GPU accelerated simulations of 3D deterministic particle transport using discrete ordinates method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Chunye; Liu, Jie; Chi, Lihua; Huang, Haowei; Fang, Jingyue; Gong, Zhenghu
2011-07-01
Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), originally developed for real-time, high-definition 3D graphics in computer games, now provides great faculty in solving scientific applications. The basis of particle transport simulation is the time-dependent, multi-group, inhomogeneous Boltzmann transport equation. The numerical solution to the Boltzmann equation involves the discrete ordinates ( Sn) method and the procedure of source iteration. In this paper, we present a GPU accelerated simulation of one energy group time-independent deterministic discrete ordinates particle transport in 3D Cartesian geometry (Sweep3D). The performance of the GPU simulations are reported with the simulations of vacuum boundary condition. The discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the GPU implementation, the simulation on multi GPUs, the programming effort and code portability are also reported. The results show that the overall performance speedup of one NVIDIA Tesla M2050 GPU ranges from 2.56 compared with one Intel Xeon X5670 chip to 8.14 compared with one Intel Core Q6600 chip for no flux fixup. The simulation with flux fixup on one M2050 is 1.23 times faster than on one X5670.
GPU accelerated simulations of 3D deterministic particle transport using discrete ordinates method
Gong Chunye; Liu Jie; Chi Lihua; Huang Haowei; Fang Jingyue; Gong Zhenghu
2011-07-01
Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), originally developed for real-time, high-definition 3D graphics in computer games, now provides great faculty in solving scientific applications. The basis of particle transport simulation is the time-dependent, multi-group, inhomogeneous Boltzmann transport equation. The numerical solution to the Boltzmann equation involves the discrete ordinates (S{sub n}) method and the procedure of source iteration. In this paper, we present a GPU accelerated simulation of one energy group time-independent deterministic discrete ordinates particle transport in 3D Cartesian geometry (Sweep3D). The performance of the GPU simulations are reported with the simulations of vacuum boundary condition. The discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the GPU implementation, the simulation on multi GPUs, the programming effort and code portability are also reported. The results show that the overall performance speedup of one NVIDIA Tesla M2050 GPU ranges from 2.56 compared with one Intel Xeon X5670 chip to 8.14 compared with one Intel Core Q6600 chip for no flux fixup. The simulation with flux fixup on one M2050 is 1.23 times faster than on one X5670.
Full 3D visualization tool-kit for Monte Carlo and deterministic transport codes
Frambati, S.; Frignani, M.
2012-07-01
We propose a package of tools capable of translating the geometric inputs and outputs of many Monte Carlo and deterministic radiation transport codes into open source file formats. These tools are aimed at bridging the gap between trusted, widely-used radiation analysis codes and very powerful, more recent and commonly used visualization software, thus supporting the design process and helping with shielding optimization. Three main lines of development were followed: mesh-based analysis of Monte Carlo codes, mesh-based analysis of deterministic codes and Monte Carlo surface meshing. The developed kit is considered a powerful and cost-effective tool in the computer-aided design for radiation transport code users of the nuclear world, and in particular in the fields of core design and radiation analysis. (authors)
Applications of the 3-D Deterministic Transport Code Attlla for Core Safety Analysis
D. S. Lucas
2004-10-01
An LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project is ongoing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for applying the three-dimensional multi-group deterministic neutron transport code (Attila®) to criticality, flux and depletion calculations of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This paper discusses the model development, capabilities of Attila, generation of the cross-section libraries, and comparisons to an ATR MCNP model and future.
Applications of the 3-D Deterministic Transport Attila{reg_sign} for Core Safety Analysis
Lucas, D.S.; Gougar, D.; Roth, P.A.; Wareing, T.; Failla, G.; McGhee, J.; Barnett, A.
2004-10-06
An LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project is ongoing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for applying the three-dimensional multi-group deterministic neutron transport code (Attila{reg_sign}) to criticality, flux and depletion calculations of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This paper discusses the model development, capabilities of Attila, generation of the cross-section libraries, and comparisons to an ATR MCNP model and future.
Investigating the Use of 3-D Deterministic Transport for Core Safety Analysis
H. D. Gougar; D. Scott
2004-04-01
An LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project is underway at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to demonstrate the feasibility of using a three-dimensional multi-group deterministic neutron transport code (Attila®) to perform global (core-wide) criticality, flux and depletion calculations for safety analysis of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This paper discusses the ATR, model development, capabilities of Attila, generation of the cross-section libraries, comparisons to experimental results for Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) concepts, and future work planned with Attila.
CALTRANS: A parallel, deterministic, 3D neutronics code
Carson, L.; Ferguson, J.; Rogers, J.
1994-04-01
Our efforts to parallelize the deterministic solution of the neutron transport equation has culminated in a new neutronics code CALTRANS, which has full 3D capability. In this article, we describe the layout and algorithms of CALTRANS and present performance measurements of the code on a variety of platforms. Explicit implementation of the parallel algorithms of CALTRANS using both the function calls of the Parallel Virtual Machine software package (PVM 3.2) and the Meiko CS-2 tagged message passing library (based on the Intel NX/2 interface) are provided in appendices.
D. Scott Lucas; D. S. Lucas
2005-09-01
An LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project is underway at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to apply the three-dimensional multi-group deterministic neutron transport code (Attila®) to criticality, flux and depletion calculations of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This paper discusses the development of Attila models for ATR, capabilities of Attila, the generation and use of different cross-section libraries, and comparisons to ATR data, MCNP, MCNPX and future applications.
A deterministic discrete ordinates transport proxy application
2014-06-03
Kripke is a simple 3D deterministic discrete ordinates (Sn) particle transport code that maintains the computational load and communications pattern of a real transport code. It is intended to be a research tool to explore different data layouts, new programming paradigms and computer architectures.
Deterministic methods in radiation transport
Rice, A.F.; Roussin, R.W.
1992-06-01
The Seminar on Deterministic Methods in Radiation Transport was held February 4--5, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Eleven presentations were made and the full papers are published in this report, along with three that were submitted but not given orally. These papers represent a good overview of the state of the art in the deterministic solution of radiation transport problems for a variety of applications of current interest to the Radiation Shielding Information Center user community.
Real-time forecasting of Hong Kong beach water quality by 3D deterministic model.
Chan, S N; Thoe, W; Lee, J H W
2013-03-15
Bacterial level (e.g. Escherichia coli) is generally adopted as the key indicator of beach water quality due to its high correlation with swimming associated illnesses. A 3D deterministic hydrodynamic model is developed to provide daily water quality forecasting for eight marine beaches in Tsuen Wan, which are only about 8 km from the Harbour Area Treatment Scheme (HATS) outfall discharging 1.4 million m(3)/d of partially-treated sewage. The fate and transport of the HATS effluent and its impact on the E. coli level at nearby beaches are studied. The model features the seamless coupling of near field jet mixing and the far field transport and dispersion of wastewater discharge from submarine outfalls, and a spatial-temporal dependent E. coli decay rate formulation specifically developed for sub-tropical Hong Kong waters. The model prediction of beach water quality has been extensively validated against field data both before and after disinfection of the HATS effluent. Compared with daily beach E. coli data during August-November 2011, the model achieves an overall accuracy of 81-91% in forecasting compliance/exceedance of beach water quality standard. The 3D deterministic model has been most valuable in the interpretation of the complex variation of beach water quality which depends on tidal level, solar radiation and other hydro-meteorological factors. The model can also be used in optimization of disinfection dosage and in emergency response situations. PMID:23337883
A highly heterogeneous 3D PWR core benchmark: deterministic and Monte Carlo method comparison
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaboulay, J.-C.; Damian, F.; Douce, S.; Lopez, F.; Guenaut, C.; Aggery, A.; Poinot-Salanon, C.
2014-06-01
Physical analyses of the LWR potential performances with regards to the fuel utilization require an important part of the work dedicated to the validation of the deterministic models used for theses analyses. Advances in both codes and computer technology give the opportunity to perform the validation of these models on complex 3D core configurations closed to the physical situations encountered (both steady-state and transient configurations). In this paper, we used the Monte Carlo Transport code TRIPOLI-4®; to describe a whole 3D large-scale and highly-heterogeneous LWR core. The aim of this study is to validate the deterministic CRONOS2 code to Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-4®; in a relevant PWR core configuration. As a consequence, a 3D pin by pin model with a consistent number of volumes (4.3 millions) and media (around 23,000) is established to precisely characterize the core at equilibrium cycle, namely using a refined burn-up and moderator density maps. The configuration selected for this analysis is a very heterogeneous PWR high conversion core with fissile (MOX fuel) and fertile zones (depleted uranium). Furthermore, a tight pitch lattice is selcted (to increase conversion of 238U in 239Pu) that leads to harder neutron spectrum compared to standard PWR assembly. In these conditions two main subjects will be discussed: the Monte Carlo variance calculation and the assessment of the diffusion operator with two energy groups for the core calculation.
MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...
Segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT and MR images based on 3D deterministic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Štern, Darko; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan
2011-03-01
The evaluation of vertebral deformations is of great importance in clinical diagnostics and therapy of pathological conditions affecting the spine. Although modern clinical practice is oriented towards the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, as they can provide a detailed 3D representation of vertebrae, the established methods for the evaluation of vertebral deformations still provide only a two-dimensional (2D) geometrical description. Segmentation of vertebrae in 3D may therefore not only improve their visualization, but also provide reliable and accurate 3D measurements of vertebral deformations. In this paper we propose a method for 3D segmentation of individual vertebral bodies that can be performed in CT and MR images. Initialized with a single point inside the vertebral body, the segmentation is performed by optimizing the parameters of a 3D deterministic model of the vertebral body to achieve the best match of the model to the vertebral body in the image. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on five CT (40 vertebrae) and five T2-weighted MR (40 vertebrae) spine images, among them five are normal and five are pathological. The results show that the proposed method can be used for 3D segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT and MR images and that the proposed model can describe a variety of vertebral body shapes. The method may be therefore used for initializing whole vertebra segmentation or reliably describing vertebral body deformations.
3D Multigroup Sn Neutron Transport Code
2001-02-14
ATTILA is a 3D multigroup transport code with arbitrary order ansotropic scatter. The transport equation is solved in first order form using a tri-linear discontinuous spatial differencing on an arbitrary tetrahedral mesh. The overall solution technique is source iteration with DSA acceleration of the scattering source. Anisotropic boundary and internal sources may be entered in the form of spherical harmonics moments. Alpha and k eigenvalue problems are allowed, as well as fixed source problems. Forwardmore » and adjoint solutions are available. Reflective, vacumn, and source boundary conditions are available. ATTILA can perform charged particle transport calculations using slowing down (CSD) terms. ATTILA can also be used to peform infra-red steady-state calculations for radiative transfer purposes.« less
3D Multigroup Sn Neutron Transport Code
McGee, John; Wareing, Todd; Pautz, Shawn
2001-02-14
ATTILA is a 3D multigroup transport code with arbitrary order ansotropic scatter. The transport equation is solved in first order form using a tri-linear discontinuous spatial differencing on an arbitrary tetrahedral mesh. The overall solution technique is source iteration with DSA acceleration of the scattering source. Anisotropic boundary and internal sources may be entered in the form of spherical harmonics moments. Alpha and k eigenvalue problems are allowed, as well as fixed source problems. Forward and adjoint solutions are available. Reflective, vacumn, and source boundary conditions are available. ATTILA can perform charged particle transport calculations using slowing down (CSD) terms. ATTILA can also be used to peform infra-red steady-state calculations for radiative transfer purposes.
Developing on-machine 3D profile measurement for deterministic fabrication of aspheric mirrors.
Dong, Zhichao; Cheng, Haobo; Ye, Xu; Tam, Hon-Yuen
2014-08-01
Three-dimensional profile measurement is perceived as an indispensable process for deterministic fabrication of aspheric mirrors. In this work, we develop on-machine 3D profile measurement on a subaperture polishing machine, namely, JR-1800. The influences of mechanical errors, misalignments, output stability, temperature variation, and natural vibration are investigated in detail by calibration, mechanical alignment, and finite-element analysis. Two quantitative methods are presented for aligning the turntable, length gauge, and workpiece into together. An error compensation model is also developed for further eliminating misalignments. For feasibility validation, two prototypical workpieces are measured by JR-1800 and an interferometer. The results indicate that JR-1800 has an RMS repeatability of ~λ/30 (λ=632.8 nm). The data provided by the two systems are highly coincident. Direct subtractions of the results from the two systems indicate that the RMS deviations for both segments are less than 0.07 μm. PMID:25090332
Deterministic particle transport in a ratchet flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beltrame, Philippe; Makhoul, Mounia; Joelson, Maminirina
2016-01-01
This study is motivated by the issue of the pumping of particle through a periodic modulated channel. We focus on a simplified deterministic model of small inertia particles within the Stokes flow framework that we call "ratchet flow." A path-following method is employed in the parameter space in order to retrace the scenario which from bounded periodic solutions leads to particle transport. Depending on whether the magnitude of the particle drag is moderate or large, two main transport mechanisms are identified in which the role of the parity symmetry of the flow differs. For large drag, transport is induced by flow asymmetry, while for moderate drag, since the full transport solution bifurcation structure already exists for symmetric settings, flow asymmetry only makes the transport effective. We analyzed the scenarios of current reversals for each mechanism as well as the role of synchronization. In particular we show that, for large drag, the particle drift is similar to phase slip in a synchronization problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, S.
2002-05-01
Taking advantage of the recent developments in groundwater modeling research and computer, image and graphics processing, and objected oriented programming technologies, Dr. Li and his research group have recently developed a comprehensive software system for unified deterministic and stochastic groundwater modeling. Characterized by a new real-time modeling paradigm and improved computational algorithms, the software simulates 3D unsteady flow and reactive transport in general groundwater formations subject to both systematic and "randomly" varying stresses and geological and chemical heterogeneity. The software system has following distinct features and capabilities: Interactive simulation and real time visualization and animation of flow in response to deterministic as well as stochastic stresses. Interactive, visual, and real time particle tracking, random walk, and reactive plume modeling in both systematically and randomly fluctuating flow. Interactive statistical inference, scattered data interpolation, regression, and ordinary and universal Kriging, conditional and unconditional simulation. Real-time, visual and parallel conditional flow and transport simulations. Interactive water and contaminant mass balance analysis and visual and real-time flux update. Interactive, visual, and real time monitoring of head and flux hydrographs and concentration breakthroughs. Real-time modeling and visualization of aquifer transition from confined to unconfined to partially de-saturated or completely dry and rewetting Simultaneous and embedded subscale models, automatic and real-time regional to local data extraction; Multiple subscale flow and transport models Real-time modeling of steady and transient vertical flow patterns on multiple arbitrarily-shaped cross-sections and simultaneous visualization of aquifer stratigraphy, properties, hydrological features (rivers, lakes, wetlands, wells, drains, surface seeps), and dynamically adjusted surface flooding area
Quantum transport through 3D Dirac materials
Salehi, M.; Jafari, S.A.
2015-08-15
Bismuth and its alloys provide a paradigm to realize three dimensional materials whose low-energy effective theory is given by Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions. We study the quantum transport properties of three dimensional Dirac materials within the framework of Landauer–Büttiker formalism. Charge carriers in normal metal satisfying the Schrödinger equation, can be split into four-component with appropriate matching conditions at the boundary with the three dimensional Dirac material (3DDM). We calculate the conductance and the Fano factor of an interface separating 3DDM from a normal metal, as well as the conductance through a slab of 3DDM. Under certain circumstances the 3DDM appears transparent to electrons hitting the 3DDM. We find that electrons hitting the metal-3DDM interface from metallic side can enter 3DDM in a reversed spin state as soon as their angle of incidence deviates from the direction perpendicular to interface. However the presence of a second interface completely cancels this effect.
Quantum transport through 3D Dirac materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salehi, M.; Jafari, S. A.
2015-08-01
Bismuth and its alloys provide a paradigm to realize three dimensional materials whose low-energy effective theory is given by Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions. We study the quantum transport properties of three dimensional Dirac materials within the framework of Landauer-Büttiker formalism. Charge carriers in normal metal satisfying the Schrödinger equation, can be split into four-component with appropriate matching conditions at the boundary with the three dimensional Dirac material (3DDM). We calculate the conductance and the Fano factor of an interface separating 3DDM from a normal metal, as well as the conductance through a slab of 3DDM. Under certain circumstances the 3DDM appears transparent to electrons hitting the 3DDM. We find that electrons hitting the metal-3DDM interface from metallic side can enter 3DDM in a reversed spin state as soon as their angle of incidence deviates from the direction perpendicular to interface. However the presence of a second interface completely cancels this effect.
Deterministically patterned biomimetic human iPSC-derived hepatic model via rapid 3D bioprinting.
Ma, Xuanyi; Qu, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Li, Yi-Shuan; Yuan, Suli; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Justin; Wang, Pengrui; Lai, Cheuk Sun Edwin; Zanella, Fabian; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Sheikh, Farah; Chien, Shu; Chen, Shaochen
2016-02-23
The functional maturation and preservation of hepatic cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are essential to personalized in vitro drug screening and disease study. Major liver functions are tightly linked to the 3D assembly of hepatocytes, with the supporting cell types from both endodermal and mesodermal origins in a hexagonal lobule unit. Although there are many reports on functional 2D cell differentiation, few studies have demonstrated the in vitro maturation of hiPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells (hiPSC-HPCs) in a 3D environment that depicts the physiologically relevant cell combination and microarchitecture. The application of rapid, digital 3D bioprinting to tissue engineering has allowed 3D patterning of multiple cell types in a predefined biomimetic manner. Here we present a 3D hydrogel-based triculture model that embeds hiPSC-HPCs with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and adipose-derived stem cells in a microscale hexagonal architecture. In comparison with 2D monolayer culture and a 3D HPC-only model, our 3D triculture model shows both phenotypic and functional enhancements in the hiPSC-HPCs over weeks of in vitro culture. Specifically, we find improved morphological organization, higher liver-specific gene expression levels, increased metabolic product secretion, and enhanced cytochrome P450 induction. The application of bioprinting technology in tissue engineering enables the development of a 3D biomimetic liver model that recapitulates the native liver module architecture and could be used for various applications such as early drug screening and disease modeling. PMID:26858399
Deterministically patterned biomimetic human iPSC-derived hepatic model via rapid 3D bioprinting
Ma, Xuanyi; Qu, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Li, Yi-Shuan; Yuan, Suli; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Justin; Wang, Pengrui; Lai, Cheuk Sun Edwin; Zanella, Fabian; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Sheikh, Farah; Chien, Shu; Chen, Shaochen
2016-01-01
The functional maturation and preservation of hepatic cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are essential to personalized in vitro drug screening and disease study. Major liver functions are tightly linked to the 3D assembly of hepatocytes, with the supporting cell types from both endodermal and mesodermal origins in a hexagonal lobule unit. Although there are many reports on functional 2D cell differentiation, few studies have demonstrated the in vitro maturation of hiPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells (hiPSC-HPCs) in a 3D environment that depicts the physiologically relevant cell combination and microarchitecture. The application of rapid, digital 3D bioprinting to tissue engineering has allowed 3D patterning of multiple cell types in a predefined biomimetic manner. Here we present a 3D hydrogel-based triculture model that embeds hiPSC-HPCs with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and adipose-derived stem cells in a microscale hexagonal architecture. In comparison with 2D monolayer culture and a 3D HPC-only model, our 3D triculture model shows both phenotypic and functional enhancements in the hiPSC-HPCs over weeks of in vitro culture. Specifically, we find improved morphological organization, higher liver-specific gene expression levels, increased metabolic product secretion, and enhanced cytochrome P450 induction. The application of bioprinting technology in tissue engineering enables the development of a 3D biomimetic liver model that recapitulates the native liver module architecture and could be used for various applications such as early drug screening and disease modeling. PMID:26858399
Integral-transport-based deterministic brachytherapy dose calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Chuanyu; Inanc, Feyzi
2003-01-01
We developed a transport-equation-based deterministic algorithm for computing three-dimensional brachytherapy dose distributions. The deterministic algorithm has been based on the integral transport equation. The algorithm provided us with the capability of computing dose distributions for multiple isotropic point and/or volumetric sources in a homogenous/heterogeneous medium. The algorithm results have been benchmarked against the results from the literature and MCNP results for isotropic point sources and volumetric sources.
Gravity driven deterministic lateral displacement for suspended particles in a 3D obstacle array
Du, Siqi; Drazer, German
2016-01-01
We present a simple modification to enhance the separation ability of deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) systems by expanding the two-dimensional nature of these devices and driving the particles into size-dependent, fully three-dimensional trajectories. Specifically, we drive the particles through an array of long cylindrical posts, such that they not only move parallel to the basal plane of the posts as in traditional two-dimensional DLD systems (in-plane motion), but also along the axial direction of the solid posts (out-of-plane motion). We show that the (projected) in-plane motion of the particles is completely analogous to that observed in 2D-DLD systems. In fact, a theoretical model originally developed for force-driven, two-dimensional DLD systems accurately describes the experimental results. More importantly, we analyze the particles out-of-plane motion and observe, for certain orientations of the driving force, significant differences in the out-of-plane displacement depending on particle size. Therefore, taking advantage of both the in-plane and out-of-plane motion of the particles, it is possible to achieve the simultaneous fractionation of a polydisperse suspension into multiple streams. PMID:27526935
Gravity driven deterministic lateral displacement for suspended particles in a 3D obstacle array.
Du, Siqi; Drazer, German
2016-01-01
We present a simple modification to enhance the separation ability of deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) systems by expanding the two-dimensional nature of these devices and driving the particles into size-dependent, fully three-dimensional trajectories. Specifically, we drive the particles through an array of long cylindrical posts, such that they not only move parallel to the basal plane of the posts as in traditional two-dimensional DLD systems (in-plane motion), but also along the axial direction of the solid posts (out-of-plane motion). We show that the (projected) in-plane motion of the particles is completely analogous to that observed in 2D-DLD systems. In fact, a theoretical model originally developed for force-driven, two-dimensional DLD systems accurately describes the experimental results. More importantly, we analyze the particles out-of-plane motion and observe, for certain orientations of the driving force, significant differences in the out-of-plane displacement depending on particle size. Therefore, taking advantage of both the in-plane and out-of-plane motion of the particles, it is possible to achieve the simultaneous fractionation of a polydisperse suspension into multiple streams. PMID:27526935
A killer micro attack on 3D neutron transport
Dorr, M.R.; Ferguson, J.M.
1990-11-01
We describe the deterministic solution of the neutron transport equation and the computation of the effective criticality of three-dimensional assemblies using the BBN TC2000 killer micros. We observe that the performance of our research code PTRAN running on 48 processors of the TC2000 is competitive with the partially vectorizable version running on a single Cray Y/MP processor. This performance scales well with the number of processors on real problems, including those that are not load balanced a priori. To obtain this performance, we explicitly specify and exploit data locality and data dependence using domain decomposition and dynamic job scheduling. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
3-D UNSTRUCTURED HEXAHEDRAL-MESH Sn TRANSPORT METHODS
J. MOREL; J. MCGHEE; ET AL
2000-11-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We have developed a method for solving the neutral-particle transport equation on 3-D unstructured hexahedral meshes using a S{sub n} discretization in angle in conjunction with a discontinuous finite-element discretization in space and a multigroup discretization in energy. Previous methods for solving this equation in 3-D have been limited to rectangular meshes. The unstructured-mesh method that we have developed is far more efficient for solving problems with complex 3-D geometric features than rectangular-mesh methods. In spite of having to make several compromises in our spatial discretization technique and our iterative solution technique, our method has been found to be both accurate and efficient for a broad class of problems.
A non-conforming 3D spherical harmonic transport solver
Van Criekingen, S.
2006-07-01
A new 3D transport solver for the time-independent Boltzmann transport equation has been developed. This solver is based on the second-order even-parity form of the transport equation. The angular discretization is performed through the expansion of the angular neutron flux in spherical harmonics (PN method). The novelty of this solver is the use of non-conforming finite elements for the spatial discretization. Such elements lead to a discontinuous flux approximation. This interface continuity requirement relaxation property is shared with mixed-dual formulations such as the ones based on Raviart-Thomas finite elements. Encouraging numerical results are presented. (authors)
Feasibility of a Multigroup Deterministic Solution Method for 3D Radiotherapy Dose Calculations
Vassiliev, Oleg N.; Wareing, Todd A.; Davis, Ian M.; McGhee, John; Barnett, Douglas; Horton, John L.; Gifford, Kent; Failla, Gregory; Titt, Uwe; Mourtada, Firas
2008-01-01
Purpose To investigate the potential of a novel deterministic solver, Attila, for external photon beam radiotherapy dose calculations. Methods and Materials Two hypothetical cases for prostate and head and neck cancer photon beam treatment plans were calculated using Attila and EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulations. Open beams were modeled as isotropic photon point sources collimated to specified field sizes (100 cm SSD). The sources had a realistic energy spectrum calculated by Monte Carlo for a Varian Clinac 2100 operated in a 6MV photon mode. The Attila computational grids consisted of 106,000 elements, or 424,000 spatial degrees of freedom, for the prostate case, and 123,000 tetrahedral elements, or 492,000 spatial degrees of freedom, for the head and neck cases. Results For both cases, results demonstrate excellent agreement between Attila and EGSnrc in all areas, including the build-up regions, near heterogeneities, and at the beam penumbra. Dose agreement for 99% of the voxels was within 3% (relative point-wise difference) or 3mm distance-to-agreement criterion. Localized differences between the Attila and EGSnrc results were observed at bone and soft tissue interfaces, and are attributable to the effect of voxel material homogenization in calculating dose-to-medium in EGSnrc. For both cases, Attila calculation times were under 20 CPU minutes on a single 2.2 GHz AMD Opteron processor. Conclusions The methods in Attila have the potential to be the basis for an efficient dose engine for patient specific treatment planning, providing accuracy similar to that obtained by Monte Carlo. PMID:18722273
DETERMINISTIC TRANSPORT METHODS AND CODES AT LOS ALAMOS
J. E. MOREL
1999-06-01
The purposes of this paper are to: Present a brief history of deterministic transport methods development at Los Alamos National Laboratory from the 1950's to the present; Discuss the current status and capabilities of deterministic transport codes at Los Alamos; and Discuss future transport needs and possible future research directions. Our discussion of methods research necessarily includes only a small fraction of the total research actually done. The works that have been included represent a very subjective choice on the part of the author that was strongly influenced by his personal knowledge and experience. The remainder of this paper is organized in four sections: the first relates to deterministic methods research performed at Los Alamos, the second relates to production codes developed at Los Alamos, the third relates to the current status of transport codes at Los Alamos, and the fourth relates to future research directions at Los Alamos.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Anthony B.; Marshak, Alexander
2010-01-01
The interplay of sunlight with clouds is a ubiquitous and often pleasant visual experience, but it conjures up major challenges for weather, climate, environmental science and beyond. Those engaged in the characterization of clouds (and the clear air nearby) by remote sensing methods are even more confronted. The problem comes, on the one hand, from the spatial complexity of real clouds and, on the other hand, from the dominance of multiple scattering in the radiation transport. The former ingredient contrasts sharply with the still popular representation of clouds as homogeneous plane-parallel slabs for the purposes of radiative transfer computations. In typical cloud scenes the opposite asymptotic transport regimes of diffusion and ballistic propagation coexist. We survey the three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric radiative transfer literature over the past 50 years and identify three concurrent and intertwining thrusts: first, how to assess the damage (bias) caused by 3D effects in the operational 1D radiative transfer models? Second, how to mitigate this damage? Finally, can we exploit 3D radiative transfer phenomena to innovate observation methods and technologies? We quickly realize that the smallest scale resolved computationally or observationally may be artificial but is nonetheless a key quantity that separates the 3D radiative transfer solutions into two broad and complementary classes: stochastic and deterministic. Both approaches draw on classic and contemporary statistical, mathematical and computational physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Anthony B.; Marshak, Alexander
2010-02-01
The interplay of sunlight with clouds is a ubiquitous and often pleasant visual experience, but it conjures up major challenges for weather, climate, environmental science and beyond. Those engaged in the characterization of clouds (and the clear air nearby) by remote sensing methods are even more confronted. The problem comes, on the one hand, from the spatial complexity of real clouds and, on the other hand, from the dominance of multiple scattering in the radiation transport. The former ingredient contrasts sharply with the still popular representation of clouds as homogeneous plane-parallel slabs for the purposes of radiative transfer computations. In typical cloud scenes the opposite asymptotic transport regimes of diffusion and ballistic propagation coexist. We survey the three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric radiative transfer literature over the past 50 years and identify three concurrent and intertwining thrusts: first, how to assess the damage (bias) caused by 3D effects in the operational 1D radiative transfer models? Second, how to mitigate this damage? Finally, can we exploit 3D radiative transfer phenomena to innovate observation methods and technologies? We quickly realize that the smallest scale resolved computationally or observationally may be artificial but is nonetheless a key quantity that separates the 3D radiative transfer solutions into two broad and complementary classes: stochastic and deterministic. Both approaches draw on classic and contemporary statistical, mathematical and computational physics.
Proteus-MOC: A 3D deterministic solver incorporating 2D method of characteristics
Marin-Lafleche, A.; Smith, M. A.; Lee, C.
2013-07-01
A new transport solution methodology was developed by combining the two-dimensional method of characteristics with the discontinuous Galerkin method for the treatment of the axial variable. The method, which can be applied to arbitrary extruded geometries, was implemented in PROTEUS-MOC and includes parallelization in group, angle, plane, and space using a top level GMRES linear algebra solver. Verification tests were performed to show accuracy and stability of the method with the increased number of angular directions and mesh elements. Good scalability with parallelism in angle and axial planes is displayed. (authors)
Challenges in Lagrangian transport and predictability in 3D flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Branicki, M.; Wiggins, S.; Kirwan, A. D.; Malek-Madani, R.
2011-12-01
The interplay between the geometrical theory of dynamical systems and the trajectory-based description of aperiodically time-dependent fluid flows has led to significant advances in understanding the role of chaotic transport in geophysical flows at scales dominated by advection. Lagrangian transport analysis utilizing either the time-dependent geometry of intersecting stable and unstable manifolds of the so-called Distinguished Hyperbolic Trajectories (DHT), or ridges of finite-time Lyapunov exponent fields (LCS), provide a much needed and complementary insight into ephemeral mechanisms responsible for the existence of `leaky' transport barriers and 'leaky' mesoscale eddies. However, to date most oceanic applications have been confined to 2D analysis of near surface regions in 'perfect' flows not accounting for model or measurement error, and with the tacit assumption of negligible vertical velocities. I will systematically address issues concerning the regimes of applicability of two-dimensional analysis in 3D aperiodically time-dependent flows, as well as outstanding challenges in fully 3D Lagrangian transport analysis. Even for perfect horizontal velocities, little is known about the vertical extent of stable/unstable manifolds associated with DHTs and/or other special structures relevant to stratified 3D flows. In particular, their sensitivity to errors in the vertical velocities and data assimilation methods has been little studied. Rigorous results regarding the above issues will be illustrated by revealing and mathematically tractable toy models, as well as examples from a detailed study in an eddy-rich region from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean. New ways of quantifying the uncertainty in Lagrangian predictions will also be presented.
A killer micro attack on 3D neutron transport
Dorr, M.R.; Ferguson, J.M.
1990-11-16
In this paper, we describe the deterministic solution of the neutron transport equation and the computation of the effective criticality of three-dimensional assemblies using the BBN TC2000 killer micros. We observe that the performance of our research code PTRAN running on 48 processors of the TC2000 is competitive with the partially vectorizable version running on a single Cray Y/MP processor. This performance scales well with the number of processors on real problems, including those that are not load balanced a priori. To obtain this performance, we explicitly specify and exploit data locality and data dependence using domain decomposition and dynamic job scheduling. From the results obtained here, it appears that, at least for this application, a production machine based on the TC2000 architecture with more powerful processors and a commensurate increase in switch speed could yield a significant gain in our design capability. 2 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.
3D Shape and Indirect Appearance by Structured Light Transport.
OToole, Matthew; Mather, John; Kutulakos, Kiriakos N
2016-07-01
We consider the problem of deliberately manipulating the direct and indirect light flowing through a time-varying, general scene in order to simplify its visual analysis. Our approach rests on a crucial link between stereo geometry and light transport: while direct light always obeys the epipolar geometry of a projector-camera pair, indirect light overwhelmingly does not. We show that it is possible to turn this observation into an imaging method that analyzes light transport in real time in the optical domain, prior to acquisition. This yields three key abilities that we demonstrate in an experimental camera prototype: (1) producing a live indirect-only video stream for any scene, regardless of geometric or photometric complexity; (2) capturing images that make existing structured-light shape recovery algorithms robust to indirect transport; and (3) turning them into one-shot methods for dynamic 3D shape capture. PMID:27295455
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bidwell, Colin S.; Pinella, David; Garrison, Peter
1999-01-01
Collection efficiency and ice accretion calculations were made for a commercial transport using the NASA Lewis LEWICE3D ice accretion code, the ICEGRID3D grid code and the CMARC panel code. All of the calculations were made on a Windows 95 based personal computer. The ice accretion calculations were made for the nose, wing, horizontal tail and vertical tail surfaces. Ice shapes typifying those of a 30 minute hold were generated. Collection efficiencies were also generated for the entire aircraft using the newly developed unstructured collection efficiency method. The calculations highlight the flexibility and cost effectiveness of the LEWICE3D, ICEGRID3D, CMARC combination.
3D Neutron Transport PWR Full-core Calculation with RMC code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Yishu; She, Ding; Fan, Xiao; Wang, Kan; Li, Zeguang; Liang, Jingang; Leroyer, Hadrien
2014-06-01
Nowadays, there are more and more interests in the use of Monte Carlo codes to calculate the detailed power density distributions in full-core reactors. With the Inspur TS1000 HPC Server of Tsinghua University, several calculations have been done based on the EDF 3D Neutron Transport PWR Full-core benchmark through large-scale parallelism. To investigate and compare the results of the deterministic method and Monte Carlo method, EDF R&D and Department of Engineering Physics of Tsinghua University are having a collaboration to make code to code verification. So in this paper, two codes are used. One is the code COCAGNE developed by the EDF R&D, a deterministic core code, and the other is the Monte Carlo code RMC developed by Department of Engineering Physics in Tsinghua University. First, the full-core model is described and a 26-group calculation was performed by these two codes using the same 26-group cross-section library provided by EDF R&D. Then the parallel and tally performance of RMC is discussed. RMC employs a novel algorithm which can cut down most of the communications. It can be seen clearly that the speedup ratio almost linearly increases with the nodes. Furthermore the cell-mapping method applied by RMC consumes little time to tally even millions of cells. The results of the codes COCAGNE and RMC are compared in three ways. The results of these two codes agree well with each other. It can be concluded that both COCAGNE and RMC are able to provide 3D-transport solutions associated with detailed power density distributions calculation in PWR full-core reactors. Finally, to investigate how many histories are needed to obtain a given standard deviation for a full 3D solution, the non-symmetrized condensed 2-group fluxes of RMC are discussed.
Turbulence and transport in a 3D magnetic boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agostini, Matteo; Carraro, Lorella; Ciaccio, Giovanni; de Masi, Gianluca; Rea, Cristina; Scarin, Paolo; Spizzo, Gianluca; Spolaore, Monica; Vianello, Nicola
2014-10-01
In present fusion devices the interaction between 3D magnetic field, edge kinetic properties and turbulence is a crucial issue; not only in intrinsically 3D configurations such as the stellarators, but also in tokamaks, where magnetic perturbations are applied to control ELMs and plasma wall interaction. In the RFX-mod reversed field pinch the spontaneous development at high plasma current of a helical magnetic state displays strong analogies with the aforementioned configurations. At the edge the presence of a stochastic layer and magnetic islands with a well-defined helical symmetry leads to a helical pattern of flow, pressure gradients and turbulent fluctuations: larger fluctuations and shorter correlation lengths are observed near the X-point of the magnetic island, where also a flow slowing-down occurs. Aim of this work is to study the effect of edge turbulence on particle transport in a 3D magnetic boundary, characterizing the properties of the edge blobs along the helical deformation. The magnetic topology also modifies kinetic properties, with higher pressure gradients observed close to the O-point of the island. The measurement of the time evolution of pressure gradient and blob characteristics, can clarify the mutual relation between these two quantities.
New Algorithms for Large-scale 3D Radiation Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lentz, Eric J.
2009-05-01
Radiation transport is critical not only for analysis of astrophysical objects but also for the dynamical transport of energy within. Increased fidelity and dimensionality of the other components of such models requires a similar improvement in the radiation transport. Modern astrophysical simulations can be large enough that the values for a single variable for the entire computational domain cannot be stored on a single compute node. The natural solution is to decompose the physical domain into pieces with each node responsible for a single sub-domain. Using localized plus "ghost" zone data works well for problems like explicit hydrodynamics or nuclear reaction networks with modest impact from inter-process communication. Unfortunately, radiation transport is an inherently non-local process that couples the entire model domain together and efficient algorithms are needed to conquer this problem. In this poster, I present the early development of a new parallel, 3-D transport code using ray tracing to formally solve the transport equation across numerically decomposed domains. The algorithm model takes advantage of one-sided communication to develop a scalable, parallel formal solver. Other aspects and future direction of the parallel code development such as scalability and the inclusion of scattering will also be discussed.
