these technologies pose a number of challenges to many recent users, i.e., "what are they, how good are they and how do they compare?". The need to understand, test and integrate those range cameras with other technologies, e.g. photogrammetry, CAD, etc. is driven by the quest for optimal resolution, accuracy, speed and cost. Before investing, users want to be certain that a given range camera satisfy their operational requirements. The understanding of the basic theory and best practices associated with those cameras are in fact fundamental to fulfilling the requirements listed above in an optimal way. This paper addresses the evaluation of active 3D range cameras as part of a study to better understand and select one or a number of them to fulfill the needs of industrial design applications. In particular, object material and surface features effect, calibration and performance evaluation are discussed. Results are given for six different range cameras for close range applications.

  2. 3D culture model of fibroblast-mediated collagen creep to identify abnormal cell behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kureshi, A K; Afoke, A; Wohlert, S; Barker, S; Brown, R A

    2015-11-01

    Native collagen gels are important biomimetic cell support scaffolds, and a plastic compression process can now be used to rapidly remove fluid to any required collagen density, producing strong 3D tissue-like models. This study aimed to measure the mechanical creep properties of such scaffolds and to quantify any enhanced creep occurring in the presence of cells (cell-mediated creep). The test rig developed applies constant creep tension during culture and measures real-time extension due to cell action. This was used to model extracellular matrix creep, implicated in the transversalis fascia (TF) in inguinal hernia. Experiments showed that at an applied tension equivalent to 15% break strength, cell-mediated creep over 24-h culture periods was identified at creep rates of 0.46 and 0.38%/h for normal TF and human dermal fibroblasts, respectively. However, hernia TF fibroblasts produced negligible cell-mediated creep levels under the same conditions. Raising the cell culture temperature from 4 to 37 °C was used to demonstrate live cell dependence of this creep. This represents the first in vitro demonstration of TF cell-mediated collagen creep and to our knowledge the first demonstration of a functional, hernia-related cell abnormality. PMID:25862069

  3. A Novel Core-Shell Microcapsule for Encapsulation and 3D Culture of Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wujie; Zhao, Shuting; Rao, Wei; Snyder, Jedidiah; Choi, Jung K; Wang, Jifu; Khan, Iftheker A; Saleh, Navid B; Mohler, Peter J; Yu, Jianhua; Hund, Thomas J; Tang, Chuanbing; He, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we report the preparation of a novel microcapsule of ~ 100 μm with a liquid (as compared to solid-like alginate hydrogel) core and an alginate-chitosan-alginate (ACA) shell for encapsulation and culture of embryonic stem (ES) cells in the miniaturized 3D space of the liquid core. Murine R1 ES cells cultured in the microcapsules were found to survive (> 90%) well and proliferate to form either a single aggregate of pluripotent cells or embryoid body (EB) of more differentiated cells in each microcapsule within 7 days, dependent on the culture medium used. This novel microcapsule technology allows massive production of the cell aggregates or EBs of uniform size and controllable pluripotency, which is important for the practical application of stem cell based therapy. Moreover, the semipermeable ACA shell was found to significantly reduce immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding to the encapsulated cells by up to 8.2 times, compared to non-encapsulated cardiac fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells, and ES cells. This reduction should minimize inflammatory and immune responses induced damage to the cells implanted in vivo becasue IgG binding is an important first step of the undesired host responses. Therefore, the ACA microcapsule with selective shell permeability should be of importance to advance the emerging cell-based medicine. PMID:23505611

  4. Recording, Visualization and Documentation of 3D Spatial Data for Monitoring Topography in Areas of Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelakis, Emmanouel; Konstantaras, Antonios; Axaridou, Anastasia; Chrysakis, Ioannis; Xinogalos, Michalis

    2014-05-01

    This research investigates the application of new system for 3D documentation of land degradation and its effect [1,2] on areas of cultural heritage via complete 3D data acquisition, 3D modeling and metadata recording using terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) [3,4,5]. As land degradation progresses through time it is important to be able to map and exactly replicate with great precision the entire 3D shape of the physical objects of interest, such as landslides, ground erosion, river boundaries, mad accumulation, etc. [1,2] TLS enables the extraction and recording of a very large number of points in space with great precision and without the need for any physical contact with the object of interest. Field specialists can then examine the produced models and comment on them both on the overall object of interest and on specific features of it by inserting annotations on certain parts of the model [6]. This process could be proven to be very cost effective as it can be repeated as often as necessary and produce a well catalogued documentation of the progress of land degradation at particular areas. The problem with repeating TLS models lies on the various types of hardware equipment and software systems that might be used for the extraction of point clouds, and the different people that might be called to analyze the findings. These often result in a large volume of interim and final products with little if no standardization, multiple different metadata and vague documentation [7], which makes metadata recordings [8] crucial both for one scientist to be able to follow upon the work of the other as well as being able to repeat the same work when deemed necessary. This makes the need for a repository tool proposed by the authors essential in order to record all work that is done in every TLS scanning, and makes the technology accessible to scientists of various different fields [9,10], eg. geologists, physicists, topographers, remote sensing engineers, archaeologists etc

  5. Characterization of a novel bioreactor system for 3D cellular mechanobiology studies.

    PubMed

    Cook, Colin A; Huri, Pinar Y; Ginn, Brian P; Gilbert-Honick, Jordana; Somers, Sarah M; Temple, Joshua P; Mao, Hai-Quan; Grayson, Warren L

    2016-08-01

    In vitro engineering systems can be powerful tools for studying tissue development in response to biophysical stimuli as well as for evaluating the functionality of engineered tissue grafts. It has been challenging, however, to develop systems that adequately integrate the application of biomimetic mechanical strain to engineered tissue with the ability to assess functional outcomes in real time. The aim of this study was to design a bioreactor system capable of real-time conditioning (dynamic, uniaxial strain, and electrical stimulation) of centimeter-long 3D tissue engineered constructs simultaneously with the capacity to monitor local strains. The system addresses key limitations of uniform sample loading and real-time imaging capabilities. Our system features an electrospun fibrin scaffold, which exhibits physiologically relevant stiffness and uniaxial alignment that facilitates cell adhesion, alignment, and proliferation. We have demonstrated the capacity for directly incorporating human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells into the fibers during the electrospinning process and subsequent culture of the cell-seeded constructs in the bioreactor. The bioreactor facilitates accurate pre-straining of the 3D constructs as well as the application of dynamic and static uniaxial strains while monitoring bulk construct tensions. The incorporation of fluorescent nanoparticles throughout the scaffolds enables in situ monitoring of local strain fields using fluorescent digital image correlation techniques, since the bioreactor is imaging compatible, and allows the assessment of local sample stiffness and stresses when coupled with force sensor measurements. In addition, the system is capable of measuring the electromechanical coupling of skeletal muscle explants by applying an electrical stimulus and simultaneously measuring the force of contraction. The packaging of these technologies, biomaterials, and analytical methods into a single bioreactor system has produced a

  6. Low cost production of 3D-printed devices and electrostimulation chambers for the culture of primary neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wardyn, Joanna D.; Sanderson, Chris; Swan, Laura E.; Stagi, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of primary neurons is a basic requirement for many areas of neurobiology. However, the range of commercial systems available for culturing primary neurons is functionally limiting, and the expense of these devices is a barrier to both exploratory and large-scale studies. This is especially relevant as primary neurons often require unusual geometries and specialised coatings for optimum growth. Fortunately, the recent revolution in 3D printing offers the possibility to generate customised devices, which can support neuronal growth and constrain neurons in defined paths, thereby enabling many aspects of neuronal physiology to be studied with relative ease. In this article, we provide a detailed description of the system hardware and software required to produce affordable 3D-printed culture devices, which are also compatible with live-cell imaging. In addition, we also describe how to use these devices to grow and stimulate neurons within geometrically constrained compartments and provide examples to illustrate the practical utility and potential that these protocols offer for many aspects of experimental neurobiology. PMID:25962333

  7. Low cost production of 3D-printed devices and electrostimulation chambers for the culture of primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Wardyn, Joanna D; Sanderson, Chris; Swan, Laura E; Stagi, Massimiliano

    2015-08-15

    The analysis of primary neurons is a basic requirement for many areas of neurobiology. However, the range of commercial systems available for culturing primary neurons is functionally limiting, and the expense of these devices is a barrier to both exploratory and large-scale studies. This is especially relevant as primary neurons often require unusual geometries and specialised coatings for optimum growth. Fortunately, the recent revolution in 3D printing offers the possibility to generate customised devices, which can support neuronal growth and constrain neurons in defined paths, thereby enabling many aspects of neuronal physiology to be studied with relative ease. In this article, we provide a detailed description of the system hardware and software required to produce affordable 3D-printed culture devices, which are also compatible with live-cell imaging. In addition, we also describe how to use these devices to grow and stimulate neurons within geometrically constrained compartments and provide examples to illustrate the practical utility and potential that these protocols offer for many aspects of experimental neurobiology. PMID:25962333

  8. Low cost production of 3D-printed devices and electrostimulation chambers for the culture of primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Wardyn, Joanna D; Sanderson, Chris; Swan, Laura E; Stagi, Massimiliano

    2015-08-15

    The analysis of primary neurons is a basic requirement for many areas of neurobiology. However, the range of commercial systems available for culturing primary neurons is functionally limiting, and the expense of these devices is a barrier to both exploratory and large-scale studies. This is especially relevant as primary neurons often require unusual geometries and specialised coatings for optimum growth. Fortunately, the recent revolution in 3D printing offers the possibility to generate customised devices, which can support neuronal growth and constrain neurons in defined paths, thereby enabling many aspects of neuronal physiology to be studied with relative ease. In this article, we provide a detailed description of the system hardware and software required to produce affordable 3D-printed culture devices, which are also compatible with live-cell imaging. In addition, we also describe how to use these devices to grow and stimulate neurons within geometrically constrained compartments and provide examples to illustrate the practical utility and potential that these protocols offer for many aspects of experimental neurobiology.

  9. Application issues when using optical 3D systems in place of CMMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    2002-02-01

    A primary application of optical 3D measurement systems has been in the replacement of mechanical coordinate measurement machines (CMMs). The advantage of optical 3D systems is typically greater speed and flexibility of operation over even the best CMMs. However, the two technologies are not necessarily one to one replacements, requiring new methods of use and in general proof of performance. This paper will present specific data that highlights the differences between CMMs and optical 3D systems and suggests a method to properly achieve CMM compatible results with an optical 3D system and the problems seen in this study.

  10. Combination of Virtual Tours, 3d Model and Digital Data in a 3d Archaeological Knowledge and Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, M.; Brigand, N.

    2012-08-01

    The site of the Engelbourg ruined castle in Thann, Alsace, France, has been for some years the object of all the attention of the city, which is the owner, and also of partners like historians and archaeologists who are in charge of its study. The valuation of the site is one of the main objective, as well as its conservation and its knowledge. The aim of this project is to use the environment of the virtual tour viewer as new base for an Archaeological Knowledge and Information System (AKIS). With available development tools we add functionalities in particular through diverse scripts that convert the viewer into a real 3D interface. By beginning with a first virtual tour that contains about fifteen panoramic images, the site of about 150 times 150 meters can be completely documented by offering the user a real interactivity and that makes visualization very concrete, almost lively. After the choice of pertinent points of view, panoramic images were realized. For the documentation, other sets of images were acquired at various seasons and climate conditions, which allow documenting the site in different environments and states of vegetation. The final virtual tour was deducted from them. The initial 3D model of the castle, which is virtual too, was also joined in the form of panoramic images for completing the understanding of the site. A variety of types of hotspots were used to connect the whole digital documentation to the site, including videos (as reports during the acquisition phases, during the restoration works, during the excavations, etc.), digital georeferenced documents (archaeological reports on the various constituent elements of the castle, interpretation of the excavations and the searches, description of the sets of collected objects, etc.). The completely personalized interface of the system allows either to switch from a panoramic image to another one, which is the classic case of the virtual tours, or to go from a panoramic photographic image

  11. A Simplified Method for Three-Dimensional (3-D) Ovarian Tissue Culture Yielding Oocytes Competent to Produce Full-Term Offspring in Mice.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Carolyn M; Maeda, Yuuki; Horiuchi, Toshitaka; Yamazaki, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    In vitro growth of follicles is a promising technology to generate large quantities of competent oocytes from immature follicles and could expand the potential of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Isolated follicle culture is currently the primary method used to develop and mature follicles in vitro. However, this procedure typically requires complicated, time-consuming procedures, as well as destruction of the normal ovarian microenvironment. Here we describe a simplified 3-D ovarian culture system that can be used to mature multilayered secondary follicles into antral follicles, generating developmentally competent oocytes in vitro. Ovaries recovered from mice at 14 days of age were cut into 8 pieces and placed onto a thick Matrigel drop (3-D culture) for 10 days of culture. As a control, ovarian pieces were cultured on a membrane filter without any Matrigel drop (Membrane culture). We also evaluated the effect of activin A treatment on follicle growth within the ovarian pieces with or without Matrigel support. Thus we tested four different culture conditions: C (Membrane/activin-), A (Membrane/activin+), M (Matrigel/activin-), and M+A (Matrigel/activin+). We found that the cultured follicles and oocytes steadily increased in size regardless of the culture condition used. However, antral cavity formation occurred only in the follicles grown in the 3-D culture system (M, M+A). Following ovarian tissue culture, full-grown GV oocytes were isolated from the larger follicles to evaluate their developmental competence by subjecting them to in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Maturation and fertilization rates were higher using oocytes grown in 3-D culture (M, M+A) than with those grown in membrane culture (C, A). In particular, activin A treatment further improved 3-D culture (M+A) success. Following IVF, two-cell embryos were transferred to recipients to generate full-term offspring. In summary, this simple and easy 3-D ovarian culture

  12. A Simplified Method for Three-Dimensional (3-D) Ovarian Tissue Culture Yielding Oocytes Competent to Produce Full-Term Offspring in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Carolyn M.; Maeda, Yuuki; Horiuchi, Toshitaka; Yamazaki, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    In vitro growth of follicles is a promising technology to generate large quantities of competent oocytes from immature follicles and could expand the potential of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Isolated follicle culture is currently the primary method used to develop and mature follicles in vitro. However, this procedure typically requires complicated, time-consuming procedures, as well as destruction of the normal ovarian microenvironment. Here we describe a simplified 3-D ovarian culture system that can be used to mature multilayered secondary follicles into antral follicles, generating developmentally competent oocytes in vitro. Ovaries recovered from mice at 14 days of age were cut into 8 pieces and placed onto a thick Matrigel drop (3-D culture) for 10 days of culture. As a control, ovarian pieces were cultured on a membrane filter without any Matrigel drop (Membrane culture). We also evaluated the effect of activin A treatment on follicle growth within the ovarian pieces with or without Matrigel support. Thus we tested four different culture conditions: C (Membrane/activin-), A (Membrane/activin+), M (Matrigel/activin-), and M+A (Matrigel/activin+). We found that the cultured follicles and oocytes steadily increased in size regardless of the culture condition used. However, antral cavity formation occurred only in the follicles grown in the 3-D culture system (M, M+A). Following ovarian tissue culture, full-grown GV oocytes were isolated from the larger follicles to evaluate their developmental competence by subjecting them to in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Maturation and fertilization rates were higher using oocytes grown in 3-D culture (M, M+A) than with those grown in membrane culture (C, A). In particular, activin A treatment further improved 3-D culture (M+A) success. Following IVF, two-cell embryos were transferred to recipients to generate full-term offspring. In summary, this simple and easy 3-D ovarian culture

  13. Recapitulating the Tumor Ecosystem Along the Metastatic Cascade Using 3D Culture Models

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyun; Tanner, Kandice

    2015-01-01

    Advances in cancer research have shown that a tumor can be likened to a foreign species that disrupts delicately balanced ecological interactions, compromising the survival of normal tissue ecosystems. In efforts to mitigate tumor expansion and metastasis, experimental approaches from ecology are becoming more frequently and successfully applied by researchers from diverse disciplines to reverse engineer and re-engineer biological systems in order to normalize the tumor ecosystem. We present a review on the use of 3D biomimetic platforms to recapitulate biotic and abiotic components of the tumor ecosystem, in efforts to delineate the underlying mechanisms that drive evolution of tumor heterogeneity, tumor dissemination, and acquisition of drug resistance. PMID:26284194

  14. Development of a stereoscopic 3D display system to observe restored heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikawa, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Mami; Kawai, Takashi; Ohya, Jun

    2004-05-01

    The authors have developed a binocular-type display system that allows digital archives of cultural assets to be viewed in their actual environment. The system is designed for installation in locations where such cultural assets were originally present. The viewer sees buildings and other heritage items as they existed historically by looking through the binoculars. Images of the cultural assets are reproduced by stereoscopic 3D CG in cyberspace, and the images are superimposed on actual images in real-time. This system consists of stereoscopic CCD cameras that capture a stereo view of the landscape and LCDs for presentation to the viewer. Virtual cameras, used to render CG images from digital archives, move in synchrony with the actual cameras, so the relative position of the CG images and the landscape on which they are superimposed is always fixed. The system has manual controls for digital zoom. Furthermore, the transparency of the CG images can be altered by the viewer. As a case study for the effectiveness of this system, the authors chose the Heijyoukyou ruins in Nara, Japan. The authors evaluate the sense of immersion, stereoscopic effect, and usability of the system.

  15. 3D scanning and 3D printing as innovative technologies for fabricating personalized topical drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Det-Amornrat, Usanee; Wang, Jie; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2016-07-28

    Acne is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease with high prevalence. In this work, the potential of 3D printing to produce flexible personalised-shape anti-acne drug (salicylic acid) loaded devices was demonstrated by two different 3D printing (3DP) technologies: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA). 3D scanning technology was used to obtain a 3D model of a nose adapted to the morphology of an individual. In FDM 3DP, commercially produced Flex EcoPLA™ (FPLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) filaments were loaded with salicylic acid by hot melt extrusion (HME) (theoretical drug loading - 2% w/w) and used as feedstock material for 3D printing. Drug loading in the FPLA-salicylic acid and PCL-salicylic acid 3D printed patches was 0.4% w/w and 1.2% w/w respectively, indicating significant thermal degradation of drug during HME and 3D printing. Diffusion testing in Franz cells using a synthetic membrane revealed that the drug loaded printed samples released <187μg/cm(2) within 3h. FPLA-salicylic acid filament was successfully printed as a nose-shape mask by FDM 3DP, but the PCL-salicylic acid filament was not. In the SLA printing process, the drug was dissolved in different mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) that were solidified by the action of a laser beam. SLA printing led to 3D printed devices (nose-shape) with higher resolution and higher drug loading (1.9% w/w) than FDM, with no drug degradation. The results of drug diffusion tests revealed that drug diffusion was faster than with the FDM devices, 229 and 291μg/cm(2) within 3h for the two formulations evaluated. In this study, SLA printing was the more appropriate 3D printing technology to manufacture anti-acne devices with salicylic acid. The combination of 3D scanning and 3D printing has the potential to offer solutions to produce personalised drug loaded devices, adapted in shape and size to individual patients.

  16. 3D scanning and 3D printing as innovative technologies for fabricating personalized topical drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Det-Amornrat, Usanee; Wang, Jie; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2016-07-28

    Acne is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease with high prevalence. In this work, the potential of 3D printing to produce flexible personalised-shape anti-acne drug (salicylic acid) loaded devices was demonstrated by two different 3D printing (3DP) technologies: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA). 3D scanning technology was used to obtain a 3D model of a nose adapted to the morphology of an individual. In FDM 3DP, commercially produced Flex EcoPLA™ (FPLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) filaments were loaded with salicylic acid by hot melt extrusion (HME) (theoretical drug loading - 2% w/w) and used as feedstock material for 3D printing. Drug loading in the FPLA-salicylic acid and PCL-salicylic acid 3D printed patches was 0.4% w/w and 1.2% w/w respectively, indicating significant thermal degradation of drug during HME and 3D printing. Diffusion testing in Franz cells using a synthetic membrane revealed that the drug loaded printed samples released <187μg/cm(2) within 3h. FPLA-salicylic acid filament was successfully printed as a nose-shape mask by FDM 3DP, but the PCL-salicylic acid filament was not. In the SLA printing process, the drug was dissolved in different mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) that were solidified by the action of a laser beam. SLA printing led to 3D printed devices (nose-shape) with higher resolution and higher drug loading (1.9% w/w) than FDM, with no drug degradation. The results of drug diffusion tests revealed that drug diffusion was faster than with the FDM devices, 229 and 291μg/cm(2) within 3h for the two formulations evaluated. In this study, SLA printing was the more appropriate 3D printing technology to manufacture anti-acne devices with salicylic acid. The combination of 3D scanning and 3D printing has the potential to offer solutions to produce personalised drug loaded devices, adapted in shape and size to individual patients. PMID:27189134

  17. Coaxial electrospray of liquid core-hydrogel shell microcapsules for encapsulation and miniaturized 3D culture of pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuting; Agarwal, Pranay; Rao, Wei; Huang, Haishui; Zhang, Renliang; Liu, Zhenguo; Yu, Jianhua; Weisleder, Noah; Zhang, Wujie; He, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    A novel coaxial electrospray technology is developed to generate microcapsules with a hydrogel shell of alginate and an aqueous liquid core of living cells using two aqueous fluids in one step. Approximately 50 murine embryonic stem (ES) cells encapsulated in the core with high viability (92.3 ± 2.9%) can proliferate to form a single ES cell aggregate of 128.9 ± 17.4 μm in each microcapsule within 7 days. Quantitative analyses of gene and protein expression indicate that ES cells cultured in the miniaturized 3D liquid core of the core-shell microcapsules have significantly higher pluripotency on average than the cells cultured on 2D substrate or in the conventional 3D alginate hydrogel microbeads without a core-shell architecture. The higher pluripotency is further suggested by their significantly higher capability of differentiation into beating cardiomyocytes and higher expression of cardiomyocyte specific gene markers on average after directed differentiation under the same conditions. Considering its wide availability, easiness to set up and operate, reusability, and high production rate, the novel coaxial electrospray technology together with the microcapsule system is of importance for mass production of ES cells with high pluripotency to facilitate translation of the emerging pluripotent stem cell-based regenerative medicine into the clinic. PMID:25036382

  18. D3D augmented reality imaging system: proof of concept in mammography

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, David B; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to present images from simulated breast microcalcifications and assess the pattern of the microcalcifications with a technical development called “depth 3-dimensional (D3D) augmented reality”. Materials and methods A computer, head display unit, joystick, D3D augmented reality software, and an in-house script of simulated data of breast microcalcifications in a ductal distribution were used. No patient data was used and no statistical analysis was performed. Results The D3D augmented reality system demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception by presenting a unique image to each eye, focal point convergence, head position tracking, 3D cursor, and joystick fly-through. Conclusion The D3D augmented reality imaging system offers image viewing with depth perception and focal point convergence. The D3D augmented reality system should be tested to determine its utility in clinical practice. PMID:27563261

