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Sample records for 3-d deterministic thermal

  1. CALTRANS: A parallel, deterministic, 3D neutronics code

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, L.; Ferguson, J.; Rogers, J.

    1994-04-01

    Our efforts to parallelize the deterministic solution of the neutron transport equation has culminated in a new neutronics code CALTRANS, which has full 3D capability. In this article, we describe the layout and algorithms of CALTRANS and present performance measurements of the code on a variety of platforms. Explicit implementation of the parallel algorithms of CALTRANS using both the function calls of the Parallel Virtual Machine software package (PVM 3.2) and the Meiko CS-2 tagged message passing library (based on the Intel NX/2 interface) are provided in appendices.

  2. 3D Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wilkinson, Curt; Mercer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts farther into the solar system than ever before, with human exploration of Mars as its ultimate goal. One of the technologies required to enable this advanced, Apollo-shaped capsule is a 3-dimensional quartz fiber composite for the vehicle's compression pad. During its mission, the compression pad serves first as a structural component and later as an ablative heat shield, partially consumed on Earth re-entry. This presentation will summarize the development of a new 3D quartz cyanate ester composite material, 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D-MAT), designed to meet the mission requirements for the Orion compression pad. Manufacturing development, aerothermal (arc-jet) testing, structural performance, and the overall status of material development for the 2018 EM-1 flight test will be discussed.

  3. Segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT and MR images based on 3D deterministic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štern, Darko; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    The evaluation of vertebral deformations is of great importance in clinical diagnostics and therapy of pathological conditions affecting the spine. Although modern clinical practice is oriented towards the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, as they can provide a detailed 3D representation of vertebrae, the established methods for the evaluation of vertebral deformations still provide only a two-dimensional (2D) geometrical description. Segmentation of vertebrae in 3D may therefore not only improve their visualization, but also provide reliable and accurate 3D measurements of vertebral deformations. In this paper we propose a method for 3D segmentation of individual vertebral bodies that can be performed in CT and MR images. Initialized with a single point inside the vertebral body, the segmentation is performed by optimizing the parameters of a 3D deterministic model of the vertebral body to achieve the best match of the model to the vertebral body in the image. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on five CT (40 vertebrae) and five T2-weighted MR (40 vertebrae) spine images, among them five are normal and five are pathological. The results show that the proposed method can be used for 3D segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT and MR images and that the proposed model can describe a variety of vertebral body shapes. The method may be therefore used for initializing whole vertebra segmentation or reliably describing vertebral body deformations.

  4. A highly heterogeneous 3D PWR core benchmark: deterministic and Monte Carlo method comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaboulay, J.-C.; Damian, F.; Douce, S.; Lopez, F.; Guenaut, C.; Aggery, A.; Poinot-Salanon, C.

    2014-06-01

    Physical analyses of the LWR potential performances with regards to the fuel utilization require an important part of the work dedicated to the validation of the deterministic models used for theses analyses. Advances in both codes and computer technology give the opportunity to perform the validation of these models on complex 3D core configurations closed to the physical situations encountered (both steady-state and transient configurations). In this paper, we used the Monte Carlo Transport code TRIPOLI-4®; to describe a whole 3D large-scale and highly-heterogeneous LWR core. The aim of this study is to validate the deterministic CRONOS2 code to Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-4®; in a relevant PWR core configuration. As a consequence, a 3D pin by pin model with a consistent number of volumes (4.3 millions) and media (around 23,000) is established to precisely characterize the core at equilibrium cycle, namely using a refined burn-up and moderator density maps. The configuration selected for this analysis is a very heterogeneous PWR high conversion core with fissile (MOX fuel) and fertile zones (depleted uranium). Furthermore, a tight pitch lattice is selcted (to increase conversion of 238U in 239Pu) that leads to harder neutron spectrum compared to standard PWR assembly. In these conditions two main subjects will be discussed: the Monte Carlo variance calculation and the assessment of the diffusion operator with two energy groups for the core calculation.

  5. Real-time forecasting of Hong Kong beach water quality by 3D deterministic model.

    PubMed

    Chan, S N; Thoe, W; Lee, J H W

    2013-03-15

    Bacterial level (e.g. Escherichia coli) is generally adopted as the key indicator of beach water quality due to its high correlation with swimming associated illnesses. A 3D deterministic hydrodynamic model is developed to provide daily water quality forecasting for eight marine beaches in Tsuen Wan, which are only about 8 km from the Harbour Area Treatment Scheme (HATS) outfall discharging 1.4 million m(3)/d of partially-treated sewage. The fate and transport of the HATS effluent and its impact on the E. coli level at nearby beaches are studied. The model features the seamless coupling of near field jet mixing and the far field transport and dispersion of wastewater discharge from submarine outfalls, and a spatial-temporal dependent E. coli decay rate formulation specifically developed for sub-tropical Hong Kong waters. The model prediction of beach water quality has been extensively validated against field data both before and after disinfection of the HATS effluent. Compared with daily beach E. coli data during August-November 2011, the model achieves an overall accuracy of 81-91% in forecasting compliance/exceedance of beach water quality standard. The 3D deterministic model has been most valuable in the interpretation of the complex variation of beach water quality which depends on tidal level, solar radiation and other hydro-meteorological factors. The model can also be used in optimization of disinfection dosage and in emergency response situations. PMID:23337883

  6. GPU accelerated simulations of 3D deterministic particle transport using discrete ordinates method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chunye; Liu, Jie; Chi, Lihua; Huang, Haowei; Fang, Jingyue; Gong, Zhenghu

    2011-07-01

    Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), originally developed for real-time, high-definition 3D graphics in computer games, now provides great faculty in solving scientific applications. The basis of particle transport simulation is the time-dependent, multi-group, inhomogeneous Boltzmann transport equation. The numerical solution to the Boltzmann equation involves the discrete ordinates ( Sn) method and the procedure of source iteration. In this paper, we present a GPU accelerated simulation of one energy group time-independent deterministic discrete ordinates particle transport in 3D Cartesian geometry (Sweep3D). The performance of the GPU simulations are reported with the simulations of vacuum boundary condition. The discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the GPU implementation, the simulation on multi GPUs, the programming effort and code portability are also reported. The results show that the overall performance speedup of one NVIDIA Tesla M2050 GPU ranges from 2.56 compared with one Intel Xeon X5670 chip to 8.14 compared with one Intel Core Q6600 chip for no flux fixup. The simulation with flux fixup on one M2050 is 1.23 times faster than on one X5670.

  7. GPU accelerated simulations of 3D deterministic particle transport using discrete ordinates method

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Chunye; Liu Jie; Chi Lihua; Huang Haowei; Fang Jingyue; Gong Zhenghu

    2011-07-01

    Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), originally developed for real-time, high-definition 3D graphics in computer games, now provides great faculty in solving scientific applications. The basis of particle transport simulation is the time-dependent, multi-group, inhomogeneous Boltzmann transport equation. The numerical solution to the Boltzmann equation involves the discrete ordinates (S{sub n}) method and the procedure of source iteration. In this paper, we present a GPU accelerated simulation of one energy group time-independent deterministic discrete ordinates particle transport in 3D Cartesian geometry (Sweep3D). The performance of the GPU simulations are reported with the simulations of vacuum boundary condition. The discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the GPU implementation, the simulation on multi GPUs, the programming effort and code portability are also reported. The results show that the overall performance speedup of one NVIDIA Tesla M2050 GPU ranges from 2.56 compared with one Intel Xeon X5670 chip to 8.14 compared with one Intel Core Q6600 chip for no flux fixup. The simulation with flux fixup on one M2050 is 1.23 times faster than on one X5670.

  8. Developing on-machine 3D profile measurement for deterministic fabrication of aspheric mirrors.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhichao; Cheng, Haobo; Ye, Xu; Tam, Hon-Yuen

    2014-08-01

    Three-dimensional profile measurement is perceived as an indispensable process for deterministic fabrication of aspheric mirrors. In this work, we develop on-machine 3D profile measurement on a subaperture polishing machine, namely, JR-1800. The influences of mechanical errors, misalignments, output stability, temperature variation, and natural vibration are investigated in detail by calibration, mechanical alignment, and finite-element analysis. Two quantitative methods are presented for aligning the turntable, length gauge, and workpiece into together. An error compensation model is also developed for further eliminating misalignments. For feasibility validation, two prototypical workpieces are measured by JR-1800 and an interferometer. The results indicate that JR-1800 has an RMS repeatability of ~λ/30 (λ=632.8  nm). The data provided by the two systems are highly coincident. Direct subtractions of the results from the two systems indicate that the RMS deviations for both segments are less than 0.07 μm. PMID:25090332

  9. TEMPEST. Transient 3-D Thermal-Hydraulic

    SciTech Connect

    Eyler, L.L.

    1992-01-31

    TEMPEST is a transient, three-dimensional, hydrothermal program that is designed to analyze a range of coupled fluid dynamic and heat transfer systems of particular interest to the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) thermal-hydraulic design community. The full three-dimensional, time-dependent equations of motion, continuity, and heat transport are solved for either laminar or turbulent fluid flow, including heat diffusion and generation in both solid and liquid materials. The equations governing mass, momentum, and energy conservation for incompressible flows and small density variations (Boussinesq approximation) are solved using finite-difference techniques. Analyses may be conducted in either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinate systems. Turbulence is treated using a two-equation model. Two auxiliary plotting programs, SEQUEL and MANPLOT, for use with TEMPEST output are included. SEQUEL may be operated in batch or interactive mode; it generates data required for vector plots, contour plots of scalar quantities, line plots, grid and boundary plots, and time-history plots. MANPLOT reads the SEQUEL-generated data and creates the hardcopy plots. TEMPEST can be a valuable hydrothermal design analysis tool in areas outside the intended FBR thermal-hydraulic design community.

  10. Reduction of Thermal Conductivity by Nanoscale 3D Phononic Crystal

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lina; Yang, Nuo; Li, Baowen

    2013-01-01

    We studied how the period length and the mass ratio affect the thermal conductivity of isotopic nanoscale three-dimensional (3D) phononic crystal of Si. Simulation results by equilibrium molecular dynamics show isotopic nanoscale 3D phononic crystals can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of bulk Si at high temperature (1000 K), which leads to a larger ZT than unity. The thermal conductivity decreases as the period length and mass ratio increases. The phonon dispersion curves show an obvious decrease of group velocities in 3D phononic crystals. The phonon's localization and band gap is also clearly observed in spectra of normalized inverse participation ratio in nanoscale 3D phononic crystal. PMID:23378898

  11. Reduction of thermal conductivity by nanoscale 3D phononic crystal.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Yang, Nuo; Li, Baowen

    2013-01-01

    We studied how the period length and the mass ratio affect the thermal conductivity of isotopic nanoscale three-dimensional (3D) phononic crystal of Si. Simulation results by equilibrium molecular dynamics show isotopic nanoscale 3D phononic crystals can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of bulk Si at high temperature (1000 K), which leads to a larger ZT than unity. The thermal conductivity decreases as the period length and mass ratio increases. The phonon dispersion curves show an obvious decrease of group velocities in 3D phononic crystals. The phonon's localization and band gap is also clearly observed in spectra of normalized inverse participation ratio in nanoscale 3D phononic crystal. PMID:23378898

  12. Deterministically patterned biomimetic human iPSC-derived hepatic model via rapid 3D bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xuanyi; Qu, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Li, Yi-Shuan; Yuan, Suli; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Justin; Wang, Pengrui; Lai, Cheuk Sun Edwin; Zanella, Fabian; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Sheikh, Farah; Chien, Shu; Chen, Shaochen

    2016-02-23

    The functional maturation and preservation of hepatic cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are essential to personalized in vitro drug screening and disease study. Major liver functions are tightly linked to the 3D assembly of hepatocytes, with the supporting cell types from both endodermal and mesodermal origins in a hexagonal lobule unit. Although there are many reports on functional 2D cell differentiation, few studies have demonstrated the in vitro maturation of hiPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells (hiPSC-HPCs) in a 3D environment that depicts the physiologically relevant cell combination and microarchitecture. The application of rapid, digital 3D bioprinting to tissue engineering has allowed 3D patterning of multiple cell types in a predefined biomimetic manner. Here we present a 3D hydrogel-based triculture model that embeds hiPSC-HPCs with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and adipose-derived stem cells in a microscale hexagonal architecture. In comparison with 2D monolayer culture and a 3D HPC-only model, our 3D triculture model shows both phenotypic and functional enhancements in the hiPSC-HPCs over weeks of in vitro culture. Specifically, we find improved morphological organization, higher liver-specific gene expression levels, increased metabolic product secretion, and enhanced cytochrome P450 induction. The application of bioprinting technology in tissue engineering enables the development of a 3D biomimetic liver model that recapitulates the native liver module architecture and could be used for various applications such as early drug screening and disease modeling. PMID:26858399

  13. Deterministically patterned biomimetic human iPSC-derived hepatic model via rapid 3D bioprinting

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xuanyi; Qu, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Li, Yi-Shuan; Yuan, Suli; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Justin; Wang, Pengrui; Lai, Cheuk Sun Edwin; Zanella, Fabian; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Sheikh, Farah; Chien, Shu; Chen, Shaochen

    2016-01-01

    The functional maturation and preservation of hepatic cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are essential to personalized in vitro drug screening and disease study. Major liver functions are tightly linked to the 3D assembly of hepatocytes, with the supporting cell types from both endodermal and mesodermal origins in a hexagonal lobule unit. Although there are many reports on functional 2D cell differentiation, few studies have demonstrated the in vitro maturation of hiPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells (hiPSC-HPCs) in a 3D environment that depicts the physiologically relevant cell combination and microarchitecture. The application of rapid, digital 3D bioprinting to tissue engineering has allowed 3D patterning of multiple cell types in a predefined biomimetic manner. Here we present a 3D hydrogel-based triculture model that embeds hiPSC-HPCs with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and adipose-derived stem cells in a microscale hexagonal architecture. In comparison with 2D monolayer culture and a 3D HPC-only model, our 3D triculture model shows both phenotypic and functional enhancements in the hiPSC-HPCs over weeks of in vitro culture. Specifically, we find improved morphological organization, higher liver-specific gene expression levels, increased metabolic product secretion, and enhanced cytochrome P450 induction. The application of bioprinting technology in tissue engineering enables the development of a 3D biomimetic liver model that recapitulates the native liver module architecture and could be used for various applications such as early drug screening and disease modeling. PMID:26858399

  14. Full 3D visualization tool-kit for Monte Carlo and deterministic transport codes

    SciTech Connect

    Frambati, S.; Frignani, M.

    2012-07-01

    We propose a package of tools capable of translating the geometric inputs and outputs of many Monte Carlo and deterministic radiation transport codes into open source file formats. These tools are aimed at bridging the gap between trusted, widely-used radiation analysis codes and very powerful, more recent and commonly used visualization software, thus supporting the design process and helping with shielding optimization. Three main lines of development were followed: mesh-based analysis of Monte Carlo codes, mesh-based analysis of deterministic codes and Monte Carlo surface meshing. The developed kit is considered a powerful and cost-effective tool in the computer-aided design for radiation transport code users of the nuclear world, and in particular in the fields of core design and radiation analysis. (authors)

  15. Applications of the 3-D Deterministic Transport Code Attlla for Core Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Lucas

    2004-10-01

    An LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project is ongoing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for applying the three-dimensional multi-group deterministic neutron transport code (Attila®) to criticality, flux and depletion calculations of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This paper discusses the model development, capabilities of Attila, generation of the cross-section libraries, and comparisons to an ATR MCNP model and future.

  16. Applications of the 3-D Deterministic Transport Attila{reg_sign} for Core Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, D.S.; Gougar, D.; Roth, P.A.; Wareing, T.; Failla, G.; McGhee, J.; Barnett, A.

    2004-10-06

    An LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project is ongoing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for applying the three-dimensional multi-group deterministic neutron transport code (Attila{reg_sign}) to criticality, flux and depletion calculations of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This paper discusses the model development, capabilities of Attila, generation of the cross-section libraries, and comparisons to an ATR MCNP model and future.

  17. Thermal 3D Modeling of Geothermal Area Using Terrestrial Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcay, Ozgun; Cuneyt Erenoglu, Ramazan; Erenoglu, Oya; Yılmazturk, Ferruh; Karaca, Zeki

    2015-04-01

    Photogrammetry and computer vision, sciences producing high accuracy 3D models from digital images based on projective geometry. 3D models can also be produced using thermal camera images using photogrammetry and computer vision techniques. Thermal images are capable of displaying hotspots on geothermal areas as a heat source in details. In the research, Tuzla geothermal area in Çanakkale province of Turkey is inspected using imaging techniques of terrestrial photogrammetry. Both a digital camera Canon EOS 650D and an infrared camera Optris PI 450 are used to obtain images of the thermal site. Calibration parameters (focal length, principle point, distortion coefficients) of thermal and digital cameras are determined using the calibration test field at the laboratory before the field work. In order to provide the georeferencing and the robustness of the 3D model, aluminum discs having diameter of 30 centimeters as ground control points (GCPs) are set to the geothermal area appropriately before imaging. Aluminum targets are chosen as the GCP because they are determined on the image depending on the contrast reflectance rate of the aluminum. Using GNSS RTK receivers supplying ±1 cm accuracy positioning, GCPs are measured so as to implement photogrammetric process successfully with thermal images. Numerous corresponding points are detected on the overlapped images with image matching techniques. Later on, bundle block adjustment is applied to calculate the revised interior orientation parameters of camera and exterior orientation parameters of camera positions. The 3D model showing details of the surface temperatures of the geothermal area are produced with multi view stereo (MVS) technique. The technique is able to produce 3D representation (point cloud, mesh and textured surface) of the field from both the thermal and digital images. The research presents that photogrammetric evaluation of thermal images is a noteworthy method to obtain a quick- accurate 3D

  18. Investigating the Use of 3-D Deterministic Transport for Core Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    H. D. Gougar; D. Scott

    2004-04-01

    An LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project is underway at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to demonstrate the feasibility of using a three-dimensional multi-group deterministic neutron transport code (Attila®) to perform global (core-wide) criticality, flux and depletion calculations for safety analysis of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This paper discusses the ATR, model development, capabilities of Attila, generation of the cross-section libraries, comparisons to experimental results for Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) concepts, and future work planned with Attila.

  19. Thermal infrared exploitation for 3D face reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abayowa, Bernard O.

    2009-05-01

    Despite the advances in face recognition research, current face recognition systems are still not accurate or robust enough to be deployed in uncontrolled environments. The existence of a pose and illumination invariant face recognition system is still lacking. This research exploits the relationship between thermal infrared and visible imagery, to estimate 3D face with visible texture from infrared imagery. The relationship between visible and thermal infrared texture is learned using kernel canonical correlation analysis(KCCA), and then a 3D modeler is used to estimate the geometric structure from predicted visual imagery. This research will find it's application in uncontrolled environments where illumination and pose invariant identification or tracking is required at long range such as urban search and rescue (Amber alert, missing dementia patient), and manhunt scenarios.

  20. Gravity driven deterministic lateral displacement for suspended particles in a 3D obstacle array

    PubMed Central

    Du, Siqi; Drazer, German

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple modification to enhance the separation ability of deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) systems by expanding the two-dimensional nature of these devices and driving the particles into size-dependent, fully three-dimensional trajectories. Specifically, we drive the particles through an array of long cylindrical posts, such that they not only move parallel to the basal plane of the posts as in traditional two-dimensional DLD systems (in-plane motion), but also along the axial direction of the solid posts (out-of-plane motion). We show that the (projected) in-plane motion of the particles is completely analogous to that observed in 2D-DLD systems. In fact, a theoretical model originally developed for force-driven, two-dimensional DLD systems accurately describes the experimental results. More importantly, we analyze the particles out-of-plane motion and observe, for certain orientations of the driving force, significant differences in the out-of-plane displacement depending on particle size. Therefore, taking advantage of both the in-plane and out-of-plane motion of the particles, it is possible to achieve the simultaneous fractionation of a polydisperse suspension into multiple streams. PMID:27526935

  1. Gravity driven deterministic lateral displacement for suspended particles in a 3D obstacle array.

    PubMed

    Du, Siqi; Drazer, German

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple modification to enhance the separation ability of deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) systems by expanding the two-dimensional nature of these devices and driving the particles into size-dependent, fully three-dimensional trajectories. Specifically, we drive the particles through an array of long cylindrical posts, such that they not only move parallel to the basal plane of the posts as in traditional two-dimensional DLD systems (in-plane motion), but also along the axial direction of the solid posts (out-of-plane motion). We show that the (projected) in-plane motion of the particles is completely analogous to that observed in 2D-DLD systems. In fact, a theoretical model originally developed for force-driven, two-dimensional DLD systems accurately describes the experimental results. More importantly, we analyze the particles out-of-plane motion and observe, for certain orientations of the driving force, significant differences in the out-of-plane displacement depending on particle size. Therefore, taking advantage of both the in-plane and out-of-plane motion of the particles, it is possible to achieve the simultaneous fractionation of a polydisperse suspension into multiple streams. PMID:27526935

  2. Feasibility of a Multigroup Deterministic Solution Method for 3D Radiotherapy Dose Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Vassiliev, Oleg N.; Wareing, Todd A.; Davis, Ian M.; McGhee, John; Barnett, Douglas; Horton, John L.; Gifford, Kent; Failla, Gregory; Titt, Uwe; Mourtada, Firas

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the potential of a novel deterministic solver, Attila, for external photon beam radiotherapy dose calculations. Methods and Materials Two hypothetical cases for prostate and head and neck cancer photon beam treatment plans were calculated using Attila and EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulations. Open beams were modeled as isotropic photon point sources collimated to specified field sizes (100 cm SSD). The sources had a realistic energy spectrum calculated by Monte Carlo for a Varian Clinac 2100 operated in a 6MV photon mode. The Attila computational grids consisted of 106,000 elements, or 424,000 spatial degrees of freedom, for the prostate case, and 123,000 tetrahedral elements, or 492,000 spatial degrees of freedom, for the head and neck cases. Results For both cases, results demonstrate excellent agreement between Attila and EGSnrc in all areas, including the build-up regions, near heterogeneities, and at the beam penumbra. Dose agreement for 99% of the voxels was within 3% (relative point-wise difference) or 3mm distance-to-agreement criterion. Localized differences between the Attila and EGSnrc results were observed at bone and soft tissue interfaces, and are attributable to the effect of voxel material homogenization in calculating dose-to-medium in EGSnrc. For both cases, Attila calculation times were under 20 CPU minutes on a single 2.2 GHz AMD Opteron processor. Conclusions The methods in Attila have the potential to be the basis for an efficient dose engine for patient specific treatment planning, providing accuracy similar to that obtained by Monte Carlo. PMID:18722273

  3. Thermal Characterization for a Modular 3-D Multichip Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Mark S.; Plante, Jeannette; Shaw, Harry

    2000-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has designed a high-density modular 3-D multichip module (MCM) for future spaceflight use. This MCM features a complete modular structure, i.e., each stack can be removed from the package without damaging the structure. The interconnection to the PCB is through the Column Grid Array (CGA) technology. Because of its high-density nature, large power dissipation from multiple layers of circuitry is anticipated and CVD diamond films are used in the assembly for heat conduction enhancement. Since each stacked layer dissipates certain amount of heat, designing effective heat conduction paths through each stack and balancing the heat dissipation within each stack for optimal thermal performance become a challenging task. To effectively remove the dissipated heat from the package, extensive thermal analysis has been performed with finite element methods. Through these analyses, we are able to improve the thermal design and increase the total wattage of the package for maximum electrical performance. This paper provides details on the design-oriented thermal analysis and performance enhancement. It also addresses issues relating to contact thermal resistance between the diamond film and the metallic heat conduction paths.

  4. Wear Analysis of Thermal Spray Coatings on 3D Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, W.; Luo, W.; Selvadurai, U.

    2014-01-01

    Even though the application of thermal spray coatings on complex geometries gained a greater interest in the last decade, the effect of different geometrical features on the wear behavior is still ill-defined. In this study, the wear resistance of FTC-FeCSiMn coated 3D surfaces was investigated. The wear test was carried out by means of two innovative testing procedures. The first test is a Pin-on-Tubes test where the rotating motion is realized by a lathe chuck. The specimens in the second test were fixed on the table and a robot arm operated the pin. This wear test was applied on specimens with concave or convex surfaces. The residual stresses, which were determined by means of an incremental hole-drilling method, show a dependency on the substrate geometry. The obtained stresses were put in relation to the different radii. After the wear test, a 3D-profilometer determined the wear volume and the sections of the coatings were characterized by a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that the wear resistance is strongly influenced by the geometry of the substrate.

  5. 3D Thermal Infrared Radiative Transfer in Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W.; Liou, K.; Hall, A.

    2007-12-01

    We developed a 3D Monte Carlo photon tracing program for radiative transfer in inhomogeneous and irregular terrain coupled with the correlated k-distribution method for gaseous absorption in the atmosphere for the calculation of broadband thermal infrared (IR) fluxes at mountain surfaces. The thermal IR radiative transfer program includes emission from the atmosphere to the surface and vice versa as well as emissions between mountain surfaces. Both the atmosphere and the land surface are discretized by using finite cubic cells characterized by the spectral optical properties of molecules and background aerosols (absorption coefficient, single-scattering albedo, and scattering phase function) and terrain configuration (albedo, elevation, slope, and orientation). The emissivity of gases is parameterized in terms of the vertical optical depth of cubic cell. We selected an area of 100×100 km2 in the Tibetan Plateau near Lhasa city with a horizontal resolution of 1 km2 and used the surface temperature and albedo available from MODIS/Terra dataset for this study. We show that surface temperature is the dominating factor in radiative transfer calculations and that subgrid variability of the net surface IR flux distribution relative to a flat surface (1D) with average elevation and temperature can be as large as 50 W/m2 at cold mountain surfaces.

  6. A Comprehensive Software System for Interactive, Real-time, Visual 3D Deterministic and Stochastic Groundwater Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.

    2002-05-01

    Taking advantage of the recent developments in groundwater modeling research and computer, image and graphics processing, and objected oriented programming technologies, Dr. Li and his research group have recently developed a comprehensive software system for unified deterministic and stochastic groundwater modeling. Characterized by a new real-time modeling paradigm and improved computational algorithms, the software simulates 3D unsteady flow and reactive transport in general groundwater formations subject to both systematic and "randomly" varying stresses and geological and chemical heterogeneity. The software system has following distinct features and capabilities: Interactive simulation and real time visualization and animation of flow in response to deterministic as well as stochastic stresses. Interactive, visual, and real time particle tracking, random walk, and reactive plume modeling in both systematically and randomly fluctuating flow. Interactive statistical inference, scattered data interpolation, regression, and ordinary and universal Kriging, conditional and unconditional simulation. Real-time, visual and parallel conditional flow and transport simulations. Interactive water and contaminant mass balance analysis and visual and real-time flux update. Interactive, visual, and real time monitoring of head and flux hydrographs and concentration breakthroughs. Real-time modeling and visualization of aquifer transition from confined to unconfined to partially de-saturated or completely dry and rewetting Simultaneous and embedded subscale models, automatic and real-time regional to local data extraction; Multiple subscale flow and transport models Real-time modeling of steady and transient vertical flow patterns on multiple arbitrarily-shaped cross-sections and simultaneous visualization of aquifer stratigraphy, properties, hydrological features (rivers, lakes, wetlands, wells, drains, surface seeps), and dynamically adjusted surface flooding area

  7. Deterministic side-branching during thermal dendritic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullis, Andrew M.

    2015-06-01

    The accepted view on dendritic side-branching is that side-branches grow as the result of selective amplification of thermal noise and that in the absence of such noise dendrites would grow without the development of side-arms. However, recently there has been renewed speculation about dendrites displaying deterministic side-branching [see e.g. ME Glicksman, Metall. Mater. Trans A 43 (2012) 391]. Generally, numerical models of dendritic growth, such as phase-field simulation, have tended to display behaviour which is commensurate with the former view, in that simulated dendrites do not develop side-branches unless noise is introduced into the simulation. However, here we present simulations at high undercooling that show that under certain conditions deterministic side-branching may occur. We use a model formulated in the thin interface limit and a range of advanced numerical techniques to minimise the numerical noise introduced into the solution, including a multigrid solver. Not only are multigrid solvers one of the most efficient means of inverting the large, but sparse, system of equations that results from implicit time-stepping, they are also very effective at smoothing noise at all wavelengths. This is in contrast to most Jacobi or Gauss-Seidel iterative schemes which are effective at removing noise with wavelengths comparable to the mesh size but tend to leave noise at longer wavelengths largely undamped. From an analysis of the tangential thermal gradients on the solid-liquid interface the mechanism for side-branching appears to be consistent with the deterministic model proposed by Glicksman.

  8. Deterministic nonclassicality for quantum-mechanical oscillators in thermal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Petr; Lachman, Lukáš; Slodička, Lukáš; Filip, Radim

    2016-07-01

    Quantum nonclassicality is the basic building stone for the vast majority of quantum information applications and methods of its generation are at the forefront of research. One of the obstacles any method needs to clear is the looming presence of decoherence and noise which act against the nonclassicality and often erase it completely. In this paper we show that nonclassical states of a quantum harmonic oscillator initially in thermal equilibrium states can be deterministically created by coupling it to a single two-level system. This can be achieved even in the absorption regime in which the two-level system is initially in the ground state. The method is resilient to noise and it may actually benefit from it, as witnessed by the systems with higher thermal energy producing more nonclassical states.

  9. Deterministic simulation of thermal neutron radiography and tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal Chowdhury, Rajarshi; Liu, Xin

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, thermal neutron radiography and tomography have gained much attention as one of the nondestructive testing methods. However, the application of thermal neutron radiography and tomography is hindered by their technical complexity, radiation shielding, and time-consuming data collection processes. Monte Carlo simulations have been developed in the past to improve the neutron imaging facility's ability. In this paper, a new deterministic simulation approach has been proposed and demonstrated to simulate neutron radiographs numerically using a ray tracing algorithm. This approach has made the simulation of neutron radiographs much faster than by previously used stochastic methods (i.e., Monte Carlo methods). The major problem with neutron radiography and tomography simulation is finding a suitable scatter model. In this paper, an analytic scatter model has been proposed that is validated by a Monte Carlo simulation.

  10. Experimental evidence for deterministic chaos in thermal pulse combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C.S.; Thomas, J.F.; Richards, G.A.; Narayanaswami, L.L.

    1994-12-31

    Given the existence of chaotic oscillations in reacting chemical systems, it is reasonable to ask whether or not similar phenomena can occur in combustion. In this paper, the authors present experimental evidence that kinetically driven chaos occurs in a highly simplified thermal pulse combustor. The combustor is a well-stirred reactor with a tailpipe extending from one end. Fuel and air are injected into the combustion chamber through orifices in the end opposite the tailpipe. Propane with the fuel used in all cases. From the experimental data analyses, it is clear that deterministic chaos is an important factor in thermal pulse combustor dynamics. While the authors have only observed such behavior in this particular type combustor to date, they infer from their understanding of the origins of the chaos that it is likely to exist in other pulse combustors and even nonpulsing combustion. They speculate that realization of the importance of chaos in affecting flame stability could lead to significant changes in combustor design and control.

  11. A Monte Carlo method for 3D thermal infrared radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Liou, K. N.

    2006-09-01

    A 3D Monte Carlo model for specific application to the broadband thermal radiative transfer has been developed in which the emissivities for gases and cloud particles are parameterized by using a single cubic element as the building block in 3D space. For spectral integration in the thermal infrared, the correlated k-distribution method has been used for the sorting of gaseous absorption lines in multiple-scattering atmospheres involving 3D clouds. To check the Monte-Carlo simulation, we compare a variety of 1D broadband atmospheric fluxes and heating rates to those computed from the conventional plane-parallel (PP) model and demonstrate excellent agreement between the two. Comparisons of the Monte Carlo results for broadband thermal cooling rates in 3D clouds to those computed from the delta-diffusion approximation for 3D radiative transfer and the independent pixel-by-pixel approximation are subsequently carried out to understand the relative merits of these approaches.

  12. 3D neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled analysis of MYRRHA

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, M.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2012-07-01

    The current tendency in multiphysics calculations applied to reactor physics is the use of already validated computer codes, coupled by means of an iterative approach. In this paper such an approach is explained concerning neutronics and thermal-hydraulics coupled analysis with MCNPX and COBRA-IV codes using a driver program and file exchange between codes. MCNPX provides the neutronic analysis of heterogeneous nuclear systems, both in critical and subcritical states, while COBRA-IV is a subchannel code that can be used for rod bundles or core thermal-hydraulics analysis. In our model, the MCNP temperature dependence of nuclear data is handled via pseudo-material approach, mixing pre-generated cross section data set to obtain the material with the desired cross section temperature. On the other hand, COBRA-IV has been updated to allow for the simulation of liquid metal cooled reactors. The coupled computational tool can be applied to any geometry and coolant, as it is the case of single fuel assembly, at pin-by-pin level, or full core simulation with the average pin of each fuel-assembly. The coupling tool has been applied to the critical core layout of the SCK-CEN MYRRHA concept, an experimental LBE cooled fast reactor presently in engineering design stage. (authors)

  13. COMMIX-1B. 3-D Single-Phase Thermal Hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.

    1986-01-31

    COMMIX-1B is designed to perform steady-state or transient, single-phase, three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer in a single-component or multicomponent system. The program was developed for the analysis of heat transfer and fluid flow processes in a nuclear reactor system; however, it can easily be applied to non-nuclear systems requiring heat transfer and/or fluid flow analysis. COMMIX-1B solves the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy, and transport equations of turbulence parameters and provides detailed local velocity, temperature, and pressure fields for the problem under consideration. It is capable of solving thermal-hydraulic problems involving either a single component, such as a rod bundle, reactor plenum, piping system, heat exchanger, etc., or a multicomponent system that is a combination of these components.

  14. Deterministic evaluation of collapse risk for a decomissioned flooded mine system: 3D numerical modelling of subsidence, roof collapse and impulse water flow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanza, Riccardo; Fernandez Merodo, Josè Antonio; di Prisco, Claudio; Frigerio, Gabriele; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Orlandi, Gianmarco

    2013-04-01

    Aim of the study is the assessment of stability conditions for an abandoned gypsum mine (Bologna , Italy). Mining was carried out til the end of the 70s by the room and pillar method. During mining a karst cave was crossed karstic waters flowed into the mine. As a consequence, the lower level of the mining is completely flooded and portions of the mining levels show critical conditions and are structurally prone to instability. Buildings and infrastructures are located above the first and second level and a large portion of the area below the mine area, and just above of the Savena river, is urbanised. Gypsum geomechanical properties change over time; water, or even air humidity, dissolves or weaken gypsum pillars, leading progressively to collapse. The mine is located in macro-crystalline gypsum beds belonging to the Messinian Gessoso Solfifera Formation. Selenitic gypsum beds are interlayered with by centimetre to meter thick shales layers. In order to evaluate the risk related to the collapse of the flooded level (level 3) a deterministic approach based on 3D numerical analyses has been considered. The entire abandoned mine system up to the ground surface has been generated in 3D. The considered critical scenario implies the collapse of the pillars and roof of the flooded level 3. In a first step, a sequential collapse starting from the most critical pillar has been simulated by means of a 3D Finite Element code. This allowed the definition of the subsidence basin at the ground surface and the interaction with the buildings in terms of ground displacements. 3D numerical analyses have been performed with an elasto-perfectly plastic constitutive model. In a second step, the effect of a simultaneous collapse of the entire level 3 has been considered in order to evaluate the risk of a flooding due to the water outflow from the mine system. Using a 3D CFD (Continuum Fluid Dynamics) finite element code the collapse of the level 3 has been simulated and the volume of

  15. Development of 3D Woven Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) for NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay D.; Ellerby, Don; Stackpoole, Mairead; Peterson, Keith; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2015-01-01

    The development of a new class of thermal protection system (TPS) materials known as 3D Woven TPS led by the Entry Systems and Technology Division of NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) will be discussed. This effort utilizes 3D weaving and resin infusion technologies to produce heat shield materials that are engineered and optimized for specific missions and requirements. A wide range of architectures and compositions have been produced and preliminarily tested to prove the viability and tailorability of the 3D weaving approach to TPS.

  16. Anisotropic thermal expansion of a 3D metal–organic framework with hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Atsushi Maeda, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-15

    A 3D flexible metal–organic framework (MOF) with 1D hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores shows anisotropic thermal expansion with relatively large thermal expansion coefficient (α{sub a}=−21×10{sup −6} K{sup −1} and α{sub c}=79×10{sup −6} K{sup −1}) between 133 K and 383 K. Temperature change gives deformation of both pores, which expand in diameter and elongate in length on cooling and vice versa. The thermally induced structural change should be derived from a unique framework topology like “lattice fence”. Silica accommodation changes not only the nature of the MOF but also thermal responsiveness of the MOF. Since the hydrophobic pores in the material are selectively blocked by the silica, the MOF with the silica is considered as a hydrophilic microporous material. Furthermore, inclusion of silica resulted in a drastic pore contraction in diameter and anisotropically changed the thermal responsiveness of the MOF. - Graphical abstract: A 3D metal–organic framework with hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores shows anisotropic thermal expansion behavior. The influence of silica filler in the hydrophobic pore was investigated. - Highlights: • Thermally induced structural change of a 3D MOF with a lattice fence topology was investigated. • The structural change was analyzed by synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns. • Temperature change induces anisotropic thermal expansion/contraction of the MOF. • Silica inclusion anisotropically changes the thermal responsiveness of the MOF.

  17. Estimation of the thermal conductivity of hemp based insulation material from 3D tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sawalhi, R.; Lux, J.; Salagnac, P.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we are interested in the structural and thermal characterization of natural fiber insulation materials. The thermal performance of these materials depends on the arrangement of fibers, which is the consequence of the manufacturing process. In order to optimize these materials, thermal conductivity models can be used to correlate some relevant structural parameters with the effective thermal conductivity. However, only a few models are able to take into account the anisotropy of such material related to the fibers orientation, and these models still need realistic input data (fiber orientation distribution, porosity, etc.). The structural characteristics are here directly measured on a 3D tomographic image using advanced image analysis techniques. Critical structural parameters like porosity, pore and fiber size distribution as well as local fiber orientation distribution are measured. The results of the tested conductivity models are then compared with the conductivity tensor obtained by numerical simulation on the discretized 3D microstructure, as well as available experimental measurements. We show that 1D analytical models are generally not suitable for assessing the thermal conductivity of such anisotropic media. Yet, a few anisotropic models can still be of interest to relate some structural parameters, like the fiber orientation distribution, to the thermal properties. Finally, our results emphasize that numerical simulations on 3D realistic microstructure is a very interesting alternative to experimental measurements.