Transport of 3D space charge dominated beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lü, Jian-Qin
2013-10-01
In this paper we present the theoretical analysis and the computer code design for the intense pulsed beam transport. Intense beam dynamics is a very important issue in low-energy high-current accelerators and beam transport systems. This problem affects beam transmission and beam qualities. Therefore, it attracts the attention of the accelerator physicists worldwide. The analysis and calculation for the intense beam dynamics are very complicated, because the state of particle motion is dominated not only by the applied electromagnetic fields, but also by the beam-induced electromagnetic fields (self-fields). Moreover, the self fields are related to the beam dimensions and particle distributions. So, it is very difficult to get the self-consistent solutions of particle motion analytically. For this reason, we combine the Lie algebraic method and the particle in cell (PIC) scheme together to simulate intense 3D beam transport. With the Lie algebraic method we analyze the particle nonlinear trajectories in the applied electromagnetic fields up to third order approximation, and with the PIC algorithm we calculate the space charge effects to the particle motion. Based on the theoretical analysis, we have developed a computer code, which calculates beam transport systems consisting of electrostatic lenses, electrostatic accelerating columns, solenoid lenses, magnetic and electric quadruples, magnetic sextupoles, octopuses and different kinds of electromagnetic analyzers. The optimization calculations and the graphic display for the calculated results are provided by the code.
A Deterministic Transport Code for Space Environment Electrons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nealy, John E.; Chang, C. K.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Badavi, Francis F.; Adamczyk, Anne M.
2010-01-01
A deterministic computational procedure has been developed to describe transport of space environment electrons in various shield media. This code is an upgrade and extension of an earlier electron code. Whereas the former code was formulated on the basis of parametric functions derived from limited laboratory data, the present code utilizes well established theoretical representations to describe the relevant interactions and transport processes. The shield material specification has been made more general, as have the pertinent cross sections. A combined mean free path and average trajectory approach has been used in the transport formalism. Comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations are presented.
3-D numerical simulations of volcanic ash transport and deposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Y. J.; Koyaguchi, T.
2012-12-01
During an explosive volcanic eruption, volcanic gas and pyroclasts are ejected from the volcanic vent. The pyroclasts are carried up within a convective plume, advected by the surrounding wind field, and sediment on the ground depending on their terminal velocity. The fine ash are expected to have atmospheric residence, whereas the coarser particles form fall deposits. Accurate modeling of particle transport and deposition is of critical importance from the viewpoint of disaster prevention. Previously, some particle-tracking models (e.g., PUFF) and advection-diffusion models (e.g., TEPHRA2 and FALL3D) tried to forecast particle concentration in the atmosphere and particle loading at ground level. However, these models assumed source conditions (the grain-size distribution, plume height, and mass release location) based on the simple 1-D model of convective plume. In this study, we aim to develop a new 3-D model which reproduces both of the dynamics of convective plume and the ash transport. The model is designed to describe the injection of eruption cloud and marker particles from a circular vent above a flat surface into the stratified atmosphere. Because the advection is the predominant mechanism of particle transport near the volcano, the diffusive process is not taken into account in this model. The distribution of wind velocity is given as an initial condition. The model of the eruption cloud dynamics is based on the 3-D time-dependent model of Suzuki et al. (2005). We apply a pseudo-gas model to calculate the eruption cloud dynamics: the effect of particle separation on the cloud dynamics is not considered. In order to reproduce the drastic change of eruption cloud density, we change the effective gas constant and heat capacity of the mixture in the equation of state for ideal gases with the mixing ratio between the ejected material and entrained air. In order to calculate the location and movement of ash particles, the present model employs Lagrangian marker
A Deterministic Computational Procedure for Space Environment Electron Transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nealy, John E.; Chang, C. K.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Badavi, Francis F.; Adamcyk, Anne M.
2010-01-01
A deterministic computational procedure for describing the transport of electrons in condensed media is formulated to simulate the effects and exposures from spectral distributions typical of electrons trapped in planetary magnetic fields. The primary purpose for developing the procedure is to provide a means of rapidly performing numerous repetitive transport calculations essential for electron radiation exposure assessments for complex space structures. The present code utilizes well-established theoretical representations to describe the relevant interactions and transport processes. A combined mean free path and average trajectory approach is used in the transport formalism. For typical space environment spectra, several favorable comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations are made which have indicated that accuracy is not compromised at the expense of the computational speed.
A DETERMINISTIC METHOD FOR TRANSIENT, THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUETRON TRANSPORT
Goluoglu, S.; Bentley, C.; Demeglio, R.; Dunn, M.; Norton, K.; Pevey, R.; Suslov, I.; Dodds, H. L.
1998-01-14
A deterministic method for solving the time-dependent, three-dimensional Boltzmam transport equation with explicit representation of delayed neutrons has been developed and evaluated. The methodology used in this study for the time variable of the neutron flux is known as the improved quasi-static (IQS) method. The position, energy, and angle-dependent neutron flux is computed deterministically by using the three-dimensional discrete ordinates code TORT. This paper briefly describes the methodology and selected results. The code developed at the University of Tennessee based on this methodology is called TDTORT. TDTORT can be used to model transients involving voided and/or strongly absorbing regions that require transport theory for accuracy. This code can also be used to model either small high-leakage systems, such as space reactors, or asymmetric control rod movements. TDTORT can model step, ramp, step followed by another step, and step followed by ramp type perturbations. It can also model columnwise rod movement can also be modeled. A special case of columnwise rod movement in a three-dimensional model of a boiling water reactor (BWR) with simple adiabatic feedback is also included. TDTORT is verified through several transient one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional benchmark problems. The results show that the transport methodology and corresponding code developed in this work have sufficient accuracy and speed for computing the dynamic behavior of complex multidimensional neutronic systems.
A deterministic method for transient, three-dimensional neutron transport
Goluoglu, S.; Bentley, C.; DeMeglio, R.; Dunn, M.; Norton, K.; Pevey, R.; Suslov, I.; Dodds, H.L.
1998-05-01
A deterministic method for solving the time-dependent, three-dimensional Boltzmann transport equation with explicit representation of delayed neutrons has been developed and evaluated. The methodology used in this study for the time variable of the neutron flux is known as the improved quasi-static (IQS) method. The position, energy, and angle-dependent neutron flux is computed deterministically by using the three-dimensional discrete ordinates code TORT. This paper briefly describes the methodology and selected results. The code developed at the University of Tennessee based on this methodology is called TDTORT. TDTORT can be used to model transients involving voided and/or strongly absorbing regions that require transport theory for accuracy. This code can also be used to model either small high-leakage systems, such as space reactors, or asymmetric control rod movements. TDTORT can model step, ramp, step followed by another step, and step followed by ramp type perturbations. It can also model columnwise rod movement. A special case of columnwise rod movement in a three-dimensional model of a boiling water reactor (BWR) with simple adiabatic feedback is also included. TDTORT is verified through several transient one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional benchmark problems. The results show that the transport methodology and corresponding code developed in this work have sufficient accuracy and speed for computing the dynamic behavior of complex multi-dimensional neutronic systems.
Coupled Deterministic-Monte Carlo Transport for Radiation Portal Modeling
Smith, Leon E.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; Shaver, Mark W.
2008-01-14
Radiation portal monitors are being deployed, both domestically and internationally, to detect illicit movement of radiological materials concealed in cargo. Evaluation of the current and next generations of these radiation portal monitor (RPM) technologies is an ongoing process. 'Injection studies' that superimpose, computationally, the signature from threat materials onto empirical vehicle profiles collected at ports of entry, are often a component of the RPM evaluation process. However, measurement of realistic threat devices can be both expensive and time-consuming. Radiation transport methods that can predict the response of radiation detection sensors with high fidelity, and do so rapidly enough to allow the modeling of many different threat-source configurations, are a cornerstone of reliable evaluation results. Monte Carlo methods have been the primary tool of the detection community for these kinds of calculations, in no small part because they are particularly effective for calculating pulse-height spectra in gamma-ray spectrometers. However, computational times for problems with a high degree of scattering and absorption can be extremely long. Deterministic codes that discretize the transport in space, angle, and energy offer potential advantages in computational efficiency for these same kinds of problems, but the pulse-height calculations needed to predict gamma-ray spectrometer response are not readily accessible. These complementary strengths for radiation detection scenarios suggest that coupling Monte Carlo and deterministic methods could be beneficial in terms of computational efficiency. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and its collaborators are developing a RAdiation Detection Scenario Analysis Toolbox (RADSAT) founded on this coupling approach. The deterministic core of RADSAT is Attila, a three-dimensional, tetrahedral-mesh code originally developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, and since expanded and refined by Transpire, Inc. [1
3-D PARTICLE TRANSPORT WITHIN THE HUMAN UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT
In this study trajectories of inhaled particulate matter (PM) were simulated within a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model of the human upper respiratory tract (URT). The airways were described by computer-reconstructed images of a silicone rubber cast of the human head, throat...
SOLIDFELIX: a transportable 3D static volume display
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langhans, Knut; Kreft, Alexander; Wörden, Henrik Tom
2009-02-01
Flat 2D screens cannot display complex 3D structures without the usage of different slices of the 3D model. Volumetric displays like the "FELIX 3D-Displays" can solve the problem. They provide space-filling images and are characterized by "multi-viewer" and "all-round view" capabilities without requiring cumbersome goggles. In the past many scientists tried to develop similar 3D displays. Our paper includes an overview from 1912 up to today. During several years of investigations on swept volume displays within the "FELIX 3D-Projekt" we learned about some significant disadvantages of rotating screens, for example hidden zones. For this reason the FELIX-Team started investigations also in the area of static volume displays. Within three years of research on our 3D static volume display at a normal high school in Germany we were able to achieve considerable results despite minor funding resources within this non-commercial group. Core element of our setup is the display volume which consists of a cubic transparent material (crystal, glass, or polymers doped with special ions, mainly from the rare earth group or other fluorescent materials). We focused our investigations on one frequency, two step upconversion (OFTS-UC) and two frequency, two step upconversion (TFTSUC) with IR-Lasers as excitation source. Our main interest was both to find an appropriate material and an appropriate doping for the display volume. Early experiments were carried out with CaF2 and YLiF4 crystals doped with 0.5 mol% Er3+-ions which were excited in order to create a volumetric pixel (voxel). In addition to that the crystals are limited to a very small size which is the reason why we later investigated on heavy metal fluoride glasses which are easier to produce in large sizes. Currently we are using a ZBLAN glass belonging to the mentioned group and making it possible to increase both the display volume and the brightness of the images significantly. Although, our display is currently
Towards a 3D Space Radiation Transport Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, J. W.; Tripathl, R. K.; Cicomptta, F. A.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Tweed, J.
2002-01-01
High-speed computational procedures for space radiation shielding have relied on asymptotic expansions in terms of the off-axis scatter and replacement of the general geometry problem by a collection of flat plates. This type of solution was derived for application to human rated systems in which the radius of the shielded volume is large compared to the off-axis diffusion limiting leakage at lateral boundaries. Over the decades these computational codes are relatively complete and lateral diffusion effects are now being added. The analysis for developing a practical full 3D space shielding code is presented.
McGhee, J.M.; Roberts, R.M.; Morel, J.E.
1997-06-01
A spherical harmonics research code (DANTE) has been developed which is compatible with parallel computer architectures. DANTE provides 3-D, multi-material, deterministic, transport capabilities using an arbitrary finite element mesh. The linearized Boltzmann transport equation is solved in a second order self-adjoint form utilizing a Galerkin finite element spatial differencing scheme. The core solver utilizes a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. Other distinguishing features of the code include options for discrete-ordinates and simplified spherical harmonics angular differencing, an exact Marshak boundary treatment for arbitrarily oriented boundary faces, in-line matrix construction techniques to minimize memory consumption, and an effective diffusion based preconditioner for scattering dominated problems. Algorithm efficiency is demonstrated for a massively parallel SIMD architecture (CM-5), and compatibility with MPP multiprocessor platforms or workstation clusters is anticipated.
3D unstructured-mesh radiation transport codes
Morel, J.
1997-12-31
Three unstructured-mesh radiation transport codes are currently being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first code is ATTILA, which uses an unstructured tetrahedral mesh in conjunction with standard Sn (discrete-ordinates) angular discretization, standard multigroup energy discretization, and linear-discontinuous spatial differencing. ATTILA solves the standard first-order form of the transport equation using source iteration in conjunction with diffusion-synthetic acceleration of the within-group source iterations. DANTE is designed to run primarily on workstations. The second code is DANTE, which uses a hybrid finite-element mesh consisting of arbitrary combinations of hexahedra, wedges, pyramids, and tetrahedra. DANTE solves several second-order self-adjoint forms of the transport equation including the even-parity equation, the odd-parity equation, and a new equation called the self-adjoint angular flux equation. DANTE also offers three angular discretization options: $S{_}n$ (discrete-ordinates), $P{_}n$ (spherical harmonics), and $SP{_}n$ (simplified spherical harmonics). DANTE is designed to run primarily on massively parallel message-passing machines, such as the ASCI-Blue machines at LANL and LLNL. The third code is PERICLES, which uses the same hybrid finite-element mesh as DANTE, but solves the standard first-order form of the transport equation rather than a second-order self-adjoint form. DANTE uses a standard $S{_}n$ discretization in angle in conjunction with trilinear-discontinuous spatial differencing, and diffusion-synthetic acceleration of the within-group source iterations. PERICLES was initially designed to run on workstations, but a version for massively parallel message-passing machines will be built. The three codes will be described in detail and computational results will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castellanza, Riccardo; Fernandez Merodo, Josè Antonio; di Prisco, Claudio; Frigerio, Gabriele; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Orlandi, Gianmarco
2013-04-01
Aim of the study is the assessment of stability conditions for an abandoned gypsum mine (Bologna , Italy). Mining was carried out til the end of the 70s by the room and pillar method. During mining a karst cave was crossed karstic waters flowed into the mine. As a consequence, the lower level of the mining is completely flooded and portions of the mining levels show critical conditions and are structurally prone to instability. Buildings and infrastructures are located above the first and second level and a large portion of the area below the mine area, and just above of the Savena river, is urbanised. Gypsum geomechanical properties change over time; water, or even air humidity, dissolves or weaken gypsum pillars, leading progressively to collapse. The mine is located in macro-crystalline gypsum beds belonging to the Messinian Gessoso Solfifera Formation. Selenitic gypsum beds are interlayered with by centimetre to meter thick shales layers. In order to evaluate the risk related to the collapse of the flooded level (level 3) a deterministic approach based on 3D numerical analyses has been considered. The entire abandoned mine system up to the ground surface has been generated in 3D. The considered critical scenario implies the collapse of the pillars and roof of the flooded level 3. In a first step, a sequential collapse starting from the most critical pillar has been simulated by means of a 3D Finite Element code. This allowed the definition of the subsidence basin at the ground surface and the interaction with the buildings in terms of ground displacements. 3D numerical analyses have been performed with an elasto-perfectly plastic constitutive model. In a second step, the effect of a simultaneous collapse of the entire level 3 has been considered in order to evaluate the risk of a flooding due to the water outflow from the mine system. Using a 3D CFD (Continuum Fluid Dynamics) finite element code the collapse of the level 3 has been simulated and the volume of
OS3D/GIMRT software for modeling multicomponent-multidimensional reactive transport
CI Steefel; SB Yabusaki
2000-05-17
OS3D/GIMRT is a numerical software package for simulating multicomponent reactive transport in porous media. The package consists of two principal components: (1) the code OS3D (Operator Splitting 3-Dimensional Reactive Transport) which simulates reactive transport by either splitting the reaction and transport steps in time, i.e., the classic time or operator splitting approach, or by iterating sequentially between reactions and transport, and (2) the code GIMRT (Global Implicit Multicomponent Reactive Transport) which treats up to two dimensional reactive transport with a one step or global implicit approach. Although the two codes do not yet have totally identical capabilities, they can be run from the same input file, allowing comparisons to be made between the two approaches in many cases. The advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches are discussed more fully below, but in general OS3D is designed for simulation of transient concentration fronts, particularly under high Peclet number transport conditions, because of its use of a total variation diminishing or TVD transport algorithm. GIMRT is suited for simulating water-rock alteration over long periods of time where the aqueous concentration field is at or close to a quasi-stationary state and the numerical transport errors are less important. Where water-rock interaction occurs over geological periods of time, GIMRT may be preferable to OS3D because of its ability to take larger time steps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghita, Gabriel; Sjoden, Glenn; Baciak, James; Huang, Nancy
2006-05-01
The Florida Institute for Nuclear Detection and Security (FINDS) is currently working on the design and evaluation of a prototype neutron detector array that may be used for parcel screening systems and homeland security applications. In order to maximize neutron detector response over a wide spectrum of energies, moderator materials of different compositions and amounts are required, and can be optimized through 3-D discrete ordinates and Monte Carlo model simulations verified through measurement. Pu-Be sources can be used as didactic source materials to augment the design, optimization, and construction of detector arrays with proper characterization via transport analysis. To perform the assessments of the Pu-Be Source Capsule, 3-D radiation transport computations are used, including Monte Carlo (MCNP5) and deterministic (PENTRAN) methodologies. In establishing source geometry, we based our model on available source schematic data. Because both the MCNP5 and PENTRAN codes begin with source neutrons, exothermic (α,n) reactions are modeled using the SCALE5 code from ORNL to define the energy spectrum and the decay of the source. We combined our computational results with experimental data to fully validate our computational schemes, tools and models. Results from our computational models will then be used with experiment to generate a mosaic of the radiation spectrum. Finally, we discuss follow-up studies that highlight response optimization efforts in designing, building, and testing an array of detectors with varying moderators/thicknesses tagged to specific responses predicted using 3-D radiation transport models to augment special nuclear materials detection.
Deterministic methods in radiation transport. A compilation of papers presented February 4--5, 1992
Rice, A.F.; Roussin, R.W.
1992-06-01
The Seminar on Deterministic Methods in Radiation Transport was held February 4--5, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Eleven presentations were made and the full papers are published in this report, along with three that were submitted but not given orally. These papers represent a good overview of the state of the art in the deterministic solution of radiation transport problems for a variety of applications of current interest to the Radiation Shielding Information Center user community.
How do hydrodynamic instabilities affect 3D transport in geophysical vortices?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Peng; Özgökmen, Tamay M.
2015-03-01
Three-dimensional (3D) transport within geophysical vortices (e.g. ocean eddies) is important in understanding processes at a variety of scales, ranging from plankton production to climate variability. 3D transport can be affected by hydrodynamic instabilities of geophysical vortices; however, how the instabilities affecting 3D transport is not clear. Focusing on barotropic, inertial and 3D instabilities, we investigate the joint impacts of instabilities on 3D transport by using analytical methods and direct numerical simulations. We discover for the first time that material can be exchanged through 3D pathways which link a family of vortices generated by the instabilities in a single, initially unstable vortex. We also show that instabilities can increase the magnitude of vertical velocity, mixing rate and vertical material exchange. Besides, we find that instabilities can cause the kinetic energy wavenumber spectrum to have a power-law regime different than the classic regimes of k - 5 / 3 and k-3, and propose a new energy spectrum to interpret the non-classic regime.
Predicting longshore gradients in longshore transport: the CERC formula compared to Delft3D
List, Jeffrey H.; Hanes, Daniel M.; Ruggiero, Peter
2007-01-01
The prediction of longshore transport gradients is critical for forecasting shoreline change. We employ simple test cases consisting of shoreface pits at varying distances from the shoreline to compare the longshore transport gradients predicted by the CERC formula against results derived from the process-based model Delft3D. Results show that while in some cases the two approaches give very similar results, in many cases the results diverge greatly. Although neither approach is validated with field data here, the Delft3D-based transport gradients provide much more consistent predictions of erosional and accretionary zones as the pit location varies across the shoreface.
Pore-scale intermittent velocity structure underpinning anomalous transport through 3-D porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Peter K.; Anna, Pietro; Nunes, Joao P.; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.; Juanes, Ruben
2014-09-01
We study the nature of non-Fickian particle transport in 3-D porous media by simulating fluid flow in the intricate pore space of real rock. We solve the full Navier-Stokes equations at the same resolution as the 3-D micro-CT (computed tomography) image of the rock sample and simulate particle transport along the streamlines of the velocity field. We find that transport at the pore scale is markedly anomalous: longitudinal spreading is superdiffusive, while transverse spreading is subdiffusive. We demonstrate that this anomalous behavior originates from the intermittent structure of the velocity field at the pore scale, which in turn emanates from the interplay between velocity heterogeneity and velocity correlation. Finally, we propose a continuous time random walk model that honors this intermittent structure at the pore scale and captures the anomalous 3-D transport behavior at the macroscale.
Moving from Batch to Field Using the RT3D Reactive Transport Modeling System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clement, T. P.; Gautam, T. R.
2002-12-01
The public domain reactive transport code RT3D (Clement, 1997) is a general-purpose numerical code for solving coupled, multi-species reactive transport in saturated groundwater systems. The code uses MODFLOW to simulate flow and several modules of MT3DMS to simulate the advection and dispersion processes. RT3D employs the operator-split strategy which allows the code solve the coupled reactive transport problem in a modular fashion. The coupling between reaction and transport is defined through a separate module where the reaction equations are specified. The code supports a versatile user-defined reaction option that allows users to define their own reaction system through a Fortran-90 subroutine, known as the RT3D-reaction package. Further a utility code, known as BATCHRXN, allows the users to independently test and debug their reaction package. To analyze a new reaction system at a batch scale, users should first run BATCHRXN to test the ability of their reaction package to model the batch data. After testing, the reaction package can simply be ported to the RT3D environment to study the model response under 1-, 2-, or 3-dimensional transport conditions. This paper presents example problems that demonstrate the methods for moving from batch to field-scale simulations using BATCHRXN and RT3D codes. The first example describes a simple first-order reaction system for simulating the sequential degradation of Tetrachloroethene (PCE) and its daughter products. The second example uses a relatively complex reaction system for describing the multiple degradation pathways of Tetrachloroethane (PCA) and its daughter products. References 1) Clement, T.P, RT3D - A modular computer code for simulating reactive multi-species transport in 3-Dimensional groundwater aquifers, Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Research Report, PNNL-SA-28967, September, 1997. Available at: http://bioprocess.pnl.gov/rt3d.htm.
An implicit dispersive transport algorithm for the US Geological Survey MOC3D solute-transport model
Kipp, K.L., Jr.; Konikow, L.F.; Hornberger, G.Z.
1998-01-01
This report documents an extension to the U.S. Geological Survey MOC3D transport model that incorporates an implicit-in-time difference approximation for the dispersive transport equation, including source/sink terms. The original MOC3D transport model (Version 1) uses the method of characteristics to solve the transport equation on the basis of the velocity field. The original MOC3D solution algorithm incorporates particle tracking to represent advective processes and an explicit finite-difference formulation to calculate dispersive fluxes. The new implicit procedure eliminates several stability criteria required for the previous explicit formulation. This allows much larger transport time increments to be used in dispersion-dominated problems. The decoupling of advective and dispersive transport in MOC3D, however, is unchanged. With the implicit extension, the MOC3D model is upgraded to Version 2. A description of the numerical method of the implicit dispersion calculation, the data-input requirements and output options, and the results of simulator testing and evaluation are presented. Version 2 of MOC3D was evaluated for the same set of problems used for verification of Version 1. These test results indicate that the implicit calculation of Version 2 matches the accuracy of Version 1, yet is more efficient than the explicit calculation for transport problems that are characterized by a grid Peclet number less than about 1.0.
Bailey, Ryan T.; Morway, Eric D.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Gates, Timothy K.
2013-01-01
A numerical model was developed that is capable of simulating multispecies reactive solute transport in variably saturated porous media. This model consists of a modified version of the reactive transport model RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3 Dimensions) that is linked to the Unsaturated-Zone Flow (UZF1) package and MODFLOW. Referred to as UZF-RT3D, the model is tested against published analytical benchmarks as well as other published contaminant transport models, including HYDRUS-1D, VS2DT, and SUTRA, and the coupled flow and transport modeling system of CATHY and TRAN3D. Comparisons in one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional variably saturated systems are explored. While several test cases are included to verify the correct implementation of variably saturated transport in UZF-RT3D, other cases are included to demonstrate the usefulness of the code in terms of model run-time and handling the reaction kinetics of multiple interacting species in variably saturated subsurface systems. As UZF1 relies on a kinematic-wave approximation for unsaturated flow that neglects the diffusive terms in Richards equation, UZF-RT3D can be used for large-scale aquifer systems for which the UZF1 formulation is reasonable, that is, capillary-pressure gradients can be neglected and soil parameters can be treated as homogeneous. Decreased model run-time and the ability to include site-specific chemical species and chemical reactions make UZF-RT3D an attractive model for efficient simulation of multispecies reactive transport in variably saturated large-scale subsurface systems.
Bailey, Ryan T; Morway, Eric D; Niswonger, Richard G; Gates, Timothy K
2013-01-01
A numerical model was developed that is capable of simulating multispecies reactive solute transport in variably saturated porous media. This model consists of a modified version of the reactive transport model RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3 Dimensions) that is linked to the Unsaturated-Zone Flow (UZF1) package and MODFLOW. Referred to as UZF-RT3D, the model is tested against published analytical benchmarks as well as other published contaminant transport models, including HYDRUS-1D, VS2DT, and SUTRA, and the coupled flow and transport modeling system of CATHY and TRAN3D. Comparisons in one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional variably saturated systems are explored. While several test cases are included to verify the correct implementation of variably saturated transport in UZF-RT3D, other cases are included to demonstrate the usefulness of the code in terms of model run-time and handling the reaction kinetics of multiple interacting species in variably saturated subsurface systems. As UZF1 relies on a kinematic-wave approximation for unsaturated flow that neglects the diffusive terms in Richards equation, UZF-RT3D can be used for large-scale aquifer systems for which the UZF1 formulation is reasonable, that is, capillary-pressure gradients can be neglected and soil parameters can be treated as homogeneous. Decreased model run-time and the ability to include site-specific chemical species and chemical reactions make UZF-RT3D an attractive model for efficient simulation of multispecies reactive transport in variably saturated large-scale subsurface systems. PMID:23131109
Reactive Transport from Path3D: A Stream Tube Approach for Heterogeneous Aquifers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LI, L.
2001-05-01
Path3D (Zheng, 1991) is a popular computer program run in series with MODFLOW. Remediation engineers and hydrogeologist use it to track contaminant paths and to estimate solute travel time at heterogeneous sites. In order to predict fate and transport of multiple species at heterogeneous sites, numerical modeling packages, such as MT3D (Zheng,1990) or RT3D (Clement 1997) are often employed. These packages also are based on pre-processing with MODFLOW. However, for complex cases with aquifer heterogeneity, MT3D and RT3D often require very long computer run times. This paper addresses a new, stream-tube, approach that is both highly efficient and accurate to predict multi-species reactive transport at heterogeneous sites with steady flow. Our application of the stream tube approach is different from other stream tube approaches that apply the advection-dispersion-reaction equation in each stream tube (such as Ginn, 2000, Yabusaki, 1998, Charbeneau, 2000). In this work, the authors make use of properties of a linear system,working with decoupled reaction and sorption processes and mixing processes described by residence time distributions (RTDs). RTDs are abstracted from Path3D particle-tracking results and additional temporal and spatial dispersion (not caused by aquifer heterogeneity) is ignored. Reactions, including first order reactions and linear, reversible sorption, are applied through analytical transfer functions (called kinetic response functions). Convolution can then be applied to determine contaminant concentrations at monitoring points, using the RTDs determined from Path3D, kinetic transfer functions (expressed analytically), and expected trends of the source concentration. We are currently testing the approach and noting significant computational advantages for problems in three-dimensions, with first order reaction pathways and different retardation factors. We will demonstrate the method with several examples and compare the performance with MT3D and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahadori, Amir Alexander
Astronauts are exposed to a unique radiation environment in space. United States terrestrial radiation worker limits, derived from guidelines produced by scientific panels, do not apply to astronauts. Limits for astronauts have changed throughout the Space Age, eventually reaching the current National Aeronautics and Space Administration limit of 3% risk of exposure induced death, with an administrative stipulation that the risk be assured to the upper 95% confidence limit. Much effort has been spent on reducing the uncertainty associated with evaluating astronaut risk for radiogenic cancer mortality, while tools that affect the accuracy of the calculations have largely remained unchanged. In the present study, the impacts of using more realistic computational phantoms with size variability to represent astronauts with simplified deterministic radiation transport were evaluated. Next, the impacts of microgravity-induced body changes on space radiation dosimetry using the same transport method were investigated. Finally, dosimetry and risk calculations resulting from Monte Carlo radiation transport were compared with results obtained using simplified deterministic radiation transport. The results of the present study indicated that the use of phantoms that more accurately represent human anatomy can substantially improve space radiation dose estimates, most notably for exposures from solar particle events under light shielding conditions. Microgravity-induced changes were less important, but results showed that flexible phantoms could assist in optimizing astronaut body position for reducing exposures during solar particle events. Finally, little overall differences in risk calculations using simplified deterministic radiation transport and 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport were found; however, for the galactic cosmic ray ion spectra, compensating errors were observed for the constituent ions, thus exhibiting the need to perform evaluations on a particle
2D/1D approximations to the 3D neutron transport equation. I: Theory
Kelley, B. W.; Larsen, E. W.
2013-07-01
A new class of '2D/1D' approximations is proposed for the 3D linear Boltzmann equation. These approximate equations preserve the exact transport physics in the radial directions x and y and diffusion physics in the axial direction z. Thus, the 2D/1D equations are more accurate approximations of the 3D Boltzmann equation than the conventional 3D diffusion equation. The 2D/1D equations can be systematically discretized, to yield accurate simulation methods for 3D reactor core problems. The resulting solutions will be more accurate than 3D diffusion solutions, and less expensive to generate than standard 3D transport solutions. In this paper, we (i) show that the simplest 2D/1D equation has certain desirable properties, (ii) systematically discretize this equation, and (iii) derive a stable iteration scheme for solving the discrete system of equations. In a companion paper [1], we give numerical results that confirm the theoretical predictions of accuracy and iterative stability. (authors)
The Transient 3-D Transport Coupled Code TORT-TD/ATTICA3D for High-Fidelity Pebble-Bed HTGR Analyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seubert, Armin; Sureda, Antonio; Lapins, Janis; Bader, Johannes; Laurien, Eckart
2012-01-01
This article describes the 3D discrete ordinates-based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D that aims at steady state and transient analyses of pebble-bed high-temperature gas cooled reactors. In view of increasing computing power, the application of time-dependent neutron transport methods becomes feasible for best estimate evaluations of safety margins. The calculation capabilities of TORT-TD/ATTICA3D are presented along with the coupling approach, with focus on the time-dependent neutron transport features of TORT-TD. Results obtained for the OECD/NEA/NSC PBMR-400 benchmark demonstrate the transient capabilities of TORT-TD/ATTICA3D.
How Do Hydrodynamic Instabilities Affect 3D Transport in Geophysical Vortices?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, P.; Ozgokmen, T. M.
2014-12-01
Understanding three-dimensional (3D) transport in ocean eddies is important for processes at a variety of scales, ranging from plankton production to climate variability. It is well known that geophysical vortices are subject to various hydrodynamic instabilities. Yet the influence of these instabilities on 3D material transport in vortex systems is not well investigated. Focusing on barotropic, inertial and 3D instabilities, we analyze these instabilities with normal-mode method, and reproduce their characteristics via highly-resolved numerical simulations using a spectral element Navier-Stokes solver. By comparing the simulation results of stable and unstable vortices, we investigate the joint impacts of instabilities on 3D transport through three major aspects: (i) energy transfer, (ii) overturning transport of the secondary circulation, and (iii) rates of vertical exchange and mixing. It is found that instabilities can enhance local nonlinear interactions and cause the kinetic energy wavenumber spectrum to have slopes between the conventional -5/3 and -3 at inertial ranges. The cascade of a new quantity is proposed to explain these non-conventional slopes. One of our main results is the discovery of material exchange between the central vortex and satellite vortices through 3D pathways, called funnels. These funnels modify the concept of elliptic regions that can trap material when confined to 2D dynamics. Thus, we show that a family of vortices, created by the hydrodynamic instabilities of the initially unstable vortex, can still continue to operate in unity in order to complete the 3D transport in these systems. We also show that flow instabilities can double the magnitude of vertical velocity, increase the rate of vertical exchange by an order of magnitude and enhance mixing rate more than 100%.
Smith, Leon E.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Pagh, Richard T.; Miller, Erin A.; Shaver, Mark W.; Ashbaker, Eric D.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Ellis, J. E.; Kaye, William R.; McConn, Ronald J.; Meriwether, George H.; Ressler, Jennifer J.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Wareing, Todd A.
2008-10-31
Radiation transport modeling methods used in the radiation detection community fall into one of two broad categories: stochastic (Monte Carlo) and deterministic. Monte Carlo methods are typically the tool of choice for simulating gamma-ray spectrometers operating in homeland and national security settings (e.g. portal monitoring of vehicles or isotope identification using handheld devices), but deterministic codes that discretize the linear Boltzmann transport equation in space, angle, and energy offer potential advantages in computational efficiency for many complex radiation detection problems. This paper describes the development of a scenario simulation framework based on deterministic algorithms. Key challenges include: formulating methods to automatically define an energy group structure that can support modeling of gamma-ray spectrometers ranging from low to high resolution; combining deterministic transport algorithms (e.g. ray-tracing and discrete ordinates) to mitigate ray effects for a wide range of problem types; and developing efficient and accurate methods to calculate gamma-ray spectrometer response functions from the deterministic angular flux solutions. The software framework aimed at addressing these challenges is described and results from test problems that compare coupled deterministic-Monte Carlo methods and purely Monte Carlo approaches are provided.
Mansoor, K; Maley, M; Demir, Z; Hoffman, F
2001-08-08
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a large Superfund site in California that is implementing an extensive ground water remediation program. The site is underlain by a thick sequence of heterogeneous alluvial sediments. Defining ground-water flow pathways in this complex geologic setting is difficult. To better evaluate these pathways, a deterministic approach was applied to define hydrostratigraphic units (HSUS) on the basis of identifiable hydraulic behavior and contaminant migration trends. The conceptual model based on this approach indicates that groundwater flow and contaminant transport occurs within packages of sediments bounded by thin, low-permeability confining layers. To aid in the development of the remediation program, a three-dimensional finite-element model was developed for two of the HSUS at LLNL. The primary objectives of this model are to test the conceptual model with a numerical model, and provide well field management support for the large ground-water remediation system. The model was successfully calibrated to 12 years of ground water flow and contaminant transport data. These results confirm that the thin, low-permeability confining layers within the heterogeneous alluvial sediments are the dominant hydraulic control to flow and transport. This calibrated model is currently being applied to better manage the large site-wide ground water extraction system by optimizing the location of new extraction wells, managing pumping rates for extraction wells, and providing performance estimates for long-term planning and budgeting.
Deterministic Analysis and Upscaling of Bromide Transport in a Heterogeneous Vadose Zone
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Conservativ solute transport experiments were conducted at a field plot and on an undisturbed soil core from the same site. The hydraulic and solute transport properties were extensively characterized so that the data could be analyzed from a deterministic perspective. To investigate the influence o...
PHT3D-UZF: A reactive transport model for variably-saturated porous media
Wu, Ming Zhi; Post, Vincent E. A.; Salmon, S. Ursula; Morway, Eric; Prommer, H.
2016-01-01
A modified version of the MODFLOW/MT3DMS-based reactive transport model PHT3D was developed to extend current reactive transport capabilities to the variably-saturated component of the subsurface system and incorporate diffusive reactive transport of gaseous species. Referred to as PHT3D-UZF, this code incorporates flux terms calculated by MODFLOW's unsaturated-zone flow (UZF1) package. A volume-averaged approach similar to the method used in UZF-MT3DMS was adopted. The PHREEQC-based computation of chemical processes within PHT3D-UZF in combination with the analytical solution method of UZF1 allows for comprehensive reactive transport investigations (i.e., biogeochemical transformations) that jointly involve saturated and unsaturated zone processes. Intended for regional-scale applications, UZF1 simulates downward-only flux within the unsaturated zone. The model was tested by comparing simulation results with those of existing numerical models. The comparison was performed for several benchmark problems that cover a range of important hydrological and reactive transport processes. A 2D simulation scenario was defined to illustrate the geochemical evolution following dewatering in a sandy acid sulfate soil environment. Other potential applications include the simulation of biogeochemical processes in variably-saturated systems that track the transport and fate of agricultural pollutants, nutrients, natural and xenobiotic organic compounds and micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, as well as the evolution of isotope patterns.
PHT3D-UZF: A Reactive Transport Model for Variably-Saturated Porous Media.
Wu, Ming Zhi; Post, Vincent E A; Salmon, S Ursula; Morway, Eric D; Prommer, Henning
2016-01-01
A modified version of the MODFLOW/MT3DMS-based reactive transport model PHT3D was developed to extend current reactive transport capabilities to the variably-saturated component of the subsurface system and incorporate diffusive reactive transport of gaseous species. Referred to as PHT3D-UZF, this code incorporates flux terms calculated by MODFLOW's unsaturated-zone flow (UZF1) package. A volume-averaged approach similar to the method used in UZF-MT3DMS was adopted. The PHREEQC-based computation of chemical processes within PHT3D-UZF in combination with the analytical solution method of UZF1 allows for comprehensive reactive transport investigations (i.e., biogeochemical transformations) that jointly involve saturated and unsaturated zone processes. Intended for regional-scale applications, UZF1 simulates downward-only flux within the unsaturated zone. The model was tested by comparing simulation results with those of existing numerical models. The comparison was performed for several benchmark problems that cover a range of important hydrological and reactive transport processes. A 2D simulation scenario was defined to illustrate the geochemical evolution following dewatering in a sandy acid sulfate soil environment. Other potential applications include the simulation of biogeochemical processes in variably-saturated systems that track the transport and fate of agricultural pollutants, nutrients, natural and xenobiotic organic compounds and micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, as well as the evolution of isotope patterns. PMID:25628017
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Druzgalski, Clara; Mani, Ali
2014-11-01
We have investigated the transport dynamics of an electrokinetic instability that occurs when ions are driven from bulk fluids to ion-selective membranes due to externally applied electric fields. This phenomenon is relevant to a wide range of electrochemical applications including electrodialysis for fresh water production. Using data from our 3D DNS, we show how electroconvective instability, arising from concentration polarization, results in a chaotic flow that significantly alters the net ion transport rate across the membrane surface. The 3D DNS results, which fully resolve the spatiotemporal scales including the electric double layers, enable visualization of instantaneous snapshots of current density directly on the membrane surface, as well as analysis of transport statistics such as concentration variance and fluctuating advective fluxes. Furthermore, we present a full spectral analysis revealing broadband spectra in both concentration and flow fields and deduce the key parameter controlling the range of contributing scales.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Câmara Santa Clara Gomes, Tristan; De La Torre Medina, Joaquín; Velázquez-Galván, Yenni G.; Martínez-Huerta, Juan Manuel; Encinas, Armando; Piraux, Luc
2016-07-01
We have explored the interplay between the magnetic and magneto-transport properties of 3D interconnected nanowire networks made of various magnetic metals by electrodeposition into nanoporous membranes with crossed channels and controlled topology. The close relationship between their magnetic and structural properties has a direct impact on their magneto-transport behavior. In order to accurately and reliably describe the effective magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance, an analytical model inherent to the topology of 3D nanowire networks is proposed and validated. The feasibility to obtain magneto-transport responses in nanowire network films based on interconnected nanowires makes them very attractive for the development of mechanically stable superstructures that are suitable for potential technological applications.