  19. The Cultural Divide: Exponential Growth in Classical 2D and Metabolic Equilibrium in 3D Environments

    PubMed Central

    Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Borkowski, Kamil; Schwämmle, Veit; Dai, Jie; Joensen, Kira Eyd; Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Carvalho, Vasco Botelho; Fey, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found that they are dramatically different. Results Structurally, actin organization is changed, microtubules are increased and keratins 8 and 18 decreased. Metabolically, glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism and the pentose phosphate shunt are increased while TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation is unchanged. Enzymes involved in cholesterol and urea synthesis are increased consistent with the attainment of cholesterol and urea production rates seen in vivo. DNA repair enzymes are increased even though cells are predominantly in Go. Transport around the cell – along the microtubules, through the nuclear pore and in various types of vesicles has been prioritized. There are numerous coherent changes in transcription, splicing, translation, protein folding and degradation. The amount of individual proteins within complexes is shown to be highly coordinated. Typically subunits which initiate a particular function are present in increased amounts compared to other subunits of the same complex. Summary We have previously demonstrated that cells at dynamic equilibrium can match the physiological performance of cells in tissues in vivo. Here we describe the multitude of protein changes necessary to achieve this performance. PMID:25222612

  20. BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF A SYNTHETIC EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX ON IMMORTALIZED VOCAL FOLD FIBROBLASTS IN 3D CULTURE

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xia

    2010-01-01

    In order to promote wound repair and induce tissue regeneration, an engineered hyaluronan (HA) hydrogel – Carbylan GSX, which contains di(thiopropionyl) bishydrazide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA-DTPH), di(thiopropionyl) bishydrazide-modified gelatin (Gtn-DTPH) and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), has been developed for extracellular matrix (ECM) defects of the superficial and middle layers of the lamina propria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of Carbylan GSX in a previously established immortalized human vocal fold fibroblast (hVFF) cell line prior to human clinical trials. Immortalized hVFF proliferation, viability, apoptosis and transcript analysis for both ECM constituents and inflammatory markers were measured for two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture conditions. There were no significant differences in morphology, cell marker protein expression, proliferation, viability and apoptosis of hVFF cultured with Carbylan GSX compared to Matrigel, a commercial 3D control, after one week. Gene expression levels for fibromodulin, TGF-β1, and TNF-α were similar between Carbylan GSX and Matrigel. Fibronectin, hyaluronidase 1 and COX2 expression levels were induced by Carbylan GSX; whereas IL6, IL8. COL1 and hyaluronic acid synthase 3 expression levels were decreased by Carbylan GSX. This investigation demonstrates that Carbylan GSX may serve as a natural biomaterial for tissue engineering of human vocal folds. PMID:20109588

  1. 3D matrix-based cell cultures: Automated analysis of tumor cell survival and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    EKE, IRIS; HEHLGANS, STEPHANIE; SANDFORT, VEIT; CORDES, NILS

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional ex vivo cell cultures mimic physiological in vivo growth conditions thereby significantly contributing to our understanding of tumor cell growth and survival, therapy resistance and identification of novel potent cancer targets. In the present study, we describe advanced three-dimensional cell culture methodology for investigating cellular survival and proliferation in human carcinoma cells after cancer therapy including molecular therapeutics. Single cells are embedded into laminin-rich extracellular matrix and can be treated with cytotoxic drugs, ionizing or UV radiation or any other substance of interest when consolidated and approximating in vivo morphology. Subsequently, cells are allowed to grow for automated determination of clonogenic survival (colony number) or proliferation (colony size). The entire protocol of 3D cell plating takes ~1 h working time and pursues for ~7 days before evaluation. This newly developed method broadens the spectrum of exploration of malignant tumors and other diseases and enables the obtainment of more reliable data on cancer treatment efficacy. PMID:26549537

  2. Mobile viewer system for virtual 3D space using infrared LED point markers and camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Taneji, Shoto

    2006-09-01

    The authors have developed a 3D workspace system using collaborative imaging devices. A stereoscopic display enables this system to project 3D information. In this paper, we describe the position detecting system for a see-through 3D viewer. A 3D display system is useful technology for virtual reality, mixed reality and augmented reality. We have researched spatial imaging and interaction system. We have ever proposed 3D displays using the slit as a parallax barrier, the lenticular screen and the holographic optical elements(HOEs) for displaying active image 1)2)3)4). The purpose of this paper is to propose the interactive system using these 3D imaging technologies. The observer can view virtual images in the real world when the user watches the screen of a see-through 3D viewer. The goal of our research is to build the display system as follows; when users see the real world through the mobile viewer, the display system gives users virtual 3D images, which is floating in the air, and the observers can touch these floating images and interact them such that kids can make play clay. The key technologies of this system are the position recognition system and the spatial imaging display. The 3D images are presented by the improved parallax barrier 3D display. Here the authors discuss the measuring method of the mobile viewer using infrared LED point markers and a camera in the 3D workspace (augmented reality world). The authors show the geometric analysis of the proposed measuring method, which is the simplest method using a single camera not the stereo camera, and the results of our viewer system.

  3. A Platform for High-Throughput Testing of the Effect of Soluble Compounds on 3D Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Deiss, Frédérique; Mazzeo, Aaron; Hong, Estrella; Ingber, Donald E.; Derda, Ratmir; Whitesides, George M.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro 3D culture could provide an important model of tissues in vivo, but assessing the effects of chemical compounds on cells in specific regions of 3D culture requires physical isolation of cells, and thus currently relies mostly on delicate and low-throughput methods. This paper describes a technique (“cells-in-gels-in-paper” CiGiP) that permits rapid assembly of arrays of 3D cell cultures, and convenient isolation of cells from specific regions of these cultures. The 3D cultures were generated by stacking sheets of 200-μm-thick paper, each sheet supporting 96 individual “spots” (thin circular slabs) of hydrogels containing cells, separated by hydrophobic material (wax, PDMS) impermeable to aqueous solutions, and hydrophilic and most hydrophobic solutes. A custom-made 96-well holder isolated the cell-containing zones from each other. Each well contained media to which a different compound could be added. After culture, and disassembly of the holder, peeling the layers apart ‘sectioned’ the individual 3D cultures into 200-μm-thick sections which were easy to analyze using 2D imaging (e.g., with a commercial gel scanner). This 96-well holder brings new utilities to high-throughput, cell-based screening, by combining the simplicity of CiGiP with the convenience of a microtiter plate. This work demonstrated the potential of this type of assays by examining the cytotoxic effects of phenylarsine oxide (PAO) and cyclophosphamide (CPA) on human breast cancer cells positioned at different separations from culture media in 3D cultures. PMID:23952342

  4. Novel MAPK-dependent and -independent tubulogenes identified via microarray analysis of 3D-cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Heszele, Maria F; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Hellman, Nathan E; McKenna, Sarah; Choi, Soo Young; Huang, Liwei; Tobias, John W; Park, Kwon Moo; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2014-05-01

    Cystogenesis and tubulogenesis are basic building blocks for many epithelial organs, including the kidney. Most researchers have used two-dimensional (2D) cell culture to investigate signaling pathways downstream of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We hypothesize that three-dimensional (3D) collagen-grown Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, which form cysts and then tubulate in response to HGF, are a much more in vivo-like system for the identification of novel tubulogenes. With the use of a canine microarray containing over 20,000 genes, 2,417 genes were identified as potential tubulogenes that were differentially regulated, exclusively in 3D-grown MDCK cells. Among these, 840 were dependent on MAPK signaling. Importantly, this work shows that many putative tubulogenes, previously identified via microarray analysis of 2D cultures, including by us, do not change in 3D culture and vice versa. The use of a 3D-culture system allowed for the identification of novel MAPK-dependent and -independent genes that regulate early renal tubulogenesis in vitro, e.g., matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1). Knockdown of MMP1 led to defects in cystogenesis and tubulogenesis in 3D-grown MDCK cells, most likely due to problems establishing normal polarity. We suggest that data obtained from 2D cultures, even those using MDCK cells treated with HGF, should not be automatically extrapolated to factors important for cystogenesis and tubulogenesis. Instead, 3D culture, which more closely replicates the biological environment and is therefore a more accurate model for identifying tubulogenes, is preferred. Results from the present analysis will be used to build a more accurate model of the signaling pathways that control cystogenesis and tubulogenesis.

  5. Novel MAPK-dependent and -independent tubulogenes identified via microarray analysis of 3D-cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Chacon-Heszele, Maria F.; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Hellman, Nathan E.; McKenna, Sarah; Choi, Soo Young; Huang, Liwei; Tobias, John W.; Park, Kwon Moo

    2014-01-01

    Cystogenesis and tubulogenesis are basic building blocks for many epithelial organs, including the kidney. Most researchers have used two-dimensional (2D) cell culture to investigate signaling pathways downstream of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We hypothesize that three-dimensional (3D) collagen-grown Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, which form cysts and then tubulate in response to HGF, are a much more in vivo-like system for the identification of novel tubulogenes. With the use of a canine microarray containing over 20,000 genes, 2,417 genes were identified as potential tubulogenes that were differentially regulated, exclusively in 3D-grown MDCK cells. Among these, 840 were dependent on MAPK signaling. Importantly, this work shows that many putative tubulogenes, previously identified via microarray analysis of 2D cultures, including by us, do not change in 3D culture and vice versa. The use of a 3D-culture system allowed for the identification of novel MAPK-dependent and -independent genes that regulate early renal tubulogenesis in vitro, e.g., matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1). Knockdown of MMP1 led to defects in cystogenesis and tubulogenesis in 3D-grown MDCK cells, most likely due to problems establishing normal polarity. We suggest that data obtained from 2D cultures, even those using MDCK cells treated with HGF, should not be automatically extrapolated to factors important for cystogenesis and tubulogenesis. Instead, 3D culture, which more closely replicates the biological environment and is therefore a more accurate model for identifying tubulogenes, is preferred. Results from the present analysis will be used to build a more accurate model of the signaling pathways that control cystogenesis and tubulogenesis. PMID:24573390

  6. Impact Assessment of Repeated Exposure of Organotypic 3D Bronchial and Nasal Tissue Culture Models to Whole Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Diana; Majeed, Shoaib; Guedj, Emmanuel; Dulize, Remi; Baumer, Karine; Iskandar, Anita; Boue, Stephanie; Martin, Florian; Kostadinova, Radina; Mathis, Carole; Ivanov, Nikolai V.; Frentzel, Stefan; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) has a major impact on lung biology and may result in the development of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or lung cancer. To understand the underlying mechanisms of disease development, it would be important to examine the impact of CS exposure directly on lung tissues. However, this approach is difficult to implement in epidemiological studies because lung tissue sampling is complex and invasive. Alternatively, tissue culture models can facilitate the assessment of exposure impacts on the lung tissue. Submerged 2D cell cultures, such as normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell cultures, have traditionally been used for this purpose. However, they cannot be exposed directly to smoke in a similar manner to the in vivo exposure situation. Recently developed 3D tissue culture models better reflect the in vivo situation because they can be cultured at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Their basal sides are immersed in the culture medium; whereas, their apical sides are exposed to air. Moreover, organotypic tissue cultures that contain different type of cells, better represent the physiology of the tissue in vivo. In this work, the utilization of an in vitro exposure system to expose human organotypic bronchial and nasal tissue models to mainstream CS is demonstrated. Ciliary beating frequency and the activity of cytochrome P450s (CYP) 1A1/1B1 were measured to assess functional impacts of CS on the tissues. Furthermore, to examine CS-induced alterations at the molecular level, gene expression profiles were generated from the tissues following exposure. A slight increase in CYP1A1/1B1 activity was observed in CS-exposed tissues compared with air-exposed tissues. A network-and transcriptomics-based systems biology approach was sufficiently robust to demonstrate CS-induced alterations of xenobiotic metabolism that were similar to those observed in the bronchial and nasal epithelial cells obtained from smokers. PMID:25741927

  7. Impact assessment of repeated exposure of organotypic 3D bronchial and nasal tissue culture models to whole cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Diana; Majeed, Shoaib; Guedj, Emmanuel; Dulize, Remi; Baumer, Karine; Iskandar, Anita; Boue, Stephanie; Martin, Florian; Kostadinova, Radina; Mathis, Carole; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Frentzel, Stefan; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) has a major impact on lung biology and may result in the development of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or lung cancer. To understand the underlying mechanisms of disease development, it would be important to examine the impact of CS exposure directly on lung tissues. However, this approach is difficult to implement in epidemiological studies because lung tissue sampling is complex and invasive. Alternatively, tissue culture models can facilitate the assessment of exposure impacts on the lung tissue. Submerged 2D cell cultures, such as normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell cultures, have traditionally been used for this purpose. However, they cannot be exposed directly to smoke in a similar manner to the in vivo exposure situation. Recently developed 3D tissue culture models better reflect the in vivo situation because they can be cultured at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Their basal sides are immersed in the culture medium; whereas, their apical sides are exposed to air. Moreover, organotypic tissue cultures that contain different type of cells, better represent the physiology of the tissue in vivo. In this work, the utilization of an in vitro exposure system to expose human organotypic bronchial and nasal tissue models to mainstream CS is demonstrated. Ciliary beating frequency and the activity of cytochrome P450s (CYP) 1A1/1B1 were measured to assess functional impacts of CS on the tissues. Furthermore, to examine CS-induced alterations at the molecular level, gene expression profiles were generated from the tissues following exposure. A slight increase in CYP1A1/1B1 activity was observed in CS-exposed tissues compared with air-exposed tissues. A network-and transcriptomics-based systems biology approach was sufficiently robust to demonstrate CS-induced alterations of xenobiotic metabolism that were similar to those observed in the bronchial and nasal epithelial cells obtained from smokers. PMID:25741927

  8. Culture phases, cytotoxicity and protein expressions of agarose hydrogel induced Sp2/0, A549, MCF-7 cell line 3D cultures.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Maddaly; Kaviya, S R; Paramesh, V

    2016-05-01

    Advancements in cell cultures are occurring at a rapid pace, an important direction is culturing cells in 3D conditions. We demonstrate the usefulness of agarose hydrogels in obtaining 3 dimensional aggregates of three cell lines, A549, MCF-7 and Sp2/0. The differences in culture phases, susceptibility to cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity are studied. Also, the 3D aggregates of the three cell lines were reverted into 2D cultures and the protein profile differences among the 2D, 3D and revert cultures were studied. The analysis of protein profile differences using UniProt data base further augment the usefulness of agarose hydrogels for obtaining 3D cell cultures.

  9. Nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery assessed in a 3D co-culture model simulating prostate cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kathleen A; Guo, Jianfeng; Raftery, Rosanne M; Castaño, Irene Mencía; Curtin, Caroline M; Gooding, Matt; Darcy, Raphael; O' Brien, Fergal J; O' Driscoll, Caitriona M

    2016-09-25

    siRNA has emerged as a potential therapeutic for the treatment of prostate cancer but effective delivery remains a major barrier to its clinical application. This study aimed to develop and characterise a 3D in vitro co-culture model to simulate prostate cancer bone metastasis and to assess the ability of the model to investigate nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery and gene knockdown. PC3 or LNCaP prostate cancer cells were co-cultured with hFOB 1.19 osteoblast cells in 2D on plastic tissue culture plates and in 3D on collagen scaffolds mimicking the bone microenvironment. To characterise the co-culture model, cell proliferation, enzyme secretion and the utility of two different gene delivery vectors to mediate siRNA uptake and gene knockdown were assessed. Cell proliferation was reduced by∼50% by day 7 in the co-culture system relative to monoculture (PC3 and LNCaP co-cultures, in 2D and 3D) and an enhanced level of MMP9 (a marker of bone metastasis) was secreted into the media (1.2-4-fold increase depending on the co-culture system). A cationic cyclodextrin gene delivery vector proved significantly less toxic in the co-culture system relative to the commercially available vector Lipofectamine 2000(®). In addition, knockdown of both the GAPDH gene (minimum 15%) and RelA subunit of the NF-κB transcription factor (minimum 20%) was achieved in 2D and 3D cell co-cultures. Results indicate that the prostate cancer-osteoblast in vitro co-culture model was more physiologically relevant vs the monoculture. This model has the potential to help improve the design and efficacy of gene delivery formulations, to more accurately predict in vivo performance and, therefore, to reduce the risk of product failure in late-stage clinical development. PMID:27492023

  10. Differences in growth properties of endometrial cancer in three dimensional (3D) culture and 2D cell monolayer

    SciTech Connect

    Chitcholtan, Kenny; Asselin, Eric; Parent, Sophie; Sykes, Peter H.; Evans, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models have an invaluable role in understanding the behaviour of tumour cells in a well defined microenvironment. This is because some aspects of tumour characteristics cannot be fully recapitulated in a cell monolayer (2D). In the present study, we compared growth patterns, expression of signalling molecules, and metabolism-associated proteins of endometrial cancer cell lines in 3D and 2D cell cultures. Cancer cells formed spherical structures in 3D reconstituted basement membrane (3D rBM), and the morphological appearance was cell line dependent. Cell differentiation was observed after 8 days in the 3D rBM. There was reduced proliferation, detected by less expression of PCNA in 3D rBM than in 2D cell monolayers. The addition of exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) to cancer cells induced phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt in both cell culture conditions. The uptake of glucose was selectively altered in the 3D rBM, but there was a lack of association with Glut-1 expression. The secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) was selectively altered in 3D rBM, and it was cell line dependent. Our data demonstrated that 3D rBM as an in vitro model can influence proliferation and metabolism of endometrial cancer cell behaviour compared to 2D cell monolayer. Changes are specific to individual cell types. The use of 3D rBM is, therefore, important in the in vitro study of targeted anticancer therapies.

  11. A navigation system for flexible endoscopes using abdominal 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, R.; Kaar, M.; Bathia, Amon; Bathia, Amar; Lampret, A.; Birkfellner, W.; Hummel, J.; Figl, M.

    2014-09-01

    A navigation system for flexible endoscopes equipped with ultrasound (US) scan heads is presented. In contrast to similar systems, abdominal 3D-US is used for image fusion of the pre-interventional computed tomography (CT) to the endoscopic US. A 3D-US scan, tracked with an optical tracking system (OTS), is taken pre-operatively together with the CT scan. The CT is calibrated using the OTS, providing the transformation from CT to 3D-US. Immediately before intervention a 3D-US tracked with an electromagnetic tracking system (EMTS) is acquired and registered intra-modal to the preoperative 3D-US. The endoscopic US is calibrated using the EMTS and registered to the pre-operative CT by an intra-modal 3D-US/3D-US registration. Phantom studies showed a registration error for the US to CT registration of 5.1 mm ± 2.8 mm. 3D-US/3D-US registration of patient data gave an error of 4.1 mm compared to 2.8 mm with the phantom. From this we estimate an error on patient experiments of 5.6 mm.

  12. Digital Inventory and Documentation of Korea's Important Cultural Properties Using 3D Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongseok, K.; Gyesoo, K.; Siro, K.; Eunhwa, K.

    2015-08-01

    As a country with 11 properties included on the World Heritage List and approximately 12,000 important cultural properties, Korea has been continuously carrying out the inventory and documentation of cultural properties to conserve and manage them since the 1960s. The inventory of cultural properties had been carried out by making and managing a register which recorded basic information mainly on state-designated cultural properties such as their size, quantity, and location. The documentation of cultural properties was also carried out by making measured drawings. However, the inventory and documentation done under the previous analog method had a limit to the information it could provide for the effective conservation and management of cultural properties. Moreover, in recent times important cultural properties have frequently been damaged by man-made and natural disasters such as arson, forest fires, and floods, so an alternative was required. Accordingly, Korea actively introduced digital techniques led by the government for the inventory and documentation of important cultural properties. In this process, the government established the concept of a digital set, built a more efficie nt integrated data management system, and created standardized guidelines to maximize the effectiveness of data acquisition, management, and utilization that greatly increased the level of digital inventory, documentation, and archiving.

  13. Interactions among Lung Cancer Cells, Fibroblasts, and Macrophages in 3D Co-Cultures and the Impact on MMP-1 and VEGF Expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Qing; Kiefl, Rosemarie; Roskopf, Claudia; Tian, Fei; Huber, Rudolf M

    2016-01-01

    In vitro cell-based models of lung cancer are frequently employed to study invasion and the mechanisms behind metastasis. However, these models often study only one cell type with two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell cultures, which do not accurately reflect the complexity of inflammation in vivo. Here, a three-dimensional (3D) cell co-culture collagen gel model was employed, containing human lung adenocarcinoma cells (HCC), human lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5), and macrophages. Cell culture media and cell images were collected, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production was monitored under different cell culture conditions. We found that simulating hypoxia and/or serum starvation conditions induced elevated secretion of VEGF in the 3D co-culture model in vitro, but not MMP-1; the morphology of HCC in the 2D versus the 3D co-culture system was extremely different. MMP-1 and VEGF were secreted at higher levels in mixed cell groups rather than mono-culture groups. Therefore, incorporating lung cancer cells, fibroblasts, and macrophages may better reflect physiological metastasis mechanisms compared to mono-culture systems. Tumour stromal cells, macrophages, and fibroblast cells may promote invasion and metastasis, which also provides a new direction for the design of therapies targeted at destroying the stroma of tumor tissues.

  14. Internal structures of scaffold-free 3D cell cultures visualized by synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldamli, Belma; Herzen, Julia; Beckmann, Felix; Tübel, Jutta; Schauwecker, Johannes; Burgkart, Rainer; Jürgens, Philipp; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Sader, Robert; Müller, Bert

    2008-08-01

    Recently the importance of the third dimension in cell biology has been better understood, resulting in a re-orientation towards three-dimensional (3D) cultivation. Yet adequate tools for their morphological characterization have to be established. Synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography (SRμCT) allows visualizing such biological systems with almost isotropic micrometer resolution, non-destructively. We have applied SRμCT for studying the internal morphology of human osteoblast-derived, scaffold-free 3D cultures, termed histoids. Primary human osteoblasts, isolated from femoral neck spongy bone, were grown as 2D culture in non-mineralizing osteogenic medium until a rather thick, multi-cellular membrane was formed. This delicate system was intentionally released to randomly fold itself. The folded cell cultures were grown to histoids of cubic milli- or centimeter size in various combinations of mineralizing and non-mineralizing osteogenic medium for a total period of minimum 56 weeks. The SRμCT-measurements were performed in the absorption contrast mode at the beamlines BW 2 and W 2 (HASYLAB at DESY, Hamburg, Germany), operated by the GKSS-Research Center. To investigate the entire volume of interest several scans were performed under identical conditions and registered to obtain one single dataset of each sample. The histoids grown under different conditions exhibit similar external morphology of globular or ovoid shape. The SRμCT-examination revealed the distinctly different morphological structures inside the histoids. One obtains details of the histoids that permit to identify and select the most promising slices for subsequent histological characterization.

  15. In Vitro Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells into Functional β Islets Under 2D and 3D Culture Conditions and In Vivo Preclinical Validation of 3D Islets.