  18. 3D structure and conductive thermal field of the Upper Rhine Graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freymark, Jessica; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Bär, Kristian; Stiller, Manfred; Fritsche, Johann-Gerhard; Kracht, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben (URG) was formed as part of the European Cenozoic Rift System in a complex extensional setting. At present-day, it has a large socioeconomic relevance as it provides a great potential for geothermal energy production in Germany and France. For the utilisation of this energy resource it is crucial to understand the structure and the observed temperature anomalies in the rift basin. In the framework of the EU-funded "IMAGE" project (Integrated Methods for Advanced Geothermal Exploration), we apply a data-driven numerical modelling approach to quantify the processes and properties controlling the spatial distribution of subsurface temperatures. Typically, reservoir-scale numerical models are developed for predictions on the subsurface hydrothermal conditions and for reducing the risk of drilling non-productive geothermal wells. One major problem related to such models is setting appropriate boundary conditions that define, for instance, how much heat enters the reservoir from greater depths. Therefore, we first build a regional lithospheric-scale 3D structural model, which covers not only the entire URG but also adjacent geological features like the Black Forest and the Vosges Mountains. In particular, we use a multidisciplinary dataset (e.g. well data, seismic reflection data, existing structural models, gravity) to construct the geometries of the sediments, the crust and the lithospheric mantle that control the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity and radiogenic heat production and hence temperatures. By applying a data-based and lithology-dependent parameterisation of this lithospheric-scale 3D structural model and a 3D finite element method, we calculate the steady-state conductive thermal field for the entire region. Available measured temperatures (down to depths of up to 5 km) are considered to validate the 3D thermal model. We present major characteristics of the lithospheric-scale 3D structural model and results of the 3D

  19. The deep geothermal potential of Berlin (Germany) - Predictions from 3D structural and thermal modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippel, Judith; Fuchs, Sven; Cacace, Mauro; Kastner, Oliver; Huenges, Ernst; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2013-04-01

    In the light of an aspired reduction of CO2 emissions for Germany's capital Berlin, one possible alternative for meeting the city's growing energy demands lies in deep geothermal energy. To minimise exploration risks, a profound knowledge about the subsurface temperature distribution is indispensable. We present a 3D structural model that is used for thermal modelling and thus correlates calculated subsurface temperatures with geothermally relevant structures in the deep subsurface of Berlin - an ideal base for improving the probability of finding adequate geothermal reservoirs. Berlin is located in the eastern part of the North German Basin which is filled with several thousand metres of Permian to Cenozoic sediments containing hot and water bearing aquifers to potentially be used as hydrothermal reservoirs. To characterise the geological underground, the 3D structural model integrates stratigraphical, petrophysical and well-log based information from local boreholes as well as stratigraphic trends from (seismic data based) regional 3D models. The model differentiates 21 geological units: 17 Permian-Cenozoic sedimentary layers, pre-Permian sediments, upper crust, lower crust and the lithospheric mantle. Based on this 3D geological model complemented by databased lithology-dependent thermal properties, two groups of numerical thermal simulations have been carried out: calculations of the steady-state conductive thermal field and simulations of coupled fluid and heat transport. The 3D thermal models predict large lateral variations in temperatures that are validated by high-precession temperature logs. These variations are mostly caused by three specific geological layers and their physical properties: the Permian Zechstein salt with its markedly high thermal conductivity and strong thickness variation (171-3442 m); the crystalline upper crustal layer with its high radiogenic heat production and decreasing thickness from east to west; and the Tertiary Rupelian

  20. Cookoff Response of PBXN-109: Material Characterization and ALE3D Thermal Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland, M A; Tran, T D; Cunningham, B J; Weese, R K; Maienschein, J L

    2001-05-29

    Materials properties measurements are made for the RDX-based explosive, PBXN-109, and initial ALE3D model predictions are given for the cookoff temperature in a U.S. Navy test. This work is part of an effort in the U.S. Navy and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories to understand the thermal explosion behavior of this material. Benchmark cookoff experiments are being performed by the U.S. Navy to validate DOE materials models and computer codes. The ALE3D computer code can model the coupled thermal, mechanical, and chemical behavior of heating, ignition, and explosion in cookoff tests. In our application, a standard three-step step model is selected for the chemical kinetics. The strength behavior of the solid constituents is represented by a Steinberg-Guinan model while polynomial and gamma-law expressions are used for the Equation Of State (EOS) for the solid and gas species, respectively. Materials characterization measurements are given for thermal expansion, heat capacity, shear modulus, bulk modulus, and One-Dimensional-Time-to-Explosion (ODTX). These measurements and those of the other project participants are used to determine parameters in the ALE3D chemical, mechanical, and thermal models. Time-dependent, two-dimensional results are given for the temperature and material expansion. The results show predicted cookoff temperatures slightly higher than the measured values.

  1. Cookoff Response of PBXN-109: Material Characterization and ALE3D Thermal Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland, M A; Tran, T D; Cunningham, B J; Weese, R K; Maienschein, J L

    2001-08-21

    Materials properties measurements are made for the RDX-based explosive, PBXN-109, and initial ALE3D model predictions are given for the cookoff temperature in a U.S. Navy test. This work is part of an effort in the U.S. Navy and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories to understand the thermal explosion behavior of this material. Benchmark cookoff experiments are being performed by the U.S. Navy to validate DOE materials models and computer codes. The ALE3D computer code can model the coupled thermal, mechanical, and chemical behavior of heating, ignition, and explosion in cookoff tests. In our application, a standard three-step step model is selected for the chemical kinetics. The strength behavior of the solid constituents is represented by a Steinberg-Guinan model while polynomial and gamma-law expressions are used for the Equation Of State (EOS) for the solid and gas species, respectively. Materials characterization measurements are given for thermal expansion, heat capacity, shear modulus, bulk modulus, and One-Dimensional-Time-to-Explosion (ODTX). These measurements and those of the other project participants are used to determine parameters in the ALE3D chemical, mechanical, and thermal models. Time-dependent, two-dimensional results are given for the temperature and material expansion. The results show predicted cookoff temperatures slightly higher than the measured values.

  2. Thermal characterization of a liquid resin for 3D printing using photothermal techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Pérez, José L.; Pincel, Pavel Vieyra; Cruz-Orea, Alfredo; Correa-Pacheco, Zormy N.

    2016-05-01

    Thermal properties of a liquid resin were studied by thermal lens spectrometry (TLS) and open photoacoustic cell (OPC), respectively. In the case of the TLS technique, the two mismatched mode experimental configuration was used with a He-Ne laser, as a probe beam and an Argon laser was used as the excitation source. The characteristic time constant of the transient thermal lens was obtained by fitting the theoretical expression to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal diffusivity ( α) of the resin. On the other hand, the sample thermal effusivity ( e) was obtained by using the OPC technique. In this technique, an Argon laser was used as the excitation source and was operated at 514 nm with an output power of 30 mW. From the obtained thermal diffusivity ( α) and thermal effusivity ( e) values, the thermal conductivity ( k) and specific heat capacity per unit volume ( ρc) of resin were calculated through the relationships k = e( α)1/2 and ρc = e/( α)1/2. The obtained thermal parameters were compared with the thermal parameters of the literature. To our knowledge, the thermal characterization of resin has not been reported until now. The present study has applications in laser stereo-lithography to manufacture 3D printing pieces.

  3. 3D thermal modeling of TRISO fuel coupled with neutronic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jianwei; Uddin, Rizwan

    2010-01-01

    The Very High Temperature Gas Reactor (VHTR) is widely considered as one of the top candidates identified in the Next Generation Nuclear Power-plant (NGNP) Technology Roadmap under the U.S . Depanment of Energy's Generation IV program. TRlSO particle is a common element among different VHTR designs and its performance is critical to the safety and reliability of the whole reactor. A TRISO particle experiences complex thermo-mechanical changes during reactor operation in high temperature and high burnup conditions. TRISO fuel performance analysis requires evaluation of these changes on micro scale. Since most of these changes are temperature dependent, 3D thermal modeling of TRISO fuel is a crucial step of the whole analysis package. In this paper, a 3D numerical thermal model was developed to calculate temperature distribution inside TRISO and pebble under different scenarios. 3D simulation is required because pebbles or TRISOs are always subjected to asymmetric thermal conditions since they are randomly packed together. The numerical model was developed using finite difference method and it was benchmarked against ID analytical results and also results reported from literature. Monte-Carlo models were set up to calculate radial power density profile. Complex convective boundary condition was applied on the pebble outer surface. Three reactors were simulated using this model to calculate temperature distribution under different power levels. Two asymmetric boundary conditions were applied to the pebble to test the 3D capabilities. A gas bubble was hypothesized inside the TRISO kernel and 3D simulation was also carried out under this scenario. Intuition-coherent results were obtained and reported in this paper.

  4. FDSOI bottom MOSFETs stability versus top transistor thermal budget featuring 3D monolithic integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenouillet-Beranger, C.; Previtali, B.; Batude, P.; Nemouchi, F.; Cassé, M.; Garros, X.; Tosti, L.; Rambal, N.; Lafond, D.; Dansas, H.; Pasini, L.; Brunet, L.; Deprat, F.; Grégoire, M.; Mellier, M.; Vinet, M.

    2015-11-01

    To set up specification for 3D monolithic integration, for the first time, the thermal stability of state-of-the-art FDSOI (Fully Depleted SOI) transistors electrical performance is quantified. Post fabrication annealings are performed on FDSOI transistors to mimic the thermal budget associated to top layer processing. Degradation of the silicide for thermal treatments beyond 400 °C is identified as the main responsible for performance degradation for PMOS devices. For the NMOS transistors, arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) dopants deactivation adds up to this effect. By optimizing both the n-type extension implantations and the bottom silicide process, thermal stability of FDSOI can be extended to allow relaxing upwards the thermal budget authorized for top transistors processing.

  5. Extreme low thermal conductivity in nanoscale 3D Si phononic crystal with spherical pores.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Yang, Nuo; Li, Baowen

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we propose a nanoscale three-dimensional (3D) Si phononic crystal (PnC) with spherical pores, which can reduce the thermal conductivity of bulk Si by a factor up to 10,000 times at room temperature. Thermal conductivity of Si PnCs depends on the porosity, for example, the thermal conductivity of Si PnCs with porosity 50% is 300 times smaller than that of bulk Si. The phonon participation ratio spectra demonstrate that more phonons are localized as the porosity increases. The thermal conductivity is insensitive to the temperature changes from room temperature to 1100 K. The extreme-low thermal conductivity could lead to a larger value of ZT than unity as the periodic structure affects very little the electric conductivity. PMID:24559126

  6. Thermal and mechanical properties of selected 3D printed thermoplastics in the cryogenic temperature regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, K.-P.; Bagrets, N.; Lange, C.; Goldacker, W.; Wohlgemuth, J.

    2015-12-01

    Insulating materials for use in cryogenic boundary conditions are still limited to a proved selection as Polyamid, Glasfiber reinforced resins, PEEK, Vespel etc. These materials are usually formed to parts by mechanical machining or sometimes by cast methods. Shaping complex geometries in one piece is limited. Innovative 3D printing is now an upcoming revolutionary technology to construct functional parts from a couple of thermoplastic materials as ABS, Nylon and others which possess quite good mechanical stability and allow realizing very complex shapes with very subtle details. Even a wide range of material mixtures is an option and thermal treatments can be used to finish the material structure for higher performance. The use of such materials in cryogenic environment is very attractive but so far poor experience exists. In this paper, first investigations of the thermal conductivity, expansion and mechanical strength are presented for a few selected commercial 3D material samples to evaluate their application prospects in the cryogenic temperature regime.

  7. 3D dynamics of hydrous thermal-chemical plumes in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, G.; Gerya, T.; Yuen, D.; Connolly, J. A. D.

    2009-04-01

    Mantle wedges are identified as sites of intense thermal convection and thermal-chemical Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities ("cold plumes") controlling distribution and intensity of magmatic activity in subduction zones. To investigate 3D hydrous partially molten cold plumes forming in the mantle wedge in response to slab dehydration, we perform 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical simulations of the intraoceanic one-sided subduction with spontaneously bending retreating slab characterized by weak hydrated upper interface. I3ELVIS code is used which is developed based on multigrid approach combined with marker-in-cell method with conservative finite-difference schemes. We investigated regional 800 km wide and 200 km deep 3D subduction models with variable 200 to 800 km lateral dimension along the trench using uniform numerical staggered grid with 405x101x101 nodal points and up to 50 million markers. Our results show three patterns (roll(sheet)-, zig-zag- and finger-like) of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities can develop above the subducting slab, which are controlled by effective viscosity of partially molten rocks. Spatial and temporal periodicity of plumes correlate well with that of volcanic activity in natural intraoceanic arcs such as Japan. High laterally variable surface heat flow predicted in the arc region in response to thermal-chemical plumes activity is also consistent with natural observations.

  8. Peach Bottom 2 Turbine Trip Simulation Using TRAC-BF1/COS3D, a Best-Estimate Coupled 3-D Core and Thermal-Hydraulic Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Ui, Atsushi; Miyaji, Takamasa

    2004-10-15

    The best-estimate coupled three-dimensional (3-D) core and thermal-hydraulic code system TRAC-BF1/COS3D has been developed. COS3D, based on a modified one-group neutronic model, is a 3-D core simulator used for licensing analyses and core management of commercial boiling water reactor (BWR) plants in Japan. TRAC-BF1 is a plant simulator based on a two-fluid model. TRAC-BF1/COS3D is a coupled system of both codes, which are connected using a parallel computing tool. This code system was applied to the OECD/NRC BWR Turbine Trip Benchmark. Since the two-group cross-section tables are provided by the benchmark team, COS3D was modified to apply to this specification. Three best-estimate scenarios and four hypothetical scenarios were calculated using this code system. In the best-estimate scenario, the predicted core power with TRAC-BF1/COS3D is slightly underestimated compared with the measured data. The reason seems to be a slight difference in the core boundary conditions, that is, pressure changes and the core inlet flow distribution, because the peak in this analysis is sensitive to them. However, the results of this benchmark analysis show that TRAC-BF1/COS3D gives good precision for the prediction of the actual BWR transient behavior on the whole. Furthermore, the results with the modified one-group model and the two-group model were compared to verify the application of the modified one-group model to this benchmark. This comparison shows that the results of the modified one-group model are appropriate and sufficiently precise.

  9. Thermal-Aware Incremental Floorplanning for 3D ICs Based on MILP Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuchun; Li, Xin; Wang, Yu; Hong, Xianlong

    In 3D IC design, thermal issue is a critical challenge. To eliminate hotspots, physical layouts are always adjusted by some incremental changes, such as shifting or duplicating hot blocks. In this paper, we distinguish the thermal-aware incremental changes in three different categories: migrating computation, growing unit and moving hotspot blocks. However, these modifications may degrade the packing area as well as interconnect distribution greatly. In this paper, mixed integer linear programming (MILP) models are devised according to these different incremental changes so that multiple objectives can be optimized simultaneously. Furthermore, to avoid random incremental modification, which may be inefficient and need long runtime to converge, here potential gain is modeled for each candidate incremental change. Based on the potential gain, a novel thermal optimization flow to intelligently choose the best incremental operation is presented. Experimental results show that migrating computation, growing unit and moving hotspot can reduce max on-chip temperature by 7%, 13% and 15% respectively on MCNC/GSRC benchmarks. Still, experimental results also show that the thermal optimization flow can reduce max on-chip temperature by 14% to the initial packings generated by an existing 3D floorplanning tool CBA, and achieve better area and total wirelength improvement than individual operations do. The results with the initial packings from CBA_T (Thermal-aware CBA floorplanner) show that 13.5% temperature reduction can be obtained by our incremental optimization flow.

  10. First 3D thermal mapping of an active volcano using an advanced photogrammetric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, Raphael; Baratoux, David; Lacogne, Julien; Lopez, Teodolina; Fauchard, Cyrille; Bretar, Frédéric; Arab-Sedze, Mélanie; Staudacher, Thomas; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Thermal infrared data obtained in the [7-14 microns] spectral range are usually used in many Earth Science disciplines. These studies are exclusively based on the analysis of 2D information. In this case, a quantitative analysis of the surface energy budget remains limited, as it may be difficult to estimate the radiative contribution of the topography, the thermal influence of winds on the surface or potential imprints of subsurface flows on the soil without any precise DEM. The draping of a thermal image on a recent DEM is a common method to obtain a 3D thermal map of a surface. However, this method has many disadvantages i) errors can be significant in the orientation process of the thermal images, due to the lack of tie points between the images and the DEM; ii) the use of a recent DEM implies the use of another remote sensing technique to quantify the topography; iii) finally, the characterization of the evolution of a surface requires the simultaneous acquisition of thermal data and topographic information, which may be expensive in most cases. The stereophotogrammetry method allows to reconstitute the relief of an object from photos taken from different positions. Recently, substantial progress have been realized in the generation of high spatial resolution topographic surfaces using stereophotogrammetry. However, the presence of shadows, homogeneous textures and/or weak contrasts in the visible spectrum (e.g., flowing lavas, uniform lithologies) may prevent from the use of such method, because of the difficulties to find tie points on each image. Such situations are more favorable in the thermal infrared spectrum, as any variation in the thermal properties or geometric orientation of the surfaces may induce temperature contrasts that are detectable with a thermal camera. This system, usually functioning with a array sensor (Focal Plane Array) and an optical device, have geometric characteristics that are similar to digital cameras. Thus, it may be possible

  11. Thermal analysis of 3D composites by a new fast multipole hybrid boundary node method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yu; Wang, Qiao; Zhu, Hongping; Li, Yinping

    2014-01-01

    This paper applies the hybrid boundary node method (Hybrid BNM) for the thermal analysis of 3D composites. A new formulation is derived for the inclusion-based composites. In the new formulation, the unknowns of the interfaces are assembled only once in the final system equation, which can reduce nearly one half of degrees of freedom (DOFs) compared with the conventional multi-domain solver when there are lots of inclusions. A new version of the fast multipole method (FMM) is also coupled with the new formulation and the technique is applied to thermal analysis of composites with many inclusions. In the new fast multipole hybrid boundary node method (FM-HBNM), a diagonal form for translation operators is used and the method presented can be applied to the computation of more than 1,000,000 DOFs on a personal computer. Numerical examples are presented to analyze the thermal behavior of composites with many inclusions.

  12. Thermal hydraulic analysis for the Oregon State TRIGA reactor using RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Marcum, W.R.; Woods, B.G.; Hartman, M.

    2008-07-15

    Thermal hydraulic analyses have being conducted at Oregon State University (OSU) in support of the conversion of the OSU TRIGA reactor (OSTR) core from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel as part of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program. The goals of the thermal hydraulic analyses were to calculate natural circulation flow rates, coolant temperatures and fuel temperatures as a function of core power for both the HEU and LEU cores; calculate peak values of fuel temperature, cladding temperature, surface heat flux as well as departure from nuclear boiling ratio (DNBR) for steady state and pulse operation; and perform accident analyses for the accident scenarios identified in the OSTR safety analysis report. RELAP5-3D Version 2.4.2 was implemented to develop a model for the thermal hydraulic study. The OSTR core conversion is planned to take place in late 2008. (author)

  13. Study of the thermal properties of filaments for 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trhlíková, Lucie; Zmeskal, Oldrich; Psencik, Petr; Florian, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    Various materials are used for 3D printing, most commonly Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), Polylactic acid (PLA), Polyethylene (PET) and Polypropylene (PP). These materials differ mainly in their melting point, which significantly influences the properties of the final products. Filaments are melted in the print head during the printing process. The temperature range is from 150 °C to 250 °C depending on the technology used. The optimum temperature for the cooling substrate on which printing is carried out is chosen so as to ensure uniform cooling and deformation. It generally varies between (40 - 100) °C. From the above it is clear that both temperatures can significantly affect the properties of the printed 3D object. It is therefore important to determine the thermal parameters (thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity) of the materials used across the entire range of temperatures. For evaluating the properties of different types of PLA materials, the step transient method was used, which allows determination of all required parameters using a fractal heat transfer model.

  14. Modeling thermally driven energetic response of high explosives in ALE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Aro, C.; McCallen, R.C.; Neely, R.; Nichols, A.L. III; Sharp, R.

    1998-10-01

    The authors have improved their ability to model the response of energetic materials to thermal stimuli and the processes involved in the energetic response. Traditionally, the analyses of energetic materials have involved coupled thermal transport/chemical reaction codes. This provides only a reasonable estimate of the time and location of ensuing rapid reaction. To predict the violence of the reaction, the mechanical motion must be included in the wide range of time scales associated with the thermal hazard. The ALE3D code has been modified to assess the hazards associated with heating energetic materials in weapons by coupling to thermal transport model and chemistry models. They have developed an implicit time step option to efficiently and accurately compute the hours of heating to reaction of the energetic material. Since, on these longer time scales materials can be expected to have significant motion, it is even more important to provide high-order advection for all components, including the chemical species. They show two examples of coupled thermal/mechanical/chemical models of energetic materials in thermal environments.

  15. 3D numerical thermal stress analysis of the high power target for the SLC Positron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, E.M.; Hodgson, J.A.

    1991-05-01

    The volumetrically nonuniform power deposition of the incident 33 GeV electron beam in the SLC Positron Source Target is hypothesized to be the most likely cause target failure. The resultant pulsed temperature distributions are known to generate complicated stress fields with no known closed-form analytical solution. 3D finite element analyses of these temperature distributions and associated thermal stress fields in the new High Power Target are described here. Operational guidelines based on the results of these analyses combined with assumptions made about the fatigue characteristics of the exotic target material are proposed. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Modeling the effects of 3-D slab geometry and oblique subduction on subduction zone thermal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, I.; Wang, K.; He, J.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we revisit the effects of along-strike variation in slab geometry and oblique subduction on subduction zone thermal structures. Along-strike variations in slab dip cause changes in the descending rate of the slab and generate trench-parallel pressure gradients that drive trench-parallel mantle flow (e.g., Kneller and van Keken, 2007). Oblique subduction also drives trench-parallel mantle flow. In this study, we use a finite element code PGCtherm3D and examine a range of generic subduction geometries and parameters to investigate the effects of the above two factors. This exercise is part of foundational work towards developing detailed 3-D thermal models for NE Japan, Nankai, and Cascadia to better constrain their 3-D thermal structures and to understand the role of temperature in controlling metamorphic, seismogenic, and volcanic processes. The 3-D geometry of the subducting slabs in the forearc and arc regions are well delineated at these three subduction zones. Further, relatively large compilations of surface heat flow data at these subduction zones make them excellent candidates for this study. At NE Japan, a megathrust earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011; at Nankai and Cascadia, there has been a great effort to constrain the scale of the next subduction thrust earthquake for the purpose of disaster prevention. Temperature influences the slip behavior of subduction faults by (1) affecting the rheology of the interface material and (2) controlling dehydration reactions, which can lead to elevated pore fluid pressure. Beyond the depths of subduction thrust earthquakes, the thermal structure is affected strongly by the pattern of mantle wedge flow. This flow is driven by viscous coupling between the subducting slab and the overriding mantle, and it brings in hot flowing mantle into the wedge. The trench-ward (up-dip) extent of the slab-mantle coupling is thus a key factor that controls the thermal structure. Slab-mantle decoupling at shallow

  17. Development of a 3D ultrasound-guided system for thermal ablation of liver tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neshat, Hamid R. S.; Cool, Derek W.; Barker, Kevin; Gardi, Lori; Kakani, Nirmal; Fenster, Aaron

    2013-03-01

    Two-dimensional ultrasound (2D US) imaging is commonly used for diagnostic and intraoperative guidance of interventional abdominal procedures including percutaneous thermal ablation of focal liver tumors with radiofrequency (RF) or microwave (MW) induced energy. However, in many situations 2D US may not provide enough anatomical detail and guidance information. Therefore, intra-procedural CT or MR imaging are used in many centers for guidance purposes. These modalities are costly and are mainly utilized to confirm tool placement rather than guiding the insertion. Three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) has been introduced to address these issues. In this paper, we present our integrated solution to provide 3D US images using a newly developed mechanical transducer with a large field-ofview and without the need for external tracking devices to combine diagnostic and planning information of different modalities for intraoperative guidance. The system provides tools to segment the target(s), plan the treatment, and detect the ablation applicators during the procedure for guiding purposes. We present experimental results used to ensure that our system generates accurate measurements and our early clinical evaluation results. The results suggest that 3D US used for focal liver ablation can provide a more reliable planning and guidance tool compared to 2D US only, and in many cases offers comparable measurements to other alternatives at significantly lower cost, faster time and with no harmful radiation.

  18. Investigation of thermal degradation with extrusion-based dispensing modules for 3D bioprinting technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungseok; Yoo, James J; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-03-01

    Recently, numerous three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting systems have been introduced for the artificial regeneration of tissues. Among them, the extrusion-based dispensing module is the most widely used because of the processability it gives various biomaterials. The module uses high forces and temperature to dispense materials through a micro-nozzle. Generally, the harsh conditions induce thermal degradation of the material in the dispensing procedure. The thermal degradation affects the properties of the materials, and the change of the properties should be carefully controlled, because it severely affects the regeneration of tissues. Therefore, in this research, the relationship between the dispensing module and the thermal degradation of material was investigated. Extrusion-based dispensing modules can be divided into the syringe type (ST) and filament type (FT) based on working principles. We prepared a poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffold with the two methods at various time points. Then, the characteristics of the printed scaffolds were assessed by measuring molecular weight (M w), glass transition temperature (T g), in vitro degradation, compressive modulus, and cytocompatibility. The results showed that the PLGA scaffold with the FT dispensing module maintained its properties regardless of printing time points. In contrast, severe thermal degradation was observed in the scaffold group prepared by the ST dispensing module. Consequentially, it was obvious that the FT dispensing module was more suitable for producing scaffolds without severe thermal degradation. PMID:26844711

  19. Reconstructing the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratten, Geraint; Munshi, Dipak

    2014-07-01

    The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect measures the line-of-sight projection of the thermal pressure of free electrons and lacks any redshift information. By cross-correlating the tSZ effect with an external cosmological tracer, we can recover a good fraction of this lost information. Weak lensing (WL) is thought to provide an unbiased probe of the dark Universe, with many WL surveys having sky coverage that overlaps with tSZ surveys. Generalizing the tomographic approach, we advocate the use of the spherical Fourier-Bessel expansion to perform an analysis of the cross-correlation between the projected (2D) tSZ Compton y-parameter maps and 3D WL convergence maps. We use redshift-dependent linear biasing and the halo model as a tool to investigate the tSZ-WL cross-correlations in 3D. We use the Press-Schechter and the Sheth-Tormen mass functions in our calculations, finding that the results are quite sensitive to detailed modelling. We provide detailed analysis of surveys with photometric and spectroscopic redshifts. The signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the cross-spectra {C}_{ℓ} (k) for individual 3D modes, defined by the radial and tangential wave numbers (k; ℓ), remains comparable to, but below, unity though optimal binning is expected to improve this. The results presented can be generalized to analyse other cosmic microwave background secondaries, such as the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect.

  20. Thermal analysis of the surrounding anatomy during 3-D MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound prostate therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtnyk, Mathieu; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Previous numerical simulations have shown that MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy can generate highly accurate volumes of thermal coagulation conforming to 3-D human prostate geometries. The goal of this work is to simulate, quantify and evaluate the thermal impact of these treatments on the rectum, pelvic bone, neurovascular bundles (NVB) and urinary sphincters. This study used twenty 3-D anatomical models of prostate cancer patients and detailed bio-acoustic simulations incorporating an active feedback algorithm which controlled a rotating, planar ultrasound transducer (17-4×3 mm elements, 4.7/9.7 MHz, 10 Wac/cm2). Heating of the adjacent surrounding anatomy was evaluated using thermal tolerances reported in the literature. Heating of the rectum poses the most important safety concern and is influenced largely by the water temperature flowing through an endorectal cooling device; temperatures of 7-37° C are required to limit potential damage to less than 10 mm3 on the outer 1 mm layer of rectum. Significant heating of the pelvic bone was predicted in 30% of the patient models with an ultrasound frequency of 4.7 MHz; setting the frequency to 9.7 MHz when the bone is less than 10 mm away from the prostate reduced heating in all cases below the threshold for irreversible damage. Heating of the NVB was significant in 75% of the patient models in the absence of treatment planning; this proportion was reduced to 5% by using treatment margins of up to 4 mm. To avoid damaging the urinary sphincters, margins from the transducer of 2-4 mm should be used, depending on the transurethral cooling temperature. Simulations show that MRI-guided transurethral therapy can treat the entire prostate accurately. Strategies have been developed which, along with careful treatment planning, can be used to avoid causing thermal injury to the rectum, pelvic bone, NVB and urinary sphincters.

  1. Catheter-Based Ultrasound for 3D Control of Thermal Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Chris; Chen, Xin; Wootton, Jeffery; Juang, Titania; Nau, Will H.; Kinsey, Adam; Hsu, I.-Chow; Rieke, Viola; Pauly, Kim Butts; Sommer, Graham; Bouley, Donna

    2009-04-01

    Catheter-based ultrasound applicators have been investigated for delivering hyperthermia and thermal ablation for the treatment of cancer and benign diseases. Technology includes an intrauterine applicator integrated with an HDR ring applicator, interstitial applicators for hyperthermia delivery during brachytherapy, interstitial applicators for tumor ablation, and transurethral devices for conformal prostate ablation. Arrays of multiple sectored tubular transducers have been fabricated for interstitial and intrauterine hyperthermia applicators. High-power interstitial versions have been evaluated for percutaneous implantation with directional or dynamic angular control of thermal ablation. Transurethral applicators include curvilinear transducers with rotational sweeping of narrow heating patterns, and multi-sectored tubular devices capable of dynamic angular control without applicator movement. Performance was evaluated in phantom, excised tissue, in vivo experiments in canine prostate under MR temperature monitoring, clinical hyperthermia, and 3D-biothermal simulations with patient anatomy. Interstitial and intrauterine devices can tailor hyperthermia to large treatment volumes, with multisectored control useful to limit exposure to rectum and bladder. Curvilinear transurethral devices with sequential rotation produce target conforming coagulation zones that can cover either the whole gland or defined focal regions. Multi-sectored transurethral applicators can dynamically control the angular heating profile and target large regions of the prostate without applicator manipulation. High-power interstitial implants with directional devices can be used to effectively ablate defined target regions while avoiding sensitive tissues. MR temperature monitoring can effectively define the extent of thermal damage and provided a means for real-time control of the applicators. In summary, these catheter-based ultrasound devices allow for dynamic control of heating profiles

  2. Self-aligned metallization on organic semiconductor through 3D dual-layer thermal nanoimprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Y.; Cheng, X.

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution patterning of metal structures on organic semiconductors is important to the realization of high-performance organic transistors for organic integrated circuit applications. The traditional shadow mask technique has a limited resolution, precluding sub-micron metal structures on organic semiconductors. Thus organic transistors cannot benefit from scaling into the deep sub-micron region to improve their dc and ac performances. In this work, we report an efficient multiple-level metallization on poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with a deep sub-micron lateral gap. By using a 3D nanoimprint mold in a dual-layer thermal nanoimprint process, we achieved self-aligned two-level metallization on P3HT. The 3D dual-layer thermal nanoimprint enables the first metal patterns to have suspending side-wings that can clearly define a distance from the second metal patterns. Isotropic and anisotropic side-wing structures can be fabricated through two different schemes. The process based on isotropic side-wings achieves a lateral-gap in the order of 100 nm (scheme 1). A gap of 60 nm can be achieved from the process with anisotropic side-wings (scheme 2). Because of the capability of nanoscale metal patterning on organic semiconductors with high overlay accuracy, this self-aligned metallization technique can be utilized to fabricate high-performance organic metal semiconductor field-effect transistor.

  3. Liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of 3D polymer nanopatterns for direct carbonisation with high structural integrity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Cheolho; Park, Gyurim; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    The direct pyrolytic carbonisation of polymer patterns has attracted interest for its use in obtaining carbon materials. In the case of carbonisation of nanopatterned polymers, the polymer flow and subsequent pattern change may occur in order to relieve their high surface energies. Here, we demonstrated that liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of polymer nanopatterns effectively enhanced the thermal resistance and maintained the structure integrity during the heat treatment. We employed the liquid immersion thermal crosslinking for 3D porous SU8 photoresist nanopatterns and successfully converted them to carbon nanopatterns while maintaining their porous features. The thermal crosslinking reaction and carbonisation of SU8 nanopatterns were characterised. The micro-crystallinity of the SU8-derived carbon nanopatterns was also characterised. The liquid immersion heat treatment can be extended to the carbonisation of various polymer or photoresist nanopatterns and also provide a facile way to control the surface energy of polymer nanopatterns for various purposes, for example, to block copolymer or surfactant self-assemblies. PMID:26677949

  4. Liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of 3D polymer nanopatterns for direct carbonisation with high structural integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Cheolho; Park, Gyurim; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-12-01

    The direct pyrolytic carbonisation of polymer patterns has attracted interest for its use in obtaining carbon materials. In the case of carbonisation of nanopatterned polymers, the polymer flow and subsequent pattern change may occur in order to relieve their high surface energies. Here, we demonstrated that liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of polymer nanopatterns effectively enhanced the thermal resistance and maintained the structure integrity during the heat treatment. We employed the liquid immersion thermal crosslinking for 3D porous SU8 photoresist nanopatterns and successfully converted them to carbon nanopatterns while maintaining their porous features. The thermal crosslinking reaction and carbonisation of SU8 nanopatterns were characterised. The micro-crystallinity of the SU8-derived carbon nanopatterns was also characterised. The liquid immersion heat treatment can be extended to the carbonisation of various polymer or photoresist nanopatterns and also provide a facile way to control the surface energy of polymer nanopatterns for various purposes, for example, to block copolymer or surfactant self-assemblies.

  5. Liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of 3D polymer nanopatterns for direct carbonisation with high structural integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Cheolho; Park, Gyurim; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    The direct pyrolytic carbonisation of polymer patterns has attracted interest for its use in obtaining carbon materials. In the case of carbonisation of nanopatterned polymers, the polymer flow and subsequent pattern change may occur in order to relieve their high surface energies. Here, we demonstrated that liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of polymer nanopatterns effectively enhanced the thermal resistance and maintained the structure integrity during the heat treatment. We employed the liquid immersion thermal crosslinking for 3D porous SU8 photoresist nanopatterns and successfully converted them to carbon nanopatterns while maintaining their porous features. The thermal crosslinking reaction and carbonisation of SU8 nanopatterns were characterised. The micro-crystallinity of the SU8-derived carbon nanopatterns was also characterised. The liquid immersion heat treatment can be extended to the carbonisation of various polymer or photoresist nanopatterns and also provide a facile way to control the surface energy of polymer nanopatterns for various purposes, for example, to block copolymer or surfactant self-assemblies. PMID:26677949

  6. 3D neutronic codes coupled with thermal-hydraulic system codes for PWR, and BWR and VVER reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbuch, S.; Velkov, K.; Lizorkin, M.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes the objectives of code development for coupling 3D neutronics codes with thermal-hydraulic system codes. The present status of coupling ATHLET with three 3D neutronics codes for VVER- and LWR-reactors is presented. After describing the basic features of the 3D neutronic codes BIPR-8 from Kurchatov-Institute, DYN3D from Research Center Rossendorf and QUABOX/CUBBOX from GRS, first applications of coupled codes for different transient and accident scenarios are presented. The need of further investigations is discussed.

  7. 3D perfused brain phantom for interstitial ultrasound thermal therapy and imaging: design, construction and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, José M.; Jarosz, Boguslaw J.

    2015-03-01

    Thermal therapy has emerged as an independent modality of treating some tumors. In many clinics the hyperthermia, one of the thermal therapy modalities, has been used adjuvant to radio- or chemotherapy to substantially improve the clinical treatment outcomes. In this work, a methodology for building a realistic brain phantom for interstitial ultrasound low dose-rate thermal therapy of the brain is proposed. A 3D brain phantom made of the tissue mimicking material (TMM) had the acoustic and thermal properties in the 20-32 °C range, which is similar to that of a brain at 37 °C. The phantom had 10-11% by mass of bovine gelatin powder dissolved in ethylene glycol. The TMM sonicated at 1 MHz, 1.6 MHz and 2.5 MHz yielded the amplitude attenuation coefficients of 62  ±  1 dB m-1, 115  ±  4 dB m-1 and 175  ±  9 dB m-1, respectively. The density and acoustic speed determination at room temperature (~24 °C) gave 1040  ±  40 kg m-3 and 1545  ±  44 m s-1, respectively. The average thermal conductivity was 0.532 W m-1 K-1. The T1 and T2 values of the TMM were 207  ±  4 and 36.2  ±  0.4 ms, respectively. We envisage the use of our phantom for treatment planning and for quality assurance in MRI based temperature determination. Our phantom preparation methodology may be readily extended to other thermal therapy technologies.

  8. 3D coexisting modes of thermal convection in the faulted Lower Yarmouk Gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Fabien; Inbar, Nimrod; Möller, Peter; Raggad, Marwan; Rödiger, Tino; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Siebert, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Numerical investigations of 3D modes of large-scale convection in faulted aquifers are presented with the aim to infer possible transport mechanisms supporting the formation of thermal springs in the Lower Yarmouk Gorge (LYG), at the border between Israel and Jordan. The transient finite elements models are based on a geological model of the LYG that introduces more realistic structural features of the basin, compared to previous existing models of the area (Magri et al., submitted). The sensitivity analysis of the fault permeability showed that faults cross-cutting the main regional flow direction allow groundwater to be driven laterally by convective forces within the fault planes. Therein thermal waters can either discharge along the fault traces or exit the fault through adjacent permeable aquifers. The location of springs can migrate with time, is not strictly constrained to the damage zones and reflects the interplay between the wavelength of the multicellular regime in the fault zone and the regional flow toward discharge areas in the lowlands. The results presented here suggest that in the LYG case, crossing flow paths result from the coexistence of fault convection, that can develop for example along NE-SW oriented faults within the Gorge, and additional flow fields that can be induced either by topography N-S gradients, e.g. perpendicular to the major axe of the Gorge, or by local thermal convection in permeable aquifers below Eocene aquiclude. The sensitivity analysis is consistent with the analytical solutions based on viscous-dependent Rayleigh theory. It indicates that in the LYG coexisting transport processes likely occur at fault hydraulic conductivity ranging between 2.3e-7 m/s and 9.3e- 7 m/s (i.e. 7 m/yr and 30 m/yr). The LYG numerical example and the associated Rayleigh analysis can be applied to study the onset of thermal convection and resulting flow patterns of any fractured hydrothermal basin. References Magri F, Möller S, Inbar N, M

  9. Modeling the transverse thermal conductivity of 3D-SICF/ SIC composites

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, Gerald E; Jones, Russell H; Yamada, Reiji

    2004-06-30

    Our previously developed hierarchical two-layer (H2L) model was modified to describe the effective transverse thermal conductivity (Keff) of a three-dimensional (3D) SiC/SiC composite plate made with cross-layered and Z-stitched X:Y:Z uniaxial fiber tow sub-units. As before, the model describes Keff in terms of constituent, microstructural and architectural properties that include the expected effects of fiber-matrix interfacial conductance, of high fiber packing fractions within individual tow sub-units and of the non-uniform porosity contents, shapes and orientations within these sub-units. Model predictions were obtained for two versions of a 3D-Tyranno SA/PyC/ICVI-SiC composite that had similar fiber/matrix pyrocarbon (PyC) interfaces, relatively high bulk densities (~2.88 g/cc), and an X:Y configuration with fiber content ratios 1:1. The only major difference between the two versions was their Z-stitch fiber content where the relative fiber ratios were 0.1 and 1.2 in the Z sub-units.

  10. Thermal impact of an active 3-D microelectrode array implanted in the brain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sohee; Tathireddy, Prashant; Normann, Richard A; Solzbacher, Florian

    2007-12-01

    A chronically implantable, wireless neural interface device will require integrating electronic circuitry with the interfacing microelectrodes in order to eliminate wired connections. Since the integrated circuit (IC) dissipates a certain amount of power, it will raise the temperature in surrounding tissues where it is implanted. In this paper, the thermal influence of the integrated 3-D Utah electrode array (UEA) device implanted in the brain was investigated by numerical simulation using finite element analysis (FEA) and by experimental measurement in vitro as well as in vivo. The numerically calculated and experimentally measured temperature increases due to the UEA implantation were in good agreement. The experimentally validated numerical model predicted that the temperature increases linearly with power dissipation through the UEA, with a slope of 0.029 degree C/mW over the power dissipation levels expected to be used. The influences of blood perfusion, brain metabolism, and UEA geometry on tissue heating were also investigated using the numerical model. PMID:18198706

  11. The mantle wedge's transient 3-D flow regime and thermal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, D. R.; Le Voci, G.; Goes, S.; Kramer, S. C.; Wilson, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Arc volcanism, volatile cycling, mineralization, and continental crust formation are likely regulated by the mantle wedge's flow regime and thermal structure. Wedge flow is often assumed to follow a regular corner-flow pattern. However, studies that incorporate a hydrated rheology and thermal buoyancy predict internal small-scale-convection (SSC). Here, we systematically explore mantle-wedge dynamics in 3-D simulations. We find that longitudinal "Richter-rolls" of SSC (with trench-perpendicular axes) commonly occur if wedge hydration reduces viscosities to Pa s, although transient transverse rolls (with trench-parallel axes) can dominate at viscosities of Pa s. Rolls below the arc and back arc differ. Subarc rolls have similar trench-parallel and trench-perpendicular dimensions of 100-150 km and evolve on a 1-5 Myr time-scale. Subback-arc instabilities, on the other hand, coalesce into elongated sheets, usually with a preferential trench-perpendicular alignment, display a wavelength of 150-400 km and vary on a 5-10 Myr time scale. The modulating influence of subback-arc ridges on the subarc system increases with stronger wedge hydration, higher subduction velocity, and thicker upper plates. We find that trench-parallel averages of wedge velocities and temperature are consistent with those predicted in 2-D models. However, lithospheric thinning through SSC is somewhat enhanced in 3-D, thus expanding hydrous melting regions and shifting dehydration boundaries. Subarc Richter-rolls generate time-dependent trench-parallel temperature variations of up to K, which exceed the transient 50-100 K variations predicted in 2-D and may contribute to arc-volcano spacing and the variable seismic velocity structures imaged beneath some arcs.