Hybrid method of deterministic and probabilistic approaches for multigroup neutron transport problem
Lee, D.
2012-07-01
A hybrid method of deterministic and probabilistic methods is proposed to solve Boltzmann transport equation. The new method uses a deterministic method, Method of Characteristics (MOC), for the fast and thermal neutron energy ranges and a probabilistic method, Monte Carlo (MC), for the intermediate resonance energy range. The hybrid method, in case of continuous energy problem, will be able to take advantage of fast MOC calculation and accurate resonance self shielding treatment of MC method. As a proof of principle, this paper presents the hybrid methodology applied to a multigroup form of Boltzmann transport equation and confirms that the hybrid method can produce consistent results with MC and MOC methods. (authors)
Deterministic methods for time-dependent stochastic neutron transport
Baker, Randal S
2009-01-01
A numerical method is presented for solving the time-dependent survival probability equation in general (lD/2D/3D) geometries using the multi group SNmethod. Although this equation was first formulated by Bell in the early 1960's, it has only been applied to stationary systems (for other than idealized point models) until recently, and detailed descriptions of numerical solution techniques are lacking in the literature. This paper presents such a description and applies it to a dynamic system representative of a figurative criticality accident scenario.
Edge Transport Modeling using the 3D EMC3-Eirene code on Tokamaks and Stellarators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lore, J. D.; Ahn, J. W.; Briesemeister, A.; Ferraro, N.; Labombard, B.; McLean, A.; Reinke, M.; Shafer, M.; Terry, J.
2015-11-01
The fluid plasma edge transport code EMC3-Eirene has been applied to aid data interpretation and understanding the results of experiments with 3D effects on several tokamaks. These include applied and intrinsic 3D magnetic fields, 3D plasma facing components, and toroidally and poloidally localized heat and particle sources. On Alcator C-Mod, a series of experiments explored the impact of toroidally and poloidally localized impurity gas injection on core confinement and asymmetries in the divertor fluxes, with the differences between the asymmetry in L-mode and H-mode qualitatively reproduced in the simulations due to changes in the impurity ionization in the private flux region. Modeling of NSTX experiments on the effect of 3D fields on detachment matched the trend of a higher density at which the detachment occurs when 3D fields are applied. On DIII-D, different magnetic field models were used in the simulation and compared against the 2D Thomson scattering diagnostic. In simulating each device different aspects of the code model are tested pointing to areas where the model must be further developed. The application to stellarator experiments will also be discussed. Work supported by U.S. DOE: DE-AC05-00OR22725, DE AC02-09CH11466, DE-FC02-99ER54512, and DE-FC02-04ER54698.
Advanced quadratures and periodic boundary conditions in parallel 3D S{sub n} transport
Manalo, K.; Yi, C.; Huang, M.; Sjoden, G.
2013-07-01
Significant updates in numerical quadratures have warranted investigation with 3D Sn discrete ordinates transport. We show new applications of quadrature departing from level symmetric (S{sub 2}o). investigating 3 recently developed quadratures: Even-Odd (EO), Linear-Discontinuous Finite Element - Surface Area (LDFE-SA), and the non-symmetric Icosahedral Quadrature (IC). We discuss implementation changes to 3D Sn codes (applied to Hybrid MOC-Sn TITAN and 3D parallel PENTRAN) that can be performed to accommodate Icosahedral Quadrature, as this quadrature is not 90-degree rotation invariant. In particular, as demonstrated using PENTRAN, the properties of Icosahedral Quadrature are suitable for trivial application using periodic BCs versus that of reflective BCs. In addition to implementing periodic BCs for 3D Sn PENTRAN, we implemented a technique termed 'angular re-sweep' which properly conditions periodic BCs for outer eigenvalue iterative loop convergence. As demonstrated by two simple transport problems (3-group fixed source and 3-group reflected/periodic eigenvalue pin cell), we remark that all of the quadratures we investigated are generally superior to level symmetric quadrature, with Icosahedral Quadrature performing the most efficiently for problems tested. (authors)
Ozone formation during an episode over Europe: A 3-D chemical/transport model simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berntsen, Terje; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.
1994-01-01
A 3-D regional photochemical tracer/transport model for Europe and the Eastern Atlantic has been developed based on the NASA/GISS CTM. The model resolution is 4x5 degrees latitude and longitude with 9 layers in the vertical (7 in the troposphere). Advective winds, convection statistics and other meteorological data from the NASA/GISS GCM are used. An extensive gas-phase chemical scheme based on the scheme used in our global 2D model has been incorporated in the 3D model. In this work ozone formation in the troposphere is studied with the 3D model during a 5 day period starting June 30. Extensive local ozone production is found and the relationship between the source regions and the downwind areas are discussed. Variations in local ozone formation as a function of total emission rate, as well as the composition of the emissions (HC/NO(x)) ratio and isoprene emissions) are elucidated. An important vertical transport process in the troposphere is by convective clouds. The 3D model includes an explicit parameterization of this process. It is shown that this process has significant influence on the calculated surface ozone concentrations.
Optically directed molecular transport and 3D isoelectric positioning of amphoteric biomolecules
Hafeman, Dean G.; Harkins, James B.; WitkowskiII, Charles E.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Brown, Gilbert M; Warmack, Robert J Bruce; Thundat, Thomas George
2006-01-01
We demonstrate the formation of charged molecular packets and their transport within optically created electrical force-field traps in a pH-buffered electrolyte. We call this process photoelectrophoretic localization and transport (PELT). The electrolyte is in contact with a photoconductive semiconductor electrode and a counterelectrode that are connected through an external circuit. A light beam directed to coordinates on the photoconductive electrode surface produces a photocurrent within the circuit and electrolyte. Within the electrolyte, the photocurrent creates localized force-field traps centered at the illuminated coordinates. Charged molecules, including polypeptides and proteins, electrophoretically accumulate into the traps and subsequently can be transported in the electrolyte by moving the traps over the photoconductive electrode in response to movement of the light beam. The molecules in a single trap can be divided into aliquots, and the aliquots can be directed along multiple routes simultaneously by using multiple light beams. This photoelectrophoretic transport of charged molecules by PELT resembles the electrostatic transport of electrons within force-field wells of solid-state charge-coupled devices. The molecules, however, travel in a liquid electrolyte rather than a solid. Furthermore, we have used PELT to position amphoteric biomolecules in three dimensions. A 3D pH gradient was created in an electrolyte medium by controlling the illumination position on a photoconductive anode where protons were generated electrolytically. Photoelectrophoretic transport of amphoteric molecules through the pH gradient resulted in accumulation of the molecules at their apparent 3D isoelectric coordinates in the medium.
2D/1D approximations to the 3D neutron transport equation. II: Numerical comparisons
Kelley, B. W.; Collins, B.; Larsen, E. W.
2013-07-01
In a companion paper [1], (i) several new '2D/1D equations' are introduced as accurate approximations to the 3D Boltzmann transport equation, (ii) the simplest of these approximate equations is systematically discretized, and (iii) a theoretically stable iteration scheme is developed to solve the discrete equations. In this paper, numerical results are presented that confirm the theoretical predictions made in [1]. (authors)
3-D Particl-in-Cell Simulations of Transport Driven Currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsung, F. S.; Dawson, J. M.
1997-11-01
In the advanced tokamak regime, transport phenomena can account for a signficant fraction of the toroidal current, possibly over that driven directly by the ohmic heating electric fields. Although bootstrap theory accounts for contributions of the collisional modification of banana orbits on the toroidal currents, the corresponding transport theory does not accurately predict the transport of particles and heat in present-day tokamak experiments. Furthermore, in our previous simulations in 21/2-D, currents were spontaneously generated in both the cylindrical and the toroidal geometries, contrary to neoclassical predictions. In these calculations, it was believed that the driving mechanism is the preferential loss of particles whose initial velocity is opposite to that of the plasma current. Because the preferential loss mechanism assumes the conservation of toroidal angular momentum, we have extended these simulations to three dimensions to study the effects of toroidal assymetries. A parallel, 3-D electromagnetic PIC code running on the IBM SP, with a localized field-solver has been developed to investigate the effects of perturbations parallel to the field lines, and direct comparisons has been made between the 21/2-D and 3-D simulations, and we have found good agreements between the 2 1/2-D calculations and the 3-D results. We will present these results at the meeting.
Impact of 3D root uptake on solute transport: a numerical study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröder, N.; Javaux, M.; Vanderborght, J.; Steffen, B.; Vereecken, H.
2011-12-01
Plant transpiration is an important component of the hydrological cycle. Through root water uptake, plants do not only affect the 3D soil water flow velocity distribution, but also solute movement in soil. This numerical study aims at investigating how solute fate is impacted by root uptake using the 3D biophysical model R-SWMS (Javaux et al., 2008). This model solves the Richards equation in 3D in the soil and the flow equation within the plant root xylem vessels. Furthermore, for solute transport simulations, the 3D particle tracker PARTRACE (Bechtold et al., 2011) was used. . We generated 3D virtual steady-state breakthrough curves (BTC) experiments in soils with transpiring plants. The averaged BTCs were then fitted with a 1D numerical flow model under steady-state conditions to obtain apparent CDE parameters. Two types of root architecture, a fibrous and a taprooted structure, were compared in virtual 3D experiments. The solute uptake type or the transpiration rate were also modified and we analyzed how these parameters affected apparent disperisivity and velocity profiles. Our simulation results show, that both, apparent velocity and dispersivity length are affected by water and solute root uptake. In addition, under high exclusion processes (slight or no active uptake), solute accumulates around roots and generates a long tailing to the breakthrough curves, which cannot be reproduced by 1D models that simulate root water uptake with solute exclusion. This observation may have an important impact on how to model pollutant mass transfer to groundwater at larger scales. Javaux, M., T. Schröder, J. Vanderborght, and H. Vereecken. 2008. Use of a three-dimensional detailed modeling approach for predicting root water uptake. Vadose Zone J. 7:1079-1088.doi: 10.2136/vzj2007.0115. Bechtold, M., S. Haber-Pohlmeier, J. Vanderborght, A. Pohlmeier, P.A. Ferre, and H. Vereecken. 2011. Near-surface solute redistribution during evaporation. Submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moustafa, Salli; Févotte, François; Lathuilière, Bruno; Plagne, Laurent
2014-06-01
The past few years have been marked by a noticeable increase in the interest in 3D whole-core heterogeneous deterministic neutron transport solvers for reference calculations. Due to the extremely large problem sizes tackled by such solvers, they need to use adapted numerical methods and need to be efficiently implemented to take advantage of the full computing power of modern systems. As for numerical methods, one possible approach consists in iterating over resolutions of 2D and 1D MOC problems by taking advantage of prismatic geometries. The MICADO solver, developed at EDF R&D, is a parallel implementation of such a method in distributed and shared memory systems. However it is currently unable to use SIMD vectorization to leverage the full computing power of modern CPUs. In this paper, we describe our first effort to support vectorization in MICADO, typically targeting Intel© SSE CPUs. Both the 2D and 1D algorithms are vectorized, allowing for high expected speedups for the whole spatial solver. We present benchmark computations, which show nearly optimal speedups for our vectorized implementation on the TAKEDA case.
3D nonrigid registration via optimal mass transport on the GPU.
Ur Rehman, Tauseef; Haber, Eldad; Pryor, Gallagher; Melonakos, John; Tannenbaum, Allen
2009-12-01
In this paper, we present a new computationally efficient numerical scheme for the minimizing flow approach for optimal mass transport (OMT) with applications to non-rigid 3D image registration. The approach utilizes all of the gray-scale data in both images, and the optimal mapping from image A to image B is the inverse of the optimal mapping from B to A. Further, no landmarks need to be specified, and the minimizer of the distance functional involved is unique. Our implementation also employs multigrid, and parallel methodologies on a consumer graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast computation. Although computing the optimal map has been shown to be computationally expensive in the past, we show that our approach is orders of magnitude faster then previous work and is capable of finding transport maps with optimality measures (mean curl) previously unattainable by other works (which directly influences the accuracy of registration). We give results where the algorithm was used to compute non-rigid registrations of 3D synthetic data as well as intra-patient pre-operative and post-operative 3D brain MRI datasets. PMID:19135403
3D nonrigid registration via optimal mass transport on the GPU
Rehman, Tauseef ur; Haber, Eldad; Pryor, Gallagher; Melonakos, John; Tannenbaum, Allen
2009-01-01
In this paper, we present a new computationally efficient numerical scheme for the minimizing flow approach for optimal mass transport (OMT) with applications to non-rigid 3D image registration. The approach utilizes all of the gray-scale data in both images, and the optimal mapping from image A to image B is the inverse of the optimal mapping from B to A. Further, no landmarks need to be specified, and the minimizer of the distance functional involved is unique. Our implementation also employs multigrid, and parallel methodologies on a consumer graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast computation. Although computing the optimal map has been shown to be computationally expensive in the past, we show that our approach is orders of magnitude faster then previous work and is capable of finding transport maps with optimality measures (mean curl) previously unattainable by other works (which directly influences the accuracy of registration). We give results where the algorithm was used to compute non-rigid registrations of 3D synthetic data as well as intra-patient pre-operative and post-operative 3D brain MRI datasets. PMID:19135403
Quasi 3D modeling of water flow and solute transport in vadose zone and groundwater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yakirevich, A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Weisbrod, N.; Pachepsky, Y. A.
2013-12-01
The complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow models. One commonly used simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone is insignificant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In such cases the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone above groundwater level can be simulated as a 1D phenomenon, whereas through groundwater they are viewed as 2D or 3D phenomena. A new approach for a numerical scheme for 3D variably saturated flow and transport is presented. A Quasi-3D approach allows representing flow in the 'vadose zone - aquifer' system by a series of 1D Richards' equations solved in variably-saturated zone and by 3D-saturated flow equation in groundwater (modified MODFLOW code). The 1D and 3D equations are coupled at the phreatic surface in a way that aquifer replenishment is calculated using the Richards' equation, and solving for the moving water table does not require definition of the specific yield parameter. The 3D advection-dispersion equation is solved in the entire domain by the MT3D code. Using implicit finite differences approximation to couple processes in the vadose zone and groundwater provides mass conservation and increase of computational efficiency. The above model was applied to simulate the impact of irrigation on groundwater salinity in the Alto Piura aquifer (Northern Peru). Studies on changing groundwater quality in arid and semi-arid lands show that irrigation return flow is one of the major factors contributing to aquifer salinization. Existing mathematical models do not account explicitly for the solute recycling during irrigation on a daily scale. Recycling occurs throughout the unsaturated and saturated zones, as function of the solute mass extracted from pumping wells. Salt concentration in irrigation water is calculated at each time step as a function of concentration of both surface water and groundwater
Quadratic Finite Element Method for 1D Deterministic Transport
Tolar, Jr., D R; Ferguson, J M
2004-01-06
In the discrete ordinates, or SN, numerical solution of the transport equation, both the spatial ({und r}) and angular ({und {Omega}}) dependences on the angular flux {psi}{und r},{und {Omega}}are modeled discretely. While significant effort has been devoted toward improving the spatial discretization of the angular flux, we focus on improving the angular discretization of {psi}{und r},{und {Omega}}. Specifically, we employ a Petrov-Galerkin quadratic finite element approximation for the differencing of the angular variable ({mu}) in developing the one-dimensional (1D) spherical geometry S{sub N} equations. We develop an algorithm that shows faster convergence with angular resolution than conventional S{sub N} algorithms.
DANTSYS: a system for deterministic, neutral particle transport calculations
Alcouffe, R.E.; Baker, R.S.
1996-12-31
The THREEDANT code is the latest addition to our system of codes, DANTSYS, which perform neutral particle transport computations on a given system of interest. The system of codes is distinguished by geometrical or symmetry considerations. For example, ONEDANT and TWODANT are designed for one and two dimensional geometries respectively. We have TWOHEX for hexagonal geometries, TWODANT/GQ for arbitrary quadrilaterals in XY and RZ geometry, and THREEDANT for three-dimensional geometries. The design of this system of codes is such that they share the same input and edit module and hence the input and output is uniform for all the codes (with the obvious additions needed to specify each type of geometry). The codes in this system are also designed to be general purpose solving both eigenvalue and source driven problems. In this paper we concentrate on the THREEDANT module since there are special considerations that need to be taken into account when designing such a module. The main issues that need to be addressed in a three-dimensional transport solver are those of the computational time needed to solve a problem and the amount of storage needed to accomplish that solution. Of course both these issues are directly related to the number of spatial mesh cells required to obtain a solution to a specified accuracy, but is also related to the spatial discretization method chosen and the requirements of the iteration acceleration scheme employed as will be noted below. Another related consideration is the robustness of the resulting algorithms as implemented; because insistence on complete robustness has a significant impact upon the computation time. We address each of these issues in the following through which we give reasons for the choices we have made in our approach to this code. And this is useful in outlining how the code is evolving to better address the shortcomings that presently exist.
Optically directed molecular transport and 3D isoelectric positioning of amphoteric biomolecules
Hafeman, Dean G.; Harkins, James B.; Witkowski, Charles E.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Warmack, Robert J.; Brown, Gilbert M.; Thundat, Thomas
2006-01-01
We demonstrate the formation of charged molecular packets and their transport within optically created electrical force-field traps in a pH-buffered electrolyte. We call this process photoelectrophoretic localization and transport (PELT). The electrolyte is in contact with a photoconductive semiconductor electrode and a counterelectrode that are connected through an external circuit. A light beam directed to coordinates on the photoconductive electrode surface produces a photocurrent within the circuit and electrolyte. Within the electrolyte, the photocurrent creates localized force-field traps centered at the illuminated coordinates. Charged molecules, including polypeptides and proteins, electrophoretically accumulate into the traps and subsequently can be transported in the electrolyte by moving the traps over the photoconductive electrode in response to movement of the light beam. The molecules in a single trap can be divided into aliquots, and the aliquots can be directed along multiple routes simultaneously by using multiple light beams. This photoelectrophoretic transport of charged molecules by PELT resembles the electrostatic transport of electrons within force-field wells of solid-state charge-coupled devices. The molecules, however, travel in a liquid electrolyte rather than a solid. Furthermore, we have used PELT to position amphoteric biomolecules in three dimensions. A 3D pH gradient was created in an electrolyte medium by controlling the illumination position on a photoconductive anode where protons were generated electrolytically. Photoelectrophoretic transport of amphoteric molecules through the pH gradient resulted in accumulation of the molecules at their apparent 3D isoelectric coordinates in the medium. PMID:16618926
Transport of iron oxide nanoparticles in saturated porous media: a large-scale 3D study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velimirovic, Milica; Schmid, Doris; Micić, Vesna; Miyajima, Kumiko; Klaas, Norbert; Braun, Jürgen; Bosch, Julian; Meckenstock, Rainer; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo
2016-04-01
Iron oxide nanoparticles (FeOxNp) have a high potential as electron acceptor for in situ microbial oxidation of a wide range of recalcitrant groundwater contaminants (Bosch et al., 2010). Tosco et al. (2012) reported on high colloidal stability of FeOxNp dispersed in water, their low deposition behavior, and consequently improved transport in column experiments compared to extensively studied zerovalent iron nanoparticles. However, determination of FeOxNp transport behavior at the field-relevant conditions has not been done before. The present work is aimed to evaluate different complementary methods for detection, quantification and transport characterization of FeOxNp in a large-scale three-dimensional (3D) model aquifer. Prior to that, batch-scale experiments were performed in order to elucidate the potential of the selected methods for direct and indirect characterization and detection of FeOxNp. Direct methods included measurements of particle size distribution, particle concentration, Fetot content and turbidity of the FeOxNp suspension. Indirect methods included measurements of particle zeta potential, as well as TOC content and pH of the FeOxNp suspension. The results of the batch experiments indicated that the most suitable approach for detecting and quantifying FeOxNp was measuring Fetot content and suspension turbidity, as well as particle size determined using dynamic light scattering principle. These complementary methods were further applied in a large-scale 3D study containing medium and coarse sand in order to 1) assess the transport of FeOxNp in saturated porous medium during injection (VFeOx = 6 m3, cparticle = 20 g/L, Qinj = 0.7 m3/h), and 2) illustrate their spatial distribution after injection. The outcomes of the large-scale 3D study confirmed that FeOxNp transport can be successfully investigated applying complementary methods. Monitoring data including Fetot content, turbidity and particle size showed the transport of particles towards the
Momentum Transport: 2D and 3D Cloud Resolving Model Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, Wei-Kuo
2001-01-01
The major objective of this study is to investigate the momentum budgets associated with several convective systems that developed during the TOGA COARE IOP (west Pacific warm pool region) and GATE (east Atlantic region). The tool for this study is the improved Goddard Cumulas Ensemble (GCE) model which includes a 3-class ice-phase microphysical scheme, explicit cloud radiative interactive processes and air-sea interactive surface processes. The model domain contains 256 x 256 grid points (with 2 km resolution) in the horizontal and 38 grid points (to a depth of 22 km) in the vertical. The 2D domain has 1024 grid points. The simulations were performed over a 7-day time period (December 19-26, 1992, for TOGA COARE and September 1-7, 1994 for GATE). Cyclic literal boundary conditions are required for this type of long-term integration. Two well organized squall systems (TOGA, COARE February 22, 1993, and GATE September 12, 1994) were also simulated using the 3D GCE model. Only 9 h simulations were required to cover the life time of the squall systems. the lateral boundary conditions were open for these two squall systems simulations. the following will be examined: (1) the momentum budgets in the convective and stratiform regions, (2) the relationship between momentum transport and cloud organization (i.e., well organized squall lines versus less organized convective), (3) the differences and similarities in momentum transport between 2D and 3D simulated convective systems, and (4) the differences and similarities in momentum budgets between cloud systems simulated with open and cyclic lateral boundary conditions. Preliminary results indicate that there are only small differences between 2D and 3D simulated momentum budgets. Major differences occur, however, between momentum budgets associated with squall systems simulated using different lateral boundary conditions.
Domain Decomposition PN Solutions to the 3D Transport Benchmark over a Range in Parameter Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Criekingen, S.
2014-06-01
The objectives of this contribution are twofold. First, the Domain Decomposition (DD) method used in the parafish parallel transport solver is re-interpreted as a Generalized Schwarz Splitting as defined by Tang [SIAM J Sci Stat Comput, vol.13 (2), pp. 573-595, 1992]. Second, parafish provides spherical harmonic (i.e., PN) solutions to the NEA benchmark suite for 3D transport methods and codes over a range in parameter space. To the best of the author's knowledge, these are the first spherical harmonic solutions provided for this demanding benchmark suite. They have been obtained using 512 CPU cores of the JuRoPa machine installed at the Jülich Computing Center (Germany).
M3D-K simulations of sawteeth and energetic particle transport in tokamak plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Wei; Fu, G. Y.; Sheng, Zheng-Mao; Breslau, J. A.; Wang, Feng
2014-09-01
Nonlinear simulations of sawteeth and related energetic particle transport are carried out using the kinetic/magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hybrid code M3D-K. MHD simulations show repeated sawtooth cycles for a model tokamak equilibrium. Furthermore, test particle simulations are carried out to study the energetic particle transport due to a sawtooth crash. The results show that energetic particles are redistributed radially in the plasma core, depending on pitch angle and energy. For trapped particles, the redistribution occurs for particle energy below a critical value in agreement with existing theories. For co-passing particles, the redistribution is strong with little dependence on particle energy. In contrast, the redistribution level of counter-passing particles decreases with increasing particle energy.
M3D-K Simulations of Sawteeth and Energetic Particle Transport in Tokamak Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Wei; Fu, Guoyong; Sheng, Zhengmao; Breslau, Joshua; Wang, Feng
2013-10-01
Nonlinear simulations of Sawteeth and energetic particle transport are carried out using the kinetic/MHD hybrid code M3D-K. MHD simulations show repeated sawtooth cycles due to a resistive (1,1) internal kink mode for a model tokamak equilibrium. Furthermore, test particle simulations are carried out to study the energetic particle transport due to a sawtooth crash. The results show that energetic particles are redistributed radially in plasma core depending on pitch angle and energy. For trapped particles, the redistribution occurs for particle energy below a critical value in agreement with previous theory. For co-passing particles, the redistribution is strong with little dependence on particle energy. In contrast, the redistribution level of counter-passing particles decreases as particle energy becomes large.
M3D-K simulations of sawteeth and energetic particle transport in tokamak plasmas
Shen, Wei; Sheng, Zheng-Mao; Fu, G. Y.; Breslau, J. A.; Wang, Feng
2014-09-15
Nonlinear simulations of sawteeth and related energetic particle transport are carried out using the kinetic/magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hybrid code M3D-K. MHD simulations show repeated sawtooth cycles for a model tokamak equilibrium. Furthermore, test particle simulations are carried out to study the energetic particle transport due to a sawtooth crash. The results show that energetic particles are redistributed radially in the plasma core, depending on pitch angle and energy. For trapped particles, the redistribution occurs for particle energy below a critical value in agreement with existing theories. For co-passing particles, the redistribution is strong with little dependence on particle energy. In contrast, the redistribution level of counter-passing particles decreases with increasing particle energy.
Ash3d: A finite-volume, conservative numerical model for ash transport and tephra deposition
Schwaiger, Hans F.; Denlinger, Roger P.; Mastin, Larry G.
2012-01-01
We develop a transient, 3-D Eulerian model (Ash3d) to predict airborne volcanic ash concentration and tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. This model simulates downwind advection, turbulent diffusion, and settling of ash injected into the atmosphere by a volcanic eruption column. Ash advection is calculated using time-varying pre-existing wind data and a robust, high-order, finite-volume method. Our routine is mass-conservative and uses the coordinate system of the wind data, either a Cartesian system local to the volcano or a global spherical system for the Earth. Volcanic ash is specified with an arbitrary number of grain sizes, which affects the fall velocity, distribution and duration of transport. Above the source volcano, the vertical mass distribution with elevation is calculated using a Suzuki distribution for a given plume height, eruptive volume, and eruption duration. Multiple eruptions separated in time may be included in a single simulation. We test the model using analytical solutions for transport. Comparisons of the predicted and observed ash distributions for the 18 August 1992 eruption of Mt. Spurr in Alaska demonstrate to the efficacy and efficiency of the routine.
3D numerical simulation of the transport of chemical signature compounds from buried landmines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irrazabal, Maik; Borrero, Ernesto; Briano, Julio G.; Castro, Miguel; Hernandez, Samuel P.
2005-06-01
The transport of the chemical signature compounds from buried landmines in a three-dimensional (3D) array has been numerically modeled using the finite-volume technique. Compounds such as trinitrotoluene, dinitrotoluene, and their degradation products, are semi volatile and somewhat soluble in water. Furthermore, they can strongly adsorb to the soil and undergo chemical and biological degradation. Consequently, the spatial and temporal concentration distributions of such chemicals depend on the mobility of the water and gaseous phases, their molecular and mechanical diffusion, adsorption characteristics, soil water content, compaction, and environmental factors. A 3D framework is required since two-dimensional (2D) symmetry may easily fade due to terrain topography: non-flat surfaces, soil heterogeneity, or underground fractures. The spatial and temporal distribution of the chemical-signature-compounds, in an inclined grid has been obtained. The fact that the chemicals may migrate horizontally, giving higher surface concentrations at positions not directly on top of the objects, emphasizes the need for understanding the transport mechanism when a chemical detector is used. Deformation in the concentration contours after rainfall is observed in the inclined surface and is attributed to both: the advective flux, and to the water flux at the surface caused by the slope. The analysis of the displacements in the position of the maximum concentrations at the surface, respect to the actual location of the mine, in an inclined system, is presented.
Analysis of transport connectivity in karstic aquifers spanned by 3D conduit networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ronayne, M. J.
2013-12-01
Karst aquifers are characterized by interconnected conduits that behave as structural pathways for groundwater and solutes. This modeling study assesses the influence of conduit network geometry on solute transport behavior within karst systems. Synthetic karst aquifers containing 3D conduit networks were considered. Networks of varying complexity were generated using a directed percolation model. Flow and transport simulations were conducted for each synthetic aquifer by modeling the conduits as discretized high-permeability features within a uniform matrix material. Transport connectivity and dispersive properties were evaluated using statistical moments of the solute arrival time distribution at the downgradient conduit outlet (karst spring). In addition, a new connectivity metric that quantifies solute residence time within conduits was considered. Results show that a more complex network leads to enhanced mixing between the conduit and matrix domains, which has the effect of reducing transport connectivity. This modeling study illustrates how typically available transport data (e.g., solute breakthrough curves at the conduit outlet) may reveal information about the internal network structure, thus providing guidance for future inverse modeling.
Visualization of a Deterministic Radiation Transport Model Using Standard Visualization Tools
James A. Galbraith; L. Eric Greenwade
2004-05-01
Output from a deterministic radiation transport code running on a CRAY SV1 is imported into a standard distributed, parallel, visualization tool for analysis. Standard output files, consisting of tetrahedral meshes, are imported to the visualization tool through the creation of a application specific plug-in module. Visualization samples are included, providing visualization of steady state results. Different plot types and operators are utilized to enhance the analysis and assist in reporting the results of the analysis.
Mesh generation and energy group condensation studies for the jaguar deterministic transport code
Kennedy, R. A.; Watson, A. M.; Iwueke, C. I.; Edwards, E. J.
2012-07-01
The deterministic transport code Jaguar is introduced, and the modeling process for Jaguar is demonstrated using a two-dimensional assembly model of the Hoogenboom-Martin Performance Benchmark Problem. This single assembly model is being used to test and analyze optimal modeling methodologies and techniques for Jaguar. This paper focuses on spatial mesh generation and energy condensation techniques. In this summary, the models and processes are defined as well as thermal flux solution comparisons with the Monte Carlo code MC21. (authors)
MODIS volcanic ash retrievals vs FALL3D transport model: a quantitative comparison
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corradini, S.; Merucci, L.; Folch, A.
2010-12-01
Satellite retrievals and transport models represents the key tools to monitor the volcanic clouds evolution. Because of the harming effects of fine ash particles on aircrafts, the real-time tracking and forecasting of volcanic clouds is key for aviation safety. Together with the security reasons also the economical consequences of a disruption of airports must be taken into account. The airport closures due to the recent Icelandic Eyjafjöll eruption caused millions of passengers to be stranded not only in Europe, but across the world. IATA (the International Air Transport Association) estimates that the worldwide airline industry has lost a total of about 2.5 billion of Euro during the disruption. Both security and economical issues require reliable and robust ash cloud retrievals and trajectory forecasting. The intercomparison between remote sensing and modeling is required to assure precise and reliable volcanic ash products. In this work we perform a quantitative comparison between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of volcanic ash cloud mass and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) with the FALL3D ash dispersal model. MODIS, aboard the NASA-Terra and NASA-Aqua polar satellites, is a multispectral instrument with 36 spectral bands operating in the VIS-TIR spectral range and spatial resolution varying between 250 and 1000 m at nadir. The MODIS channels centered around 11 and 12 micron have been used for the ash retrievals through the Brightness Temperature Difference algorithm and MODTRAN simulations. FALL3D is a 3-D time-dependent Eulerian model for the transport and deposition of volcanic particles that outputs, among other variables, cloud column mass and AOD. Three MODIS images collected the October 28, 29 and 30 on Mt. Etna volcano during the 2002 eruption have been considered as test cases. The results show a general good agreement between the retrieved and the modeled volcanic clouds in the first 300 km from the vents. Even if the
An unstaggered constrained transport method for the 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helzel, Christiane; Rossmanith, James A.; Taetz, Bertram
2011-05-01
Numerical methods for solving the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in more than one space dimension must either confront the challenge of controlling errors in the discrete divergence of the magnetic field, or else be faced with nonlinear numerical instabilities. One approach for controlling the discrete divergence is through a so-called constrained transport method, which is based on first predicting a magnetic field through a standard finite volume solver, and then correcting this field through the appropriate use of a magnetic vector potential. In this work we develop a constrained transport method for the 3D ideal MHD equations that is based on a high-resolution wave propagation scheme. Our proposed scheme is the 3D extension of the 2D scheme developed by Rossmanith [J.A. Rossmanith, An unstaggered, high-resolution constrained transport method for magnetohydrodynamic flows, SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 28 (2006) 1766], and is based on the high-resolution wave propagation method of Langseth and LeVeque [J.O. Langseth, R.J. LeVeque, A wave propagation method for threedimensional hyperbolic conservation laws, J. Comput. Phys. 165 (2000) 126]. In particular, in our extension we take great care to maintain the three most important properties of the 2D scheme: (1) all quantities, including all components of the magnetic field and magnetic potential, are treated as cell-centered; (2) we develop a high-resolution wave propagation scheme for evolving the magnetic potential; and (3) we develop a wave limiting approach that is applied during the vector potential evolution, which controls unphysical oscillations in the magnetic field. One of the key numerical difficulties that is novel to 3D is that the transport equation that must be solved for the magnetic vector potential is only weakly hyperbolic. In presenting our numerical algorithm we describe how to numerically handle this problem of weak hyperbolicity, as well as how to choose an appropriate gauge condition. The
A deterministic computational model for the two dimensional electron and photon transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badavi, Francis F.; Nealy, John E.
2014-12-01
A deterministic (non-statistical) two dimensional (2D) computational model describing the transport of electron and photon typical of space radiation environment in various shield media is described. The 2D formalism is casted into a code which is an extension of a previously developed one dimensional (1D) deterministic electron and photon transport code. The goal of both 1D and 2D codes is to satisfy engineering design applications (i.e. rapid analysis) while maintaining an accurate physics based representation of electron and photon transport in space environment. Both 1D and 2D transport codes have utilized established theoretical representations to describe the relevant collisional and radiative interactions and transport processes. In the 2D version, the shield material specifications are made more general as having the pertinent cross sections. In the 2D model, the specification of the computational field is in terms of a distance of traverse z along an axial direction as well as a variable distribution of deflection (i.e. polar) angles θ where -π/2<θ<π/2, and corresponding symmetry is assumed for the range of azimuth angles (0<φ<2π). In the transport formalism, a combined mean-free-path and average trajectory approach is used. For candidate shielding materials, using the trapped electron radiation environments at low Earth orbit (LEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and Jupiter moon Europa, verification of the 2D formalism vs. 1D and an existing Monte Carlo code are presented.
Noaman, B. A.; Korman, C. E.
2009-04-23
In this paper, we present a deterministic approach to calculate terminal current noise characteristics in semiconductor devices in the framework of semiclassical transport based on the spherical harmonics of the Boltzmann Transport Equation. The model relies on the solution of the Boltzmann equation in the frequency domain with special initial and boundary conditions. The terminal current fluctuation is directly related to scattering without the additional Langevin noise term added to the calculation. Simulation results are presented for the terminal current spectral density for a 1-D n{sup +}nn{sup +} structure due to elastic-acoustic and intervally scattering.
BioFVM: an efficient, parallelized diffusive transport solver for 3-D biological simulations
Ghaffarizadeh, Ahmadreza; Friedman, Samuel H.; Macklin, Paul
2016-01-01
Motivation: Computational models of multicellular systems require solving systems of PDEs for release, uptake, decay and diffusion of multiple substrates in 3D, particularly when incorporating the impact of drugs, growth substrates and signaling factors on cell receptors and subcellular systems biology. Results: We introduce BioFVM, a diffusive transport solver tailored to biological problems. BioFVM can simulate release and uptake of many substrates by cell and bulk sources, diffusion and decay in large 3D domains. It has been parallelized with OpenMP, allowing efficient simulations on desktop workstations or single supercomputer nodes. The code is stable even for large time steps, with linear computational cost scalings. Solutions are first-order accurate in time and second-order accurate in space. The code can be run by itself or as part of a larger simulator. Availability and implementation: BioFVM is written in C ++ with parallelization in OpenMP. It is maintained and available for download at http://BioFVM.MathCancer.org and http://BioFVM.sf.net under the Apache License (v2.0). Contact: paul.macklin@usc.edu. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26656933
Time-dependent 3-D dterministic transport on parallel architectures using Dantsys/MPI
Baker, R.S.; Alcouffe, R.E.
1996-12-31
In addition to the ability to solve the static transport equation, we have also incorporated time dependence into our parallel 3-D S{sub {ital N}} code DANTSYS/MPI. Using a semi-implicit scheme, DANTSYS/MPI is capable of performing time-dependent calculations for both fissioning and pure source driven problems. We have applied this to various types of problems such as nuclear well logging and prompt fission experiments. This paper describes the form of the time- dependent equations implemented, their solution strategies in DANTSYS/MPI including iteration acceleration, and the strategies used for time-step control. Results are presented for a model nuclear well logging calculation.
Coupling 2-D cylindrical and 3-D x-y-z transport computations
Abu-Shumays, I.K.; Yehnert, C.E.; Pitcairn, T.N.