    PubMed

    Bose, Bipasha; Sudheer, P Shenoy

    2016-01-01

    Since the advent of pluripotent stem cells, (embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells), applications of such pluripotent stem cells are of prime importance. Indeed, scientists are involved in studying the basic biology of pluripotent stem cells, but equal impetus is there to direct the pluripotent stem cells into multiple lineages for cell therapy applications. Scientists across the globe have been successful, to a certain extent, in obtaining cells of definitive endoderm and also pancreatic β islets by differentiating human pluripotent stem cells. Pluripotent stem cell differentiation protocols aim at mimicking in vivo embryonic development. As in vivo embryonic development is a complex process and involves interplay of multiple cytokines, the differentiation protocols also involve a stepwise use of multiple cytokines. Indeed the novel markers for pancreas organogenesis serve as the roadmaps to develop new protocols for pancreatic differentiation from pluripotent stem cells. Earliest developed protocols for pancreas differentiation involved "Nestin selection pathway," a pathway common for both neuronal and pancreatic differentiation lead to the generation of cells that were a combination of cells from neuronal lineage. Eventually with the discovery of hierarchy of β cell transcription factors like Pdx1, Pax4, and Nkx2.2, forced expression of such transcription factors proved successful in converting a pluripotent stem cell into a β cell. Protocols developed almost half a decade ago to the recent ones rather involve stepwise differentiations involving various cytokines and could generate as high as 25 % functional insulin-positive cells in vitro. Most advanced protocols for β islet differentiations from human pluripotent stem cells focused on 3D culture conditions, which reportedly produced 60-65 % functional β islet cells. Here, we describe the protocol for differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into functional β cells under both 2D and 3D

  16. Visualizing Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems in 3D

    EPA Science Inventory

    The need for better visualization tools for environmental science is well documented, and the Visualization for Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems project (VISTAS) aims to both help scientists produce effective environmental science visualizations and to determine which visualizatio...

  17. Snapshot 3D optical coherence tomography system using image mappingspectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thuc-Uyen; Pierce, Mark C; Higgins, Laura; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2013-01-01

    A snapshot 3-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography system was developed using Image MappingSpectrometry. This system can give depth information (Z) at different spatial positions (XY) withinone camera integration time to potentially reduce motion artifact and enhance throughput. Thecurrent (x,y,λ) datacube of (85×356×117) provides a 3Dvisualization of sample with 400 μm depth and 13.4μm in transverse resolution. Axial resolution of 16.0μm can also be achieved in this proof-of-concept system. We present ananalysis of the theoretical constraints which will guide development of future systems withincreased imaging depth and improved axial and lateral resolutions. PMID:23736629

  18. Computational 3-D Model of the Human Respiratory System

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are developing a comprehensive, morphologically-realistic computational model of the human respiratory system that can be used to study the inhalation, deposition, and clearance of contaminants, while being adaptable for age, race, gender, and health/disease status. The model ...

  19. A 3-D Multilateration: A Precision Geodetic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escobal, P. R.; Fliegel, H. F.; Jaffe, R. M.; Muller, P. M.; Ong, K. M.; Vonroos, O. H.

    1972-01-01

    A system was designed with the capability of determining 1-cm accuracy station positions in three dimensions using pulsed laser earth satellite tracking stations coupled with strictly geometric data reduction. With this high accuracy, several crucial geodetic applications become possible, including earthquake hazards assessment, precision surveying, plate tectonics, and orbital determination.

  20. Self-organization of polarized cerebellar tissue in 3D culture of human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Muguruma, Keiko; Nishiyama, Ayaka; Kawakami, Hideshi; Hashimoto, Kouichi; Sasai, Yoshiki

    2015-02-01

    During cerebellar development, the main portion of the cerebellar plate neuroepithelium gives birth to Purkinje cells and interneurons, whereas the rhombic lip, the germinal zone at its dorsal edge, generates granule cells and cerebellar nuclei neurons. However, it remains elusive how these components cooperate to form the intricate cerebellar structure. Here, we found that a polarized cerebellar structure self-organizes in 3D human embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture. The self-organized neuroepithelium differentiates into electrophysiologically functional Purkinje cells. The addition of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) promotes spontaneous generation of dorsoventrally polarized neural-tube-like structures at the level of the cerebellum. Furthermore, addition of SDF1 and FGF19 promotes the generation of a continuous cerebellar plate neuroepithelium with rhombic-lip-like structure at one end and a three-layer cytoarchitecture similar to the embryonic cerebellum. Thus, human-ESC-derived cerebellar progenitors exhibit substantial self-organizing potential for generating a polarized structure reminiscent of the early human cerebellum at the first trimester. PMID:25640179

  1. Bioinspired Tuning of Hydrogel Permeability-Rigidity Dependency for 3D Cell Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Rich, Max H.; Baek, Kwanghyun; Lee, Jonghwi; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2015-03-01

    Hydrogels are being extensively used for three-dimensional immobilization and culture of cells in fundamental biological studies, biochemical processes, and clinical treatments. However, it is still a challenge to support viability and regulate phenotypic activities of cells in a structurally stable gel, because the gel becomes less permeable with increasing rigidity. To resolve this challenge, this study demonstrates a unique method to enhance the permeability of a cell-laden hydrogel while avoiding a significant change in rigidity of the gel. Inspired by the grooved skin textures of marine organisms, a hydrogel is assembled to present computationally optimized micro-sized grooves on the surface. Separately, a gel is engineered to preset aligned microchannels similar to a plant's vascular bundles through a uniaxial freeze-drying process. The resulting gel displays significantly increased water diffusivity with reduced changes of gel stiffness, exclusively when the microgrooves and microchannels are aligned together. No significant enhancement of rehydration is achieved when the microgrooves and microchannels are not aligned. Such material design greatly enhances viability and neural differentiation of stem cells and 3D neural network formation within the gel.

  2. Bioinspired Tuning of Hydrogel Permeability-Rigidity Dependency for 3D Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Kyung; Rich, Max H.; Baek, Kwanghyun; Lee, Jonghwi; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogels are being extensively used for three-dimensional immobilization and culture of cells in fundamental biological studies, biochemical processes, and clinical treatments. However, it is still a challenge to support viability and regulate phenotypic activities of cells in a structurally stable gel, because the gel becomes less permeable with increasing rigidity. To resolve this challenge, this study demonstrates a unique method to enhance the permeability of a cell-laden hydrogel while avoiding a significant change in rigidity of the gel. Inspired by the grooved skin textures of marine organisms, a hydrogel is assembled to present computationally optimized micro-sized grooves on the surface. Separately, a gel is engineered to preset aligned microchannels similar to a plant's vascular bundles through a uniaxial freeze-drying process. The resulting gel displays significantly increased water diffusivity with reduced changes of gel stiffness, exclusively when the microgrooves and microchannels are aligned together. No significant enhancement of rehydration is achieved when the microgrooves and microchannels are not aligned. Such material design greatly enhances viability and neural differentiation of stem cells and 3D neural network formation within the gel. PMID:25752700

  3. Animal testing using 3D microwave tomography system for breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Moon; Son, Sung Ho; Kim, Hyuk Je; Kim, Bo Ra; Choi, Heyng Do; Jeon, Soon Ik

    2014-01-01

    The three dimensional microwave tomography (3D MT) system of the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) comprises an antenna array, transmitting receiving module, switch matrix module and a signal processing component. This system also includes a patient interface bed as well as a 3D reconstruction algorithm. Here, we perform a comparative analysis of image reconstruction results using the assembled system and MRI results, which is used to image the breasts of dogs. Microwave imaging reconstruction results (at 1,500 MHz) obtained using the ETRI 3D MT system are presented. The system provides computationally reliable diagnosis results from the reconstructed MT Image. PMID:25160233

  4. Annular beam shaping system for advanced 3D laser brazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pütsch, Oliver; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Kogel-Hollacher, Markus; Traub, Martin

    2012-10-01

    As laser brazing benefits from advantages such as smooth joints and small heat-affected zones, it has become established as a joining technology that is widely used in the automotive industry. With the processing of complex-shaped geometries, recent developed brazing heads suffer, however, from the need for continuous reorientation of the optical system and/or limited accessibility due to lateral wire feeding. This motivates the development of a laser brazing head with coaxial wire feeding and enhanced functionality. An optical system is designed that allows to generate an annular intensity distribution in the working zone. The utilization of complex optical components avoids obscuration of the optical path by the wire feeding. The new design overcomes the disadvantages of the state-of-the-art brazing heads with lateral wire feeding and benefits from the independence of direction while processing complex geometries. To increase the robustness of the brazing process, the beam path also includes a seam tracking system, leading to a more challenging design of the whole optical train. This paper mainly discusses the concept and the optical design of the coaxial brazing head, and also presents the results obtained with a prototype and selected application results.

  5. Cyclic Strain Anisotropy Regulates Valvular Interstitial Cell Phenotype and Tissue Remodeling in 3D Culture

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Russell A.; Chin, Karen; Santisakultarm, Thom P.; Dropkin, Amanda; Richards, Jennifer M.; Schaffer, Chris B.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Many planar connective tissues exhibit complex anisotropic matrix fiber arrangements that are critical to their biomechanical function. This organized structure is created and modified by resident fibroblasts in response to mechanical forces in their environment. The directionality of applied strain fields change dramatically during development, aging, and disease, but the specific effect of strain direction on matrix remodeling is less clear. Current mechanobiological inquiry of planar tissues is limited to equibiaxial or uniaxial stretch, which inadequately simulate many in vivo environments. In this study, we implement a novel bioreactor system to demonstrate the unique effect of controlled anisotropic strain on fibroblast behavior in 3D engineered tissue environments, using aortic valve interstitial fibroblast cells (VIC) as a model system. Cell seeded 3D collagen hydrogels were subjected to cyclic anisotropic strain profiles maintained at constant areal strain magnitude for up to 96 hours at 1Hz. Increasing anisotropy of biaxial strain resulted in increased cellular orientation and collagen fiber alignment along the principal directions of strain and cell orientation was found to precede fiber reorganization. Cellular proliferation and apoptosis were both significantly enhanced under increasing biaxial strain anisotropy (P < 0.05). While cyclic strain reduced both vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin compared to unstrained controls, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression increased with strain anisotropy and correlated with direction (P < 0.05). Collectively, these results suggest that strain field anisotropy is an independent regulator of fibroblast cell phenotype, turnover, and matrix reorganization, which may inform normal and pathological remodeling in soft tissues. PMID:22281945

  6. 3D two-photon lithographic microfabrication system

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Daekeun; So, Peter T. C.

    2011-03-08

    An imaging system is provided that includes a optical pulse generator for providing an optical pulse having a spectral bandwidth and includes monochromatic waves having different wavelengths. A dispersive element receives a second optical pulse associated with the optical pulse and disperses the second optical pulse at different angles on the surface of the dispersive element depending on wavelength. One or more focal elements receives the dispersed second optical pulse produced on the dispersive element. The one or more focal element recombine the dispersed second optical pulse at a focal plane on a specimen where the width of the optical pulse is restored at the focal plane.

  7. Large LED screen 3D television system without eyewear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Hayasaki, Yoshio

    2004-10-01

    Since the development of high-brightness blue and green LEDs, the use of outdoor commercial LED displays has been increasing. Because of their high brightness, good visibility, and long-term durability to the weather, LED displays are a preferred technology for outdoor installations such as stadiums, street advertising, and billboards. This paper deals with a large stereoscopic full-color LED display by use of a parallax barrier. We discuss optimization of the viewing area, which depends on LED arrangements. An enlarged viewing area has been demonstrated by using a 3-in-1 chip LED panel that has wider black regions than ordinary LED lamp cluster panels. We have developed a real-time measurement system of a viewer's position and utilized the measurement system for evaluation of performance of the different designs of stereoscopic LED displays, including conventional designs to provide multiple perspective images and designs to eliminate pseudoscopic viewing areas. In order to show real-world images, it is necessary to capture stereo-images, to process them, and to show in real-time. We have developed an active binocular camera and demonstrated the real-time display of stereoscopic movies and real-time control of convergence.

  8. Treatment Paradigms for Retinal and Macular Diseases Using 3-D Retina Cultures Derived From Human Reporter Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kaewkhaw, Rossukon; Swaroop, Manju; Homma, Kohei; Nakamura, Jutaro; Brooks, Matthew; Kaya, Koray Dogan; Chaitankar, Vijender; Michael, Sam; Tawa, Gregory; Zou, Jizhong; Rao, Mahendra; Zheng, Wei; Cogliati, Tiziana; Swaroop, Anand

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the use of pluripotent stem cell lines carrying fluorescent reporters driven by retinal promoters to derive three-dimensional (3-D) retina in culture and how this system can be exploited for elucidating human retinal biology, creating disease models in a dish, and designing targeted drug screens for retinal and macular degeneration. Furthermore, we realize that stem cell investigations are labor-intensive and require extensive resources. To expedite scientific discovery by sharing of resources and to avoid duplication of efforts, we propose the formation of a Retinal Stem Cell Consortium. In the field of vision, such collaborative approaches have been enormously successful in elucidating genetic susceptibility associated with age-related macular degeneration. PMID:27116668

  9. Treatment Paradigms for Retinal and Macular Diseases Using 3-D Retina Cultures Derived From Human Reporter Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Kaewkhaw, Rossukon; Swaroop, Manju; Homma, Kohei; Nakamura, Jutaro; Brooks, Matthew; Kaya, Koray Dogan; Chaitankar, Vijender; Michael, Sam; Tawa, Gregory; Zou, Jizhong; Rao, Mahendra; Zheng, Wei; Cogliati, Tiziana; Swaroop, Anand

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the use of pluripotent stem cell lines carrying fluorescent reporters driven by retinal promoters to derive three-dimensional (3-D) retina in culture and how this system can be exploited for elucidating human retinal biology, creating disease models in a dish, and designing targeted drug screens for retinal and macular degeneration. Furthermore, we realize that stem cell investigations are labor-intensive and require extensive resources. To expedite scientific discovery by sharing of resources and to avoid duplication of efforts, we propose the formation of a Retinal Stem Cell Consortium. In the field of vision, such collaborative approaches have been enormously successful in elucidating genetic susceptibility associated with age-related macular degeneration. PMID:27116668

  10. Characterization of 3D printing output using an optical sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the experimental design and initial testing of a system to characterize the progress and performance of a 3D printer. The system is based on five Raspberry Pi single-board computers. It collects images of the 3D printed object, which are compared to an ideal model. The system, while suitable for printers of all sizes, can potentially be produced at a sufficiently low cost to allow its incorporation into consumer-grade printers. The efficacy and accuracy of this system is presented and discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the benefits of being able to characterize 3D printer performance.

  11. Generation of Multi-Scale Vascular Network System within 3D Hydrogel using 3D Bio-Printing Technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian K; Lanzi, Alison M; Haygan, Ngo; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Vincent, Peter A; Dai, Guohao

    2014-09-01

    Although 3D bio-printing technology has great potential in creating complex tissues with multiple cell types and matrices, maintaining the viability of thick tissue construct for tissue growth and maturation after the printing is challenging due to lack of vascular perfusion. Perfused capillary network can be a solution for this issue; however, construction of a complete capillary network at single cell level using the existing technology is nearly impossible due to limitations in time and spatial resolution of the dispensing technology. To address the vascularization issue, we developed a 3D printing method to construct larger (lumen size of ~1mm) fluidic vascular channels and to create adjacent capillary network through a natural maturation process, thus providing a feasible solution to connect the capillary network to the large perfused vascular channels. In our model, microvascular bed was formed in between two large fluidic vessels, and then connected to the vessels by angiogenic sprouting from the large channel edge. Our bio-printing technology has a great potential in engineering vascularized thick tissues and vascular niches, as the vascular channels are simultaneously created while cells and matrices are printed around the channels in desired 3D patterns. PMID:25484989

  12. Generation of Multi-Scale Vascular Network System within 3D Hydrogel using 3D Bio-Printing Technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian K; Lanzi, Alison M; Haygan, Ngo; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Vincent, Peter A; Dai, Guohao

    2014-09-01

    Although 3D bio-printing technology has great potential in creating complex tissues with multiple cell types and matrices, maintaining the viability of thick tissue construct for tissue growth and maturation after the printing is challenging due to lack of vascular perfusion. Perfused capillary network can be a solution for this issue; however, construction of a complete capillary network at single cell level using the existing technology is nearly impossible due to limitations in time and spatial resolution of the dispensing technology. To address the vascularization issue, we developed a 3D printing method to construct larger (lumen size of ~1mm) fluidic vascular channels and to create adjacent capillary network through a natural maturation process, thus providing a feasible solution to connect the capillary network to the large perfused vascular channels. In our model, microvascular bed was formed in between two large fluidic vessels, and then connected to the vessels by angiogenic sprouting from the large channel edge. Our bio-printing technology has a great potential in engineering vascularized thick tissues and vascular niches, as the vascular channels are simultaneously created while cells and matrices are printed around the channels in desired 3D patterns.

  13. Generation of Multi-Scale Vascular Network System within 3D Hydrogel using 3D Bio-Printing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vivian K.; Lanzi, Alison M.; Haygan, Ngo; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Vincent, Peter A.; Dai, Guohao

    2014-01-01

    Although 3D bio-printing technology has great potential in creating complex tissues with multiple cell types and matrices, maintaining the viability of thick tissue construct for tissue growth and maturation after the printing is challenging due to lack of vascular perfusion. Perfused capillary network can be a solution for this issue; however, construction of a complete capillary network at single cell level using the existing technology is nearly impossible due to limitations in time and spatial resolution of the dispensing technology. To address the vascularization issue, we developed a 3D printing method to construct larger (lumen size of ~1mm) fluidic vascular channels and to create adjacent capillary network through a natural maturation process, thus providing a feasible solution to connect the capillary network to the large perfused vascular channels. In our model, microvascular bed was formed in between two large fluidic vessels, and then connected to the vessels by angiogenic sprouting from the large channel edge. Our bio-printing technology has a great potential in engineering vascularized thick tissues and vascular niches, as the vascular channels are simultaneously created while cells and matrices are printed around the channels in desired 3D patterns. PMID:25484989

  14. Quantitative wound healing measurement and monitoring system based on an innovative 3D imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Steven; Yang, Arthur; Yin, Gongjie; Wen, James

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we report a novel three-dimensional (3D) wound imaging system (hardware and software) under development at Technest Inc. System design is aimed to perform accurate 3D measurement and modeling of a wound and track its healing status over time. Accurate measurement and tracking of wound healing enables physicians to assess, document, improve, and individualize the treatment plan given to each wound patient. In current wound care practices, physicians often visually inspect or roughly measure the wound to evaluate the healing status. This is not an optimal practice since human vision lacks precision and consistency. In addition, quantifying slow or subtle changes through perception is very difficult. As a result, an instrument that quantifies both skin color and geometric shape variations would be particularly useful in helping clinicians to assess healing status and judge the effect of hyperemia, hematoma, local inflammation, secondary infection, and tissue necrosis. Once fully developed, our 3D imaging system will have several unique advantages over traditional methods for monitoring wound care: (a) Non-contact measurement; (b) Fast and easy to use; (c) up to 50 micron measurement accuracy; (d) 2D/3D Quantitative measurements;(e) A handheld device; and (f) Reasonable cost (< $1,000).

  15. Intrinsic FGF2 and FGF5 promotes angiogenesis of human aortic endothelial cells in 3D microfluidic angiogenesis system

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ha-Rim; Jeong, Hyo Eun; Joo, Hyung Joon; Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Chi-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Ho; Choi, Ji-Hyun; Cui, Long-Hui; Hong, Soon Jun; Chung, Seok; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-01-01

    The human body contains different endothelial cell types and differences in their angiogenic potential are poorly understood. We compared the functional angiogenic ability of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic cell culture system. HAECs and HUVECs exhibited similar cellular characteristics in a 2D culture system; however, in the 3D microfluidic angiogenesis system, HAECs exhibited stronger angiogenic potential than HUVECs. Interestingly, the expression level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 and FGF5 under vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A stimulation was significantly higher in HAECs than in HUVECs. Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of FGF2 and FGF5 more significantly attenuated vascular sprouting induced from HAECs than HUVECs. Our results suggest that HAECs have greater angiogenic potential through FGF2 and FGF5 upregulation and could be a compatible endothelial cell type to achieve robust angiogenesis. PMID:27357248

  16. Impact of the 3-D model strategy on science learning of the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Mohammed

    The purpose of this mixed method study, quantitative and descriptive, was to determine whether the first-middle grade (seventh grade) students at Saudi schools are able to learn and use the Autodesk Maya software to interact and create their own 3-D models and animations and whether their use of the software influences their study habits and their understanding of the school subject matter. The study revealed that there is value to the science students regarding the use of 3-D software to create 3-D models to complete science assignments. Also, this study aimed to address the middle-school students' ability to learn 3-D software in art class, and then ultimately use it in their science class. The success of this study may open the way to consider the impact of 3-D modeling on other school subjects, such as mathematics, art, and geography. When the students start using graphic design, including 3-D software, at a young age, they tend to develop personal creativity and skills. The success of this study, if applied in schools, will provide the community with skillful young designers and increase awareness of graphic design and the new 3-D technology. Experimental method was used to answer the quantitative research question, are there significant differences applying the learning method using 3-D models (no 3-D, premade 3-D, and create 3-D) in a science class being taught about the solar system and its impact on the students' science achievement scores? Descriptive method was used to answer the qualitative research questions that are about the difficulty of learning and using Autodesk Maya software, time that students take to use the basic levels of Polygon and Animation parts of the Autodesk Maya software, and level of students' work quality.

  17. Investigation of Adaptive Responses in Bystander Cells in 3D Cultures Containing Tritium-Labeled and Unlabeled Normal Human Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Massimo; Azzam, Edouard I.; Howell, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    The study of radiation-induced bystander effects in normal human cells maintained in three-dimensional (3D) architecture provides more in vivo-like conditions and is relevant to human risk assessment. Linear energy transfer, dose and dose rate have been considered as critical factors in propagating radiation-induced effects. This investigation uses an in vitro 3D tissue culture model in which normal AG1522 human fibroblasts are grown in a carbon scaffold to investigate induction of a G1 arrest in bystander cells that neighbor radiolabeled cells. Cell cultures were co-pulse-labeled with [3H]deoxycytidine (3HdC) to selectively irradiate a minor fraction of cells with 1–5 keV/μm β particles and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to identify the radiolabeled cells using immunofluorescence. The induction of a G1 arrest was measured specifically in unlabeled cells (i.e. bystander cells) using a flow cytometry-based version of the cumulative labeling index assay. To investigate the relationship between bystander effects and adaptive responses, cells were challenged with an acute 4 Gy γ-radiation dose after they had been kept under the bystander conditions described above for several hours, and the regulation of the radiation-induced G1 arrest was measured selectively in bystander cells. When the average dose rate in 3HdC-labeled cells (<16% of population) was 0.04–0.37 Gy/h (average accumulated dose 0.14–10 Gy), no statistically significant stressful bystander effects or adaptive bystander effects were observed as measured by magnitude of the G1 arrest, micronucleus formation, or changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. Higher dose rates and/or higher LET may be required to observe stressful bystander effects in this experimental system, whereas lower dose rates and challenge doses may be required to detect adaptive bystander responses. PMID:20681788

  18. A fast 3D reconstruction system with a low-cost camera accessory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiwei; Gibson, Graham M.; Hay, Rebecca; Bowman, Richard W.; Padgett, Miles J.; Edgar, Matthew P.