  12. Comparison of the 3-D Deterministic Neutron Transport Code Attila® To Measure Data, MCNP And MCNPX For The Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    D. Scott Lucas; D. S. Lucas

    2005-09-01

    An LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project is underway at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to apply the three-dimensional multi-group deterministic neutron transport code (Attila®) to criticality, flux and depletion calculations of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This paper discusses the development of Attila models for ATR, capabilities of Attila, the generation and use of different cross-section libraries, and comparisons to ATR data, MCNP, MCNPX and future applications.

  13. 3-D Topographic Thermal and Radiative Modeling of Ice Stability and Migration on Callisto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Stephen E.; Ivarson, K. L.; Danilina, I.; Griffiths, S. D.; Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.; Schenk, P. M.

    2010-10-01

    We have been modeling landscape evolution on the Galilean satellites driven by volatile transport. Callisto's landscape shows evidence of widespread erosion hypothesized by Moore et al. (1999) to result from sublimation of near-surface ice followed by mass wasting. Bright material thought to be re-deposited frost is commonly seen on upper flanks and summits of ridges, crater rims, and Callisto's ubiquitous knobs. In order to test hypotheses related to these landform and albedo patterns, we have developed a 3-D thermal model that calculates surface and subsurface temperatures for any given topographic shape, accounting for shadowing, reflected solar radiation, and thermal radiation from surrounding points. The temperatures are then used to calculate sublimation and subsurface diffusion rates for both CO2 and H2O ice. These rates are used to compute area-averaged downward vapor fluxes within ballistic molecular jump distances from vapor sources. Where net deposition is predicted, surface albedo in increased proportional to frost thickness. Where net sublimation occurs, the thickness of a dark dust lag is increased accordingly. We will present results pertaining to the stability of bright frost-covered knobs as well as observed distribution patterns of frost on the interior walls of craters. This work is supported by NASA through the Jupiter Data Analysis Program.

  14. Thermal and Residual Excited-State Population in a 3D Transmon Qubit.

    PubMed

    Jin, X Y; Kamal, A; Sears, A P; Gudmundsen, T; Hover, D; Miloshi, J; Slattery, R; Yan, F; Yoder, J; Orlando, T P; Gustavsson, S; Oliver, W D

    2015-06-19

    Remarkable advancements in coherence and control fidelity have been achieved in recent years with cryogenic solid-state qubits. Nonetheless, thermalizing such devices to their milliKelvin environments has remained a long-standing fundamental and technical challenge. In this context, we present a systematic study of the first-excited-state population in a 3D transmon superconducting qubit mounted in a dilution refrigerator with a variable temperature. Using a modified version of the protocol developed by Geerlings et al., we observe the excited-state population to be consistent with a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, i.e., a qubit in thermal equilibrium with the refrigerator, over the temperature range 35-150 mK. Below 35 mK, the excited-state population saturates at approximately 0.1%. We verified this result using a flux qubit with ten times stronger coupling to its readout resonator. We conclude that these qubits have effective temperature T(eff)=35  mK. Assuming T(eff) is due solely to hot quasiparticles, the inferred qubit lifetime is 108  μs and in plausible agreement with the measured 80  μs. PMID:26196969

  15. Closed-loop high-speed 3D thermal probe nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoll, A. W.; Zientek, M.; Cheong, L. L.; Rawlings, C.; Paul, P.; Holzner, F.; Hedrick, J. L.; Coady, D. J.; Allen, R.; Dürig, U.

    2014-03-01

    Thermal Scanning Probe Lithography (tSPL) is an AFM based patterning technique, which uses heated tips to locally evaporate organic resists such as molecular glasses [1] or thermally sensitive polymers.[2][3] Organic resists offer the versatility of the lithography process known from the CMOS environment and simultaneously ensure a highly stable and low wear tip-sample contact due to the soft nature of the resists. Patterning quality is excellent up to a resolution of sub 15 nm,[1] at linear speeds of up to 20 mm/s and pixel rates of up to 500 kHz.[4] The patterning depth is proportional to the applied force which allows for the creation of 3-D profiles in a single patterning run.[2] In addition, non-destructive imaging can be done at pixel rates of more than 500 kHz.[4] If the thermal stimulus for writing the pattern is switched off the same tip can be used to record the written topography with Angstrom depth resolution. We utilize this unique feature of SPL to implement an efficient control system for reliable patterning at high speed and high resolution. We combine the writing and imaging process in a single raster scan of the surface. In this closed loop lithography (CLL) approach, we use the acquired data to optimize the writing parameters on the fly. Excellent control is in particular important for an accurate reproduction of complex 3D patterns. These novel patterning capabilities are equally important for a high quality transfer of two-dimensional patterns into the underlying substrate. We utilize an only 3-4 nm thick SiOx hardmask to amplify the 8±0.5 nm deep patterns created by tSPL into a 50 nm thick transfer polymer. The structures in the transfer polymer can be used to create metallic lines by a lift-off process or to further process the pattern into the substrate. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of 27 nm wide lines and trenches 60 nm deep into the Silicon substrate.[5] In addition, the combined read and write approach ensures that the lateral

  16. Three-dimensional (3-D) thermal investigation below high Alpine topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, T.; Signorelli, S.; Rybach, L.

    2001-11-01

    The characteristics of severe topography in active mountain belts represent a special challenge for the evaluation of subsurface temperatures. These conditions require in particular a proper treatment of possible thermally relevant mechanisms. In the present analysis temperature data from depths of up to 1.5 km are investigated which have been collected at the intermediate "point-of-attack" in the framework of the new Alpine transverse (NEAT) project in central Switzerland for the construction of a 57 km long base tunnel. Specially designed temperature measurements were used in a 800 m deep shaft and along a 1200 m long access adit. Additional thermal information was provided by temperature logs from two nearby exploration boreholes and from laboratory measurements of various samples. For a detailed investigation of the temperature data a transient finite element (FE) model has been used which accounts for fluid and mass advection (uplift) as well as for climatic changes. The uplift and exhumation scenario assumed the surface to be in steady-state conditions. Special emphasis was given to structural effects like topography and anisotropy. The 3-D numerical model extends over an area of ˜ 20 km×20 km and includes Alpine high topographic relief with altitudes between 1500 and 3000 m a.s.l. Without modifying petrophysical parameters determined from laboratory measurements, all reliable temperature data could be nearly perfectly fitted by adjusting the two principal thermal boundary conditions at the surface and at the bottom. This study reveals that hydraulic influence is generally negligible at depths below ˜500 m which is in contrast to results from lower-dimensional methods such as 1-D Péclet analyses. Vertical heat flow variations are rather due to topographic than to hydraulic impact. Sensitivity studies highlight the importance of uplift in the central Swiss Alps and of local ground surface temperature (GST) distribution which both can influence the

  17. New 3D thermal evolution model for icy bodies application to trans-Neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.; Lasue, J.; Federico, C.; Coradini, A.; Orosei, R.; Rosenberg, E. D.

    2011-05-01

    Context. Thermal evolution models have been developed over the years to investigate the evolution of thermal properties based on the transfer of heat fluxes or transport of gas through a porous matrix, among others. Applications of such models to trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs has shown that these bodies could be strongly differentiated from the point of view of chemistry (i.e. loss of most volatile ices), as well as from physics (e.g. melting of water ice), resulting in stratified internal structures with differentiated cores and potential pristine material close to the surface. In this context, some observational results, such as the detection of crystalline water ice or volatiles, remain puzzling. Aims: In this paper, we would like to present a new fully three-dimensional thermal evolution model. With this model, we aim to improve determination of the temperature distribution inside icy bodies such as TNOs by accounting for lateral heat fluxes, which have been proven to be important for accurate simulations. We also would like to be able to account for heterogeneous boundary conditions at the surface through various albedo properties, for example, that might induce different local temperature distributions. Methods: In a departure from published modeling approaches, the heat diffusion problem and its boundary conditions are represented in terms of real spherical harmonics, increasing the numerical efficiency by roughly an order of magnitude. We then compare this new model and another 3D model recently published to illustrate the advantages and limits of the new model. We try to put some constraints on the presence of crystalline water ice at the surface of TNOs. Results: The results obtained with this new model are in excellent agreement with results obtained by different groups with various models. Small TNOs could remain primitive unless they are formed quickly (less than 2 Myr) or are debris from the disruption of larger bodies. We find that, for

  18. Fast simulation of solid tumors thermal ablation treatments with a 3D reaction diffusion model.

    PubMed

    Bertaccini, Daniele; Calvetti, Daniela

    2007-08-01

    An efficient computational method for near real-time simulation of thermal ablation of tumors via radio frequencies is proposed. Model simulations of the temperature field in a 3D portion of tissue containing the tumoral mass for different patterns of source heating can be used to design the ablation procedure. The availability of a very efficient computational scheme makes it possible to update the predicted outcome of the procedure in real time. In the algorithms proposed here a discretization in space of the governing equations is followed by an adaptive time integration based on implicit multistep formulas. A modification of the ode15s MATLAB function which uses Krylov space iterative methods for the solution of the linear systems arising at each integration step makes it possible to perform the simulations on standard desktop for much finer grids than using the built-in ode15s. The proposed algorithm can be applied to a wide class of nonlinear parabolic differential equations. PMID:17173888

  19. Revitalizing the Space Shuttle's Thermal Protection System with Reverse Engineering and 3D Vision Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Brad; Galatzer, Yishai

    2008-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is protected by a Thermal Protection System (TPS) made of tens of thousands of individually shaped heat protection tile. With every flight, tiles are damaged on take-off and return to earth. After each mission, the heat tiles must be fixed or replaced depending on the level of damage. As part of the return to flight mission, the TPS requirements are more stringent, leading to a significant increase in heat tile replacements. The replacement operation requires scanning tile cavities, and in some cases the actual tiles. The 3D scan data is used to reverse engineer each tile into a precise CAD model, which in turn, is exported to a CAM system for the manufacture of the heat protection tile. Scanning is performed while other activities are going on in the shuttle processing facility. Many technicians work simultaneously on the space shuttle structure, which results in structural movements and vibrations. This paper will cover a portable, ultra-fast data acquisition approach used to scan surfaces in this unstable environment.

  20. FAST SIMULATION OF SOLID TUMORS THERMAL ABLATION TREATMENTS WITH A 3D REACTION DIFFUSION MODEL *

    PubMed Central

    BERTACCINI, DANIELE; CALVETTI, DANIELA

    2007-01-01

    An efficient computational method for near real-time simulation of thermal ablation of tumors via radio frequencies is proposed. Model simulations of the temperature field in a 3D portion of tissue containing the tumoral mass for different patterns of source heating can be used to design the ablation procedure. The availability of a very efficient computational scheme makes it possible update the predicted outcome of the procedure in real time. In the algorithms proposed here a discretization in space of the governing equations is followed by an adaptive time integration based on implicit multistep formulas. A modification of the ode15s MATLAB function which uses Krylov space iterative methods for the solution of for the linear systems arising at each integration step makes it possible to perform the simulations on standard desktop for much finer grids than using the built-in ode15s. The proposed algorithm can be applied to a wide class of nonlinear parabolic differential equations. PMID:17173888

  1. Interface requirements to couple thermal-hydraulic codes to 3D neutronic codes

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbuch, S.; Austregesilo, H.; Velkov, K.

    1997-07-01

    The present situation of thermalhydraulics codes and 3D neutronics codes is briefly described and general considerations for coupling of these codes are discussed. Two different basic approaches of coupling are identified and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The implementation of the coupling for 3D neutronics codes in the system ATHLET is presented. Meanwhile, this interface is used for coupling three different 3D neutronics codes.

  2. 3D electro-thermal Monte Carlo study of transport in confined silicon devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Y.

    The simultaneous explosion of portable microelectronics devices and the rapid shrinking of microprocessor size have provided a tremendous motivation to scientists and engineers to continue the down-scaling of these devices. For several decades, innovations have allowed components such as transistors to be physically reduced in size, allowing the famous Moore's law to hold true. As these transistors approach the atomic scale, however, further reduction becomes less probable and practical. As new technologies overcome these limitations, they face new, unexpected problems, including the ability to accurately simulate and predict the behavior of these devices, and to manage the heat they generate. This work uses a 3D Monte Carlo (MC) simulator to investigate the electro-thermal behavior of quasi-one-dimensional electron gas (1DEG) multigate MOSFETs. In order to study these highly confined architectures, the inclusion of quantum correction becomes essential. To better capture the influence of carrier confinement, the electrostatically quantum-corrected full-band MC model has the added feature of being able to incorporate subband scattering. The scattering rate selection introduces quantum correction into carrier movement. In addition to the quantum effects, scaling introduces thermal management issues due to the surge in power dissipation. Solving these problems will continue to bring improvements in battery life, performance, and size constraints of future devices. We have coupled our electron transport Monte Carlo simulation to Aksamija's phonon transport so that we may accurately and efficiently study carrier transport, heat generation, and other effects at the transistor level. This coupling utilizes anharmonic phonon decay and temperature dependent scattering rates. One immediate advantage of our coupled electro-thermal Monte Carlo simulator is its ability to provide an accurate description of the spatial variation of self-heating and its effect on non

  3. Development of a 3D patient-specific planning platform for interstitial and transurethral ultrasound thermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Punit; Diederich, Chris J.

    2010-03-01

    Interstitial and transurethral catheter-based ultrasound devices are under development for treatment of prostate cancer and BPH, uterine fibroids, liver tumors and other soft tissue disease. Accurate 3D thermal modeling is essential for designing site-specific applicators, exploring treatment delivery strategies, and integration of patient-specific treatment planning of thermal ablations. We are developing a comprehensive 3D modeling and treatment planning platform for ultrasound ablation of tissue using catheter-based applicators. We explored the applicability of assessing thermal effects in tissue using critical temperature, thermal dose and Arrhenius thermal damage thresholds and performed a comparative analysis of dynamic tissue properties critical to accurate modeling. We used the model to assess the feasibility of automatic feedback control with MR thermometry, and demonstrated the utility of the modeling platform for 3D patient-specific treatment planning. We have identified critical temperature, thermal dose and thermal damage thresholds for assessing treatment endpoint. Dynamic changes in tissue attenuation/absorption and perfusion must be included for accurate prediction of temperature profiles and extents of the ablation zone. Lastly, we demonstrated use of the modeling platform for patient-specific treatment planning.

  4. 3D thermal history and maturity modelling of the Levant Basin and Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Samer Bou; Ducros, Mathieu; Michel, Pauline; Nader, Fadi H.; Littke, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    The gas discoveries recorded in the Levant Basin in the last decade have redirected the industrial and academic communities' interest to this frontier basin and its surroundings. The reported gas in Miocene reservoirs has been assumed to be derived from biogenic sources, although little data has been published so far. The thickness of the sedimentary column and the presence of direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHI) observed in the seismic data suggest the presence of promising prospective thermogenic petroleum systems in deeper intervals in the Levant Basin and along its Margin. In this study we present a large scale 3D thermal history and maturity model of the Levant Basin and Margin, integrating all available calibration data, source rock information collected from onshore Lebanon, and published data. In the first part we will present the main input and assumptions that were made in terms of thicknesses, lithologies, and boundary conditions. In the second part we will discuss the analysed source rocks, their petroleum generation potential and their kinetics. In the third part we will present modelling results including depth maps for key isotherms in addition to transformation ratio and vitrinite reflectance maps for proven and speculative source rocks at different time steps. This will provide a comprehensive assessment of the potential thermogenic petroleum systems in the study area, and allow us to illustrate and discuss the differences between the basinal, marginal, and onshore part of the study area as well as the potential of the northern vis a vis the southern offshore Levant Basin. This model will also allow us to analyse the sensitivity of the system to the various poorly constrained parameters in frontier basins (e.g. crustal thickness, rifting phases, lithologies) and thus identify the most critical data to be collected for future exploration and de-risking strategies.

  5. Mantle wedge flow pattern and thermal structure in Northeast Japan: Effects of oblique subduction and 3-D slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Ikuko; He, Jiangheng; Hasegawa, Akira; Nakajima, Junichi

    2015-09-01

    We develop a 3-D thermal model for the Northeast Japan subduction margin, using a realistic slab geometry for the subducting Pacific plate, and investigate the effects of oblique subduction and 3-D slab geometry on the mantle wedge flow pattern and the thermal structure. In the Tohoku region, the mantle wedge flow pattern is nearly two-dimensional resulting in a thermal structure similar to those obtained by a 2-D model, owing to the simple slab geometry and subduction nearly perpendicular to the margin. However, in Hokkaido, oblique subduction leads to 3-D mantle wedge flow with northerly inflow and west-northwestward outflow and also results in lower temperatures in the shallow part of the mantle wedge than in Tohoku due to lower sinking rate of the slab. Between Hokkaido and Tohoku, the slab has a hinge-like shape due to a relatively sharp change in the dip direction. In this hinge zone, northerly mantle inflow from Hokkaido and westerly mantle inflow from Tohoku converge, discouraging inflow from northwest and resulting in a cooler mantle wedge. The model-predicted mantle wedge flow patterns are consistent with observed seismic anisotropy and may explain the orientations of volcanic cross-chains. The predicted 3-D thermal structure correlates well with the along-arc variations in the location of the frontal arc volcanoes and help to provide new insights into the surface heat flow pattern and the down-dip extent of interplate earthquakes.

  6. Implementation of Deterministically-Derived Hydrostatigraphic Units into a 3D Finite Element Model at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Superfund Site

    SciTech Connect

    Mansoor, K; Maley, M; Demir, Z; Hoffman, F

    2001-08-08

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a large Superfund site in California that is implementing an extensive ground water remediation program. The site is underlain by a thick sequence of heterogeneous alluvial sediments. Defining ground-water flow pathways in this complex geologic setting is difficult. To better evaluate these pathways, a deterministic approach was applied to define hydrostratigraphic units (HSUS) on the basis of identifiable hydraulic behavior and contaminant migration trends. The conceptual model based on this approach indicates that groundwater flow and contaminant transport occurs within packages of sediments bounded by thin, low-permeability confining layers. To aid in the development of the remediation program, a three-dimensional finite-element model was developed for two of the HSUS at LLNL. The primary objectives of this model are to test the conceptual model with a numerical model, and provide well field management support for the large ground-water remediation system. The model was successfully calibrated to 12 years of ground water flow and contaminant transport data. These results confirm that the thin, low-permeability confining layers within the heterogeneous alluvial sediments are the dominant hydraulic control to flow and transport. This calibrated model is currently being applied to better manage the large site-wide ground water extraction system by optimizing the location of new extraction wells, managing pumping rates for extraction wells, and providing performance estimates for long-term planning and budgeting.

  7. Deterministic drift instability and stochastic thermal perturbations of magnetic dissipative droplet solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, P.; Iacocca, E.; Hoefer, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic dissipative droplet is a strongly nonlinear wave structure that can be stabilized in a thin film ferromagnet exhibiting perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by use of spin transfer torque. These structures have been observed experimentally at room temperature, showcasing their robustness against noise. Here, we quantify the effects of thermal noise by deriving stochastic equations of motion for a droplet based on soliton perturbation theory. First, it is found that deterministic droplets are linearly unstable at large bias currents, subject to a drift instability. When the droplet is linearly stable, our framework allows us to analytically compute the droplet's generation linewidth and center variance. Additionally, we study the influence of nonlocal and Oersted fields with micromagnetic simulations, providing insight into their effect on the generation linewidth. These results motivate detailed experiments on the current and temperature-dependent linewidth as well as drift instability statistics of droplets, which are important figures-of-merit in the prospect of droplet-based applications.

  8. Electrohydrodynamic flow in a wire-plate non-thermal plasma reactor measured by 3D PIV method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlinski, J.; Niewulis, A.; Mizeraczyk, J.

    2009-08-01

    This work was aimed at measurements of the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) secondary flow in a non-thermal plasma reactor using three-dimensional particle image velocimetry (3D PIV) method. The wide-type non-thermal plasma reactor used in this work was an acrylic box with a wire discharge electrode and two plate collecting electrodes. The positive DC voltage was applied to the wire electrode through a 10 MΩ resistor. The collecting electrodes were grounded. The voltage applied to the wire electrode was 28 kV. Air flow seeded with a cigarette smoke was blown along the reactor duct with an average velocity of 0.6 m/s. The 3D PIV velocity fields measurements were carried out in four parallel planes stretched along the reactor duct, perpendicularly to the wire electrode and plate electrodes. The measured flow velocity fields illustrate complex nature of the EHD induced secondary flow in the non-thermal plasma reactor.

  9. Ice-Templated Assembly Strategy to Construct 3D Boron Nitride Nanosheet Networks in Polymer Composites for Thermal Conductivity Improvement.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaoliang; Yao, Yimin; Gong, Zhengyu; Wang, Fangfang; Sun, Rong; Xu, Jianbin; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the growing heat removal issue of modern electronic devices, polymer composites with high thermal conductivity have drawn much attention in the past few years. However, a traditional method to enhance the thermal conductivity of the polymers by addition of inorganic fillers usually creates composite with not only limited thermal conductivity but also other detrimental effects due to large amount of fillers required. Here, novel polymer composites are reported by first constructing 3D boron nitride nanosheets (3D-BNNS) network using ice-templated approach and then infiltrating them with epoxy matrix. The obtained polymer composites exhibit a high thermal conductivity (2.85 W m(-1) K(-1)), a low thermal expansion coefficient (24-32 ppm K(-1)), and an increased glass transition temperature (T(g)) at relatively low BNNSs loading (9.29 vol%). These results demonstrate that this approach opens a new avenue for design and preparation of polymer composites with high thermal conductivity. The polymer composites are potentially useful in advanced electronic packaging techniques, namely, thermal interface materials, underfill materials, molding compounds, and organic substrates. PMID:26479262

  10. Combination of thermal extrusion printing and ultrafast laser fabrication for the manufacturing of 3D composite scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balčiūnas, Evaldas; Lukoševičius, Laurynas; Mackevičiūtė, Dovilė; Rekštytė, Sima; Rutkūnas, Vygandas; Paipulas, Domas; Stankevičiūtė, Karolina; Baltriukienė, Daiva; Bukelskienė, Virginija; Piskarskas, Algis P.; Malinauskas, Mangirdas

    2014-03-01

    We present a novel approach to manufacturing 3D microstructured composite scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. A thermal extrusion 3D printer - a simple, low-cost tabletop device enabling rapid materialization of CAD models in plastics - was used to produce cm-scale microporous scaffolds out of polylactic acid (PLA). The fabricated objects were subsequently immersed in a photosensitive monomer solution and direct laser writing technique (DLW) was used to refine its inner structure by fabricating a fine mesh inside the previously produced scaffold. In addition, a composite material structure out of four different materials fabricated via DLW is presented. This technique, empowered by ultrafast lasers allows 3D structuring with high spatial resolution in a great variety of photosensitive materials. A composite scaffold made of distinct materials and periodicities is acquired after the development process used to wash out non-linked monomers. Another way to modify the 3D printed PLA surfaces was also demonstrated - ablation with femtosecond laser beam. Structure geometry on macro- to micro- scales could be finely tuned by combining these fabrication techniques. Such artificial 3D substrates could be used for cell growth or as biocompatible-biodegradable implants. To our best knowledge, this is the first experimental demonstration showing the creation of composite 3D scaffolds using convenient 3D printing combined with DLW. This combination of distinct material processing techniques enables rapid fabrication of diverse functional micro-featured and integrated devices. Hopefully, the proposed approach will find numerous applications in the field of tissue engineering, as well as in microelectromechanical systems, microfluidics, microoptics and others.

  11. Evaluation of Methods for Coregistration and Fusion of Rpas-Based 3d Point Clouds and Thermal Infrared Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoegner, L.; Tuttas, S.; Xu, Y.; Eder, K.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses the automatic coregistration and fusion of 3d point clouds generated from aerial image sequences and corresponding thermal infrared (TIR) images. Both RGB and TIR images have been taken from a RPAS platform with a predefined flight path where every RGB image has a corresponding TIR image taken from the same position and with the same orientation with respect to the accuracy of the RPAS system and the inertial measurement unit. To remove remaining differences in the exterior orientation, different strategies for coregistering RGB and TIR images are discussed: (i) coregistration based on 2D line segments for every single TIR image and the corresponding RGB image. This method implies a mainly planar scene to avoid mismatches; (ii) coregistration of both the dense 3D point clouds from RGB images and from TIR images by coregistering 2D image projections of both point clouds; (iii) coregistration based on 2D line segments in every single TIR image and 3D line segments extracted from intersections of planes fitted in the segmented dense 3D point cloud; (iv) coregistration of both the dense 3D point clouds from RGB images and from TIR images using both ICP and an adapted version based on corresponding segmented planes; (v) coregistration of both image sets based on point features. The quality is measured by comparing the differences of the back projection of homologous points in both corrected RGB and TIR images.

  12. 3-D TECATE/BREW: Thermal, stress, and birefringent ray-tracing codes for solid-state laser design

    SciTech Connect

    Gelinas, R.J.; Doss, S.K.; Nelson, R.G.

    1994-07-20

    This report describes the physics, code formulations, and numerics that are used in the TECATE (totally Eulerian code for anisotropic thermo-elasticity) and BREW (birefringent ray-tracing of electromagnetic waves) codes for laser design. These codes resolve thermal, stress, and birefringent optical effects in 3-D stationary solid-state systems. This suite of three constituent codes is a package referred to as LASRPAK.

  13. Automotive Underhood Thermal Management Analysis Using 3-D Coupled Thermal-Hydrodynamic Computer Models: Thermal Radiation Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pannala, S; D'Azevedo, E; Zacharia, T

    2002-02-26

    The goal of the radiation modeling effort was to develop and implement a radiation algorithm that is fast and accurate for the underhood environment. As part of this CRADA, a net-radiation model was chosen to simulate radiative heat transfer in an underhood of a car. The assumptions (diffuse-gray and uniform radiative properties in each element) reduce the problem tremendously and all the view factors for radiation thermal calculations can be calculated once and for all at the beginning of the simulation. The cost for online integration of heat exchanges due to radiation is found to be less than 15% of the baseline CHAD code and thus very manageable. The off-line view factor calculation is constructed to be very modular and has been completely integrated to read CHAD grid files and the output from this code can be read into the latest version of CHAD. Further integration has to be performed to accomplish the same with STAR-CD. The main outcome of this effort is to obtain a highly scalable and portable simulation capability to model view factors for underhood environment (for e.g. a view factor calculation which took 14 hours on a single processor only took 14 minutes on 64 processors). The code has also been validated using a simple test case where analytical solutions are available. This simulation capability gives underhood designers in the automotive companies the ability to account for thermal radiation - which usually is critical in the underhood environment and also turns out to be one of the most computationally expensive components of underhood simulations. This report starts off with the original work plan as elucidated in the proposal in section B. This is followed by Technical work plan to accomplish the goals of the project in section C. In section D, background to the current work is provided with references to the previous efforts this project leverages on. The results are discussed in section 1E. This report ends with conclusions and future scope of

  14. Searching for Thermal Anomalies on Icy Satellites: Step 1- Validation of the Three Dimensional Volatile-Transport (VT3D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Gary G.; Howett, Carly J. A.; Young, Leslie A.; Spencer, John R.

    2015-11-01

    In the last few decades, thermal data from the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft have detected various anomalies on Jovian and Saturnian satellites, including the thermally anomalous “PacMan” regions on Mimas and Tethys and the Pwyll anomaly on Europa (Howett et al. 2011, Howett et al. 2012, Spencer et al. 1999). Yet, the peculiarities of some of these anomalies, like the weak detection of the “PacMan” anomalies on Rhea and Dione and the low thermal inertia values of the widespread anomalies on equatorial Europa, are subjects for on-going research (Howett et al. 2014, Rathbun et al. 2010). Further, analysis and review of all the data both Galileo and Cassini took of these worlds will provide information of the thermal inertia and albedos of their surfaces, perhaps highlighting potential targets of interest for future Jovian and Saturnian system missions. Many previous works have used a thermophysical model for airless planets developed by Spencer (1990). However, the Three Dimensional Volatile-Transport (VT3D) model proposed by Young (2012) is able to predict surface temperatures in significantly faster computation time, incorporating seasonal and diurnal insolation variations. This work is the first step in an ongoing investigation, which will use VT3D’s capabilities to reanalyze Galileo and Cassini data. VT3D, which has already been used to analyze volatile transport on Pluto, is validated by comparing its results to that of the Spencer thermal model. We will also present our initial results using VT3D to reanalyze the thermophysical properties of the PacMan anomaly previous discovered on Mimas by Howett et al. (2011), using temperature constraints of diurnal data from Cassini/CIRS. VT3D is expected to be an efficient tool in identifying new thermal anomalies in future Saturnian and Jovian missions.Bibliography:C.J.A. Howett et al. (2011), Icarus 216, 221.C.J.A. Howett et al. (2012), Icarus 221, 1084.C.J.A. Howett et al. (2014), Icarus 241, 239.J

  15. Verification Test Suite (VERTS) For Rail Gun Applications using ALE3D: 2-D Hydrodynamics & Thermal Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Najjar, F M; Solberg, J; White, D

    2008-04-17

    A verification test suite has been assessed with primary focus on low reynolds number flow of liquid metals. This is representative of the interface between the armature and rail in gun applications. The computational multiphysics framework, ALE3D, is used. The main objective of the current study is to provide guidance and gain confidence in the results obtained with ALE3D. A verification test suite based on 2-D cases is proposed and includes the lid-driven cavity and the Couette flow are investigated. The hydro and thermal fields are assumed to be steady and laminar in nature. Results are compared with analytical solutions and previously published data. Mesh resolution studies are performed along with various models for the equation of state.

  16. 3D COMSOL Simulations for Thermal Deflection of HFIR Fuel Plate in the "Cheverton-Kelley" Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Prashant K; Freels, James D; Cook, David Howard

    2012-08-01

    Three dimensional simulation capabilities are currently being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element modeling software, to investigate thermal expansion of High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) s low enriched uranium fuel plates. To validate simulations, 3D models have also been developed for the experimental setup used by Cheverton and Kelley in 1968 to investigate the buckling and thermal deflections of HFIR s highly enriched uranium fuel plates. Results for several simulations are presented in this report, and comparisons with the experimental data are provided when data are available. A close agreement between the simulation results and experimental findings demonstrates that the COMSOL simulations are able to capture the thermal expansion physics accurately and that COMSOL could be deployed as a predictive tool for more advanced computations at realistic HFIR conditions to study temperature-induced fuel plate deflection behavior.

  17. Excited state population of a 3D transmon in thermal equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, X. Y.; Gustavsson, S.; Kamal, A.; Sears, A. P.; Gudmundsen, T.; Hover, D.; Kerman, A. J.; Yan, F.; Yoder, J.; Orlando, T. P.; Oliver, W. D.

    2014-03-01

    We present a systematic study of the excited state population of a 3D transmon qubit at various temperatures. We experimentally demonstrate that the population of the first excited state follows the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in the temperature range of 35-150 mK. For bath temperatures below 35 mK, the excited-state population saturates, with an upper-bound estimate of 0.1%. The saturation suggests a qubit effective temperature of approximately 35 mK. The Lincoln Laboratory portion of this work was sponsored by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract number FA8721-05-C-0002. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the author and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government.

  18. Two-photon luminescence thermometry: towards 3D high-resolution thermal imaging of waveguides.

    PubMed

    He, Ruiyun; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier Rodríguez; Pedrola, Ginés Lifante; Chen, Feng; Jaque, Daniel

    2016-07-11

    We report on the use of the Erbium-based luminescence thermometry to realize high resolution, three dimensional thermal imaging of optical waveguides. Proof of concept is demonstrated in a 980-nm laser pumped ultrafast laser inscribed waveguide in Er:Yb phosphate glass. Multi-photon microscopy images revealed the existence of well confined intra-waveguide temperature increments as large as 200 °C for moderate 980-nm pump powers of 120 mW. Numerical simulations and experimental data reveal that thermal loading can be substantially reduced if pump events are separated more than the characteristic thermal time that for the waveguides investigated is in the ms time scale. PMID:27410882

  19. 3-D numerical simulation of Yb:YAG active slabs with longitudinal doping gradient for thermal load effects assessment.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, P; Ciofini, M; Esposito, L; Hostaša, J; Labate, L; Lapucci, A; Pirri, A; Toci, G; Vannini, M; Gizzi, L A

    2014-03-10

    We present a study of Yb:YAG active media slabs, based on a ceramic layered structure with different doping levels. We developed a procedure allowing 3D numerical analysis of the slab optical properties as a consequence of the thermal load induced by the pump process. The simulations are compared with a set of experimental results in order to validate the procedure. These structured ceramics appear promising in appropriate geometrical configurations, and thus are intended to be applied in the construction of High Energy Diode Pumped Solid State Laser (DPSSL) systems working in high repetition-rate pulsed regimes. PMID:24663877

  20. Thermal expansion in 3d-metal Prussian Blue Analogs-A survey study

    SciTech Connect

    Adak, Sourav; Daemen, Luke L.; Hartl, Monika; Williams, Darrick; Summerhill, Jennifer; Nakotte, Heinz

    2011-11-15

    We present a comprehensive study of the structural properties and the thermal expansion behavior of 17 different Prussian Blue Analogs (PBAs) with compositions M{sup II}{sub 3}[(M'){sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O and M{sup II}{sub 2}[Fe{sup II}(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O, where M{sup II}=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn, (M'){sup III}=Co, Fe and n is the number of water molecules, which range from 5 to 18 for these compounds. The PBAs were synthesized via standard chemical precipitation methods, and temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction studies were performed in the temperature range between -150 deg. C (123 K) and room-temperature. The vast majority of the studied PBAs were found to crystallize in cubic structures of space groups Fm3-bar m, F4-bar 3m and Pm3-bar m. The temperature dependence of the lattice parameters was taken to compute an average coefficient of linear thermal expansion in the studied temperature range. Of the 17 compounds, 9 display negative values for the average coefficient of linear thermal expansion, which can be as large as 39.7x{sup 1}0{sup -6} K{sup -1} for Co{sub 3}[Co(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O. All of the M{sup II}{sub 3}[Co{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O compounds show negative thermal expansion behavior, which correlates with the Irving-Williams series for metal complex stability. The thermal expansion behavior for the PBAs of the M{sup II}{sub 3}[Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O family are found to switch between positive (for M=Mn, Co, Ni) and negative (M=Cu, Zn) behavior, depending on the choice of the metal cation (M). On the other hand, all of the M{sup II}{sub 2}[Fe{sup II}(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O compounds show positive thermal expansion behavior. - Graphical Abstract: The structure of Prussian Blue analogs (PBAs) consists of two types of metal centered octahedral units connected by cyanide ligand. Lattice and interstitial water molecules are present in these framework structures. All the PBAs of the M{sub 3

  1. A Numerical Study on the Thermal Conductivity of 3D Woven C/C Composites at High Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigang, Ai; Rujie, He; Yongmao, Pei

    2015-12-01

    Experimental data for Carbon/Carbon (C/C) constituent materials are combined with a three dimensional steady state heat transfer finite element analysis to demonstrate the average in-plane and out-of-plane thermal conductivities (TCs) of C/C composites. The finite element analysis is carried out at two distinct length scales: (a) a micro scale comparable with the diameter of carbon fibres and (b) a meso scale comparable with the carbon fibre yarns. Micro-scale model calculate the TCs at the fibre yarn scale in the three orthogonal directions ( x, y and z). The output results from the micro-scale model are then incorporated in the meso-scale model to obtain the global TCs of the 3D C/C composite. The simulation results are quite consistent with the theoretical and experimental counterparts reported in references. Based on the numerical approach, TCs of the 3D C/C composite are calculated from 300 to 2500 K. Particular attention is given in elucidating the variations of the TCs with temperature. The multi-scale models provide an efficient approach to predict the TCs of 3D textile materials, which is helpful for the thermodynamic property analysis and structure design of the C/C composites.

  2. Thermal Conductivity of 3D CNT-Polymer Composites with Controlled Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klittich, Mena; Wang, Xue; Dhinojwala, Ali

    The high thermal conductivity of isolated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has inspired its use as a thermal filler for insulative polymers. However, the performance of these composites has consistently been sub par. Extensive analyses of these complex systems have resulted in the conclusion that resistance at the CNT/polymer interface due to phonon mismatch and poor physical binding, as well as the weakly bonded tube-tube interactions restrict the effectiveness of CNTs in practice. Experimental comparisons of CNT treatments, coatings, functionalization, and interactions with various polymers have proved challenging, due to the interconnected nature of the composite properties. Here, we have reversed the paradigm and used a constant CNT structure that is then modified post-growth to allow for direct comparisons of polymer composites.

  3. Stereoscopic uncooled thermal imaging with autostereoscopic 3D flat-screen display in military driving enhancement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haan, H.; Münzberg, M.; Schwarzkopf, U.; de la Barré, R.; Jurk, S.; Duckstein, B.

    2012-06-01

    Thermal cameras are widely used in driver vision enhancement systems. However, in pathless terrain, driving becomes challenging without having a stereoscopic perception. Stereoscopic imaging is a well-known technique already for a long time with understood physical and physiological parameters. Recently, a commercial hype has been observed, especially in display techniques. The commercial market is already flooded with systems based on goggle-aided 3D-viewing techniques. However, their use is limited for military applications since goggles are not accepted by military users for several reasons. The proposed uncooled thermal imaging stereoscopic camera with a geometrical resolution of 640x480 pixel perfectly fits to the autostereoscopic display with a 1280x768 pixels. An eye tracker detects the position of the observer's eyes and computes the pixel positions for the left and the right eye. The pixels of the flat panel are located directly behind a slanted lenticular screen and the computed thermal images are projected into the left and the right eye of the observer. This allows a stereoscopic perception of the thermal image without any viewing aids. The complete system including camera and display is ruggedized. The paper discusses the interface and performance requirements for the thermal imager as well as for the display.

  4. Multi-scale Characterisation of the 3D Microstructure of a Thermally-Shocked Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Bodey, Andrew J; Sui, Tan; Kockelmann, Winfried; Rau, Christoph; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Mi, Jiawei

    2016-01-01

    Bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMCs) are a new class of metal alloys which have significantly increased ductility and impact toughness, resulting from the ductile crystalline phases distributed uniformly within the amorphous matrix. However, the 3D structures and their morphologies of such composite at nano and micrometre scale have never been reported before. We have used high density electric currents to thermally shock a Zr-Ti based BMGMC to different temperatures, and used X-ray microtomography, FIB-SEM nanotomography and neutron diffraction to reveal the morphologies, compositions, volume fractions and thermal stabilities of the nano and microstructures. Understanding of these is essential for optimizing the design of BMGMCs and developing viable manufacturing methods. PMID:26725519

  5. Multi-scale Characterisation of the 3D Microstructure of a Thermally-Shocked Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composite

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Bodey, Andrew J.; Sui, Tan; Kockelmann, Winfried; Rau, Christoph; Korsunsky, Alexander M.; Mi, Jiawei

    2016-01-01

    Bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMCs) are a new class of metal alloys which have significantly increased ductility and impact toughness, resulting from the ductile crystalline phases distributed uniformly within the amorphous matrix. However, the 3D structures and their morphologies of such composite at nano and micrometre scale have never been reported before. We have used high density electric currents to thermally shock a Zr-Ti based BMGMC to different temperatures, and used X-ray microtomography, FIB-SEM nanotomography and neutron diffraction to reveal the morphologies, compositions, volume fractions and thermal stabilities of the nano and microstructures. Understanding of these is essential for optimizing the design of BMGMCs and developing viable manufacturing methods. PMID:26725519

  6. Investigations of microscale fluid-thermal phenomena based on the deterministic Boltzmann-ESBGK model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaohui

    Fluid and thermal problems are widely encountered in micro/nano-scale devices, the characteristic lengths of which are from hundreds of microns down to tens of nanometers. A great number of such devices involve fundamental components like microchannels, capillaries, membranes and cantilever beams. Continuum assumptions that lead to classical governing equations such as Navier-Stokes equations and Fourier Laws break down when the characteristic size shrinks by an order of millions. In addition, conventional sensors, actuators and controllers turn to be insufficient to depict the flow, thermal, or electrical fields in micro-devices without impacting the original conditions greatly. Therefore, the development of numerical methods becomes indispensable in design and performance analysis of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). The main goal of this PhD research is the development, implementation and application of comprehensive deterministic Boltzmann-ESBGK modeling framework to micro-scale fluid-thermal phenomena. Investigation of gas flows in short rectangular microchannels has been carried out to understand the rarefaction effects on the reduced mass-flow-rate as well as the non-equilibrium effects on the temperature components. At high Knudsen numbers, the reduced mass-flow-rate only depends on the pressure ratio and the temperature components deviate at the channel exit. For gas flows in long microchannels with and without constrictions, the Navier-Stokes equations with first-order slip boundary conditions are solved. Numerical results accurately predict the entrance pressure drop comparing to high-resolution experimental data using pressure-sensitive-paint (PSP). Simultions show clearly that the compressibility effects become less important than the rarefaction effects at low pressures. The coupled gas-phonon Boltzmann solver has been developed. The reduced distribution functions are used in the two-dimensional code to reduce the computational cost. The

  7. Methodology for thermal budget reduction of SPER down to 450 °C for 3D sequential integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, F. P.; Pasini, L.; Sklénard, B.; Mathieu, B.; Licitra, C.; Batude, P.; Mazen, F.