1998-06-30
This paper describes a new two-dimensional (2-D) cylindrical geometry to three-dimensional (3-D) rectangular x-y-z splice option for multi-dimensional discrete ordinates solutions to the neutron (photon) transport equation. Of particular interest are the simple transformations developed and applied in order to carry out the required spatial and angular interpolations. The spatial interpolations are linear and equivalent to those applied elsewhere. The angular interpolations are based on a high order spherical harmonics representation of the angular flux. Advantages of the current angular interpolations over previous work are discussed. An application to an intricate streaming problem is provided to demonstrate the advantages of the new method for efficient and accurate prediction of particle behavior in complex geometries.
3D Structure of Saharan Dust Transport Towards Europe as Seen by CALIPSO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marinou, Eleni; Amiridis, Vassilis; Tsekeri, Alexandra; Solomos, Stavros; Kokkalis, Panos; Proestakis, Emmanouil; Kottas, Michael; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Zanis, Prodromos; Kazadzis, Stelios; Wandinger, Ulla; Ansmann, Albert
2016-06-01
We present a 3D multi-year monthly mean climatology of Saharan dust advection over Europe using an area-optimized pure dust CALIPSO product. The product has been developed by applying EARLINET-measured dust lidar ratios and depolarization-based dust discrimination methods and it is shown to have a very good agreement in terms of AOD when compared to AERONET over Europe/North Africa and MODIS over Mediterranean. The processing of such purely observational data reveals the certain seasonal patterns of dust transportation towards Europe and the Atlantic Ocean. The physical and optical properties of the dust layer are identified for several areas near the Saharan sources, over the Mediterranean and over continental Europe.
Distributed network of integrated 3D sensors for transportation security applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hejmadi, Vic; Garcia, Fred
2009-05-01
The US Port Security Agency has strongly emphasized the needs for tighter control at transportation hubs. Distributed arrays of miniature CMOS cameras are providing some solutions today. However, due to the high bandwidth required and the low valued content of such cameras (simple video feed), large computing power and analysis algorithms as well as control software are needed, which makes such an architecture cumbersome, heavy, slow and expensive. We present a novel technique by integrating cheap and mass replicable stealth 3D sensing micro-devices in a distributed network. These micro-sensors are based on conventional structures illumination via successive fringe patterns on the object to be sensed. The communication bandwidth between each sensor remains very small, but is of very high valued content. Key technologies to integrate such a sensor are digital optics and structured laser illumination.
A Deterministic-Monte Carlo Hybrid Method for Time-Dependent Neutron Transport Problems
Justin Pounders; Farzad Rahnema
2001-10-01
A new deterministic-Monte Carlo hybrid solution technique is derived for the time-dependent transport equation. This new approach is based on dividing the time domain into a number of coarse intervals and expanding the transport solution in a series of polynomials within each interval. The solutions within each interval can be represented in terms of arbitrary source terms by using precomputed response functions. In the current work, the time-dependent response function computations are performed using the Monte Carlo method, while the global time-step march is performed deterministically. This work extends previous work by coupling the time-dependent expansions to space- and angle-dependent expansions to fully characterize the 1D transport response/solution. More generally, this approach represents and incremental extension of the steady-state coarse-mesh transport method that is based on global-local decompositions of large neutron transport problems. An example of a homogeneous slab is discussed as an example of the new developments.
Multi-scale self-organisation of edge plasma turbulent transport in 3D global simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamain, P.; Ghendrih, Ph; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colin, C.; Fedorczak, N.; Nace, N.; Schwander, F.; Serre, E.
2015-05-01
The 3D global edge turbulence code TOKAM3X is used to study the properties of edge particle turbulent transport in circular limited plasmas, including both closed and open flux surfaces. Turbulence is driven by an incoming particle flux from the core plasma and no scale separation between the equilibrium and the fluctuations is assumed. Simulations show the existence of a complex self-organization of turbulence transport coupling scales ranging from a few Larmor radii up to the machine scale. Particle transport is largely dominated by small scale turbulence with fluctuations forming quasi field-aligned filaments. Radial particle transport is intermittent and associated with the propagation of coherent structures on long distances via avalanches. Long range correlations are also found in the poloidal and toroidal direction. The statistical properties of fluctuations vary with the radial and poloidal directions, with larger fluctuation levels and intermittency found in the outboard scrape-off layer (SOL). Radial turbulent transport is strongly ballooned, with 90% of the flux at the separatrix flowing through the low-field side. One of the main consequences is the existence of quasi-sonic asymmetric parallel flows driving a net rotation of the plasma. Simulations also show the spontaneous onset of an intermittent E × B rotation characterized by a larger shear at the separatrix. Strong correlation is found between the turbulent particle flux and the E × B flow shear in a phenomenology reminiscent of H-mode physics. The poloidal position of the limiter is a key player in the observed dynamics.
A Hybrid Monte Carlo-Deterministic Method for Global Binary Stochastic Medium Transport Problems
Keady, K P; Brantley, P
2010-03-04
Global deep-penetration transport problems are difficult to solve using traditional Monte Carlo techniques. In these problems, the scalar flux distribution is desired at all points in the spatial domain (global nature), and the scalar flux typically drops by several orders of magnitude across the problem (deep-penetration nature). As a result, few particle histories may reach certain regions of the domain, producing a relatively large variance in tallies in those regions. Implicit capture (also known as survival biasing or absorption suppression) can be used to increase the efficiency of the Monte Carlo transport algorithm to some degree. A hybrid Monte Carlo-deterministic technique has previously been developed by Cooper and Larsen to reduce variance in global problems by distributing particles more evenly throughout the spatial domain. This hybrid method uses an approximate deterministic estimate of the forward scalar flux distribution to automatically generate weight windows for the Monte Carlo transport simulation, avoiding the necessity for the code user to specify the weight window parameters. In a binary stochastic medium, the material properties at a given spatial location are known only statistically. The most common approach to solving particle transport problems involving binary stochastic media is to use the atomic mix (AM) approximation in which the transport problem is solved using ensemble-averaged material properties. The most ubiquitous deterministic model developed specifically for solving binary stochastic media transport problems is the Levermore-Pomraning (L-P) model. Zimmerman and Adams proposed a Monte Carlo algorithm (Algorithm A) that solves the Levermore-Pomraning equations and another Monte Carlo algorithm (Algorithm B) that is more accurate as a result of improved local material realization modeling. Recent benchmark studies have shown that Algorithm B is often significantly more accurate than Algorithm A (and therefore the L-P model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hostache, Renaud; Krein, Andreas; Barrière, Julien
2014-05-01
Coupling the 3D hydro-morphodynamic model Telemac-3D-sisyphe and seismic measurements to estimate bedload transport rates in a small gravel-bed river. Renaud Hostache, Andreas Krein, Julien Barrière During flood events, amounts of river bed material are transported via bedload. This causes problems, like the silting of reservoirs or the disturbance of biological habitats. Some current bedload measuring techniques have limited possibilities for studies in high temporal resolutions. Optical systems are usually not applicable because of high turbidity due to concentrated suspended sediment transported. Sediment traps or bedload samplers yield only summative information on bedload transport with low temporal resolution. An alternative bedload measuring technique is the use of seismological systems installed next to the rivers. The potential advantages are observations in real time and under undisturbed conditions. The study area is a 120 m long reach of River Colpach (21.5 km2), a small gravel bed river in Northern Luxembourg. A combined approach of hydro-climatological observations, hydraulic measurements, sediment sampling, and seismological measurements is used in order to investigate bedload transport phenomena. Information derived from seismic measurements and results from a 3-dimensional hydro-morphodynamic model are exemplarily discussed for a November 2013 flood event. The 3-dimensional hydro-morphodynamic model is based on the Telemac hydroinformatic system. This allows for dynamically coupling a 3D hydrodynamic model (Telemac-3D) and a morphodynamic model (Sisyphe). The coupling is dynamic as these models exchange their information during simulations. This is a main advantage as it allows for taking into account the effects of the morphologic changes of the riverbed on the water hydrodynamic and the bedload processes. The coupled model has been calibrated using time series of gauged water depths and time series of bed material collected sequentially (after
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Justin W.
2006-12-01
The Numerical Nuclear Reactor (NNR) is a code suite that is being developed to provide high-fidelity multi-physics capability for the analysis of light water nuclear reactors. The focus of the work here is to extend the capability of the NNR by incorporation of the neutronics module, DeCART, for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) applications. The DeCART code has been coupled to the NNR fluid mechanics and heat transfer module STAR-CD for light water reactor applications. The coupling has been accomplished via an interface program, which is responsible for mapping the STAR-CD and DeCART meshes, managing communication, and monitoring convergence. DeCART obtains the solution of the 3-D Boltzmann transport equation by performing a series of 2-D modular ray tracing-based method of characteristics problems that are coupled within the framework of 3-D coarse-mesh finite difference. The relatively complex geometry and increased axial heterogeneity found in BWRs are beyond the modeling capability of the original version of DeCART. In this work, DeCART is extended in three primary areas. First, the geometric capability is generalized by extending the modular ray tracing scheme and permitting an unstructured mesh in the global finite difference kernel. Second, numerical instabilities, which arose as a result of the severe axial heterogeneity found in BWR cores, have been resolved. Third, an advanced nodal method has been implemented to improve the accuracy of the axial flux distribution. In this semi-analytic nodal method, the analytic solution to the transverse-integrated neutron diffusion equation is obtained, where the nonhomogeneous neutron source was first approximated by a quartic polynomial. The successful completion of these three tasks has allowed the application of the coupled DeCART/STAR-CD code to practical BWR problems.
Simulation of bacteria transport processes in a river with Flow3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Bui, Minh Duc; Rutschmann, Peter
2014-05-01
Water quality aspects are getting more and more important due to the European water Framework directive (WFD). One problem related to this topic is the inflow of untreated wastewater due to combined sewer overflows into a river. The wastewater mixture contains even bacteria like E. coli and Enterococci which are markers for water quality. In our work we investigated the transport of these bacteria in river Isar by using a large-scale flume in the outside area of our lab (Oskar von Miller Institute). Therefor we could collect basic data and knowledge about the processes which occur during bacteria sedimentation and remobilisation. In our flume we could use the real grain with the exact size distribution curve as in the river Isar which we want to simulate and we had the chance to nurture a biofilm which is realistic for the analysed situation. This biofilm plays an important role in the remobilisation processes, because the bacteria are hindered to be washed out back into the bulk phase as fast and in such an amount as this would happen without biofilm. The results of our experiments are now used for a module in the 3D software Flow3D to simulate the effects of a point source inlet of raw wastewater on the water quality. Therefor we have to implement the bacteria not as a problem of concentration with advection and diffusion but as single particles which can be inactivated during the process of settling and need to be hindered from remobilisation by the biofilm. This biofilm has special characteristic, it is slippery and has a special thickness which influences the chance of bacteria being removed. To achieve realistic results we have to include the biofilm with more than a probabilistic-tool to make sure that our module is transferable. The module should be as flexible as possible to be improved step by step with increasing quality of dataset.
Computing the moments of the neutron population using deterministic neutron transport
Fichtl, E. D.; Baker, R. S.
2013-07-01
It is important to treat the inherent stochasticity of the fission process in systems where the behavior of the system is stochastic. This occurs when there are few neutrons in the system, or when the neutron source is weak. In order to characterize such systems, the capability to compute the first four moments of the neutron population distribution has been added to the deterministic neutral particle transport code, PARTISN. The moments are then fitted to probability density functions from the Pearson family. PARTISN is compared against MCNP6, with which it agrees well. (authors)
Caron, J; Feugeas, J-L; Dubroca, B; Kantor, G; Dejean, C; Birindelli, G; Pichard, T; Nicolaï, P; d'Humières, E; Frank, M; Tikhonchuk, V
2015-12-01
A new deterministic method for calculating the dose distribution in the electron radiotherapy field is presented. The aim of this work was to validate our model by comparing it with the Monte Carlo simulation toolkit, GEANT4. A comparison of the longitudinal and transverse dose deposition profiles and electron distributions in homogeneous water phantoms showed a good accuracy of our model for electron transport, while reducing the calculation time by a factor of 50. Although the Bremsstrahlung effect is not yet implemented in our model, we propose here a method that solves the Boltzmann kinetic equation and provides a viable and efficient alternative to the expensive Monte Carlo modeling. PMID:26701765
On the Development of a Deterministic Three-Dimensional Radiation Transport Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rockell, Candice; Tweed, John
2011-01-01
Since astronauts on future deep space missions will be exposed to dangerous radiations, there is a need to accurately model the transport of radiation through shielding materials and to estimate the received radiation dose. In response to this need a three dimensional deterministic code for space radiation transport is now under development. The new code GRNTRN is based on a Green's function solution of the Boltzmann transport equation that is constructed in the form of a Neumann series. Analytical approximations will be obtained for the first three terms of the Neumann series and the remainder will be estimated by a non-perturbative technique . This work discusses progress made to date and exhibits some computations based on the first two Neumann series terms.
Deterministic proton transport solving a one dimensional Fokker-Planck equation
Marr, D.; Prael, R.; Adams, K.; Alcouffe, R.
1997-10-01
The transport of protons through matter is characterized by many interactions which cause small deflections and slight energy losses. The few which are catastrophic or cause large angle scattering can be viewed as extinction for many applications. The transport of protons at this level of approximation can be described by a Fokker Planck Equation. This equation is solved using a deterministic multigroup differencing scheme with a highly resolved set of discrete ordinates centered around the beam direction which is adequate to properly account for deflections and energy losses due to multiple Coulomb scattering. Comparisons with LAHET for a large variety of problems ranging from 800 MeV protons on a copper step wedge to 10 GeV protons on a sandwich of material are presented. The good agreement with the Monte Carlo code shows that the solution method is robust and useful for approximate solutions of selected proton transport problems.
Relevance of deterministic structures for modeling of transport: the Lauswiesen case study.
Händel, Falk; Dietrich, Peter
2012-01-01
Knowledge of site-specific contaminant transport processes is an essential requirement for performing various tasks concerning the protection and management of groundwater resources. However, prediction of their behavior is often difficult, especially in heterogeneous aquifers because of the lack of information about flow- and transport-governing subsurface structures and parameters. Hence, stochastic approaches have been developed and frequently used. However, extensive modeling studies on sedimentary structures have shown that consideration of hydrogeological subunits and their distribution can be essential for transport modeling. A case study from the intensely investigated Lauswiesen site is used to demonstrate that more accurate predictions are possible with improved knowledge of deterministic structures. Results of this case study using direct-push injection logging (DPIL) provide a more reliable characterization of hydraulic conductivity than sieve and flow meter data. PMID:22582812
Simulation of light transport in scintillators based on 3D characterization of crystal surfaces
Cherry, Simon R.
2013-01-01
In the development of positron emission tomography (PET) detectors, understanding and optimizing scintillator light collection is critical for achieving high performance, particularly when the design incorporates depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding or time-of-flight information. Monte-Carlo simulations play an important role in guiding research in detector designs and popular software such as GATE now include models of light transport in scintillators. Although current simulation toolkits are able to provide accurate models of perfectly polished surfaces, they do not successfully predict light output for other surface finishes, for example those often used in DOI-encoding detectors. The lack of accuracy of those models mainly originates from a simplified description of rough surfaces as an ensemble of micro-facets determined by the distribution of their normal, typically a Gaussian distribution. The user can specify the standard deviation of this distribution, but this parameter does not provide a full description of the surface reflectance properties. We propose a different approach based on 3D measurements of the surface using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Polished and rough (unpolished) crystals were scanned to compute the surface reflectance properties. The angular distributions of reflectance and reflected rays were computed and stored in look-up tables (LUTs). The LUTs account for the effect of incidence angle and were integrated in a light transport model. Crystals of different sizes were simulated with and without reflector. The simulated maximum light output and the light output as a function of DOI showed very good agreement with experimental characterization of the crystals, indicating that our approach provides an accurate model of polished and rough surfaces and could be used to predict light collection in scintillators. This model is based on a true 3D representation of the surface, makes no assumption about the surface and provides insight on the
A parametric study of mucociliary transport by numerical simulations of 3D non-homogeneous mucus.
Chatelin, Robin; Poncet, Philippe
2016-06-14
Mucociliary clearance is the natural flow of the mucus which covers and protects the lung from the outer world. Pathologies, like cystic fibrosis, highly change the biological parameters of the mucus flow leading to stagnation situations and pathogens proliferation. As the lung exhibits a complex dyadic structure, in-vivo experimental study of mucociliary clearance is almost impossible and numerical simulations can bring important knowledge about this biological flow. This paper brings a detailed study of the biological parameters influence on the mucociliary clearance, in particular for pathological situations such as cystic fibrosis. Using recent suitable numerical methods, a non-homogeneous mucus flow (including non-linearities) can be simulated efficiently in 3D, allowing the identification of the meaningful parameters involved in this biological flow. Among these parameters, it is shown that the mucus viscosity, the stiffness transition between pericilliary fluid and mucus, the pericilliary fluid height as well as both cilia length and beating frequency have a great influence on the mucociliary transport. PMID:27126985
3D imaging of amplitude objects embedded in phase objects using transport of intensity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Partha; Basunia, Mahmudunnabi
2015-09-01
The amplitude and phase of the complex optical field in the Helmholtz equation obey a pair of coupled equations, arising from equating the real and imaginary parts. The imaginary part yields the transport of intensity equation (TIE), which can be used to derive the phase distribution at the observation plane. If a phase object is approximately imaged on the recording plane(s), TIE yields the phase without the need for phase unwrapping. In our experiment, the 3D image of a phase object and an amplitude object embedded in a phase object is recovered. The phase object is created by heating a liquid, comprising a solution of red dye in alcohol, using a focused 514 nm laser beam to the point where self-phase modulation of the beam is observed. The optical intensities are recorded at various planes during propagation of a low power 633 nm laser beam through the liquid. In the process of applying TIE to derive the phase at the observation plane, the real part of the complex equation is also examined as a cross-check of our calculations. For pure phase objects, it is shown that the real part of the complex equation is best satisfied around the image plane. Alternatively, it is proposed that this information can be used to determine the optimum image plane.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, J.; Jiang, X.; Waliser, D. E.; Moncrieff, M. W.; Johnson, R. H.
2013-12-01
As one of the most prominent tropical atmospheric variability modes, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) exerts profound influences on global weather and climate, and serves as a critical predictability source for extend-range forecast. While credible representation of the MJO still represents a great challenge for current general circulation models (GCMs), previous studies on the vertical structure of the MJO have largely focused on collective impacts from multi-scale convective systems on thermodynamic properties of the MJO. Most recently, limited observational studies and idealized modeling work suggested that convective momentum transport (CMT) could also play an important role in interpreting the observed MJO features. In this study, the 3D CMT structure associated with the MJO is examined by analyzing model output from three recent high-quality reanalysis systems, including NOAA's Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and ECMWF-the Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC) reanalysis. Consistent with previous cloud-resolving model study, a well-organized three-layer vertical structure in the CMT associated with the MJO is also discerned based on reanalyses. The result suggests that CMT tends to intensify the MJO circulation, particularly in the lower troposphere. Relative roles of meso-scale systems (MCS) and synoptic waves in contributing the total CMT profiles of the MJO will also be explored. Differences in CMT profiles in these several reanalysis models will be discussed.
3-D simulation of gases transport under condition of inert gas injection into goaf
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Mao-Xi; Shi, Guo-Qing; Guo, Zhixiong; Wang, Yan-Ming; Ma, Li-Yang
2016-02-01
To prevent coal spontaneous combustion in mines, it is paramount to understand O2 gas distribution under condition of inert gas injection into goaf. In this study, the goaf was modeled as a 3-D porous medium based on stress distribution. The variation of O2 distribution influenced by CO2 or N2 injection was simulated based on the multi-component gases transport and the Navier-Stokes equations using Fluent. The numerical results without inert gas injection were compared with field measurements to validate the simulation model. Simulations with inert gas injection show that CO2 gas mainly accumulates at the goaf floor level; however, a notable portion of N2 gas moves upward. The evolution of the spontaneous combustion risky zone with continuous inert gas injection can be classified into three phases: slow inerting phase, rapid accelerating inerting phase, and stable inerting phase. The asphyxia zone with CO2 injection is about 1.25-2.4 times larger than that with N2 injection. The efficacy of preventing and putting out mine fires is strongly related with the inert gas injecting position. Ideal injections are located in the oxidation zone or the transitional zone between oxidation zone and heat dissipation zone.
3D electro-thermal Monte Carlo study of transport in confined silicon devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohamed, Mohamed Y.
The simultaneous explosion of portable microelectronics devices and the rapid shrinking of microprocessor size have provided a tremendous motivation to scientists and engineers to continue the down-scaling of these devices. For several decades, innovations have allowed components such as transistors to be physically reduced in size, allowing the famous Moore's law to hold true. As these transistors approach the atomic scale, however, further reduction becomes less probable and practical. As new technologies overcome these limitations, they face new, unexpected problems, including the ability to accurately simulate and predict the behavior of these devices, and to manage the heat they generate. This work uses a 3D Monte Carlo (MC) simulator to investigate the electro-thermal behavior of quasi-one-dimensional electron gas (1DEG) multigate MOSFETs. In order to study these highly confined architectures, the inclusion of quantum correction becomes essential. To better capture the influence of carrier confinement, the electrostatically quantum-corrected full-band MC model has the added feature of being able to incorporate subband scattering. The scattering rate selection introduces quantum correction into carrier movement. In addition to the quantum effects, scaling introduces thermal management issues due to the surge in power dissipation. Solving these problems will continue to bring improvements in battery life, performance, and size constraints of future devices. We have coupled our electron transport Monte Carlo simulation to Aksamija's phonon transport so that we may accurately and efficiently study carrier transport, heat generation, and other effects at the transistor level. This coupling utilizes anharmonic phonon decay and temperature dependent scattering rates. One immediate advantage of our coupled electro-thermal Monte Carlo simulator is its ability to provide an accurate description of the spatial variation of self-heating and its effect on non
The arctic winter stratosphere: simulated with a 3-D chemistry transport model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van den Broek, Martina Maria Petronella
2004-10-01
During the past two decades, the ozone layer has developed a “hole” each winter and spring above the Antarctic continent. Also in cold Arctic winters substantial stratospheric ozone depletion has been measured, although less than in the Antarctic stratosphere. In the Arctic winter stratosphere, the amount of ozone depletion varies interannually and within one winter, depending on polar vortex stability and temperature. The simulation of transport and chemical conversion of ozone and related species requires a three-dimensional (3D) chemistry transport model (CTM), because of the non-symmetric behaviour of the Arctic polar vortex. This thesis reports on several studies of the Arctic winter stratosphere carried out with such a CTM, using off-line meteorological fields. In Chapter II, chlorine activation and ozone depletion in the Arctic winter stratosphere of 1996-1997 are modelled with the newly developed stratospheric version of our CTM. Comparisons have been made with total O3 columns and ClO concentrations observed by satellites, and with ozone loss rates derived from observations during February and March 1997. ClO concentrations and ozone depletion are somewhat underestimated by the model. Key model parameters have been varied to explain this underestimation. Next to temperature, the formation mechanism of solid and/or liquid PSC particles constitutes the main model uncertainty. The representation of tracer transport is a third uncertain parameter, influencing both ozone and inorganic chlorine. In Chapter III, we have used the CTM with different horizontal resolutions to evaluate this stratospheric transport by simulating the long-lived tracers HF and CH4 during the Arctic winter of 1999/2000. Outside the vortex the model results agree well with the observations, but inside, the model underestimates the observed vertical gradient in HF and CH4. Too strong mixing through the vortex edge could be a cause for these model discrepancies, e.g. associated with the
Crossover from 3D to 2D Quantum Transport in Bi2Se3/In2Se3 Superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yanfei, Zhao; Haiwen, Liu; Xin, Guo; Ying, Jiang; Yi, Sun; Huichao, Wang; Yong, Wang; Handong, Li; Maohai, Xie; Xincheng, Xie; Jian, Wang
2015-03-01
The topological insulator/normal insulator (TI/NI) superlattices (SLs) with multiple Dirac channels are predicted to offer great opportunity to design novel materials and investigate new quantum phenomena. Here, we report first transport studies on the SLs composed of TI Bi2Se3 layers sandwiched by NI In2Se3 layers artificially grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The transport properties of two kinds of SL samples show convincing evidence that the transport dimensionality changes from three-dimensional (3D) to two-dimensional (2D) when decreasing the thickness of building block Bi2Se3 layers, corresponding to the crossover from coherent TI transport to separated TI channels. Our findings provide the possibility to realizing 3D surface states in TI/NI SLs.
Crossover from 3D to 2D quantum transport in Bi2Se3/In2Se3 superlattices.
Zhao, Yanfei; Liu, Haiwen; Guo, Xin; Jiang, Ying; Sun, Yi; Wang, Huichao; Wang, Yong; Li, Han-Dong; Xie, Mao-Hai; Xie, Xin-Cheng; Wang, Jian
2014-09-10
The topological insulator/normal insulator (TI/NI) superlattices (SLs) with multiple Dirac channels are predicted to offer great opportunity to design novel materials and investigate new quantum phenomena. Here, we report first transport studies on the SLs composed of TI Bi2Se3 layers sandwiched by NI In2Se3 layers artificially grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The transport properties of two kinds of SL samples show convincing evidence that the transport dimensionality changes from three-dimensional (3D) to two-dimensional (2D) when decreasing the thickness of building block Bi2Se3 layers, corresponding to the crossover from coherent TI transport to separated TI channels. Our findings provide the possibility to realizing "3D surface states" in TI/NI SLs. PMID:25102289
An iterative KP1 method for solving the transport equation in 3D domains on unstructured grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kokonkov, N. I.; Nikolaeva, O. V.
2015-10-01
A two-step iterative KP1 method for solving systems of grid equations that approximate the integro-differential transport equation in 3D domains on unstructured grids using nodal SN methods is described. Results of testing the efficiency of the proposed method in solving benchmark problems of reactor protection on tetrahedral grids are presented.
3D modelling of the transport and fate of riverine fine sediment exported to a semi-enclosed system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delandmeter, Philippe; Lambrechts, Jonathan; Lewis, Stephen; Legat, Vincent; Deleersnijder, Eric; Wolanski, Eric
2015-04-01
Understanding the transport and fate of suspended sediment exported by rivers is crucial for the management of sensitive marine ecosystems. Sediment transport and fate can vary considerably depending on the geophysical characteristics of the offshore environment (i.e. open, semi-enclosed and enclosed systems and the nature of the continental shelf). In this presentation, we focus on a semi-enclosed setting in the Great Barrier Reef, NE Australia. In this system, the large tropical Burdekin River discharges to a long and narrow continental shelf containing numerous headlands and embayments. Using a new 3D sediment model we developed and SLIM 3D, a Finite Element 3D model for coastal flows, we highlight the key processes of sediment transport for such a system. We validate the model with available measured data from the region. Wind direction and speed during the high river flows are showed to largely control the dynamics and final fate of the sediments. Most (71%) of the sediment load delivered by the river is deposited and retained near the river mouth. The remaining sediment is transported further afield in riverine freshwater plumes. The suspended sediment transported longer distances in the freshwater plumes can reach sensitive marine ecosystems. These results are compared to previous studies on the Burdekin River sediment fate and differences are analysed. The model suggests that wind-driven resuspension events will redistribute sediments within an embayment but have little influence on transporting sediments from bay to bay.
Efficiency of transport in periodic potentials: dichotomous noise contra deterministic force
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spiechowicz, J.; Łuczka, J.; Machura, L.
2016-05-01
We study the transport of an inertial Brownian particle moving in a symmetric and periodic one-dimensional potential, and subjected to both a symmetric, unbiased external harmonic force as well as biased dichotomic noise η (t) also known as a random telegraph signal or a two state continuous-time Markov process. In doing so, we concentrate on the previously reported regime (Spiechowicz et al 2014 Phys. Rev. E 90 032104) for which non-negative biased noise η (t) in the form of generalized white Poissonian noise can induce anomalous transport processes similar to those generated by a deterministic constant force F=< η (t)> but significantly more effective than F, i.e. the particle moves much faster, the velocity fluctuations are noticeably reduced and the transport efficiency is enhanced several times. Here, we confirm this result for the case of dichotomous fluctuations which, in contrast to white Poissonian noise, can assume positive as well as negative values and examine the role of thermal noise in the observed phenomenon. We focus our attention on the impact of bidirectionality of dichotomous fluctuations and reveal that the effect of nonequilibrium noise enhanced efficiency is still detectable. This result may explain transport phenomena occurring in strongly fluctuating environments of both physical and biological origin. Our predictions can be corroborated experimentally by use of a setup that consists of a resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junction.
2013-06-24
Version 07 TART2012 is a coupled neutron-photon Monte Carlo transport code designed to use three-dimensional (3-D) combinatorial geometry. Neutron and/or photon sources as well as neutron induced photon production can be tracked. It is a complete system to assist you with input preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART2012 is also incredibly FAST; if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared tomore » other similar codes. Use of the entire system can save you a great deal of time and energy. TART2012 extends the general utility of the code to even more areas of application than available in previous releases by concentrating on improving the physics, particularly with regard to improved treatment of neutron fission, resonance self-shielding, molecular binding, and extending input options used by the code. Several utilities are included for creating input files and displaying TART results and data. TART2012 uses the latest ENDF/B-VI, Release 8, data. New for TART2012 is the use of continuous energy neutron cross sections, in addition to its traditional multigroup cross sections. For neutron interaction, the data are derived using ENDF-ENDL2005 and include both continuous energy cross sections and 700 group neutron data derived using a combination of ENDF/B-VI, Release 8, and ENDL data. The 700 group structure extends from 10-5 eV up to 1 GeV. Presently nuclear data are only available up to 20 MeV, so that only 616 of the groups are currently used. For photon interaction, 701 point photon data were derived using the Livermore EPDL97 file. The new 701 point structure extends from 100 eV up to 1 GeV, and is currently used over this entire energy range. TART2012 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that one use only the most recent version of TART2012 and its data files. Check authors homepage for related information: http
Reactor Dosimetry Applications Using RAPTOR-M3G:. a New Parallel 3-D Radiation Transport Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longoni, Gianluca; Anderson, Stanwood L.
2009-08-01
The numerical solution of the Linearized Boltzmann Equation (LBE) via the Discrete Ordinates method (SN) requires extensive computational resources for large 3-D neutron and gamma transport applications due to the concurrent discretization of the angular, spatial, and energy domains. This paper will discuss the development RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation - Multiple 3D Geometries), a new 3-D parallel radiation transport code, and its application to the calculation of ex-vessel neutron dosimetry responses in the cavity of a commercial 2-loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). RAPTOR-M3G is based domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architectures. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor, yielding an efficient solution methodology for large 3-D problems. Measured neutron dosimetry responses in the reactor cavity air gap will be compared to the RAPTOR-M3G predictions. This paper is organized as follows: Section 1 discusses the RAPTOR-M3G methodology; Section 2 describes the 2-loop PWR model and the numerical results obtained. Section 3 addresses the parallel performance of the code, and Section 4 concludes this paper with final remarks and future work.
Estimation of Atmospheric Methane Surface Fluxes Using a Global 3-D Chemical Transport Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y.; Prinn, R.
2003-12-01
Accurate determination of atmospheric methane surface fluxes is an important and challenging problem in global biogeochemical cycles. We use inverse modeling to estimate annual, seasonal, and interannual CH4 fluxes between 1996 and 2001. The fluxes include 7 time-varying seasonal (3 wetland, rice, and 3 biomass burning) and 3 steady aseasonal (animals/waste, coal, and gas) global processes. To simulate atmospheric methane, we use the 3-D chemical transport model MATCH driven by NCEP reanalyzed observed winds at a resolution of T42 ( ˜2.8° x 2.8° ) in the horizontal and 28 levels (1000 - 3 mb) in the vertical. By combining existing datasets of individual processes, we construct a reference emissions field that represents our prior guess of the total CH4 surface flux. For the methane sink, we use a prescribed, annually-repeating OH field scaled to fit methyl chloroform observations. MATCH is used to produce both the reference run from the reference emissions, and the time-dependent sensitivities that relate individual emission processes to observations. The observational data include CH4 time-series from ˜15 high-frequency (in-situ) and ˜50 low-frequency (flask) observing sites. Most of the high-frequency data, at a time resolution of 40-60 minutes, have not previously been used in global scale inversions. In the inversion, the high-frequency data generally have greater weight than the weekly flask data because they better define the observational monthly means. The Kalman Filter is used as the optimal inversion technique to solve for emissions between 1996-2001. At each step in the inversion, new monthly observations are utilized and new emissions estimates are produced. The optimized emissions represent deviations from the reference emissions that lead to a better fit to the observations. The seasonal processes are optimized for each month, and contain the methane seasonality and interannual variability. The aseasonal processes, which are less variable, are
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teruzzi, Anna; Dobricic, Srdjan; Solidoro, Cosimo; Cossarini, Gianpiero
2014-01-01
Increasing attention is dedicated to the implementation of suitable marine forecast systems for the estimate of the state of the ocean. Within the framework of the European MyOcean infrastructure, the pre-existing short-term Mediterranean Sea biogeochemistry operational forecast system has been upgraded by assimilating remotely sensed ocean color data in the coupled transport-biogeochemical model OPATM-BFM using a 3-D variational data assimilation (3D-VAR) procedure. In the present work, the 3D-VAR scheme is used to correct the four phytoplankton functional groups included in the OPATM-BFM in the period July 2007 to September 2008. The 3D-VAR scheme decomposes the error covariance matrix using a sequence of different operators that account separately for vertical covariance, horizontal covariance, and covariance among biogeochemical variables. The assimilation solution is found in a reduced dimensional space, and the innovation for the biogeochemical variables is obtained by the sequential application of the covariance operators. Results show a general improvement in the forecast skill, providing a correction of the basin-scale bias of surface chlorophyll concentration and of the local-scale spatial and temporal dynamics of typical bloom events. Further, analysis of the assimilation skill provides insights into the functioning of the model. The computational costs of the assimilation scheme adopted are low compared to other assimilation techniques, and its modular structure facilitates further developments. The 3D-VAR scheme results especially suitable for implementation within a biogeochemistry operational forecast system.
3D Space Radiation Transport in a Shielded ICRU Tissue Sphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.
2014-01-01
A computationally efficient 3DHZETRN code capable of simulating High Charge (Z) and Energy (HZE) and light ions (including neutrons) under space-like boundary conditions with enhanced neutron and light ion propagation was recently developed for a simple homogeneous shield object. Monte Carlo benchmarks were used to verify the methodology in slab and spherical geometry, and the 3D corrections were shown to provide significant improvement over the straight-ahead approximation in some cases. In the present report, the new algorithms with well-defined convergence criteria are extended to inhomogeneous media within a shielded tissue slab and a shielded tissue sphere and tested against Monte Carlo simulation to verify the solution methods. The 3D corrections are again found to more accurately describe the neutron and light ion fluence spectra as compared to the straight-ahead approximation. These computationally efficient methods provide a basis for software capable of space shield analysis and optimization.
Reconstruction of 3D structure using stochastic methods: morphology and transport properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karsanina, Marina; Gerke, Kirill; Čapek, Pavel; Vasilyev, Roman; Korost, Dmitry; Skvortsova, Elena
2013-04-01
One of the main factors defining numerous flow phenomena in rocks, soils and other porous media, including fluid and solute movements, is pore structure, e.g., pore sizes and their connectivity. Numerous numerical methods were developed to quantify single and multi-phase flow in such media on microscale. Among most popular ones are: 1) a wide range of finite difference/element/volume solutions of Navier-Stokes equations and its simplifications; 2) lattice-Boltzmann method; 3) pore-network models, among others. Each method has some advantages and shortcomings, so that different research teams usually utilize more than one, depending on the study case. Recent progress in 3D imaging of internal structure, e.g., X-ray tomography, FIB-SEM and confocal microscopy, made it possible to obtain digitized input pore parameters for such models, however, a trade-off between resolution and sample size is usually unavoidable. There are situations then only standard two-dimensional information of porous structure is known due to tomography high cost or resolution limitations. However, physical modeling on microscale requires 3D information. There are three main approaches to reconstruct (using 2D cut(s) or some other limited information/properties) porous media: 1) statistical methods (correlation functions and simulated annealing, multi-point statistics, entropy methods), 2) sequential methods (sphere or other granular packs) and 3) morphological methods. Stochastic reconstructions using correlation functions possess some important advantage - they provide a statistical description of the structure, which is known to have relationships with all physical properties. In addition, this method is more flexible for other applications to characterize porous media. Taking different 3D scans of natural and artificial porous materials (sandstones, soils, shales, ceramics) we choose some 2D cut/s as sources of input correlation functions. Based on different types of correlation functions
Fevotte, F.; Lathuiliere, B.
2013-07-01
The large increase in computing power over the past few years now makes it possible to consider developing 3D full-core heterogeneous deterministic neutron transport solvers for reference calculations. Among all approaches presented in the literature, the method first introduced in [1] seems very promising. It consists in iterating over resolutions of 2D and ID MOC problems by taking advantage of prismatic geometries without introducing approximations of a low order operator such as diffusion. However, before developing a solver with all industrial options at EDF, several points needed to be clarified. In this work, we first prove the convergence of this iterative process, under some assumptions. We then present our high-performance, parallel implementation of this algorithm in the MICADO solver. Benchmarking the solver against the Takeda case shows that the 2D-1D coupling algorithm does not seem to affect the spatial convergence order of the MOC solver. As for performance issues, our study shows that even though the data distribution is suited to the 2D solver part, the efficiency of the ID part is sufficient to ensure a good parallel efficiency of the global algorithm. After this study, the main remaining difficulty implementation-wise is about the memory requirement of a vector used for initialization. An efficient acceleration operator will also need to be developed. (authors)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daughney, C.; Toews, M. W.; Morgenstern, U.; Cornaton, F. J.; Jackson, B. M.