    2015-06-01

    Photometric stereo is a three dimensional (3D) imaging technique that uses multiple 2D images, obtained from a fixed camera perspective, with different illumination directions. Compared to other 3D imaging methods such as geometry modeling and 3D-scanning, it comes with a number of advantages, such as having a simple and efficient reconstruction routine. In this work, we describe a low-cost accessory to a commercial digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera system allowing fast reconstruction of 3D objects using photometric stereo. The accessory consists of four white LED lights fixed to the lens of a commercial DSLR camera and a USB programmable controller board to sequentially control the illumination. 3D images are derived for different objects with varying geometric complexity and results are presented, showing a typical height error of <3 mm for a 50 mm sized object.

  19. A fast 3D reconstruction system with a low-cost camera accessory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiwei; Gibson, Graham M; Hay, Rebecca; Bowman, Richard W; Padgett, Miles J; Edgar, Matthew P

    2015-06-09

    Photometric stereo is a three dimensional (3D) imaging technique that uses multiple 2D images, obtained from a fixed camera perspective, with different illumination directions. Compared to other 3D imaging methods such as geometry modeling and 3D-scanning, it comes with a number of advantages, such as having a simple and efficient reconstruction routine. In this work, we describe a low-cost accessory to a commercial digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera system allowing fast reconstruction of 3D objects using photometric stereo. The accessory consists of four white LED lights fixed to the lens of a commercial DSLR camera and a USB programmable controller board to sequentially control the illumination. 3D images are derived for different objects with varying geometric complexity and results are presented, showing a typical height error of <3 mm for a 50 mm sized object.

  20. Opti-acoustic stereo imaging: on system calibration and 3-D target reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Negahdaripour, Shahriar; Sekkati, Hicham; Pirsiavash, Hamed

    2009-06-01

    Utilization of an acoustic camera for range measurements is a key advantage for 3-D shape recovery of underwater targets by opti-acoustic stereo imaging, where the associated epipolar geometry of optical and acoustic image correspondences can be described in terms of conic sections. In this paper, we propose methods for system calibration and 3-D scene reconstruction by maximum likelihood estimation from noisy image measurements. The recursive 3-D reconstruction method utilized as initial condition a closed-form solution that integrates the advantages of two other closed-form solutions, referred to as the range and azimuth solutions. Synthetic data tests are given to provide insight into the merits of the new target imaging and 3-D reconstruction paradigm, while experiments with real data confirm the findings based on computer simulations, and demonstrate the merits of this novel 3-D reconstruction paradigm.

  1. A fast 3D reconstruction system with a low-cost camera accessory

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiwei; Gibson, Graham M.; Hay, Rebecca; Bowman, Richard W.; Padgett, Miles J.; Edgar, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Photometric stereo is a three dimensional (3D) imaging technique that uses multiple 2D images, obtained from a fixed camera perspective, with different illumination directions. Compared to other 3D imaging methods such as geometry modeling and 3D-scanning, it comes with a number of advantages, such as having a simple and efficient reconstruction routine. In this work, we describe a low-cost accessory to a commercial digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera system allowing fast reconstruction of 3D objects using photometric stereo. The accessory consists of four white LED lights fixed to the lens of a commercial DSLR camera and a USB programmable controller board to sequentially control the illumination. 3D images are derived for different objects with varying geometric complexity and results are presented, showing a typical height error of <3 mm for a 50 mm sized object. PMID:26057407

  2. Opti-acoustic stereo imaging: on system calibration and 3-D target reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Negahdaripour, Shahriar; Sekkati, Hicham; Pirsiavash, Hamed

    2009-06-01

    Utilization of an acoustic camera for range measurements is a key advantage for 3-D shape recovery of underwater targets by opti-acoustic stereo imaging, where the associated epipolar geometry of optical and acoustic image correspondences can be described in terms of conic sections. In this paper, we propose methods for system calibration and 3-D scene reconstruction by maximum likelihood estimation from noisy image measurements. The recursive 3-D reconstruction method utilized as initial condition a closed-form solution that integrates the advantages of two other closed-form solutions, referred to as the range and azimuth solutions. Synthetic data tests are given to provide insight into the merits of the new target imaging and 3-D reconstruction paradigm, while experiments with real data confirm the findings based on computer simulations, and demonstrate the merits of this novel 3-D reconstruction paradigm. PMID:19380272

  3. Quality Analysis of 3d Surface Reconstruction Using Multi-Platform Photogrammetric Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lari, Z.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the necessity of accurate 3D surface reconstruction has been more pronounced for a wide range of mapping, modelling, and monitoring applications. The 3D data for satisfying the needs of these applications can be collected using different digital imaging systems. Among them, photogrammetric systems have recently received considerable attention due to significant improvements in digital imaging sensors, emergence of new mapping platforms, and development of innovative data processing techniques. To date, a variety of techniques haven been proposed for 3D surface reconstruction using imagery collected by multi-platform photogrammetric systems. However, these approaches suffer from the lack of a well-established quality control procedure which evaluates the quality of reconstructed 3D surfaces independent of the utilized reconstruction technique. Hence, this paper aims to introduce a new quality assessment platform for the evaluation of the 3D surface reconstruction using photogrammetric data. This quality control procedure is performed while considering the quality of input data, processing procedures, and photo-realistic 3D surface modelling. The feasibility of the proposed quality control procedure is finally verified by quality assessment of the 3D surface reconstruction using images from different photogrammetric systems.

  4. PCaAnalyser: a 2D-image analysis based module for effective determination of prostate cancer progression in 3D culture.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Windus, Louisa C E; Lovitt, Carrie J; Avery, Vicky M

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro cell based assays for Prostate Cancer (PCa) research are rapidly becoming the preferred alternative to that of conventional 2D monolayer cultures. 3D assays more precisely mimic the microenvironment found in vivo, and thus are ideally suited to evaluate compounds and their suitability for progression in the drug discovery pipeline. To achieve the desired high throughput needed for most screening programs, automated quantification of 3D cultures is required. Towards this end, this paper reports on the development of a prototype analysis module for an automated high-content-analysis (HCA) system, which allows for accurate and fast investigation of in vitro 3D cell culture models for PCa. The Java based program, which we have named PCaAnalyser, uses novel algorithms that allow accurate and rapid quantitation of protein expression in 3D cell culture. As currently configured, the PCaAnalyser can quantify a range of biological parameters including: nuclei-count, nuclei-spheroid membership prediction, various function based classification of peripheral and non-peripheral areas to measure expression of biomarkers and protein constituents known to be associated with PCa progression, as well as defining segregate cellular-objects effectively for a range of signal-to-noise ratios. In addition, PCaAnalyser architecture is highly flexible, operating as a single independent analysis, as well as in batch mode; essential for High-Throughput-Screening (HTS). Utilising the PCaAnalyser, accurate and rapid analysis in an automated high throughput manner is provided, and reproducible analysis of the distribution and intensity of well-established markers associated with PCa progression in a range of metastatic PCa cell-lines (DU145 and PC3) in a 3D model demonstrated.

  5. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Characterization in a 3D-cell culture model

    PubMed Central

    Gagliano, Nicoletta; Celesti, Giuseppe; Tacchini, Lorenza; Pluchino, Stefano; Sforza, Chiarella; Rasile, Marco; Valerio, Vincenza; Laghi, Luigi; Conte, Vincenzo; Procacci, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the effect of three-dimensional (3D)-arrangement on the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. METHODS: HPAF-II, HPAC, and PL45 PDAC cells were cultured in either 2D-monolayers or 3D-spheroids. Ultrastructure was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, N-cadherin, collagen type I (COL-I), vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and podoplanin was assayed by confocal microscopy in cells cultured on 12-mm diameter round coverslips and in 3D-spheroids. Gene expression for E-cadherin, Snail, Slug, Twist, Zeb1, and Zeb2 was quantified by real-time PCR. E-cadherin protein level and its electrophoretic pattern were studied by Western blot in cell lysates obtained from cells grown in 2D-monolayers and 3D-spheroids. RESULTS: The E-cadherin/β-catenin complex was expressed in a similar way in plasma membrane cell boundaries in both 2D-monolayers and 3D-spheroids. E-cadherin increased in lysates obtained from 3D-spheroids, while cleavage fragments were more evident in 2D-monolayers. N-cadherin expression was observed in very few PDAC cells grown in 2D-monolayers, but was more evident in 3D-spheroids. Some cells expressing COL-I were observed in 3D-spheroids. Podoplanin, expressed in collectively migrating cells, and αSMA were similarly expressed in both experimental conditions. The concomitant maintenance of the E-cadherin/β-catenin complex at cell boundaries supports the hypothesis of a collective migration for these cells, which is consistent with podoplanin expression. CONCLUSION: We show that a 3D-cell culture model could provide deeper insight into understanding the biology of PDAC and allow for the detection of marked differences in the phenotype of PDAC cells grown in 3D-spheroids. PMID:27182158

  6. 3D Documentation and BIM Modeling of Cultural Heritage Structures Using UAVs: The Case of the Foinikaria Church

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themistocleous, K.; Agapiou, A.; Hadjimitsis, D.

    2016-10-01

    The documentation of architectural cultural heritage sites has traditionally been expensive and labor-intensive. New innovative technologies, such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), provide an affordable, reliable and straightforward method of capturing cultural heritage sites, thereby providing a more efficient and sustainable approach to documentation of cultural heritage structures. In this study, hundreds of images of the Panagia Chryseleousa church in Foinikaria, Cyprus were taken using a UAV with an attached high resolution camera. The images were processed to generate an accurate digital 3D model by using Structure in Motion techniques. Building Information Model (BIM) was then used to generate drawings of the church. The methodology described in the paper provides an accurate, simple and cost-effective method of documenting cultural heritage sites and generating digital 3D models using novel techniques and innovative methods.

  7. Development of 3D Woven Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) for NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay D.; Ellerby, Don; Stackpoole, Mairead; Peterson, Keith; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2015-01-01

    The development of a new class of thermal protection system (TPS) materials known as 3D Woven TPS led by the Entry Systems and Technology Division of NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) will be discussed. This effort utilizes 3D weaving and resin infusion technologies to produce heat shield materials that are engineered and optimized for specific missions and requirements. A wide range of architectures and compositions have been produced and preliminarily tested to prove the viability and tailorability of the 3D weaving approach to TPS.

  8. A 3D acquisition system combination of structured-light scanning and shape from silhouette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Changku; Tao, Li; Wang, Peng; He, Li

    2006-05-01

    A robust and accurate three dimensional (3D) acquisition system is presented, which is a combination of structured-light scanning and shape from silhouette. Using common world coordinate system, two groups of point data can be integrated into the final complete 3D model without any integration and registration algorithm. The mathematics model of structured-light scanning is described in detail, and the shape from silhouette algorithm is introduced as well. The complete 3D model of a cup with a handle is obtained successfully by the proposed technique. At last the measurement on a ball bearing is performed, with the measurement precision better than 0.15 mm.

  9. Peach Bottom 2 Turbine Trip Simulation Using TRAC-BF1/COS3D, a Best-Estimate Coupled 3-D Core and Thermal-Hydraulic Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Ui, Atsushi; Miyaji, Takamasa

    2004-10-15

    The best-estimate coupled three-dimensional (3-D) core and thermal-hydraulic code system TRAC-BF1/COS3D has been developed. COS3D, based on a modified one-group neutronic model, is a 3-D core simulator used for licensing analyses and core management of commercial boiling water reactor (BWR) plants in Japan. TRAC-BF1 is a plant simulator based on a two-fluid model. TRAC-BF1/COS3D is a coupled system of both codes, which are connected using a parallel computing tool. This code system was applied to the OECD/NRC BWR Turbine Trip Benchmark. Since the two-group cross-section tables are provided by the benchmark team, COS3D was modified to apply to this specification. Three best-estimate scenarios and four hypothetical scenarios were calculated using this code system. In the best-estimate scenario, the predicted core power with TRAC-BF1/COS3D is slightly underestimated compared with the measured data. The reason seems to be a slight difference in the core boundary conditions, that is, pressure changes and the core inlet flow distribution, because the peak in this analysis is sensitive to them. However, the results of this benchmark analysis show that TRAC-BF1/COS3D gives good precision for the prediction of the actual BWR transient behavior on the whole. Furthermore, the results with the modified one-group model and the two-group model were compared to verify the application of the modified one-group model to this benchmark. This comparison shows that the results of the modified one-group model are appropriate and sufficiently precise.

  10. ProteinVista: a fast molecular visualization system using Microsoft Direct3D.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Yong; Park, Sung-Hee; Park, Soo-Jun; Park, Sun-Hee; Hwang, Chi-Jung

    2008-09-01

    Many tools have been developed to visualize protein and molecular structures. Most high quality protein visualization tools use the OpenGL graphics library as a 3D graphics system. Currently, the performance of recent 3D graphics hardware has rapidly improved. Recent high-performance 3D graphics hardware support Microsoft Direct3D graphics library more than OpenGL and have become very popular in personal computers (PCs). In this paper, a molecular visualization system termed ProteinVista is proposed. ProteinVista is well-designed visualization system using the Microsoft Direct3D graphics library. It provides various visualization styles such as the wireframe, stick, ball and stick, space fill, ribbon, and surface model styles, in addition to display options for 3D visualization. As ProteinVista is optimized for recent 3D graphics hardware platforms and because it uses a geometry instancing technique, its rendering speed is 2.7 times faster compared to other visualization tools.

  11. GEO3D - Three-Dimensional Computer Model of a Ground Source Heat Pump System

    SciTech Connect

    James Menart

    2013-06-07

    This file is the setup file for the computer program GEO3D. GEO3D is a computer program written by Jim Menart to simulate vertical wells in conjunction with a heat pump for ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems. This is a very detailed three-dimensional computer model. This program produces detailed heat transfer and temperature field information for a vertical GSHP system.

  12. 5D Modelling: An Efficient Approach for Creating Spatiotemporal Predictive 3D Maps of Large-Scale Cultural Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doulamis, A.; Doulamis, N.; Ioannidis, C.; Chrysouli, C.; Grammalidis, N.; Dimitropoulos, K.; Potsiou, C.; Stathopoulou, E.-K.; Ioannides, M.

    2015-08-01

    Outdoor large-scale cultural sites are mostly sensitive to environmental, natural and human made factors, implying an imminent need for a spatio-temporal assessment to identify regions of potential cultural interest (material degradation, structuring, conservation). On the other hand, in Cultural Heritage research quite different actors are involved (archaeologists, curators, conservators, simple users) each of diverse needs. All these statements advocate that a 5D modelling (3D geometry plus time plus levels of details) is ideally required for preservation and assessment of outdoor large scale cultural sites, which is currently implemented as a simple aggregation of 3D digital models at different time and levels of details. The main bottleneck of such an approach is its complexity, making 5D modelling impossible to be validated in real life conditions. In this paper, a cost effective and affordable framework for 5D modelling is proposed based on a spatial-temporal dependent aggregation of 3D digital models, by incorporating a predictive assessment procedure to indicate which regions (surfaces) of an object should be reconstructed at higher levels of details at next time instances and which at lower ones. In this way, dynamic change history maps are created, indicating spatial probabilities of regions needed further 3D modelling at forthcoming instances. Using these maps, predictive assessment can be made, that is, to localize surfaces within the objects where a high accuracy reconstruction process needs to be activated at the forthcoming time instances. The proposed 5D Digital Cultural Heritage Model (5D-DCHM) is implemented using open interoperable standards based on the CityGML framework, which also allows the description of additional semantic metadata information. Visualization aspects are also supported to allow easy manipulation, interaction and representation of the 5D-DCHM geometry and the respective semantic information. The open source 3DCity

  13. Mechanically assisted 3D prostate ultrasound imaging and biopsy needle-guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bax, Jeffrey; Williams, Jackie; Cool, Derek; Gardi, Lori; Montreuil, Jacques; Karnik, Vaishali; Sherebrin, Shi; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron

    2010-02-01

    Prostate biopsy procedures are currently limited to using 2D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging to guide the biopsy needle. Being limited to 2D causes ambiguity in needle guidance and provides an insufficient record to allow guidance to the same suspicious locations or avoid regions that are negative during previous biopsy sessions. We have developed a mechanically assisted 3D ultrasound imaging and needle tracking system, which supports a commercially available TRUS probe and integrated needle guide for prostate biopsy. The mechanical device is fixed to a cart and the mechanical tracking linkage allows its joints to be manually manipulated while fully supporting the weight of the ultrasound probe. The computer interface is provided in order to track the needle trajectory and display its path on a corresponding 3D TRUS image, allowing the physician to aim the needle-guide at predefined targets within the prostate. The system has been designed for use with several end-fired transducers that can be rotated about the longitudinal axis of the probe in order to generate 3D image for 3D navigation. Using the system, 3D TRUS prostate images can be generated in approximately 10 seconds. The system reduces most of the user variability from conventional hand-held probes, which make them unsuitable for precision biopsy, while preserving some of the user familiarity and procedural workflow. In this paper, we describe the 3D TRUS guided biopsy system and report on the initial clinical use of this system for prostate biopsy.

  14. 3D scanning characteristics of an amorphous silicon position sensitive detector array system.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Javier; Gomes, Luis; Filonovich, Sergej; Correia, Nuno; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Isabel

    2012-02-13

    The 3D scanning electro-optical characteristics of a data acquisition prototype system integrating a 32 linear array of 1D amorphous silicon position sensitive detectors (PSD) were analyzed. The system was mounted on a platform for imaging 3D objects using the triangulation principle with a sheet-of-light laser. New obtained results reveal a minimum possible gap or simulated defect detection of approximately 350 μm. Furthermore, a first study of the angle for 3D scanning was also performed, allowing for a broad range of angles to be used in the process. The relationship between the scanning angle of the incident light onto the object and the image displacement distance on the sensor was determined for the first time in this system setup. Rendering of 3D object profiles was performed at a significantly higher number of frames than in the past and was possible for an incident light angle range of 15 ° to 85 °.

  15. Augmented Reality Imaging System: 3D Viewing of a Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, David B.; Boone, John M.; Petricoin, Emanuel; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective To display images of breast cancer from a dedicated breast CT using Depth 3-Dimensional (D3D) augmented reality. Methods A case of breast cancer imaged using contrast-enhanced breast CT (Computed Tomography) was viewed with the augmented reality imaging, which uses a head display unit (HDU) and joystick control interface. Results The augmented reality system demonstrated 3D viewing of the breast mass with head position tracking, stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence and the use of a 3D cursor and joy-stick enabled fly through with visualization of the spiculations extending from the breast cancer. Conclusion The augmented reality system provided 3D visualization of the breast cancer with depth perception and visualization of the mass's spiculations. The augmented reality system should be further researched to determine the utility in clinical practice. PMID:27774517

  16. Performance Analysis of a Low-Cost Triangulation-Based 3d Camera: Microsoft Kinect System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    . K. Chow, J. C.; Ang, K. D.; Lichti, D. D.; Teskey, W. F.

    2012-07-01

    Recent technological advancements have made active imaging sensors popular for 3D modelling and motion tracking. The 3D coordinates of signalised targets are traditionally estimated by matching conjugate points in overlapping images. Current 3D cameras can acquire point clouds at video frame rates from a single exposure station. In the area of 3D cameras, Microsoft and PrimeSense have collaborated and developed an active 3D camera based on the triangulation principle, known as the Kinect system. This off-the-shelf system costs less than 150 USD and has drawn a lot of attention from the robotics, computer vision, and photogrammetry disciplines. In this paper, the prospect of using the Kinect system for precise engineering applications was evaluated. The geometric quality of the Kinect system as a function of the scene (i.e. variation of depth, ambient light conditions, incidence angle, and object reflectivity) and the sensor (i.e. warm-up time and distance averaging) were analysed quantitatively. This system's potential in human body measurements was tested against a laser scanner and 3D range camera. A new calibration model for simultaneously determining the exterior orientation parameters, interior orientation parameters, boresight angles, leverarm, and object space features parameters was developed and the effectiveness of this calibration approach was explored.

  17. 3D-SoftChip: A Novel Architecture for Next-Generation Adaptive Computing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chul; Rassau, Alex; Lachowicz, Stefan; Lee, Mike Myung-Ok; Eshraghian, Kamran

    2006-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel architecture for next-generation adaptive computing systems, which we term 3D-SoftChip. The 3D-SoftChip is a 3-dimensional (3D) vertically integrated adaptive computing system combining state-of-the-art processing and 3D interconnection technology. It comprises the vertical integration of two chips (a configurable array processor and an intelligent configurable switch) through an indium bump interconnection array (IBIA). The configurable array processor (CAP) is an array of heterogeneous processing elements (PEs), while the intelligent configurable switch (ICS) comprises a switch block, 32-bit dedicated RISC processor for control, on-chip program/data memory, data frame buffer, along with a direct memory access (DMA) controller. This paper introduces the novel 3D-SoftChip architecture for real-time communication and multimedia signal processing as a next-generation computing system. The paper further describes the advanced HW/SW codesign and verification methodology, including high-level system modeling of the 3D-SoftChip using SystemC, being used to determine the optimum hardware specification in the early design stage.

  18. A spheroid-based 3-D culture model for pancreatic cancer drug testing, using the acid phosphatase assay.

    PubMed

    Wen, Z; Liao, Q; Hu, Y; You, L; Zhou, L; Zhao, Y

    2013-07-01

    Current therapy for pancreatic cancer is multimodal, involving surgery and chemotherapy. However, development of pancreatic cancer therapies requires a thorough evaluation of drug efficacy in vitro before animal testing and subsequent clinical trials. Compared to two-dimensional culture of cell monolayer, three-dimensional (3-D) models more closely mimic native tissues, since the tumor microenvironment established in 3-D models often plays a significant role in cancer progression and cellular responses to the drugs. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the benefits of 3-D in vitro models of various cancers. In the present study, we have developed a spheroid-based, 3-D culture of pancreatic cancer cell lines MIAPaCa-2 and PANC-1 for pancreatic drug testing, using the acid phosphatase assay. Drug efficacy testing showed that spheroids had much higher drug resistance than monolayers. This model, which is characteristically reproducible and easy and offers rapid handling, is the preferred choice for filling the gap between monolayer cell cultures and in vivo models in the process of drug development and testing for pancreatic cancer.

  19. Planar arrangement of eukaryotic cells in merged hydrogels combines the advantages of 3-D and 2-D cultures.

    PubMed

    Gordeev, Alexander A; Chetverina, Helena V; Chetverin, Alexander B

    2012-05-01

    We report an unordered 2-D array of eukaryotic cells completely embedded in a 3-D matrix. Every cell is located at the same distance from the gel surface, which ensures uniformity of growth conditions and ease of observation characteristic of a 2-D culture. Each cell is firmly immobilized, and each has a unique address in the array. The cells can be rapidly screened, individually monitored during extended time periods, and cultured with the formation of spheroid microcolonies characteristic of a 3-D culture. Individual microcolonies can be extracted from the gel and further propagated, thus enabling isolation of pure cell clones from rather dense cell populations and rapid drug-free generation of stable cell lines.