    2016-03-01

    3D sequential integration enables the full use of the third dimension thanks to its unique contact density far above the possibilities of 3D packaging solutions. However, as the transistors are sequentially stacked over each other, the thermal budget allowed for the fabrication of the top transistor is limited by the maximal temperature accepted by the already made bottom one. It was previously described that a thermal budget of T > 500 °C is enough to degrade the bottom transistors performance. So the technological challenge is to develop low temperature routines for the fabrication of the top devices. For that, different processes have to be adapted, mainly the dopant activation step, where the T > 1000 °C spike annealing must be replaced. In this contribution, we present the feasibility to dope by solid phase epitaxial regrowth (SPER) at 450 °C thin Si films (22 nm) containing high dopant concentration of 5 × 1020 at/cm3. For n- and p-type dopants, the 450 °C SPER rendered low sheet resistance values, as low as the ones obtained with the high temperature activation method.

  8. Processes of Equatorial Thermal Structure: An Analysis of Galileo Temperature Profile with 3-D Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majeed, T.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Bougher, S. W.; Gladstone, G. R.

    2005-01-01

    The Jupiter Thermosphere General Circulation Model (JTGCM) calculates the global dynamical structure of Jupiter's thermosphere self-consistently with its global thermal structure and composition. The main heat source that drives the thermospheric flow is high-latitude Joule heating. A secondary source of heating is the auroral process of particle precipitation. Global simulations of Jovian thermospheric dynamics indicate strong neutral outflows from the auroral ovals with velocities up to approximately 2 kilometers per second and subsequent convergence and downwelling at the Jovian equator. Such circulation is shown to be an important process for transporting significant amounts of auroral energy to equatorial latitudes and for regulating the global heat budget in a manner consistent with the high thermospheric temperatures observed by the Galileo probe. Adiabatic compression of the neutral atmosphere resulting from downward motion is an important source of equatorial heating (less than 0.06 microbar). The adiabatic heating continues to dominate between 0.06 and 0.2 microbar, but with an addition of comparable heating due to horizontal advection induced by the meridional flow. Thermal conduction plays an important role in transporting heat down to lower altitudes (greater than 0.2microbar) where it is balanced by the cooling associated with the wind transport processes. Interestingly, we find that radiative cooling caused by H3(+), CH4, and C2H2 emissions does not play a significant role in interpreting the Galileo temperature profile.

  9. Axial magnetic anomalies over slow-spreading ridge segments: insights from numerical 3-D thermal and physical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gac, Sébastien; Dyment, Jérôme; Tisseau, Chantal; Goslin, Jean

    2003-09-01

    The axial magnetic anomaly amplitude along Mid-Atlantic Ridge segments is systematically twice as high at segment ends compared with segment centres. Various processes have been proposed to account for such observations, either directly or indirectly related to the thermal structure of the segments: (1) shallower Curie isotherm at segment centres, (2) higher Fe-Ti content at segment ends, (3) serpentinized peridotites at segment ends or (4) a combination of these processes. In this paper the contribution of each of these processes to the axial magnetic anomaly amplitude is quantitatively evaluated by achieving a 3-D numerical modelling of the magnetization distribution and a magnetic anomaly over a medium-sized, 50 km long segment. The magnetization distribution depends on the thermal structure and thermal evolution of the lithosphere. The thermal structure is calculated considering the presence of a permanent hot zone beneath the segment centre. The `best-fitting' thermal structure is determined by adjusting the parameters (shape, size, depth, etc.) of this hot zone, to fit the modelled geophysical outputs (Mantle Bouguer anomaly, maximum earthquake depths and crustal thickness) to the observations. Both the thermoremanent magnetization, acquired during the thermal evolution, and the induced magnetization, which depends on the present thermal structure, are modelled. The resulting magnetic anomalies are then computed and compared with the observed ones. This modelling exercise suggests that, in the case of aligned and slightly offset segments, a combination of higher Fe-Ti content and the presence of serpentinized peridotites at segment ends will produce the observed higher axial magnetic anomaly amplitudes over the segment ends. In the case of greater offsets, the presence of serpentinized peridotites at segment ends is sufficient to account for the observations.

  10. Code System for 2-Group, 3D Neutronic Kinetics Calculations Coupled to Core Thermal Hydraulics.

    2000-05-12

    Version 00 QUARK is a combined computer program comprising a revised version of the QUANDRY three-dimensional, two-group neutron kinetics code and an upgraded version of the COBRA transient core analysis code (COBRA-EN). Starting from either a critical steady-state (k-effective or critical dilute Boron problem) or a subcritical steady-state (fixed source problem) in a PWR plant, the code allows one to simulate the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic core transient response to reactivity accidents initiated both inside themore » vessel (such as a control rod ejection) and outside the vessel (such as the sudden change of the Boron concentration in the coolant). QUARK output can be used as input to PSR-470/NORMA-FP to perform a subchannel analysis from converged coarse-mesh nodal solutions.« less

  11. Simulating HFIR Core Thermal Hydraulics Using 3D-2D Model Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, Adam R; Freels, James D; Ekici, Kivanc

    2013-01-01

    A model utilizing interdimensional variable coupling is presented for simulating the thermal hydraulic interactions of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) core at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The model s domain consists of a single, explicitly represented three-dimensional fuel plate and a simplified two-dimensional coolant channel slice. In simplifying the coolant channel, and thus the number of mesh points in which the Navier-Stokes equations must be solved, the computational cost and solution time are both greatly reduced. In order for the reduced-dimension coolant channel to interact with the explicitly represented fuel plate, however, interdimensional variable coupling must be enacted along all shared boundaries. The primary focus of this paper is in detailing the collection, storage, passage, and application of variables across this interdimensional interface. Comparisons are made showing the general speed-up associated with this simplified coupled model.

  12. 3D analysis of thermal and stress evolution during laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings.

    PubMed

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Bajda, Szymon; Liu, Yijun; Triantaphyllou, Andrew; Mark Rainforth, W; Glendenning, Malcolm

    2016-06-01

    Thermal and strain-stress transient fields during laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings on the Ti6Al4V alloy basement were numerically calculated and analysed. Conditions leading to micro-cracking susceptibility of the coating have been investigated using the finite element based modelling supported by experimental results of microscopic investigation of the sample coatings. Consecutive temperature and stress peaks are developed within the cladded material as a result of the laser beam moving along the complex trajectory, which can lead to micro-cracking. The preheated to 500°C base plate allowed for decrease of the laser power and lowering of the cooling speed between the consecutive temperature peaks contributing in such way to achievement of lower cracking susceptibility. The cooling rate during cladding of the second and the third layer was lower than during cladding of the first one, in such way, contributing towards improvement of cracking resistance of the subsequent layers due to progressive accumulation of heat over the process. PMID:26953962

  13. Thermal convection in a 3D spherical shell with strongly temperature and pressure dependent viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmer, K.; Harder, H.; Hansen, U.

    2004-12-01

    The style of convection in planetary mantles is presumably dominated by the strong dependence of the viscosity of the mantle material on temperature and pressure. While several efforts have been undertaken in cartesian geometry to investigate convection in media with strong temperature dependent viscosity, spherical models are still in their infancy and still limited to modest parameters. Spectral approaches are usually employed for spherical convection models which do not allow to take into account lateral variations, like temperature dependent viscosity. We have developed a scheme, based on a finite volume discretization, to treat convection in a spherical shell with strong temperature dependent viscosity. Our approach has been particularly tailored to run efficiently on parallel computers. The spherical shell is topologically divided into six cubes. The equations are formulated in primitive variables, and are treated in the cartesian cubes. In order to ensure mass conservation a SIMPLER pressure correction procedure is applied and to handle strong viscosity variations up to Δ η =106 and high Rayleigh-numbers up to Ra=108 the pressure correction algorithm is combined with a pressure weighted interpolation method to satisfy the incompressibility condition and to avoid oscillations. We study thermal convection in a basal and mixed-mode heated shell with stress free and isothermal boundary conditions, as a function of the Rayleigh-number and viscosity contrast. Besides the temperature dependence we have further explored the effects of pressure on the viscosity. As a general result we observe the existence of three regimes (mobile, sluggish and stagnant lid), characterized by the type of surface motion. Laterally averaged depth-profiles of velocity, temperature and viscosity exhibit significant deviations from the isoviscous case. As compared to cartesian geometries, convection in a spherical shell possesses strong memory for the initial state. At strong

  14. A hybrid radial basis function-pseudospectral method for thermal convection in a 3-D spherical shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, G. B.; Flyer, N.; Yuen, D. A.

    2010-07-01

    A novel hybrid spectral method that combines radial basis function (RBF) and Chebyshev pseudospectral methods in a "2 + 1" approach is presented for numerically simulating thermal convection in a 3-D spherical shell. This is the first study to apply RBFs to a full 3-D physical model in spherical geometry. In addition to being spectrally accurate, RBFs are not defined in terms of any surface-based coordinate system such as spherical coordinates. As a result, when used in the lateral directions, as in this study, they completely circumvent the pole issue with the further advantage that nodes can be "scattered" over the surface of a sphere. In the radial direction, Chebyshev polynomials are used, which are also spectrally accurate and provide the necessary clustering near the boundaries to resolve boundary layers. Applications of this new hybrid methodology are given to the problem of convection in the Earth's mantle, which is modeled by a Boussinesq fluid at infinite Prandtl number. To see whether this numerical technique warrants further investigation, the study limits itself to an isoviscous mantle. Benchmark comparisons are presented with other currently used mantle convection codes for Rayleigh number (Ra) 7 × 103 and 105. Results from a Ra = 106 simulation are also given. The algorithmic simplicity of the code (mostly due to RBFs) allows it to be written in less than 400 lines of MATLAB and run on a single workstation. We find that our method is very competitive with those currently used in the literature.

  15. RELAP5-3D thermal hydraulic analysis of the target cooling system in the SPES experimental facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardina, M.; Castiglia, F.; Buffa, P.; Palermo, G.; Prete, G.

    2014-11-01

    The SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) experimental facility, under construction at the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Laboratories of Legnaro, Italy, is a second generation Isotope Separation On Line (ISOL) plant for advanced nuclear physic studies. The UCx target-ion source system works at temperature of about 2273 K, producing a high level of radiation (105 Sv/h), for this reason a careful risk analysis for the target chamber is among the major safety issues. In this paper, the obtained results of thermofluid-dynamics simulations of accidental transients in the SPES target cooling system are reported. The analysis, performed by using the RELAP5-3D 2.4.2 qualified thermal-hydraulic system code, proves good safety performance of this system during different accidental conditions.

  16. Survey on RGB, 3D, Thermal, and Multimodal Approaches for Facial Expression Recognition: History, Trends, and Affect-Related Applications.

    PubMed

    Corneanu, Ciprian Adrian; Simon, Marc Oliu; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Guerrero, Sergio Escalera

    2016-08-01

    Facial expressions are an important way through which humans interact socially. Building a system capable of automatically recognizing facial expressions from images and video has been an intense field of study in recent years. Interpreting such expressions remains challenging and much research is needed about the way they relate to human affect. This paper presents a general overview of automatic RGB, 3D, thermal and multimodal facial expression analysis. We define a new taxonomy for the field, encompassing all steps from face detection to facial expression recognition, and describe and classify the state of the art methods accordingly. We also present the important datasets and the bench-marking of most influential methods. We conclude with a general discussion about trends, important questions and future lines of research. PMID:26761193

  17. 3D Numerical Simulation on Thermal Flow Coupling Field of Stainless Steel During Twin-Roll Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lianlian; Liao, Bo; Guo, Jing; Liu, Ligang; Hu, Hongyan; Zhang, Yue; Yang, Qingxiang

    2014-01-01

    The surface crack and lateral crack of the AISI 304 stainless steel thin strip produced by twin-roll casting were observed. The temperature at the center of outlet during twin-roll-casting process was determined by infrared thermometer. In order to avoid the surface cracks of the casting strip, the thermal flow coupling field of AISI 304 stainless steel during twin-roll-casting process was simulated by a 3D fluid-structure coupling model. According to the simulation result, the effect of the casting speed on thermal flow field was analyzed and the process parameters were optimized. Moreover, by studying heat flux curves, the heat transfer mechanism between molten pool and roll was analyzed. The results show that, with the increase of the casting speed, the temperature of the molten pool increases and the solidification point moves toward the outlet. Meanwhile, the whirlpool above gets larger. Based on the solidification front position, the optimized process parameters are 1500 °C and 0.37 m/s. The heat transfer mechanism between molten pool and roll contains direct contacting heat transfer and air gap heat transfer.

  18. The lithosphere-asthenosphere system beneath Ireland from integrated geophysical-petrological modeling II: 3D thermal and compositional structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullea, J.; Muller, M. R.; Jones, A. G.; Afonso, J. C.

    2014-02-01

    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth represents a fundamental parameter in any quantitative lithospheric model, controlling to a large extent the temperature distribution within the crust and the uppermost mantle. The tectonic history of Ireland includes early Paleozoic closure of the Iapetus Ocean across the Iapetus Suture Zone (ISZ), and in northeastern Ireland late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic crustal extension, during which thick Permo-Triassic sedimentary successions were deposited, followed by early Cenozoic extrusion of large scale flood basalts. Although the crustal structure in Ireland and neighboring offshore areas is fairly well constrained, with the notable exception of the crust beneath Northern Ireland, the Irish uppermost mantle remains to date relatively unknown. In particular, the nature and extent of a hypothetical interaction between a putative proto Icelandic mantle plume and the Irish and Scottish lithosphere during the Tertiary opening of the North Atlantic has long been discussed in the literature with diverging conclusions. In this work, the present-day thermal and compositional structure of the lithosphere in Ireland is modeled based on a geophysical-petrological approach (LitMod3D) that combines comprehensively a large variety of data (namely elevation, surface heat flow, potential fields, xenoliths and seismic tomography models), reducing the inherent uncertainties and trade-offs associated with classical modeling of those individual data sets. The preferred 3D lithospheric models show moderate lateral density variations in Ireland characterized by a slightly thickened lithosphere along the SW-NE trending ISZ, and a progressive lithospheric thinning from southern Ireland towards the north. The mantle composition in the southern half of Ireland (East Avalonia) is relatively and uniformly fertile (i.e., typical Phanerozoic mantle), whereas the lithospheric composition in the northern half of Ireland (Laurentia) seems to vary

  19. Exploring single-molecule interactions through 3D optical trapping and tracking: From thermal noise to protein refolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wesley Philip

    The focus of this thesis is the development and application of a novel technique for investigating the structure and dynamics of weak interactions between and within single-molecules. This approach is designed to explore unusual features in bi-directional transitions near equilibrium. The basic idea is to infer molecular events by observing changes in the three-dimensional Brownian fluctuations of a functionalized microsphere held weakly near a reactive substrate. Experimentally, I have developed a unique optical tweezers system that combines an interference technique for accurate 3D tracking (˜1 nm vertically, and ˜2-3 nm laterally) with a continuous autofocus system which stabilizes the trap height to within 1-2 mn over hours. A number of different physical and biological systems were investigated with this instrument. Data interpretation was assisted by a multi-scale Brownian Dynamics simulation that I have developed. I have explored the 3D signatures of different molecular tethers, distinguishing between single and multiple attachments, as well as between stiff and soft linkages. As well, I have developed a technique for measuring the force-dependent compliance of molecular tethers from thermal noise fluctuations and demonstrated this with a short ssDNA oligomer. Another practical approach that I have developed for extracting information from fluctuation measurements is Inverse Brownian Dynamics, which yields the underlying potential of mean force and position dependent diffusion coefficient from the Brownian motion of a particle. I have also developed a new force calibration method that takes into account video motion blur, and that uses this information to measure bead dynamics. Perhaps most significantly, I have trade the first direct observations of the refolding of spectrin repeats under mechanical force, and investigated the force-dependent kinetics of this transition.

  20. Phase-dependent deterministic switching of magnetoelectric spin wave detector in the presence of thermal noise via compensation of demagnetization

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Sourav Naeemi, Azad; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2015-11-09

    The possibility of achieving phase-dependent deterministic switching of the magnetoelectric spin wave detector in the presence of thermal noise has been discussed. The proposed idea relies on the modification of the energy landscape by partially canceling the out-of-plane demagnetizing field and the resultant change in the intrinsic magnetization dynamics to drive the nanomagnet towards a preferential final magnetization state. The remarkable increase in the probability of successful switching can be accounted for by the shift in the location of the saddle point in the energy landscape and a resultant change in the nature of the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization from a highly precessional to a fairly damped one and an increased dependence on the initial magnetization values, a crucial requirement for phase-dependent spin wave detection.

  1. Phase-dependent deterministic switching of magnetoelectric spin wave detector in the presence of thermal noise via compensation of demagnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Sourav; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.; Naeemi, Azad

    2015-11-01

    The possibility of achieving phase-dependent deterministic switching of the magnetoelectric spin wave detector in the presence of thermal noise has been discussed. The proposed idea relies on the modification of the energy landscape by partially canceling the out-of-plane demagnetizing field and the resultant change in the intrinsic magnetization dynamics to drive the nanomagnet towards a preferential final magnetization state. The remarkable increase in the probability of successful switching can be accounted for by the shift in the location of the saddle point in the energy landscape and a resultant change in the nature of the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization from a highly precessional to a fairly damped one and an increased dependence on the initial magnetization values, a crucial requirement for phase-dependent spin wave detection.

  2. Regular Characterisation of Volcán de Colima's Dome Through Photo-based 3D Topographic and Thermal Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Moss-Davies, H.; Varley, N. R.

    2014-12-01

    Following an 18-month period of quiescence at Volcán de Colima - the longest seen since the beginning of the 1998 eruptive regime - the latest effusive period was heralded by the partial destruction of the 2007 lava dome by a significant explosion on 6th January, 2013. Subsequent small Vulcanian explosions, which have been more frequent than during the preceding 2007-2011 effusive period, have accompanied the extrusion of new lava. The effusion, which continues to the present day (July, 2014), has been monitored by monthly overflights in a light aircraft, allowing aerial surveys of the activity through the capture of oblique photographs and thermal infrared imagery. Using 'structure from motion' based photogrammetric analysis of the photographs has enabled metre-to-sub-metre resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to be produced[1], from which volumetric and morphological changes to the dome can be assessed. Although extrusion of lava was observed on the 10th January, it was not until a subsequent survey on 25th February, in which a newly emplaced blocky dome was apparent in the excavated crater, that a reliable effusion rate could be calculated. The derived volumetric change, excluding losses due to minor explosions during this period, represents an effusion rate of <0.1 m3s-1, similar to that of that of the 2007-2011 effusion period (~0.02 m3s-1) and indicative of another period of slow growth. Continued growth of the dome led it to overflow the crater and form a lava flow, as detected in the survey of 21st March. The combination of regular oblique photography with a consumer camera and the use of modern 3D photo-based reconstruction software has enabled unprecedented numbers of DEMs to be produced for activity at Colima. We explore the potential of integrating the thermal data with the surface models for visualisation of areas of elevated activity. [1] James & Varley (2012) Identification of structural controls in an active lava dome with high resolution

  3. RDS - A systematic approach towards system thermal hydraulics input code development for a comprehensive deterministic safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Salim, Mohd Faiz; Roslan, Ridha; Ibrahim, Mohd Rizal Mamat

    2014-02-12

    Deterministic Safety Analysis (DSA) is one of the mandatory requirements conducted for Nuclear Power Plant licensing process, with the aim of ensuring safety compliance with relevant regulatory acceptance criteria. DSA is a technique whereby a set of conservative deterministic rules and requirements are applied for the design and operation of facilities or activities. Computer codes are normally used to assist in performing all required analysis under DSA. To ensure a comprehensive analysis, the conduct of DSA should follow a systematic approach. One of the methodologies proposed is the Standardized and Consolidated Reference Experimental (and Calculated) Database (SCRED) developed by University of Pisa. Based on this methodology, the use of Reference Data Set (RDS) as a pre-requisite reference document for developing input nodalization was proposed. This paper shall describe the application of RDS with the purpose of assessing its effectiveness. Two RDS documents were developed for an Integral Test Facility of LOBI-MOD2 and associated Test A1-83. Data and information from various reports and drawings were referred in preparing the RDS. The results showed that by developing RDS, it has made possible to consolidate all relevant information in one single document. This is beneficial as it enables preservation of information, promotes quality assurance, allows traceability, facilitates continuous improvement, promotes solving of contradictions and finally assisting in developing thermal hydraulic input regardless of whichever code selected. However, some disadvantages were also recognized such as the need for experience in making engineering judgments, language barrier in accessing foreign information and limitation of resources. Some possible improvements are suggested to overcome these challenges.

  4. RDS - A systematic approach towards system thermal hydraulics input code development for a comprehensive deterministic safety analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Mohd Faiz; Roslan, Ridha; Ibrahim, Mohd Rizal Mamat @

    2014-02-01

    Deterministic Safety Analysis (DSA) is one of the mandatory requirements conducted for Nuclear Power Plant licensing process, with the aim of ensuring safety compliance with relevant regulatory acceptance criteria. DSA is a technique whereby a set of conservative deterministic rules and requirements are applied for the design and operation of facilities or activities. Computer codes are normally used to assist in performing all required analysis under DSA. To ensure a comprehensive analysis, the conduct of DSA should follow a systematic approach. One of the methodologies proposed is the Standardized and Consolidated Reference Experimental (and Calculated) Database (SCRED) developed by University of Pisa. Based on this methodology, the use of Reference Data Set (RDS) as a pre-requisite reference document for developing input nodalization was proposed. This paper shall describe the application of RDS with the purpose of assessing its effectiveness. Two RDS documents were developed for an Integral Test Facility of LOBI-MOD2 and associated Test A1-83. Data and information from various reports and drawings were referred in preparing the RDS. The results showed that by developing RDS, it has made possible to consolidate all relevant information in one single document. This is beneficial as it enables preservation of information, promotes quality assurance, allows traceability, facilitates continuous improvement, promotes solving of contradictions and finally assisting in developing thermal hydraulic input regardless of whichever code selected. However, some disadvantages were also recognized such as the need for experience in making engineering judgments, language barrier in accessing foreign information and limitation of resources. Some possible improvements are suggested to overcome these challenges.

  5. Prediction of the ullage gas thermal stratification in a NASP vehicle propellant tank experimental simulation using FLOW-3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.; Tomsik, Thomas M.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) project, the multi-dimensional effects of gravitational force, initial tank pressure, initial ullage temperature, and heat transfer rate on the 2-D temperature profiles were studied. FLOW-3D, a commercial finite difference fluid flow model, was used for the evaluation. These effects were examined on the basis of previous liquid hydrogen experimental data with gaseous hydrogen pressurant. FLOW-3D results were compared against an existing 1-D model. In addition, the effects of mesh size and convergence criteria on the analytical results were investigated. Suggestions for future modifications and uses of FLOW-3D for modeling of a NASP tank are also presented.

  6. Controls on the Flow Regime and Thermal Structure of the Subduction Zone Mantle Wedge: A Systematic 2-D and 3-D Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Voci, Giuseppe; Davies, Rhodri; Goes, Saskia; Kramer, Stephan; Wilson, Cian

    2014-05-01

    Arc volcanism at subduction zones is likely regulated by the mantle wedge's flow regime and thermal structure and, hence, numerous studies have attempted to quantify the principal controls on mantle wedge conditions. Here, we build on these previous studies by undertaking the first systematic 2-D and 3-D numerical investigation, across a wide parameter-space, into how hydration and thermal buoyancy influence the wedge's flow regime and associated thermal structure, above a kinematically driven subducting plate. We find that small-scale convection (SSC), resulting from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, or drips, off the base of the overriding lithosphere, is a typical occurrence, if: (i) viscosities are < 5×1018 Pa s; and (ii) hydrous weakening of wedge rheology extends at least 100-150 km from the trench. In 2-D models, instabilities generally take the form of 'drips'. Although along-strike averages of wedge velocities and temperature in 3-D structure are consistent with those in 2-D, fluctuations are larger in 3-D. Furthermore, in 3-D, two separate, but interacting, longitudinal Richter roll systems form (with their axes aligned perpendicular to the trench), the first below the arc region and the second below the back-arc region. These instabilities result in transient and spatial temperature fluctuations of 100-150K, which are sufficient to influence melting, the stability of hydrous minerals and the dehydration of crustal material. Furthermore, they are efficient at eroding the overriding lithosphere, particularly in 3-D and, thus, provide a means to explain observations of high heat flow and thin back-arc lithosphere at many subduction zones, if back-arc mantle is hydrated.

  7. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  8. Applicability of RELAP5-3D for Thermal-Hydraulic Analyses of a Sodium-Cooled Actinide Burner Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    C. B. Davis

    2006-07-01

    The Actinide Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) is envisioned as a sodium-cooled, fast reactor that will burn the actinides generated in light water reactors to reduce nuclear waste and ease proliferation concerns. The RELAP5-3D computer code is being considered as the thermal-hydraulic system code to support the development of the ABTR. An evaluation was performed to determine the applicability of RELAP5-3D for the analysis of a sodium-cooled fast reactor. The applicability evaluation consisted of several steps, including identifying the important transients and phenomena expected in the ABTR, identifying the models and correlations that affect the code’s calculation of the important phenomena, and evaluating the applicability of the important models and correlations for calculating the important phenomena expected in the ABTR. The applicability evaluation identified code improvements and additional models needed to simulate the ABTR. The accuracy of the calculated thermodynamic and transport properties for sodium was also evaluated.

  9. Investigation into the effect of heat treatment on the thermal conductivity of 3-D carbon/carbon fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, R.B.; Burchell, T.D. ); Baker, C.F. )

    1991-01-01

    The material used in this study was a carbon-carbon fiber composite manufactured from precursor yarn and petroleum based pitch through a process of repetitive densification of a woven preform. The resultant high temperature-high strength material exhibits relatively high thermal conductivity and is thus of interest to the fusion energy, plasma materials interactions (PMI) and plasma facing components (PFC) communities. Carbon-carbon fiber composite manufacture involves two distinct processes, preform weaving and component densification. In this study three samples were subjected to an additional heat treatment of 2550, 2750 or 3000{degree}C at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) subsequent to their fourth graphitization at 2400{degree}C. It should be noted that no effort was made to optimize the composite for thermal conductivity, but rather only to provide a material with which to evaluate the effect of the final heat treatment temperature on the thermal conductivity. The fiber is the primary source of heat conduction in the composite. Consequently, increasing the fiber volume fraction, and/or the fiber thermal conductivity is expected to increase the composite thermal conductivity. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Rheological variations across an active rift system -- results from lithosphere-scale 3D gravity and thermal models of the Kenya Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeßen, Christian; Sippel, Judith; Cacace, Mauro; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Fishwick, Stewart; Heine, Christian; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2015-04-01

    Due to its tectono-volcanic activity and economic (geothermal and petroleum) potential, the eastern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS) is one of the best studied extensional systems worldwide and an important natural laboratory for the development of geodynamic concepts on rifting and nascent continental break-up. The Kenya Rift, an integral part of the eastern branch of the EARS, has formed in the area of weak Proterozoic crust of the Mozambique mobile belt adjacent to the rheologically stronger Archean Tanzania craton. To assess the variations in lithospheric strength between different tectonic domains and their influence on the tectonic evolution of the region, we developed a set of structural, density, thermal and rheological 3D models. For these models we integrated multi-disciplinary information, such as published geological field data, sediment thicknesses, well information, existing structural models, seismic refraction and reflection data, seismic tomography, gravity and heat-flow data. Our main approach focused on combined 3D isostatic and gravity modelling. The resulting lithosphere-scale 3D density model provides new insights into the depth distribution of the crust-mantle boundary and thickness variations of different crustal density domains. The latter further facilitate interpretations of variations of lithologies and related physical rock properties. By considering lithology-dependent heat production and thermal conductivity, we calculate the conductive thermal field across the region of the greater Kenya Rift. Finally, the assessed variations in lithology and temperature allow deriving differences in the integrated strength of the lithosphere across the different tectonic domains.

  11. 3D thermal stress analysis of WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) Room T RH TRU (Remote Handled Transuranic) experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Argueello, J.G.; Beraun, R.; Molecke, M.A.

    1989-08-01

    A three-dimensional finite element thermal stress analysis of the RH TRU experiments in WIPP Room T has been performed. This analysis aids in the interpretation of the borehole closure results being obtained from the Room T experiments and helps in assessing potential performance impacts in a typical storage room, during the waste retrieval period. Computed results are presented and compared to available in situ data, and a qualitative agreement between measured and computed closures is seen. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Research on the aero-thermal effects by 3D analysis model of the optical window of the infrared imaging guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bo; Li, Lin; Zhu, Ying

    2014-11-01

    Researches on hypersonic vehicles have been a hotspot in the field of aerospace because of the pursuits for higher speed by human being. Infrared imaging guidance is playing a very important role in modern warfare. When an Infrared Ray(IR) imaging guided missile is flying in the air at high speed, its optical dome suffers from serious aero-optic effects because of air flow. The turbulence around the dome and the thermal effects of the optical window would cause disturbance to the wavefront from the target. Therefore, detected images will be biased, dithered and blurred, and the capabilities of the seeker for detecting, tracking and recognizing are weakened. In this paper, methods for thermal and structural analysis with Heat Transfer and Elastic Mechanics are introduced. By studying the aero-thermal effects and aero-thermal radiation effects of the optical window, a 3D analysis model of the optical window is established by using finite element method. The direct coupling analysis is employed as a solving strategy. The variation regularity of the temperature field is obtained. For light with different incident angles, the influence on the ray propagation caused by window deformation is analyzed with theoretical calculation and optical/thermal/structural integrated analysis method respectively.

  13. 3D features of delayed thermal convection in fault zones: consequences for deep fluid processes in the Tiberias Basin, Jordan Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Fabien; Möller, Sebastian; Inbar, Nimrod; Siebert, Christian; Möller, Peter; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that thermal convection in faults can also occur for subcritical Rayleigh conditions. This type of convection develops after a certain period and is referred to as "delayed convection" (Murphy, 1979). The delay in the onset is due to the heat exchange between the damage zone and the surrounding units that adds a thermal buffer along the fault walls. Few numerical studies investigated delayed thermal convection in fractured zones, despite it has the potential to transport energy and minerals over large spatial scales (Tournier, 2000). Here 3D numerical simulations of thermally driven flow in faults are presented in order to investigate the impact of delayed convection on deep fluid processes at basin-scale. The Tiberias Basin (TB), in the Jordan Rift Valley, serves as study area. The TB is characterized by upsurge of deep-seated hot waters along the faulted shores of Lake Tiberias and high temperature gradient that can locally reach 46 °C/km, as in the Lower Yarmouk Gorge (LYG). 3D simulations show that buoyant flow ascend in permeable faults which hydraulic conductivity is estimated to vary between 30 m/yr and 140 m/yr. Delayed convection starts respectively at 46 and 200 kyrs and generate temperature anomalies in agreement with observations. It turned out that delayed convective cells are transient. Cellular patterns that initially develop in permeable units surrounding the faults can trigger convection also within the fault plane. The combination of these two convective modes lead to helicoidal-like flow patterns. This complex flow can explain the location of springs along different fault traces of the TB. Besides being of importance for understanding the hydrogeological processes of the TB (Magri et al., 2015), the presented simulations provide a scenario illustrating fault-induced 3D cells that could develop in any geothermal system. References Magri, F., Inbar, N., Siebert, C., Rosenthal, E., Guttman, J., Möller, P., 2015. Transient

  14. Modelling of the steady state thermal behaviour of a permanent magnet direct current motor with commutator. 3D finite elements study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, R.; Glises, R.; Chamagne, D.; Cuchet, D.; Kauffmann, J. M.

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this work concerns the development and the validation of a thermal steady state model applied to a permanent magnet direct current motor with commutator. The rated power of the machine is 120 W. Design has been realized thanks to the thermal modulus of the computation software with the finite element method Flux3D. It is shown in this work how it is possible to use only the heat equation to simulate the thermal behaviour of the motor. It implies calculating of new fluid conductivities (considering also all thermal modes) by comparison of calculated and experimental temperatures. To realize these 3D modelizations, it is necessary to know and to locate all the losses of the motor which are considered as thermal sources. The experimental temperatures are given by 40 chromel-alumel thermocouples of 100 μm diameter located in the rotor and the stator of the machine. Numerical computations use Dirichlet boundary layer conditions given by an IR camera. Ce travail concerne le développement et la validation d'un modèle de simulation du comportement thermique tridimensionnel en régime permanent d'un moteur électrique de 120 watt à courant continu, à aimants permanents et à collecteur. Le logiciel est développé à partir du code de calculs par éléments finis Flux3D. L'équation de la chaleur modélise l'ensemble des transferts thermiques du moteur. Cela nécessite de recaler certains paramètres fluides par comparaison des températures simulées et expérimentales. Une séparation détaillée des différentes pertes est nécessaire pour obtenir une bonne précision finale. Un banc d'essais thermiques permet d'obtenir à l'aide de 40 thermocouples (chromel-alumel de 100 μm de diamètre) les températures au stator et au rotor. Une caméra thermographique infrarouge donne les conditions aux limites de Dirichlet nécessaires à la modélisation.

  15. Facile synthesis of 3D porous thermally exfoliated g-C3N4 nanosheet with enhanced photocatalytic degradation of organic dye.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaoya; Zhou, Chou; Jin, Yanrong; Jing, Qiuye; Yang, Yaling; Shen, Xu; Tang, Qi; Mu, Yuanhua; Du, An-Ke

    2016-04-15

    3D porous framework composed of exfoliated ultrathin nanosheets is a hot topic in the field of energy storage and conversion. A facile method to prepare 3D mesoporous C3N4 with few-layered nanosheets interconnected in large quantity via H2SO4 intercalation and subsequent thermal treatment was described herein. The obtained thermally-exfoliated C3N4 (TE-C3N4) was thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements. The detailed analysis indicated that TE-C3N4 possessed enlarged inter-layer space, enhanced UV-light adsorption and high specific surface area with 3D interconnected structure composed of ultrathin 2D nanosheets. Compared to bulk C3N4, TE-C3N4 showed an enhanced photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of Rhodamine B under UV-light irradiation and exhibited no significant loss of photocatalytic activity after 11 recycled runs. The pseudo-first reaction rate constant for TE-C3N4 was about four times higher than that for pure bulk-C3N4. The better photocatalytic performance could be attributed to more active catalytic sites, prolonged photo-excited carrier lifetime and shorted pathway of the carriers to the reaction sites. PMID:26851454

  16. What lies beneath: Unveiling the fine-scale 3D compositional and thermal structure of the lithosphere and upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, Juan Carlos

    2013-04-01

    The lithosphere and sublithospheric upper mantle (above 410d) are highly heterogeneous in their chemistry, thermal structure and physical properties. Since most of the upper mantle is inaccessible to direct observation, we must rely on indirect methods to estimate its thermochemical structure. Lateral discontinuities (i.e. sharp changes in the thermal and/or compositional structure) in these regions are known to correlate with the location of seismically active zones, oil producing basins, foci of magma intrusion/production, and giant ore deposits. Understanding the fine-scale thermochemical structure of the lithosphere and sublithospheric upper mantle is therefore one of the most important goals in Geosciences. A detailed knowledge of the thermal and compositional structure of the upper mantle is also an essential prerequisite to understanding the formation, deformation and destruction of continents, the physical and chemical interactions between the lithosphere and the convective sublithospheric upper mantle, the long-term stability of ancient lithosphere, and the evolution of surface topography. Unfortunately, with current geophysical methods, such a holistic and detailed characterisation remains a technically and conceptually challenging problem. In this talk, I will discuss recent advancements in thermodynamically-constrained multi-observable probabilistic inversions, which have the potential to overcome the problems affecting other inversions schemes and provide realistic estimates of the present-day thermochemical structure of the lithosphere and upper mantle. I will present results for both synthetic and real case studies, which serve to highlight the advantages and limitations of our approach compared to others. I will also discuss future work towards the incorporation of such an approach into global thermo-mechanical simulations/inversions to study the intricate connections between the thermochemical structure of the upper mantle and the evolution of

  17. Constraints on the Lost City Hydrothermal System from borehole thermal data; 3-D models of heat flow and hydrothermal circulation in an oceanic core complex.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarenko, S.; McCaig, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    A perennial problem in near-ridge hydrothermal circulation is that the only directly measurable data to test models is often vent fluid temperature. Surface heat flow measurements may be available but without the underlying thermal structure it is not known if they are transient and affected by local hydrothermal flow, or conductive. The Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex at 30 °N on the mid-Atlantic Ridge, offers a unique opportunity to better constrain hydrothermal circulation models. The temperature profile in gabbroic rocks of IODP Hole 1309D was measured in IODPExpedition 340T, and found to be near-conductive, but with a slight inflexion at ~750 mbsf indicating downward advection of fluid above that level. The lack of deep convection is especially remarkable given that the long-lived Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) is located only 5km to the south. We have modelled hydrothermal circulation in the Massif using Comsol Multiphysics, comparing 2-D and 3-D topographic models and using temperature-dependent conductivity to give the best estimate of heatflow into the Massif. We can constrain maximum permeability in gabbro below 750 mbsf to 5e-17 m2. The thermal gradient in the upper part of the borehole can be matched with a permeability of 3e-14 m2 in a 750 m thick layer parallel to the surface of the massif, with upflow occurring in areas of high topography and downflow at the location of the borehole. However in 3-D the precise flow pattern is quite model dependent, and the thermal structure can be matched either by downflow centred on the borehole at lower permeability or centred a few hundred metres from the borehole at higher permeability. The borehole gradient is compatible with the longevity (>120 kyr) and outflow temperature (40-90 °C) of the LCHF either with a deep more permeable (1e-14 m2 to 1e-15 m2) domain beneath the vent site in 2-D or a permeable fault slot 500 to 1000m wide and parallel to the transform fault in 3-D. In both cases topography

  18. Optimizing an SEM-based 3D surface imaging technique for recording bond coat surface geometry in thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazmohamadi, Sina; Jordan, Eric H.

    2012-12-01

    Creation of three-dimensional representations of surfaces from images taken at two or more view angles is a well-established technique applied to optical images and is frequently used in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The present work describes specific steps taken to optimize and enhance the repeatability of three-dimensional surfaces reconstructed from SEM images. The presented steps result in an approximately tenfold improvement in the repeatability of the surface reconstruction compared to more standard techniques. The enhanced techniques presented can be used with any SEM friendly samples. In this work the modified technique was developed in order to accurately quantify surface geometry changes in metallic bond coats used with thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) to provide improved turbine hot part durability. Bond coat surfaces are quite rough, and accurate determination of surface geometry change (rumpling) requires excellent repeatability. Rumpling is an important contributor to TBC failure, and accurate quantification of rumpling is important to better understanding of the failure behavior of TBCs.

  19. Monitoring the formation of carbide crystal phases during the thermal decomposition of 3d transition metal dicarboxylate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Huba, ZJ; Carpenter, EE

    2014-06-06

    Single molecule precursors can help to simplify the synthesis of complex alloys by minimizing the amount of necessary starting reagents. However, single molecule precursors are time consuming to prepare with very few being commercially available. In this study, a simple precipitation method is used to prepare Fe, Co, and Ni fumarate and succinate complexes. These complexes were then thermally decomposed in an inert atmosphere to test their efficiency as single molecule precursors for the formation of metal carbide phases. Elevated temperature X-ray diffraction was used to identify the crystal phases produced upon decomposition of the metal dicarboxylate complexes. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with an infrared detector was used to identify the developed gaseous decomposition products. All complexes tested showed a reduction from the starting M2+ oxidation state to the M oxidation state, upon decomposition. Also, each complex tested showed CO2 and H2O as gaseous decomposition products. Nickel succinate, iron succinate, and iron fumarate complexes were found to form carbide phases upon decomposition. This proves that transition metal dicarboxylate salts can be employed as efficient single molecule precursors for the formation of metal carbide crystal phases.