2013-12-01
Lake Rotorua is a focus of culture and tourism in New Zealand. The lake's water quality has declined since the 1970s, partly due to nutrient inputs that reach the lake via the groundwater system. Improved land use management within the catchment requires prediction of the spatial variations of groundwater transit time from land surface to the lake, and from this the prediction of current and future nutrient inflows to the lake. This study combines the two main methods currently available for determination of water age: numerical groundwater models and hydrological tracers. A steady-state 3D finite element model was constructed to simulate groundwater flow and transport of tritium and age at the catchment scale (555 km2). The model materials were defined using a 3D geologic model and included ignimbrites, rhyolites, alluvial and lake bottom sediments. The steady-state saturated groundwater flow model was calibrated using observed groundwater levels in boreholes (111 locations) and stream flow measurements from groundwater-fed streams and springs (61 locations). Hydraulic conductivities and Cauchy boundary conditions associated with the streams, springs and lake were parameterized. The transport parameters for the model were calibrated using 191 tritium samples from 105 locations (springs, streams and boreholes), with most locations having two sample dates. The transport model used steady-state flow, but simulated the transient transport and decay of tritium from rainfall recharge between 1945 and 2012. An additional 1D unsaturated sub-model was added to account for tritium decay from the ground surface to the water table. The sub-model is linked on top of the 3D model, and uses the water table depths and material properties from the 3D model. The adjustable calibration parameters for the transport model were porosity and van Genuchten parameters related to the unsaturated sub-models. Calibration of the flow model was achieved using a combination of automated least
3D multi-scale analysis of coupled heat and moisture transport and its parallel implementation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruis, Jaroslav
2016-06-01
Parallel implementation of two-scale model of coupled heat and moisture transport is described. The coupled heat and moisture transport is based on the Künzel model. Motivation for the two-scale analysis comes from the requirement to describe distribution of the relative humidity and temperature in historical masonry structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, M.; Xu, Y.; Ida, K.; Corre, Y.; Feng, Y.; Schmitz, O.; Frerichs, H.; Tabares, F. L.; Evans, T. E.; Coenen, J. W.; Liang, Y.; Bader, A.; Itoh, K.; Yamada, H.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Ciraolo, G.; Tafalla, D.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Guo, H. Y.; Cui, Z. Y.; Reiter, D.; Asakura, N.; Wenzel, U.; Morita, S.; Ohno, N.; Peterson, B. J.; Masuzaki, S.
2015-10-01
This paper assesses the three-dimensional (3D) effects of the edge magnetic field structure on divertor/scrape-off layer transport, based on an inter-machine comparison of experimental data and on the recent progress of 3D edge transport simulation. The 3D effects are elucidated as a consequence of competition between transports parallel (\\parallel ) and perpendicular (\\bot ) to the magnetic field, in open field lines cut by divertor plates, or in magnetic islands. The competition has strong impacts on divertor functions, such as determination of the divertor density regime, impurity screening and detachment control. The effects of magnetic perturbation on the edge electric field and turbulent transport are also discussed. Parameterization to measure the 3D effects on the edge transport is attempted for the individual divertor functions. Based on the suggested key parameters, an operation domain of the 3D divertor configuration is discussed for future devices.
Teruzzi, Anna; Dobricic, Srdjan; Solidoro, Cosimo; Cossarini, Gianpiero
2014-01-01
[1] Increasing attention is dedicated to the implementation of suitable marine forecast systems for the estimate of the state of the ocean. Within the framework of the European MyOcean infrastructure, the pre-existing short-term Mediterranean Sea biogeochemistry operational forecast system has been upgraded by assimilating remotely sensed ocean color data in the coupled transport-biogeochemical model OPATM-BFM using a 3-D variational data assimilation (3D-VAR) procedure. In the present work, the 3D-VAR scheme is used to correct the four phytoplankton functional groups included in the OPATM-BFM in the period July 2007 to September 2008. The 3D-VAR scheme decomposes the error covariance matrix using a sequence of different operators that account separately for vertical covariance, horizontal covariance, and covariance among biogeochemical variables. The assimilation solution is found in a reduced dimensional space, and the innovation for the biogeochemical variables is obtained by the sequential application of the covariance operators. Results show a general improvement in the forecast skill, providing a correction of the basin-scale bias of surface chlorophyll concentration and of the local-scale spatial and temporal dynamics of typical bloom events. Further, analysis of the assimilation skill provides insights into the functioning of the model. The computational costs of the assimilation scheme adopted are low compared to other assimilation techniques, and its modular structure facilitates further developments. The 3D-VAR scheme results especially suitable for implementation within a biogeochemistry operational forecast system. PMID:26213670
Azmy, Yousry; Wang, Yaqi
2013-12-20
The research team has developed a practical, high-order, discrete-ordinates, short characteristics neutron transport code for three-dimensional configurations represented on unstructured tetrahedral grids that can be used for realistic reactor physics applications at both the assembly and core levels. This project will perform a comprehensive verification and validation of this new computational tool against both a continuous-energy Monte Carlo simulation (e.g. MCNP) and experimentally measured data, an essential prerequisite for its deployment in reactor core modeling. Verification is divided into three phases. The team will first conduct spatial mesh and expansion order refinement studies to monitor convergence of the numerical solution to reference solutions. This is quantified by convergence rates that are based on integral error norms computed from the cell-by-cell difference between the code’s numerical solution and its reference counterpart. The latter is either analytic or very fine- mesh numerical solutions from independent computational tools. For the second phase, the team will create a suite of code-independent benchmark configurations to enable testing the theoretical order of accuracy of any particular discretization of the discrete ordinates approximation of the transport equation. For each tested case (i.e. mesh and spatial approximation order), researchers will execute the code and compare the resulting numerical solution to the exact solution on a per cell basis to determine the distribution of the numerical error. The final activity comprises a comparison to continuous-energy Monte Carlo solutions for zero-power critical configuration measurements at Idaho National Laboratory’s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Results of this comparison will allow the investigators to distinguish between modeling errors and the above-listed discretization errors introduced by the deterministic method, and to separate the sources of uncertainty.
Photons, Electrons and Positrons Transport in 3D by Monte Carlo Techniques
2014-12-01
Version 04 FOTELP-2014 is a new compact general purpose version of the previous FOTELP-2K6 code designed to simulate the transport of photons, electrons and positrons through three-dimensional material and sources geometry by Monte Carlo techniques, using subroutine package PENGEOM from the PENELOPE code under Linux-based and Windows OS. This new version includes routine ELMAG for electron and positron transport simulation in electric and magnetic fields, RESUME option and routine TIMER for obtaining starting random numbermore » and for measuring the time of simulation.« less
Photons, Electrons and Positrons Transport in 3D by Monte Carlo Techniques
2014-12-01
Version 04 FOTELP-2014 is a new compact general purpose version of the previous FOTELP-2K6 code designed to simulate the transport of photons, electrons and positrons through three-dimensional material and sources geometry by Monte Carlo techniques, using subroutine package PENGEOM from the PENELOPE code under Linux-based and Windows OS. This new version includes routine ELMAG for electron and positron transport simulation in electric and magnetic fields, RESUME option and routine TIMER for obtaining starting random number and for measuring the time of simulation.
Age, double porosity, and simple reaction modifications for the MOC3D ground-water transport model
Goode, Daniel J.
1999-01-01
This report documents modifications for the MOC3D ground-water transport model to simulate (a) ground-water age transport; (b) double-porosity exchange; and (c) simple but flexible retardation, decay, and zero-order growth reactions. These modifications are incorporated in MOC3D version 3.0. MOC3D simulates the transport of a single solute using the method-ofcharacteristics numerical procedure. The age of ground water, that is the time since recharge to the saturated zone, can be simulated using the transport model with an additional source term of unit strength, corresponding to the rate of aging. The output concentrations of the model are in this case the ages at all locations in the model. Double porosity generally refers to a separate immobilewater phase within the aquifer that does not contribute to ground-water flow but can affect solute transport through diffusive exchange. The solute mass exchange rate between the flowing water in the aquifer and the immobile-water phase is the product of the concentration difference between the two phases and a linear exchange coefficient. Conceptually, double porosity can approximate the effects of dead-end pores in a granular porous media, or matrix diffusion in a fractured-rock aquifer. Options are provided for decay and zero-order growth reactions within the immobilewater phase. The simple reaction terms here extend the original model, which included decay and retardation. With these extensions, (a) the retardation factor can vary spatially within each model layer, (b) the decay rate coefficient can vary spatially within each model layer and can be different for the dissolved and sorbed phases, and (c) a zero-order growth reaction is added that can vary spatially and can be different in the dissolved and sorbed phases. The decay and growth reaction terms also can change in time to account for changing geochemical conditions during transport. The report includes a description of the theoretical basis of the model, a
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strahan, Susan E.; Douglass, Anne R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) Team developed objective criteria for model evaluation in order to identify the best representation of the stratosphere. This work created a method to quantitatively and objectively discriminate between different models. In the original GMI study, 3 different meteorological data sets were used to run an offline chemistry and transport model (CTM). Observationally-based grading criteria were derived and applied to these simulations and various aspects of stratospheric transport were evaluated; grades were assigned. Here we report on the application of the GMI evaluation criteria to CTM simulations integrated with a new assimilated wind data set and a new general circulation model (GCM) wind data set. The Finite Volume Community Climate Model (FV-CCM) is a new GCM developed at Goddard which uses the NCAR CCM physics and the Lin and Rood advection scheme. The FV-Data Assimilation System (FV-DAS) is a new data assimilation system which uses the FV-CCM as its core model. One year CTM simulations of 2.5 degrees longitude by 2 degrees latitude resolution were run for each wind data set. We present the evaluation of temperature and annual transport cycles in the lower and middle stratosphere in the two new CTM simulations. We include an evaluation of high latitude transport which was not part of the original GMI criteria. Grades for the new simulations will be compared with those assigned during the original GMT evaluations and areas of improvement will be identified.
3D Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Buoyant Flow and Heat Transport in a Curved Open Channel
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A three-dimensional buoyancy-extended version of kappa-epsilon turbulence model was developed for simulating the turbulent flow and heat transport in a curved open channel. The density- induced buoyant force was included in the model, and the influence of temperature stratification on flow field was...
Intercomparison of 3D pore-scale flow and solute transport simulation methods
Mehmani, Yashar; Schoenherr, Martin; Pasquali, Andrea; Perkins, William A.; Kim, Kyungjoo; Perego, Mauro; Parks, Michael L.; Balhoff, Matthew T.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Geier, Martin; et al
2015-09-28
Multiple numerical approaches have been developed to simulate porous media fluid flow and solute transport at the pore scale. These include 1) methods that explicitly model the three-dimensional geometry of pore spaces and 2) methods that conceptualize the pore space as a topologically consistent set of stylized pore bodies and pore throats. In previous work we validated a model of the first type, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes employing a standard finite volume method (FVM), against magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) measurements of pore-scale velocities. Here we expand that validation to include additional models of the first type based onmore » the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), as well as a model of the second type, a pore-network model (PNM). The PNM approach used in the current study was recently improved and demonstrated to accurately simulate solute transport in a two-dimensional experiment. While the PNM approach is computationally much less demanding than direct numerical simulation methods, the effect of conceptualizing complex three-dimensional pore geometries on solute transport in the manner of PNMs has not been fully determined. We apply all four approaches (FVM-based CFD, LBM, SPH and PNM) to simulate pore-scale velocity distributions and (for capable codes) nonreactive solute transport, and intercompare the model results. Comparisons are drawn both in terms of macroscopic variables (e.g., permeability, solute breakthrough curves) and microscopic variables (e.g., local velocities and concentrations). Generally good agreement was achieved among the various approaches, but some differences were observed depending on the model context. The intercomparison work was challenging because of variable capabilities of the codes, and inspired some code enhancements to allow consistent comparison of flow and transport simulations across the full suite of methods. This paper provides support for
Intercomparison of 3D pore-scale flow and solute transport simulation methods
Mehmani, Yashar; Schoenherr, Martin; Pasquali, Andrea; Perkins, William A.; Kim, Kyungjoo; Perego, Mauro; Parks, Michael L.; Balhoff, Matthew T.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Geier, Martin; Krafczyk, Manfred; Luo, Li -Shi; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Yang, Xiaofan; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Trask, Nathaniel
2015-09-28
Multiple numerical approaches have been developed to simulate porous media fluid flow and solute transport at the pore scale. These include 1) methods that explicitly model the three-dimensional geometry of pore spaces and 2) methods that conceptualize the pore space as a topologically consistent set of stylized pore bodies and pore throats. In previous work we validated a model of the first type, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes employing a standard finite volume method (FVM), against magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) measurements of pore-scale velocities. Here we expand that validation to include additional models of the first type based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), as well as a model of the second type, a pore-network model (PNM). The PNM approach used in the current study was recently improved and demonstrated to accurately simulate solute transport in a two-dimensional experiment. While the PNM approach is computationally much less demanding than direct numerical simulation methods, the effect of conceptualizing complex three-dimensional pore geometries on solute transport in the manner of PNMs has not been fully determined. We apply all four approaches (FVM-based CFD, LBM, SPH and PNM) to simulate pore-scale velocity distributions and (for capable codes) nonreactive solute transport, and intercompare the model results. Comparisons are drawn both in terms of macroscopic variables (e.g., permeability, solute breakthrough curves) and microscopic variables (e.g., local velocities and concentrations). Generally good agreement was achieved among the various approaches, but some differences were observed depending on the model context. The intercomparison work was challenging because of variable capabilities of the codes, and inspired some code enhancements to allow consistent comparison of flow and transport simulations across the full suite of methods. This paper provides support for confidence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M. L.; Prinn, R. G.; Muhle, J.; Weiss, R. F.
2009-12-01
We present optimized annual global emissions from 1973-2008 of nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), a powerful greenhouse gas which is not currently regulated by the Kyoto Protocol. In the past few decades, NF3 production has dramatically increased due to its usage in the semiconductor industry. Emissions were estimated through the 'pulse-method' discrete Kalman filter using both a simple, flexible 2-D 12-box model used in the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) network and the Model for Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART v4.5), a full 3-D atmospheric chemistry model. No official audited reports of industrial NF3 emissions are available, and with limited information on production, a priori emissions were estimated using both a bottom-up and top-down approach with two different spatial patterns based on semiconductor perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR v3.2) and Semiconductor Industry Association sales information. Both spatial patterns used in the models gave consistent results, showing the robustness of the estimated global emissions. Differences between estimates using the 2-D and 3-D models can be attributed to transport rates and resolution differences. Additionally, new NF3 industry production and market information is presented. Emission estimates from both the 2-D and 3-D models suggest that either the assumed industry release rate of NF3 or industry production information is still underestimated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makra, László; Matyasovszky, István; Guba, Zoltán; Karatzas, Kostas; Anttila, Pia
2011-05-01
The purpose of the study is to identify long-range transport patterns that may have an important influence on PM10 levels in three European cities at different latitudes, namely Thessaloniki, Szeged and Helsinki. A further aim is to separate medium- and long-range PM10 transport for these cities. 4-day, 6-hourly three-dimensional (3D) backward trajectories arriving at these locations at 1200 GMT were computed using the HYSPLIT model over a 5-year period from 2001 to 2005. A k-means clustering algorithm using the Mahalanobis metric was applied in order to develop trajectory types. The 3D delimination of the clusters by the function "convhull" is a novel approach. Two statistical indices were used to evaluate and compare critical daily PM10 exceedances corresponding to the trajectory clusters. For Thessaloniki, the major PM10 transport can be clearly associated with air masses arriving from Central and Southern Europe. Occasional North African dust intrusions over Greece are also found. The transport of particulate matter from North-western Europe to Thessaloniki is of limited importance. For Szeged, Central Europe, Southern Europe and Mid-eastern Europe are the most important sources of PM10. The occasional appearance of North African-origin dust over Hungary is also detected. Local PM10 levels tend to be diluted when air masses arrive at the Carpathian Basin from North-western Europe, the Mid-Atlantic - Western Europe and Northern Europe. For Helsinki, high PM10 concentrations are due to air masses coming from Northern and Eastern Europe including North-western Russia. An occasional Caspian Sea desert influence on particulate levels can also be identified. However, air currents coming from the Northern Atlantics, Northern and North-western Europe tend to dilute PM10 levels. A simple approach is developed in order to separate medium- and long-range PM10 transport for each city.
Biondo, Elliott D; Ibrahim, Ahmad M; Mosher, Scott W; Grove, Robert E
2015-01-01
Detailed radiation transport calculations are necessary for many aspects of the design of fusion energy systems (FES) such as ensuring occupational safety, assessing the activation of system components for waste disposal, and maintaining cryogenic temperatures within superconducting magnets. Hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/deterministic techniques are necessary for this analysis because FES are large, heavily shielded, and contain streaming paths that can only be resolved with MC. The tremendous complexity of FES necessitates the use of CAD geometry for design and analysis. Previous ITER analysis has required the translation of CAD geometry to MCNP5 form in order to use the AutomateD VAriaNce reducTion Generator (ADVANTG) for hybrid MC/deterministic transport. In this work, ADVANTG was modified to support CAD geometry, allowing hybrid (MC)/deterministic transport to be done automatically and eliminating the need for this translation step. This was done by adding a new ray tracing routine to ADVANTG for CAD geometries using the Direct Accelerated Geometry Monte Carlo (DAGMC) software library. This new capability is demonstrated with a prompt dose rate calculation for an ITER computational benchmark problem using both the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method an the Forward Weighted (FW)-CADIS method. The variance reduction parameters produced by ADVANTG are shown to be the same using CAD geometry and standard MCNP5 geometry. Significant speedups were observed for both neutrons (as high as a factor of 7.1) and photons (as high as a factor of 59.6).
A 3D Model for Ion Beam Formation and Transport Simulation
Qiang, J.; Todd, D.; Leitner, D.
2006-02-07
In this paper, we present a three-dimensional model forself-consistently modeling ion beam formation from plasma ion sources andtransporting in low energy beam transport systems. A multi-sectionoverlapped computational domain has been used to break the originaltransport system into a number of weakly coupled subsystems. Within eachsubsystem, macro-particle tracking is used to obtain the charge densitydistribution in this subdomain. The three-dimensional Poisson equation issolved within the subdomain after each particle tracking to obtain theself-consistent space-charge forces and the particle tracking is repeateduntil the solution converges. Two new Poisson solvers based on acombination of the spectral method and the finite difference multigridmethod have been developed to solve the Poisson equation in cylindricalcoordinates for the straight beam transport section and in Frenet-Serretcoordinates for the bending magnet section. This model can have importantapplication in design and optimization of the low energy beam line opticsof the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) front end.
Barlebo, H.C.; Rosbjerg, D.; Hill, M.C.
1996-01-01
An extensive amount of data including hydraulic heads, hydraulic conductivities and concentrations of several solutes from controlled injections have been collected during the MADE 1 and MADE 2 experiments at a heterogeneous site near Columbus, Mississippi. In this paper the use of three-dimensional inverse groundwater models including simultaneous estimation of flow and transport parameters is proposed to help identify the dominant characteristics at the site. Simulations show that using a hydraulic conductivity distribution obtained from 2187 borehole flowmeter tests directly in the model produces poor matches to the measured hydraulic heads and tritium concentrations. Alternatively, time averaged hydraulic head maps are used to define zones of constant hydraulic conductivity to be estimated. Preliminary simulations suggest that in the case of conservative transport many, but not all, of the major plume characteristics can be explained by large-scale heterogeneity in recharge and hydraulic conductivity.
Importance of 3D Processes Near the Ocean's Surface for Material Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozgokmen, T. M.
2014-12-01
There are a number of practical problems that demand an accurate knowledge of ocean currents near the surface of the ocean. It is known that oceanic coherent features transport heat and carry out vertical exchange of biogeochemical tracers. Ocean currents can affect biological primary production, air-sea gas exchanges and global tracer budgets. Ocean currents are also important for the dispersion of substances that pose a danger to society, economy and human health. Examples of such events include algal blooms, the Fukushima nuclear plant incident in the Pacific Ocean in 2011, and repeated large oil spills in the Gulf of Mexico, namely the IXTOC in 1978 and the Deepwater Horizon event in 2010. Such incidents demand accurate answers to questions such as ``where will the pollutant go?", ``how fast will it get there?" and ``how much pollutant will arrive there?", and in some instances ``where did the pollutant come from?". The answers to these questions are critical to the allocation of limited response resources, and in determining the overall impact of the events. We will summarize the efforts by the Consortium for Advanced Research on Transport of Hydrocarbon in the Environment (CARTHE). One of the primary objectives of CARTHE is to improve predictive modeling capability for flows near the air-sea interface. In particular, two large experiments, Grand Lagrangian Deployment (GLAD) and Surf-zone and Coastal Oil Pathways Experiment (SCOPE), coordinated with real-time modeling were instructive on processes influencing near-surface material transport. Findings on submesoscale flows as well as model deficiencies to capture processes relevant to transport will be discussed. Insight into future modeling and observational plans will be provided.
Quantum transport theory of 3D time-reversal invariant topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dellabetta, Brian Jon
We consider the potential technological role of a recently predicted and discovered phase of quantum matter - topological insulators (TIs), which are characterized by an insulating bulk and topologically protected, gapless, spin-momentum locked surface modes. Precise engineering of these gapless modes may yield new potential materials for novel electronic devices, but many materials issues and open questions in application remain in the nascent field. The quasiparticle dynamics of TI systems can be elegantly written in terms of a low-energy effective momentum-space Hamiltonian, but analytic methods quickly become intractable in multifarious systems and disordered heterostructures which in general lack translational invariance, as momentum is no longer a good quantum number. Computational methods possess a clear advantage in this regime, for understanding systems in which geometry, contact layout, and disorder play a dominant role. We employ computationally intensive methods to calculate observable, non-equilibrium transport dynamics of real-space topological systems, to propose and identify experimental signatures of topological behavior, and to connect interesting experimental observations to the underlying topological properties in normal, disordered, and superconducting systems. The customizability of these computational methods allows us to determine the salient underlying physics involved in a number of different scenarios, including surface transport corrugated TI channels, the Aharonov-Bohm effect in TI nanowires, supercurrent in TI Josephson junctions, and the superconducting proximity effect and resulting transport in TI-superconductor heterostructures. In doing so, we expand the understanding of quantum and mesoscopic transport in heterostructured TI systems as a first step in exploring their long-term place in novel device applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janssen, G.; Del Val Alonso, L.; Groenendijk, P.; Griffioen, J.
2012-12-01
We developed an on-line coupling between the 1D/quasi-2D nutrient transport model ANIMO and the 3D groundwater transport model code MT3DMS. ANIMO is a detailed, process-oriented model code for the simulation of nitrate leaching to groundwater, N- and P-loads on surface waters and emissions of greenhouse gasses. It is the leading nutrient fate and transport code in the Netherlands where it is used primarily for the evaluation of fertilization related legislation. In addition, the code is applied frequently in international research projects. MT3DMS is probably the most commonly used groundwater solute transport package worldwide. The on-line model coupling ANIMO-MT3DMS combines the state-of-the-art descriptions of the biogeochemical cycles in ANIMO with the advantages of using a 3D approach for the transport through the saturated domain. These advantages include accounting for regional lateral transport, considering groundwater-surface water interactions more explicitly, and the possibility of using MODFLOW to obtain the flow fields. An additional merit of the on-line coupling concept is that it preserves feedbacks between the saturated and unsaturated zone. We tested ANIMO-MT3DMS by simulating nutrient transport for the period 1970-2007 in a Dutch agricultural polder catchment covering an area of 118 km2. The transient groundwater flow field had a temporal resolution of one day and was calculated with MODFLOW-MetaSWAP. The horizontal resolution of the model grid was 100x100m and consisted of 25 layers of varying thickness. To keep computation times manageable, we prepared MT3DMS for parallel computing, which in itself is a relevant development for a large community of groundwater transport modelers. For the parameterization of the soil, we applied a standard classification approach, representing the area by 60 units with unique combinations of soil type, land use and geohydrological setting. For the geochemical parameterization of the deeper subsurface, however, we
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brueck, C. L.; Meisenheimer, D.; Wildenschild, D.
2015-12-01
Understanding the mechanisms controlling colloid transport and deposition in the vadose zone is an important step in protecting our water resources. Not only may these particles themselves be undesirable contaminants, but they can also aid in the transport of smaller, molecular-scale contaminants by chemical attachment. In this research, we examined the influence that air-water interfaces (AWI) and air-water-solid contact lines (AWS) have on colloid deposition and mobilization in three-dimensional systems. We used x-ray microtomography to visualize the transport of hydrophobic colloids as they move through a partially saturated glass bead pack. Drainage and imbibition experiments were conducted using syringe pumps to control the flow of a colloid suspension through the porous media at 0.6 mL/hr. The high ionic strength fluid was adjusted to a pH of 9.5 and a concentration of 1.0 mol/L KI. During the drainage and imbibition, the flow was periodically halted and allowed to equilibrate before collecting the microtomography scans. Dopants were used to enhance the contrast between the four phases (water, air, beads, and colloids), including potassium iodide dissolved in the fluid, and an outer layer of silver coating the colloids. We hypothesized that AWIs and AWSs will scour and mobilize a significant percentage of colloids, and therefore reduce the concentration of colloids along the vertical profile of the column. The concentration of potassium iodide, and thus the ionic strength, necessary for adequate image segmentation was also explored in separate experiments so that the influence of ionic strength on colloid deposition and mobilization can be studied.
Benchmark Study of 3D Pore-scale Flow and Solute Transport Simulation Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheibe, T. D.; Yang, X.; Mehmani, Y.; Perkins, W. A.; Pasquali, A.; Schoenherr, M.; Kim, K.; Perego, M.; Parks, M. L.; Trask, N.; Balhoff, M.; Richmond, M. C.; Geier, M.; Krafczyk, M.; Luo, L. S.; Tartakovsky, A. M.
2015-12-01
Multiple numerical approaches have been developed to simulate porous media fluid flow and solute transport at the pore scale. These include 1) methods that explicitly model the three-dimensional geometry of pore spaces and 2) methods that conceptualize the pore space as a topologically consistent set of stylized pore bodies and pore throats. In previous work we validated a model of the first type, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes employing standard finite volume method (FVM), against magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) measurements of pore-scale velocities. Here we expand that benchmark study to include additional models of the first type based on the immersed-boundary method (IMB), lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), as well as a model of the second type, a pore-network model (PNM). While the PNM approach is computationally much less demanding than direct numerical simulation methods, the effect of conceptualizing complex three-dimensional pore geometries in the manner of PNMs has not been fully determined. We apply all five approaches (FVM-based CFD, IMB, LBM, SPH and PNM) to simulate pore-scale velocity distributions and nonreactive solute transport, and intercompare the model results. Comparisons are drawn both in terms of macroscopic variables (e.g., permeability, solute breakthrough curves) and microscopic variables (e.g., local velocities and concentrations). Generally good agreement was achieved among the various approaches, but some differences were observed depending on the model context. The benchmark study was challenging because of variable capabilities of the codes, and inspired some code enhancements to allow consistent comparison of flow and transport simulations across the full suite of methods. This study provides support for confidence in a variety of pore-scale modeling methods, and motivates further development and application of pore-scale simulation methods.
Finite-Orbit-Width version of the CQL3D for description of RF-enhanced neoclassical transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, Yu. V.; Harvey, R. W.
2015-12-01
The CQL3D bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck (FP) code [l] has been upgraded to include Finite-Orbit-Width (FOW) effects. The calculations can be done either with a fast Hybrid-FOW option or with a slower but neoclassically complete full-FOW option. The neoclassical radial transport appears naturally in the full-FOW version by averaging the local collision coefficients along guiding center orbits, with a proper transformation matrix from local (R, Z) coordinates to the midplane computational coordinates, where the FP equation is solved. In a similar way, the local quasilinear rf diffusion terms give rise to additional radial transport of orbits. The results of validation tests for the full-FOW version are presented.
Development of a 3D to 1D Particle Transport Model to Predict Deposition in the Lungs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oakes, Jessica M.; Grandmont, Celine; Shadden, Shawn C.; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E.
2014-11-01
Aerosolized particles are commonly used for therapeutic drug delivery as they can be delivered to the body systemically or be used to treat lung diseases. Recent advances in computational resources have allowed for sophisticated pulmonary simulations, however it is currently impossible to solve for airflow and particle transport for all length and time scales of the lung. Instead, multi-scale methods must be used. In our recent work, where computational methods were employed to solve for airflow and particle transport in the rat airways (Oakes et al. (2014), Annals of Biomedical Engineering 42, 899), the number of particles to exit downstream of the 3D domain was determined. In this current work, the time-dependent Lagrangian description of particles was used to numerically solve a 1D convection-diffusion model (trumpet model, Taulbee and Yu (1975), Journal of Applied Physiology, 38, 77) parameterized specifically for the lung. The expansion of the airway dimensions was determined based on data collected from our aerosol exposure experiments (Oakes et al. (2014), Journal of Applied Physiology, 116, 1561). This 3D-1D framework enables us to predict the fate of particles in the whole lung. This work was supported by the Whitaker Foundation at the IIE, a INRIA Associated Team Postdoc Grant, and a UC Presidential Fellowship.
Three-fluid, 3D MHD solar wind modeling with turbulence transport and eddy viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usmanov, A. V.; Goldstein, M. L.; Matthaeus, W. H.
2014-12-01
We present results from a three-fluid, fully three-dimensional MHD solar wind model that includes turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating. The solar wind plasma is described as a co-moving system of three species: the solar wind protons, electrons, and interstellar pickup protons. Separate energy equations are employed for each species. We obtain numerical solutions of Reynolds-averaged solar wind equations coupled with turbulence transport equations in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU. The integrated system of equations includes the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with the solar wind protons, turbulence energy generation by pickup protons, and turbulent heating of solar wind protons and electrons. Using either a dipole approximation for the solar magnetic field or synoptic solar magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory for assigning boundary conditions at the coronal base, we apply the model to study the global structure of the solar wind and its three-dimensional properties, including turbulence parameters, throughout the heliosphere. The model results are compared with observations on WIND, Ulysses and Voyager 2 spacecraft. This work is partially supported by LWS and Heliophysics Grand Challenges programs.
Reactive transport in 3D models of irregularly fractured rock masses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Driesner, T.; Mindel, J. E.
2014-12-01
Reactive transport through irregularly fractured rock masses is a key phenomenon in ore-forming hydrothermal systems, geothermal systems, and many other geological processes and will affect the mechanical properties and hydraulic apertures of fractures. Realistic representations of such systems have so far been hampered by technical limitations of most hydrothermal reactive transport codes, namely the ability to represent discrete fracture networks in a porous rock matrix. We present the first three-dimensional simulation results obtained from coupling a combined finite element - finite volume scheme of the revised CSMP++ flow simulation platform (1) with the GEMIPM3K (2) chemical equilibration code. In these, we represented fracture zones as thin, porous zones of higher permeability. The simulations demonstrate the effects of fracture zone orientation relative to the pressure field and fracture zone intersections on the differential advance of reaction fronts. We outline our numerical approaches for testing and comparing the effect of various ways of representing fractures and fracture zones in irregular meshes, namely the possibility of using layers of prism elements to represent fractures of finite thickness with internally varying properties and the possibility to represent thin fractures as lower dimensional (=2D) elements. We intend to make use of the "split node" capabilities of CSMP++ (3) to maintain sharp interfaces at material boundaries in order to be able to study the transient influence of reactive flow on fracture and matrix permeability in irregularly fractured rock masses.
Modelling of transport phenomena in 3D GMAW of thick metals with V groove
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, J.; Tsai, H. L.
2008-03-01
This paper analyses the dynamic process of groove filling and the resulting weld pool fluid flow in gas metal arc welding of thick metals with V groove. Filler droplets carrying mass, momentum, thermal energy and sulfur species are periodically impinged onto the workpiece. The complex transport phenomena in the weld pool, caused by the combined effect of droplet impingement, gravity, electromagnetic force, surface tension and plasma arc pressure, were investigated to determine the transient weld pool shape and distributions of velocity, temperature and sulfur species in the weld pool. It was found that the groove provides a channel which can smooth the flow in the weld pool, leading to poor mixing between the filler metal and the base metal.
3D particle simulation of beams using the WARP code: Transport around bends
Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Callahan, D.A.; Langdon, A.B. ); Haber, I. )
1990-11-30
WARP is a discrete-particle simulation program which was developed for studies of space charge dominated ion beams. It combines features of an accelerator code and a particle-in-cell plasma simulation. The code architecture, and techniques employed to enhance efficiency, are briefly described. Current applications are reviewed. In this paper we emphasize the physics of transport of three-dimensional beams around bends. We present a simple bent-beam PIC algorithm. Using this model, we have followed a long, thin beam around a bend in a simple racetrack system (assuming straight-pipe self-fields). Results on beam dynamics are presented; no transverse emittance growth (at mid-pulse) is observed. 11 refs., 5 figs.
A 3D transport model study of chlorine activation during EASOE
Chipperfield, M.P.; Cariolle, D.; Simon, P. )
1994-06-22
The authors present the results of a chemical transport model which was applied to the problem of atmospheric chemistry of trace species in the stratosphere during EASOE. The model uses a comprehensive set of gas phase reactions, as well as modeling reactions occuring on nuclei in polar stratospheric clouds. This model has been used to study the development of chlorine compounds during the winter of 1991-92. Meteorological data is used as a boundary condition for the model. Significant increases in reactive chlorine are shown to occur in the lower stratosphere through mid January, when warming reduced the occurrence of polar stratospheric clouds. Even with the enhanced active chlorine presence, the lack of sunlight inhibited substantial chemical destruction of ozone.
TART97 a coupled neutron-photon 3-D, combinatorial geometry Monte Carlo transport code
Cullen, D.E.
1997-11-22
TART97 is a coupled neutron-photon, 3 Dimensional, combinatorial geometry, time dependent Monte Carlo transport code. This code can on any modern computer. It is a complete system to assist you with input preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART97 is also incredibly FAST; if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared to other similar codes. Use of the entire system can save you a great deal of time and energy. TART97 is distributed on CD. This CD contains on- line documentation for all codes included in the system, the codes configured to run on a variety of computers, and many example problems that you can use to familiarize yourself with the system. TART97 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that users only use the most recent version of TART97 and its data riles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamorski, Krzysztof; Sławiński, Cezary; Barna, Gyöngyi
2014-05-01
There are some important macroscopic properties of the soil porous media such as: saturated permeability and water retention characteristics. These soil characteristics are very important as they determine soil transport processes and are commonly used as a parameters of general models of soil transport processes used extensively for scientific developments and engineering practise. These characteristics are usually measured or estimated using some statistical or phenomenological modelling, i.e. pedotransfer functions. On the physical basis, saturated soil permeability arises from physical transport processes occurring at the pore level. Current progress in modelling techniques, computational methods and X-ray micro-tomographic technology gives opportunity to use direct methods of physical modelling for pore level transport processes. Physically valid description of transport processes at micro-scale based on Navier-Stokes type modelling approach gives chance to recover macroscopic porous medium characteristics from micro-flow modelling. Water microflow transport processes occurring at the pore level are dependent on the microstructure of porous body and interactions between the fluid and the medium. In case of soils, i.e. the medium there exist relatively big pores in which water can move easily but also finer pores are present in which water transport processes are dominated by strong interactions between the medium and the fluid - full physical description of these phenomena is a challenge. Ten samples of different soils were scanned using X-ray computational microtomograph. The diameter of samples was 5 mm. The voxel resolution of CT scan was 2.5 µm. Resulting 3D soil samples images were used for reconstruction of the pore space for further modelling. 3D image threshholding was made to determine the soil grain surface. This surface was triangulated and used for computational mesh construction for the pore space. Numerical modelling of water flow through the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simmons, Gary G.; Howett, Carly J. A.; Young, Leslie A.; Spencer, John R.