  20. Alginate based 3D hydrogels as an in vitro co-culture model platform for the toxicity screening of new chemical entities

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Shih-Feng; Starly, Binil

    2011-10-01

    Prediction of human response to potential therapeutic drugs is through conventional methods of in vitro cell culture assays and expensive in vivo animal testing. Alternatives to animal testing require sophisticated in vitro model systems that must replicate in vivo like function for reliable testing applications. Advancements in biomaterials have enabled the development of three-dimensional (3D) cell encapsulated hydrogels as in vitro drug screening tissue model systems. In this study, we have developed an in vitro platform to enable high density 3D culture of liver cells combined with a monolayer growth of target breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) in a static environment as a representative example of screening drug compounds for hepatotoxicity and drug efficacy. Alginate hydrogels encapsulated with serial cell densities of HepG2 cells (10{sup 5}-10{sup 8} cells/ml) are supported by a porous poly-carbonate disc platform and co-cultured with MCF-7 cells within standard cell culture plates during a 3 day study period. The clearance rates of drug transformation by HepG2 cells are measured using a coumarin based pro-drug. The platform was used to test for HepG2 cytotoxicity 50% (CT{sub 50}) using commercially available drugs which further correlated well with published in vivo LD{sub 50} values. The developed test platform allowed us to evaluate drug dose concentrations to predict hepatotoxicity and its effect on the target cells. The in vitro 3D co-culture platform provides a scalable and flexible approach to test multiple-cell types in a hybrid setting within standard cell culture plates which may open up novel 3D in vitro culture techniques to screen new chemical entity compounds. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > A porous support disc design to support the culture of desired cells in 3D hydrogels. > Demonstrated the co-culture of two cell types within standard cell-culture plates. > A scalable, low cost approach to toxicity screening involving

  1. Medical image retrieval system using multiple features from 3D ROIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hongbing; Wang, Weiwei; Liao, Qimei; Zhang, Guopeng; Zhou, Zhiming

    2012-02-01

    Compared to a retrieval using global image features, features extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) that reflect distribution patterns of abnormalities would benefit more for content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR) systems. Currently, most CBMIR systems have been designed for 2D ROIs, which cannot reflect 3D anatomical features and region distribution of lesions comprehensively. To further improve the accuracy of image retrieval, we proposed a retrieval method with 3D features including both geometric features such as Shape Index (SI) and Curvedness (CV) and texture features derived from 3D Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix, which were extracted from 3D ROIs, based on our previous 2D medical images retrieval system. The system was evaluated with 20 volume CT datasets for colon polyp detection. Preliminary experiments indicated that the integration of morphological features with texture features could improve retrieval performance greatly. The retrieval result using features extracted from 3D ROIs accorded better with the diagnosis from optical colonoscopy than that based on features from 2D ROIs. With the test database of images, the average accuracy rate for 3D retrieval method was 76.6%, indicating its potential value in clinical application.

  2. Small SWAP 3D imaging flash ladar for small tactical unmanned air systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Alan; Anderson, Scott A.; Wojcik, Michael; Budge, Scott E.

    2015-05-01

    The Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), working with Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and industry leaders Advanced Scientific Concepts (ASC) and Hood Technology Corporation, has developed a small SWAP (size, weight, and power) 3D imaging flash ladar (LAser Detection And Ranging) sensor system concept design for small tactical unmanned air systems (STUAS). The design utilizes an ASC 3D flash ladar camera and laser in a Hood Technology gyro-stabilized gimbal system. The design is an autonomous, intelligent, geo-aware sensor system that supplies real-time 3D terrain and target images. Flash ladar and visible camera data are processed at the sensor using a custom digitizer/frame grabber with compression. Mounted in the aft housing are power, controls, processing computers, and GPS/INS. The onboard processor controls pointing and handles image data, detection algorithms and queuing. The small SWAP 3D imaging flash ladar sensor system generates georeferenced terrain and target images with a low probability of false return and <10 cm range accuracy through foliage in real-time. The 3D imaging flash ladar is designed for a STUAS with a complete system SWAP estimate of <9 kg, <0.2 m3 and <350 W power. The system is modeled using LadarSIM, a MATLAB® and Simulink®- based ladar system simulator designed and developed by the Center for Advanced Imaging Ladar (CAIL) at Utah State University. We will present the concept design and modeled performance predictions.

  3. Low-Cost 3D Systems: Suitable Tools for Plant Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Stefan; Behmann, Jan; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Plümer, Lutz; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, 3D imaging of plant geometry has become of significant importance for phenotyping and plant breeding. Several sensing techniques, like 3D reconstruction from multiple images and laser scanning, are the methods of choice in different research projects. The use of RGBcameras for 3D reconstruction requires a significant amount of post-processing, whereas in this context, laser scanning needs huge investment costs. The aim of the present study is a comparison between two current 3D imaging low-cost systems and a high precision close-up laser scanner as a reference method. As low-cost systems, the David laser scanning system and the Microsoft Kinect Device were used. The 3D measuring accuracy of both low-cost sensors was estimated based on the deviations of test specimens. Parameters extracted from the volumetric shape of sugar beet taproots, the leaves of sugar beets and the shape of wheat ears were evaluated. These parameters are compared regarding accuracy and correlation to reference measurements. The evaluation scenarios were chosen with respect to recorded plant parameters in current phenotyping projects. In the present study, low-cost 3D imaging devices have been shown to be highly reliable for the demands of plant phenotyping, with the potential to be implemented in automated application procedures, while saving acquisition costs. Our study confirms that a carefully selected low-cost sensor is able to replace an expensive laser scanner in many plant phenotyping scenarios. PMID:24534920

  4. Low-cost 3D systems: suitable tools for plant phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Stefan; Behmann, Jan; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Plümer, Lutz; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, 3D imaging of plant geometry has become of significant importance for phenotyping and plant breeding. Several sensing techniques, like 3D reconstruction from multiple images and laser scanning, are the methods of choice in different research projects. The use of RGBcameras for 3D reconstruction requires a significant amount of post-processing, whereas in this context, laser scanning needs huge investment costs. The aim of the present study is a comparison between two current 3D imaging low-cost systems and a high precision close-up laser scanner as a reference method. As low-cost systems, the David laser scanning system and the Microsoft Kinect Device were used. The 3D measuring accuracy of both low-cost sensors was estimated based on the deviations of test specimens. Parameters extracted from the volumetric shape of sugar beet taproots, the leaves of sugar beets and the shape of wheat ears were evaluated. These parameters are compared regarding accuracy and correlation to reference measurements. The evaluation scenarios were chosen with respect to recorded plant parameters in current phenotyping projects. In the present study, low-cost 3D imaging devices have been shown to be highly reliable for the demands of plant phenotyping, with the potential to be implemented in automated application procedures, while saving acquisition costs. Our study confirms that a carefully selected low-cost sensor. PMID:24534920

  5. 3D Visualization of Cultural Heritage Artefacts with Virtual Reality devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonizzi Barsanti, S.; Caruso, G.; Micoli, L. L.; Covarrubias Rodriguez, M.; Guidi, G.

    2015-08-01

    Although 3D models are useful to preserve the information about historical artefacts, the potential of these digital contents are not fully accomplished until they are not used to interactively communicate their significance to non-specialists. Starting from this consideration, a new way to provide museum visitors with more information was investigated. The research is aimed at valorising and making more accessible the Egyptian funeral objects exhibited in the Sforza Castle in Milan. The results of the research will be used for the renewal of the current exhibition, at the Archaeological Museum in Milan, by making it more attractive. A 3D virtual interactive scenario regarding the "path of the dead", an important ritual in ancient Egypt, was realized to augment the experience and the comprehension of the public through interactivity. Four important artefacts were considered for this scope: two ushabty, a wooden sarcophagus and a heart scarab. The scenario was realized by integrating low-cost Virtual Reality technologies, as the Oculus Rift DK2 and the Leap Motion controller, and implementing a specific software by using Unity. The 3D models were implemented by adding responsive points of interest in relation to important symbols or features of the artefact. This allows highlighting single parts of the artefact in order to better identify the hieroglyphs and provide their translation. The paper describes the process for optimizing the 3D models, the implementation of the interactive scenario and the results of some test that have been carried out in the lab.

  6. HDTV single camera 3D system and its application in microsurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Ryo; Kobayashi, Shigeaki

    1994-04-01

    A 3D high-definition television (HDTV) system suitable for attachment to a stereoscopic operating microscope allowing 3D medical documentation using a single HDTV camera and monitor is described. The system provides 3D HDTV microneurosurgical recorded images suitable for viewing on a screen or monitor, or for printing. Visual documentation using a television and video system is very important in modern medical practice, especially for the eduction of medical students, the training of residents, and the display of records in medical conferences. For the documentation of microsurgery and endoscopic surgery, the video system is essential. The printed images taken from the recording by the HDTV system of the illustrative case clearly demonstrate the high quality and definition achieved, which are comparable to that of the 35 mm movie film. As the system only requires a single camera and recorder, the cost performance and size make it very suitable for microsurgical and endoscopic documentation.

  7. 2D and 3D Mechanobiology in Human and Nonhuman Systems.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kristin M; Islam, Md Mydul; LeDuc, Philip R; Steward, Robert

    2016-08-31

    Mechanobiology involves the investigation of mechanical forces and their effect on the development, physiology, and pathology of biological systems. The human body has garnered much attention from many groups in the field, as mechanical forces have been shown to influence almost all aspects of human life ranging from breathing to cancer metastasis. Beyond being influential in human systems, mechanical forces have also been shown to impact nonhuman systems such as algae and zebrafish. Studies of nonhuman and human systems at the cellular level have primarily been done in two-dimensional (2D) environments, but most of these systems reside in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Furthermore, outcomes obtained from 3D studies are often quite different than those from 2D studies. We present here an overview of a select group of human and nonhuman systems in 2D and 3D environments. We also highlight mechanobiological approaches and their respective implications for human and nonhuman physiology. PMID:27214883

  8. 2D and 3D Mechanobiology in Human and Nonhuman Systems.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kristin M; Islam, Md Mydul; LeDuc, Philip R; Steward, Robert

    2016-08-31

    Mechanobiology involves the investigation of mechanical forces and their effect on the development, physiology, and pathology of biological systems. The human body has garnered much attention from many groups in the field, as mechanical forces have been shown to influence almost all aspects of human life ranging from breathing to cancer metastasis. Beyond being influential in human systems, mechanical forces have also been shown to impact nonhuman systems such as algae and zebrafish. Studies of nonhuman and human systems at the cellular level have primarily been done in two-dimensional (2D) environments, but most of these systems reside in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Furthermore, outcomes obtained from 3D studies are often quite different than those from 2D studies. We present here an overview of a select group of human and nonhuman systems in 2D and 3D environments. We also highlight mechanobiological approaches and their respective implications for human and nonhuman physiology.

  9. Oxygen Partial Pressure Is a Rate-Limiting Parameter for Cell Proliferation in 3D Spheroids Grown in Physioxic Culture Condition

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Aurélie; Guillaume, Ludivine; Grimes, David Robert; Fehrenbach, Jérôme; Lobjois, Valérie; Ducommun, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The in situ oxygen partial pressure in normal and tumor tissues is in the range of a few percent. Therefore, when studying cell growth in 3D culture systems, it is essential to consider how the physiological oxygen concentration, rather than the one in the ambient air, influences the proliferation parameters. Here, we investigated the effect of reducing oxygen partial pressure from 21% to 5% on cell proliferation rate and regionalization in a 3D tumor spheroid model. We found that 5% oxygen concentration strongly inhibited spheroid growth, changed the proliferation gradient and reduced the 50% In Depth Proliferation index (IDP50), compared with culture at 21% oxygen. We then modeled the oxygen partial pressure profiles using the experimental data generated by culturing spheroids in physioxic and normoxic conditions. Although hypoxia occurred at similar depth in spheroids grown in the two conditions, oxygen partial pressure was a major rate-limiting factor with a critical effect on cell proliferation rate and regionalization only in spheroids grown in physioxic condition and not in spheroids grown at atmospheric normoxia. Our findings strengthen the need to consider conducting experiment in physioxic conditions (i.e., tissue normoxia) for proper understanding of cancer cell biology and the evaluation of anticancer drugs in 3D culture systems. PMID:27575790

  10. Oxygen Partial Pressure Is a Rate-Limiting Parameter for Cell Proliferation in 3D Spheroids Grown in Physioxic Culture Condition.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Aurélie; Guillaume, Ludivine; Grimes, David Robert; Fehrenbach, Jérôme; Lobjois, Valérie; Ducommun, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The in situ oxygen partial pressure in normal and tumor tissues is in the range of a few percent. Therefore, when studying cell growth in 3D culture systems, it is essential to consider how the physiological oxygen concentration, rather than the one in the ambient air, influences the proliferation parameters. Here, we investigated the effect of reducing oxygen partial pressure from 21% to 5% on cell proliferation rate and regionalization in a 3D tumor spheroid model. We found that 5% oxygen concentration strongly inhibited spheroid growth, changed the proliferation gradient and reduced the 50% In Depth Proliferation index (IDP50), compared with culture at 21% oxygen. We then modeled the oxygen partial pressure profiles using the experimental data generated by culturing spheroids in physioxic and normoxic conditions. Although hypoxia occurred at similar depth in spheroids grown in the two conditions, oxygen partial pressure was a major rate-limiting factor with a critical effect on cell proliferation rate and regionalization only in spheroids grown in physioxic condition and not in spheroids grown at atmospheric normoxia. Our findings strengthen the need to consider conducting experiment in physioxic conditions (i.e., tissue normoxia) for proper understanding of cancer cell biology and the evaluation of anticancer drugs in 3D culture systems. PMID:27575790

  11. Structure light telecentric stereoscopic vision 3D measurement system based on Scheimpflug condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Qing; Gao, Jian; Lin, Hui; Chen, Yun; Yunbo, He; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Guanjin; Chen, Xin

    2016-11-01

    We designed a new three-dimensional (3D) measurement system for micro components: a structure light telecentric stereoscopic vision 3D measurement system based on the Scheimpflug condition. This system creatively combines the telecentric imaging model and the Scheimpflug condition on the basis of structure light stereoscopic vision, having benefits of a wide measurement range, high accuracy, fast speed, and low price. The system measurement range is 20 mm×13 mm×6 mm, the lateral resolution is 20 μm, and the practical vertical resolution reaches 2.6 μm, which is close to the theoretical value of 2 μm and well satisfies the 3D measurement needs of micro components such as semiconductor devices, photoelectron elements, and micro-electromechanical systems. In this paper, we first introduce the principle and structure of the system and then present the system calibration and 3D reconstruction. We then present an experiment that was performed for the 3D reconstruction of the surface topography of a wafer, followed by a discussion. Finally, the conclusions are presented.

  12. State-of-The-Art and Applications of 3D Imaging Sensors in Industry, Cultural Heritage, Medicine, and Criminal Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Trebeschi, Marco; Docchio, Franco

    2009-01-01

    3D imaging sensors for the acquisition of three dimensional (3D) shapes have created, in recent years, a considerable degree of interest for a number of applications. The miniaturization and integration of the optical and electronic components used to build them have played a crucial role in the achievement of compactness, robustness and flexibility of the sensors. Today, several 3D sensors are available on the market, even in combination with other sensors in a “sensor fusion” approach. An importance equal to that of physical miniaturization has the portability of the measurements, via suitable interfaces, into software environments designed for their elaboration, e.g., CAD-CAM systems, virtual renders, and rapid prototyping tools. In this paper, following an overview of the state-of-art of 3D imaging sensors, a number of significant examples of their use are presented, with particular reference to industry, heritage, medicine, and criminal investigation applications. PMID:22389618

  13. System for conveyor belt part picking using structured light and 3D pose estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielemann, J.; Skotheim, Ø.; Nygaard, J. O.; Vollset, T.

    2009-01-01

    Automatic picking of parts is an important challenge to solve within factory automation, because it can remove tedious manual work and save labor costs. One such application involves parts that arrive with random position and orientation on a conveyor belt. The parts should be picked off the conveyor belt and placed systematically into bins. We describe a system that consists of a structured light instrument for capturing 3D data and robust methods for aligning an input 3D template with a 3D image of the scene. The method uses general and robust pre-processing steps based on geometric primitives that allow the well-known Iterative Closest Point algorithm to converge quickly and robustly to the correct solution. The method has been demonstrated for localization of car parts with random position and orientation. We believe that the method is applicable for a wide range of industrial automation problems where precise localization of 3D objects in a scene is needed.

  14. Developing a 3D Road Cadastral System: Comparing Legal Requirements and User Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gristina, S.; Ellul, C.; Scianna, A.

    2016-10-01

    Road transport has always played an important role in a country's growth and, in order to manage road networks and ensure a high standard of road performance (e.g. durability, efficiency and safety), both public and private road inventories have been implemented using databases and Geographical Information Systems. They enable registering and managing significant amounts of different road information, but to date do not focus on 3D road information, data integration and interoperability. In an increasingly complex 3D urban environment, and in the age of smart cities, however, applications including intelligent transport systems, mobility and traffic management, road maintenance and safety require digital data infrastructures to manage road data: thus new inventories based on integrated 3D road models (queryable, updateable and shareable on line) are required. This paper outlines the first step towards the implementation of 3D GIS-based road inventories. Focusing on the case study of the "Road Cadastre" (the Italian road inventory as established by law), it investigates current limitations and required improvements, and also compares the required data structure imposed by cadastral legislation with real road users' needs. The study aims to: a) determine whether 3D GIS would improve road cadastre (for better management of data through the complete life-cycle infrastructure projects); b) define a conceptual model for a 3D road cadastre for Italy (whose general principles may be extended also to other countries).

  15. Novel fully integrated computer system for custom footwear: from 3D digitization to manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houle, Pascal-Simon; Beaulieu, Eric; Liu, Zhaoheng

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents a recently developed custom footwear system, which integrates 3D digitization technology, range image fusion techniques, a 3D graphical environment for corrective actions, parametric curved surface representation and computer numerical control (CNC) machining. In this system, a support designed with the help of biomechanics experts can stabilize the foot in a correct and neutral position. The foot surface is then captured by a 3D camera using active ranging techniques. A software using a library of documented foot pathologies suggests corrective actions on the orthosis. Three kinds of deformations can be achieved. The first method uses previously scanned pad surfaces by our 3D scanner, which can be easily mapped onto the foot surface to locally modify the surface shape. The second kind of deformation is construction of B-Spline surfaces by manipulating control points and modifying knot vectors in a 3D graphical environment to build desired deformation. The last one is a manual electronic 3D pen, which may be of different shapes and sizes, and has an adjustable 'pressure' information. All applied deformations should respect a G1 surface continuity, which ensure that the surface can accustom a foot. Once the surface modification process is completed, the resulting data is sent to manufacturing software for CNC machining.

  16. Advanced resin systems and 3D textile preforms for low cost composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, J. G.; Bayha, T. D.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced resin systems and 3D textile preforms are being evaluated at Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company (LASC) under NASA's Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program. This work is aimed towards the development of low-cost, damage-tolerant composite fuselage structures. Resin systems for resin transfer molding and powder epoxy towpreg materials are being evaluated for processability, performance and cost. Three developmental epoxy resin systems for resin transfer molding (RTM) and three resin systems for powder towpregging are being investigated. Various 3D textile preform architectures using advanced weaving and braiding processes are also being evaluated. Trials are being conducted with powdered towpreg, in 2D weaving and 3D braiding processes for their textile processability and their potential for fabrication in 'net shape' fuselage structures. The progress in advanced resin screening and textile preform development is reviewed here.

  17. Note: An improved 3D imaging system for electron-electron coincidence measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yun Fei; Lee, Suk Kyoung; Adhikari, Pradip; Herath, Thushani; Lingenfelter, Steven; Winney, Alexander H.; Li, Wen

    2015-09-15

    We demonstrate an improved imaging system that can achieve highly efficient 3D detection of two electrons in coincidence. The imaging system is based on a fast frame complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera and a high-speed waveform digitizer. We have shown previously that this detection system is capable of 3D detection of ions and electrons with good temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we show that with a new timing analysis algorithm, this system can achieve an unprecedented dead-time (<0.7 ns) and dead-space (<1 mm) when detecting two electrons. A true zero dead-time detection is also demonstrated.

  18. Note: An improved 3D imaging system for electron-electron coincidence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yun Fei; Lee, Suk Kyoung; Adhikari, Pradip; Herath, Thushani; Lingenfelter, Steven; Winney, Alexander H.; Li, Wen

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate an improved imaging system that can achieve highly efficient 3D detection of two electrons in coincidence. The imaging system is based on a fast frame complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera and a high-speed waveform digitizer. We have shown previously that this detection system is capable of 3D detection of ions and electrons with good temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we show that with a new timing analysis algorithm, this system can achieve an unprecedented dead-time (<0.7 ns) and dead-space (<1 mm) when detecting two electrons. A true zero dead-time detection is also demonstrated.

  19. Moving from Batch to Field Using the RT3D Reactive Transport Modeling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, T. P.; Gautam, T. R.

    2002-12-01

    The public domain reactive transport code RT3D (Clement, 1997) is a general-purpose numerical code for solving coupled, multi-species reactive transport in saturated groundwater systems. The code uses MODFLOW to simulate flow and several modules of MT3DMS to simulate the advection and dispersion processes. RT3D employs the operator-split strategy which allows the code solve the coupled reactive transport problem in a modular fashion. The coupling between reaction and transport is defined through a separate module where the reaction equations are specified. The code supports a versatile user-defined reaction option that allows users to define their own reaction system through a Fortran-90 subroutine, known as the RT3D-reaction package. Further a utility code, known as BATCHRXN, allows the users to independently test and debug their reaction package. To analyze a new reaction system at a batch scale, users should first run BATCHRXN to test the ability of their reaction package to model the batch data. After testing, the reaction package can simply be ported to the RT3D environment to study the model response under 1-, 2-, or 3-dimensional transport conditions. This paper presents example problems that demonstrate the methods for moving from batch to field-scale simulations using BATCHRXN and RT3D codes. The first example describes a simple first-order reaction system for simulating the sequential degradation of Tetrachloroethene (PCE) and its daughter products. The second example uses a relatively complex reaction system for describing the multiple degradation pathways of Tetrachloroethane (PCA) and its daughter products. References 1) Clement, T.P, RT3D - A modular computer code for simulating reactive multi-species transport in 3-Dimensional groundwater aquifers, Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Research Report, PNNL-SA-28967, September, 1997. Available at: http://bioprocess.pnl.gov/rt3d.htm.

  20. 3D simulation as a tool for improving the safety culture during remediation work at Andreeva Bay.