  20. A comparative study of thermal effects of 3 types of laser in eye: 3D simulation with bioheat equation.

    PubMed

    Joukar, Amin; Nammakie, Erfan; Niroomand-Oscuii, Hanieh

    2015-01-01

    The application of laser in ophthalmology and eye surgery is so widespread that hardly can anyone deny its importance. On the other hand, since the human eye is an organ susceptible to external factors such as heat waves, laser radiation rapidly increases the temperature of the eye and therefore the study of temperature distribution inside the eye under laser irradiation is crucial; but the use of experimental and invasive methods for measuring the temperature inside the eye is typically high-risk and hazardous. In this paper, using the three-dimensional finite element method, the distribution of heat transfer inside the eye under transient condition was studied through three different lasers named Nd:Yag, Nd:Yap and ArF. Considering the metabolic heat and blood perfusion rate in various regions of the eye, numerical solution of space-time dependant Pennes bioheat transfer equation has been applied in this study. Lambert-Beer's law has been used to model the absorption of laser energy inside the eye tissues. It should also be mentioned that the effect of the ambient temperature, tear evaporation rate, laser power and the pupil diameter on the temperature distribution have been studied. Also, temperature distribution inside the eye after applying each laser and temperature variations of six optional regions as functions of time have been investigated. The results show that these radiations cause temperature rise in various regions, which will in turn causes serious damages to the eye tissues. Investigating the temperature distribution inside the eye under the laser irradiation can be a useful tool to study and predict the thermal effects of laser radiation on the human eye and evaluate the risk involved in performing laser surgery. PMID:25774029

  1. Measurements and ALE3D Simulations for Violence in a Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment with LX-10 and AerMet 100 Steel

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Yoh, J J; deHaven, M R; Strand, O T

    2005-06-03

    We completed a Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) and performed ALE3D simulations for the HMX-based explosive, LX-10, confined in an AerMet 100 (iron-cobalt-nickel alloy) vessel. The explosive was heated at 1 C/h until cookoff at 182 C using a controlled temperature profile. During the explosion, the expansion of the tube and fragment velocities were measured with strain gauges, Photonic-Doppler-Velocimeters (PDVs), and micropower radar units. These results were combined to produce a single curve describing 15 cm of tube wall motion. A majority of the metal fragments were captured and cataloged. A fragment size distribution was constructed, and a typical fragment had a length scale of 2 cm. Based on these results, the explosion was considered to be a violent deflagration. ALE3D models for chemical, thermal, and mechanical behavior were developed for the heating and explosive processes. A four-step chemical kinetics model is employed for the HMX while a one-step model is used for the Viton. A pressure-dependent deflagration model is employed during the expansion. The mechanical behavior of the solid constituents is represented by a Steinberg-Guinan model while polynomial and gamma-law expressions are used for the equation of state of the solid and gas species, respectively. A gamma-law model is employed for the air in gaps, and a mixed material model is used for the interface between air and explosive. A Johnson-Cook model with an empirical rule for failure strain is used to describe fracture behavior. Parameters for the kinetics model were specified using measurements of the One-Dimensional-Time-to-Explosion (ODTX), while measurements for burn rate were employed to determine parameters in the burn front model. The ALE3D models provide good predictions for the thermal behavior and time to explosion, but the predicted wall expansion curve is higher than the measured curve. Possible contributions to this discrepancy include inaccuracies in the chemical models

  2. Studies of a new class of high electro-thermal performing Polyimide embedded with 3D scaffold in the harsh environment of outer space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeblein, Manuela; Bolker, Asaf; Tsang, Siu Hon; Atar, Nurit; Uzan-Saguy, Cecile; Verker, Ronen; Gouzman, Irina; Grossman, Eitan; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    The polymer class of Polyimides (PIs) has been wide-spread in the use of outer space coatings due to their chemical stability and flexibility. Nevertheless, their poor thermal conductivity and completely electrically insulating characteristics have caused severe limitations, such as thermal management challenges and spacecraft electrostatic charging, which forces the use of additional materials such as brittle ITO in order to completely resist the harsh environment of space. For this reason, we developed a new composite material via infiltration of PI with a 3D scaffold which improves PIs performance and resilience and enables the use of only a single flexible material to protect spacecraft. Here we present a study of this new material based on outer-space environment simulated on ground. It includes an exhaustive range of tests simulating space environments in accordance with European Cooperation for Space Standard (ECSS), which includes atomic oxygen (AO) etching, Gamma-ray exposure and outgassing properties over extended periods of time and under strenuous mechanical bending and thermal annealing cycles. Measurement methods for the harsh environment of space and the obtained results will be presented.

  3. The Neighboring Column Approximation (NCA) - A fast approach for the calculation of 3D thermal heating rates in cloud resolving models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Carolin; Mayer, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Due to computational costs, radiation is usually neglected or solved in plane parallel 1D approximation in today's numerical weather forecast and cloud resolving models. We present a fast and accurate method to calculate 3D heating and cooling rates in the thermal spectral range that can be used in cloud resolving models. The parameterization considers net fluxes across horizontal box boundaries in addition to the top and bottom boundaries. Since the largest heating and cooling rates occur inside the cloud, close to the cloud edge, the method needs in first approximation only the information if a grid box is at the edge of a cloud or not. Therefore, in order to calculate the heating or cooling rates of a specific grid box, only the directly neighboring columns are used. Our so-called Neighboring Column Approximation (NCA) is an analytical consideration of cloud side effects which can be considered a convolution of a 1D radiative transfer result with a kernel or radius of 1 grid-box (5 pt stencil) and which does usually not break the parallelization of a cloud resolving model. The NCA can be easily applied to any cloud resolving model that includes a 1D radiation scheme. Due to the neglect of horizontal transport of radiation further away than one model column, the NCA works best for model resolutions of about 100 m or lager. In this paper we describe the method and show a set of applications of LES cloud field snap shots. Correction terms, gains and restrictions of the NCA are described. Comprehensive comparisons to the 3D Monte Carlo Model MYSTIC and a 1D solution are shown. In realistic cloud fields, the full 3D simulation with MYSTIC shows cooling rates up to -150 K/d (100 m resolution) while the 1D solution shows maximum coolings of only -100 K/d. The NCA is capable of reproducing the larger 3D cooling rates. The spatial distribution of the heating and cooling is improved considerably. Computational costs are only a factor of 1.5-2 higher compared to a 1D

  4. Mono, bi- and trinuclear metal complexes derived from new benzene-1,4-bis(3-pyridin-2-ylurea) ligand. Spectral, magnetic, thermal and 3D molecular modeling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-ghamry, Mosad A.; Saleh, Akila A.; Khalil, Saied M. E.; Mohammed, Amira A.

    2013-06-01

    New bis (pyridylurea) ligand, H2L, was synthesized by the reaction of ethylpyridine-2-carbamate (EPC) and p-phenylenediamine. The ligand was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, electronic and mass spectra. Reaction of the prepared ligand with Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, VO2+ and UO22+ ions afforded mono, bi- and trinuclear metal complexes. Also, new mixed ligand complexes of the ligand H2L and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) with Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions were synthesized. The ligand behaves as bi- and tetradentate toward the transition metal ions, coordination via the pyridine sbnd N, the carbonyl sbnd O and/or the amidic sbnd N atoms in a non, mono- and bis-deprotonated form. The complexes were characterized by elemental and thermal analyses, IR, electronic and mass spectra as well as conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The results showed that the metal complexes exhibited different geometrical arrangements such as square planar, tetrahedral, octahedral and square pyramidal arrangements. The Coats-Redfern equation was used to calculate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different thermal decomposition steps of some complexes. 3D molecular modeling of the ligand, H2L and a representative complex were studied.

  5. 3D quasi-dynamic modeling of earthquake cycles of the great Tohoku-oki earthquake by considering high-speed friction and thermal pressurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibazaki, B.; Tsutsumi, A.; Shimamoto, T.; Noda, H.

    2012-12-01

    Some observational studies [e.g. Hasegawa et al., 2011] suggested that the 2011 great Tohoku-oki Earthquake (Mw 9.0) released roughly all of the accumulated elastic strain on the plate interface owing to considerable weakening of the fault. Recent studies show that considerable weakening can occur at a high slip velocity because of thermal pressurization or thermal weakening processes [Noda and Lapusta, 2010; Di Toro et al., 2011]. Tsutsumi et al. [2011] examined the frictional properties of clay-rich fault materials under water-saturated conditions and found that velocity weakening or strengthening occurs at intermediate slip velocities and that dramatic weakening occurs at high slip velocities. This dramatic weakening at higher slip velocities is caused by pore-fluid pressurization via frictional heating or gouge weakening. In the present study, we investigate the generation mechanism of megathrust earthquakes along the Japan trench by performing 3D quasi-dynamic modeling with high-speed friction or thermal pressurization. We propose a rate- and state-dependent friction law with two state variables that exhibit weak velocity weakening or strengthening with a small critical displacement at low to intermediate velocities, but a strong velocity weakening with a large critical displacement at high slip velocities [Shibazaki et al., 2011]. We use this friction law for 3D quasi-dynamic modeling of a cycle of the great Tohoku-oki earthquake. We set several asperities where velocity weakening occurs at low to intermediate slip velocities. Outside of the asperities, velocity strengthening occurs at low to intermediate slip velocities. At high slip velocities, strong velocity weakening occurs both within and outside of the asperities. The rupture of asperities occurs at intervals of several tens of years, whereas megathrust events occur at much longer intervals (several hundred years). Megathrust slips occur even in regions where velocity strengthening occurs at low to

  6. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  7. Parallel deterministic neutronics with AMR in 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Clouse, C.; Ferguson, J.; Hendrickson, C.

    1997-12-31

    AMTRAN, a three dimensional Sn neutronics code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) has been parallelized over spatial domains and energy groups and runs on the Meiko CS-2 with MPI message passing. Block refined AMR is used with linear finite element representations for the fluxes, which allows for a straight forward interpretation of fluxes at block interfaces with zoning differences. The load balancing algorithm assumes 8 spatial domains, which minimizes idle time among processors.

  8. Advantages of 3D FEM numerical modeling over 2D, analyzed in a case study of transient thermal-hydraulic groundwater utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchsluger, Martin; Götzl, Gregor

    2014-05-01

    flow has been realized. In addition the effects of the basement of the building to the groundwater flow have been analyzed. The results of the 2D model show an underestimation of more than 10 % of the performance of the groundwater utilization facility and a considerable smaller groundwater table drawdown compared to the 3D simulations. This is due to the possibility of 3D modeling to consider (i) the heat distribution and storage in the adjacent layers, (ii) the climatic surface effect and (iii) vertical groundwater flow.

  9. 3D J-Integral Capability in Grizzly

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Spencer; Marie Backman; Pritam Chakraborty; William Hoffman

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes work done to develop a capability to evaluate fracture contour J-Integrals in 3D in the Grizzly code. In the current fiscal year, a previously-developed 2D implementation of a J-Integral evaluation capability has been extended to work in 3D, and to include terms due both to mechanically-induced strains and due to gradients in thermal strains. This capability has been verified against a benchmark solution on a model of a curved crack front in 3D. The thermal term in this integral has been verified against a benchmark problem with a thermal gradient. These developments are part of a larger effort to develop Grizzly as a tool that can be used to predict the evolution of aging processes in nuclear power plant systems, structures, and components, and assess their capacity after being subjected to those aging processes. The capabilities described here have been developed to enable evaluations of Mode- stress intensity factors on axis-aligned flaws in reactor pressure vessels. These can be compared with the fracture toughness of the material to determine whether a pre-existing flaw would begin to propagate during a pos- tulated pressurized thermal shock accident. This report includes a demonstration calculation to show how Grizzly is used to perform a deterministic assessment of such a flaw propagation in a degraded reactor pressure vessel under pressurized thermal shock conditions. The stress intensity is calculated from J, and the toughness is computed using the fracture master curve and the degraded ductile to brittle transition temperature.

  10. Mechanochemical and thermal formation of 1H-benzotriazole coordination polymers and complexes of 3d-transition metals with intriguing dielectric properties.

    PubMed

    Brede, Franziska A; Mühlbach, Friedrich; Sextl, Gerhard; Müller-Buschbaum, Klaus

    2016-07-14

    Liquid-assisted grinding (LAG) reactions have been successfully applied to achieve a series of complexes and coordination polymers based on divalent 3d-transition metal chlorides (TM chlorides) and the aromatic ligand 1H-benzotriazole (BtzH). The obtained substances were investigated via single crystal X-ray, powder X-ray determination and simultaneous DTA/TG analysis as model compounds for structural and chemical influences on their dielectric properties. Depending on the synthesis method, different constitutions and structures are observed. Two polymorphous forms of the 1D polymer [MnCl2(BtzH)2] (1 and 2) as well as the complexes [ZnCl2(BtzH)2]·BtzH (3) and [CoCl2(BtzH)2]·BtzH (4) have been obtained as phase-pure bulk substances via the mechanochemical LAG route, and even single crystals are available. For comparison, thermal reactions were also carried out and have led to the formation of the neutral complexes: [CoCl2(BtzH)2] (5) and [CoCl2(BtzH)4]·4BtzH (6), [ZnCl2(BtzH)2] (7) and the anionic complex BtzH2[CoCl3BtzH] (8). In addition, thermal treatment of 3 yields the benzotriazolium salt {(BtzH)2H}Cl (9). The transition metal compounds were additionally analysed regarding their dielectric properties by frequency-dependent as well as temperature-dependent permittivity investigations. It is intriguing that compounds 1 and 3 show remarkably low dielectric constants and loss factors up to 50 °C highlighting them as potential "low-k materials". PMID:27265300

  11. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  12. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  13. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  14. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  15. 3-D multiobservable probabilistic inversion for the compositional and thermal structure of the lithosphere and upper mantle. I: a priori petrological information and geophysical observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, J. C.; Fullea, J.; Griffin, W. L.; Yang, Y.; Jones, A. G.; D. Connolly, J. A.; O'Reilly, S. Y.

    2013-05-01

    of natural mantle samples collected from different tectonic settings (xenoliths, abyssal peridotites, ophiolite samples, etc.). This strategy relaxes more typical and restrictive assumptions such as the use of local/limited xenolith data or compositional regionalizations based on age-composition relations. We demonstrate that the combination of our ρ(m) with a L(m) that exploits the differential sensitivities of specific geophysical observables provides a general and robust inference platform to address the thermochemical structure of the lithosphere and sublithospheric upper mantle. An accompanying paper deals with the integration of these two functions into a general 3-D multiobservable Bayesian inversion method and its computational implementation.

  16. New 1-D and 3-D thiocyanatocadmates modified by various amine molecules and Cl(-)/CH3COO(-) ions: synthesis, structural characterization, thermal behavior and photoluminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bing; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Yan-Ning; Huang, Jing-Jing; Yu, Jie-Hui; Xu, Ji-Qing

    2015-03-21

    Under ambient conditions, reactions of CdCl2/Cd(CH3COO)2, SCN(-) and various organic amine molecules in strongly acidic solutions afforded the five new thiocyanatocadmates [H2(abpy)][CdCl2(SCN)2] (abpy = azobispyridine) 1, [H(apy)][Cd(SCN)3] (apy = 4-aminopyridine) 2, [H(ba)]2[CdCl2(SCN)2] (ba = tert-butylamine) 3, [H2(tmen)][Cd3Cl6(SCN)2] (tmen = N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) 4, and [H(dba)]2[Cd2(CH3COO)2(SCN)4] (dba = dibutylamine) 5. In compound 2 only, the CH3COO(-) ions in Cd(CH3COO)2 were completely displaced by SCN(-), producing a chained thiocyanatocadmate [Cd(SCN)3](-). In the other four compounds, the Cl(-) or CH3COO(-) ions appeared in the final inorganic anion frameworks. In compound 1, the Cl(-) ions doubly bridge the Cd(2+) centers, forming a one-dimensional (1-D) infinite chain, and the SCN(-) group exists in a terminal form, whereas in compound 3, the reverse situation is observed. Due to a trans-mode arrangement for two terminal Cl(-) or SCN(-) ions around each Cd(2+) center, the inorganic anion chains in compounds 1 and 3 both show a linear shape. In compound 4, Cd(2+) and Cl(-) first aggregate to form a 1-D endless chain with a composition of Cd3Cl6, which can be described as a linear arrangement of the open double cubanes. SCN(-) serves as the second connector, propagating the Cd3Cl6 chain into a three-dimensional (3-D) network with the occluded H2(tmen)(2+) cations. In compound 5, the SCN(-) groups doubly bridge the Cd(2+) centers, forming a 1-D zigzag-shape chain. The formation of the zigzag chain likely derives from chelation of the CH3COO(-) group to the Cd(2+) center. The thermal behavior and the photoluminescence properties of the title compounds were also investigated. PMID:25669175

  17. A deterministic discrete ordinates transport proxy application

    2014-06-03

    Kripke is a simple 3D deterministic discrete ordinates (Sn) particle transport code that maintains the computational load and communications pattern of a real transport code. It is intended to be a research tool to explore different data layouts, new programming paradigms and computer architectures.

  18. TRACE 3-D documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, K.R.

    1987-08-01

    TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.

  19. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions < ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  20. Novel symmetrical coralloid Cu 3D superstructures: Solid-state synthesis from a Cu-carboxylate MOF and their in-situ thermal conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Lingyun; Shen Yongming; Bai Junfeng; Wang Chunzhao

    2009-08-15

    We describe here a one-step solid-state process for the synthesis of metal three-dimensional (3D) superstructures from a metal-organic framework (MOF). Novel symmetrical coralloid Cu 3D superstructures with surface interspersed with clusters of Cu nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by thermolysis of the [Cu{sub 3}(btc){sub 2}] (btc=benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylato) MOF in a one-end closed horizontal tube furnace (OCTF). The obtained products were characterized by TGA, FT-IR, XRD, EDX, SEM, TEM, HRTEM and SAED. Different reaction conditions were discussed. Furthermore, the synthesized Cu samples were converted into CuO microstructures by in-situ calcination in the air. In addition, the possible formation mechanism was also proposed. This method is a simple and facile route, which builds a direct linkage between metal-carboxylate MOF crystals and metal nano- or microstructures and also opens a new application field of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: Novel symmetrical coralloid Cu 3D superstructures were synthesized by thermolysis of the [Cu{sub 3}(btc){sub 2}] (btc=benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylato) MOF microcrystals in a one-end closed horizontal tube furnace (OCTF).

  1. MNSR transient analyses and thermal hydraulic safety margins for HEU and LEU cores using the RELAP5-3D code

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F.E.; Thomas, J.; Liaw, J.; Matos, J.E.

    2008-07-15

    For safety analyses to support conversion of MNSR reactors from HEU fuel to LEU fuel, a RELAP5-3D model was set up to simulate the entire MNSR system. This model includes the core, the beryllium reflectors, the water in the tank and the water in the surrounding pool. The MCNP code was used to obtain the power distributions in the core and to obtain reactivity feedback coefficients for the transient analyses. The RELAP5-3D model was validated by comparing measured and calculated data for the NIRR-1 reactor in Nigeria. Comparisons include normal operation at constant power and a 3.77 mk rod withdrawal transient. Excellent agreement was obtained for core coolant inlet and outlet temperatures for operation at constant power, and for power level, coolant inlet temperature, and coolant outlet temperature for the rod withdrawal transient. In addition to the negative reactivity feedbacks from increasing core moderator and fuel temperatures, it was necessary to calculate and include positive reactivity feedback from temperature changes in the radial beryllium reflector and changes in the temperature and density of the water in the tank above the core and at the side of the core. The validated RELAP5-3D model was then used to analyze 3.77 mk rod withdrawal transients for LEU cores with two UO{sub 2} fuel pin designs. The impact of cracking of oxide LEU fuel is discussed. In addition, steady-state power operation at elevated power levels was evaluated to determine steady-state safety margins for onset of nucleate boiling and for onset of significant voiding. (author)

  2. A Correction Scheme for Thermal Conductivity Measurement Using the Comparative Cut-bar Technique Based on a 3D Numerical Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas W. Marshall; Changhu Xing; Charles Folsom; Colby Jensen; Heng Ban

    2014-05-01

    As an important factor affecting the accuracy of the thermal conductivity measurement, systematic (bias) error in the guarded comparative axial heat flow (cut-bar) method was mostly neglected by previous researches. This bias is due primarily to the thermal conductivity mismatch between sample and meter bars (reference), which is common for a sample of unknown thermal conductivity. A correction scheme, based on a finite element simulation of the measurement system, was proposed to reduce the magnitude of the overall measurement uncertainty. This scheme was experimentally validated by applying corrections on four types of sample measurements in which the specimen thermal conductivity is much smaller, slightly smaller, equal and much larger than that of the meter bar. As an alternative to the optimum guarding technique proposed before, the correction scheme can be used to minimize uncertainty contribution from the measurement system with non-optimal guarding conditions. It is especially necessary for large thermal conductivity mismatches between sample and meter bars.

  3. 3D microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-02-01

    In order to circumvent the fact that only one observer can view the image from a stereoscopic microscope, an attachment was devised for displaying the 3D microscopic image on a large LCD monitor for viewing by multiple observers in real time. The principle of operation, design, fabrication, and performance are presented, along with tolerance measurements relating to the properties of the cellophane half-wave plate used in the design.

  4. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  5. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  6. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  7. Reproducible and deterministic production of aspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitz, Ernst Michael; Stroh, Carsten; Schwalb, Fabian

    2015-10-01

    Aspheric lenses are ground in a single point cutting mode. Subsequently different iterative polishing methods are applied followed by aberration measurements on external metrology instruments. For an economical production, metrology and correction steps need to be reduced. More deterministic grinding and polishing is mandatory. Single point grinding is a path-controlled process. The quality of a ground asphere is mainly influenced by the accuracy of the machine. Machine improvements must focus on path accuracy and thermal expansion. Optimized design, materials and thermal management reduce thermal expansion. The path accuracy can be improved using ISO 230-2 standardized measurements. Repeated interferometric measurements over the total travel of all CNC axes in both directions are recorded. Position deviations evaluated in correction tables improve the path accuracy and that of the ground surface. Aspheric polishing using a sub-aperture flexible polishing tool is a dwell time controlled process. For plano and spherical polishing the amount of material removal during polishing is proportional to pressure, relative velocity and time (Preston). For the use of flexible tools on aspheres or freeform surfaces additional non-linear components are necessary. Satisloh ADAPT calculates a predicted removal function from lens geometry, tool geometry and process parameters with FEM. Additionally the tooĺs local removal characteristics is determined in a simple test. By oscillating the tool on a plano or spherical sample of the same lens material, a trench is created. Its 3-D profile is measured to calibrate the removal simulation. Remaining aberrations of the desired lens shape can be predicted, reducing iteration and metrology steps.

  8. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Screening-Dependent Study of Superconductivity in 3d-Transition Metals Binary Alloys Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Aditya M.

    2009-03-01

    In the present article, we report the screening-dependent study of the superconducting state parameters (SSPs), viz. electron-phonon coupling strength λ, Coulomb pseudopotential μ*, transition temperature TC, isotope effect exponent α, and effective interaction strength N0V of 3d-band transition metals binary alloys superconductors have been made extensively in the present work using a model potential formalism and employing the pseudo-alloy-atom (PAA) model for the first time. Five local field correction functions proposed by Hartree (H), Taylor (T), Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU), Farid et al. (F) and Sarkar et al. (S) are used in the present investigation to study the screening influence on the aforesaid properties. The present results of the SSPs obtained from H-screening are found in qualitative agreement with the available experimental data wherever exist.

  9. Self-assembled 3D heterometallic Cu(II)/Fe(II) coordination polymers with octahedral net skeletons: structural features, molecular magnetism, thermal and oxidation catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Karabach, Yauhen Y; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Kopylovich, Maximilian N; Gil-Hernández, Beatriz; Sanchiz, Joaquin; Kirillov, Alexander M; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2010-12-01

    The new three-dimensional (3D) heterometallic Cu(II)/Fe(II) coordination polymers [Cu(6)(H(2)tea)(6)Fe(CN)(6)](n)(NO(3))(2n)·6nH(2)O (1) and [Cu(6)(Hmdea)(6)Fe(CN)(6)](n)(NO(3))(2n)·7nH(2)O (2) have been easily generated by aqueous-medium self-assembly reactions of copper(II) nitrate with triethanolamine or N-methyldiethanolamine (H(3)tea or H(2)mdea, respectively), in the presence of potassium ferricyanide and sodium hydroxide. They have been isolated as air-stable crystalline solids and fully characterized including by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The latter reveal the formation of 3D metal-organic frameworks that are constructed from the [Cu(2)(μ-H(2)tea)(2)](2+) or [Cu(2)(μ-Hmdea)(2)](2+) nodes and the octahedral [Fe(CN)(6)](4-) linkers, featuring regular (1) or distorted (2) octahedral net skeletons. Upon dehydration, both compounds show reversible escape and binding processes toward water or methanol molecules. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of 1 and 2 reveal strong antiferromagnetic [J = -199(1) cm(-1)] or strong ferromagnetic [J = +153(1) cm(-1)] couplings between the copper(II) ions through the μ-O-alkoxo atoms in 1 or 2, respectively. The differences in magnetic behavior are explained in terms of the dependence of the magnetic coupling constant on the Cu-O-Cu bridging angle. Compounds 1 and 2 also act as efficient catalyst precursors for the mild oxidation of cyclohexane by aqueous hydrogen peroxide to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone (homogeneous catalytic system), leading to maximum total yields (based on cyclohexane) and turnover numbers (TONs) up to about 22% and 470, respectively. PMID:21028781

  10. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  11. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less

  12. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  13. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  14. Multiviewer 3D monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Aye, Tin M.; Kim, Dai Hyun; Esterkin, Vladimir; Savant, Gajendra D.

    1998-09-01

    Physical Optics Corporation has developed an advanced 3-D virtual reality system for use with simulation tools for training technical and military personnel. This system avoids such drawbacks of other virtual reality (VR) systems as eye fatigue, headaches, and alignment for each viewer, all of which are due to the need to wear special VR goggles. The new system is based on direct viewing of an interactive environment. This innovative holographic multiplexed screen technology makes it unnecessary for the viewer to wear special goggles.

  15. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  16. Deterministic Walks with Choice

    SciTech Connect

    Beeler, Katy E.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Cooper, Joshua N.; Hunter, Meagan N.; Barr, Peter S.

    2014-01-10

    This paper studies deterministic movement over toroidal grids, integrating local information, bounded memory and choice at individual nodes. The research is motivated by recent work on deterministic random walks, and applications in multi-agent systems. Several results regarding passing tokens through toroidal grids are discussed, as well as some open questions.

  17. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  18. Personal perceptual and cognitive property for 3D recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matozaki, Takeshi; Tanisita, Akihiko

    1996-04-01

    3D closed circuit TV which produces stereoscopic vision by observing different images through each eye alternately, has been proposed. But, there are several problems, both physiological and psychological, for 3D image observation in many fields. From this prospective, we are learning personal visual characteristics for 3D recognition in the transition from 2D to 3D. We have separated the mechanism of 3D recognition into several categories, and formed some hypothesis about the personal features. These hypotheses are related to an observer's personal features, as follows: (1) consideration of the angle between the left and the right eye's line of vision and the adjustment of focus, (2) consideration of the angle of vision and the time required for fusion, (3) consideration of depth sense based on life experience, (4) consideration of 3D experience, and (5) consideration of 3D sense based on the observer's age. To establish these hypotheses, and we have analyzed the personal features of the time interval required for 3D recognition through some examinations to examinees. Examinees indicate their response for 3D recognition by pushing a button. Recently, we introduced a method for picking up the reaction of 3D recognition from examinees through their biological information, for example, analysis of pulse waves of the finger. We also bring a hypothesis, as a result of the analysis of pulse waves. (1) We can observe chaotic response when the examinee is recognizing a 2D image. (2) We can observe periodic response when the examinee is recognizing a 3D image. We are making nonlinear forecasts by getting correlation between the forecast and the biological phenomena. Deterministic nonlinear prediction are applied to the data, as a promising method of chaotic time series analysis in order to analyze the long term unpredictability, one of the fundamental characteristics of deterministic chaos.

  19. 3-D transient analysis of pebble-bed HTGR by TORT-TD/ATTICA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Seubert, A.; Sureda, A.; Lapins, J.; Buck, M.; Bader, J.; Laurien, E.

    2012-07-01

    As most of the acceptance criteria are local core parameters, application of transient 3-D fine mesh neutron transport and thermal hydraulics coupled codes is mandatory for best estimate evaluations of safety margins. This also applies to high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR). Application of 3-D fine-mesh transient transport codes using few energy groups coupled with 3-D thermal hydraulics codes becomes feasible in view of increasing computing power. This paper describes the discrete ordinates based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D that has recently been extended by a fine-mesh diffusion solver. Based on transient analyses for the PBMR-400 design, the transport/diffusion capabilities are demonstrated and 3-D local flux and power redistribution effects during a partial control rod withdrawal are shown. (authors)

  20. 3D polarimetric purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, José J.; San José, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    From our previous definition of the indices of polarimetric purity for 3D light beams [J.J. Gil, J.M. Correas, P.A. Melero and C. Ferreira, Monogr. Semin. Mat. G. de Galdeano 31, 161 (2004)], an analysis of their geometric and physical interpretation is presented. It is found that, in agreement with previous results, the first parameter is a measure of the degree of polarization, whereas the second parameter (called the degree of directionality) is a measure of the mean angular aperture of the direction of propagation of the corresponding light beam. This pair of invariant, non-dimensional, indices of polarimetric purity contains complete information about the polarimetric purity of a light beam. The overall degree of polarimetric purity is obtained as a weighted quadratic average of the degree of polarization and the degree of directionality.

  1. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  2. 'Bonneville' in 3-D!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this 3-D navigation camera mosaic of the crater called 'Bonneville' after driving approximately 13 meters (42.7 feet) to get a better vantage point. Spirit's current position is close enough to the edge to see the interior of the crater, but high enough and far enough back to get a view of all of the walls. Because scientists and rover controllers are so pleased with this location, they will stay here for at least two more martian days, or sols, to take high resolution panoramic camera images of 'Bonneville' in its entirety. Just above the far crater rim, on the left side, is the rover's heatshield, which is visible as a tiny reflective speck.

  3. Imaging mesenchymal stem cells containing single wall nanotube nanoprobes in a 3D scaffold using photo-thermal optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Emma; Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Leahy, Martin; Rooney, Niall; Barry, Frank; Murphy, Mary; Barron, Valerie

    2014-02-01

    Despite the fact, that a range of clinically viable imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), photo emission tomography (PET), ultrasound and bioluminescence imaging are being optimised to track cells in vivo, many of these techniques are subject to limitations such as the levels of contrast agent required, toxic effects of radiotracers, photo attenuation of tissue and backscatter. With the advent of nanotechnology, nanoprobes are leading the charge to overcome these limitations. In particular, single wall nanotubes (SWNT) have been shown to be taken up by cells and as such are effective nanoprobes for cell imaging. Consequently, the main aim of this research is to employ mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) containing SWNT nanoprobes to image cell distribution in a 3D scaffold for cartilage repair. To this end, MSC were cultured in the presence of 32μg/ml SWNT in cell culture medium (αMEM, 10% FBS, 1% penicillin/streptomycin) for 24 hours. Upon confirmation of cell viability, the MSC containing SWNT were encapsulated in hyaluronic acid gels and loaded on polylactic acid polycaprolactone scaffolds. After 28 days in complete chondrogenic medium, with medium changes every 2 days, chondrogenesis was confirmed by the presence of glycosaminoglycan. Moreover, using photothermal optical coherence tomography (PT-OCT), the cells were seen to be distributed through the scaffold with high resolution. In summary, these data reveal that MSC containing SWNT nanoprobes in combination with PT-OCT offer an exciting opportunity for stem cell tracking in vitro for assessing seeding scaffolds and in vivo for determining biodistribution.

  4. Automatic 2D-to-3D image conversion using 3D examples from the internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, J.; Brown, G.; Wang, M.; Ishwar, P.; Wu, C.; Mukherjee, D.

    2012-03-01

    The availability of 3D hardware has so far outpaced the production of 3D content. Although to date many methods have been proposed to convert 2D images to 3D stereopairs, the most successful ones involve human operators and, therefore, are time-consuming and costly, while the fully-automatic ones have not yet achieved the same level of quality. This subpar performance is due to the fact that automatic methods usually rely on assumptions about the captured 3D scene that are often violated in practice. In this paper, we explore a radically different approach inspired by our work on saliency detection in images. Instead of relying on a deterministic scene model for the input 2D image, we propose to "learn" the model from a large dictionary of stereopairs, such as YouTube 3D. Our new approach is built upon a key observation and an assumption. The key observation is that among millions of stereopairs available on-line, there likely exist many stereopairs whose 3D content matches that of the 2D input (query). We assume that two stereopairs whose left images are photometrically similar are likely to have similar disparity fields. Our approach first finds a number of on-line stereopairs whose left image is a close photometric match to the 2D query and then extracts depth information from these stereopairs. Since disparities for the selected stereopairs differ due to differences in underlying image content, level of noise, distortions, etc., we combine them by using the median. We apply the resulting median disparity field to the 2D query to obtain the corresponding right image, while handling occlusions and newly-exposed areas in the usual way. We have applied our method in two scenarios. First, we used YouTube 3D videos in search of the most similar frames. Then, we repeated the experiments on a small, but carefully-selected, dictionary of stereopairs closely matching the query. This, to a degree, emulates the results one would expect from the use of an extremely large 3D

  5. The thermal structure and the location of the snow line in the protosolar nebula: Axisymmetric models with full 3-D radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, M.; Dullemond, C. P.; Kama, M.; Dominik, C.

    2011-03-01

    The precise location of the water ice condensation front (‘snow line’) in the protosolar nebula has been a debate for a long time. Its importance stems from the expected substantial jump in the abundance of solids beyond the snow line, which is conducive to planet formation, and from the higher ‘stickiness’ in collisions of ice-coated dust grains, which may help the process of coagulation of dust and the formation of planetesimals. In an optically thin nebula, the location of the snow line is easily calculated to be around 3 AU, subject to brightness variations of the young Sun. However, in its first 5-10 myr, the solar nebula was optically thick, implying a smaller snowline radius due to shielding from direct sunlight, but also a larger radius because of viscous heating. Several models have attempted to treat these opposing effects. However, until recently treatments beyond an approximate 1 + 1D radiative transfer were unfeasible. We revisit the problem with a fully self-consistent 3D treatment in an axisymmetric disk model, including a density-dependent treatment of the dust and ice sublimation. We find that the location of the snow line is very sensitive to the opacities of the dust grains and the mass accretion rate of the disk. We show that previous approximate treatments are quite efficient at determining the location of the snow line if the energy budget is locally dominated by viscous accretion. Using this result we derive an analytic estimate of the location of the snow line that compares very well with results from this and previous studies. Using solar abundances of the elements we compute the abundance of dust and ice and find that the expected jump in solid surface density at the snow line is smaller than previously assumed. We further show that in the inner few AU the refractory species are also partly evaporated, leading to a significantly smaller solid state surface density in the regions where the rocky planets were formed.

  6. 3-D thermal analysis using finite difference technique with finite element model for improved design of components of rocket engine turbomachines for Space Shuttle Main Engine SSME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Kiho D.; Ip, Shek-Se P.

    1988-01-01

    Three-dimensional finite element models were generated and transferred into three-dimensional finite difference models to perform transient thermal analyses for the SSME high pressure fuel turbopump's first stage nozzles and rotor blades. STANCOOL was chosen to calculate the heat transfer characteristics (HTCs) around the airfoils, and endwall effects were included at the intersections of the airfoils and platforms for the steady-state boundary conditions. Free and forced convection due to rotation effects were also considered in hollow cores. Transient HTCs were calculated by taking ratios of the steady-state values based on the flow rates and fluid properties calculated at each time slice. Results are presented for both transient plots and three-dimensional color contour isotherm plots; they were also converted into universal files to be used for FEM stress analyses.

  7. A 3-D numerical study of the thermal evolution of the Moon after cumulate mantle overturn: The importance of rheology and core solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Parmentier, E. M.; Liang, Yan

    2013-09-01

    in which the mantle of the Moon evolves from an initially stratified state following magma ocean solidification and overturn have been applied to address important features of long-term thermal evolution of the Moon, including convective instability of overturned ilmenite-bearing cumulates (IBC) at the lunar core-mantle boundary, generation of mare basalts, core sulfur content and inner core radius, paleomagnetism, and the present-day mantle structure. Whether a dense overturned IBC-rich layer at the bottom of the mantle can become thermally unstable to generate a single upwelling is controlled largely by the temperature-dependence of viscosity (the activation energy). Convective instability of the IBC-rich layer controls the heat flux out the core and the presence of an internally generated magnetic field. A long period of (~700 Ma) high positive core-mantle-boundary (CMB) heat flux after the instability of the IBC-rich layer is expected from our models. Present-day deep mantle temperatures inferred from seismic and gravitational inversion constrain the magnitude of mantle viscosity from 5 × 1019 to 1 × 1021 Pa s. The CMB temperature and solidified inner core radius inferred from seismic reflection constrain the core sulfur content. Our evolution models with 5-10 wt % sulfur content can produce the observed 240 km radius inner core at the present day. The asymmetrical distribution of the deep moonquakes only in the nearside mantle could be explained as the remnant structure of the single chemical upwelling generated from IBC-rich layer. Our evolution model after the overturn results in an early ~0.55 km expansion in radius for ~1000 Ma due to the radiogenic heating associated with IBC in the deep mantle and may provide a simple explanation for the early expansion inferred from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory mission.

  8. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  9. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  10. Estimating the relationship between urban 3D morphology and land surface temperature using airborne LiDAR and Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Urban forests are known for mitigating the urban heat island effect and heat-related health issues by reducing air and surface temperature. Beyond the amount of the canopy area, however, little is known what kind of spatial patterns and structures of urban forests best contributes to reducing temperatures and mitigating the urban heat effects. Previous studies attempted to find the relationship between the land surface temperature and various indicators of vegetation abundance using remote sensed data but the majority of those studies relied on two dimensional area based metrics, such as tree canopy cover, impervious surface area, and Normalized Differential Vegetation Index, etc. This study investigates the relationship between the three-dimensional spatial structure of urban forests and urban surface temperature focusing on vertical variance. We use a Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor image (acquired on July 24, 2014) to estimate the land surface temperature of the City of Sacramento, CA. We extract the height and volume of urban features (both vegetation and non-vegetation) using airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and high spatial resolution aerial imagery. Using regression analysis, we apply empirical approach to find the relationship between the land surface temperature and different sets of variables, which describe spatial patterns and structures of various urban features including trees. Our analysis demonstrates that incorporating vertical variance parameters improve the accuracy of the model. The results of the study suggest urban tree planting is an effective and viable solution to mitigate urban heat by increasing the variance of urban surface as well as evaporative cooling effect.

  11. Coupled 3D-neutronics / thermal-hydraulics analysis of an unprotected loss-of-flow accident for a 3600 MWth SFR core

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, K.; Chenu, A.; Mikityuk, K.; Krepel, J.; Chawla, R.

    2012-07-01

    The core behaviour of a large (3600 MWth) sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is investigated in this paper with the use of a coupled TRACE/PARCS model. The SFR neutron spectrum is characterized by several performance advantages, but also leads to one dominating neutronics drawback - a positive sodium void reactivity. This implies a positive reactivity effect when sodium coolant is removed from the core. In order to evaluate such feedback in terms of the dynamics, a representative unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) transient, i.e. flow run-down without SCRAM in which sodium boiling occurs, is analyzed. Although analysis of a single transient cannot allow general conclusions to be drawn, it does allow better understanding of the underlying physics and can lead to proposals for improving the core response during such an accident. The starting point of this study is the reference core design considered in the framework of the Collaborative Project on the European Sodium Fast Reactor (CP-ESFR). To reduce the void effect, the core has been modified by introducing an upper sodium plenum (along with a boron layer) and by reducing the core height-to-diameter ratio. For the ULOF considered, a sharp increase in core power results in melting of the fuel in the case of the reference core. In the modified core, a large dryout leads to melting of the clad. It seems that, for the hypothetical event considered, fuel failure cannot be avoided with just improvement of the neutronics design; therefore, thermal-hydraulics optimization has been considered. An innovative assembly design is proposed to prevent sodium vapour blocking the fuel channel. This results in preventing a downward propagation of the sodium boiling to the core center, thus limiting it to the upper region. Such a void map introduces a negative coolant density reactivity feedback, which dominates the total reactivity change. As a result, the power level and the fuel temperature are effectively reduced, and a large dryout

  12. Enhancements to the opera-3d suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Christopher P.

    1997-02-01

    The OPERA-3D suite of programs has been enhanced to include 2 additional 3 dimensional finite element based solvers, with complimentary features in the pre- and postprocessing. SOPRANO computes electromagnetic fields at high frequency including displacement current effects. It has 2 modules—a deterministic solution at a user defined frequency and an eigenvalue solution for modal analysis. It is suitable for designing microwave structures and cavities found in particle accelerators. SCALA computes electrostatic fields in the presence of space charge from charged particle beams. The user may define the emission characteristics of electrodes or plasma surfaces and compute the resultant space charge limited beams, including the presence of magnetic fields. Typical applications in particle accelerators are electron guns and ion sources. Other enhancements to the suite include additional capabilities in TOSCA and ELEKTRA, the static and dynamic solvers.