2015-11-01
In the last few decades, thermal data from the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft have detected various anomalies on Jovian and Saturnian satellites, including the thermally anomalous “PacMan” regions on Mimas and Tethys and the Pwyll anomaly on Europa (Howett et al. 2011, Howett et al. 2012, Spencer et al. 1999). Yet, the peculiarities of some of these anomalies, like the weak detection of the “PacMan” anomalies on Rhea and Dione and the low thermal inertia values of the widespread anomalies on equatorial Europa, are subjects for on-going research (Howett et al. 2014, Rathbun et al. 2010). Further, analysis and review of all the data both Galileo and Cassini took of these worlds will provide information of the thermal inertia and albedos of their surfaces, perhaps highlighting potential targets of interest for future Jovian and Saturnian system missions. Many previous works have used a thermophysical model for airless planets developed by Spencer (1990). However, the Three Dimensional Volatile-Transport (VT3D) model proposed by Young (2012) is able to predict surface temperatures in significantly faster computation time, incorporating seasonal and diurnal insolation variations. This work is the first step in an ongoing investigation, which will use VT3D’s capabilities to reanalyze Galileo and Cassini data. VT3D, which has already been used to analyze volatile transport on Pluto, is validated by comparing its results to that of the Spencer thermal model. We will also present our initial results using VT3D to reanalyze the thermophysical properties of the PacMan anomaly previous discovered on Mimas by Howett et al. (2011), using temperature constraints of diurnal data from Cassini/CIRS. VT3D is expected to be an efficient tool in identifying new thermal anomalies in future Saturnian and Jovian missions.Bibliography:C.J.A. Howett et al. (2011), Icarus 216, 221.C.J.A. Howett et al. (2012), Icarus 221, 1084.C.J.A. Howett et al. (2014), Icarus 241, 239.J
A Coupled Neutron-Photon 3-D Combinatorial Geometry Monte Carlo Transport Code
1998-06-12
TART97 is a coupled neutron-photon, 3 dimensional, combinatorial geometry, time dependent Monte Carlo transport code. This code can run on any modern computer. It is a complete system to assist you with input preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART97 is also incredibly fast: if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared to other similar codes. Use of the entire system canmore » save you a great deal of time and energy. TART 97 is distributed on CD. This CD contains on-line documentation for all codes included in the system, the codes configured to run on a variety of computers, and many example problems that you can use to familiarize yourself with the system. TART97 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that users only use the most recent version of TART97 and ist data files.« less
Pastura, F C H; Guimarães, C P; Zamberlan, M C P; Cid, G L; Santos, V S; Streit, P; Paranhos, A G; Cobbe, R T; Cobbe, K T; Batista, D S
2012-01-01
The goal of this paper is to present 1D and 3D anthropometric data applied to two distinct design situations: one related to the interior layout of a public transport vehicle and another one related to oil and gas laboratories work environment design. On this study, the 1D anthropometric data were extracted from the Brazilian anthropometric database developed by INT and the 3D anthropometric data were obtained using a Cyberware 3D whole body scanner. A second purpose of this paper is to present the 3D human scanning data as a tool that can help designers on decision making. PMID:22317431
3-D Deep Penetration Neutron Imaging of Thick Absorgin and Diffusive Objects Using Transport Theory
Ragusa, Jean; Bangerth, Wolfgang
2011-08-01
here explores the inverse problem of optical tomography applied to heterogeneous domains. The neutral particle transport equation was used as the forward model for how neutral particles stream through and interact within these heterogeneous domains. A constrained optimization technique that uses Newtons method served as the basis of the inverse problem. Optical tomography aims at reconstructing the material properties using (a) illuminating sources and (b) detector readings. However, accurate simulations for radiation transport require that the particle (gamma and/or neutron) energy be appropriate discretize in the multigroup approximation. This, in turns, yields optical tomography problems where the number of unknowns grows (1) about quadratically with respect to the number of energy groups, G, (notably to reconstruct the scattering matrix) and (2) linearly with respect to the number of unknown material regions. As pointed out, a promising approach could rely on algorithms to appropriately select a material type per material zone rather than G2 values. This approach, though promising, still requires further investigation: (a) when switching from cross-section values unknowns to material type indices (discrete integer unknowns), integer programming techniques are needed since derivative information is no longer available; and (b) the issue of selecting the initial material zoning remains. The work reported here proposes an approach to solve the latter item, whereby a material zoning is proposed using one-group or few-groups transport approximations. The capabilities and limitations of the presented method were explored; they are briefly summarized next and later described in fuller details in the Appendices. The major factors that influenced the ability of the optimization method to reconstruct the cross sections of these domains included the locations of the sources used to illuminate the domains, the number of separate experiments used in the reconstruction, the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norman, Ryan B.; Badavi, Francis F.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Atwell, William
2011-01-01
A deterministic suite of radiation transport codes, developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), which describe the transport of electrons, photons, protons, and heavy ions in condensed media is used to simulate exposures from spectral distributions typical of electrons, protons and carbon-oxygen-sulfur (C-O-S) trapped heavy ions in the Jovian radiation environment. The particle transport suite consists of a coupled electron and photon deterministic transport algorithm (CEPTRN) and a coupled light particle and heavy ion deterministic transport algorithm (HZETRN). The primary purpose for the development of the transport suite is to provide a means for the spacecraft design community to rapidly perform numerous repetitive calculations essential for electron, proton and heavy ion radiation exposure assessments in complex space structures. In this paper, the radiation environment of the Galilean satellite Europa is used as a representative boundary condition to show the capabilities of the transport suite. While the transport suite can directly access the output electron spectra of the Jovian environment as generated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Galileo Interim Radiation Electron (GIRE) model of 2003; for the sake of relevance to the upcoming Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), the 105 days at Europa mission fluence energy spectra provided by JPL is used to produce the corresponding dose-depth curve in silicon behind an aluminum shield of 100 mils ( 0.7 g/sq cm). The transport suite can also accept ray-traced thickness files from a computer-aided design (CAD) package and calculate the total ionizing dose (TID) at a specific target point. In that regard, using a low-fidelity CAD model of the Galileo probe, the transport suite was verified by comparing with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for orbits JOI--J35 of the Galileo extended mission (1996-2001). For the upcoming EJSM mission with a potential launch date of 2020, the transport suite is used to compute
Lee, Gang-Young; Han, A-Reum; Kim, Taewan; Lee, Hae Rang; Oh, Joon Hak; Park, Taiho
2016-05-18
To achieve extremely high planarity and processability simultaneously, we have newly designed and synthesized copolymers composed of donor units of 2,2'-(2,5-dialkoxy-1,4-phenylene)dithieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT-P-TT) and acceptor units of diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP). These copolymers consist of a highly planar backbone due to intramolecular interactions. We have systematically investigated the effects of intermolecular interactions by controlling the side chain bulkiness on the polymer thin-film morphologies, packing structures, and charge transport. The thin-film microstructures of the copolymers are found to be critically dependent upon subtle changes in the intermolecular interactions, and charge transport dynamics of the copolymer based field-effect transistors (FETs) has been investigated by in-depth structure-property relationship study. Although the size of the fibrillar structures increases as the bulkiness of the side chains in the copolymer increases, the copolymer with the smallest side chain shows remarkably high charge carrier mobility. Our findings reveal the requirement for forming efficient 3-D charge transport pathway and highlight the importance of the molecular packing and interdomain connectivity, rather than the crystalline domain size. The results obtained herein demonstrate the importance of tailoring the side chain bulkiness and provide new insights into the molecular design for high-performance polymer semiconductors. PMID:27117671
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitousek, S.; Fletcher, C. H.; Storlazzi, C. D.
2006-12-01
Nearshore currents are driven by a number of components including tides, waves winds and even internal tides. To adequately simulate transport of sand and other constituents, the realistic behavior of the dominant current-generating phenomena should be resolved. This often requires sufficient observations and calibration/validation efforts to achieve realistic modeling results. The work explores the capabilities of modeling the currents along West Maui. The West Maui coast has a propagating tide where the observed peak tidal currents, which are directed parallel to the coast, occur very closely to the peak tidal water levels. In 2003, the USGS collected an extensive set of current observations along West Maui, Hawaii, with the goal of better understanding transport mechanisms of sediment, larvae, pollutants and other particles in coral reef settings. The observations included vessel mounted ADCP surveys and an array seafloor instruments at the 10m isobath along the coast. A simple 2DH model of West Maui using Delft3D shows good comparison of the modeled and observed currents. Nearshore currents driven by waves and winds are also considered. During the data collection period a significant erosion event occurred within the study domain at Kaanapali Beach. This event undermined several trees on the shoreline and threatened resort infrastructure. In modeling the nearshore currents of this region we hope to determine the potential for sand transport and shoreline change to hindcast this event.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergmann, Ryan
Graphics processing units, or GPUs, have gradually increased in computational power from the small, job-specific boards of the early 1990s to the programmable powerhouses of today. Compared to more common central processing units, or CPUs, GPUs have a higher aggregate memory bandwidth, much higher floating-point operations per second (FLOPS), and lower energy consumption per FLOP. Because one of the main obstacles in exascale computing is power consumption, many new supercomputing platforms are gaining much of their computational capacity by incorporating GPUs into their compute nodes. Since CPU-optimized parallel algorithms are not directly portable to GPU architectures (or at least not without losing substantial performance), transport codes need to be rewritten to execute efficiently on GPUs. Unless this is done, reactor simulations cannot take full advantage of these new supercomputers. WARP, which can stand for ``Weaving All the Random Particles,'' is a three-dimensional (3D) continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code developed in this work as to efficiently implement a continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport algorithm on a GPU. WARP accelerates Monte Carlo simulations while preserving the benefits of using the Monte Carlo Method, namely, very few physical and geometrical simplifications. WARP is able to calculate multiplication factors, flux tallies, and fission source distributions for time-independent problems, and can run in both criticality or fixed source modes. WARP can transport neutrons in unrestricted arrangements of parallelepipeds, hexagonal prisms, cylinders, and spheres. WARP uses an event-based algorithm, but with some important differences. Moving data is expensive, so WARP uses a remapping vector of pointer/index pairs to direct GPU threads to the data they need to access. The remapping vector is sorted by reaction type after every transport iteration using a high-efficiency parallel radix sort, which serves to keep the
Han Tao; Followill, David; Repchak, Roman; Molineu, Andrea; Howell, Rebecca; Salehpour, Mohammad; Mikell, Justin; Mourtada, Firas
2013-05-15
Purpose: The novel deterministic radiation transport algorithm, Acuros XB (AXB), has shown great potential for accurate heterogeneous dose calculation. However, the clinical impact between AXB and other currently used algorithms still needs to be elucidated for translation between these algorithms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of AXB for heterogeneous dose calculation in lung cancer for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods: The thorax phantom from the Radiological Physics Center (RPC) was used for this study. IMRT and VMAT plans were created for the phantom in the Eclipse 11.0 treatment planning system. Each plan was delivered to the phantom three times using a Varian Clinac iX linear accelerator to ensure reproducibility. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and Gafchromic EBT2 film were placed inside the phantom to measure delivered doses. The measurements were compared with dose calculations from AXB 11.0.21 and the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) 11.0.21. Two dose reporting modes of AXB, dose-to-medium in medium (D{sub m,m}) and dose-to-water in medium (D{sub w,m}), were studied. Point doses, dose profiles, and gamma analysis were used to quantify the agreement between measurements and calculations from both AXB and AAA. The computation times for AAA and AXB were also evaluated. Results: For the RPC lung phantom, AAA and AXB dose predictions were found in good agreement to TLD and film measurements for both IMRT and VMAT plans. TLD dose predictions were within 0.4%-4.4% to AXB doses (both D{sub m,m} and D{sub w,m}); and within 2.5%-6.4% to AAA doses, respectively. For the film comparisons, the gamma indexes ({+-}3%/3 mm criteria) were 94%, 97%, and 98% for AAA, AXB{sub Dm,m}, and AXB{sub Dw,m}, respectively. The differences between AXB and AAA in dose-volume histogram mean doses were within 2% in the planning target volume, lung, heart, and within 5% in the spinal cord
Geometrically-compatible 3-D Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinates methods
Morel, J.E.; Wareing, T.A.; McGhee, J.M.; Evans, T.M.
1998-12-31
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was two-fold. The first purpose was to develop a deterministic discrete-ordinates neutral-particle transport scheme for unstructured tetrahedral spatial meshes, and implement it in a computer code. The second purpose was to modify the MCNP Monte Carlo radiation transport code to use adjoint solutions from the tetrahedral-mesh discrete-ordinates code to reduce the statistical variance of Monte Carlo solutions via a weight-window approach. The first task has resulted in a deterministic transport code that is much more efficient for modeling complex 3-D geometries than any previously existing deterministic code. The second task has resulted in a powerful new capability for dramatically reducing the cost of difficult 3-D Monte Carlo calculations.
Vannuccini, Elisa; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Cantele, Francesca; Gentile, Mariangela; Dini, Daniele; Fino, Federica; Diener, Dennis; Mencarelli, Caterina; Lupetti, Pietro
2016-05-15
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is responsible for the bidirectional trafficking of molecular components required for the elongation and maintenance of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Cargo is transported by IFT 'trains', linear rows of multiprotein particles moved by molecular motors along the axonemal doublets. We have previously described two structurally distinct categories of 'long' and 'short' trains. Here, we analyse the relative number of these trains throughout flagellar regeneration and show that long trains are most abundant at the beginning of flagellar growth whereas short trains gradually increase in number as flagella elongate. These observations are incompatible with the previous hypothesis that short trains are derived solely from the reorganization of long trains at the flagellar tip. We demonstrate with electron tomography the existence of two distinct ultrastructural organizations for the short trains, we name these 'narrow' and 'wide', and provide the first 3D model of the narrow short trains. These trains are characterized by tri-lobed units, which repeat longitudinally every 16 nm and contact protofilament 7 of the B-tubule. Functional implications of the new structural evidence are discussed. PMID:27044756
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rona, Michael; Gasser, Guy; Negev, Ido; Pankratov, Irena; Elhanany, Sara; Lev, Ovadia; Gvirtzman, Haim
2014-05-01
Wastewater recharge facilities are often used as a final water treatment before the discharge to the sea or before water reclamation. These facilities are often located in active aquifers that supply drinking water. Thus, leakage from the water recharge facility and gradual expansion of the underground wastewater plume are of considerable health concern. Hydrological modeling of water recharge systems are widely used as operational and predictive tools. These models rely on distributed water head monitoring and at least one chemical or physical tracer to model solutes' transport. Refractory micropollutants have proven useful in qualitative identification of pollution leakages and for quantification of pollution to a specific site near water recharge facilities. However, their usefulness as tracers for hydrological modeling is still questionable. In this article, we describe a long term, 3-D hydraulic model of a large-scale wastewater effluents recharge system in which a combination of chloride and a refractory micropollutant, carbamazepine is used to trace the solute transport. The combination of the two tracers provides the model with the benefits of the high specificity of the carbamazepine and the extensive historic data base that is available for chloride. The model predicts westward expansion of the pollution plume, whereas a standing front is formed at the east. These trends can be confirmed by the time trace of the carbamazepine concentrations at specific locations. We show that the combination of two tracers accounts better (at least at some locations) for the evolution of the pollution plume than a model based on chloride or carbamazepine alone.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wehrer, Markus; Slater, Lee
2015-04-01
flow fraction was observed to be independent of precipitation rate. This suggests the presence of a fingering process driven by textural heterogeneities. As a consequence, preferential transport of the conservative and the reactive tracer also occurred. We found that 3D ERT can serve to quantitatively characterize shape measures of both tracer breakthroughs and water content dynamics. In particular, shape measures influenced by the advective propagation of the tracer peak, like mean velocity and normalized first central moment, are highly correlated between ERT data and validation data (consisting of tracer measurements in seepage water samples). Using shape measures proved to be advantageous over interpretation of ERT data with spatially uncertain petrophysical functions for the characterization of heterogeneous flow and transport. Consequently, for future applications of ERT in soil hydrological modeling, the use of temporal moments is recommended.
Hong, X; Gao, H
2014-06-15
Purpose: The Linear Boltzmann Transport Equation (LBTE) solved through statistical Monte Carlo (MC) method provides the accurate dose calculation in radiotherapy. This work is to investigate the alternative way for accurately solving LBTE using deterministic numerical method due to its possible advantage in computational speed from MC. Methods: Instead of using traditional spherical harmonics to approximate angular scattering kernel, our deterministic numerical method directly computes angular scattering weights, based on a new angular discretization method that utilizes linear finite element method on the local triangulation of unit angular sphere. As a Result, our angular discretization method has the unique advantage in positivity, i.e., to maintain all scattering weights nonnegative all the time, which is physically correct. Moreover, our method is local in angular space, and therefore handles the anisotropic scattering well, such as the forward-peaking scattering. To be compatible with image-guided radiotherapy, the spatial variables are discretized on the structured grid with the standard diamond scheme. After discretization, the improved sourceiteration method is utilized for solving the linear system without saving the linear system to memory. The accuracy of our 3D solver is validated using analytic solutions and benchmarked with Geant4, a popular MC solver. Results: The differences between Geant4 solutions and our solutions were less than 1.5% for various testing cases that mimic the practical cases. More details are available in the supporting document. Conclusion: We have developed a 3D LBTE solver based on a new angular discretization method that guarantees the positivity of scattering weights for physical correctness, and it has been benchmarked with Geant4 for photon dose calculation.
Holford, D.J.
1994-01-01
This document is a user`s manual for the Rn3D finite element code. Rn3D was developed to simulate gas flow and radon transport in variably saturated, nonisothermal porous media. The Rn3D model is applicable to a wide range of problems involving radon transport in soil because it can simulate either steady-state or transient flow and transport in one-, two- or three-dimensions (including radially symmetric two-dimensional problems). The porous materials may be heterogeneous and anisotropic. This manual describes all pertinent mathematics related to the governing, boundary, and constitutive equations of the model, as well as the development of the finite element equations used in the code. Instructions are given for constructing Rn3D input files and executing the code, as well as a description of all output files generated by the code. Five verification problems are given that test various aspects of code operation, complete with example input files, FORTRAN programs for the respective analytical solutions, and plots of model results. An example simulation is presented to illustrate the type of problem Rn3D is designed to solve. Finally, instructions are given on how to convert Rn3D to simulate systems other than radon, air, and water.
Crandall, K.R.
1987-08-01
TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.
Unsteady Analysis of Particle Transport and Deposition in the Human Lung: A Hybrid 3D/0D Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haworth, Daniel C.; Kunz, Robert F.; Leemhuis, Laura S.; Banks, Syreeta S.; Kriete, Andres
2003-11-01
Three-dimensional CFD meshes including up the sixteenth generation of branching in a human tracheo-bronchial tree have been generated from surface data extracted using novel high-resolution bio-medical imaging and rendering methods. A zero-dimensional model for the deeper generations has been coupled with the three-dimensional model at each of the truncated branches. The 0D model imposes a time-varying volume to simulate realistic breathing cycles; it also includes a simple model for particle deposition. The resulting hybrid 3D/0D model has been exercised to compute the transport and deposition rates of particles of different sizes through full breathing cycles. Results are compared to earlier steady-flow CFD results, to results obtained using one-dimensional functional models of the human lung, and to experimental and modeling results for idealized branching-duct configurations. The aim of the research is to develop a virtual human respiratory system that can be used to address issues in pulmonary health in
Computation of Flow Over a Drag Prediction Workshop Wing/Body Transport Configuration Using CFL3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Biedron, Robert T.
2001-01-01
A Drag Prediction Workshop was held in conjunction with the 19th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference in June 2001. The purpose of the workshop was to assess the prediction of drag by computational methods for a wing/body configuration (DLR-F4) representative of subsonic transport aircraft. This report details computed results submitted to this workshop using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code CFL3D. Two supplied grids were used: a point-matched 1-to-1 multi-block grid, and an overset multi-block grid. The 1-to-1 grid, generally of much poorer quality and with less streamwise resolution than the overset grid, is found to be too coarse to adequately resolve the surface pressures. However, the global forces and moments are nonetheless similar to those computed using the overset grid. The effect of three different turbulence models is assessed using the 1-to-1 grid. Surface pressures are very similar overall, and the drag variation due to turbulence model is 18 drag counts. Most of this drag variation is in the friction component, and is attributed in part to insufficient grid resolution of the 1-to-1 grid. The misnomer of 'fully turbulent' computations is discussed; comparisons are made using different transition locations and their effects on the global forces and moments are quantified. Finally, the effect of two different versions of a widely used one-equation turbulence model is explored.
Thoma, C.; Welch, D.R.; Yu, S.S.; Henestroza, E.; Roy, P.K.; Eylon, S.; Gilson, E.P.
2004-09-22
The Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been designed to study the final focus and neutralization of high perveance ion beams for applications in heavy ion fusion (HIF) and high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments. Pre-formed plasmas in the last meter before the target of the scaled experiment provide a source of electrons which neutralize the ion current and prevent the space-charge induced spreading of the beam spot. NTX physics issues are discussed and experimental data is analyzed and compared with 3D particle-in-cell simulations. Along with detailed target images, 4D phase-space data of the NTX at the entrance of the neutralization region has been acquired. This data is used to provide a more accurate beam distribution with which to initialize the simulation. Previous treatments have used various idealized beam distributions which lack the detailed features of the experimental ion beam images. Simulation results are compared with NTX experimental measurements for 250 keV K{sup +} ion beams with dimensionless perveance of 1-7 x 10{sup -4}. In both simulation and experiment, the deduced beam charge neutralization is close to the predicted maximum value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Dongwei
In recent years, Mainland China, and in particular the industrial hotbed of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) has experienced an increasingly serious problem of high concentrations of airborne particulate matter. Following the tightening-up of China's air quality policies in recent years, and with especially fine particles now added to a new air quality objective, the identification of major source regions and major types of pollutants has become critically important. In this study, a source-oriented method (Particulate Source Apportionment Technology: PSAT) implemented in 3-D Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx), has been applied to analyze how different emission activities impact fine particle concentration in the PRD region. By using this method, a detailed source region and emission category contribution matrix is derived for all regions within the Hong Kong/PRD region. Source appointment results shows that, in summer and spring time, emissions inside PRD region are the major fine particle sources, contribution 70.7% (11.2 mug/m3) and 52.5% (13.1 mug/m3) to the total figure. Super-regional transports are found to be significant in autumn and winter, contribution 58.5% (20.2 mug/m3) and 64.6% (27.8 mug/m3) of the total fine particles in PRD and Hong Kong region. Another important cause of high PM levels has been the transport of fine particles between cities within the PRD region, with three different regions selected for detailed analysis. Results show that mobile vehicle and industry emission are the two major sources for fine particles. Meanwhile, over the same period in Hong Kong, marine proved to be another very significant source of particle pollutant in addition to the significant impact from motor vehicle. Results show that for the Hong Kong/PRD region local reduction of mobile sources and collaboration between different areas could have succeeded in alleviating the air pollution problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badavi, Francis F.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Atwell, William; Nealy, John E.; Norman, Ryan B.
2011-02-01
A Langley research center (LaRC) developed deterministic suite of radiation transport codes describing the propagation of electron, photon, proton and heavy ion in condensed media is used to simulate the exposure from the spectral distribution of the aforementioned particles in the Jovian radiation environment. Based on the measurements by the Galileo probe (1995-2003) heavy ion counter (HIC), the choice of trapped heavy ions is limited to carbon, oxygen and sulfur (COS). The deterministic particle transport suite consists of a coupled electron photon algorithm (CEPTRN) and a coupled light heavy ion algorithm (HZETRN). The primary purpose for the development of the transport suite is to provide a means to the spacecraft design community to rapidly perform numerous repetitive calculations essential for electron, photon, proton and heavy ion exposure assessment in a complex space structure. In this paper, the reference radiation environment of the Galilean satellite Europa is used as a representative boundary condition to show the capabilities of the transport suite. While the transport suite can directly access the output electron and proton spectra of the Jovian environment as generated by the jet propulsion laboratory (JPL) Galileo interim radiation electron (GIRE) model of 2003; for the sake of relevance to the upcoming Europa Jupiter system mission (EJSM), the JPL provided Europa mission fluence spectrum, is used to produce the corresponding depth dose curve in silicon behind a default aluminum shield of 100 mils (˜0.7 g/cm2). The transport suite can also accept a geometry describing ray traced thickness file from a computer aided design (CAD) package and calculate the total ionizing dose (TID) at a specific target point within the interior of the vehicle. In that regard, using a low fidelity CAD model of the Galileo probe generated by the authors, the transport suite was verified versus Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for orbits JOI-J35 of the Galileo probe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergmann, Ryan
Graphics processing units, or GPUs, have gradually increased in computational power from the small, job-specific boards of the early 1990s to the programmable powerhouses of today. Compared to more common central processing units, or CPUs, GPUs have a higher aggregate memory bandwidth, much higher floating-point operations per second (FLOPS), and lower energy consumption per FLOP. Because one of the main obstacles in exascale computing is power consumption, many new supercomputing platforms are gaining much of their computational capacity by incorporating GPUs into their compute nodes. Since CPU-optimized parallel algorithms are not directly portable to GPU architectures (or at least not without losing substantial performance), transport codes need to be rewritten to execute efficiently on GPUs. Unless this is done, reactor simulations cannot take full advantage of these new supercomputers. WARP, which can stand for ``Weaving All the Random Particles,'' is a three-dimensional (3D) continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code developed in this work as to efficiently implement a continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport algorithm on a GPU. WARP accelerates Monte Carlo simulations while preserving the benefits of using the Monte Carlo Method, namely, very few physical and geometrical simplifications. WARP is able to calculate multiplication factors, flux tallies, and fission source distributions for time-independent problems, and can run in both criticality or fixed source modes. WARP can transport neutrons in unrestricted arrangements of parallelepipeds, hexagonal prisms, cylinders, and spheres. WARP uses an event-based algorithm, but with some important differences. Moving data is expensive, so WARP uses a remapping vector of pointer/index pairs to direct GPU threads to the data they need to access. The remapping vector is sorted by reaction type after every transport iteration using a high-efficiency parallel radix sort, which serves to keep the
Comparison of Space Radiation Calculations from Deterministic and Monte Carlo Transport Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, J. H.; Lin, Z. W.; Nasser, A. F.; Randeniya, S.; Tripathi, r. K.; Watts, J. W.; Yepes, P.
2010-01-01
The presentation outline includes motivation, radiation transport codes being considered, space radiation cases being considered, results for slab geometry, results from spherical geometry, and summary. ///////// main physics in radiation transport codes hzetrn uprop fluka geant4, slab geometry, spe, gcr,
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tyobeka, Bismark Mzubanzi
A coupled neutron transport thermal-hydraulics code system with both diffusion and transport theory capabilities is presented. At the heart of the coupled code is a powerful neutronics solver, based on a neutron transport theory approach, powered by the time-dependent extension of the well known DORT code, DORT-TD. DORT-TD uses a fully implicit time integration scheme and is coupled via a general interface to the thermal-hydraulics code THERMIX-DIREKT, an HTR-specific two dimensional core thermal-hydraulics code. Feedback is accounted for by interpolating multigroup cross sections from pre-generated libraries which are structured for user specified discrete sets of thermal-hydraulic parameters e.g. fuel and moderator temperatures. The coupled code system is applied to two HTGR designs, the PBMR 400MW and the PBMR 268MW. Steady-state and several design basis transients are modeled in an effort to discern with the adequacy of using neutron diffusion theory as against the more accurate but yet computationally expensive neutron transport theory. It turns out that there are small but significant differences in the results from using either of the two theories. It is concluded that diffusion theory can be used with a higher degree of confidence in the PBMR as long as more than two energy groups are used and that the result must be checked against lower order transport solution, especially for safety analysis purposes. The end product of this thesis is a high fidelity, state-of-the-art computer code system, with multiple capabilities to analyze all PBMR safety related transients in an accurate and efficient manner.
Development of deterministic transport methods for low energy neutrons for shielding in space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ganapol, Barry
1993-01-01
Transport of low energy neutrons associated with the galactic cosmic ray cascade is analyzed in this dissertation. A benchmark quality analytical algorithm is demonstrated for use with BRYNTRN, a computer program written by the High Energy Physics Division of NASA Langley Research Center, which is used to design and analyze shielding against the radiation created by the cascade. BRYNTRN uses numerical methods to solve the integral transport equations for baryons with the straight-ahead approximation, and numerical and empirical methods to generate the interaction probabilities. The straight-ahead approximation is adequate for charged particles, but not for neutrons. As NASA Langley improves BRYNTRN to include low energy neutrons, a benchmark quality solution is needed for comparison. The neutron transport algorithm demonstrated in this dissertation uses the closed-form Green's function solution to the galactic cosmic ray cascade transport equations to generate a source of neutrons. A basis function expansion for finite heterogeneous and semi-infinite homogeneous slabs with multiple energy groups and isotropic scattering is used to generate neutron fluxes resulting from the cascade. This method, called the FN method, is used to solve the neutral particle linear Boltzmann transport equation. As a demonstration of the algorithm coded in the programs MGSLAB and MGSEMI, neutron and ion fluxes are shown for a beam of fluorine ions at 1000 MeV per nucleon incident on semi-infinite and finite aluminum slabs. Also, to demonstrate that the shielding effectiveness against the radiation from the galactic cosmic ray cascade is not directly proportional to shield thickness, a graph of transmitted total neutron scalar flux versus slab thickness is shown. A simple model based on the nuclear liquid drop assumption is used to generate cross sections for the galactic cosmic ray cascade. The ENDF/B V database is used to generate the total and scattering cross sections for neutrons in
MESTRN: A Deterministic Meson-Muon Transport Code for Space Radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blattnig, Steve R.; Norbury, John W.; Norman, Ryan B.; Wilson, John W.; Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Tripathi, Ram K.
2004-01-01
A safe and efficient exploration of space requires an understanding of space radiations, so that human life and sensitive equipment can be protected. On the way to these sensitive sites, the radiation fields are modified in both quality and quantity. Many of these modifications are thought to be due to the production of pions and muons in the interactions between the radiation and intervening matter. A method used to predict the effects of the presence of these particles on the transport of radiation through materials is developed. This method was then used to develop software, which was used to calculate the fluxes of pions and muons after the transport of a cosmic ray spectrum through aluminum and water. Software descriptions are given in the appendices.
Lee, H.; Lee, D.
2013-07-01
This paper presents a new hybrid method of continuous energy Monte Carlo (MC) and multi-group Method of Characteristics (MOC). For a continuous energy neutron transport analysis, the hybrid method employs a continuous energy MC for resonance energy range to treat the resonances accurately and a multi-group MOC for high and low energy ranges for efficiency. Numerical test with a model problem confirms that the hybrid method can produce consistent results with the reference continuous energy MC-only calculation as well as multi-group MOC-only calculation. (authors)
Coupled Deterministic/Monte Carlo Simulation of Radiation Transport and Detector Response
Gesh, Christopher J.; Meriwether, George H.; Pagh, Richard T.; Smith, Leon E.
2005-09-01
The analysis of radiation sensor systems used to detect and identify nuclear and radiological weapons materials requires detailed radiation transport calculations. Two basic steps are required to solve radiation detection scenario analysis (RDSA) problems. First, the radiation field produced by the source must be calculated. Second, the response that the radiation field produces in a detector must be determined. RDSA problems are characterized by complex geometries, the presence of shielding materials, and large amounts of scattering (or absorption/re-emission). In this paper, we will discuss the use of the Attila code [2] for RDSA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sommella, Angelo; Comegna, Alessandro; Severino, Gerardo
2010-05-01
Solute concentration and water content profiles were intensively measured within an area of 7x40 m2 in a moderately stratified Andosol, under steady-state condition using a water flux of 10 mm/d. After steady condition was attained, a conservative tracer (Cl-) was then applied as KCl at a rate of 0.105 kg Cl-/m2. Soil samples were taken along seven transects at constant horizontal distance of 1 m, at 0.10 m depth interval on a depth of 0.90 m, and Cl- concentration was allowed on soil extracts using ion selective electrode technology. Firstly, results from spatial variability studies of transport volumes will be showed. Data from the experiment will be then used to evaluate parameters of the convective-dispersive model (CDE) and the lognormal stochastic-convective transfer model (CLT) using time-integral normalized resident concentrations. Model performance will be evaluated using the ME, RMSE and EF objective functions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atzeni, Stefano; Marocchino, Alberto; Schiavi, Angelo
2016-03-01
Accurate descriptions of laser power coupling to the plasma and electron energy transport are crucial for designing shock-ignition targets and assessing their robustness (in particular with regard to laser and positioning errors). To this purpose, the 2D DUED laser fusion code has been improved with the inclusion of a 3D laser ray-tracing scheme and a model for non-local electron transport. 2D simulations with the upgraded code are presented; the dependence of the fusion yield vs target displacement is studied. Two different irradiation configurations are considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shashkin, Vladimir; Fadeev, Rostislav; Tolstykh, Mikhail
2016-01-01
The article presents conservative cascade scheme using reduced grid (CCS-RG) - a finite volume semi-Lagrangian (FVSL) algorithm for numerical solution of 3D advection equation on the sphere. The CCS-RG is based on the cascade approach that allows to split 3D advected quantity mass remapping between the Lagrangian and Eulerian grids onto 3 1D remappings. Another feature is using a quasi-uniform spaced reduced latitude-longitude grid on the sphere. The scheme is inherently mass-conservative, monotonic and stable with large time-steps. The CCS-RG performance is tested with the advection cases from the Dynamical Core Model Intercomparison Project test suite. The impact of the reduced grids and two different monotonic filters on the solution is investigated. The comparison with the results obtained by other schemes proves competitive accuracy of CCS-RG. In most cases, the numerical solution obtained with various reduced grids is as accurate as the regular grid solution.
Moridis, G J; Hu, Q; Wu, Y-S; Bodvarsson, G S
2003-02-01
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is actively investigating the technical feasibility of permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository to be situated in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. In this study we investigate, by means of numerical simulation, the transport of radioactive colloids under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table. The site hydrology and the effects of the spatial distribution of hydraulic and transport properties in the Yucca Mountain subsurface are considered. The study of migration and retardation of colloids accounts for the complex processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, and includes advection, diffusion, hydrodynamic dispersion, kinetic colloid filtration, colloid straining, and radioactive decay. The results of the study indicate that the most important factors affecting colloid transport are the subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The transport of colloids is strongly influenced by their size (as it affects diffusion into the matrix, straining at hydrogeologic unit interfaces, and transport velocity) and by the parameters of the kinetic-filtration model used for the simulations. Arrival times at the water table decrease with an increasing colloid size because of smaller diffusion, increased straining, and higher transport velocities. The importance of diffusion as a retardation mechanism increases with a decreasing colloid size, but appears to be minimal in large colloids. PMID:12504362
Carafa, R; Marinov, D; Dueri, S; Wollgast, J; Ligthart, J; Canuti, E; Viaroli, P; Zaldívar, J M
2006-10-01
Sacca di Goro is a shallow coastal microtidal lagoon with a surface area of 26 km2, and an average depth of about 1.5m. Fresh water pollutant loads from Po River branches and several drainage canals lead to anthropogenic eutrophication, frequent summer anoxia crises and chemical contamination. Such events not only affect the lagoon ecosystem but also cause serious economic losses, the lagoon being the second largest producer of clams in Italy. The present work aims at using a fate model coupled with COHERENS 3D hydrodynamic model to simulate and to explain the spatial distribution and temporal variations of s-triazines herbicides in the Sacca di Goro lagoon. The simulation results of spatial and temporal dynamic behaviour of atrazine, simazine and terbuthylazine have been compared with experimental data obtained during an annual monitoring programme. PMID:16643962
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Üpping, J.; Bielawny, A.; Lee, S.; Knez, M.; Carius, R.; Wehrspohn, R. B.
2009-08-01
The progress of 3D photonic intermediate reflectors for micromorph silicon tandem cells towards a first prototype cell is presented. Intermediate reflectors enhance the absorption of spectrally-selected light in the top cell and decrease the current mismatch between both junctions. A numerical method to predict filter properties for optimal current matching is presented. Our device is an inverted opal structure made of ZnO and fabricated using self-organized nanoparticles and atomic layer deposition for conformal coating. In particular, the influence of ZnO-doping and replicated cracks during drying of the opal is discussed with respect to conductivity and optical properties. A first prototype is compared to a state-of-the-art reference cell.
Dimensionality-dependent charge transport in close-packed nanoparticle arrays: from 2D to 3D
Wang, Ying; Duan, Chao; Peng, Lianmao; Liao, Jianhui
2014-01-01
Charge transport properties in close-packed nanoparticle arrays with thickness crossing over from two dimensions to three dimensions have been studied. The dimensionality transition of nanoparticle arrays was realized by continually printing spatially well-defined nanoparticle monolayers on top of the device in situ. The evolution of charge transport properties depending on the dimensionality has been investigated in both the Efros-Shaklovskii variable-range-hopping (ES-VRH) (low temperature) regime and the sequential hopping (SH) (medium temperature) regime. We find that the energy barriers to transport decrease when the thickness of nanoparticle arrays increases from monolayer to multilayers, but start to level off at the thickness of 4–5 monolayers. The energy barriers are characterized by the coefficient βD at ES-VRH regime and the activation energy Ea at SH regime. Moreover, a turning point for the temperature coefficient of conductance was observed in multilayer nanoparticle arrays at high temperature, which is attributed to the increasing mobility with decreasing temperature of hopping transport in three dimensions. PMID:25523836
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strahan, Susan E.; Douglass, Anne R.
2003-01-01
The Global Modeling Initiative has integrated two 35-year simulations of an ozone recovery scenario with an offline chemistry and transport model using two different meteorological inputs. Physically based diagnostics, derived from satellite and aircraft data sets, are described and then used to evaluate the realism of temperature and transport processes in the simulations. Processes evaluated include barrier formation in the subtropics and polar regions, and extratropical wave-driven transport. Some diagnostics are especially relevant to simulation of lower stratospheric ozone, but most are applicable to any stratospheric simulation. The temperature evaluation, which is relevant to gas phase chemical reactions, showed that both sets of meteorological fields have near climatological values at all latitudes and seasons at 30 hPa and below. Both simulations showed weakness in upper stratospheric wave driving. The simulation using input from a general circulation model (GMI(sub GCM)) showed a very good residual circulation in the tropics and northern hemisphere. The simulation with input from a data assimilation system (GMI(sub DAS)) performed better in the midlatitudes than at high latitudes. Neither simulation forms a realistic barrier at the vortex edge, leading to uncertainty in the fate of ozone-depleted vortex air. Overall, tracer transport in the offline GMI(sub GCM) has greater fidelity throughout the stratosphere than the GMI(sub DAS).
Modeling of tungsten transport in the linear plasma device PSI-2 with the 3D Monte-Carlo code ERO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marenkov, E.; Eksaeva, A.; Borodin, D.; Kirschner, A.; Laengner, M.; Kurnaev, V.; Kreter, A.; Coenen, J. W.; Rasinski, M.
2015-08-01
The ERO code was modified for modeling of plasma-surface interactions and impurities transport in the PSI-2 installation. Results of experiments on tungsten target irradiation with argon plasma were taken as a benchmark for the new version of the code. Spectroscopy data modeled with the code are in good agreement with experimental ones. Main factors contributing to observed discrepancies are discussed.
Dimensionality-dependent charge transport in close-packed nanoparticle arrays: from 2D to 3D.