    PubMed

    Chizhov, K; Sneve, M K; Szőke, I; Mazur, I; Mark, N K; Kudrin, I; Shandala, N; Simakov, A; Smith, G M; Krasnoschekov, A; Kosnikov, A; Kemsky, I; Kryuchkov, V

    2014-12-01

    Andreeva Bay in northwest Russia hosts one of the former coastal technical bases of the Northern Fleet. Currently, this base is designated as the Andreeva Bay branch of Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management (SevRAO) and is a site of temporary storage (STS) for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other radiological waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear submarines and ships. According to an integrated expert evaluation, this site is the most dangerous nuclear facility in northwest Russia. Environmental rehabilitation of the site is currently in progress and is supported by strong international collaboration. This paper describes how the optimization principle (ALARA) has been adopted during the planning of remediation work at the Andreeva Bay STS and how Russian-Norwegian collaboration greatly contributed to ensuring the development and maintenance of a high level safety culture during this process. More specifically, this paper describes how integration of a system, specifically designed for improving the radiological safety of workers during the remediation work at Andreeva Bay, was developed in Russia. It also outlines the 3D radiological simulation and virtual reality based systems developed in Norway that have greatly facilitated effective implementation of the ALARA principle, through supporting radiological characterisation, work planning and optimization, decision making, communication between teams and with the authorities and training of field operators. PMID:25254659

  1. 3D simulation as a tool for improving the safety culture during remediation work at Andreeva Bay.

    PubMed

    Chizhov, K; Sneve, M K; Szőke, I; Mazur, I; Mark, N K; Kudrin, I; Shandala, N; Simakov, A; Smith, G M; Krasnoschekov, A; Kosnikov, A; Kemsky, I; Kryuchkov, V

    2014-12-01

    Andreeva Bay in northwest Russia hosts one of the former coastal technical bases of the Northern Fleet. Currently, this base is designated as the Andreeva Bay branch of Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management (SevRAO) and is a site of temporary storage (STS) for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other radiological waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear submarines and ships. According to an integrated expert evaluation, this site is the most dangerous nuclear facility in northwest Russia. Environmental rehabilitation of the site is currently in progress and is supported by strong international collaboration. This paper describes how the optimization principle (ALARA) has been adopted during the planning of remediation work at the Andreeva Bay STS and how Russian-Norwegian collaboration greatly contributed to ensuring the development and maintenance of a high level safety culture during this process. More specifically, this paper describes how integration of a system, specifically designed for improving the radiological safety of workers during the remediation work at Andreeva Bay, was developed in Russia. It also outlines the 3D radiological simulation and virtual reality based systems developed in Norway that have greatly facilitated effective implementation of the ALARA principle, through supporting radiological characterisation, work planning and optimization, decision making, communication between teams and with the authorities and training of field operators.

  2. A Molecular Image-directed, 3D Ultrasound-guided Biopsy System for the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Baowei; Schuster, David M.; Master, Viraj; Akbari, Hamed; Fenster, Aaron; Nieh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Systematic transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy is the standard method for a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, this biopsy approach uses two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound images to guide biopsy and can miss up to 30% of prostate cancers. We are developing a molecular image-directed, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image-guided biopsy system for improved detection of prostate cancer. The system consists of a 3D mechanical localization system and software workstation for image segmentation, registration, and biopsy planning. In order to plan biopsy in a 3D prostate, we developed an automatic segmentation method based wavelet transform. In order to incorporate PET/CT images into ultrasound-guided biopsy, we developed image registration methods to fuse TRUS and PET/CT images. The segmentation method was tested in ten patients with a DICE overlap ratio of 92.4% ± 1.1 %. The registration method has been tested in phantoms. The biopsy system was tested in prostate phantoms and 3D ultrasound images were acquired from two human patients. We are integrating the system for PET/CT directed, 3D ultrasound-guided, targeted biopsy in human patients. PMID:22708023

  3. A web-based 3D medical image collaborative processing system with videoconference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Sanbi; Han, Jun; Huang, Yonggang

    2013-07-01

    Three dimension medical images have been playing an irreplaceable role in realms of medical treatment, teaching, and research. However, collaborative processing and visualization of 3D medical images on Internet is still one of the biggest challenges to support these activities. Consequently, we present a new application approach for web-based synchronized collaborative processing and visualization of 3D medical Images. Meanwhile, a web-based videoconference function is provided to enhance the performance of the whole system. All the functions of the system can be available with common Web-browsers conveniently, without any extra requirement of client installation. In the end, this paper evaluates the prototype system using 3D medical data sets, which demonstrates the good performance of our system.

  4. A Laser Line Auto-Scanning System for Underwater 3D Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Shukai; Xie, Zexiao; Chen, Wenzhu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a laser line auto-scanning system was designed to perform underwater close-range 3D reconstructions with high accuracy and resolution. The system changes the laser plane direction with a galvanometer to perform automatic scanning and obtain continuous laser strips for underwater 3D reconstruction. The system parameters were calibrated with the homography constraints between the target plane and image plane. A cost function was defined to optimize the galvanometer’s rotating axis equation. Compensation was carried out for the refraction of the incident and emitted light at the interface. The accuracy and the spatial measurement capability of the system were tested and analyzed with standard balls under laboratory underwater conditions, and the 3D surface reconstruction for a sealing cover of an underwater instrument was proved to be satisfactory. PMID:27657074

  5. Development of a 3D laser scanning system for the cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Zhang, Da; Zhang, Yuan Sheng

    2013-06-01

    Serious geological hazard such as the roof fall-rib spalling-closure deformation of the cavity can exert bad influence to mine, even threaten human life. The traditional monitoring ways have some disadvantages, which are difficulties in obtaining data of the cavity, monitoring the unmanned cavity and calculating volume of the cavity accurately. To solve these problems, this paper describes how to develop a high precision 3D laser scanning system, which enables scanning the cavity rapidly, obtaining the same resolution point cloud, calculating volume of the cavity, marking the deformation area correctly and providing visualized environment. At the same time, this device has realized remote control functionality to avoid people to work on the underground. The measurement accuracy of the 3D laser scanning system is +/-2cm. The 3D laser scanning system can be combined with the mine microseism monitoring system to help with the estimation the cavity's stability and improve the effect of cavity monitoring.

  6. Testing the Low-Cost Rpas Potential in 3d Cultural Heritage Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognesi, M.; Furini, A.; Russo, V.; Pellegrinelli, A.; Russo, P.

    2015-02-01

    In order to analyze the potential as well as the limitations of low-cost RPAS photogrammetric systems for architectural cultural heritage reconstruction, some tests were performed by a small RPAS equipped with an ultralight camera. The tests were carried out in a site of remarkable historical interest. A great amount of images were taken with camera's optical axis in vertical and oblique position. Images were processed by the commercial software PhotoScan of Agisoft and numerous models were realized, each of them was compared with an accurate TLS model used as a reference. The test, despite some problems found, has provided good results in terms of accuracy (average error <2cm) and reliability.

  7. Osteoinduction and survival of osteoblasts and bone-marrow stromal cells in 3D biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds under static and dynamic culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Rath, Subha N; Strobel, Leonie A; Arkudas, Andreas; Beier, Justus P; Maier, Anne-Kathrin; Greil, Peter; Horch, Raymund E; Kneser, Ulrich

    2012-10-01

    In many tissue engineering approaches, the basic difference between in vitro and in vivo conditions for cells within three-dimensional (3D) constructs is the nutrition flow dynamics. To achieve comparable results in vitro, bioreactors are advised for improved cell survival, as they are able to provide a controlled flow through the scaffold. We hypothesize that a bioreactor would enhance long-term differentiation conditions of osteogenic cells in 3D scaffolds. To achieve this either primary rat osteoblasts or bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) were implanted on uniform-sized biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds produced by a 3D printing method. Three types of culture conditions were applied: static culture without osteoinduction (Group A); static culture with osteoinduction (Group B); dynamic culture with osteoinduction (Group C). After 3 and 6 weeks, the scaffolds were analysed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP), dsDNA amount, SEM, fluorescent labelled live-dead assay, and real-time RT-PCR in addition to weekly alamarBlue assays. With osteoinduction, increased ALP values and calcium deposition are observed; however, under static conditions, a significant decrease in the cell number on the biomaterial is observed. Interestingly, the bioreactor system not only reversed the decreased cell numbers but also increased their differentiation potential. We conclude from this study that a continuous flow bioreactor not only preserves the number of osteogenic cells but also keeps their differentiation ability in balance providing a suitable cell-seeded scaffold product for applications in regenerative medicine.

  8. Optimal 3-D culture of primary articular chondrocytes for use in the Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, Liliana F.; Baker, Travis L.; Brown, Raquel J.; Catlin, Lindsey W.; Oxford, Julia Thom

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Reliable culturing methods for primary articular chondrocytes are essential to study the effects of loading and unloading on joint tissue at the cellular level. Due to the limited proliferation capacity of primary chondrocytes and their tendency to dedifferentiate in conventional culture conditions, long-term culturing conditions of primary chondrocytes can be challenging. The goal of this study was to develop a suspension culturing technique that not only would retain the cellular morphology but also maintain gene expression characteristics of primary articular chondrocytes. METHODS Three-dimensional culturing methods were compared and optimized for primary articular chondrocytes in the rotating wall vessel bioreactor, which changes the mechanical culture conditions to provide a form of suspension culture optimized for low shear and turbulence. We performed gene expression analysis and morphological characterization of cells cultured in alginate beads, Cytopore-2 microcarriers, primary monolayer culture, and passaged monolayer cultures using reverse transcription-PCR and laser scanning confocal microscopy. RESULTS Primary chondrocytes grown on Cytopore-2 microcarriers maintained the phenotypical morphology and gene expression pattern observed in primary bovine articular chondrocytes, and retained these characteristics for up to 9 days. DISCUSSION Our results provide a novel and alternative culturing technique for primary chondrocytes suitable for studies that require suspension such as those using the rotating wall vessel bioreactor. In addition, we provide an alternative culturing technique for primary chondrocytes that can impact future mechanistic studies of osteoarthritis progression, treatments for cartilage damage and repair, and cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:25199120

  9. High-accuracy 3-D modeling of cultural heritage: the digitizing of Donatello's "Maddalena".

    PubMed

    Guidi, Gabriele; Beraldin, J Angelo; Atzeni, Carlo

    2004-03-01

    Three-dimensional digital modeling of Heritage works of art through optical scanners, has been demonstrated in recent years with results of exceptional interest. However, the routine application of three-dimensional (3-D) modeling to Heritage conservation still requires the systematic investigation of a number of technical problems. In this paper, the acquisition process of the 3-D digital model of the Maddalena by Donatello, a wooden statue representing one of the major masterpieces of the Italian Renaissance which was swept away by the Florence flood of 1966 and successively restored, is described. The paper reports all the steps of the acquisition procedure, from the project planning to the solution of the various problems due to range camera calibration and to material non optically cooperative. Since the scientific focus is centered on the 3-D model overall dimensional accuracy, a methodology for its quality control is described. Such control has demonstrated how, in some situations, the ICP-based alignment can lead to incorrect results. To circumvent this difficulty we propose an alignment technique based on the fusion of ICP with close-range digital photogrammetry and a non-invasive procedure in order to generate a final accurate model. In the end detailed results are presented, demonstrating the improvement of the final model, and how the proposed sensor fusion ensure a pre-specified level of accuracy.

  10. Mechanisms of DNA damage response to targeted irradiation in organotypic 3D skin cultures.

    PubMed

    Acheva, Anna; Ghita, Mihaela; Patel, Gaurang; Prise, Kevin M; Schettino, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage (caused by direct cellular exposure and bystander signaling) and the complex pathways involved in its repair are critical events underpinning cellular and tissue response following radiation exposures. There are limited data addressing the dynamics of DNA damage induction and repair in the skin particularly in areas not directly exposed. Here we investigate the mechanisms regulating DNA damage, repair, intracellular signalling and their impact on premature differentiation and development of inflammatory-like response in the irradiated and surrounding areas of a 3D organotypic skin model. Following localized low-LET irradiation (225 kVp X-rays), low levels of 53BP1 foci were observed in the 3D model (3.8±0.28 foci/Gy/cell) with foci persisting and increasing in size up to 48 h post irradiation. In contrast, in cell monolayers 14.2±0.6 foci/Gy/cell and biphasic repair kinetics with repair completed before 24 h was observed. These differences are linked to differences in cellular status with variable level of p21 driving apoptotic signalling in 2D and accelerated differentiation in both the directly irradiated and bystander areas of the 3D model. The signalling pathways utilized by irradiated keratinocytes to induce DNA damage in non-exposed areas of the skin involved the NF-κB transcription factor and its downstream target COX-2. PMID:24505255

  11. Morphological and Volumetric Assessment of Cerebral Ventricular System with 3D Slicer Software.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo Domínguez, Miguel; Hernández, Cristina; Ruisoto, Pablo; Juanes, Juan A; Prats, Alberto; Hernández, Tomás

    2016-06-01

    We present a technological process based on the 3D Slicer software for the three-dimensional study of the brain's ventricular system with teaching purposes. It values the morphology of this complex brain structure, as a whole and in any spatial position, being able to compare it with pathological studies, where its anatomy visibly changes. 3D Slicer was also used to obtain volumetric measurements in order to provide a more comprehensive and detail representation of the ventricular system. We assess the potential this software has for processing high resolution images, taken from Magnetic Resonance and generate the three-dimensional reconstruction of ventricular system. PMID:27147517

  12. A GUI visualization system for airborne lidar image data to reconstruct 3D city model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Kohei

    2015-10-01

    A visualization toolbox system with graphical user interfaces (GUIs) was developed for the analysis of LiDAR point cloud data, as a compound object oriented widget application in IDL (Interractive Data Language). The main features in our system include file input and output abilities, data conversion capability from ascii formatted LiDAR point cloud data to LiDAR image data whose pixel value corresponds the altitude measured by LiDAR, visualization of 2D/3D images in various processing steps and automatic reconstruction ability of 3D city model. The performance and advantages of our graphical user interface (GUI) visualization system for LiDAR data are demonstrated.

  13. Embodied collaboration support system for 3D shape evaluation in virtual space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Masashi; Watanabe, Tomio

    2005-12-01

    Collaboration mainly consists of two tasks; one is each partner's task that is performed by the individual, the other is communication with each other. Both of them are very important objectives for all the collaboration support system. In this paper, a collaboration support system for 3D shape evaluation in virtual space is proposed on the basis of both studies in 3D shape evaluation and communication support in virtual space. The proposed system provides the two viewpoints for each task. One is the viewpoint of back side of user's own avatar for the smooth communication. The other is that of avatar's eye for 3D shape evaluation. Switching the viewpoints satisfies the task conditions for 3D shape evaluation and communication. The system basically consists of PC, HMD and magnetic sensors, and users can share the embodied interaction by observing interaction between their avatars in virtual space. However, the HMD and magnetic sensors, which are put on the users, would restrict the nonverbal communication. Then, we have tried to compensate the loss of nodding of partner's avatar by introducing the speech-driven embodied interactive actor InterActor. Sensory evaluation by paired comparison of 3D shapes in the collaborative situation in virtual space and in real space and the questionnaire are performed. The result demonstrates the effectiveness of InterActor's nodding in the collaborative situation.

  14. Ultra-Wideband Time-Difference-of-Arrival High Resolution 3D Proximity Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dekome, Kent; Dusl, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a research and development effort for a prototype ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system that is currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The system is being studied for use in tracking of lunar./Mars rovers and astronauts during early exploration missions when satellite navigation systems are not available. U IATB impulse radio (UWB-IR) technology is exploited in the design and implementation of the prototype location and tracking system. A three-dimensional (3D) proximity tracking prototype design using commercially available UWB products is proposed to implement the Time-Difference- Of-Arrival (TDOA) tracking methodology in this research effort. The TDOA tracking algorithm is utilized for location estimation in the prototype system, not only to exploit the precise time resolution possible with UWB signals, but also to eliminate the need for synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver. Simulations show that the TDOA algorithm can achieve the fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA estimates for close-in tracking. Field tests demonstrated that this prototype UWB TDOA High Resolution 3D Proximity Tracking System is feasible for providing positioning-awareness information in a 3D space to a robotic control system. This 3D tracking system is developed for a robotic control system in a facility called "Moonyard" at Honeywell Defense & System in Arizona under a Space Act Agreement.

  15. The PLUNC 3D treatment planning system: a dynamic alternative to commercially available systems.

    PubMed

    Tewell, Marshall A; Adams, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning is an integral step in the treatment of various cancers when radiation is prescribed as either the primary or adjunctive modality, especially when the gross tumor volume lies in a difficult to reach area or is proximal to critical bodily structures. Today, 3D systems have made it possible to more precisely localize tumors in order to treat a higher ratio of cancer cells to normal tissue. Over the past 15 years, these systems have evolved into complex tools that utilize powerful computational algorithms that offer diverse functional capabilities, while simultaneously attempting to maintain a user-friendly quality. A major disadvantage of commercial systems is that users do not have access to the programming source code, resulting in significantly limited clinical and technological flexibility. As an alternative, in-house systems such as Plan-UNC (PLUNC) offer optimal flexibility that is vital to research institutions and important to treatment facilities. Despite this weakness, commercially available systems have become the norm because their commissioning time is significantly less and because many facilities do not have computer experts on-site.

  16. Adaptation of the three-dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS) for the Korean cultural context.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungyoun; Knight, Bob G

    2014-10-23

    ABSTRACT Background: Previous research on wisdom has suggested that wisdom is comprised of cognitive, reflective, and affective components and has developed and validated wisdom measures based on samples from Western countries. To apply the measurement to Eastern cultures, the present study revised an existing wisdom scale, the three-dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS, Ardelt, 2003) for the Korean cultural context. Methods: Participants included 189 Korean heritage adults (age range 19-96) living in Los Angeles. We added a culturally specific factor of wisdom to the 3D-WS: Modesty and Unobtrusiveness (Yang, 2001), which captures an Eastern aspect of wisdom. The structure and psychometrics of the scale were tested. By latent cluster analysis, we determined acculturation subgroups and examined group differences in the means of factors in the revised wisdom scale (3D-WS-K). Results: Three factors, Cognitive Flexibility, Viewpoint Relativism, and Empathic Modesty were found using confirmatory factor analysis. Respondents with high biculturalism were higher on Viewpoint Relativism and lower on Empathic Modesty. Conclusion: This study discovered that a revised wisdom scale had a distinct factor structure and item content in a Korean heritage sample. We also found acculturation influences on the meaning of wisdom.

  17. Error control in the set-up of stereo camera systems for 3d animal tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, A.; Creato, C.; Del Castello, L.; Giardina, I.; Melillo, S.; Parisi, L.; Viale, M.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional tracking of animal systems is the key to the comprehension of collective behavior. Experimental data collected via a stereo camera system allow the reconstruction of the 3d trajectories of each individual in the group. Trajectories can then be used to compute some quantities of interest to better understand collective motion, such as velocities, distances between individuals and correlation functions. The reliability of the retrieved trajectories is strictly related to the accuracy of the 3d reconstruction. In this paper, we perform a careful analysis of the most significant errors affecting 3d reconstruction, showing how the accuracy depends on the camera system set-up and on the precision of the calibration parameters.

  18. HMI aspects of the usage of ladar 3D data in pilot DVE support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münsterer, Thomas; Völschow, Philipp; Singer, Bernhard; Strobel, Michael; Kramper, Patrick; Bühler, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    The paper discusses specifics of high resolution 3D sensor systems employed in helicopter DVE support systems and the consequences for the resulting HMI. 3D sensors have a number of specifics making them a cornerstone for helicopter pilot support or pilotage systems intended for use in DVE. Retrieving depth information gives specific advantages over 2D imagers. On the other hand certain technology and physics inherent specifics require a more elaborate visualization procedure compared to 2D image visualization. The goal of all displayed information has to be to reduce pilots workload in DVE operations. Therefore especially for displaying the processed information on an HMD as 3D conformal data requires thorough HMI considerations.

  19. 3D Optical Measuring Systems and Laser Technologies for Scientific and Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yu.; Verkhoglyad, A.; Poleshchuk, A.; Korolkov, V.; Sysoev, E.; Zavyalov, P.

    2013-12-01

    Modern industry and science require novel 3D optical measuring systems and laser technologies with micro/nanometer resolution for solving actual problems. Such systems, including the 3D dimensional inspection of ceramic parts for electrotechnical industry, laser inspection of wheel pair diagnostic for running trains and 3D superresolution low-coherent micro- /nanoprofilometers are presented. The newest results in the field of laser technologies for high-precision synthesis of microstructures by updated image generator using the semiconductor laser are given. The measuring systems and the laser image generator developed and produced by TDI SIE and IAE SB RAS have been tested by customers and used in different branches of industry and science.

  20. An optical system for detecting 3D high-speed oscillation of a single ultrasound microbubble

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Yuan, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    As contrast agents, microbubbles have been playing significant roles in ultrasound imaging. Investigation of microbubble oscillation is crucial for microbubble characterization and detection. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional (3D) observation of microbubble oscillation is challenging and costly because of the bubble size—a few microns in diameter—and the high-speed dynamics under MHz ultrasound pressure waves. In this study, a cost-efficient optical confocal microscopic system combined with a gated and intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera were developed to detect 3D microbubble oscillation. The capability of imaging microbubble high-speed oscillation with much lower costs than with an ultra-fast framing or streak camera system was demonstrated. In addition, microbubble oscillations along both lateral (x and y) and axial (z) directions were demonstrated. Accordingly, this system is an excellent alternative for 3D investigation of microbubble high-speed oscillation, especially when budgets are limited. PMID:24049677

  1. The in-situ 3D measurement system combined with CNC machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huijie; Jiang, Hongzhi; Li, Xudong; Sui, Shaochun; Tang, Limin; Liang, Xiaoyue; Diao, Xiaochun; Dai, Jiliang

    2013-06-01

    With the development of manufacturing industry, the in-situ 3D measurement for the machining workpieces in CNC machine tools is regarded as the new trend of efficient measurement. We introduce a 3D measurement system based on the stereovision and phase-shifting method combined with CNC machine tools, which can measure 3D profile of the machining workpieces between the key machining processes. The measurement system utilizes the method of high dynamic range fringe acquisition to solve the problem of saturation induced by specular lights reflected from shiny surfaces such as aluminum alloy workpiece or titanium alloy workpiece. We measured two workpieces of aluminum alloy on the CNC machine tools to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed measurement system.

  2. An optical system for detecting 3D high-speed oscillation of a single ultrasound microbubble.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Yuan, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    As contrast agents, microbubbles have been playing significant roles in ultrasound imaging. Investigation of microbubble oscillation is crucial for microbubble characterization and detection. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional (3D) observation of microbubble oscillation is challenging and costly because of the bubble size-a few microns in diameter-and the high-speed dynamics under MHz ultrasound pressure waves. In this study, a cost-efficient optical confocal microscopic system combined with a gated and intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera were developed to detect 3D microbubble oscillation. The capability of imaging microbubble high-speed oscillation with much lower costs than with an ultra-fast framing or streak camera system was demonstrated. In addition, microbubble oscillations along both lateral (x and y) and axial (z) directions were demonstrated. Accordingly, this system is an excellent alternative for 3D investigation of microbubble high-speed oscillation, especially when budgets are limited. PMID:24049677

  3. Second order superintegrable systems in conformally flat spaces. IV. The classical 3D Staeckel transform and 3D classification theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, E.G.; Kress, J.M.; Miller, W. Jr.