  13. Thermally-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations from a 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer to a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Wei, Li Guo; Song, Yang; Du, Xi; Xing, Kai; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin

    2016-07-28

    In this work, a rare 2D → 3D single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation (SCSC) is observed in metal-organic coordination complexes, which is triggered by thermal treatment. The 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer [Cd(IBA)2]n (1) is irreversibly converted into a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework {[Cd(IBA)2(H2O)]·2.5H2O}n (2) (HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid). Consideration is given to these two complexes with different interpenetrating structures and dimensionality, and their influence on photovoltaic properties are studied. Encouraged by the UV-visible absorption and HOMO-LUMO energy states matched for sensitizing TiO2, the two complexes are employed in combination with N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to compensate absorption in the ultraviolet and blue-violet region, offset competitive visible light absorption of I3(-) and reducing charge the recombination of injected electrons. After co-sensitization with 1 and 2, the device co-sensitized by 1/N719 and 2/N719 to yield overall efficiencies of 7.82% and 8.39%, which are 19.94% and 28.68% higher than that of the device sensitized only by N719 (6.52%). Consequently, high dimensional interpenetrating complexes could serve as excellent co-sensitizers and have application in DSSCs. PMID:27356177

  14. Solar abundances and 3D model atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Hans-Günter; Caffau, Elisabetta; Steffen, Matthias; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Freytag, Bernd; Cayrel, Roger

    2010-03-01

    We present solar photospheric abundances for 12 elements from optical and near-infrared spectroscopy. The abundance analysis was conducted employing 3D hydrodynamical (CO5BOLD) as well as standard 1D hydrostatic model atmospheres. We compare our results to others with emphasis on discrepancies and still lingering problems, in particular exemplified by the pivotal abundance of oxygen. We argue that the thermal structure of the lower solar photosphere is very well represented by our 3D model. We obtain an excellent match of the observed center-to-limb variation of the line-blanketed continuum intensity, also at wavelengths shortward of the Balmer jump.

  15. Balloon Ascent: 3-D Simulation Tool for the Ascent and Float of High-Altitude Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger E.

    2005-01-01

    The BalloonAscent balloon flight simulation code represents a from-scratch development using Visual Basic 5 as the software platform. The simulation code is a transient analysis of balloon flight, predicting the skin and gas temperatures along with the 3-D position and velocity in a time and spatially varying environment. There are manual and automated controls for gas valving and the dropping of ballast. Also, there are many handy calculators, such as appropriate free lift, and steady-state thermal solutions with temperature gradients. The strength of this simulation model over others in the past is that the infrared environment is deterministic rather than guessed at. The ground temperature is specified along with the emissivity, which creates a ground level IR environment that is then partially absorbed as it travels upward through the atmosphere to the altitude of the balloon.

  16. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer

    1992-02-01

    TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  17. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  18. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  19. Deterministic, Nanoscale Fabrication of Mesoscale Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Jr., R M; Shirk, M; Gilmer, G; Rubenchik, A

    2004-09-24

    Neither LLNL nor any other organization has the capability to perform deterministic fabrication of mm-sized objects with arbitrary, {micro}m-sized, 3-dimensional features with 20-nm-scale accuracy and smoothness. This is particularly true for materials such as high explosives and low-density aerogels. For deterministic fabrication of high energy-density physics (HEDP) targets, it will be necessary both to fabricate features in a wide variety of materials as well as to understand and simulate the fabrication process. We continue to investigate, both in experiment and in modeling, the ablation/surface-modification processes that occur with the use of laser pulses that are near the ablation threshold fluence. During the first two years, we studied ablation of metals, and we used sub-ps laser pulses, because pulses shorter than the electron-phonon relaxation time offered the most precise control of the energy that can be deposited into a metal surface. The use of sub-ps laser pulses also allowed a decoupling of the energy-deposition process from the ensuing movement/ablation of the atoms from the solid, which simplified the modeling. We investigated the ablation of material from copper, gold, and nickel substrates. We combined the power of the 1-D hydrocode ''HYADES'' with the state-of-the-art, 3-D molecular dynamics simulations ''MDCASK'' in our studies. For FY04, we have stretched ourselves to investigate laser ablation of carbon, including chemically-assisted processes. We undertook this research, because the energy deposition that is required to perform direct sublimation of carbon is much higher than that to stimulate the reaction 2C + O{sub 2} => 2CO. Thus, extremely fragile carbon aerogels might survive the chemically-assisted process more readily than ablation via direct laser sublimation. We had planned to start by studying vitreous carbon and move onto carbon aerogels. We were able to obtain flat, high-quality vitreous carbon, which was easy to work on

  20. Post irradiation experiment analysis using the APOLLO2 deterministic tool. Validation of JEFF-3.1.1 thermal and epithermal actinides neutron induced cross sections through MELUSINE experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, D.; Fabbris, O.

    2012-07-01

    Two different experiments performed in the 8 MWth MELUSINE experimental power pool reactor aimed at analyzing 1 GWd/t spent fuel pellets doped with several actinides. The goal was to measure the averaged neutron induced capture cross section in two very different neutron spectra (a PWR-like and an under-moderated one). This paper summarizes the combined deterministic APOLLO2-stochastic TRIPOLI4 analysis using the JEFF-3.1.1 European nuclear data library. A very good agreement is observed for most of neutron induced capture cross section of actinides and a clear underestimation for the {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}) as an accurate validation of its associated isomeric ratio are emphasized. Finally, a possible huge resonant fluctuation (factor of 2.7 regarding to the 1=0 resonance total orbital momenta) is suggested for isomeric ratio. (authors)

  1. Modular 3-D Transport model

    EPA Science Inventory

    MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...

  2. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  3. LLNL-Earth3D

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  4. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible. PMID:7919882

  5. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  6. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-02-26

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  7. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  8. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  9. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  10. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  11. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  12. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models. PMID:26066320

  13. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  14. Deterministic hierarchical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrière, L.; Comellas, F.; Dalfó, C.; Fiol, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown that many networks associated with complex systems are small-world (they have both a large local clustering coefficient and a small diameter) and also scale-free (the degrees are distributed according to a power law). Moreover, these networks are very often hierarchical, as they describe the modularity of the systems that are modeled. Most of the studies for complex networks are based on stochastic methods. However, a deterministic method, with an exact determination of the main relevant parameters of the networks, has proven useful. Indeed, this approach complements and enhances the probabilistic and simulation techniques and, therefore, it provides a better understanding of the modeled systems. In this paper we find the radius, diameter, clustering coefficient and degree distribution of a generic family of deterministic hierarchical small-world scale-free networks that has been considered for modeling real-life complex systems.

  15. Arena3D: visualization of biological networks in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; O'Donoghue, Seán I; Satagopam, Venkata P; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Pafilis, Evangelos; Schneider, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Background Complexity is a key problem when visualizing biological networks; as the number of entities increases, most graphical views become incomprehensible. Our goal is to enable many thousands of entities to be visualized meaningfully and with high performance. Results We present a new visualization tool, Arena3D, which introduces a new concept of staggered layers in 3D space. Related data – such as proteins, chemicals, or pathways – can be grouped onto separate layers and arranged via layout algorithms, such as Fruchterman-Reingold, distance geometry, and a novel hierarchical layout. Data on a layer can be clustered via k-means, affinity propagation, Markov clustering, neighbor joining, tree clustering, or UPGMA ('unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean'). A simple input format defines the name and URL for each node, and defines connections or similarity scores between pairs of nodes. The use of Arena3D is illustrated with datasets related to Huntington's disease. Conclusion Arena3D is a user friendly visualization tool that is able to visualize biological or any other network in 3D space. It is free for academic use and runs on any platform. It can be downloaded or lunched directly from . Java3D library and Java 1.5 need to be pre-installed for the software to run. PMID:19040715

  16. Building the 3-D jugsaw puzzle: Applications of sequence stratigraphy to 3-D reservoir characterization, Permian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tinker, S.W.

    1996-04-01

    Reservoir characterization involves the quantification, integration, reduction, and analysis of geological, petrophysical, seismic, and engineering data. This is no small task. A principal goal of reservoir characterization is to derive a spatial understanding of interwell heterogeneity. Traditionally, geologic attempts to characterize interwell heterogeneity have been done using hand-drawn or computer-generated two-dimensional (2-D) maps and cross sections. Results can be improved dramatically using three-dimensional (3-D) interpretation and analysis techniques. Three-dimensional reservoir characterization requires the same input data used in 2-D approaches, and the cost is equal to, and commonly lower than, traditional 2-D methods. The product of 3-D reservoir characterization is a 3-D reservoir model. The language used to communicate the results of a 3-D reservoir model is visualization; i.e., visual images of numerical data. All of the available log and core data in a model area are incorporated in a 3-D model, but the data are depicted as colored cells rather than as log traces. The integrity of the 3-D reservoir model is largely a function of the stratigraphic framework. Interpreting the correct stratigraphic framework for a subsurface reservoir is the most difficult and creative part of the 3-D modeling process. Sequence and seismic stratigraphic interpretation provide the best stratigraphic framework for 3-D reservoir modeling. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the pro- cess of 3-D deterministic reservoir modeling and to illustrate the advantages of using a sequence stratigraphic framework in 3-D modeling. Mixed carbonate and siliciclastic sediment outcrop and subsurface examples from the Permian basin of west Texas and New Mexico will be used as examples, but the concepts and techniques can be applied to reservoirs of any age.

  17. Fdf in US3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Collin; Ferrero, Pietro; Candler, Graham; Givi, Peyman

    2013-11-01

    The scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) methodology is implemented into the computer code US3D. This is an unstructured Eulerian finite volume hydrodynamic solver and has proven very effective for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The resulting SFMDF-US3D code is employed for large eddy simulation (LES) on unstructured meshes. Simulations are conducted of subsonic and supersonic flows under non-reacting and reacting conditions. The consistency and the accuracy of the simulated results are assessed along with appraisal of the overall performance of the methodology. The SFMDF-US3D is now capable of simulating high speed flows in complex configurations.

  18. Sperm navigation along helical paths in 3D chemoattractant landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jikeli, Jan F.; Alvarez, Luis; Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Wilson, Laurence G.; Pascal, René; Colin, Remy; Pichlo, Magdalena; Rennhack, Andreas; Brenker, Christoph; Kaupp, U. Benjamin

    2015-08-01

    Sperm require a sense of direction to locate the egg for fertilization. They follow gradients of chemical and physical cues provided by the egg or the oviduct. However, the principles underlying three-dimensional (3D) navigation in chemical landscapes are unknown. Here using holographic microscopy and optochemical techniques, we track sea urchin sperm navigating in 3D chemoattractant gradients. Sperm sense gradients on two timescales, which produces two different steering responses. A periodic component, resulting from the helical swimming, gradually aligns the helix towards the gradient. When incremental path corrections fail and sperm get off course, a sharp turning manoeuvre puts sperm back on track. Turning results from an `off' Ca2+ response signifying a chemoattractant stimulation decrease and, thereby, a drop in cyclic GMP concentration and membrane voltage. These findings highlight the computational sophistication by which sperm sample gradients for deterministic klinotaxis. We provide a conceptual and technical framework for studying microswimmers in 3D chemical landscapes.

  19. Sperm navigation along helical paths in 3D chemoattractant landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Jikeli, Jan F.; Alvarez, Luis; Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Wilson, Laurence G.; Pascal, René; Colin, Remy; Pichlo, Magdalena; Rennhack, Andreas; Brenker, Christoph; Kaupp, U. Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Sperm require a sense of direction to locate the egg for fertilization. They follow gradients of chemical and physical cues provided by the egg or the oviduct. However, the principles underlying three-dimensional (3D) navigation in chemical landscapes are unknown. Here using holographic microscopy and optochemical techniques, we track sea urchin sperm navigating in 3D chemoattractant gradients. Sperm sense gradients on two timescales, which produces two different steering responses. A periodic component, resulting from the helical swimming, gradually aligns the helix towards the gradient. When incremental path corrections fail and sperm get off course, a sharp turning manoeuvre puts sperm back on track. Turning results from an ‘off' Ca2+ response signifying a chemoattractant stimulation decrease and, thereby, a drop in cyclic GMP concentration and membrane voltage. These findings highlight the computational sophistication by which sperm sample gradients for deterministic klinotaxis. We provide a conceptual and technical framework for studying microswimmers in 3D chemical landscapes. PMID:26278469

  20. Sperm navigation along helical paths in 3D chemoattractant landscapes.

    PubMed

    Jikeli, Jan F; Alvarez, Luis; Friedrich, Benjamin M; Wilson, Laurence G; Pascal, René; Colin, Remy; Pichlo, Magdalena; Rennhack, Andreas; Brenker, Christoph; Kaupp, U Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Sperm require a sense of direction to locate the egg for fertilization. They follow gradients of chemical and physical cues provided by the egg or the oviduct. However, the principles underlying three-dimensional (3D) navigation in chemical landscapes are unknown. Here using holographic microscopy and optochemical techniques, we track sea urchin sperm navigating in 3D chemoattractant gradients. Sperm sense gradients on two timescales, which produces two different steering responses. A periodic component, resulting from the helical swimming, gradually aligns the helix towards the gradient. When incremental path corrections fail and sperm get off course, a sharp turning manoeuvre puts sperm back on track. Turning results from an 'off' Ca(2+) response signifying a chemoattractant stimulation decrease and, thereby, a drop in cyclic GMP concentration and membrane voltage. These findings highlight the computational sophistication by which sperm sample gradients for deterministic klinotaxis. We provide a conceptual and technical framework for studying microswimmers in 3D chemical landscapes. PMID:26278469

  1. Deterministic Brownian Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefan, Gyorgy

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to contribute to the ambitious program of the foundation of developing statistical physics using chaos. We build a deterministic model of Brownian motion and provide a microscopic derivation of the Fokker-Planck equation. Since the Brownian motion of a particle is the result of the competing processes of diffusion and dissipation, we create a model where both diffusion and dissipation originate from the same deterministic mechanism--the deterministic interaction of that particle with its environment. We show that standard diffusion which is the basis of the Fokker-Planck equation rests on the Central Limit Theorem, and, consequently, on the possibility of deriving it from a deterministic process with a quickly decaying correlation function. The sensitive dependence on initial conditions, one of the defining properties of chaos insures this rapid decay. We carefully address the problem of deriving dissipation from the interaction of a particle with a fully deterministic nonlinear bath, that we term the booster. We show that the solution of this problem essentially rests on the linear response of a booster to an external perturbation. This raises a long-standing problem concerned with Kubo's Linear Response Theory and the strong criticism against it by van Kampen. Kubo's theory is based on a perturbation treatment of the Liouville equation, which, in turn, is expected to be totally equivalent to a first-order perturbation treatment of single trajectories. Since the boosters are chaotic, and chaos is essential to generate diffusion, the single trajectories are highly unstable and do not respond linearly to weak external perturbation. We adopt chaotic maps as boosters of a Brownian particle, and therefore address the problem of the response of a chaotic booster to an external perturbation. We notice that a fully chaotic map is characterized by an invariant measure which is a continuous function of the control parameters of the map

  2. Wavefront construction in 3-D

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcoat, S.R. Hildebrand, S.T.

    1995-12-31

    Travel time computation in inhomogeneous media is essential for pre-stack Kirchhoff imaging in areas such as the sub-salt province in the Gulf of Mexico. The 2D algorithm published by Vinje, et al, has been extended to 3D to compute wavefronts in complicated inhomogeneous media. The 3D wavefront construction algorithm provides many advantages over conventional ray tracing and other methods of computing travel times in 3D. The algorithm dynamically maintains a reasonably consistent ray density without making a priori guesses at the number of rays to shoot. The determination of caustics in 3D is a straight forward geometric procedure. The wavefront algorithm also enables the computation of multi-valued travel time surfaces.

  3. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  4. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  5. Optofluidic fabrication for 3D-shaped particles.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Kevin S; Di Carlo, Dino; Chung, Aram J

    2015-01-01

    Complex three-dimensional (3D)-shaped particles could play unique roles in biotechnology, structural mechanics and self-assembly. Current methods of fabricating 3D-shaped particles such as 3D printing, injection moulding or photolithography are limited because of low-resolution, low-throughput or complicated/expensive procedures. Here, we present a novel method called optofluidic fabrication for the generation of complex 3D-shaped polymer particles based on two coupled processes: inertial flow shaping and ultraviolet (UV) light polymerization. Pillars within fluidic platforms are used to deterministically deform photosensitive precursor fluid streams. The channels are then illuminated with patterned UV light to polymerize the photosensitive fluid, creating particles with multi-scale 3D geometries. The fundamental advantages of optofluidic fabrication include high-resolution, multi-scalability, dynamic tunability, simple operation and great potential for bulk fabrication with full automation. Through different combinations of pillar configurations, flow rates and UV light patterns, an infinite set of 3D-shaped particles is available, and a variety are demonstrated. PMID:25904062

  6. Optofluidic fabrication for 3D-shaped particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Kevin S.; di Carlo, Dino; Chung, Aram J.

    2015-04-01

    Complex three-dimensional (3D)-shaped particles could play unique roles in biotechnology, structural mechanics and self-assembly. Current methods of fabricating 3D-shaped particles such as 3D printing, injection moulding or photolithography are limited because of low-resolution, low-throughput or complicated/expensive procedures. Here, we present a novel method called optofluidic fabrication for the generation of complex 3D-shaped polymer particles based on two coupled processes: inertial flow shaping and ultraviolet (UV) light polymerization. Pillars within fluidic platforms are used to deterministically deform photosensitive precursor fluid streams. The channels are then illuminated with patterned UV light to polymerize the photosensitive fluid, creating particles with multi-scale 3D geometries. The fundamental advantages of optofluidic fabrication include high-resolution, multi-scalability, dynamic tunability, simple operation and great potential for bulk fabrication with full automation. Through different combinations of pillar configurations, flow rates and UV light patterns, an infinite set of 3D-shaped particles is available, and a variety are demonstrated.

  7. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  8. Deterministic Bilinear System Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheh-Han; Juang, Jer-Nan

    2013-12-01

    A unified identification method is proposed for system realization of a deterministic continuous-time/discrete-time bilinear models from input and output measurement data. A generalized Hankel matrix is formed with the output measurements obtained by applying a set of repeated input sequences to a bilinear system. A computational procedure is developed to extract a time varying discrete-time state-space model from the generalized Hankel matrix. The bilinear system models are realized by transforming the identified time varying discrete-time model to the bilinear models. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed identification method.

  9. Semi-deterministic reasoning

    SciTech Connect

    Chengjiang Mao

    1996-12-31

    In typical AI systems, we employ so-called non-deterministic reasoning (NDR), which resorts to some systematic search with backtracking in the search spaces defined by knowledge bases (KBs). An eminent property of NDR is that it facilitates programming, especially programming for those difficult AI problems such as natural language processing for which it is difficult to find algorithms to tell computers what to do at every step. However, poor efficiency of NDR is still an open problem. Our work aims at overcoming this efficiency problem.

  10. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  11. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  12. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  13. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  14. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia. PMID:26854878

  15. Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrule, O.; Samson, P.; Segonds, D.

    1996-12-31

    The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological {open_quotes}objects{close_quotes} with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.

  16. Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrule, O. ); Samson, P. ); Segonds, D. )

    1996-01-01

    The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological [open quotes]objects[close quotes] with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.

  17. The Deterministic Information Bottleneck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strouse, D. J.; Schwab, David

    2015-03-01

    A fundamental and ubiquitous task that all organisms face is prediction of the future based on past sensory experience. Since an individual's memory resources are limited and costly, however, there is a tradeoff between memory cost and predictive payoff. The information bottleneck (IB) method (Tishby, Pereira, & Bialek 2000) formulates this tradeoff as a mathematical optimization problem using an information theoretic cost function. IB encourages storing as few bits of past sensory input as possible while selectively preserving the bits that are most predictive of the future. Here we introduce an alternative formulation of the IB method, which we call the deterministic information bottleneck (DIB). First, we argue for an alternative cost function, which better represents the biologically-motivated goal of minimizing required memory resources. Then, we show that this seemingly minor change has the dramatic effect of converting the optimal memory encoder from stochastic to deterministic. Next, we propose an iterative algorithm for solving the DIB problem. Additionally, we compare the IB and DIB methods on a variety of synthetic datasets, and examine the performance of retinal ganglion cell populations relative to the optimal encoding strategy for each problem.

  18. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  19. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2003-05-12

    This project is in its first full year after the combining of two previously funded projects: ''3D Code Development'' and ''Dynamic Material Properties''. The motivation behind this move was to emphasize and strengthen the ties between the experimental work and the computational model development in the materials area. The next year's activities will indicate the merging of the two efforts. The current activity is structured in two tasks. Task A, ''Simulations and Measurements'', combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. Task B, ''ALE3D Development'', is a continuation of the non-materials related activities from the previous project.

  20. Mechanochemical Synthesis of 3d Transition-Metal-1,2,4-Triazole Complexes as Precursors for Microwave-Assisted and Thermal Conversion to Coordination Polymers with a High Influence on the Dielectric Properties.

    PubMed

    Brede, Franziska A; Heine, Johanna; Sextl, Gerhard; Müller-Buschbaum, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    The complexes [MCl2 (TzH)4 ] (M=Mn (1), Fe (2); TzH=1,2,4-1H-triazole) and [ZnCl2 (TzH)2 ] (3) have been obtained by mechanochemical reactions of the corresponding divalent metal chloride and 1,2,4-1H-triazole. They were successfully used as precursors for the formation of coordination polymers either by a microwave-assisted reaction or by thermal conversion. For manganese, the conversion directly yielded 1∞ [MnCl2 TzH] (4), whereas for the iron-containing precursor, 1∞ [FeCl2 TzH] (6), was formed via the intermediate coordination polymer 1∞ [FeCl(TzH)2 ]Cl (5). For cobalt, the isotypic polymer 1∞ [CoCl(TzH)2 ]Cl (7) was obtained, but exclusively by a microwave-induced reaction directly from CoCl2 . The crystal structures were resolved from single crystals and powders. The dielectric properties were determined and revealed large differences in permittivity between the precursor complexes and the rigid chain-like coordination polymers. Whereas the monomeric complexes exhibit very different dielectric behaviour, depending on the transition metal, from "low-k" to "high-k" with the permittivity ranging from 4.3 to >100 for frequencies of up to 1000 Hz, the coordination polymers and complexes with strong intermolecular interactions are all close to "low-k" materials with very low dielectric constants up to 50 °C. Therefore, the conversion procedures can be used to deliberately influence the dielectric properties from complex to polymer and for different 3d transition-metal ions. PMID:26797710

  1. SNL3dFace

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  2. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  3. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  4. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  5. DRACO development for 3D simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatenejad, Milad; Moses, Gregory

    2006-10-01

    The DRACO (r-z) lagrangian radiation-hydrodynamics laser fusion simulation code is being extended to model 3D hydrodynamics in (x-y-z) coordinates with hexahedral cells on a structured grid. The equation of motion is solved with a lagrangian update with optional rezoning. The fluid equations are solved using an explicit scheme based on (Schulz, 1964) while the SALE-3D algorithm (Amsden, 1981) is used as a template for computing cell volumes and other quantities. A second order rezoner has been added which uses linear interpolation of the underlying continuous functions to preserve accuracy (Van Leer, 1976). Artificial restoring force terms and smoothing algorithms are used to avoid grid distortion in high aspect ratio cells. These include alternate node couplers along with a rotational restoring force based on the Tensor Code (Maenchen, 1964). Electron and ion thermal conduction is modeled using an extension of Kershaw's method (Kershaw, 1981) to 3D geometry. Test problem simulations will be presented to demonstrate the applicability of this new version of DRACO to the study of fluid instabilities in three dimensions.

  6. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  7. 3D Integration for Wireless Multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmich, Georg

    The convergence of mobile phone, internet, mapping, gaming and office automation tools with high quality video and still imaging capture capability is becoming a strong market trend for portable devices. High-density video encode and decode, 3D graphics for gaming, increased application-software complexity and ultra-high-bandwidth 4G modem technologies are driving the CPU performance and memory bandwidth requirements close to the PC segment. These portable multimedia devices are battery operated, which requires the deployment of new low-power-optimized silicon process technologies and ultra-low-power design techniques at system, architecture and device level. Mobile devices also need to comply with stringent silicon-area and package-volume constraints. As for all consumer devices, low production cost and fast time-to-volume production is key for success. This chapter shows how 3D architectures can bring a possible breakthrough to meet the conflicting power, performance and area constraints. Multiple 3D die-stacking partitioning strategies are described and analyzed on their potential to improve the overall system power, performance and cost for specific application scenarios. Requirements and maturity of the basic process-technology bricks including through-silicon via (TSV) and die-to-die attachment techniques are reviewed. Finally, we highlight new challenges which will arise with 3D stacking and an outlook on how they may be addressed: Higher power density will require thermal design considerations, new EDA tools will need to be developed to cope with the integration of heterogeneous technologies and to guarantee signal and power integrity across the die stack. The silicon/wafer test strategies have to be adapted to handle high-density IO arrays, ultra-thin wafers and provide built-in self-test of attached memories. New standards and business models have to be developed to allow cost-efficient assembly and testing of devices from different silicon and technology

  8. Optoplasmonics: hybridization in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, L.; Gervinskas, G.; Žukauskas, A.; Malinauskas, M.; Brasselet, E.; Juodkazis, S.

    2013-12-01

    Femtosecond laser fabrication has been used to make hybrid refractive and di ractive micro-optical elements in photo-polymer SZ2080. For applications in micro- uidics, axicon lenses were fabricated (both single and arrays), for generation of light intensity patterns extending through the entire depth of a typically tens-of-micrometers deep channel. Further hybridisation of an axicon with a plasmonic slot is fabricated and demonstrated nu- merically. Spiralling chiral grooves were inscribed into a 100-nm-thick gold coating sputtered over polymerized micro-axicon lenses, using a focused ion beam. This demonstrates possibility of hybridisation between optical and plasmonic 3D micro-optical elements. Numerical modelling of optical performance by 3D-FDTD method is presented.

  9. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.

  10. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  11. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  12. 360-degree 3D profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuanhe; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wenyi; Tan, Yushan

    1997-12-01

    A new method of 360 degree turning 3D shape measurement in which light sectioning and phase shifting techniques are both used is presented in this paper. A sine light field is applied in the projected light stripe, meanwhile phase shifting technique is used to calculate phases of the light slit. Thereafter wrapped phase distribution of the slit is formed and the unwrapping process is made by means of the height information based on the light sectioning method. Therefore phase measuring results with better precision can be obtained. At last the target 3D shape data can be produced according to geometric relationships between phases and the object heights. The principles of this method are discussed in detail and experimental results are shown in this paper.

  13. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  14. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  15. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  16. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  17. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  18. Dissipation mechanism in 3D magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Keizo

    2011-11-15

    Dissipation processes responsible for fast magnetic reconnection in collisionless plasmas are investigated using 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations. The present study revisits the two simulation runs performed in the previous study (Fujimoto, Phys. Plasmas 16, 042103 (2009)); one with small system size in the current density direction, and the other with larger system size. In the case with small system size, the reconnection processes are almost the same as those in 2D reconnection, while in the other case a kink mode evolves along the current density and deforms the current sheet structure drastically. Although fast reconnection is achieved in both the cases, the dissipation mechanism is very different between them. In the case without kink mode, the electrons transit the electron diffusion region without thermalization, so that the magnetic dissipation is supported by the inertia resistivity alone. On the other hand, in the kinked current sheet, the electrons are not only accelerated in bulk, but they are also partly scattered and thermalized by the kink mode, which results in the anomalous resistivity in addition to the inertia resistivity. It is demonstrated that in 3D reconnection the thickness of the electron current sheet becomes larger than the local electron inertia length, consistent with the theoretical prediction in Fujimoto and Sydora (Phys. Plasmas 16, 112309 (2009)).

  19. Geometrically-compatible 3-D Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinates methods

    SciTech Connect

    Morel, J.E.; Wareing, T.A.; McGhee, J.M.; Evans, T.M.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was two-fold. The first purpose was to develop a deterministic discrete-ordinates neutral-particle transport scheme for unstructured tetrahedral spatial meshes, and implement it in a computer code. The second purpose was to modify the MCNP Monte Carlo radiation transport code to use adjoint solutions from the tetrahedral-mesh discrete-ordinates code to reduce the statistical variance of Monte Carlo solutions via a weight-window approach. The first task has resulted in a deterministic transport code that is much more efficient for modeling complex 3-D geometries than any previously existing deterministic code. The second task has resulted in a powerful new capability for dramatically reducing the cost of difficult 3-D Monte Carlo calculations.

  20. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  1. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  2. ORPHEE research reactor: 3D core depletion calculation using Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI-4®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damian, F.; Brun, E.

    2014-06-01

    ORPHEE is a research reactor located at CEA Saclay. It aims at producing neutron beams for experiments. This is a pool-type reactor (heavy water), and the core is cooled by light water. Its thermal power is 14 MW. ORPHEE core is 90 cm height and has a cross section of 27x27 cm2. It is loaded with eight fuel assemblies characterized by a various number of fuel plates. The fuel plate is composed of aluminium and High Enriched Uranium (HEU). It is a once through core with a fuel cycle length of approximately 100 Equivalent Full Power Days (EFPD) and with a maximum burnup of 40%. Various analyses under progress at CEA concern the determination of the core neutronic parameters during irradiation. Taking into consideration the geometrical complexity of the core and the quasi absence of thermal feedback for nominal operation, the 3D core depletion calculations are performed using the Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI-4® [1,2,3]. A preliminary validation of the depletion calculation was performed on a 2D core configuration by comparison with the deterministic transport code APOLLO2 [4]. The analysis showed the reliability of TRIPOLI-4® to calculate a complex core configuration using a large number of depleting regions with a high level of confidence.

  3. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  4. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  5. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  6. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  7. Vacant Lander in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rear hazard-identification camera shows the now-empty lander that carried the rover 283 million miles to Meridiani Planum, Mars. Engineers received confirmation that Opportunity's six wheels successfully rolled off the lander and onto martian soil at 3:01 a.m. PST, January 31, 2004, on the seventh martian day, or sol, of the mission. The rover is approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in front of the lander, facing north.

  8. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  9. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  10. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  11. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikaw, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W=4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure. We also simulate jets with the more realistic initial conditions for injecting jets for helical mangetic field, perturbed density, velocity, and internal energy, which are supposed to be caused in the process of jet generation. Three possible explanations for the observed variability are (i) tidal disruption of a star falling into the black hole, (ii) instabilities in the relativistic accretion disk, and (iii) jet-related PRocesses. New results will be reported at the meeting.

  12. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  13. 3D Ion Temperature Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Hiroshi; You, Setthivoine; Balandin, Alexander; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi

    2009-11-01

    The TS-4 experiment at the University of Tokyo collides two spheromaks to form a single high-beta compact toroid. Magnetic reconnection during the merging process heats and accelerates the plasma in toroidal and poloidal directions. The reconnection region has a complex 3D topology determined by the pitch of the spheromak magnetic fields at the merging plane. A pair of multichord passive spectroscopic diagnostics have been established to measure the ion temperature and velocity in the reconnection volume. One setup measures spectral lines across a poloidal plane, retrieving velocity and temperature from Abel inversion. The other, novel setup records spectral lines across another section of the plasma and reconstructs velocity and temperature from 3D vector and 2D scalar tomography techniques. The magnetic field linking both measurement planes is determined from in situ magnetic probe arrays. The ion temperature is then estimated within the volume between the two measurement planes and at the reconnection region. The measurement is followed over several repeatable discharges to follow the heating and acceleration process during the merging reconnection.

  14. Proteus-MOC: A 3D deterministic solver incorporating 2D method of characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Marin-Lafleche, A.; Smith, M. A.; Lee, C.

    2013-07-01

    A new transport solution methodology was developed by combining the two-dimensional method of characteristics with the discontinuous Galerkin method for the treatment of the axial variable. The method, which can be applied to arbitrary extruded geometries, was implemented in PROTEUS-MOC and includes parallelization in group, angle, plane, and space using a top level GMRES linear algebra solver. Verification tests were performed to show accuracy and stability of the method with the increased number of angular directions and mesh elements. Good scalability with parallelism in angle and axial planes is displayed. (authors)

  15. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  16. 3D thermography imaging standardization technique for inflammation diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Xiangyang; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Siebert, J. Paul

    2005-01-01

    We develop a 3D thermography imaging standardization technique to allow quantitative data analysis. Medical Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging is very sensitive and reliable mean of graphically mapping and display skin surface temperature. It allows doctors to visualise in colour and quantify temperature changes in skin surface. The spectrum of colours indicates both hot and cold responses which may co-exist if the pain associate with an inflammatory focus excites an increase in sympathetic activity. However, due to thermograph provides only qualitative diagnosis information, it has not gained acceptance in the medical and veterinary communities as a necessary or effective tool in inflammation and tumor detection. Here, our technique is based on the combination of visual 3D imaging technique and thermal imaging technique, which maps the 2D thermography images on to 3D anatomical model. Then we rectify the 3D thermogram into a view independent thermogram and conform it a standard shape template. The combination of these imaging facilities allows the generation of combined 3D and thermal data from which thermal signatures can be quantified.

  17. Deterministic methods in radiation transport

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, A.F.; Roussin, R.W.

    1992-06-01

    The Seminar on Deterministic Methods in Radiation Transport was held February 4--5, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Eleven presentations were made and the full papers are published in this report, along with three that were submitted but not given orally. These papers represent a good overview of the state of the art in the deterministic solution of radiation transport problems for a variety of applications of current interest to the Radiation Shielding Information Center user community.

  18. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  19. Deterministic, Nanoscale Fabrication of Mesoscale Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Jr., R M; Gilmer, J; Rubenchik, A; Shirk, M

    2004-12-08

    Neither LLNL nor any other organization has the capability to perform deterministic fabrication of mm-sized objects with arbitrary, {micro}m-sized, 3-D features and with 100-nm-scale accuracy and smoothness. This is particularly true for materials such as high explosives and low-density aerogels, as well as materials such as diamond and vanadium. The motivation for this project was to investigate the physics and chemistry that control the interactions of solid surfaces with laser beams and ion beams, with a view towards their applicability to the desired deterministic fabrication processes. As part of this LDRD project, one of our goals was to advance the state of the art for experimental work, but, in order to create ultimately a deterministic capability for such precision micromachining, another goal was to form a new modeling/simulation capability that could also extend the state of the art in this field. We have achieved both goals. In this project, we have, for the first time, combined a 1-D hydrocode (''HYADES'') with a 3-D molecular dynamics simulator (''MDCASK'') in our modeling studies. In FY02 and FY03, we investigated the ablation/surface-modification processes that occur on copper, gold, and nickel substrates with the use of sub-ps laser pulses. In FY04, we investigated laser ablation of carbon, including laser-enhanced chemical reaction on the carbon surface for both vitreous carbon and carbon aerogels. Both experimental and modeling results will be presented in the report that follows. The immediate impact of our investigation was a much better understanding of the chemical and physical processes that ensure when solid materials are exposed to femtosecond laser pulses. More broadly, we have better positioned LLNL to design a cluster tool for fabricating mesoscale objects utilizing laser pulses and ion-beams as well as more traditional machining/manufacturing techniques for applications such as components in NIF targets, remote sensors, including

  20. 3D RoboMET Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Jonathan D.; Susan, Donald F.; Kilgo, Alice C.

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this project is to generate 3D microstructural data by destructive and non-destructive means and provide accompanying characterization and quantitative analysis of such data. This work is a continuing part of a larger effort to relate material performance variability to microstructural variability. That larger effort is called “Predicting Performance Margins” or PPM. In conjunction with that overarching initiative, the RoboMET.3D™ is a specific asset of Center 1800 and is an automated serialsectioning system for destructive analysis of microstructure, which is called upon to provide direct customer support to 1800 and non-1800 customers. To that end, data collection, 3d reconstruction and analysis of typical and atypical microstructures have been pursued for the purposes of qualitative and quantitative characterization with a goal toward linking microstructural defects and/or microstructural features with mechanical response. Material systems examined in FY15 include precipitation hardened 17-4 steel, laser-welds of 304L stainless steel, thermal spray coatings of 304L and geological samples of sandstone.

  1. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  2. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  3. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal

  4. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  5. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  6. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  7. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  8. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  9. Discrete Method of Images for 3D Radio Propagation Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Discretization by rasterization is introduced into the method of images (MI) in the context of 3D deterministic radio propagation modeling as a way to exploit spatial coherence of electromagnetic propagation for fine-grained parallelism. Traditional algebraic treatment of bounding regions and surfaces is replaced by computer graphics rendering of 3D reflections and double refractions while building the image tree. The visibility of reception points and surfaces is also resolved by shader programs. The proposed rasterization is shown to be of comparable run time to that of the fundamentally parallel shooting and bouncing rays. The rasterization does not affect the signal evaluation backtracking step, thus preserving its advantage over the brute force ray-tracing methods in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the rendering resolution may be scaled back for a given level of scenario detail with only marginal impact on the image tree size. This allows selection of scene optimized execution parameters for faster execution, giving the method a competitive edge. The proposed variant of MI can be run on any GPU that supports real-time 3D graphics.

  10. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  11. Yogi the rock - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Yogi, a rock taller than rover Sojourner, is the subject of this image, taken in stereo by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The soil in the foreground has been the location of multiple soil mechanics experiments performed by Sojourner's cleated wheels. Pathfinder scientists were able to control the force inflicted on the soil beneath the rover's wheels, giving them insight into the soil's mechanical properties. The soil mechanics experiments were conducted after this image was taken.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  12. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  13. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  14. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  15. Simulating coronal condensation dynamics in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moschou, S. P.; Keppens, R.; Xia, C.; Fang, X.

    2015-12-01

    We present numerical simulations in 3D settings where coronal rain phenomena take place in a magnetic configuration of a quadrupolar arcade system. Our simulation is a magnetohydrodynamic simulation including anisotropic thermal conduction, optically thin radiative losses, and parametrised heating as main thermodynamical features to construct a realistic arcade configuration from chromospheric to coronal heights. The plasma evaporation from chromospheric and transition region heights eventually causes localised runaway condensation events and we witness the formation of plasma blobs due to thermal instability, that evolve dynamically in the heated arcade part and move gradually downwards due to interchange type dynamics. Unlike earlier 2.5D simulations, in this case there is no large scale prominence formation observed, but a continuous coronal rain develops which shows clear indications of Rayleigh-Taylor or interchange instability, that causes the denser plasma located above the transition region to fall down, as the system moves towards a more stable state. Linear stability analysis is used in the non-linear regime for gaining insight and giving a prediction of the system's evolution. After the plasma blobs descend through interchange, they follow the magnetic field topology more closely in the lower coronal regions, where they are guided by the magnetic dips.

  16. Deterministic multidimensional nonuniform gap sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Bradley; Powers, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Born from empirical observations in nonuniformly sampled multidimensional NMR data relating to gaps between sampled points, the Poisson-gap sampling method has enjoyed widespread use in biomolecular NMR. While the majority of nonuniform sampling schemes are fully randomly drawn from probability densities that vary over a Nyquist grid, the Poisson-gap scheme employs constrained random deviates to minimize the gaps between sampled grid points. We describe a deterministic gap sampling method, based on the average behavior of Poisson-gap sampling, which performs comparably to its random counterpart with the additional benefit of completely deterministic behavior. We also introduce a general algorithm for multidimensional nonuniform sampling based on a gap equation, and apply it to yield a deterministic sampling scheme that combines burst-mode sampling features with those of Poisson-gap schemes. Finally, we derive a relationship between stochastic gap equations and the expectation value of their sampling probability densities.