Wang, Ying; Duan, Chao; Peng, Lianmao; Liao, Jianhui
2014-01-01
Charge transport properties in close-packed nanoparticle arrays with thickness crossing over from two dimensions to three dimensions have been studied. The dimensionality transition of nanoparticle arrays was realized by continually printing spatially well-defined nanoparticle monolayers on top of the device in situ. The evolution of charge transport properties depending on the dimensionality has been investigated in both the Efros-Shaklovskii variable-range-hopping (ES-VRH) (low temperature) regime and the sequential hopping (SH) (medium temperature) regime. We find that the energy barriers to transport decrease when the thickness of nanoparticle arrays increases from monolayer to multilayers, but start to level off at the thickness of 4-5 monolayers. The energy barriers are characterized by the coefficient βD at ES-VRH regime and the activation energy Ea at SH regime. Moreover, a turning point for the temperature coefficient of conductance was observed in multilayer nanoparticle arrays at high temperature, which is attributed to the increasing mobility with decreasing temperature of hopping transport in three dimensions. PMID:25523836
Dimensionality-dependent charge transport in close-packed nanoparticle arrays: from 2D to 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ying; Duan, Chao; Peng, Lianmao; Liao, Jianhui
2014-12-01
Charge transport properties in close-packed nanoparticle arrays with thickness crossing over from two dimensions to three dimensions have been studied. The dimensionality transition of nanoparticle arrays was realized by continually printing spatially well-defined nanoparticle monolayers on top of the device in situ. The evolution of charge transport properties depending on the dimensionality has been investigated in both the Efros-Shaklovskii variable-range-hopping (ES-VRH) (low temperature) regime and the sequential hopping (SH) (medium temperature) regime. We find that the energy barriers to transport decrease when the thickness of nanoparticle arrays increases from monolayer to multilayers, but start to level off at the thickness of 4-5 monolayers. The energy barriers are characterized by the coefficient βD at ES-VRH regime and the activation energy Ea at SH regime. Moreover, a turning point for the temperature coefficient of conductance was observed in multilayer nanoparticle arrays at high temperature, which is attributed to the increasing mobility with decreasing temperature of hopping transport in three dimensions.
Makedonska, Nataliia; Painter, Scott L.; Bui, Quan M.; Gable, Carl W.; Karra, Satish
2015-09-16
The discrete fracture network (DFN) model is a method to mimic discrete pathways for fluid flow through a fractured low-permeable rock mass, and may be combined with particle tracking simulations to address solute transport. However, experience has shown that it is challenging to obtain accurate transport results in three-dimensional DFNs because of the high computational burden and difficulty in constructing a high-quality unstructured computational mesh on simulated fractures. We present a new particle tracking capability, which is adapted to control volume (Voronoi polygons) flow solutions on unstructured grids (Delaunay triangulations) on three-dimensional DFNs. The locally mass-conserving finite-volume approach eliminates massmore » balance-related problems during particle tracking. The scalar fluxes calculated for each control volume face by the flow solver are used to reconstruct a Darcy velocity at each control volume centroid. The groundwater velocities can then be continuously interpolated to any point in the domain of interest. The control volumes at fracture intersections are split into four pieces, and the velocity is reconstructed independently on each piece, which results in multiple groundwater velocities at the intersection, one for each fracture on each side of the intersection line. This technique enables detailed particle transport representation through a complex DFN structure. Verified for small DFNs, the new simulation capability enables numerical experiments on advective transport in large DFNs to be performed. As a result, we demonstrate this particle transport approach on a DFN model using parameters similar to those of crystalline rock at a proposed geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden.« less
Makedonska, Nataliia; Painter, Scott L.; Bui, Quan M.; Gable, Carl W.; Karra, Satish
2015-09-16
The discrete fracture network (DFN) model is a method to mimic discrete pathways for fluid flow through a fractured low-permeable rock mass, and may be combined with particle tracking simulations to address solute transport. However, experience has shown that it is challenging to obtain accurate transport results in three-dimensional DFNs because of the high computational burden and difficulty in constructing a high-quality unstructured computational mesh on simulated fractures. We present a new particle tracking capability, which is adapted to control volume (Voronoi polygons) flow solutions on unstructured grids (Delaunay triangulations) on three-dimensional DFNs. The locally mass-conserving finite-volume approach eliminates mass balance-related problems during particle tracking. The scalar fluxes calculated for each control volume face by the flow solver are used to reconstruct a Darcy velocity at each control volume centroid. The groundwater velocities can then be continuously interpolated to any point in the domain of interest. The control volumes at fracture intersections are split into four pieces, and the velocity is reconstructed independently on each piece, which results in multiple groundwater velocities at the intersection, one for each fracture on each side of the intersection line. This technique enables detailed particle transport representation through a complex DFN structure. Verified for small DFNs, the new simulation capability enables numerical experiments on advective transport in large DFNs to be performed. As a result, we demonstrate this particle transport approach on a DFN model using parameters similar to those of crystalline rock at a proposed geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden.
Yue, Dan; Lu, Wei; Jin, Lin; Li, Chunyang; Luo, Wen; Wang, Mengnan; Wang, Zhenling; Hao, Jianhua
2014-11-21
Lanthanide doped ZnO mushroom-like 3D hierarchical structures have been fabricated by polyol-mediated method and characterized by various microstructural and optical techniques. The results indicate that the as-prepared ZnO:Ln(3+) (Ln = Tb, Eu) samples have a hexagonal phase structure and possess a mushroom-like 3D hierarchical morphology. The length of the whole mushroom from stipe bottom to pileus top is about 1.0 μm, and the diameters of pileus and stipe are about 0.8 μm and 0.4 μm, respectively. It is found that the flow of N2 is the key parameter for the formation of the novel ZnO structure and the addition of (NH4)2HPO4 has a prominent effect on the phase structure and the growth of mushroom-like morphology. The potential mechanism of forming this morphology is proposed. The pileus of the formed mushroom is assembled by several radial ZnO:Ln(3+) nanorods, whereas the stipe is composed of over layered ZnO:Ln(3+) nanosheets. Moreover, asymmetrical I-V characteristic curves of ZnO:Ln(3+) mushrooms indicate that the texture composition of the 3D hierarchical morphology might lead to the asymmetrical transport behavior of electrical conductivity. Lanthanide doped ZnO samples can exhibit red or green emission under the excitation of UV light. PMID:25293373
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zurek, A. J.; Witczak, S.; Dulinski, M.; Wachniew, P.; Rozanski, K.; Kania, J.; Postawa, A.; Karczewski, J.; Moscicki, W. J.
2014-08-01
A dedicated study was launched in 2010 with the main aim to better understand the functioning of groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystem (GDTE) located in southern Poland. The GDTE consists of a valuable forest stand (Niepolomice Forest) and associated wetland (Wielkie Bloto fen). A wide range of tools (environmental tracers, geochemistry, geophysics, 3-D flow and transport modeling) was used. The research was conducted along three major directions: (i) quantification of the dynamics of groundwater flow in various parts of the aquifer associated with GDTE, (ii) quantification of the degree of interaction between the GDTE and the aquifer, and (iii) 3-D modeling of groundwater flow in the vicinity of the studied GDTE and quantification of possible impact of enhanced exploitation of the aquifer on the status of GDTE. Environmental tracer data (tritium, stable isotopes of water) strongly suggest that upward leakage of the aquifer contributes significantly to the present water balance of the studied wetland and associated forest. Physico-chemical parameters of water (pH, conductivity, Na / Cl ratio) confirm this notion. Model runs indicate that prolonged groundwater abstraction through the newly-established network of water supply wells, conducted at maximum permitted capacity (ca. 10 000 m3 d-1), may trigger drastic changes in the ecosystem functioning, eventually leading to its degradation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fung, Inez Y.; Tucker, C. J.; Prentice, Katharine C.
1985-01-01
The 'normalized difference vegetation indices' (NVI) derived from AVHRR radiances are combined with field data of soil respiration and a global map of net primary productivity to prescribe, for the globe, the seasonal exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. The monthly fluxes of CO2 thus obtained are used as inputs to a 3-D tracer transport model which uses winds generated by a 3-D atmospheric general circulation model to advect CO2 as an inert constituent. Analysis of the 3-D model results shows reasonable agreement between the simulated and observed annual cycles of atmospheric CO2 at the locations of the remote monitoring stations. The application is shown of atmospheric CO2 distributions to calibrate the NVI in terms of carbon fluxes. The approach suggests that the NVI may be used to provide quantitative information about long term and global scale variations of photosynthetic activity and of atmospheric CO2 concentrations provided that variations in the atmospheric circulation and in atmospheric composition are known.
Vandersall, K S; Murty, S S; Chidester, S K; Forbes, J W; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Tarver, C M
2003-07-02
The Steven Impact Test and associated modeling offer valuable practical predictions for evaluating numerous safety scenarios involving low velocity impact of energetic materials by different projectile geometries. One such scenario is the impact of energetic material by a transportation hook during shipping, which offers complexity because of the irregular hook projectile shape. Experiments were performed using gauged Steven Test targets with PBX9404 impacted by a transportation hook projectile to compliment previous non-gauged experiments that established an impact threshold of approximately 69 m/s. Modeling of these experiments was performed with LS-DYNA code using an Ignition and Growth reaction criteria with a friction term. Comparison of the experiment to the model shows reasonable agreement with some details requiring more attention. The experimental results (including carbon resistor gauge records), model calculations, and a discussion of the dominant reaction mechanisms in light of comparisons between experiment and model will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, G.; Wang, Y.
2014-12-01
In solar cycle 24, solar energetic particles (SEPs) are measured by multi-spacecraft at different locations, e.g., STEREO A and B, and ACE. Interplanetary observers located on the opposite sides of the Sun may or may not be connected to the ICME shock by the IMF. And the connected observers may also be connected to different parts of an ICME. In this work, we will numerically solve the Fokker-Planck transport equation to get the fluxes of SEPs accelerated by ICME shocks. In addition, we will compare our simulation results with SEP observations of different spacecraft, e.g., STEREO A and B, and ACE, during solar cycle 24. The simulation and data analysis together can improve our understanding of SEPs acceleration and transport mechanism.
Cheng, Gang; Markenscoff, Pauline; Zygourakis, Kyriacos
2009-01-01
Abstract To provide theoretical guidance for the design and in vitro cultivation of bioartificial tissues, we have developed a multiscale computational model that can describe the complex interplay between cell population and mass transport dynamics that governs the growth of tissues in three-dimensional scaffolds. The model has three components: a transient partial differential equation for the simultaneous diffusion and consumption of a limiting nutrient; a cellular automaton describing cell migration, proliferation, and collision; and equations that quantify how the varying nutrient concentration modulates cell division and migration. The hybrid discrete-continuous model was parallelized and solved on a distributed-memory multicomputer to study how transport limitations affect tissue regeneration rates under conditions encountered in typical bioreactors. Simulation results show that the severity of transport limitations can be estimated by the magnitude of two dimensionless groups: the Thiele modulus and the Biot number. Key parameters including the initial seeding mode, cell migration speed, and the hydrodynamic conditions in the bioreactor are shown to affect not only the overall rate, but also the pattern of tissue growth. This study lays the groundwork for more comprehensive models that can handle mixed cell cultures, multiple nutrients and growth factors, and other cellular processes, such as cell death. PMID:19619455
Voss, Clifford I.; Provost, A.M.
2002-01-01
SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated Transport) is a computer program that simulates fluid movement and the transport of either energy or dissolved substances in a subsurface environment. This upgraded version of SUTRA adds the capability for three-dimensional simulation to the former code (Voss, 1984), which allowed only two-dimensional simulation. The code employs a two- or three-dimensional finite-element and finite-difference method to approximate the governing equations that describe the two interdependent processes that are simulated: 1) fluid density-dependent saturated or unsaturated ground-water flow; and 2) either (a) transport of a solute in the ground water, in which the solute may be subject to: equilibrium adsorption on the porous matrix, and both first-order and zero-order production or decay; or (b) transport of thermal energy in the ground water and solid matrix of the aquifer. SUTRA may also be used to simulate simpler subsets of the above processes. A flow-direction-dependent dispersion process for anisotropic media is also provided by the code and is introduced in this report. As the primary calculated result, SUTRA provides fluid pressures and either solute concentrations or temperatures, as they vary with time, everywhere in the simulated subsurface system. SUTRA flow simulation may be employed for two-dimensional (2D) areal, cross sectional and three-dimensional (3D) modeling of saturated ground-water flow systems, and for cross sectional and 3D modeling of unsaturated zone flow. Solute-transport simulation using SUTRA may be employed to model natural or man-induced chemical-species transport including processes of solute sorption, production, and decay. For example, it may be applied to analyze ground-water contaminant transport problems and aquifer restoration designs. In addition, solute-transport simulation with SUTRA may be used for modeling of variable-density leachate movement, and for cross sectional modeling of saltwater intrusion in
Wilson, Mike R; Hou, Zhanjun; Yang, Si; Polin, Lisa; Kushner, Juiwanna; White, Kathryn; Huang, Jenny; Ratnam, Manohar; Gangjee, Aleem; Matherly, Larry H
2016-04-01
Pemetrexed (PMX) is a 5-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine antifolate used for therapy of nonsquamous nonsmall cell lung cancer (NS-NSCLC). PMX is transported by the reduced folate carrier (RFC) and proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT). Unlike RFC, PCFT is active at acidic pH levels characterizing the tumor microenvironment. By real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, PCFT transcripts and proteins were detected in primary NS-NSCLC specimens. In six NS-NSCLC cell lines (A549, H1437, H460, H1299, H1650, and H2030), PCFT transcripts and proteins were detected by real-time RT-PCR and western blots, respectively. 6-Substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine thienoyl antifolates related to PMX [compound 1 (C1) and compound 2 (C2), respectively] are selective substrates for PCFT over RFC. In the NS-NSCLC cell lines, both [(3)H]PMX and [(3)H]C2 were transported by PCFT. C1 and C2 inhibited proliferation of the NS-NSCLC cell lines; A549, H460, and H2030 cells were more sensitive to C1 than to PMX. C1 and C2 inhibited glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase in de novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis. When treated at pH 6.8, which favors PCFT uptake, C1 and C2 inhibited clonogenicity of H460 cells greater than PMX; PMX inhibited clonogenicity more than C1 or C2 at pH 7.2, which favors RFC transport over PCFT. Knockdown of PCFT in H460 cells resulted in decreased [(3)H]PMX and [(3)H]C2 transport and decreased growth inhibition by C1 and C2, and to a lesser extent by PMX. In vivo efficacy of C1 was seen toward H460 tumor xenografts in severe-combined immunodeficient mice. Our results suggest that 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine thienoyl antifolates offer significant promise for treating NS-NSCLC by selective uptake by PCFT. PMID:26837243
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rmili, W.; Vivet, N.; Chupin, S.; Le Bihan, T.; Le Quilliec, G.; Richard, C.
2016-04-01
As part of development of a new assembly technology to achieve bonding for an innovative silicon carbide (SiC) power device used in harsh environments, the aim of this study is to compare two silver sintering profiles and then to define the best candidate for die attach material for this new component. To achieve this goal, the solder joints have been characterized in terms of porosity by determination of the morphological characteristics of the material heterogeneities and estimating their thermal and electrical transport properties. The three dimensional (3D) microstructure of sintered silver samples has been reconstructed using a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) tomography technique. The sample preparation and the experimental milling and imaging parameters have been optimized in order to obtain a high quality of 3D reconstruction. Volume fractions and volumetric connectivity of the individual phases (silver and voids) have been determined. Effective thermal and electrical conductivities of the samples and the tortuosity of the silver phase have been also evaluated by solving the diffusive transport equation.
Bekar, Kursat B; Azmy, Yousry
2009-01-01
Improved TORT solutions to the 3D transport codes' suite of benchmarks exercise are presented in this study. Preliminary TORT solutions to this benchmark indicate that the majority of benchmark quantities for most benchmark cases are computed with good accuracy, and that accuracy improves with model refinement. However, TORT fails to compute accurate results for some benchmark cases with aspect ratios drastically different from 1, possibly due to ray effects. In this work, we employ the standard approach of splitting the solution to the transport equation into an uncollided flux and a fully collided flux via the code sequence GRTUNCL3D and TORT to mitigate ray effects. The results of this code sequence presented in this paper show that the accuracy of most benchmark cases improved substantially. Furthermore, the iterative convergence problems reported for the preliminary TORT solutions have been resolved by bringing the computational cells' aspect ratio closer to unity and, more importantly, by using 64-bit arithmetic precision in the calculation sequence. Results of this study are also reported.
Ishihara, T.; Kim, J.K.; Kobayashi, Y.
1995-10-01
In this study, martensite-ferrite dual phase steel composed of martensite in hard phase and ferrite in soft phase is made 3 dimensions fabric composite for energy transport and the difference in fatigue crack propagation behavior resulting from the structural size is investigated by fracture mechanics and microstructural method. The main results obtained are as follows: (1) the fatigue crack propagation rate is influenced by the ferrite grain size, in other words, in the low {Delta}K region the fatigue crack propagation rate is decreased with decreasing of the grain size but the difference of propagation rate resulted from the structural size is decreased as {Delta}K is increased; (2) the above results are explained by the degree of crack arrest effect of the martensite phase for the fatigue crack propagation depending on the ratio of reversed plastic zone size to the ferrite grain size.
Cullen, D E
1998-11-22
TART98 is a coupled neutron-photon, 3 Dimensional, combinatorial geometry, time dependent Monte Carlo radiation transport code. This code can run on any modern computer. It is a complete system to assist you with input preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART98 is also incredibly FAST; if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared to other similar codes. Use of the entire system can save you a great deal of time and energy. TART98 is distributed on CD. This CD contains on-line documentation for all codes included in the system, the codes configured to run on a variety of computers, and many example problems that you can use to familiarize yourself with the system. TART98 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that users only use the most recent version of TART98 and its data files.
Qiang, J.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.S.; Ryne, R.D.
2005-03-15
The superconducting ECR ion source VENUS serves as the prototype injector ion source for the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The RIA driver linac requires a great variety of high charge state ion beams with up to an order of magnitude higher intensity than currently achievable with conventional ECR ion sources. In order to design the beam line optics of the low energy beam line for the RIA front end for the wide parameter range required for the RIA driver accelerator, reliable simulations of the ion beam extraction from the ECR ion source through the ion mass analyzing system are essential. The RIA low energy beam transport line must be able to transport intense beams (up to 10 mA) of light and heavy ions at 30 keV.For this purpose, LBNL is developing the parallel 3D particle-in-cell code IMPACT to simulate the ion beam transport from the ECR extraction aperture through the analyzing section of the low energy transport system. IMPACT, a parallel, particle-in-cell code, is currently used to model the superconducting RF linac section of RIA and is being modified in order to simulate DC beams from the ECR ion source extraction. By using the high performance of parallel supercomputing we will be able to account consistently for the changing space charge in the extraction region and the analyzing section. A progress report and early results in the modeling of the VENUS source will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiang, J.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D. S.; Ryne, R. D.
2005-03-01
The superconducting ECR ion source VENUS serves as the prototype injector ion source for the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The RIA driver linac requires a great variety of high charge state ion beams with up to an order of magnitude higher intensity than currently achievable with conventional ECR ion sources. In order to design the beam line optics of the low energy beam line for the RIA front end for the wide parameter range required for the RIA driver accelerator, reliable simulations of the ion beam extraction from the ECR ion source through the ion mass analyzing system are essential. The RIA low energy beam transport line must be able to transport intense beams (up to 10 mA) of light and heavy ions at 30 keV. For this purpose, LBNL is developing the parallel 3D particle-in-cell code IMPACT to simulate the ion beam transport from the ECR extraction aperture through the analyzing section of the low energy transport system. IMPACT, a parallel, particle-in-cell code, is currently used to model the superconducting RF linac section of RIA and is being modified in order to simulate DC beams from the ECR ion source extraction. By using the high performance of parallel supercomputing we will be able to account consistently for the changing space charge in the extraction region and the analyzing section. A progress report and early results in the modeling of the VENUS source will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Dan; Lu, Wei; Jin, Lin; Li, Chunyang; Luo, Wen; Wang, Mengnan; Wang, Zhenling; Hao, Jianhua
2014-10-01
Lanthanide doped ZnO mushroom-like 3D hierarchical structures have been fabricated by polyol-mediated method and characterized by various microstructural and optical techniques. The results indicate that the as-prepared ZnO:Ln3+ (Ln = Tb, Eu) samples have a hexagonal phase structure and possess a mushroom-like 3D hierarchical morphology. The length of the whole mushroom from stipe bottom to pileus top is about 1.0 μm, and the diameters of pileus and stipe are about 0.8 μm and 0.4 μm, respectively. It is found that the flow of N2 is the key parameter for the formation of the novel ZnO structure and the addition of (NH4)2HPO4 has a prominent effect on the phase structure and the growth of mushroom-like morphology. The potential mechanism of forming this morphology is proposed. The pileus of the formed mushroom is assembled by several radial ZnO:Ln3+ nanorods, whereas the stipe is composed of over layered ZnO:Ln3+ nanosheets. Moreover, asymmetrical I-V characteristic curves of ZnO:Ln3+ mushrooms indicate that the texture composition of the 3D hierarchical morphology might lead to the asymmetrical transport behavior of electrical conductivity. Lanthanide doped ZnO samples can exhibit red or green emission under the excitation of UV light.Lanthanide doped ZnO mushroom-like 3D hierarchical structures have been fabricated by polyol-mediated method and characterized by various microstructural and optical techniques. The results indicate that the as-prepared ZnO:Ln3+ (Ln = Tb, Eu) samples have a hexagonal phase structure and possess a mushroom-like 3D hierarchical morphology. The length of the whole mushroom from stipe bottom to pileus top is about 1.0 μm, and the diameters of pileus and stipe are about 0.8 μm and 0.4 μm, respectively. It is found that the flow of N2 is the key parameter for the formation of the novel ZnO structure and the addition of (NH4)2HPO4 has a prominent effect on the phase structure and the growth of mushroom-like morphology. The potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Fouest, Vincent; Chami, Malik; Verney, Romaric
2015-02-01
The export of riverine suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the coastal ocean has major implications for the biogeochemical cycles. In the Mediterranean Sea (France), the Rhone River inputs of SPM into the Gulf of Lion (GoL) are highly variable in time, which severely impedes the assessment of SPM fluxes. The objectives of this study are (i) to investigate the prediction of the land-to-ocean flux of SPM using the complementarity (i.e., synergy) between a hydrodynamic sediment transport model and satellite observations, and (ii) to analyze the spatial distribution of the SPM export. An original approach that combines the MARS-3D model with satellite ocean color data is proposed. Satellite-derived SPM and light penetration depth are used to initialize MARS-3D and to validate its predictions. A sensitivity analysis is performed to quantify the impact of riverine SPM size composition and settling rate on the horizontal export of SPM. The best agreement between the model and the satellite in terms of SPM spatial distribution and export is obtained for two conditions: (i) when the relative proportion of "heavy and fast" settling particles significantly increases relative to the "light and slow" ones, and (ii) when the settling rate of heavy and light SPM increases by fivefold. The synergy between MARS-3D and the satellite data improved the SPM flux predictions by 48% near the Rhone River mouth. Our results corroborate the importance of implementing satellite observations within initialization procedures of ocean models since data assimilation techniques may fail for river floods showing strong seasonal variability.
Cheng, Candong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Lim, Kim Hwa; Massoud, Hisham Z.; Liu, Qing Huo
2007-01-01
A 3-D quantum transport solver based on the spectral element method (SEM) and perfectly matched layer (PML) is introduced to solve the 3-D Schrödinger equation with a tensor effective mass. In this solver, the influence of the environment is replaced with the artificial PML open boundary extended beyond the contact regions of the device. These contact regions are treated as waveguides with known incident waves from waveguide mode solutions. As the transmitted wave function is treated as a total wave, there is no need to decompose it into waveguide modes, thus significantly simplifying the problem in comparison with conventional open boundary conditions. The spectral element method leads to an exponentially improving accuracy with the increase in the polynomial order and sampling points. The PML region can be designed such that less than −100 dB outgoing waves are reflected by this artificial material. The computational efficiency of the SEM solver is demonstrated by comparing the numerical and analytical results from waveguide and plane-wave examples, and its utility is illustrated by multiple-terminal devices and semiconductor nanotube devices. PMID:18037971
Wang, Lei; Wallace, Adrianne; Raghavan, Sudhir; Deis, Siobhan M.; Wilson, Mike R.; Yang, Si; Polin, Lisa; White, Kathryn; Kushner, Juiwanna; Orr, Steven; George, Christina; O’Connor, Carrie; Hou, Zhanjun; Mitchell-Ryan, Shermaine; Dann, Charles E.; Matherly, Larry H.; Gangjee, Aleem
2016-01-01
2-Amino-4-oxo-6-substituted-pyrrolo[2,3-d]-pyrimidine antifolate thiophene regioisomers of AGF94 (4) with a thienoyl side chain and three-carbon bridge lengths [AGF150 (5) and AGF154 (7)] were synthesized as potential antitumor agents. These analogues inhibited proliferation of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) sublines expressing folate receptors (FRs) α or β (IC50s < 1 nM) or the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) (IC50 < 7 nM). Compounds 5 and 7 inhibited KB, IGROV1, and SKOV3 human tumor cells at subnanomolar concentrations, reflecting both FRα and PCFT uptake. AGF152 (6) and AGF163 (8), 2,4-diamino-5-substituted-furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine thiophene regioisomers, also inhibited growth of FR-expressing CHO and KB cells. All four analogues inhibited glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFTase). Crystal structures of human GARFTase complexed with 5 and 7 were reported. In severe combined immunodeficient mice bearing SKOV3 tumors, 7 was efficacious. The selectivity of these compounds for PCFT and for FRα and β over the ubiquitously expressed reduced folate carrier is a paradigm for selective tumor targeting. PMID:26317331
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zurek, A. J.; Witczak, S.; Dulinski, M.; Wachniew, P.; Rozanski, K.; Kania, J.; Postawa, A.; Karczewski, J.; Moscicki, W. J.
2015-02-01
Groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) have important functions in all climatic zones as they contribute to biological and landscape diversity and provide important economic and social services. Steadily growing anthropogenic pressure on groundwater resources creates a conflict situation between nature and man which are competing for clean and safe sources of water. Such conflicts are particularly noticeable in GDEs located in densely populated regions. A dedicated study was launched in 2010 with the main aim to better understand the functioning of a groundwater-dependent terrestrial ecosystem (GDTE) located in southern Poland. The GDTE consists of a valuable forest stand (Niepolomice Forest) and associated wetland (Wielkie Błoto fen). It relies mostly on groundwater from the shallow Quaternary aquifer and possibly from the deeper Neogene (Bogucice Sands) aquifer. In July 2009 a cluster of new pumping wells abstracting water from the Neogene aquifer was set up 1 km to the northern border of the fen. A conceptual model of the Wielkie Błoto fen area for the natural, pre-exploitation state and for the envisaged future status resulting from intense abstraction of groundwater through the new well field was developed. The main aim of the reported study was to probe the validity of the conceptual model and to quantify the expected anthropogenic impact on the studied GDTE. A wide range of research tools was used. The results obtained through combined geologic, geophysical, geochemical, hydrometric and isotope investigations provide strong evidence for the existence of upward seepage of groundwater from the deeper Neogene aquifer to the shallow Quaternary aquifer supporting the studied GDTE. Simulations of the groundwater flow field in the study area with the aid of a 3-D flow and transport model developed for Bogucice Sands (Neogene) aquifer and calibrated using environmental tracer data and observations of hydraulic head in three different locations on the study area
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paradis, Hedvig; Andersson, Martin; Sundén, Bengt
2015-09-01
A 3D model at microscale by the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is proposed for part of an anode of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to analyze the interaction between the transport and reaction processes and structural parameters. The equations of charge, momentum, heat and mass transport are simulated in the model. The modeling geometry is created with randomly placed spheres to resemble the part of the anode structure close to the electrolyte. The electrochemical reaction processes are captured at specific sites where spheres representing Ni and YSZ materials are present with void space. This work focuses on analyzing the effect of structural parameters such as porosity, and percentage of active reaction sites on the ionic current density and concentration of H2 using LBM. It is shown that LBM can be used to simulate an SOFC anode at microscale and evaluate the effect of structural parameters on the transport processes to improve the performance of the SOFC anode. It was found that increasing the porosity from 30 to 50 % decreased the ionic current density due to a reduction in the number of reaction sites. Also the consumption of H2 decreased with increasing porosity. When the percentage of active reaction sites was increased while the porosity was kept constant, the ionic current density increased. However, the H2 concentration was slightly reduced when the percentage of active reaction sites was increased. The gas flow tortuosity decreased with increasing porosity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paradis, Hedvig; Andersson, Martin; Sundén, Bengt
2016-08-01
A 3D model at microscale by the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is proposed for part of an anode of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to analyze the interaction between the transport and reaction processes and structural parameters. The equations of charge, momentum, heat and mass transport are simulated in the model. The modeling geometry is created with randomly placed spheres to resemble the part of the anode structure close to the electrolyte. The electrochemical reaction processes are captured at specific sites where spheres representing Ni and YSZ materials are present with void space. This work focuses on analyzing the effect of structural parameters such as porosity, and percentage of active reaction sites on the ionic current density and concentration of H2 using LBM. It is shown that LBM can be used to simulate an SOFC anode at microscale and evaluate the effect of structural parameters on the transport processes to improve the performance of the SOFC anode. It was found that increasing the porosity from 30 to 50 % decreased the ionic current density due to a reduction in the number of reaction sites. Also the consumption of H2 decreased with increasing porosity. When the percentage of active reaction sites was increased while the porosity was kept constant, the ionic current density increased. However, the H2 concentration was slightly reduced when the percentage of active reaction sites was increased. The gas flow tortuosity decreased with increasing porosity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ott, Lesley; Pickering, Kenneth; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Allen, Dale; DeCaria, Alex; Ridley, Brian; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Lang, Steve; Tao, Wei-Kuo
2009-01-01
A 3-D cloud scale chemical transport model that includes a parameterized source of lightning NO(x), based on observed flash rates has been used to simulate six midlatitude and subtropical thunderstorms observed during four field projects. Production per intracloud (P(sub IC) and cloud-to-ground (P(sub CG)) flash is estimated by assuming various values of P(sub IC) and P(sub CG) for each storm and determining which production scenario yields NO(x) mixing ratios that compare most favorably with in-cloud aircraft observations. We obtain a mean P(sub CG) value of 500 moles NO (7 kg N) per flash. The results of this analysis also suggest that on average, P(sub IC) may be nearly equal to P(sub CG), which is contrary to the common assumption that intracloud flashes are significantly less productive of NO than are cloud-to-ground flashes. This study also presents vertical profiles of the mass of lightning NO(x), after convection based on 3-D cloud-scale model simulations. The results suggest that following convection, a large percentage of lightning NO(x), remains in the middle and upper troposphere where it originated, while only a small percentage is found near the surface. The results of this work differ from profiles calculated from 2-D cloud-scale model simulations with a simpler lightning parameterization that were peaked near the surface and in the upper troposphere (referred to as a "C-shaped" profile). The new model results (a backward C-shaped profile) suggest that chemical transport models that assume a C-shaped vertical profile of lightning NO(x) mass may place too much mass neat the surface and too little in the middle troposphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Ronnie; Burfeind, Chris W.; Kramer, Greg M.; Seibel, Eric J.
2014-03-01
A minimally-invasive diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is accomplished by obtaining a fine needle aspirate and observing the cell preparations under conventional optical microscopy. As an unavoidable artifact, native tissue architecture is lost, making definite diagnosis of malignancy, or invasive neoplasm, impossible. One solution is the preparation of core biopsies (CBs) within a microfluidic device that are subsequently imaged in 3D. In this paper, porcine pancreas CBs (L = 1-2 cm, D = 0.4-2.0 mm) were formalin-fixed, stained and optically cleared (FocusClear®). In brightfield at 40x, light transmission through the ordinarily opaque CBs was increased 5-15x, and internal islet structures were easily identified 250-300 μm beneath the tissue surface. Typically, specimen preparation is time intensive and requires precise handling since CBs are delicate; thus, fixative, absorptive stain and FocusClear® diffusion were done slowly and manually. To significantly speed up tissue processing, we developed a microfluidic device consisting of both a main channel (L = 12.5 cm, D = 1.415 mm) with a circular cross section used for fixing and transporting the CB and an intersecting U-channel employed for staining. Space between the CB and channel wall provided a key feature not traditionally employed in microfluidic devices, such that at low flow rates (5-10 mL/min) CBs were fixed and stained while the specimen remained stationary. By switching quickly to higher flow rates (15-20 mL/min), we could precisely overcome adhesion and transport the specimen within the channel towards the imaging platform for 3D pathology.
Gifford, Kent A; Wareing, Todd A; Failla, Gregory; Horton, John L; Eifel, Patricia J; Mourtada, Firas
2010-01-01
A patient dose distribution was calculated by a 3D multi-group S N particle transport code for intracavitary brachytherapy of the cervix uteri and compared to previously published Monte Carlo results. A Cs-137 LDR intracavitary brachytherapy CT data set was chosen from our clinical database. MCNPX version 2.5.c, was used to calculate the dose distribution. A 3D multi-group S N particle transport code, Attila version 6.1.1 was used to simulate the same patient. Each patient applicator was built in SolidWorks, a mechanical design package, and then assembled with a coordinate transformation and rotation for the patient. The SolidWorks exported applicator geometry was imported into Attila for calculation. Dose matrices were overlaid on the patient CT data set. Dose volume histograms and point doses were compared. The MCNPX calculation required 14.8 hours, whereas the Attila calculation required 22.2 minutes on a 1.8 GHz AMD Opteron CPU. Agreement between Attila and MCNPX dose calculations at the ICRU 38 points was within +/- 3%. Calculated doses to the 2 cc and 5 cc volumes of highest dose differed by not more than +/- 1.1% between the two codes. Dose and DVH overlays agreed well qualitatively. Attila can calculate dose accurately and efficiently for this Cs-137 CT-based patient geometry. Our data showed that a three-group cross-section set is adequate for Cs-137 computations. Future work is aimed at implementing an optimized version of Attila for radiotherapy calculations. PMID:20160682
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pletinckx, D.
2011-09-01
The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.
Parallel deterministic neutronics with AMR in 3D
Clouse, C.; Ferguson, J.; Hendrickson, C.
1997-12-31
AMTRAN, a three dimensional Sn neutronics code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) has been parallelized over spatial domains and energy groups and runs on the Meiko CS-2 with MPI message passing. Block refined AMR is used with linear finite element representations for the fluxes, which allows for a straight forward interpretation of fluxes at block interfaces with zoning differences. The load balancing algorithm assumes 8 spatial domains, which minimizes idle time among processors.
Derivation of new 3D discrete ordinate equations
Ahrens, C. D.
2012-07-01
The Sn equations have been the workhorse of deterministic radiation transport calculations for many years. Here we derive two new angular discretizations of the 3D transport equation. The first set of equations, derived using Lagrange interpolation and collocation, retains the classical Sn structure, with the main difference being how the scattering source is calculated. Because of the formal similarity with the classical S n equations, it should be possible to modify existing computer codes to take advantage of the new formulation. In addition, the new S n-like equations correctly capture delta function scattering. The second set of equations, derived using a Galerkin technique, does not retain the classical Sn structure because the streaming term is not diagonal. However, these equations can be cast into a form similar to existing methods developed to reduce ray effects. Numerical investigation of both sets of equations is under way. (authors)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohorquez, Patricio; Ancey, Christophe
2015-09-01
In this article we propose a stochastic bed load transport formulation within the framework of the frictional shallow-water equations in which the sediment transport rate results from the difference between the entrainment and deposition of particles. First we show that the Saint-Venant-Exner equations are linearly unstable in most cases for a uniform base flow down an inclined erodible bed for Shields numbers in excess of the threshold for incipient sediment motion allowing us to compute noise-induced pattern formation for Froude numbers below 2. The wavelength of the bed forms are selected naturally due to the absolute character of the bed instability and the existence of a maximum growth rate at a finite wavelength when the particle diffusivity coefficient and the water eddy viscosity are present as for Turing-like instability. A numerical method is subsequently developed to analyze the performance of the model and theoretical results through three examples: the simulation of the fluctuations of the particle concentration using a stochastic Langevin equation, the deterministic simulation of anti-dunes formation over an erodible slope in full sediment-mobility conditions, and the computation of noise-induced pattern formation in hybrid stochastic-deterministic flows down a periodic flume. The full non-linear numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the theoretical solutions. We conclude highlighting that the proposed depth-averaged formulation explains the developments of upstream migrating anti-dunes in straight flumes since the seminar experiments by Gilbert (1914).
Kipp, K.L.
1987-01-01
The Heat- and Soil-Transport Program (HST3D) simulates groundwater flow and associated heat and solute transport in three dimensions. The three governing equations are coupled through the interstitial pore velocity, the dependence of the fluid density on pressure, temperature, the solute-mass fraction , and the dependence of the fluid viscosity on temperature and solute-mass fraction. The solute transport equation is for only a single, solute species with possible linear equilibrium sorption and linear decay. Finite difference techniques are used to discretize the governing equations using a point-distributed grid. The flow-, heat- and solute-transport equations are solved , in turn, after a particle Gauss-reduction scheme is used to modify them. The modified equations are more tightly coupled and have better stability for the numerical solutions. The basic source-sink term represents wells. A complex well flow model may be used to simulate specified flow rate and pressure conditions at the land surface or within the aquifer, with or without pressure and flow rate constraints. Boundary condition types offered include specified value, specified flux, leakage, heat conduction, and approximate free surface, and two types of aquifer influence functions. All boundary conditions can be functions of time. Two techniques are available for solution of the finite difference matrix equations. One technique is a direct-elimination solver, using equations reordered by alternating diagonal planes. The other technique is an iterative solver, using two-line successive over-relaxation. A restart option is available for storing intermediate results and restarting the simulation at an intermediate time with modified boundary conditions. This feature also can be used as protection against computer system failure. Data input and output may be in metric (SI) units or inch-pound units. Output may include tables of dependent variables and parameters, zoned-contour maps, and plots of the
Hoyer, Andrea B; Wittmann, Marion E; Chandra, Sudeep; Schladow, S Geoffrey; Rueda, Francisco J
2014-12-01
The unwanted impacts of non-indigenous species have become one of the major ecological and economic threats to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Assessing the potential dispersal and colonization of non-indigenous species is necessary to prevent or reduce deleterious effects that may lead to ecosystem degradation and a range of economic impacts. A three dimensional (3D) numerical model has been developed to evaluate the local dispersal of the planktonic larvae of an invasive bivalve, Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea), by passive hydraulic transport in Lake Tahoe, USA. The probability of dispersal of Asian clam larvae from the existing high density populations to novel habitats is determined by the magnitude and timing of strong wind events. The probability of colonization of new near-shore areas outside the existing beds is low, but sensitive to the larvae settling velocity ws. High larvae mortality was observed due to settling in unsuitable deep habitats. The impact of UV-radiation during the pelagic stages, on the Asian clam mortality was low. This work provides a quantification of the number of propagules that may be successfully transported as a result of natural processes and in function of population size. The knowledge and understanding of the relative contribution of different dispersal pathways, may directly inform decision-making and resource allocation associated with invasive species management. PMID:25108183
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bidwell, Colin, S.