    2006-04-15

    This article is one of a series that lays the groundwork for a structure and classification theory of second order superintegrable systems, both classical and quantum, in conformally flat spaces. In the first part of the article we study the Staeckel transform (or coupling constant metamorphosis) as an invertible mapping between classical superintegrable systems on different three-dimensional spaces. We show first that all superintegrable systems with nondegenerate potentials are multiseparable and then that each such system on any conformally flat space is Staeckel equivalent to a system on a constant curvature space. In the second part of the article we classify all the superintegrable systems that admit separation in generic coordinates. We find that there are eight families of these systems.

  4. Evaluation of the 3d Urban Modelling Capabilities in Geographical Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogru, A. O.; Seker, D. Z.

    2010-12-01

    Geographical Information System (GIS) Technology, which provides successful solutions to basic spatial problems, is currently widely used in 3 dimensional (3D) modeling of physical reality with its developing visualization tools. The modeling of large and complicated phenomenon is a challenging problem in terms of computer graphics currently in use. However, it is possible to visualize that phenomenon in 3D by using computer systems. 3D models are used in developing computer games, military training, urban planning, tourism and etc. The use of 3D models for planning and management of urban areas is very popular issue of city administrations. In this context, 3D City models are produced and used for various purposes. However the requirements of the models vary depending on the type and scope of the application. While a high level visualization, where photorealistic visualization techniques are widely used, is required for touristy and recreational purposes, an abstract visualization of the physical reality is generally sufficient for the communication of the thematic information. The visual variables, which are the principle components of cartographic visualization, such as: color, shape, pattern, orientation, size, position, and saturation are used for communicating the thematic information. These kinds of 3D city models are called as abstract models. Standardization of technologies used for 3D modeling is now available by the use of CityGML. CityGML implements several novel concepts to support interoperability, consistency and functionality. For example it supports different Levels-of-Detail (LoD), which may arise from independent data collection processes and are used for efficient visualization and efficient data analysis. In one CityGML data set, the same object may be represented in different LoD simultaneously, enabling the analysis and visualization of the same object with regard to different degrees of resolution. Furthermore, two CityGML data sets

  5. Optical design of wavelength selective CPVT system with 3D/2D hybrid concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, N.; Ijiro, T.; Yamada, N.; Kawaguchi, T.; Maemura, T.; Ohashi, H.

    2012-10-01

    Optical design of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (CPVT) system is carried out. Using wavelength-selective optics, the system demonstrates 3-D concentration onto a solar cell and 2-D concentration onto a thermal receiver. Characteristics of the two types of concentrator systems are examined with ray-tracing analysis. The first system is a glazed mirror-based concentrator system mounted on a 2-axis pedestal tracker. The size of the secondary optical element is minimized to decrease the cost of the system, and it has a wavelength-selective function for performing 3-D concentration onto a solar cell and 2-D concentration onto a thermal receiver. The second system is a non-glazed beamdown concentrator system containing parabolic mirrors in the lower part. The beam-down selective mirror performs 3-D concentration onto a solar cell placed above the beam-down selective mirror, and 2-D concentration down to a thermal receiver placed at the bottom level. The system is mounted on a two-axis carousel tracker. A parametric study is performed for those systems with different geometrical 2-D/3-D concentration ratios. Wavelength-selective optics such as hot/cold mirrors and spectrum-splitting technologies are taken into account in the analysis. Results show reduced heat load on the solar cell and increased total system efficiency compared to a non-selective CPV system. Requirements for the wavelength-selective properties are elucidated. It is also shown that the hybrid concept with 2-D concentration onto a thermal receiver and 3-D concentration onto a solar cell has an advantageous geometry because of the high total system efficiency and compatibility with the piping arrangement of the thermal receiver.

  6. Dose Verification of Stereotactic Radiosurgery Treatment for Trigeminal Neuralgia with Presage 3D Dosimetry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Thomas, A.; Newton, J.; Ibbott, G.; Deasy, J.; Oldham, M.

    2010-11-01

    Achieving adequate verification and quality-assurance (QA) for radiosurgery treatment of trigeminal-neuralgia (TGN) is particularly challenging because of the combination of very small fields, very high doses, and complex irradiation geometries (multiple gantry and couch combinations). TGN treatments have extreme requirements for dosimetry tools and QA techniques, to ensure adequate verification. In this work we evaluate the potential of Presage/Optical-CT dosimetry system as a tool for the verification of TGN distributions in high-resolution and in 3D. A TGN treatment was planned and delivered to a Presage 3D dosimeter positioned inside the Radiological-Physics-Center (RPC) head and neck IMRT credentialing phantom. A 6-arc treatment plan was created using the iPlan system, and a maximum dose of 80Gy was delivered with a Varian Trilogy machine. The delivered dose to Presage was determined by optical-CT scanning using the Duke Large field-of-view Optical-CT Scanner (DLOS) in 3D, with isotropic resolution of 0.7mm3. DLOS scanning and reconstruction took about 20minutes. 3D dose comparisons were made with the planning system. Good agreement was observed between the planned and measured 3D dose distributions, and this work provides strong support for the viability of Presage/Optical-CT as a highly useful new approach for verification of this complex technique.

  7. Investigation of Presage 3D Dosimetry as a Method of Clinically Intuitive Quality Assurance and Comparison to a Semi-3D Delta4 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, Ethan Van

    The need for clinically intuitive metrics for patient-specific quality assurance in radiation therapy has been well-documented (Zhen, Nelms et al. 2011). A novel transform method has shown to be effective at converting full-density 3D dose measurements made in a phantom to dose values in the patient geometry, enabling comparisons using clinically intuitive metrics such as dose-volume histograms (Oldham et al. 2011). This work investigates the transform method and compares its calculated dose-volume histograms (DVHs) to DVH values calculated by a Delta4 QA device (Scandidos), marking the first comparison of a true 3D system to a semi-3D device using clinical metrics. Measurements were made using Presage 3D dosimeters, which were readout by an in-house optical-CT scanner. Three patient cases were chosen for the study: one head-and-neck VMAT treatment and two spine IMRT treatments. The transform method showed good agreement with the planned dose values for all three cases. Furthermore, the transformed DVHs adhered to the planned dose with more accuracy than the Delta4 DVHs. The similarity between the Delta4 DVHs and the transformed DVHs, however, was greater for one of the spine cases than it was for the head-and-neck case, implying that the accuracy of the Delta4 Anatomy software may vary from one treatment site to another. Overall, the transform method, which incorporates data from full-density 3D dose measurements, provides clinically intuitive results that are more accurate and consistent than the corresponding results from a semi-3D Delta 4 system.

  8. Low-cost structured-light based 3D capture system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jing; Bengtson, Kurt R.; Robinson, Barrett F.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2014-03-01

    Most of the 3D capture products currently in the market are high-end and pricey. They are not targeted for consumers, but rather for research, medical, or industrial usage. Very few aim to provide a solution for home and small business applications. Our goal is to fill in this gap by only using low-cost components to build a 3D capture system that can satisfy the needs of this market segment. In this paper, we present a low-cost 3D capture system based on the structured-light method. The system is built around the HP TopShot LaserJet Pro M275. For our capture device, we use the 8.0 Mpixel camera that is part of the M275. We augment this hardware with two 3M MPro 150 VGA (640 × 480) pocket projectors. We also describe an analytical approach to predicting the achievable resolution of the reconstructed 3D object based on differentials and small signal theory, and an experimental procedure for validating that the system under test meets the specifications for reconstructed object resolution that are predicted by our analytical model. By comparing our experimental measurements from the camera-projector system with the simulation results based on the model for this system, we conclude that our prototype system has been correctly configured and calibrated. We also conclude that with the analytical models, we have an effective means for specifying system parameters to achieve a given target resolution for the reconstructed object.

  9. High-Throughput Cancer Cell Sphere Formation for Characterizing the Efficacy of Photo Dynamic Therapy in 3D Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Lou, Xia; Zhang, Zhixiong; Ingram, Patrick; Yoon, Euisik

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), wherein light sensitive non-toxic agents are locally and selectively activated using light, has emerged as an appealing alternative to traditional cancer chemotherapy. Yet to date, PDT efficacy has been mostly characterized using 2D cultures. Compared to 2D cultures, 3D sphere culture generates unique spatial distributions of nutrients and oxygen for the cells that better mimics the in-vivo conditions. Using a novel polyHEMA (non-adherent polymer) fabrication process, we developed a microfluidic sphere formation platform that can (1) generate 1,024 uniform (size variation <10%) cancer spheres within a 2 cm by 2 cm core area, (2) culture spheres for more than 2 weeks, and (3) allow the retrieval of spheres. Using the presented platform, we have successfully characterized the different responses in 2D and 3D cell culture to PDT. Furthermore, we investigated the treatment resistance effect in cancer cells induced by tumor associated fibroblasts (CAF). Although the CAFs can enhance the resistance to traditional chemotherapy agents, no significant difference in PDT was observed. The preliminary results suggest that the PDT can be an attractive alternative cancer therapy, which is less affected by the therapeutic resistance induced by cancer associated cells. PMID:26153550

  10. High-Throughput Cancer Cell Sphere Formation for Characterizing the Efficacy of Photo Dynamic Therapy in 3D Cell Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Lou, Xia; Zhang, Zhixiong; Ingram, Patrick; Yoon, Euisik

    2015-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), wherein light sensitive non-toxic agents are locally and selectively activated using light, has emerged as an appealing alternative to traditional cancer chemotherapy. Yet to date, PDT efficacy has been mostly characterized using 2D cultures. Compared to 2D cultures, 3D sphere culture generates unique spatial distributions of nutrients and oxygen for the cells that better mimics the in-vivo conditions. Using a novel polyHEMA (non-adherent polymer) fabrication process, we developed a microfluidic sphere formation platform that can (1) generate 1,024 uniform (size variation <10%) cancer spheres within a 2 cm by 2 cm core area, (2) culture spheres for more than 2 weeks, and (3) allow the retrieval of spheres. Using the presented platform, we have successfully characterized the different responses in 2D and 3D cell culture to PDT. Furthermore, we investigated the treatment resistance effect in cancer cells induced by tumor associated fibroblasts (CAF). Although the CAFs can enhance the resistance to traditional chemotherapy agents, no significant difference in PDT was observed. The preliminary results suggest that the PDT can be an attractive alternative cancer therapy, which is less affected by the therapeutic resistance induced by cancer associated cells.

  11. High-Throughput Cancer Cell Sphere Formation for Characterizing the Efficacy of Photo Dynamic Therapy in 3D Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Lou, Xia; Zhang, Zhixiong; Ingram, Patrick; Yoon, Euisik

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), wherein light sensitive non-toxic agents are locally and selectively activated using light, has emerged as an appealing alternative to traditional cancer chemotherapy. Yet to date, PDT efficacy has been mostly characterized using 2D cultures. Compared to 2D cultures, 3D sphere culture generates unique spatial distributions of nutrients and oxygen for the cells that better mimics the in-vivo conditions. Using a novel polyHEMA (non-adherent polymer) fabrication process, we developed a microfluidic sphere formation platform that can (1) generate 1,024 uniform (size variation <10%) cancer spheres within a 2 cm by 2 cm core area, (2) culture spheres for more than 2 weeks, and (3) allow the retrieval of spheres. Using the presented platform, we have successfully characterized the different responses in 2D and 3D cell culture to PDT. Furthermore, we investigated the treatment resistance effect in cancer cells induced by tumor associated fibroblasts (CAF). Although the CAFs can enhance the resistance to traditional chemotherapy agents, no significant difference in PDT was observed. The preliminary results suggest that the PDT can be an attractive alternative cancer therapy, which is less affected by the therapeutic resistance induced by cancer associated cells. PMID:26153550

  12. The pulsed all fiber laser application in the high-resolution 3D imaging LIDAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cunxiao; Zhu, Shaolan; Niu, Linquan; Feng, Li; He, Haodong; Cao, Zongying

    2014-05-01

    An all fiber laser with master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration at 1064nm/1550nm for the high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) imaging light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system was reported. The pulsewidth and the repetition frequency could be arbitrarily tuned 1ns~10ns and 10KHz~1MHz, and the peak power exceeded 100kW could be obtained with the laser. Using this all fiber laser in the high-resolution 3D imaging LIDAR system, the image resolution of 1024x1024 and the distance precision of +/-1.5 cm was obtained at the imaging distance of 1km.

  13. Unified framework for generation of 3D web visualization for mechatronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severa, O.; Goubej, M.; Konigsmarkova, J.

    2015-11-01

    The paper deals with development of a unified framework for generation of 3D visualizations of complex mechatronic systems. It provides a high-fidelity representation of executed motion by allowing direct employment of a machine geometry model acquired from a CAD system. Open-architecture multi-platform solution based on latest web standards is achieved by utilizing a web browser as a final 3D renderer. The results are applicable both for simulations and development of real-time human machine interfaces. Case study of autonomous underwater vehicle control is provided to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach.

  14. Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery Using a 3D High-Definition Endoscopic System.

    PubMed

    Ruttkay, Tamas; Götte, Julia; Walle, Ulrike; Doll, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We describe a minimally invasive heart surgery application of the EinsteinVision 2.0 3D high-definition endoscopic system (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) in an 81-year-old man with severe tricuspid valve insufficiency. Fourteen years ago, he underwent a Ross procedure followed by a DDD pacemaker implantation 4 years later for tachy-brady-syndrome. His biventricular function was normal. We recommended minimally invasive tricuspid valve repair. The application of the aformentioned endoscopic system was simple, and the impressive 3D depth view offered an easy and precise manipulation through a minimal thoracotomy incision, avoiding the need for a rib spreading retractor.

  15. Mobile 3d Mapping with a Low-Cost Uav System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitzel, F.; Klonowski, J.

    2011-09-01

    In this contribution it is shown how an UAV system can be built at low costs. The components of the system, the equipment as well as the control software are presented. Furthermore an implemented programme for photogrammetric flight planning and its execution are described. The main focus of this contribution is on the generation of 3D point clouds from digital imagery. For this web services and free software solutions are presented which automatically generate 3D point clouds from arbitrary image configurations. Possibilities of georeferencing are described whereas the achieved accuracy has been determined. The presented workflow is finally used for the acquisition of 3D geodata. On the example of a landfill survey it is shown that marketable products can be derived using a low-cost UAV.

  16. PRIMAS: a real-time 3D motion-analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabel, Jan C.; van Veenendaal, Hans L. J.; Furnee, E. Hans

    1994-03-01

    The paper describes a CCD TV-camera-based system for real-time multicamera 2D detection of retro-reflective targets and software for accurate and fast 3D reconstruction. Applications of this system can be found in the fields of sports, biomechanics, rehabilitation research, and various other areas of science and industry. The new feature of real-time 3D opens an even broader perspective of application areas; animations in virtual reality are an interesting example. After presenting an overview of the hardware and the camera calibration method, the paper focuses on the real-time algorithms used for matching of the images and subsequent 3D reconstruction of marker positions. When using a calibrated setup of two cameras, it is now possible to track at least ten markers at 100 Hz. Limitations in the performance are determined by the visibility of the markers, which could be improved by adding a third camera.

  17. Optimization of Aqueous Biphasic Tumor Spheroid Microtechnology for Anti-Cancer Drug Testing in 3D Culture

    PubMed Central

    Lemmo, Stephanie; Atefi, Ehsan; Luker, Gary D.; Tavana, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Tumor spheroids are three-dimensional clusters of cancer cells that exhibit characteristics of poorly perfused tumors and hence present a relevant model for testing the efficacy of anti-cancer compounds. The use of spheroids for drug screening is hindered by technological complexities for high throughput generation of consistent size spheroids individually addressable by drug compounds. Here we present and optimize a simple spheroid technology based on the use of an aqueous two-phase system. Cancer cells confined in a drop of the denser aqueous dextran phase are robotically dispensed into a microwell containing the immersion aqueous polyethylene glycol phase. Cells remain within the drop and form a viable spheroid, without a need for any external stimuli. The size of resulting spheroids is sensitive to volume variations of dispensed drops from the air displacement pipetting head of a commercial liquid handling robot. Therefore, we parametrically optimize the process of dispensing of dextran phase drops. For a given cell density, this optimization reproducibly generates consistent size spheroids in standard 96-well plates. In addition, we evaluate the use of a commercial biochemical assay to examine cellular viability of cancer cell spheroids. Spheroids show a dose-dependent response to cisplatin similar to a monolayer culture. However unlike their two-dimensional counterpart, spheroids exhibit resistance to paclitaxel treatment. This technology, which uses only commercially-available reagents and equipment, can potentially expedite anti-cancer drug discovery. Although the use of robotics makes the ATPS spheroid technology particularly useful for drug screening applications, this approach is compatible with simpler liquid handling techniques such as manual micropipetting and offers a straightforward method of 3D cell culture in research laboratories. PMID:25221631

  18. Network dynamics of 3D engineered neuronal cultures: a new experimental model for in-vitro electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Frega, Monica; Tedesco, Mariateresa; Massobrio, Paolo; Pesce, Mattia; Martinoia, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Despite the extensive use of in-vitro models for neuroscientific investigations and notwithstanding the growing field of network electrophysiology, all studies on cultured cells devoted to elucidate neurophysiological mechanisms and computational properties, are based on 2D neuronal networks. These networks are usually grown onto specific rigid substrates (also with embedded electrodes) and lack of most of the constituents of the in-vivo like environment: cell morphology, cell-to-cell interaction and neuritic outgrowth in all directions. Cells in a brain region develop in a 3D space and interact with a complex multi-cellular environment and extracellular matrix. Under this perspective, 3D networks coupled to micro-transducer arrays, represent a new and powerful in-vitro model capable of better emulating in-vivo physiology. In this work, we present a new experimental paradigm constituted by 3D hippocampal networks coupled to Micro-Electrode-Arrays (MEAs) and we show how the features of the recorded network dynamics differ from the corresponding 2D network model. Further development of the proposed 3D in-vitro model by adding embedded functionalized scaffolds might open new prospects for manipulating, stimulating and recording the neuronal activity to elucidate neurophysiological mechanisms and to design bio-hybrid microsystems. PMID:24976386

  19. Spinal cord organotypic slice cultures for the study of regenerating motor axon interactions with 3D scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Gerardo-Nava, Jose; Hodde, Dorothee; Katona, Istvan; Bozkurt, Ahmet; Grehl, Torsten; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Weis, Joachim; Brook, Gary A

    2014-05-01

    Numerous in-vitro techniques exist for investigating the influence of 3D substrate topography on sensory axon growth. However, simple and cost-effective methods for studying post-natal motor axon interactions with such substrates are lacking. Here, spinal cord organotypic slice cultures (OSC) from post-natal day 7-9 rat pups were presented with spinal nerve roots, or blocks of fibrin hydrogel or 3D microporous collagen scaffolds to investigate motor axon-substrate interactions. By 7-14 days, axons from motor neuronal pools extended into the explanted nerve roots, growing along Schwann cell processes and demonstrating a full range of axon-Schwann cell interactions, from simple ensheathment to concentric wrapping by Schwann cell processes and the formation of compact myelin within a basal lamina sheath. Extensive motor axon regeneration and all stages of axon-Schwann interactions were also supported within the longitudinally orientated microporous framework of the 3D collagen scaffold. In stark contrast, the simple fibrin hydrogel only supported axon growth and cell migration over its surface. The relative ease of demonstrating such motor axon regeneration through the microporous 3D framework by immunofluorescence, two-photon microscopy and transmission electron microscopy strongly supports the adoption of this technique for assaying the influence of substrate topography and functionalization in regenerative bioengineering.

  20. Development of a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Derek; Sherebrin, Shi; Izawa, Jonathan; Fenster, Aaron

    2007-03-01

    Biopsy of the prostate using ultrasound guidance is the clinical gold standard for diagnosis of prostate adenocarinoma. However, because early stage tumors are rarely visible under US, the procedure carries high false-negative rates and often patients require multiple biopsies before cancer is detected. To improve cancer detection, it is imperative that throughout the biopsy procedure, physicians know where they are within the prostate and where they have sampled during prior biopsies. The current biopsy procedure is limited to using only 2D ultrasound images to find and record target biopsy core sample sites. This information leaves ambiguity as the physician tries to interpret the 2D information and apply it to their 3D workspace. We have developed a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system that provides 3D intra-biopsy information to physicians for needle guidance and biopsy location recording. The system is designed to conform to the workflow of the current prostate biopsy procedure, making it easier for clinical integration. In this paper, we describe the system design and validate its accuracy by performing an in vitro biopsy procedure on US/CT multi-modal patient-specific prostate phantoms. A clinical sextant biopsy was performed by a urologist on the phantoms and the 3D models of the prostates were generated with volume errors less than 4% and mean boundary errors of less than 1 mm. Using the 3D biopsy system, needles were guided to within 1.36 +/- 0.83 mm of 3D targets and the position of the biopsy sites were accurately localized to 1.06 +/- 0.89 mm for the two prostates.

  1. Establishment of 3D Co-Culture Models from Different Stages of Human Tongue Tumorigenesis: Utility in Understanding Neoplastic Progression.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Sharada; Dongre, Harsh; Singh, Archana Kumari; Joshi, Shriya; Costea, Daniela Elena; Mahadik, Snehal; Ahire, Chetan; Makani, Vidhi; Dange, Prerana; Sharma, Shilpi; Chaukar, Devendra; Vaidya, Milind

    2016-01-01

    To study multistep tumorigenesis process, there is a need of in-vitro 3D model simulating in-vivo tissue. Present study aimed to reconstitute in-vitro tissue models comprising various stages of neoplastic progression of tongue tumorigenesis and to evaluate the utility of these models to investigate the role of stromal fibroblasts in maintenance of desmosomal anchoring junctions using transmission electron microscopy. We reconstituted in-vitro models representing normal, dysplastic, and malignant tissues by seeding primary keratinocytes on either fibroblast embedded in collagen matrix or plain collagen matrix in growth factor-free medium. The findings of histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy analyses of the three types of 3D cultures showed that the stratified growth, cell proliferation, and differentiation were comparable between co-cultures and their respective native tissues; however, they largely differed in cultures grown without fibroblasts. The immunostaining intensity of proteins, viz., desmoplakin, desmoglein, and plakoglobin, was reduced as the disease stage increased in all co-cultures as observed in respective native tissues. Desmosome-like structures were identified using immunogold labeling in these cultures. Moreover, electron microscopic observations revealed that the desmosome number and their length were significantly reduced and intercellular spaces were increased in cultures grown without fibroblasts when compared with their co-culture counterparts. Our results showed that the major steps of tongue tumorigenesis can be reproduced in-vitro. Stromal fibroblasts play a role in regulation of epithelial thickness, cell proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of desmosomalanchoring junctions in in-vitro grown tissues. The reconstituted co-culture models could help to answer various biological questions especially related to tongue tumorigenesis. PMID:27501241

  2. Establishment of 3D Co-Culture Models from Different Stages of Human Tongue Tumorigenesis: Utility in Understanding Neoplastic Progression.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Sharada; Dongre, Harsh; Singh, Archana Kumari; Joshi, Shriya; Costea, Daniela Elena; Mahadik, Snehal; Ahire, Chetan; Makani, Vidhi; Dange, Prerana; Sharma, Shilpi; Chaukar, Devendra; Vaidya, Milind

    2016-01-01

    To study multistep tumorigenesis process, there is a need of in-vitro 3D model simulating in-vivo tissue. Present study aimed to reconstitute in-vitro tissue models comprising various stages of neoplastic progression of tongue tumorigenesis and to evaluate the utility of these models to investigate the role of stromal fibroblasts in maintenance of desmosomal anchoring junctions using transmission electron microscopy. We reconstituted in-vitro models representing normal, dysplastic, and malignant tissues by seeding primary keratinocytes on either fibroblast embedded in collagen matrix or plain collagen matrix in growth factor-free medium. The findings of histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy analyses of the three types of 3D cultures showed that the stratified growth, cell proliferation, and differentiation were comparable between co-cultures and their respective native tissues; however, they largely differed in cultures grown without fibroblasts. The immunostaining intensity of proteins, viz., desmoplakin, desmoglein, and plakoglobin, was reduced as the disease stage increased in all co-cultures as observed in respective native tissues. Desmosome-like structures were identified using immunogold labeling in these cultures. Moreover, electron microscopic observations revealed that the desmosome number and their length were significantly reduced and intercellular spaces were increased in cultures grown without fibroblasts when compared with their co-culture counterparts. Our results showed that the major steps of tongue tumorigenesis can be reproduced in-vitro. Stromal fibroblasts play a role in regulation of epithelial thickness, cell proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of desmosomalanchoring junctions in in-vitro grown tissues. The reconstituted co-culture models could help to answer various biological questions especially related to tongue tumorigenesis.