  17. 3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

    2002-03-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

  18. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  19. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  20. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  1. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  2. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  3. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  4. Regional geothermal 3D modelling in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulsen, S. E.; Balling, N.; Bording, T. S.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    In the pursuit of sustainable and low carbon emission energy sources, increased global attention has been given to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources within recent decades. In 2009 a national multi-disciplinary geothermal research project was established. As a significant part of this project, 3D temperature modelling is to be carried out, with special emphasis on temperatures of potential geothermal reservoirs in the Danish area. The Danish subsurface encompasses low enthalpy geothermal reservoirs of mainly Triassic and Jurassic age. Geothermal plants at Amager (Copenhagen) and Thisted (Northern Jutland) have the capacity of supplying the district heating network with up to 14 MW and 7 MW, respectively, by withdrawing warm pore water from the Gassum (Lower Jurassic/Upper Triassic) and Bunter (Lower Triassic) sandstone reservoirs, respectively. Explorative studies of the subsurface temperature regime typically are based on a combination of observations and modelling. In this study, the open-source groundwater modelling code MODFLOW is modified to simulate the subsurface temperature distribution in three dimensions by taking advantage of the mathematical similarity between saturated groundwater flow (Darcy flow) and heat conduction. A numerical model of the subsurface geology in Denmark is built and parameterized from lithological information derived from joint interpretation of seismic surveys and borehole information. Boundary conditions are constructed from knowledge about the heat flow from the Earth's interior and the shallow ground temperature. Matrix thermal conductivities have been estimated from analysis of high-resolution temperature logs measured in deep wells and porosity-depth relations are included using interpreted main lithologies. The model takes into account the dependency of temperature and pressure on thermal conductivity. Moreover, a transient model based correction of the paleoclimatic thermal disturbance caused by the

  5. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  6. The Esri 3D city information model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, T.; Schubiger-Banz, S.

    2014-02-01

    With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases.

  7. Derivation of new 3D discrete ordinate equations

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, C. D.

    2012-07-01

    The Sn equations have been the workhorse of deterministic radiation transport calculations for many years. Here we derive two new angular discretizations of the 3D transport equation. The first set of equations, derived using Lagrange interpolation and collocation, retains the classical Sn structure, with the main difference being how the scattering source is calculated. Because of the formal similarity with the classical S n equations, it should be possible to modify existing computer codes to take advantage of the new formulation. In addition, the new S n-like equations correctly capture delta function scattering. The second set of equations, derived using a Galerkin technique, does not retain the classical Sn structure because the streaming term is not diagonal. However, these equations can be cast into a form similar to existing methods developed to reduce ray effects. Numerical investigation of both sets of equations is under way. (authors)

  8. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  9. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  10. Gis-Based Smart Cartography Using 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinverni, E. S.; Tassetti, A. N.

    2013-08-01

    3D City Models have evolved to be important tools for urban decision processes and information systems, especially in planning, simulation, analysis, documentation and heritage management. On the other hand existing and in use numerical cartography is often not suitable to be used in GIS because not geometrically and topologically correctly structured. The research aim is to 3D structure and organize a numeric cartography for GIS and turn it into CityGML standardized features. The work is framed around a first phase of methodological analysis aimed to underline which existing standard (like ISO and OGC rules) can be used to improve the quality requirement of a cartographic structure. Subsequently, from this technical specifics, it has been investigated the translation in formal contents, using an owner interchange software (SketchUp), to support some guide lines implementations to generate a GIS3D structured in GML3. It has been therefore predisposed a test three-dimensional numerical cartography (scale 1:500, generated from range data captured by 3D laser scanner), tested on its quality according to the previous standard and edited when and where necessary. Cad files and shapefiles are converted into a final 3D model (Google SketchUp model) and then exported into a 3D city model (CityGML LoD1/LoD2). The GIS3D structure has been managed in a GIS environment to run further spatial analysis and energy performance estimate, not achievable in a 2D environment. In particular geometrical building parameters (footprint, volume etc.) are computed and building envelop thermal characteristics are derived from. Lastly, a simulation is carried out to deal with asbestos and home renovating charges and show how the built 3D city model can support municipal managers with risk diagnosis of the present situation and development of strategies for a sustainable redevelop.

  11. Deterministic models for traffic jams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Kai; Herrmann, Hans J.

    1993-10-01

    We study several deterministic one-dimensional traffic models. For integer positions and velocities we find the typical high and low density phases separated by a simple transition. If positions and velocities are continuous variables the model shows self-organized critically driven by the slowest car.

  12. RELAP5-3D code validation for RBMK phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.E.

    1999-09-01

    The RELAP5-3D thermal-hydraulic code was assessed against Japanese Safety Experiment Loop (SEL) and Heat Transfer Loop (HTL) tests. These tests were chosen because the phenomena present are applicable to analyses of Russian RBMK reactor designs. The assessment cases included parallel channel flow fluctuation tests at reduced and normal water levels, a channel inlet pipe rupture test, and a high power, density wave oscillation test. The results showed that RELAP5-3D has the capability to adequately represent these RBMK-related phenomena.

  13. RELAP5-3D Code Validation for RBMK Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, James Ebberly

    1999-09-01

    The RELAP5-3D thermal-hydraulic code was assessed against Japanese Safety Experiment Loop (SEL) and Heat Transfer Loop (HTL) tests. These tests were chosen because the phenomena present are applicable to analyses of Russian RBMK reactor designs. The assessment cases included parallel channel flow fluctuation tests at reduced and normal water levels, a channel inlet pipe rupture test, and a high power, density wave oscillation test. The results showed that RELAP5-3D has the capability to adequately represent these RBMK-related phenomena.

  14. Application of 3D printing technology in aerodynamic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olasek, K.; Wiklak, P.

    2014-08-01

    3D printing, as an additive process, offers much more than traditional machining techniques in terms of achievable complexity of a model shape. That fact was a motivation to adapt discussed technology as a method for creating objects purposed for aerodynamic testing. The following paper provides an overview of various 3D printing techniques. Four models of a standard NACA0018 aerofoil were manufactured in different materials and methods: MultiJet Modelling (MJM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). Various parameters of the models have been included in the analysis: surface roughness, strength, details quality, surface imperfections and irregularities as well as thermal properties.

  15. Effect of 3D fractal dimension on contact area and asperity interactions in elastoplastic contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourani, Abdeljalil

    2016-05-01

    Few models are devoted to investigate the effect of 3D fractal dimension Ds on contact area and asperity interactions. These models used statistical approaches or two-dimensional deterministic simulations without considering the asperity interactions and elastic-plastic transition regime. In this study, a complete 3D deterministic model is adopted to simulate the contact between fractal surfaces which are generated using a modified two-variable Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function. This model incorporates the asperity interactions and considers the different deformation modes of surface asperities which range from entirely elastic through elastic-plastic to entirely plastic contact. The simulations reveal that the elastoplastic model is more appropriate to calculate the contact area ratio and pressure field. It is also shown that the influence of the asperity interactions cannot be neglected, especially at lower fractal dimension Ds and higher load.

  16. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  17. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  18. 3D View of Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D perspective view looking north over Death Valley, California, was produced by draping ASTER nighttime thermal infrared data over topographic data from the US Geological Survey. The ASTER data were acquired April 7, 2000 with the multi-spectral thermal infrared channels, and cover an area of 60 by 80 km (37 by 50 miles). Bands 13, 12, and 10 are displayed in red, green and blue respectively. The data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color variations that highlight differences in types of surface materials. Salt deposits on the floor of Death Valley appear in shades of yellow, green, purple, and pink, indicating presence of carbonate, sulfate, and chloride minerals. The Panamint Mtns. to the west, and the Black Mtns. to the east, are made up of sedimentary limestones, sandstones, shales, and metamorphic rocks. The bright red areas are dominated by the mineral quartz, such as is found in sandstones; green areas are limestones. In the lower center part of the image is Badwater, the lowest point in North America.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER

  19. Valles Marineris - with 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The top half of this THEMIS visible image shows interior layered deposits that have long been recognized in Valles Marineris. Upon close examination, the layers appear to be eroding differently, indicating different levels of competency. This, in turn, may be interpreted to indicate different materials, and/or depositional processes. At the bottom of the image, materials eroded from the walls of the canyon form dunes and other aeolian bedforms.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.5, Longitude 287.3 East (72.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  20. JAS3D v. 2.4

    2009-06-29

    JAS3D is a three-dimensional finite element program originally designed to solve Lagrangian quasistatic non-linear mechanics problems, and subsequently extended to include both implicit and explicit dynamics. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. Innovative multilevel nonlinear iterative methods are used to solve the equations. A wide variety of material constitutive models are available, and contact interface logic is implemented. Two Lagrangian uniform-strain elements are available: an eighth-node hexahedronmore » for solids and a four-node quadrilateral for shells. Both use hourglass stiffness to control zero-energy modes. In addition, a version of the hexahedron is available with uniform pressure and a deviatoric response scalable from the mean response of the original element up to a fully-integrated response. Bodies under analysis may be loaded by surface pressures and concentrated forces, specified displacements, or body forces from gravity, steady-state transport, or thermal expansion.« less

  1. 3D Dynamic Echocardiography with a Digitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Osamu; Matani, Ayumu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    1998-05-01

    In this paper,a three-dimensional (3D) dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging system,where a US brightness-mode (B-mode) imagetriggered with an R-wave of electrocardiogram (ECG)was obtained with an ultrasound diagnostic deviceand the location and orientation of the US probewere simultaneously measured with a 3D digitizer, is described.The obtained B-mode imagewas then projected onto a virtual 3D spacewith the proposed interpolation algorithm using a Gaussian operator.Furthermore, a 3D image was presented on a cathode ray tube (CRT)and stored in virtual reality modeling language (VRML).We performed an experimentto reconstruct a 3D heart image in systole using this system.The experimental results indicatethat the system enables the visualization ofthe 3D and internal structure of a heart viewed from any angleand has potential for use in dynamic imaging,intraoperative ultrasonography and tele-medicine.

  2. 3D scanning and 3D printing as innovative technologies for fabricating personalized topical drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Det-Amornrat, Usanee; Wang, Jie; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2016-07-28

    Acne is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease with high prevalence. In this work, the potential of 3D printing to produce flexible personalised-shape anti-acne drug (salicylic acid) loaded devices was demonstrated by two different 3D printing (3DP) technologies: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA). 3D scanning technology was used to obtain a 3D model of a nose adapted to the morphology of an individual. In FDM 3DP, commercially produced Flex EcoPLA™ (FPLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) filaments were loaded with salicylic acid by hot melt extrusion (HME) (theoretical drug loading - 2% w/w) and used as feedstock material for 3D printing. Drug loading in the FPLA-salicylic acid and PCL-salicylic acid 3D printed patches was 0.4% w/w and 1.2% w/w respectively, indicating significant thermal degradation of drug during HME and 3D printing. Diffusion testing in Franz cells using a synthetic membrane revealed that the drug loaded printed samples released <187μg/cm(2) within 3h. FPLA-salicylic acid filament was successfully printed as a nose-shape mask by FDM 3DP, but the PCL-salicylic acid filament was not. In the SLA printing process, the drug was dissolved in different mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) that were solidified by the action of a laser beam. SLA printing led to 3D printed devices (nose-shape) with higher resolution and higher drug loading (1.9% w/w) than FDM, with no drug degradation. The results of drug diffusion tests revealed that drug diffusion was faster than with the FDM devices, 229 and 291μg/cm(2) within 3h for the two formulations evaluated. In this study, SLA printing was the more appropriate 3D printing technology to manufacture anti-acne devices with salicylic acid. The combination of 3D scanning and 3D printing has the potential to offer solutions to produce personalised drug loaded devices, adapted in shape and size to individual patients. PMID:27189134

  3. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2015-03-01

    This is the first book written on using Blender for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.

  4. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  5. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  6. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-03-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.

  7. Accuracy in Quantitative 3D Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bassel, George W.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative 3D imaging is becoming an increasingly popular and powerful approach to investigate plant growth and development. With the increased use of 3D image analysis, standards to ensure the accuracy and reproducibility of these data are required. This commentary highlights how image acquisition and postprocessing can introduce artifacts into 3D image data and proposes steps to increase both the accuracy and reproducibility of these analyses. It is intended to aid researchers entering the field of 3D image processing of plant cells and tissues and to help general readers in understanding and evaluating such data. PMID:25804539

  8. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  9. Deterministic relativistic quantum bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlam, Emily; Kent, Adrian

    2015-06-01

    We describe new unconditionally secure bit commitment schemes whose security is based on Minkowski causality and the monogamy of quantum entanglement. We first describe an ideal scheme that is purely deterministic, in the sense that neither party needs to generate any secret randomness at any stage. We also describe a variant that allows the committer to proceed deterministically, requires only local randomness generation from the receiver, and allows the commitment to be verified in the neighborhood of the unveiling point. We show that these schemes still offer near-perfect security in the presence of losses and errors, which can be made perfect if the committer uses an extra single random secret bit. We discuss scenarios where these advantages are significant.

  10. Optical fabrication of lightweighted 3D printed mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, Harrison; Segal, Jacob; Smith, Jeremy; Bates, Richard; Calis, Jacob; De La Torre, Alyssa; Kim, Dae Wook; Mici, Joni; Mireles, Jorge; Stubbs, David M.; Wicker, Ryan

    2015-09-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM) 3D printing technologies were utilized to create lightweight, optical grade mirrors out of AlSi10Mg aluminum and Ti6Al4V titanium alloys at the University of Arizona in Tucson. The mirror prototypes were polished to meet the λ/20 RMS and λ/4 P-V surface figure requirements. The intent of this project was to design topologically optimized mirrors that had a high specific stiffness and low surface displacement. Two models were designed using Altair Inspire software, and the mirrors had to endure the polishing process with the necessary stiffness to eliminate print-through. Mitigating porosity of the 3D printed mirror blanks was a challenge in the face of reconciling new printing technologies with traditional optical polishing methods. The prototypes underwent Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) and heat treatment to improve density, eliminate porosity, and relieve internal stresses. Metal 3D printing allows for nearly unlimited topological constraints on design and virtually eliminates the need for a machine shop when creating an optical quality mirror. This research can lead to an increase in mirror mounting support complexity in the manufacturing of lightweight mirrors and improve overall process efficiency. The project aspired to have many future applications of light weighted 3D printed mirrors, such as spaceflight. This paper covers the design/fab/polish/test of 3D printed mirrors, thermal/structural finite element analysis, and results.

  11. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  12. Analysis of FBC deterministic chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    It has recently been discovered that the performance of a number of fossil energy conversion devices such as fluidized beds, pulsed combustors, steady combustors, and internal combustion engines are affected by deterministic chaos. It is now recognized that understanding and controlling the chaotic elements of these devices can lead to significantly improved energy efficiency and reduced emissions. Application of these techniques to key fossil energy processes are expected to provide important competitive advantages for U.S. industry.

  13. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  14. Density-tapered spiral arrays for ultrasound 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Ramalli, Alessandro; Boni, Enrico; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart; Tortoli, Piero

    2015-08-01

    The current high interest in 3-D ultrasound imaging is pushing the development of 2-D probes with a challenging number of active elements. The most popular approach to limit this number is the sparse array technique, which designs the array layout by means of complex optimization algorithms. These algorithms are typically constrained by a few steering conditions, and, as such, cannot guarantee uniform side-lobe performance at all angles. The performance may be improved by the ungridded extensions of the sparse array technique, but this result is achieved at the expense of a further complication of the optimization process. In this paper, a method to design the layout of large circular arrays with a limited number of elements according to Fermat's spiral seeds and spatial density modulation is proposed and shown to be suitable for application to 3-D ultrasound imaging. This deterministic, aperiodic, and balanced positioning procedure attempts to guarantee uniform performance over a wide range of steering angles. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by simulating and comparing the performance of spiral and dense arrays. A good trade-off for small vessel imaging is found, e.g., in the 60λ spiral array with 1.0λ elements and Blackman density tapering window. Here, the grating lobe level is -16 dB, the lateral resolution is lower than 6λ the depth of field is 120λ and, the average contrast is 10.3 dB, while the sensitivity remains in a 5 dB range for a wide selection of steering angles. The simulation results may represent a reference guide to the design of spiral sparse array probes for different application fields. PMID:26285181

  15. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary. PMID:22745004

  16. 3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Husseini, M.; Chimblo, R.

    1995-08-01

    Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

  17. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  18. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  19. Stereoscopic Investigations of 3D Coulomb Balls

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeding, Sebastian; Melzer, Andre; Arp, Oliver; Block, Dietmar; Piel, Alexander

    2005-10-31

    In dusty plasmas particles are arranged due to the influence of external forces and the Coulomb interaction. Recently Arp et al. were able to generate 3D spherical dust clouds, so-called Coulomb balls. Here, we present measurements that reveal the full 3D particle trajectories from stereoscopic imaging.

  20. 3-D structures of planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, W.

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in the 3-D reconstruction of planetary nebulae are reviewed. We include not only results for 3-D reconstructions, but also the current techniques in terms of general methods and software. In order to obtain more accurate reconstructions, we suggest to extend the widely used assumption of homologous nebula expansion to map spectroscopically measured velocity to position along the line of sight.

  1. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  2. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  3. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  4. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  5. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  6. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D…

  7. Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.

  8. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26805790

  9. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  10. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  11. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  12. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  13. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  14. Measurements of 3D slip velocities and plasma column lengths of a gliding arc discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas; Aldén, Marcus; Li, Zhongshan E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de; Moseev, Dmitry; Kusano, Yukihiro; Salewski, Mirko; Alpers, Andreas E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de; Gritzmann, Peter; Schwenk, Martin

    2015-01-26

    A non-thermal gliding arc discharge was generated at atmospheric pressure in an air flow. The dynamics of the plasma column and tracer particles were recorded using two synchronized high-speed cameras. Whereas the data analysis for such systems has previously been performed in 2D (analyzing the single camera image), we provide here a 3D data analysis that includes 3D reconstructions of the plasma column and 3D particle tracking velocimetry based on discrete tomography methods. The 3D analysis, in particular, the determination of the 3D slip velocity between the plasma column and the gas flow, gives more realistic insight into the convection cooling process. Additionally, with the determination of the 3D slip velocity and the 3D length of the plasma column, we give more accurate estimates for the drag force, the electric field strength, the power per unit length, and the radius of the conducting zone of the plasma column.

  15. 3D analysis of the reactivity insertion accident in VVER-1000

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullayev, A. M.; Zhukov, A. I.; Slyeptsov, S. M.

    2012-07-01

    Fuel parameters such as peak enthalpy and temperature during rod ejection accident are calculated. The calculations are performed by 3D neutron kinetics code NESTLE and 3D thermal-hydraulic code VIPRE-W. Both hot zero power and hot full power cases were studied for an equilibrium cycle with Westinghouse hex fuel in VVER-1000. It is shown that the use of 3D methodology can significantly increase safety margins for current criteria and met future criteria. (authors)

  16. 3-D HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING IN A GEOSPATIAL FRAMEWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, J; Alfred Garrett, A; Larry Koffman, L; David Hayes, D

    2006-08-24

    3-D hydrodynamic models are used by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to simulate the transport of thermal and radionuclide discharges in coastal estuary systems. Development of such models requires accurate bathymetry, coastline, and boundary condition data in conjunction with the ability to rapidly discretize model domains and interpolate the required geospatial data onto the domain. To facilitate rapid and accurate hydrodynamic model development, SRNL has developed a pre- and post-processor application in a geospatial framework to automate the creation of models using existing data. This automated capability allows development of very detailed models to maximize exploitation of available surface water radionuclide sample data and thermal imagery.

  17. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233

  18. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879

  19. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc. PMID:25361316

  20. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  1. High density 3D printed microfluidic valves, pumps, and multiplexers.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Woolley, Adam T; Nordin, Gregory P

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that 3D printing with a digital light processor stereolithographic (DLP-SLA) 3D printer can be used to create high density microfluidic devices with active components such as valves and pumps. Leveraging our previous work on optical formulation of inexpensive resins (RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 106621), we demonstrate valves with only 10% of the volume of our original 3D printed valves (Biomicrofluidics, 2015, 9, 016501), which were already the smallest that have been reported. Moreover, we show that incorporation of a thermal initiator in the resin formulation along with a post-print bake can dramatically improve the durability of 3D printed valves up to 1 million actuations. Using two valves and a valve-like displacement chamber (DC), we also create compact 3D printed pumps. With 5-phase actuation and a 15 ms phase interval, we obtain pump flow rates as high as 40 μL min(-1). We also characterize maximum pump back pressure (i.e., maximum pressure the pump can work against), maximum flow rate (flow rate when there is zero back pressure), and flow rate as a function of the height of the pump outlet. We further demonstrate combining 5 valves and one DC to create a 3-to-2 multiplexer with integrated pump. In addition to serial multiplexing, we also show that the device can operate as a mixer. Importantly, we illustrate the rapid fabrication and test cycles that 3D printing makes possible by implementing a new multiplexer design to improve mixing, and fabricate and test it within one day. PMID:27242064

  2. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  3. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  4. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  5. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  6. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models. PMID:19147891

  7. New method of 3-D object recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, An-Zhi; Li, Qun Z.; Miao, Peng C.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper, a new method of 3-D object recognition using optical techniques and a computer is presented. We perform 3-D object recognition using moire contour to obtain the object's 3- D coordinates, projecting drawings of the object in three coordinate planes to describe it and using a method of inquiring library of judgement to match objects. The recognition of a simple geometrical entity is simulated by computer and studied experimentally. The recognition of an object which is composed of a few simple geometrical entities is discussed.

  8. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  9. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  10. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  11. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  12. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  13. Deterministic scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabási, Albert-László; Ravasz, Erzsébet; Vicsek, Tamás

    2001-10-01

    Scale-free networks are abundant in nature and society, describing such diverse systems as the world wide web, the web of human sexual contacts, or the chemical network of a cell. All models used to generate a scale-free topology are stochastic, that is they create networks in which the nodes appear to be randomly connected to each other. Here we propose a simple model that generates scale-free networks in a deterministic fashion. We solve exactly the model, showing that the tail of the degree distribution follows a power law.

  14. 3-D Multiphase Segmentation of X-Ray Micro Computed Tomography Data of Geologic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuller, M.; Kulkarni, R.; Fink, W.

    2011-12-01

    Advancements of noninvasive imaging methods such as X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) led to a recent surge of applications in Geoscience. While substantial efforts and resources have been devoted to advance CT technology and micro-scale analysis, the development of a stable 3-D multiphase image segmentation method applicable to large datasets is lacking. To eliminate the need for wet/dry or dual energy scans, image alignment, and subtraction analysis, commonly applied in synchrotron X-Ray micro CT, a segmentation method based on a Bayesian Markov Random Field (MRF) framework amenable to true 3-D multiphase processing was developed and evaluated. Furthermore, several heuristic and deterministic combinatorial optimization schemes required to solve the labeling problem of the MRF image model were implemented and tested for computational efficiency and their impact on segmentation results. Test results for natural and artificial porous media datasets demonstrate great potential of the MRF image model for 3-D multiphase segmentation.

  15. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  16. JAR3D Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known 3D motifs.

    PubMed

    Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I; Leontis, Neocles

    2016-07-01

    Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and 3D structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA 3D structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson-Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA 3D motif. JAR3D finds possible 3D geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in 3D structures of the motif. The JAR3D webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar3d/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR3D. JAR3D will be updated with every release of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417

  17. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  18. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  19. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  20. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  1. 3D Visualization of Recent Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Atul; Kilb, Debi

    2005-04-01

    Scientists and visualization experts at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have created an interactive three-dimensional visualization of the 28 March 2005 magnitude 8.7 earthquake in Sumatra. The visualization shows the earthquake's hypocenter and aftershocks recorded until 29 March 2005, and compares it with the location of the 26 December 2004 magnitude 9 event and the consequent seismicity in that region. The 3D visualization was created using the Fledermaus software developed by Interactive Visualization Systems (http://www.ivs.unb.ca/) and stored as a ``scene'' file. To view this visualization, viewers need to download and install the free viewer program iView3D (http://www.ivs3d.com/products/iview3d).

  2. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  3. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  4. Quantifying Modes of 3D Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-12-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943

  5. 3D-patterned polymer brush surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xuechang; Liu, Xuqing; Xie, Zhuang; Zheng, Zijian

    2011-12-01

    Polymer brush-based three-dimensional (3D) structures are emerging as a powerful platform to engineer a surface by providing abundant spatially distributed chemical and physical properties. In this feature article, we aim to give a summary of the recent progress on the fabrication of 3D structures with polymer brushes, with a particular focus on the micro- and nanoscale. We start with a brief introduction on polymer brushes and the challenges to prepare their 3D structures. Then, we highlight the recent advances of the fabrication approaches on the basis of traditional polymerization time and grafting density strategies, and a recently developed feature density strategy. Finally, we provide some perspective outlooks on the future directions of engineering the 3D structures with polymer brushes.

  6. Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197

  7. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  8. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  9. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  10. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  11. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  12. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-07-15

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897

  13. Palacios field: A 3-D case history

    SciTech Connect

    McWhorter, R.; Torguson, B.

    1994-12-31

    In late 1992, Mitchell Energy Corporation acquired a 7.75 sq mi (20.0 km{sup 2}) 3-D seismic survey over Palacios field. Matagorda County, Texas. The company shot the survey to help evaluate the field for further development by delineating the fault pattern of the producing Middle Oligocene Frio interval. They compare the mapping of the field before and after the 3-D survey. This comparison shows that the 3-D volume yields superior fault imaging and interpretability compared to the dense 2-D data set. The problems with the 2-D data set are improper imaging of small and oblique faults and insufficient coverage over a complex fault pattern. Whereas the 2-D data set validated a simple fault model, the 3-D volume revealed a more complex history of faulting that includes three different fault systems. This discovery enabled them to reconstruct the depositional and structural history of Palacios field.

  14. Radiosity diffusion model in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jason D.; Arridge, Simon R.; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos; Dehghani, Hamid; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Schweiger, Martin

    2001-11-01

    We present the Radiosity-Diffusion model in three dimensions(3D), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the model to 3D including an extension to the model to cope with increased complexity of the 3D domain. We show that in 3D more careful consideration must be given to the issues of meshing and visibility to model the transport of light within reasonable computational bounds. We demonstrate the model to be comparable to Monte-Carlo simulations for selected geometries, and show preliminary results of comparisons to measured time-resolved data acquired on resin phantoms.

  15. 3D-HST results and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2015-01-01

    The 3D-HST survey is providing a comprehensive census of the distant Universe, combining HST WFC3 imaging and grism spectroscopy with a myriad of other ground- and space-based datasets. This talk constitutes an overview of science results from the survey, with a focus on ongoing work and ways to exploit the rich public release of the 3D-HST data.

  16. Rockfall assessment of natural hazards by 3D-simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobler, D.; Graf, K.; Krummenacher, B.

    2009-04-01

    deterministic models the falling rocks are categorized by their mass and the block dimensions in the three axes. The block volume and the moments of inertia are then defined using a sphericity (roundness) factor classifying the block to a volumetric body with a shape between a cube and an ellipsoid which are the two extreme shapes for the given dimensions. The aim of this presentation is to explain the kernel of the software ROFMOD 4.1 (2D- and 3D-model) describing the detailed implementation of the physical basis as well as the empirical assumptions into the programming code. Further the application for two different actual case studies will be presented. These studies include all important steps from field investigation to modelling and the design of best fit protection measures.

  17. 3D Multi-Spectrum Sensor System with Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joongrock; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Ig-Jae; Lee, Sangyoun

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional (3D) multi-spectrum sensor system, which combines a 3D depth sensor and multiple optical sensors for different wavelengths. Various image sensors, such as visible, infrared (IR) and 3D sensors, have been introduced into the commercial market. Since each sensor has its own advantages under various environmental conditions, the performance of an application depends highly on selecting the correct sensor or combination of sensors. In this paper, a sensor system, which we will refer to as a 3D multi-spectrum sensor system, which comprises three types of sensors, visible, thermal-IR and time-of-flight (ToF), is proposed. Since the proposed system integrates information from each sensor into one calibrated framework, the optimal sensor combination for an application can be easily selected, taking into account all combinations of sensors information. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system, a face recognition system with light and pose variation is designed. With the proposed sensor system, the optimal sensor combination, which provides new effectively fused features for a face recognition system, is obtained. PMID:24072025

  18. Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin deep 3D structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danis, Cara

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB), one of the largest extensional rift sedimentary basins on the east coast of Australia, lack an understanding of the 3D upper crustal structure. Understanding of the subsurface structure is essential for many areas of resource exploration, development and management, as well as scientific research. Geological models provide a way to visualise and investigate the subsurface structure. The integrated regional scale gravity modelling approach, which uses boreholes and seismic data constraints, provides an understanding of the upper crustal structure and allows the development of a 3D geological model which can be used as the architectural framework for many different applications. This work presents a 3D geological model of the SGBB developed for application in high resolution thermal models. It is the culmination of geological surfaces derived from the interpolation of previous regional scale 2D gravity models and numerous borehole records. The model outlines the basement structure of the SGBB and provides information on depth to basement, depth to basal volcanics and thickness of overlying sediments. Through understanding the uncertainties, limitations, confidence and reliability of this model, the 3D geological model can provide the ideal framework for future research.

  19. 3D multi-spectrum sensor system with face recognition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joongrock; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Ig-Jae; Lee, Sangyoun

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional (3D) multi-spectrum sensor system, which combines a 3D depth sensor and multiple optical sensors for different wavelengths. Various image sensors, such as visible, infrared (IR) and 3D sensors, have been introduced into the commercial market. Since each sensor has its own advantages under various environmental conditions, the performance of an application depends highly on selecting the correct sensor or combination of sensors. In this paper, a sensor system, which we will refer to as a 3D multi-spectrum sensor system, which comprises three types of sensors, visible, thermal-IR and time-of-flight (ToF), is proposed. Since the proposed system integrates information from each sensor into one calibrated framework, the optimal sensor combination for an application can be easily selected, taking into account all combinations of sensors information. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system, a face recognition system with light and pose variation is designed. With the proposed sensor system, the optimal sensor combination, which provides new effectively fused features for a face recognition system, is obtained. PMID:24072025

  20. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  1. 3D model reconstruction of underground goaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yuanmin; Zuo, Xiaoqing; Jin, Baoxuan

    2005-10-01

    Constructing 3D model of underground goaf, we can control the process of mining better and arrange mining work reasonably. However, the shape of goaf and the laneway among goafs are very irregular, which produce great difficulties in data-acquiring and 3D model reconstruction. In this paper, we research on the method of data-acquiring and 3D model construction of underground goaf, building topological relation among goafs. The main contents are as follows: a) The paper proposed an efficient encoding rule employed to structure the field measurement data. b) A 3D model construction method of goaf is put forward, which by means of combining several TIN (triangulated irregular network) pieces, and an efficient automatic processing algorithm of boundary of TIN is proposed. c) Topological relation of goaf models is established. TIN object is the basic modeling element of goaf 3D model, and the topological relation among goaf is created and maintained by building the topological relation among TIN objects. Based on this, various 3D spatial analysis functions can be performed including transect and volume calculation of goaf. A prototype is developed, which can realized the model and algorithm proposed in this paper.

  2. 3D steerable wavelets in practice.

    PubMed

    Chenouard, Nicolas; Unser, Michael

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a systematic and practical design for steerable wavelet frames in 3D. Our steerable wavelets are obtained by applying a 3D version of the generalized Riesz transform to a primary isotropic wavelet frame. The novel transform is self-reversible (tight frame) and its elementary constituents (Riesz wavelets) can be efficiently rotated in any 3D direction by forming appropriate linear combinations. Moreover, the basis functions at a given location can be linearly combined to design custom (and adaptive) steerable wavelets. The features of the proposed method are illustrated with the processing and analysis of 3D biomedical data. In particular, we show how those wavelets can be used to characterize directional patterns and to detect edges by means of a 3D monogenic analysis. We also propose a new inverse-problem formalism along with an optimization algorithm for reconstructing 3D images from a sparse set of wavelet-domain edges. The scheme results in high-quality image reconstructions which demonstrate the feature-reduction ability of the steerable wavelets as well as their potential for solving inverse problems. PMID:22752138

  3. DYNA3D example problem manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lovejoy, S.C.; Whirley, R.G.

    1990-10-10

    This manual describes in detail the solution of ten example problems using the explicit nonlinear finite element code DYNA3D. The sample problems include solid, shell, and beam element types, and a variety of linear and nonlinear material models. For each example, there is first an engineering description of the physical problem to be studied. Next, the analytical techniques incorporated in the model are discussed and key features of DYNA3D are highlighted. INGRID commands used to generate the mesh are listed, and sample plots from the DYNA3D analysis are given. Finally, there is a description of the TAURUS post-processing commands used to generate the plots of the solution. This set of example problems is useful in verifying the installation of DYNA3D on a new computer system. In addition, these documented analyses illustrate the application of DYNA3D to a variety of engineering problems, and thus this manual should be helpful to new analysts getting started with DYNA3D. 7 refs., 56 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care. PMID:25620087

  5. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-10-30

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D-a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool-designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  6. 3-D SAR image formation from sparse aperture data using 3-D target grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Rajan; Li, Junfei; Ling, Hao

    2005-05-01

    The performance of ATR systems can potentially be improved by using three-dimensional (3-D) SAR images instead of the traditional two-dimensional SAR images or one-dimensional range profiles. 3-D SAR image formation of targets from radar backscattered data collected on wide angle, sparse apertures has been identified by AFRL as fundamental to building an object detection and recognition capability. A set of data has been released as a challenge problem. This paper describes a technique based on the concept of 3-D target grids aimed at the formation of 3-D SAR images of targets from sparse aperture data. The 3-D target grids capture the 3-D spatial and angular scattering properties of the target and serve as matched filters for SAR formation. The results of 3-D SAR formation using the backhoe public release data are presented.

  7. Rapid 360 degree imaging and stitching of 3D objects using multiple precision 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Thomas; Yin, Stuart; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Jiangan; Wu, Frank

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present the system architecture of a 360 degree view 3D imaging system. The system consists of multiple 3D sensors synchronized to take 3D images around the object. Each 3D camera employs a single high-resolution digital camera and a color-coded light projector. The cameras are synchronized to rapidly capture the 3D and color information of a static object or a live person. The color encoded structure lighting ensures the precise reconstruction of the depth of the object. A 3D imaging system architecture is presented. The architecture employs the displacement of the camera and the projector to triangulate the depth information. The 3D camera system has achieved high depth resolution down to 0.1mm on a human head sized object and 360 degree imaging capability.

  8. CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

  9. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  10. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  11. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2001-05-07

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through September 2000, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on improving core analysis techniques, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post steamflood projects. Work was discontinued on the stochastic geologic model and developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Tar II-A Zone so the project team could use the 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model to provide alternatives for the Tar II-A post steamflood operations and shale compaction studies. The project team spent the fourth quarter 2000 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and the Tar V horizontal well steamflood pilot. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that are being evaluated.

  12. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  13. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  14. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  15. Automatic needle segmentation in 3D ultrasound images using 3D Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua; Qiu, Wu; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Songgeng

    2007-12-01

    3D ultrasound (US) is a new technology that can be used for a variety of diagnostic applications, such as obstetrical, vascular, and urological imaging, and has been explored greatly potential in the applications of image-guided surgery and therapy. Uterine adenoma and uterine bleeding are the two most prevalent diseases in Chinese woman, and a minimally invasive ablation system using an RF button electrode which is needle-like is being used to destroy tumor cells or stop bleeding currently. Now a 3D US guidance system has been developed to avoid accidents or death of the patient by inaccurate localizations of the electrode and the tumor position during treatment. In this paper, we described two automated techniques, the 3D Hough Transform (3DHT) and the 3D Randomized Hough Transform (3DRHT), which is potentially fast, accurate, and robust to provide needle segmentation in 3D US image for use of 3D US imaging guidance. Based on the representation (Φ , θ , ρ , α ) of straight lines in 3D space, we used the 3DHT algorithm to segment needles successfully assumed that the approximate needle position and orientation are known in priori. The 3DRHT algorithm was developed to detect needles quickly without any information of the 3D US images. The needle segmentation techniques were evaluated using the 3D US images acquired by scanning water phantoms. The experiments demonstrated the feasibility of two 3D needle segmentation algorithms described in this paper.

  16. Normal Metal Quasiparticle Traps in 3D-Transmon Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhart, Luke D.; Gao, Yvonne Y.; Wang, Chen; Serniak, Kyle; de Lange, Gijs; Chu, Yiwen; Vool, Uri; Frunzio, Luigi; Devoret, Michel H.; Catelani, Gianluigi; Glazman, Leonid I.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.

    Quasiparticles are a known source of decoherence in Josephson-junction based superconducting qubits. While equilibrium quasiparticles should not be present in devices operated at dilution refrigeration temperatures well below the superconducting energy gap, non-thermal quasiparticles have been observed in many different superconducting qubits, including 3D-transmons and fluxonium qubits. Vortices induced by applied magnetic fields have been shown to improve non-equilibrium quasiparticle decay rates and improve coherence times by creating regions of the superconductor with vanishing energy gap, which act as quasiparticle traps. We aim to further mitigate quasiparticle-induced limits on coherence by engineering strong trapping via the introduction of normal metal to the superconducting qubit. In this talk, we present recent results regarding normal metal quasiparticle traps in 3D-transmon qubits. Work supported by ARO, A*STAR.

  17. Nano-Composite Material Development for 3-D Printers

    SciTech Connect

    Satches, Michael Randolph

    2015-12-01

    Graphene possesses excellent mechanical properties with a tensile strength that may exceed 130 GPa, excellent electrical conductivity, and good thermal properties. Future nano-composites can leverage many of these material properties in an attempt to build designer materials for a broad range of applications. 3-D printing has also seen vast improvements in recent years that have allowed many companies and individuals to realize rapid prototyping for relatively low capital investment. This research sought to create a graphene reinforced, polymer matrix nano-composite that is viable in commercial 3D printer technology, study the effects of ultra-high loading percentages of graphene in polymer matrices and determine the functional upper limit for loading. Loadings varied from 5 wt. % to 50 wt. % graphene nanopowder loaded in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) matrices. Loaded sample were characterized for their mechanical properties using three point bending, tensile tests, as well as dynamic mechanical analysis.

  18. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  19. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  20. Shim3d Helmholtz Solution Package

    2009-01-29

    This suite of codes solves the Helmholtz Equation for the steady-state propagation of single-frequency electromagnetic radiation in an arbitrary 2D or 3D dielectric medium. Materials can be either transparent or absorptive (including metals) and are described entirely by their shape and complex dielectric constant. Dielectric boundaries are assumed to always fall on grid boundaries and the material within a single grid cell is considered to be uniform. Input to the problem is in the formmore » of a Dirichlet boundary condition on a single boundary, and may be either analytic (Gaussian) in shape, or a mode shape computed using a separate code (such as the included eigenmode solver vwave20), and written to a file. Solution is via the finite difference method using Jacobi iteration for 3D problems or direct matrix inversion for 2D problems. Note that 3D problems that include metals will require different iteration parameters than described in the above reference. For structures with curved boundaries not easily modeled on a rectangular grid, the auxillary codes helmholtz11(2D), helm3d (semivectoral), and helmv3d (full vectoral) are provided. For these codes the finite difference equations are specified on a topological regular triangular grid and solved using Jacobi iteration or direct matrix inversion as before. An automatic grid generator is supplied.« less

  1. 3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.

  2. T-HEMP3D user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.

    1983-08-01

    The T-HEMP3D (Transportable HEMP3D) computer program is a derivative of the STEALTH three-dimensional thermodynamics code developed by Science Applications, Inc., under the direction of Ron Hofmann. STEALTH, in turn, is based entirely on the original HEMP3D code written at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary advantage STEALTH has over its predecessors is that it was designed using modern structured design techniques, with rigorous programming standards enforced. This yields two benefits. First, the code is easily changeable; this is a necessity for a physics code used for research. The second benefit is that the code is easily transportable between different types of computers. The STEALTH program was transferred to LLNL under a cooperative development agreement. Changes were made primarily in three areas: material specification, coordinate generation, and the addition of sliding surface boundary conditions. The code was renamed T-HEMP3D to avoid confusion with other versions of STEALTH. This document summarizes the input to T-HEMP3D, as used at LLNL. It does not describe the physics simulated by the program, nor the numerical techniques employed. Furthermore, it does not describe the separate job steps of coordinate generation and post-processing, including graphical display of results. (WHK)

  3. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  4. 3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

  5. Lifting Object Detection Datasets into 3D.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Joao; Vicente, Sara; Agapito, Lourdes; Batista, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    While data has certainly taken the center stage in computer vision in recent years, it can still be difficult to obtain in certain scenarios. In particular, acquiring ground truth 3D shapes of objects pictured in 2D images remains a challenging feat and this has hampered progress in recognition-based object reconstruction from a single image. Here we propose to bypass previous solutions such as 3D scanning or manual design, that scale poorly, and instead populate object category detection datasets semi-automatically with dense, per-object 3D reconstructions, bootstrapped from:(i) class labels, (ii) ground truth figure-ground segmentations and (iii) a small set of keypoint annotations. Our proposed algorithm first estimates camera viewpoint using rigid structure-from-motion and then reconstructs object shapes by optimizing over visual hull proposals guided by loose within-class shape similarity assumptions. The visual hull sampling process attempts to intersect an object's projection cone with the cones of minimal subsets of other similar objects among those pictured from certain vantage points. We show that our method is able to produce convincing per-object 3D reconstructions and to accurately estimate cameras viewpoints on one of the most challenging existing object-category detection datasets, PASCAL VOC. We hope that our results will re-stimulate interest on joint object recognition and 3D reconstruction from a single image. PMID:27295458

  6. 3D camera tracking from disparity images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kiyoung; Woo, Woontack

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust camera tracking method that uses disparity images computed from known parameters of 3D camera and multiple epipolar constraints. We assume that baselines between lenses in 3D camera and intrinsic parameters are known. The proposed method reduces camera motion uncertainty encountered during camera tracking. Specifically, we first obtain corresponding feature points between initial lenses using normalized correlation method. In conjunction with matching features, we get disparity images. When the camera moves, the corresponding feature points, obtained from each lens of 3D camera, are robustly tracked via Kanade-Lukas-Tomasi (KLT) tracking algorithm. Secondly, relative pose parameters of each lens are calculated via Essential matrices. Essential matrices are computed from Fundamental matrix calculated using normalized 8-point algorithm with RANSAC scheme. Then, we determine scale factor of translation matrix by d-motion. This is required because the camera motion obtained from Essential matrix is up to scale. Finally, we optimize camera motion using multiple epipolar constraints between lenses and d-motion constraints computed from disparity images. The proposed method can be widely adopted in Augmented Reality (AR) applications, 3D reconstruction using 3D camera, and fine surveillance systems which not only need depth information, but also camera motion parameters in real-time.

  7. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  8. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  9. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  10. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.

  11. Visual inertia of rotating 3-D objects.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Pantle, A J; Mark, L S

    1998-02-01

    Five experiments were designed to determine whether a rotating, transparent 3-D cloud of dots (simulated sphere) could influence the perceived direction of rotation of a subsequent sphere. Experiment 1 established conditions under which the direction of rotation of a virtual sphere was perceived unambiguously. When a near-far luminance difference and perspective depth cues were present, observers consistently saw the sphere rotate in the intended direction. In Experiment 2, a near-far luminance difference was used to create an unambiguous rotation sequence that was followed by a directionally ambiguous rotation sequence that lacked both the near-far luminance cue and the perspective cue. Observers consistently saw the second sequence as rotating in the same direction as the first, indicating the presence of 3-D visual inertia. Experiment 3 showed that 3-D visual inertia was sufficiently powerful to bias the perceived direction of a rotation sequence made unambiguous by a near-far luminance cue. Experiment 5 showed that 3-D visual inertia could be obtained using an occlusion depth cue to create an unambiguous inertia-inducing sequence. Finally, Experiments 2, 4, and 5 all revealed a fast-decay phase of inertia that lasted for approximately 800 msec, followed by an asymptotic phase that lasted for periods as long as 1,600 msec. The implications of these findings are examined with respect to motion mechanisms of 3-D visual inertia. PMID:9529911

  12. Integral 3D display using multiple LCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okaichi, Naoto; Miura, Masato; Arai, Jun; Mishina, Tomoyuki

    2015-03-01

    The quality of the integral 3D images created by a 3D imaging system was improved by combining multiple LCDs to utilize a greater number of pixels than that possible with one LCD. A prototype of the display device was constructed by using four HD LCDs. An integral photography (IP) image displayed by the prototype is four times larger than that reconstructed by a single display. The pixel pitch of the HD display used is 55.5 μm, and the number of elemental lenses is 212 horizontally and 119 vertically. The 3D image pixel count is 25,228, and the viewing angle is 28°. Since this method is extensible, it is possible to display an integral 3D image of higher quality by increasing the number of LCDs. Using this integral 3D display structure makes it possible to make the whole device thinner than a projector-based display system. It is therefore expected to be applied to the home television in the future.

  13. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies. PMID:26724184

  14. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  15. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  16. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  17. Survivability of Deterministic Dynamical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hellmann, Frank; Schultz, Paul; Grabow, Carsten; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The notion of a part of phase space containing desired (or allowed) states of a dynamical system is important in a wide range of complex systems research. It has been called the safe operating space, the viability kernel or the sunny region. In this paper we define the notion of survivability: Given a random initial condition, what is the likelihood that the transient behaviour of a deterministic system does not leave a region of desirable states. We demonstrate the utility of this novel stability measure by considering models from climate science, neuronal networks and power grids. We also show that a semi-analytic lower bound for the survivability of linear systems allows a numerically very efficient survivability analysis in realistic models of power grids. Our numerical and semi-analytic work underlines that the type of stability measured by survivability is not captured by common asymptotic stability measures. PMID:27405955

  18. Survivability of Deterministic Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmann, Frank; Schultz, Paul; Grabow, Carsten; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    The notion of a part of phase space containing desired (or allowed) states of a dynamical system is important in a wide range of complex systems research. It has been called the safe operating space, the viability kernel or the sunny region. In this paper we define the notion of survivability: Given a random initial condition, what is the likelihood that the transient behaviour of a deterministic system does not leave a region of desirable states. We demonstrate the utility of this novel stability measure by considering models from climate science, neuronal networks and power grids. We also show that a semi-analytic lower bound for the survivability of linear systems allows a numerically very efficient survivability analysis in realistic models of power grids. Our numerical and semi-analytic work underlines that the type of stability measured by survivability is not captured by common asymptotic stability measures.

  19. Survivability of Deterministic Dynamical Systems.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Frank; Schultz, Paul; Grabow, Carsten; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The notion of a part of phase space containing desired (or allowed) states of a dynamical system is important in a wide range of complex systems research. It has been called the safe operating space, the viability kernel or the sunny region. In this paper we define the notion of survivability: Given a random initial condition, what is the likelihood that the transient behaviour of a deterministic system does not leave a region of desirable states. We demonstrate the utility of this novel stability measure by considering models from climate science, neuronal networks and power grids. We also show that a semi-analytic lower bound for the survivability of linear systems allows a numerically very efficient survivability analysis in realistic models of power grids. Our numerical and semi-analytic work underlines that the type of stability measured by survivability is not captured by common asymptotic stability measures. PMID:27405955

  20. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor. PMID:26386332

  1. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  2. 3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2014-02-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

  3. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  4. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    PubMed

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  5. Angular description for 3D scattering centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Rajan; Raynal, Ann Marie; Ling, Hao; Moore, John; Velten, Vincent J.

    2006-05-01

    The electromagnetic scattered field from an electrically large target can often be well modeled as if it is emanating from a discrete set of scattering centers (see Fig. 1). In the scattering center extraction tool we developed previously based on the shooting and bouncing ray technique, no correspondence is maintained amongst the 3D scattering center extracted at adjacent angles. In this paper we present a multi-dimensional clustering algorithm to track the angular and spatial behaviors of 3D scattering centers and group them into features. The extracted features for the Slicy and backhoe targets are presented. We also describe two metrics for measuring the angular persistence and spatial mobility of the 3D scattering centers that make up these features in order to gather insights into target physics and feature stability. We find that features that are most persistent are also the most mobile and discuss implications for optimal SAR imaging.

  6. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  7. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  8. Structured light field 3D imaging.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Yin, Yongkai; Li, Ameng; Wu, Jiachen; Gao, Bruce Z

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a method by means of light field imaging under structured illumination to deal with high dynamic range 3D imaging. Fringe patterns are projected onto a scene and modulated by the scene depth then a structured light field is detected using light field recording devices. The structured light field contains information about ray direction and phase-encoded depth, via which the scene depth can be estimated from different directions. The multidirectional depth estimation can achieve high dynamic 3D imaging effectively. We analyzed and derived the phase-depth mapping in the structured light field and then proposed a flexible ray-based calibration approach to determine the independent mapping coefficients for each ray. Experimental results demonstrated the validity of the proposed method to perform high-quality 3D imaging for highly and lowly reflective surfaces. PMID:27607639

  9. 3D holoscopic video imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steurer, Johannes H.; Pesch, Matthias; Hahne, Christopher

    2012-03-01

    Since many years, integral imaging has been discussed as a technique to overcome the limitations of standard still photography imaging systems where a three-dimensional scene is irrevocably projected onto two dimensions. With the success of 3D stereoscopic movies, a huge interest in capturing three-dimensional motion picture scenes has been generated. In this paper, we present a test bench integral imaging camera system aiming to tailor the methods of light field imaging towards capturing integral 3D motion picture content. We estimate the hardware requirements needed to generate high quality 3D holoscopic images and show a prototype camera setup that allows us to study these requirements using existing technology. The necessary steps that are involved in the calibration of the system as well as the technique of generating human readable holoscopic images from the recorded data are discussed.

  10. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  11. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  12. Decoder for 3-D color codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kung-Chuan; Brun, Todd

    Transversal circuits are important components of fault-tolerant quantum computation. Several classes of quantum error-correcting codes are known to have transversal implementations of any logical Clifford operation. However, to achieve universal quantum computation, it would be helpful to have high-performance error-correcting codes that have a transversal implementation of some logical non-Clifford operation. The 3-D color codes are a class of topological codes that permit transversal implementation of the logical π / 8 -gate. The decoding problem of a 3-D color code can be understood as a graph-matching problem on a three-dimensional lattice. Whether this class of codes will be useful in terms of performance is still an open question. We investigate the decoding problem of 3-D color codes and analyze the performance of some possible decoders.

  13. Particle Acceleration in 3D Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, J.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important driver of energetic particles in phenomena such as magnetospheric storms and solar flares. Using kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we show that the stochastic magnetic field structure which develops during 3D reconnection plays a vital role in particle acceleration and transport. In a 2D system, electrons are trapped in magnetic islands which limits their energy gain. In a 3D system, however, the stochastic magnetic field enables the energetic electrons to access volume-filling acceleration regions and therefore gain energy much more efficiently than in the 2D system. We also examine the relative roles of two important acceleration drivers: parallel electric fields and a Fermi mechanism associated with reflection of charged particles from contracting field lines. We find that parallel electric fields are most important for accelerating low energy particles, whereas Fermi reflection dominates energetic particle production. We also find that proton energization is reduced in the 3D system.

  14. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-06-04

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  15. Impedance mammograph 3D phantom studies.

    PubMed

    Wtorek, J; Stelter, J; Nowakowski, A

    1999-04-20

    The results obtained using the Technical University of Gdansk Electroimpedance Mammograph (TUGEM) of a 3D phantom study are presented. The TUGEM system is briefly described. The hardware contains the measurement head and DSP-based identification modules controlled by a PC computer. A specially developed reconstruction algorithm, Regulated Correction Frequency Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (RCFART), is used to obtain 3D images. To visualize results, the Advance Visualization System (AVS) is used. It allows a powerful image processing on a fast workstation or on a high-performance computer. Results of three types of 3D conductivity perturbations used in the study (aluminum, Plexiglas, and cucumber) are shown. The relative volumes of perturbations less than 2% of the measurement chamber are easily evidenced. PMID:10372188

  16. 3D EIT image reconstruction with GREIT.

    PubMed

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Müller, Beat; Adler, Andy

    2016-06-01

    Most applications of thoracic EIT use a single plane of electrodes on the chest from which a transverse image 'slice' is calculated. However, interpretation of EIT images is made difficult by the large region above and below the electrode plane to which EIT is sensitive. Volumetric EIT images using two (or more) electrode planes should help compensate, but are little used currently. The Graz consensus reconstruction algorithm for EIT (GREIT) has become popular in lung EIT. One shortcoming of the original formulation of GREIT is its restriction to reconstruction onto a 2D planar image. We present an extension of the GREIT algorithm to 3D and develop open-source tools to evaluate its performance as a function of the choice of stimulation and measurement pattern. Results show 3D GREIT using two electrode layers has significantly more uniform sensitivity profiles through the chest region. Overall, the advantages of 3D EIT are compelling. PMID:27203184

  17. Methods for comparing 3D surface attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Alex; Freeman, Adam

    1996-03-01

    A common task in data analysis is to compare two or more sets of data, statistics, presentations, etc. A predominant method in use is side-by-side visual comparison of images. While straightforward, it burdens the user with the task of discerning the differences between the two images. The user if further taxed when the images are of 3D scenes. This paper presents several methods for analyzing the extent, magnitude, and manner in which surfaces in 3D differ in their attributes. The surface geometry are assumed to be identical and only the surface attributes (color, texture, etc.) are variable. As a case in point, we examine the differences obtained when a 3D scene is rendered progressively using radiosity with different form factor calculation methods. The comparison methods include extensions of simple methods such as mapping difference information to color or transparency, and more recent methods including the use of surface texture, perturbation, and adaptive placements of error glyphs.

  18. Efficient sensitivity computations in 3D air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kioutsioukis, Ioannis; Melas, Dimitrios; Zerefos, Christos; Ziomas, Ioannis

    2005-04-01

    The prediction of ground level ozone for air quality monitoring and assessment is simulated through an integrated system of gridded models (meteorological, photochemical), where the atmosphere is represented with a three-dimensional grid that may include thousands of grid cells. The continuity equation solved by the Photochemical Air Quality Model (PAQM) reproduces the atmospheric processes (dynamical, physical, chemical and radiative), such as moving and mixing air parcels from one grid cell to another, calculating chemical reactions, injecting new emissions. The whole modeling procedure includes several sources of uncertainty, especially in the large data sets that describe the status of the domain (boundary conditions, emissions, chemical reaction rates and several others). The robustness of the photochemical simulation is addressed in this work through the deterministic approach of sensitivity analysis. The automatic differentiation tool ADIFOR is applied on the 3D PAQM CAMx and augments its Fortran 77 code by introducing new lines of code that additionally calculate, in only one run, the gradient of the solution vector with respect to its input parameters. The applicability of the approach is evaluated through a sensitivity study of the modeled concentrations to perturbations at the boundary conditions and the emissions, for three essentially dissimilar European Metropolises of the Auto-Oil II programme (Athens, Milan, and London).

  19. Hierarchical 3D microstructures from pyrolysis of epoxy resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Volder, Michael; Reynaerts, Dominiek; van Hoof, Chris; Hart, A. John

    2012-02-01

    Nature is replete with examples of microscale dendrites connected to tree-like backbones ranging from the overall structures of trees to vascular networks. These branched structures have emerged as a result of an optimization between the maximization of a surface area and the minimization of transport losses. Elucidating these sophisticated designs proposed by nature is of paramount importance for the creation of higher-efficiency materials. The fabrication of such structures is however particularly challenging at small scale. In this paper, we focus on amorphous carbon microstructures, which provide a wide electrochemical stability window, excellent bio-compatibility, and cost-effective fabrication. However, relatively few methods have been developed for the fabrication of hierarchical amorphous carbon microstructures.Here we show that novel anisotropic microarchitectures comprising vertically aligned amorphous carbon nanowires CNWs can be made by oxygen plasma treatment of epoxy resins, followed by pyrolysis. Interestingly, these structures can also be shaped into deterministic three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures where nanowires are anchored to a microsized solid carbon core. These structures could play a key role in the development of new electrodes for microsensors, bioprobes, batteries, and fuel cells.

  20. The COMET method in 3-D hexagonal geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, K. J.; Rahnema, F.

    2012-07-01

    The hybrid stochastic-deterministic coarse mesh radiation transport (COMET) method developed at Georgia Tech now solves reactor core problems in 3-D hexagonal geometry. In this paper, the method is used to solve three preliminary test problems designed to challenge the method with steep flux gradients, high leakage, and strong asymmetry and heterogeneity in the core. The test problems are composed of blocks taken from a high temperature test reactor benchmark problem. As the method is still in development, these problems and their results are strictly preliminary. Results are compared to whole core Monte Carlo reference solutions in order to verify the method. Relative errors are on the order of 50 pcm in core eigenvalue, and mean relative error in pin fission density calculations is less than 1% in these difficult test cores. The method requires the one-time pre-computation of a response expansion coefficient library, which may be compiled in a comparable amount of time to a single whole core Monte Carlo calculation. After the library has been computed, COMET may solve any number of core configurations on the order of an hour, representing a significant gain in efficiency over other methods for whole core transport calculations. (authors)

  1. Local Diagnosis of Reconnection in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Karimabadi, H.; Daughton, W. S.; Roytershteyn, V.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate (I,II) an approach to find reconnection sites in 3D where there is no flux function for guidance, and where local observational signatures for the ``violation of frozen flux'' are under developed, if not non-existent. We use 2D and 3D PIC simulations of asymmetric guide field reconnection to test our observational hierarchy of single spacecraft kinetic diagnostics - all possible with present state of the art instrumentation. The proliferation of turbulent, electron inertial scale layers in the realistic 3D case demonstrates that electron demagnetization, while necessary, is not sufficient to identify reconnection sites. An excellent local, observable, single spacecraft proxy is demonstrated for the size of the theoretical frozen flux violation. Since even frozen flux violations need not imply reconnection is at hand, a new calibrated dimensionless method is used to determine the importance of such violations. This measure is available in 2D and 3D to help differentiate reconnection layers from weaker frozen flux violating layers. We discuss the possibility that this technique can be implemented on MMS. A technique to highlight flow geometries conducive to reconnection in 3D simulations is also suggested, that may also be implementable with the MMS flotilla. We use local analysis with multiple necessary, but theoretically independent electron kinetic conditions to help reduce the probability of misidentification of any given layer as a reconnection site. Since these local conditions are all necessary for the site, but none is known to be sufficient, the multiple tests help to greatly reduce false positive identifications. The selectivity of the results of this approach using PIC simulations of 3D asymmetric guide field reconnection will be shown using varying numbers of simultaneous conditions. Scudder, J.D., H. Karimabadi, W. Daughton and V. Roytershteyn I, II, submitted Phys. Plasma., 2014

  2. 3D printed diffractive terahertz lenses.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Walter D; Ferrando, Vicente; Monsoriu, Juan A; Zagrajek, Przemysław; Czerwińska, Elżbieta; Szustakowski, Mieczysław

    2016-04-15

    A 3D printer was used to realize custom-made diffractive THz lenses. After testing several materials, phase binary lenses with periodic and aperiodic radial profiles were designed and constructed in polyamide material to work at 0.625 THz. The nonconventional focusing properties of such lenses were assessed by computing and measuring their axial point spread function (PSF). Our results demonstrate that inexpensive 3D printed THz diffractive lenses can be reliably used in focusing and imaging THz systems. Diffractive THz lenses with unprecedented features, such as extended depth of focus or bifocalization, have been demonstrated. PMID:27082335

  3. The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.

  4. Vector quantization of 3-D point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Jae-Young; Kim, Chang-Su; Lee, Sang-Uk

    2005-10-01

    A geometry compression algorithm for 3-D QSplat data using vector quantization (VQ) is proposed in this work. The positions of child spheres are transformed to the local coordinate system, which is determined by the parent children relationship. The coordinate transform makes child positions more compactly distributed in 3-D space, facilitating effective quantization. Moreover, we develop a constrained encoding method for sphere radii, which guarantees hole-free surface rendering at the decoder side. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides a faithful rendering quality even at low bitrates.

  5. Visualization of liver in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chin-Tu; Chou, Jin-Shin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Kahn, Charles E., Jr.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Lin, Wei-Chung

    1991-05-01

    Visualization of the liver in three dimensions (3-D) can improve the accuracy of volumetric estimation and also aid in surgical planning. We have developed a method for 3-D visualization of the liver using x-ray computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) images. This method includes four major components: (1) segmentation algorithms for extracting liver data from tomographic images; (2) interpolation techniques for both shape and intensity; (3) schemes for volume rendering and display, and (4) routines for electronic surgery and image analysis. This method has been applied to cases from a living-donor liver transplant project and appears to be useful for surgical planning.

  6. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  7. Anisotropy effects on 3D waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stekl, I.; Warner, M.; Umpleby, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the recent years 3D waveform inversion has become achievable procedure for seismic data processing. A number of datasets has been inverted and presented (Warner el al 2008, Ben Hadj at all, Sirgue et all 2010) using isotropic 3D waveform inversion. However the question arises will the results be affected by isotropic assumption. Full-wavefield inversion techniques seek to match field data, wiggle-for-wiggle, to synthetic data generated by a high-resolution model of the sub-surface. In this endeavour, correctly matching the travel times of the principal arrivals is a necessary minimal requirement. In many, perhaps most, long-offset and wide-azimuth datasets, it is necessary to introduce some form of p-wave velocity anisotropy to match the travel times successfully. If this anisotropy is not also incorporated into the wavefield inversion, then results from the inversion will necessarily be compromised. We have incorporated anisotropy into our 3D wavefield tomography codes, characterised as spatially varying transverse isotropy with a tilted axis of symmetry - TTI anisotropy. This enhancement approximately doubles both the run time and the memory requirements of the code. We show that neglect of anisotropy can lead to significant artefacts in the recovered velocity models. We will present inversion results of inverting anisotropic 3D dataset by assuming isotropic earth and compare them with anisotropic inversion result. As a test case Marmousi model extended to 3D with no velocity variation in third direction and with added spatially varying anisotropy is used. Acquisition geometry is assumed as OBC with sources and receivers everywhere at the surface. We attempted inversion using both 2D and full 3D acquisition for this dataset. Results show that if no anisotropy is taken into account although image looks plausible most features are miss positioned in depth and space, even for relatively low anisotropy, which leads to incorrect result. This may lead to

  8. FARGO3D: Hydrodynamics/magnetohydrodynamics code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez Llambay, Pablo; Masset, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    A successor of FARGO (ascl:1102.017), FARGO3D is a versatile HD/MHD code that runs on clusters of CPUs or GPUs, with special emphasis on protoplanetary disks. FARGO3D offers Cartesian, cylindrical or spherical geometry; 1-, 2- or 3-dimensional calculations; and orbital advection (aka FARGO) for HD and MHD calculations. As in FARGO, a simple Runge-Kutta N-body solver may be used to describe the orbital evolution of embedded point-like objects. There is no need to know CUDA; users can develop new functions in C and have them translated to CUDA automatically to run on GPUs.

  9. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  10. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  11. Cryogenic 3D printing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Michal; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new cryogenic 3D printing technology for freezing hydrogels, with a potential impact to tissue engineering. We show that complex frozen hydrogel structures can be generated when the 3D object is printed immersed in a liquid coolant (liquid nitrogen), whose upper surface is maintained at the same level as the highest deposited layer of the object. This novel approach ensures that the process of freezing is controlled precisely, and that already printed frozen layers remain at a constant temperature. We describe the device and present results which illustrate the potential of the new technology. PMID:26548335

  12. Deterministic synthesis of mechanical NOON states in ultrastrong optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrí, V.; Garziano, L.; Ridolfo, A.; Di Stefano, O.; Savasta, S.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a protocol for the deterministic preparation of entangled NOON mechanical states. The system is constituted by two identical, optically coupled optomechanical systems. The protocol consists of two steps. In the first, one of the two optical resonators is excited by a resonant external π -like Gaussian optical pulse. When the optical excitation coherently partly transfers to the second cavity, the second step starts. It consists of sending simultaneously two additional π -like Gaussian optical pulses, one at each optical resonator, with specific frequencies. In the optomechanical ultrastrong coupling regime, when the coupling strength becomes a significant fraction of the mechanical frequency, we show that NOON mechanical states with quite high Fock states can be deterministically obtained. The operating range of this protocol is carefully analyzed. Calculations have been carried out taking into account the presence of decoherence, thermal noise, and imperfect cooling.

  13. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints. PMID:24288392

  14. Recent developments in DFD (depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-05-01

    We will report our recent developments in DFD (Depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display, both of which have smooth movement parallax. Firstly, fatigueless DFD display, composed of only two layered displays with a gap, has continuous perceived depth by changing luminance ratio between two images. Two new methods, called "Edge-based DFD display" and "Deep DFD display", have been proposed in order to solve two severe problems of viewing angle and perceived depth limitations. Edge-based DFD display, layered by original 2D image and its edge part with a gap, can expand the DFD viewing angle limitation both in 2D and 3D perception. Deep DFD display can enlarge the DFD image depth by modulating spatial frequencies of front and rear images. Secondly, Arc 3D display can provide floating 3D images behind or in front of the display by illuminating many arc-shaped directional scattering sources, for example, arcshaped scratches on a flat board. Curved Arc 3D display, composed of many directional scattering sources on a curved surface, can provide a peculiar 3D image, for example, a floating image in the cylindrical bottle. The new active device has been proposed for switching arc 3D images by using the tips of dual-frequency liquid-crystal prisms as directional scattering sources. Directional scattering can be switched on/off by changing liquid-crystal refractive index, resulting in switching of arc 3D image.

  15. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its

  16. Thermal expansion of monogermanides of 3d-metals.

    PubMed

    Valkovskiy, G A; Altynbaev, E V; Kuchugura, M D; Yashina, E G; Sukhanov, A S; Dyadkin, V A; Tsvyashchenko, A V; Sidorov, V A; Fomicheva, L N; Bykova, E; Ovsyannikov, S V; Chernyshov, D Yu; Grigoriev, S V

    2016-09-21

    Temperature dependent powder and single-crystal synchrotron diffraction, specific heat, magnetic susceptibility and small-angle neutron scattering experiments have revealed an anomalous response of MnGe. The anomaly becomes smeared out with decreasing Mn content in Mn1-x Co x Ge and Mn1-x Fe x Ge solid solutions. Mn spin state instability is discussed as a possible candidate for the observed effects. PMID:27421076

  17. Thermal expansion of monogermanides of 3d-metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkovskiy, G. A.; Altynbaev, E. V.; Kuchugura, M. D.; Yashina, E. G.; Sukhanov, A. S.; Dyadkin, V. A.; Tsvyashchenko, A. V.; Sidorov, V. A.; Fomicheva, L. N.; Bykova, E.; Ovsyannikov, S. V.; Chernyshov, D. Yu; Grigoriev, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    Temperature dependent powder and single-crystal synchrotron diffraction, specific heat, magnetic susceptibility and small-angle neutron scattering experiments have revealed an anomalous response of MnGe. The anomaly becomes smeared out with decreasing Mn content in Mn1‑x Co x Ge and Mn1‑x Fe x Ge solid solutions. Mn spin state instability is discussed as a possible candidate for the observed effects.

  18. Integration of geostatistical techniques and intuitive geology in the 3-D modeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, C.J.; Cooper, D.H.

    1995-08-01

    The development of 3-D geologic models for reservoir description and simulation has traditionally relied on the computer derived interpolation of well data in a geocelluar stratigraphic framework. The quality of the interpolation has been directly dependent on the nature of the interpolation method, and ability of the interpolation scheme to accurately predict the value of geologic attributes away from the well. Typically, interpolation methods employ deterministic or geostatistical algorithms which offer limited capacity for integrating data derived from secondary analyses. These secondary analyses, which might include the results from 3-D seismic inversion, borehole imagery studies, or deductive reasoning, introduce a subjective component into what would otherwise be restricted to a purely mathematical treatment of geologic data. At Saudi ARAMCO an increased emphasis is being placed on the role of the reservoir geologist in the development of 3-D geologic models. Quantitative results, based on numerical computations, are being enhanced with intuitive geology, derived from years of cumulative professional experience and expertise. Techniques such as template modeling and modified conditional simulation, are yielding 3-D geologic models, which not only more accurately reflect the geology of the reservoir, but also preserve geologic detail throughout the simulation process. This incorporation of secondary data sources and qualitative analysis has been successfully demonstrated in a clastic reservoir environment in Central Saudi Arabia, and serves as a prototype for future 3-D geologic model development.

  19. Integration of geostatistical techniques and intuitive geology in the 3-D modeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, C.J.; Cooper, D.H. )

    1996-01-01

    The development of 3-D geologic models for reservoir description and simulation has traditionally relied on the computer derived interpolation of well data in a geocelluar stratigraphic framework. The quality of the interpolation has been directly dependent on the nature of the interpolation method, and ability of the Interpolation scheme to accurately predict the value of geologic attributes away from the well. Typically, interpolation methods employ deterministic or geostatistical algorithms which offer limited capacity for Integrating data derived from secondary analyses. These secondary analyses, which might include the results from 3-D seismic inversion, borehole imagery studies, or deductive reasoning, introduce a subjective component into what would otherwise be restricted to a purely mathematical treatment of geologic data. At Saudi ARAMCO an increased emphases is being placed on the role of the reservoir geologist in the development of 3-D geologic models. Quantitative results, based on numerical computations, are being enhanced with intuitive geology, derived from years of cumulative professional experience and expertise. Techniques such as template modeling and modified conditional simulation, are yielding 3-D geologic models, which not only more accurately reflect the geology of the reservoir, but also preserve geologic detail throughout the simulation process. This incorporation of secondary data sources and qualitative analysis has been successfully demonstrated in a clastic reservoir environment in Central Saudi Arabia, and serves as a prototype for future 3-D geologic model development.

  20. Integration of geostatistical techniques and intuitive geology in the 3-D modeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, C.J.; Cooper, D.H.

    1996-12-31

    The development of 3-D geologic models for reservoir description and simulation has traditionally relied on the computer derived interpolation of well data in a geocelluar stratigraphic framework. The quality of the interpolation has been directly dependent on the nature of the interpolation method, and ability of the Interpolation scheme to accurately predict the value of geologic attributes away from the well. Typically, interpolation methods employ deterministic or geostatistical algorithms which offer limited capacity for Integrating data derived from secondary analyses. These secondary analyses, which might include the results from 3-D seismic inversion, borehole imagery studies, or deductive reasoning, introduce a subjective component into what would otherwise be restricted to a purely mathematical treatment of geologic data. At Saudi ARAMCO an increased emphases is being placed on the role of the reservoir geologist in the development of 3-D geologic models. Quantitative results, based on numerical computations, are being enhanced with intuitive geology, derived from years of cumulative professional experience and expertise. Techniques such as template modeling and modified conditional simulation, are yielding 3-D geologic models, which not only more accurately reflect the geology of the reservoir, but also preserve geologic detail throughout the simulation process. This incorporation of secondary data sources and qualitative analysis has been successfully demonstrated in a clastic reservoir environment in Central Saudi Arabia, and serves as a prototype for future 3-D geologic model development.

  1. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  2. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  3. GPM 3D Flyby of Hurricane Lester

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Lester was created using GPM's Radar data. NASA/JAXA's GPM core observatory satellite flew over Hurricane Lester on August 29, 2016 at 7:21 p.m. EDT. Rain was measured by GPM's ra...

  4. Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

  5. 3D printed PLA-based scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Tiziano; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A; Planell, Josep A; Navarro, Melba

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP), also known as additive manufacturing (AM), has been well received and adopted in the biomedical field. The capacity of this family of techniques to fabricate customized 3D structures with complex geometries and excellent reproducibility has revolutionized implantology and regenerative medicine. In particular, nozzle-based systems allow the fabrication of high-resolution polylactic acid (PLA) structures that are of interest in regenerative medicine. These 3D structures find interesting applications in the regenerative medicine field where promising applications including biodegradable templates for tissue regeneration purposes, 3D in vitro platforms for studying cell response to different scaffolds conditions and for drug screening are considered among others. Scaffolds functionality depends not only on the fabrication technique, but also on the material used to build the 3D structure, the geometry and inner architecture of the structure, and the final surface properties. All being crucial parameters affecting scaffolds success. This Commentary emphasizes the importance of these parameters in scaffolds’ fabrication and also draws the attention toward the versatility of these PLA scaffolds as a potential tool in regenerative medicine and other medical fields. PMID:23959206

  6. 3D printed microfluidics for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chee Meng Benjamin; Ng, Sum Huan; Li, King Ho Holden; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The term "Lab-on-a-Chip," is synonymous with describing microfluidic devices with biomedical applications. Even though microfluidics have been developing rapidly over the past decade, the uptake rate in biological research has been slow. This could be due to the tedious process of fabricating a chip and the absence of a "killer application" that would outperform existing traditional methods. In recent years, three dimensional (3D) printing has been drawing much interest from the research community. It has the ability to make complex structures with high resolution. Moreover, the fast building time and ease of learning has simplified the fabrication process of microfluidic devices to a single step. This could possibly aid the field of microfluidics in finding its "killer application" that will lead to its acceptance by researchers, especially in the biomedical field. In this paper, a review is carried out of how 3D printing helps to improve the fabrication of microfluidic devices, the 3D printing technologies currently used for fabrication and the future of 3D printing in the field of microfluidics. PMID:26237523

  7. Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; Duplessis Kergomard, Yann; Dau, Frederic; Malherbe, Benoit

    2012-06-01

    A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic of a rubber impact is the high amount of elastic energy stored in the impactor during impact, which was more than 90% of the initial kinetic energy. This large geometrical deformation of the rubber during impact leads to a less localised loading of the target structure and poses great challenges for the numerical modelling. A hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law was used in Abaqus/Explicit based on a step-by-step validation with static rubber compression tests and low velocity impact tests on aluminium plates. Simulation models of the textile weave were developed on the meso- and macro-scale. The final correlation between impact simulation results on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates and impact test data was promising, highlighting the potential of such numerical simulation tools.

  8. Metrological characterization of 3D imaging devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, G.

    2013-04-01

    Manufacturers often express the performance of a 3D imaging device in various non-uniform ways for the lack of internationally recognized standard requirements for metrological parameters able to identify the capability of capturing a real scene. For this reason several national and international organizations in the last ten years have been developing protocols for verifying such performance. Ranging from VDI/VDE 2634, published by the Association of German Engineers and oriented to the world of mechanical 3D measurements (triangulation-based devices), to the ASTM technical committee E57, working also on laser systems based on direct range detection (TOF, Phase Shift, FM-CW, flash LADAR), this paper shows the state of the art about the characterization of active range devices, with special emphasis on measurement uncertainty, accuracy and resolution. Most of these protocols are based on special objects whose shape and size are certified with a known level of accuracy. By capturing the 3D shape of such objects with a range device, a comparison between the measured points and the theoretical shape they should represent is possible. The actual deviations can be directly analyzed or some derived parameters can be obtained (e.g. angles between planes, distances between barycenters of spheres rigidly connected, frequency domain parameters, etc.). This paper shows theoretical aspects and experimental results of some novel characterization methods applied to different categories of active 3D imaging devices based on both principles of triangulation and direct range detection.

  9. Introduction to 3D Graphics through Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benacka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a method of explaining the principles of 3D graphics through making a revolvable and sizable orthographic parallel projection of cuboid in Excel. No programming is used. The method was tried in fourteen 90 minute lessons with 181 participants, which were Informatics teachers, undergraduates of Applied Informatics and gymnasium…

  10. 3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

  11. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  12. How to See Shadows in 3D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikesit, Gea O. F.

    2014-01-01

    Shadows can be found easily everywhere around us, so that we rarely find it interesting to reflect on how they work. In order to raise curiosity among students on the optics of shadows, we can display the shadows in 3D, particularly using a stereoscopic set-up. In this paper we describe the optics of stereoscopic shadows using simple schematic…

  13. 3-D Volume Rendering of Sand Specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) images of resin-impregnated Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) specimens are assembled to provide 3-D volume renderings of density patterns formed by dislocation under the external loading stress profile applied during the experiments. Experiments flown on STS-79 and STS-89. Principal Investigator: Dr. Stein Sture

  14. Crack interaction with 3-D dislocation loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Huajian

    CRACKS in a solid often interact with other crystal defects such as dislocation loops. The interaction effects are of 3-D character yet their analytical treatment has been mostly limited to the 2-D regime due to mathematical complications. This paper shows that distribution of the stress intensity factors along a crack front due to arbitrary dislocation loops may be expressed as simple line integrals along the loop contours. The method of analysis is based on the 3-D Bueckner-Rice weight function theory for elastic crack analysis. Our results have significantly simplified the calculations for 3-D dislocation loops produced in the plastic processes at the crack front due to highly concentrated crack tip stress fields. Examples for crack-tip 3-D loops and 2-D straight dislocations emerging from the crack tip are given to demonstrate applications of the derived formulae. The results are consistent with some previous analytical solutions existing in the literature. As further applications we also analyse straight dislocations that are parallel or perpendicular to the crack plane but are not parallel to the crack front.

  15. Holography of incoherently illuminated 3D scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaked, Natan T.; Rosen, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    We review several methods of generating holograms of 3D realistic objects illuminated by incoherent white light. Using these methods, it is possible to obtain holograms with a simple digital camera, operating in regular light conditions. Thus, most disadvantages characterizing conventional holography, namely the need for a powerful, highly coherent laser and meticulous stability of the optical system are avoided. These holograms can be reconstructed optically by illuminating them with a coherent plane wave, or alternatively by using a digital reconstruction technique. In order to generate the proposed hologram, the 3D scene is captured from multiple points of view by a simple digital camera. Then, the acquired projections are digitally processed to yield the final hologram of the 3D scene. Based on this principle, we can generate Fourier, Fresnel, image or other types of holograms. To obtain certain advantages over the regular holograms, we also propose new digital holograms, such as modified Fresnel holograms and protected correlation holograms. Instead of shifting the camera mechanically to acquire a different projection of the 3D scene each time, it is possible to use a microlens array for acquiring the entire projections in a single camera shot. Alternatively, only the extreme projections can be acquired experimentally, while the middle projections are predicted digitally by using the view synthesis algorithm. The prospective goal of these methods is to facilitate the design of a simple, portable digital holographic camera which can be useful for a variety of practical applications.

  16. 3D puzzle reconstruction for archeological fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jampy, F.; Hostein, A.; Fauvet, E.; Laligant, O.; Truchetet, F.

    2015-03-01

    The reconstruction of broken artifacts is a common task in archeology domain; it can be supported now by 3D data acquisition device and computer processing. Many works have been dedicated in the past to reconstructing 2D puzzles but very few propose a true 3D approach. We present here a complete solution including a dedicated transportable 3D acquisition set-up and a virtual tool with a graphic interface allowing the archeologists to manipulate the fragments and to, interactively, reconstruct the puzzle. The whole lateral part is acquired by rotating the fragment around an axis chosen within a light sheet thanks to a step-motor synchronized with the camera frame clock. Another camera provides a top view of the fragment under scanning. A scanning accuracy of 100μm is attained. The iterative automatic processing algorithm is based on segmentation into facets of the lateral part of the fragments followed by a 3D matching providing the user with a ranked short list of possible assemblies. The device has been applied to the reconstruction of a set of 1200 fragments from broken tablets supporting a Latin inscription dating from the first century AD.

  17. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue. PMID:27600217

  18. [3D virtual endoscopy of heart].

    PubMed

    Du, Aan; Yang, Xin; Xue, Haihong; Yao, Liping; Sun, Kun

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a virtual endoscopy (VE) for diagnosis of heart diseases, which is proved efficient and affordable, easy to popularize for viewing the interior of the heart. The dual source CT (DSCT) data were used as primary data in our system. The 3D structure of virtual heart was reconstructed with 3D texture mapping technology based on graphics processing unit (GPU), and could be displayed dynamically in real time. When we displayed it in real time, we could not only observe the inside of the chambers of heart but also examine from the new angle of view by the 3D data which were already clipped according to doctor's desire. In the pattern of observation, we used both mutual interactive mode and auto mode. In the auto mode, we used Dijkstra Algorithm which treated the 3D Euler distance as weighting factor to find out the view path quickly, and, used view path to calculate the four chamber plane. PMID:23198444

  19. The New Realm of 3-D Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

  20. Virtual Representations in 3D Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonfeld, Miri; Kritz, Miki

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the extent to which virtual worlds can serve as online collaborative learning environments for students by increasing social presence and engagement. 3D environments enable learning, which simulates face-to-face encounters while retaining the advantages of online learning. Students in Education departments created avatars…