  3. Establishment of 3D Co-Culture Models from Different Stages of Human Tongue Tumorigenesis: Utility in Understanding Neoplastic Progression

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Sharada; Dongre, Harsh; Singh, Archana Kumari; Joshi, Shriya; Costea, Daniela Elena; Mahadik, Snehal; Ahire, Chetan; Makani, Vidhi; Dange, Prerana; Sharma, Shilpi; Chaukar, Devendra; Vaidya, Milind

    2016-01-01

    To study multistep tumorigenesis process, there is a need of in-vitro 3D model simulating in-vivo tissue. Present study aimed to reconstitute in-vitro tissue models comprising various stages of neoplastic progression of tongue tumorigenesis and to evaluate the utility of these models to investigate the role of stromal fibroblasts in maintenance of desmosomal anchoring junctions using transmission electron microscopy. We reconstituted in-vitro models representing normal, dysplastic, and malignant tissues by seeding primary keratinocytes on either fibroblast embedded in collagen matrix or plain collagen matrix in growth factor-free medium. The findings of histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy analyses of the three types of 3D cultures showed that the stratified growth, cell proliferation, and differentiation were comparable between co-cultures and their respective native tissues; however, they largely differed in cultures grown without fibroblasts. The immunostaining intensity of proteins, viz., desmoplakin, desmoglein, and plakoglobin, was reduced as the disease stage increased in all co-cultures as observed in respective native tissues. Desmosome-like structures were identified using immunogold labeling in these cultures. Moreover, electron microscopic observations revealed that the desmosome number and their length were significantly reduced and intercellular spaces were increased in cultures grown without fibroblasts when compared with their co-culture counterparts. Our results showed that the major steps of tongue tumorigenesis can be reproduced in-vitro. Stromal fibroblasts play a role in regulation of epithelial thickness, cell proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of desmosomalanchoring junctions in in-vitro grown tissues. The reconstituted co-culture models could help to answer various biological questions especially related to tongue tumorigenesis. PMID:27501241

  4. 3D mouse embryonic stem cell culture for generating inner ear organoids.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karl R; Hashino, Eri

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes a culture system in which inner-ear sensory tissue is produced from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells under chemically defined conditions. This model is amenable to basic and translational investigations into inner ear biology and regeneration. In this protocol, mouse ES cells are aggregated in 96-well plates in medium containing extracellular matrix proteins to promote epithelialization. During the first 14 d, a series of precisely timed protein and small-molecule treatments sequentially induce epithelia that represent the mouse embryonic non-neural ectoderm, preplacodal ectoderm and otic vesicle epithelia. Ultimately, these tissues develop into cysts with a pseudostratified epithelium containing inner ear hair cells and supporting cells after 16-20 d. Concurrently, sensory-like neurons generate synapse-like structures with the derived hair cells. We have designated the stem cell-derived epithelia harboring hair cells, supporting cells and sensory-like neurons as inner ear organoids. This method provides a reproducible and scalable means to generate inner ear sensory tissue in vitro.

  5. Nonlinear 3D Projection Printing of Concave Hydrogel Microstructures for Long-Term Multicellular Spheroid and Embryoid Body Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hribar, K.C; Finlay, D.; Ma, X.; Qu, X.; Ondeck, M. G.; Chung, P. H.; Zanella, F.; Engler, A. J.; Sheikh, F.; Vuori, K.; Chen, S.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term culture and monitoring of individual multicellular spheroids and embryoid bodies (EBs) remains a challenge for in vitro cell propogation. Here, we used a continuous 3D projection printing approach – with an important modification of nonlinear exposure — to generate concave hydrogel microstructures that permit spheroid growth and long-term maintenance, without the need for spheroid transfer. Breast cancer spheroids grown to 10 d in the concave structures showed hypoxic cores and signs of necrosis using immunofluorescent and histochemical staining, key features of the tumor microenvironment in vivo. EBs consisting of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) grown on the hydrogels demonstrated narrow size distribution and undifferentiated markers at 3 d, followed by signs of differentiation by the presence of cavities and staining of the three germ layers at 10 d. These findings demonstrate a new method for long-term (e.g. beyond spheroid formation at day 2, and with media exchange) 3D cell culture that should be able to assist in cancer spheroid studies as well as embryogenesis and patient-derived disease modeling with iPSC EBs. PMID:25900329

  6. Nonlinear 3D projection printing of concave hydrogel microstructures for long-term multicellular spheroid and embryoid body culture.

    PubMed

    Hribar, K C; Finlay, D; Ma, X; Qu, X; Ondeck, M G; Chung, P H; Zanella, F; Engler, A J; Sheikh, F; Vuori, K; Chen, S C

    2015-06-01

    Long-term culture and monitoring of individual multicellular spheroids and embryoid bodies (EBs) remains a challenge for in vitro cell propagation. Here, we used a continuous 3D projection printing approach - with an important modification of nonlinear exposure - to generate concave hydrogel microstructures that permit spheroid growth and long-term maintenance, without the need for spheroid transfer. Breast cancer spheroids grown to 10 d in the concave structures showed hypoxic cores and signs of necrosis using immunofluorescent and histochemical staining, key features of the tumor microenvironment in vivo. EBs consisting of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) grown on the hydrogels demonstrated narrow size distribution and undifferentiated markers at 3 d, followed by signs of differentiation by the presence of cavities and staining of the three germ layers at 10 d. These findings demonstrate a new method for long-term (e.g. beyond spheroid formation at day 2, and with media exchange) 3D cell culture that should be able to assist in cancer spheroid studies as well as embryogenesis and patient-derived disease modeling with iPSC EBs. PMID:25900329

  7. Nonlinear 3D projection printing of concave hydrogel microstructures for long-term multicellular spheroid and embryoid body culture.

    PubMed

    Hribar, K C; Finlay, D; Ma, X; Qu, X; Ondeck, M G; Chung, P H; Zanella, F; Engler, A J; Sheikh, F; Vuori, K; Chen, S C

    2015-06-01

    Long-term culture and monitoring of individual multicellular spheroids and embryoid bodies (EBs) remains a challenge for in vitro cell propagation. Here, we used a continuous 3D projection printing approach - with an important modification of nonlinear exposure - to generate concave hydrogel microstructures that permit spheroid growth and long-term maintenance, without the need for spheroid transfer. Breast cancer spheroids grown to 10 d in the concave structures showed hypoxic cores and signs of necrosis using immunofluorescent and histochemical staining, key features of the tumor microenvironment in vivo. EBs consisting of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) grown on the hydrogels demonstrated narrow size distribution and undifferentiated markers at 3 d, followed by signs of differentiation by the presence of cavities and staining of the three germ layers at 10 d. These findings demonstrate a new method for long-term (e.g. beyond spheroid formation at day 2, and with media exchange) 3D cell culture that should be able to assist in cancer spheroid studies as well as embryogenesis and patient-derived disease modeling with iPSC EBs.

  8. SU-E-T-154: Establishment and Implement of 3D Image Guided Brachytherapy Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, S; Zhao, S; Chen, Y; Li, Z; Li, P; Huang, Z; Yang, Z; Zhang, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cannot observe the dose intuitionally is a limitation of the existing 2D pre-implantation dose planning. Meanwhile, a navigation module is essential to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the implantation. Hence a 3D Image Guided Brachytherapy Planning System conducting dose planning and intra-operative navigation based on 3D multi-organs reconstruction is developed. Methods: Multi-organs including the tumor are reconstructed in one sweep of all the segmented images using the multiorgans reconstruction method. The reconstructed organs group establishs a three-dimensional visualized operative environment. The 3D dose maps of the three-dimentional conformal localized dose planning are calculated with Monte Carlo method while the corresponding isodose lines and isodose surfaces are displayed in a stereo view. The real-time intra-operative navigation is based on an electromagnetic tracking system (ETS) and the fusion between MRI and ultrasound images. Applying Least Square Method, the coordinate registration between 3D models and patient is realized by the ETS which is calibrated by a laser tracker. The system is validated by working on eight patients with prostate cancer. The navigation has passed the precision measurement in the laboratory. Results: The traditional marching cubes (MC) method reconstructs one organ at one time and assembles them together. Compared to MC, presented multi-organs reconstruction method has superiorities in reserving the integrality and connectivity of reconstructed organs. The 3D conformal localized dose planning, realizing the 'exfoliation display' of different isodose surfaces, helps make sure the dose distribution has encompassed the nidus and avoid the injury of healthy tissues. During the navigation, surgeons could observe the coordinate of instruments real-timely employing the ETS. After the calibration, accuracy error of the needle position is less than 2.5mm according to the experiments. Conclusion: The speed and

  9. An appropriate selection of a 3D alginate culture model for hepatic Huh-7 cell line encapsulation intended for viral studies.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nhu Mai; Dufresne, Murielle; Duverlie, Gilles; Castelain, Sandrine; Défarge, Christian; Paullier, Patrick; Legallais, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) culture systems have been introduced to provide cells with a biomimetic environment that is similar to in vivo conditions. Among the polymeric molecules available, sodium-alginate (Na-alg) salt is a material that is currently employed in different areas of drug delivery and tissue engineering, because it offers biocompatibility and optimal chemical properties, and its gelation with calcium chloride provides calcium-alginate (Ca-alg) scaffolds with mechanical stability and relative permeability. In this work, four different preparations of Ca-alg beads with varying Na-alg viscosity and concentration were used for a human hepatoma cell line (Huh-7) encapsulation. The effects of Ca-alg bead preparation on structural cell organization, liver-specific functions, and the expression of specific receptors implicated in hepatotropic virus permissivity were evaluated. Hepatic cells were cultured in 500 μm diameter Ca-alg beads for 7 days under dynamic conditions. For all culture systems, cell viability reached almost 100% at day 7. Cell proliferation was concomitantly followed by hepatocyte organization in aggregates, which adopted two different morphologies (spheroid aggregates or multicellular channel-like structures), depending on Ca-alg bead preparation. These cellular organizations established a real 3D hepatocyte architecture with cell polarity, cell junctions, and abundant bile canaliculi possessing microvillus-lined channels. The functionality of these 3D cultures was confirmed by the production of albumin and the exhibition of CYP1A activity over culture time, which were variable, according to Ca-alg bead condition. The expression of specific receptors of hepatitis C virus by Huh-7 cells suggests encouraging data for the further development of a new viral culture system in Ca-alg beads. In summary, this 3D hepatic cell culture represents a promising physiologically relevant system for further in vitro studies and demonstrates that an

  10. Generic precise augmented reality guiding system and its calibration method based on 3D virtual model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miao; Yang, Shourui; Wang, Zhangying; Huang, Shujun; Liu, Yue; Niu, Zhenqi; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zhu, Jigui; Zhang, Zonghua

    2016-05-30

    Augmented reality system can be applied to provide precise guidance for various kinds of manual works. The adaptability and guiding accuracy of such systems are decided by the computational model and the corresponding calibration method. In this paper, a novel type of augmented reality guiding system and the corresponding designing scheme are proposed. Guided by external positioning equipment, the proposed system can achieve high relative indication accuracy in a large working space. Meanwhile, the proposed system is realized with a digital projector and the general back projection model is derived with geometry relationship between digitized 3D model and the projector in free space. The corresponding calibration method is also designed for the proposed system to obtain the parameters of projector. To validate the proposed back projection model, the coordinate data collected by a 3D positioning equipment is used to calculate and optimize the extrinsic parameters. The final projecting indication accuracy of the system is verified with subpixel pattern projecting technique.

  11. A convolutional learning system for object classification in 3-D Lidar data.

    PubMed

    Prokhorov, Danil

    2010-05-01

    In this brief, a convolutional learning system for classification of segmented objects represented in 3-D as point clouds of laser reflections is proposed. Several novelties are discussed: (1) extension of the existing convolutional neural network (CNN) framework to direct processing of 3-D data in a multiview setting which may be helpful for rotation-invariant consideration, (2) improvement of CNN training effectiveness by employing a stochastic meta-descent (SMD) method, and (3) combination of unsupervised and supervised training for enhanced performance of CNN. CNN performance is illustrated on a two-class data set of objects in a segmented outdoor environment.

  12. An orthognathic simulation system integrating teeth, jaw and face data using 3D cephalometry.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, N; Tsuji, M; Shigematsu, M; Goto, M

    2007-07-01

    A method for simulating the movement of teeth, jaw and face caused by orthognathic surgery is proposed, characterized by the use of 3D cephalometric data for 3D simulation. Computed tomography data are not required. The teeth and facial data are obtained by a laser scanner and the data for the patient's mandible are reconstructed and integrated according to 3D cephalometry using a projection-matching technique. The mandibular form is simulated by transforming a generic model to match the patient's cephalometric data. This system permits analysis of bone movement at each individual part, while also helping in the choice of optimal osteotomy design considering the influences on facial soft-tissue form.

  13. Co-culture of 3D tumor spheroids with fibroblasts as a model for epithelial–mesenchymal transition in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun-Ah; Lee, Eun Kyung; Kuh, Hyo-Jeong

    2015-07-15

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) acts as a facilitator of metastatic dissemination in the invasive margin of malignant tumors where active tumor–stromal crosstalks take place. Co-cultures of cancer cells with cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are often used as in vitro models of EMT. We established a tumor–fibroblast proximity co-culture using HT-29 tumor spheroids (TSs) with CCD-18co fibroblasts. When co-cultured with TSs, CCD-18co appeared activated, and proliferative activity as well as cell migration increased. Expression of fibronectin increased whereas laminin and type I collagen decreased in TSs co-cultured with fibroblasts compared to TSs alone, closely resembling the margin of in vivo xenograft tissue. Active TGFβ1 in culture media significantly increased in TS co-cultures but not in 2D co-cultures of cancer cells–fibroblasts, indicating that 3D context-associated factors from TSs may be crucial to crosstalks between cancer cells and fibroblasts. We also observed in TSs co-cultured with fibroblasts increased expression of α-SMA, EGFR and CTGF; reduced expression of membranous β-catenin and E-cadherin, together suggesting an EMT-like changes similar to a marginal region of xenograft tissue in vivo. Overall, our in vitro TS–fibroblast proximity co-culture mimics the EMT-state of the invasive margin of in vivo tumors in early metastasis. - Highlights: • An adjacent co-culture of tumor spheroids and fibroblasts is presented as EMT model. • Activation of fibroblasts and increased cell migration were shown in co-culture. • Expression of EMT-related factors in co-culture was similar to that in tumor tissue. • Crosstalk between spheroids and fibroblasts was demonstrated by secretome analysis.

  14. Time-Dependent Effects of Pre-Aging 3D Polymer Scaffolds in Cell Culture Medium on Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Kaushik; Hung, Stevephen; Kumar, Girish; Simon, Carl G

    2012-01-01

    Protein adsorption is known to direct biological response to biomaterials and is important in determining cellular response in tissue scaffolds. In this study we investigated the effect of the duration of protein adsorption to 3D polymer scaffolds on cell attachment and proliferation. 3D macro-porous polymer scaffolds were pre-aged in serum-containing culture medium for 5 min, 1 d or 7 d prior to seeding osteoblasts. The total amount of protein adsorbed was found to increase with pre-ageing time. Cell attachment and proliferation were measured 1 d and 14 d, respectively, after cell seeding. Osteoblast proliferation, but not attachment, increased with scaffold pre-ageing time and amount of adsorbed serum protein. These results demonstrate that the amount of time that scaffolds are exposed to serum-containing medium can affect cell proliferation and suggest that these effects are mediated by differences in the amount of protein adsorption.

  15. 3D Game-Based Learning System for Improving Learning Achievement in Software Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su,Chung-Ho; Cheng, Ching-Hsue

    2013-01-01

    The advancement of game-based learning has encouraged many related studies, such that students could better learn curriculum by 3-dimension virtual reality. To enhance software engineering learning, this paper develops a 3D game-based learning system to assist teaching and assess the students' motivation, satisfaction and learning…

  16. Bore-Sight Calibration of Multiple Laser Range Finders for Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning Systems.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Sanghyun; Kim, Sangmin; Cho, Hyoungsig; Kim, Changjae; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique has been used for autonomous navigation of mobile systems; now, its applications have been extended to 3D data acquisition of indoor environments. In order to reconstruct 3D scenes of indoor space, the kinematic 3D laser scanning system, developed herein, carries three laser range finders (LRFs): one is mounted horizontally for system-position correction and the other two are mounted vertically to collect 3D point-cloud data of the surrounding environment along the system's trajectory. However, the kinematic laser scanning results can be impaired by errors resulting from sensor misalignment. In the present study, the bore-sight calibration of multiple LRF sensors was performed using a specially designed double-deck calibration facility, which is composed of two half-circle-shaped aluminum frames. Moreover, in order to automatically achieve point-to-point correspondences between a scan point and the target center, a V-shaped target was designed as well. The bore-sight calibration parameters were estimated by a constrained least squares method, which iteratively minimizes the weighted sum of squares of residuals while constraining some highly-correlated parameters. The calibration performance was analyzed by means of a correlation matrix. After calibration, the visual inspection of mapped data and residual calculation confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed calibration approach. PMID:25946627

  17. A 3D Model Based Imdoor Navigation System for Hubei Provincial Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Kruminaite, M.; Onrust, B.; Liu, H.; Xiong, Q.; Zlatanova, S.

    2013-11-01

    3D models are more powerful than 2D maps for indoor navigation in a complicate space like Hubei Provincial Museum because they can provide accurate descriptions of locations of indoor objects (e.g., doors, windows, tables) and context information of these objects. In addition, the 3D model is the preferred navigation environment by the user according to the survey. Therefore a 3D model based indoor navigation system is developed for Hubei Provincial Museum to guide the visitors of museum. The system consists of three layers: application, web service and navigation, which is built to support localization, navigation and visualization functions of the system. There are three main strengths of this system: it stores all data needed in one database and processes most calculations on the webserver which make the mobile client very lightweight, the network used for navigation is extracted semi-automatically and renewable, the graphic user interface (GUI), which is based on a game engine, has high performance of visualizing 3D model on a mobile display.

  18. A framework for human spine imaging using a freehand 3D ultrasound system.

    PubMed

    Purnama, Ketut E; Wilkinson, Michael H F; Veldhuizen, Albert G; van Ooijen, Peter M A; Lubbers, Jaap; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Sardjono, Tri A; Verkerke, Gijbertus J

    2010-01-01

    The use of 3D ultrasound imaging to follow the progression of scoliosis, i.e., a 3D deformation of the spine, is described. Unlike other current examination modalities, in particular based on X-ray, its non-detrimental effect enables it to be used frequently to follow the progression of scoliosis which sometimes may develop rapidly. Furthermore, 3D ultrasound imaging provides information in 3D directly in contrast to projection methods. This paper describes a feasibility study of an ultrasound system to provide a 3D image of the human spine, and presents a framework of procedures to perform this task. The framework consist of an ultrasound image acquisition procedure to image a large part of the human spine by means of a freehand 3D ultrasound system and a volume reconstruction procedure which was performed in four stages: bin-filling, hole-filling, volume segment alignment, and volume segment compounding. The overall results of the procedures in this framework show that imaging of the human spine using ultrasound is feasible. Vertebral parts such as the transverse processes, laminae, superior articular processes, and spinous process of the vertebrae appear as clouds of voxels having intensities higher than the surrounding voxels. In sagittal slices, a string of transverse processes appears representing the curvature of the spine. In the bin-filling stage the estimated mean absolute noise level of a single measurement of a single voxel was determined. Our comparative study for the hole-filling methods based on rank sum statistics proved that the pixel nearest neighbour (PNN) method with variable radius and with the proposed olympic operation is the best method. Its mean absolute grey value error was less in magnitude than the noise level of a single measurement.

  19. Web-based Visualization and Query of semantically segmented multiresolution 3D Models in the Field of Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, M.; Agugiaro, G.; Billen, N.; Loos, L.; Zipf, A.

    2014-05-01

    Many important Cultural Heritage sites have been studied over long periods of time by different means of technical equipment, methods and intentions by different researchers. This has led to huge amounts of heterogeneous "traditional" datasets and formats. The rising popularity of 3D models in the field of Cultural Heritage in recent years has brought additional data formats and makes it even more necessary to find solutions to manage, publish and study these data in an integrated way. The MayaArch3D project aims to realize such an integrative approach by establishing a web-based research platform bringing spatial and non-spatial databases together and providing visualization and analysis tools. Especially the 3D components of the platform use hierarchical segmentation concepts to structure the data and to perform queries on semantic entities. This paper presents a database schema to organize not only segmented models but also different Levels-of-Details and other representations of the same entity. It is further implemented in a spatial database which allows the storing of georeferenced 3D data. This enables organization and queries by semantic, geometric and spatial properties. As service for the delivery of the segmented models a standardization candidate of the OpenGeospatialConsortium (OGC), the Web3DService (W3DS) has been extended to cope with the new database schema and deliver a web friendly format for WebGL rendering. Finally a generic user interface is presented which uses the segments as navigation metaphor to browse and query the semantic segmentation levels and retrieve information from an external database of the German Archaeological Institute (DAI).

  20. 3D-Web-GIS RFID location sensing system for construction objects.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chien-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Construction site managers could benefit from being able to visualize on-site construction objects. Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been shown to improve the efficiency of construction object management. The objective of this study is to develop a 3D-Web-GIS RFID location sensing system for construction objects. An RFID 3D location sensing algorithm combining Simulated Annealing (SA) and a gradient descent method is proposed to determine target object location. In the algorithm, SA is used to stabilize the search process and the gradient descent method is used to reduce errors. The locations of the analyzed objects are visualized using the 3D-Web-GIS system. A real construction site is used to validate the applicability of the proposed method, with results indicating that the proposed approach can provide faster, more accurate, and more stable 3D positioning results than other location sensing algorithms. The proposed system allows construction managers to better understand worksite status, thus enhancing managerial efficiency.