2012-01-01
Ice Particle trajectory calculations with phase change were made for the Energy Efficient Engine (E(sup 3)) using the LEWICE3D Version 3.2 software. The particle trajectory computations were performed using the new Glenn Ice Particle Phase Change Model which has been incorporated into the LEWICE3D Version 3.2 software. The E(sup 3) was developed by NASA and GE in the early 1980 s as a technology demonstrator and is representative of a modern high bypass turbofan engine. The E(sup 3) flow field was calculated using the NASA Glenn ADPAC turbomachinery flow solver. Computations were performed for the low pressure compressor of the E(sup 3) for a Mach 0.8 cruise condition at 11,887 m assuming a standard warm day for ice particle sizes of 5, 20, and 100 microns and a free stream particle concentration of 0.3 g/cu m. The impingement efficiency results showed that as particle size increased average impingement efficiencies and scoop factors increased for the various components. The particle analysis also showed that the amount of mass entering the inner core decreased with increased particle size because the larger particles were less able to negotiate the turn into the inner core due to particle inertia. The particle phase change analysis results showed that the larger particles warmed less as they were transported through the low pressure compressor. Only the smallest 5 micron particles were warmed enough to produce melting and the amount of melting was relatively small with a maximum average melting fraction of 0.836. The results also showed an appreciable amount of particle sublimation and evaporation for the 5 micron particles entering the engine core (22 percent).
3d-3d correspondence revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr
2016-04-01
In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalla Valle, Giacomo; Gamberi, Fabiano; Rocchini, Patrizia; Minisini, Daniel; Errera, Alessia; Baglioni, Luca; Trincardi, Fabio
2013-08-01
Three-dimensional (3D) seismic-reflection data has shed light on the character of a series of mass transport complexes (MTCs) emplaced during the Pleistocene in the Pescara Basin (Central Adriatic Sea, Italy). The Pescara Basin is the Plio-Pleistocene inner foredeep of the Central Apennines orogen, which was filled by a rapidly prograding, margin-scale clinoforms system. Three MTCs punctuate the normal turbiditic and hemipelagic sedimentary succession of the Pescara Basin foredeep. MTC_0 is the oldest one and covers an area of around 74 km2. It is composed of three different mass transport deposits (MTDs) resulting from individual collapses that involved a shelf-edge delta during a period of relative sea level rise. MTC_1, the intermediate age MTC, is the largest one, with an area of 90 km2. It has a 10 km wide cookie-bite headwall region that indents the upper slope and, in places, reaches the continental shelf-break. MTC_1 is made up of four laterally and vertically stacked MTDs which are the result of a composite set of failures that migrated progressively upslope in a sedimentary setting dominated by contourite deposits. MTC_2 is the youngest and the smallest one, with an area of 55 km2. It has a 5 km long headwall confined in correspondence with a sedimentary bulge developed in the upper slope. Its geomorphic setting leads us to consider two different episodes of failure rooted at different depths. The investigation of the MTCs, through the coupling of 3D seismic geomorphology, seismic facies analysis and rollover trajectory analysis, reveals that the type of sedimentary environment, the rate of sediment accumulation, the source region and the depth of rooting of the failure, are the major controlling factors on MTC evolution and emplacement. Each MTC of the Pescara Basin foredeep is generally confined within a discrete clinotheme. Finally, the rollover trajectory analysis has shown that, in the PB foredeep, a sediment failure can possibly occur at any
Merritt, Michael L.; Konikow, Leonard F.
2000-01-01
Heads and flow patterns in surficial aquifers can be strongly influenced by the presence of stationary surface-water bodies (lakes) that are in direct contact, vertically and laterally, with the aquifer. Conversely, lake stages can be significantly affected by the volume of water that seeps through the lakebed that separates the lake from the aquifer. For these reasons, a set of computer subroutines called the Lake Package (LAK3) was developed to represent lake/aquifer interaction in numerical simulations using the U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional, finite-difference, modular ground-water flow model MODFLOW and the U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional method-of-characteristics solute-transport model MOC3D. In the Lake Package described in this report, a lake is represented as a volume of space within the model grid which consists of inactive cells extending downward from the upper surface of the grid. Active model grid cells bordering this space, representing the adjacent aquifer, exchange water with the lake at a rate determined by the relative heads and by conductances that are based on grid cell dimensions, hydraulic conductivities of the aquifer material, and user-specified leakance distributions that represent the resistance to flow through the material of the lakebed. Parts of the lake may become ?dry? as upper layers of the model are dewatered, with a concomitant reduction in lake surface area, and may subsequently rewet when aquifer heads rise. An empirical approximation has been encoded to simulate the rewetting of a lake that becomes completely dry. The variations of lake stages are determined by independent water budgets computed for each lake in the model grid. This lake budget process makes the package a simulator of the response of lake stage to hydraulic stresses applied to the aquifer. Implementation of a lake water budget requires input of parameters including those representing the rate of lake atmospheric recharge and evaporation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meulien Ohlmann, Odile
2013-02-01
Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?
Meng, Da; Zheng, Bin; Lin, Guang; Sushko, Maria L.
2014-08-29
We have developed efficient numerical algorithms for the solution of 3D steady-state Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations (PNP) with excess chemical potentials described by the classical density functional theory (cDFT). The coupled PNP equations are discretized by finite difference scheme and solved iteratively by Gummel method with relaxation. The Nernst-Planck equations are transformed into Laplace equations through the Slotboom transformation. Algebraic multigrid method is then applied to efficiently solve the Poisson equation and the transformed Nernst-Planck equations. A novel strategy for calculating excess chemical potentials through fast Fourier transforms is proposed which reduces computational complexity from O(N2) to O(NlogN) where N is the number of grid points. Integrals involving Dirac delta function are evaluated directly by coordinate transformation which yields more accurate result compared to applying numerical quadrature to an approximated delta function. Numerical results for ion and electron transport in solid electrolyte for Li ion batteries are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data and the results from previous studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Picot-Colbeaux, Géraldine; Devau, Nicolas; Thiéry, Dominique; Pettenati, Marie; Surdyk, Nicolas; Parmentier, Marc; Amraoui, Nadia; Crastes de Paulet, François; André, Laurent
2016-04-01
Chalk aquifer is the main water resource for domestic water supply in many parts in northern France. In same basin, groundwater is frequently affected by quality problems concerning nitrates. Often close to or above the drinking water standards, nitrate concentration in groundwater is mainly due to historical agriculture practices, combined with leakage and aquifer recharge through the vadose zone. The complexity of processes occurring into such an environment leads to take into account a lot of knowledge on agronomy, geochemistry and hydrogeology in order to understand, model and predict the spatiotemporal evolution of nitrate content and provide a decision support tool for the water producers and stakeholders. To succeed in this challenge, conceptual and numerical models representing accurately the Chalk aquifer specificity need to be developed. A multidisciplinary approach is developed to simulate storage and transport from the ground surface until groundwater. This involves a new agronomic module "NITRATE" (NItrogen TRansfer for Arable soil to groundwaTEr), a soil-crop model allowing to calculate nitrogen mass balance in arable soil, and the "PHREEQC" numerical code for geochemical calculations, both coupled with the 3D transient groundwater numerical code "MARTHE". Otherwise, new development achieved on MARTHE code allows the use of dual porosity and permeability calculations needed in the fissured Chalk aquifer context. This method concerning the integration of existing multi-disciplinary tools is a real challenge to reduce the number of parameters by selecting the relevant equations and simplifying the equations without altering the signal. The robustness and the validity of these numerical developments are tested step by step with several simulations constrained by climate forcing, land use and nitrogen inputs over several decades. In the first time, simulations are performed in a 1D vertical unsaturated soil column for representing experimental nitrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Y.; Jacob, D. J.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Amos, H. M.; Long, M. S.; Sunderland, E. M.
2014-12-01
Rivers are estimated to deliver 27 Mmol a-1 of mercury (Hg) to ocean margins, which is comparable to the global atmospheric deposition flux of Hg to the ocean. Previous studies presumed that most of this riverine Hg is sequestered by settling to the coastal regions. However, there has been little investigation of the mechanism and efficiency with which this sequestration takes place, and the implications for riverine influence in different ocean regions. Here we develop a global 3-D chemical transport model for Hg in the ocean (MITgcm-Hg) with ecology (DARWIN model). We track offshore export of the discharged Hg from heterogeneous river systems over different ocean regions, and how it is influenced by the interaction of Hg in a variety of geochemical forms with carbon and suspended particles. We constrain our model assumptions with available offshore observations that bear strong riverine signals. Modeling results suggest that some of the riverine Hg is highly refractory, sorbs strongly to particles and does not follow equilibrium partitioning with the dissolved phase. Simulated global Hg evasion from riverine sources is 50 times larger without this refractory particulate pool, which results in a total evasion flux two times larger than our current best estimate. Based on a typology system of global rivers, we calculate that 10% to 60% of the particulate Hg from different rivers settles in ocean margin sediments because of subgrid sedimentation processes. The remaining 7.5 Mmol a-1 (28% of total river discharge) is available for offshore transport, where it undergoes further sedimentation to the shelf (5.3 Mmol a-1) as well as evasion to the atmosphere (0.44 Mmol a-1). Only 1.7 Mmol a-1 (6.4% of the global riverine Hg) reaches the open ocean, although that fraction varies from 2.6% in East Asia because of the blockage of Korean Peninsula to 25% in east North America facilitated by the Gulf Stream. We find large riverine influences over coastal oceans off East Asia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hastings, S. K.
2002-01-01
Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Utembe, S. R.; Cooke, M. C.; Archibald, A. T.; Shallcross, D. E.; Derwent, R. G.; Jenkin, M. E.
2011-03-01
A secondary organic aerosol (SOA) code, coupled to the reduced Common Representative Intermediates chemical mechanism (CRI v2-R5), has been used in the global 3-D chemistry-transport model, STOCHEM, to simulate the global distribution of organic aerosol (OA) mass loadings. The SOA code represents the gas-to-aerosol partitioning of products formed over several generations of oxidation of a variety of organic precursors emitted from anthropogenic, biogenic and biomass burning sources. The model also includes emissions of primary organic aerosol (POA), based on the AeroCom inventory and the Global Fire Emissions database (GFED). The calculated burdens for POA, 0.89 Tg, and SOA, 0.23 Tg, are well within the range of values that have been reported in previous modelling studies. The calculated SOA annual in-situ production of 22.5 Tg yr -1 also falls within the 8-110 Tg yr -1 range calculated by other models, but is somewhat lower than observationally-constrained top-down estimates which have been reported recently. The oxidation of biogenic precursors is found to account for about 90% of the global SOA burden, and this makes a substantial contribution to the highest annual mean surface OA concentrations (up to 8 μg m -3), which are simulated in tropical forested regions. Comparison of the simulated OA mass loadings with surface observations from a variety of locations indicate a good description of the OA distribution, but with an average underestimation of about a factor of 3. Sustained formation of SOA into the free troposphere is simulated, with important contributions from second and third-generation products of terpene oxidation in the upper troposphere. Comparison of the simulated OA mass loadings with vertical profiles from the ACE-Asia campaign indicates a very good description of the relative variation of OA with altitude, but with consistent underestimation of about a factor of 5. Although the absolute magnitude of the global source strength is underestimated
Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.
1998-02-01
RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romano, Vittorio; Majorana, Armando; Coco, Marco
2015-12-01
A new algorithm for Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport in semiconductors is devised in order to properly deal with Pauli's exclusion principle in the degenerate case. Applications are presented in the case of monolayer graphene and comparisons with solutions of the Boltzmann equation obtained by using a discontinuous Galerkin method furnish a cross-validation of the proposed approach.
Liu, Fa-Qian; Zhu, Kai; Li, Tao; Xu, Tao
2014-04-25
It has long been taken for granted that electron transport in liquid-electrolyte-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) undergoes an ambipolar diffusive transport due to the strong coupling between electrons in the photoanode and the nearby mobile cations in liquid electrolyte, which, therefore, screens off any electric field in the photoanodes and consequently eliminates the possibility for drift transport. In this work, we demonstrate the existence of drift transport in liquid electrolyte-based DSSCs using a thin Al_{2}O_{3}-sheathed 3-dimentional (3-D) fluorinated tin oxide (FTO), as photoanodes. The electron diffusion rate in such 3-D TCO based DSSC exhibits a striking enhancement to the value of ~10^{–2} cm^{2}/s, about 10^{4} times faster than that of the TiO_{2} nanoparticle-based DSSCs. The electron diffusion coefficient is independent of the photoelectron density, while intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) suggests that the time constants of electron transport exhibit a linear dependence on the bias voltage, a strong indication of drift transport behavior in this 3-D FTO hollow nanobeads-based DSSC, despite the use of liquid I^{–}/I_{3}^{–} electrolyte.
Peter Cebull
2004-05-01
The Attila radiation transport code, which solves the Boltzmann neutron transport equation on three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes, was ported to a Cray SV1. Cray's performance analysis tools pointed to two subroutines that together accounted for 80%-90% of the total CPU time. Source code modifications were performed to enable vectorization of the most significant loops, to correct unfavorable strides through memory, and to replace a conjugate gradient solver subroutine with a call to the Cray Scientific Library. These optimizations resulted in a speedup of 7.79 for the INEEL's largest ATR model. Parallel scalability of the OpenMP version of the code is also discussed, and timing results are given for other non-vector platforms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popescu, Lucretiu M.
2016-03-01
We present a model for simulation of noisy X-ray computed tomography data sets. The model is made of two main components, a photon transport simulation component that generates the noiseless photon field incident on the detector, and a detector response model that takes as input the incident photon field parameters and given the X-ray source intensity and exposure time can generate noisy data sets, accordingly. The photon transport simulation component combines direct ray-tracing of polychromatic X-rays for calculation of transmitted data, with Monte Carlo simulation for calculation of the scattered-photon data. The Monte Carlo scatter simulation is accelerated by implementing particle splitting and importance sampling variance reduction techniques. The detector-incident photon field data are stored as energy expansion coefficients on a refined grid that covers the detector area. From these data the detector response model is able to generate noisy detector data realizations, by reconstituting the main parameters that describe each detector element response in statistical terms, including spatial correlations. The model is able to generate very fast, on the fly, CT data sets corresponding to different radiation doses, as well as detector response characteristics, facilitating data management in extensive optimization studies by reducing the computation time and storage space demands.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oldham, Mark
2015-01-01
Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran
2016-03-01
We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions < ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ritzi, Robert W.; Soltanian, Mohamad Reza
2015-12-01
In the method of deterministic geostatistics (sensu Isaaks and Srivastava, 1988), highly-resolved data sets are used to compute sample spatial-bivariate statistics within a deterministic framework. The general goal is to observe what real, highly resolved, sample spatial-bivariate correlation looks like when it is well-quantified in naturally-occurring sedimentary aquifers. Furthermore, it is to understand how this correlation structure, (i.e. shape and correlation range) is related to independent and physically quantifiable attributes of the sedimentary architecture. The approach has evolved among work by Rubin (1995, 2003), Barrash and Clemo (2002), Ritzi et al. (2004, 2007, 2013), Dai et al. (2005), and Ramanathan et al. (2010). In this evolution, equations for sample statistics have been developed which allow tracking the facies types at the heads and tails of lag vectors. The goal is to observe and thereby understand how aspects of the sedimentary architecture affect the well-supported sample statistics. The approach has been used to study heterogeneity at a number of sites, representing a variety of depositional environments, with highly resolved data sets. What have we learned? We offer and support an opinion that the single most important insight derived from these studies is that the structure of spatial-bivariate correlation is essentially the cross-transition probability structure, determined by the sedimentary architecture. More than one scale of hierarchical sedimentary architecture has been represented in these studies, and a hierarchy of cross-transition probability structures was found to define the correlation structure in all cases. This insight allows decomposing contributions from different scales of the sedimentary architecture, and has led to a more fundamental understanding of mass transport processes including mechanical dispersion of solutes within aquifers, and the time-dependent retardation of reactive solutes. These processes can now be
Han, Tao; Mikell, Justin K.; Salehpour, Mohammad; Mourtada, Firas
2011-01-01
Purpose: The deterministic Acuros XB (AXB) algorithm was recently implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system. The goal of this study was to compare AXB performance to Monte Carlo (MC) and two standard clinical convolution methods: the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and the collapsed-cone convolution (CCC) method. Methods: Homogeneous water and multilayer slab virtual phantoms were used for this study. The multilayer slab phantom had three different materials, representing soft tissue, bone, and lung. Depth dose and lateral dose profiles from AXB v10 in Eclipse were compared to AAA v10 in Eclipse, CCC in Pinnacle3, and EGSnrc MC simulations for 6 and 18 MV photon beams with open fields for both phantoms. In order to further reveal the dosimetric differences between AXB and AAA or CCC, three-dimensional (3D) gamma index analyses were conducted in slab regions and subregions defined by AAPM Task Group 53. Results: The AXB calculations were found to be closer to MC than both AAA and CCC for all the investigated plans, especially in bone and lung regions. The average differences of depth dose profiles between MC and AXB, AAA, or CCC was within 1.1, 4.4, and 2.2%, respectively, for all fields and energies. More specifically, those differences in bone region were up to 1.1, 6.4, and 1.6%; in lung region were up to 0.9, 11.6, and 4.5% for AXB, AAA, and CCC, respectively. AXB was also found to have better dose predictions than AAA and CCC at the tissue interfaces where backscatter occurs. 3D gamma index analyses (percent of dose voxels passing a 2%∕2 mm criterion) showed that the dose differences between AAA and AXB are significant (under 60% passed) in the bone region for all field sizes of 6 MV and in the lung region for most of field sizes of both energies. The difference between AXB and CCC was generally small (over 90% passed) except in the lung region for 18 MV 10 × 10 cm2 fields (over 26% passed) and in the bone region for 5 × 5 and 10
Gerhard Strydom; Cristian Rabiti; Andrea Alfonsi
2012-10-01
PHISICS is a neutronics code system currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its goal is to provide state of the art simulation capability to reactor designers. The different modules for PHISICS currently under development are a nodal and semi-structured transport core solver (INSTANT), a depletion module (MRTAU) and a cross section interpolation (MIXER) module. The INSTANT module is the most developed of the mentioned above. Basic functionalities are ready to use, but the code is still in continuous development to extend its capabilities. This paper reports on the effort of coupling the nodal kinetics code package PHISICS (INSTANT/MRTAU/MIXER) to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D, to enable full core and system modeling. This will enable the possibility to model coupled (thermal-hydraulics and neutronics) problems with more options for 3D neutron kinetics, compared to the existing diffusion theory neutron kinetics module in RELAP5-3D (NESTLE). In the second part of the paper, an overview of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW benchmark is given. This benchmark has been approved by the OECD, and is based on the General Atomics 350 MW Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor (MHTGR) design. The benchmark includes coupled neutronics thermal hydraulics exercises that require more capabilities than RELAP5-3D with NESTLE offers. Therefore, the MHTGR benchmark makes extensive use of the new PHISICS/RELAP5-3D coupling capabilities. The paper presents the preliminary results of the three steady state exercises specified in Phase I of the benchmark using PHISICS/RELAP5-3D.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iizuka, Keigo
2008-02-01
In order to circumvent the fact that only one observer can view the image from a stereoscopic microscope, an attachment was devised for displaying the 3D microscopic image on a large LCD monitor for viewing by multiple observers in real time. The principle of operation, design, fabrication, and performance are presented, along with tolerance measurements relating to the properties of the cellophane half-wave plate used in the design.
Morales, Verónica L; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Bin; Lion, Leonard W; Bisogni, James J; McDonough, Brendan A; Steenhuis, Tammo S
2011-02-01
Although numerous studies have been conducted to discern colloid transport and stability processes, the mechanistic understanding of how dissolved organic matter (DOM) affects colloid fate in unsaturated soils (i.e., the vadose zone) remains unclear. This study aims to bridge the gap between the physicochemical responses of colloid complexes and porous media interfaces to solution chemistry, and the effect these changes have on colloid transport and fate. Measurements of adsorbed layer thickness, density, and charge of DOM-colloid complexes and transport experiments with tandem internal process visualization were conducted for key constituents of DOM, humic (HA) and fulvic acids (FA), at acidic, neutral and basic pH and two CaCl(2) concentrations. Polymeric characteristics reveal that, of the two tested DOM constituents, only HA electrosterically stabilizes colloids. This stabilization is highly dependent on solution pH which controls DOM polymer adsorption affinity, and on the presence of Ca(+2) which promotes charge neutralization and inter-particle bridging. Transport experiments indicate that HA improved colloid transport significantly, while FA only marginally affected transport despite having a large effect on particle charge. A transport model with deposition and pore-exclusion parameters fit experimental breakthrough curves well. Trends in deposition coefficients are correlated to the changes in colloid surface potential for bare colloids, but must include adsorbed layer thickness and density for sterically stabilized colloids. Additionally, internal process observations with bright field microscopy reveal that, under optimal conditions for retention, experiments with FA or no DOM promoted colloid retention at solid-water interfaces, while experiments with HA enhanced colloid retention at air-water interfaces, presumably due to partitioning of HA at the air-water interface and/or increased hydrophobic characteristics of HA-colloid complexes. PMID:21193215
Gifford, Kent A; Price, Michael J; Horton, John L; Wareing, Todd A; Mourtada, Firas
2008-06-01
The goal of this work was to calculate the dose distribution around a high dose-rate 192Ir brachytherapy source using a multi-group discrete ordinates code and then to compare the results with a Monte Carlo calculated dose distribution. The unstructured tetrahedral mesh discrete ordinates code Attila version 6.1.1 was used to calculate the photon kerma rate distribution in water around the Nucletron microSelectron mHDRv2 source. MCNPX 2.5.c was used to compute the Monte Carlo water photon kerma rate distribution. Two hundred million histories were simulated, resulting in standard errors of the mean of less than 3% overall. The number of energy groups, S(n) (angular order), P(n) (scattering order), and mesh elements were varied in addition to the method of analytic ray tracing to assess their effects on the deterministic solution. Water photon kerma rate matrices were exported from both codes into an in-house data analysis software. This software quantified the percent dose difference distribution, the number of points within +/- 3% and +/- 5%, and the mean percent difference between the two codes. The data demonstrated that a 5 energy-group cross-section set calculated results to within 0.5% of a 15 group cross-section set. S12 was sufficient to resolve the solution in angle. P2 expansion of the scattering cross-section was necessary to compute accurate distributions. A computational mesh with 55 064 tetrahedral elements in a 30 cm diameter phantom resolved the solution spatially. An efficiency factor of 110 with the above parameters was realized in comparison to MC methods. The Attila code provided an accurate and efficient solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for the mHDRv2 source. PMID:18649459
Zourari, K.; Pantelis, E.; Moutsatsos, A.; Sakelliou, L.; Georgiou, E.; Karaiskos, P.; Papagiannis, P.
2013-01-15
Purpose: To compare TG43-based and Acuros deterministic radiation transport-based calculations of the BrachyVision treatment planning system (TPS) with corresponding Monte Carlo (MC) simulation results in heterogeneous patient geometries, in order to validate Acuros and quantify the accuracy improvement it marks relative to TG43. Methods: Dosimetric comparisons in the form of isodose lines, percentage dose difference maps, and dose volume histogram results were performed for two voxelized mathematical models resembling an esophageal and a breast brachytherapy patient, as well as an actual breast brachytherapy patient model. The mathematical models were converted to digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) image series for input to the TPS. The MCNP5 v.1.40 general-purpose simulation code input files for each model were prepared using information derived from the corresponding DICOM RT exports from the TPS. Results: Comparisons of MC and TG43 results in all models showed significant differences, as reported previously in the literature and expected from the inability of the TG43 based algorithm to account for heterogeneities and model specific scatter conditions. A close agreement was observed between MC and Acuros results in all models except for a limited number of points that lay in the penumbra of perfectly shaped structures in the esophageal model, or at distances very close to the catheters in all models. Conclusions: Acuros marks a significant dosimetry improvement relative to TG43. The assessment of the clinical significance of this accuracy improvement requires further work. Mathematical patient equivalent models and models prepared from actual patient CT series are useful complementary tools in the methodology outlined in this series of works for the benchmarking of any advanced dose calculation algorithm beyond TG43.
Gifford, Kent A.; Price, Michael J.; Horton, John L. Jr.; Wareing, Todd A.; Mourtada, Firas
2008-06-15
The goal of this work was to calculate the dose distribution around a high dose-rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source using a multi-group discrete ordinates code and then to compare the results with a Monte Carlo calculated dose distribution. The unstructured tetrahedral mesh discrete ordinates code Attila version 6.1.1 was used to calculate the photon kerma rate distribution in water around the Nucletron microSelectron mHDRv2 source. MCNPX 2.5.c was used to compute the Monte Carlo water photon kerma rate distribution. Two hundred million histories were simulated, resulting in standard errors of the mean of less than 3% overall. The number of energy groups, S{sub n} (angular order), P{sub n} (scattering order), and mesh elements were varied in addition to the method of analytic ray tracing to assess their effects on the deterministic solution. Water photon kerma rate matrices were exported from both codes into an in-house data analysis software. This software quantified the percent dose difference distribution, the number of points within {+-}3% and {+-}5%, and the mean percent difference between the two codes. The data demonstrated that a 5 energy-group cross-section set calculated results to within 0.5% of a 15 group cross-section set. S{sub 12} was sufficient to resolve the solution in angle. P{sub 2} expansion of the scattering cross-section was necessary to compute accurate distributions. A computational mesh with 55 064 tetrahedral elements in a 30 cm diameter phantom resolved the solution spatially. An efficiency factor of 110 with the above parameters was realized in comparison to MC methods. The Attila code provided an accurate and efficient solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for the mHDRv2 source.
3-D transient analysis of pebble-bed HTGR by TORT-TD/ATTICA3D
Seubert, A.; Sureda, A.; Lapins, J.; Buck, M.; Bader, J.; Laurien, E.
2012-07-01
As most of the acceptance criteria are local core parameters, application of transient 3-D fine mesh neutron transport and thermal hydraulics coupled codes is mandatory for best estimate evaluations of safety margins. This also applies to high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR). Application of 3-D fine-mesh transient transport codes using few energy groups coupled with 3-D thermal hydraulics codes becomes feasible in view of increasing computing power. This paper describes the discrete ordinates based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D that has recently been extended by a fine-mesh diffusion solver. Based on transient analyses for the PBMR-400 design, the transport/diffusion capabilities are demonstrated and 3-D local flux and power redistribution effects during a partial control rod withdrawal are shown. (authors)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergeon, N.; Mota, F. L.; Chen, L.; Tourret, D.; Debierre, J. M.; Guérin, R.; Karma, A.; Billia, B.; Trivedi, R.
2015-06-01
To clarify and characterize the fundamental physical mechanisms active in the dynamical formation of three-dimensional (3D) arrays of cells and dendrites under diffusive growth conditions, in situ monitoring of series of experiments on transparent model alloy succinonitrile - 0.24 wt% camphor was carried out under low gravity in the DECLIC Directional Solidification Insert on-board the International Space Station. These experiments offered the very unique opportunity to in situ observe and characterize the whole development of the microstructure in extended 3D patterns. The experimental methods will be first briefly described, including in particular the observation modes and the image analysis procedures developed to quantitatively characterize the patterns. Microgravity environment provided the conditions to get quantitative benchmark data: homogeneous patterns corresponding to homogeneous values of control parameters along the whole interface were obtained. The sequence of microstructure formation will be presented as well as the evolution of the primary spacing which is one of the most important pattern characteristic. Time evolution of this primary spacing during the microstructure development will be analysed to identify the mechanisms of spacing selection and adjustment; the importance of the macroscopic interfacial curvature will be pointed out.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Aye, Tin M.; Kim, Dai Hyun; Esterkin, Vladimir; Savant, Gajendra D.
1998-09-01
Physical Optics Corporation has developed an advanced 3-D virtual reality system for use with simulation tools for training technical and military personnel. This system avoids such drawbacks of other virtual reality (VR) systems as eye fatigue, headaches, and alignment for each viewer, all of which are due to the need to wear special VR goggles. The new system is based on direct viewing of an interactive environment. This innovative holographic multiplexed screen technology makes it unnecessary for the viewer to wear special goggles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.
Deterministic Walks with Choice
Beeler, Katy E.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Cooper, Joshua N.; Hunter, Meagan N.; Barr, Peter S.
2014-01-10
This paper studies deterministic movement over toroidal grids, integrating local information, bounded memory and choice at individual nodes. The research is motivated by recent work on deterministic random walks, and applications in multi-agent systems. Several results regarding passing tokens through toroidal grids are discussed, as well as some open questions.
2015-04-23
A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.
Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael
2009-01-01
This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308
The COMET method in 3-D hexagonal geometry
Connolly, K. J.; Rahnema, F.
2012-07-01
The hybrid stochastic-deterministic coarse mesh radiation transport (COMET) method developed at Georgia Tech now solves reactor core problems in 3-D hexagonal geometry. In this paper, the method is used to solve three preliminary test problems designed to challenge the method with steep flux gradients, high leakage, and strong asymmetry and heterogeneity in the core. The test problems are composed of blocks taken from a high temperature test reactor benchmark problem. As the method is still in development, these problems and their results are strictly preliminary. Results are compared to whole core Monte Carlo reference solutions in order to verify the method. Relative errors are on the order of 50 pcm in core eigenvalue, and mean relative error in pin fission density calculations is less than 1% in these difficult test cores. The method requires the one-time pre-computation of a response expansion coefficient library, which may be compiled in a comparable amount of time to a single whole core Monte Carlo calculation. After the library has been computed, COMET may solve any number of core configurations on the order of an hour, representing a significant gain in efficiency over other methods for whole core transport calculations. (authors)
Personal perceptual and cognitive property for 3D recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matozaki, Takeshi; Tanisita, Akihiko
1996-04-01
3D closed circuit TV which produces stereoscopic vision by observing different images through each eye alternately, has been proposed. But, there are several problems, both physiological and psychological, for 3D image observation in many fields. From this prospective, we are learning personal visual characteristics for 3D recognition in the transition from 2D to 3D. We have separated the mechanism of 3D recognition into several categories, and formed some hypothesis about the personal features. These hypotheses are related to an observer's personal features, as follows: (1) consideration of the angle between the left and the right eye's line of vision and the adjustment of focus, (2) consideration of the angle of vision and the time required for fusion, (3) consideration of depth sense based on life experience, (4) consideration of 3D experience, and (5) consideration of 3D sense based on the observer's age. To establish these hypotheses, and we have analyzed the personal features of the time interval required for 3D recognition through some examinations to examinees. Examinees indicate their response for 3D recognition by pushing a button. Recently, we introduced a method for picking up the reaction of 3D recognition from examinees through their biological information, for example, analysis of pulse waves of the finger. We also bring a hypothesis, as a result of the analysis of pulse waves. (1) We can observe chaotic response when the examinee is recognizing a 2D image. (2) We can observe periodic response when the examinee is recognizing a 3D image. We are making nonlinear forecasts by getting correlation between the forecast and the biological phenomena. Deterministic nonlinear prediction are applied to the data, as a promising method of chaotic time series analysis in order to analyze the long term unpredictability, one of the fundamental characteristics of deterministic chaos.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gil, José J.; San José, Ignacio
2010-11-01
From our previous definition of the indices of polarimetric purity for 3D light beams [J.J. Gil, J.M. Correas, P.A. Melero and C. Ferreira, Monogr. Semin. Mat. G. de Galdeano 31, 161 (2004)], an analysis of their geometric and physical interpretation is presented. It is found that, in agreement with previous results, the first parameter is a measure of the degree of polarization, whereas the second parameter (called the degree of directionality) is a measure of the mean angular aperture of the direction of propagation of the corresponding light beam. This pair of invariant, non-dimensional, indices of polarimetric purity contains complete information about the polarimetric purity of a light beam. The overall degree of polarimetric purity is obtained as a weighted quadratic average of the degree of polarization and the degree of directionality.
Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.
1991-03-30
We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this 3-D navigation camera mosaic of the crater called 'Bonneville' after driving approximately 13 meters (42.7 feet) to get a better vantage point. Spirit's current position is close enough to the edge to see the interior of the crater, but high enough and far enough back to get a view of all of the walls. Because scientists and rover controllers are so pleased with this location, they will stay here for at least two more martian days, or sols, to take high resolution panoramic camera images of 'Bonneville' in its entirety. Just above the far crater rim, on the left side, is the rover's heatshield, which is visible as a tiny reflective speck.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y.; Qin, G.; Zhang, M.
2012-12-01
Solar energetic particle (SEP) fluxes data measured by multi-spacecraft are able to provide important information of the transport process of SEPs accelerated by the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) shock. Depending on their locations, observers in interplanetary space may be connected to different parts of an ICME shock by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Simultaneous observations by multi-spacecraft in the ecliptic, e.g., ACE, STEREO A and B, usually show huge differences of SEP time profiles. In this work, based on a numerical solution of the Fokker-Planck transport equation for energetic particles, we will obtain the fluxes of SEPs accelerated by ICME shocks. In addition, we will compare SEP events measured by these spacecraft, located at different longitudes, with our simulation results. The comparison has enabled us to determine the parameters of particle transport such as the parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients and the efficiency of particles injections at the ICME shock.
Automatic 2D-to-3D image conversion using 3D examples from the internet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konrad, J.; Brown, G.; Wang, M.; Ishwar, P.; Wu, C.; Mukherjee, D.
2012-03-01
The availability of 3D hardware has so far outpaced the production of 3D content. Although to date many methods have been proposed to convert 2D images to 3D stereopairs, the most successful ones involve human operators and, therefore, are time-consuming and costly, while the fully-automatic ones have not yet achieved the same level of quality. This subpar performance is due to the fact that automatic methods usually rely on assumptions about the captured 3D scene that are often violated in practice. In this paper, we explore a radically different approach inspired by our work on saliency detection in images. Instead of relying on a deterministic scene model for the input 2D image, we propose to "learn" the model from a large dictionary of stereopairs, such as YouTube 3D. Our new approach is built upon a key observation and an assumption. The key observation is that among millions of stereopairs available on-line, there likely exist many stereopairs whose 3D content matches that of the 2D input (query). We assume that two stereopairs whose left images are photometrically similar are likely to have similar disparity fields. Our approach first finds a number of on-line stereopairs whose left image is a close photometric match to the 2D query and then extracts depth information from these stereopairs. Since disparities for the selected stereopairs differ due to differences in underlying image content, level of noise, distortions, etc., we combine them by using the median. We apply the resulting median disparity field to the 2D query to obtain the corresponding right image, while handling occlusions and newly-exposed areas in the usual way. We have applied our method in two scenarios. First, we used YouTube 3D videos in search of the most similar frames. Then, we repeated the experiments on a small, but carefully-selected, dictionary of stereopairs closely matching the query. This, to a degree, emulates the results one would expect from the use of an extremely large 3D
The Lagrangian method provides estimates of the chemical and physical evolution of air arriving in the daytime boundary layer at Baltimore. Study results indicate a dominant role for regional transport contributions of those days when sulfate air pollution is highest in Baltimor...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zurek, Anna; Witczak, Stanislaw; Kania, Jaroslaw; Wachniew, Przemyslaw; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Dulinski, Marek; Jench, Olga
2013-04-01
Niepolomice Forest. There is a growing concern that continued exploitation of those wells may lead to lowering water table in the Niepolomice Forest area and, as a consequence, may trigger drastic changes in this unique ecosystem. A dedicated study was launched with the main aim to quantify the interaction between Niepolomice Forest, with the focus the Wielkie Bloto fen, and the underlying Bogucice Sands aquifer. The work was pursued along three major lines: (i) vertical profiling of the Wielkie Bloto fen aimed at characterizing chemical and isotope contrast in the shallow groundwater occupying the Quaternary cover in order to identify upward leakage of deeper groundwater in the investigated area, (ii) regular monitoring of flow rate, chemistry and environmental isotopes of the Dluga Woda stream draining the Wielkie Bloto fen, and (iii) 3D modeling of groundwater flow in the vicinity of the Wielkie Bloto fen focusing on quantifying the impact of the Wola Batorska well field on the regional groundwater flow patterns. The results of isotope and chemical analyses confirmed existence of upward seepage of groundwater from the Bogucice Sands aquifer in the area of Wielkie Bloto fen. Preliminary assessment of the water balance of Dluga Woda catchment indicates that the baseflow originating from groundwater seepage is equal approximately 16% of the annual precipitation. Results of 3D flow model applied to the study area indicate that prolonged operation of the well-field Wola Batorska at maximum capacity may lead to substantial lowering of water table in the Niepolomice Forest area and, as a consequence, endanger further existence of this unique GDTE. Acknowledgements. Partial financial support of this work through GENESIS project (http:/www.thegenesisproject.eu) funded by the European Commission 7FP contract 226536, and through statutory funds of the AGH University of Science and Technology (projects No.11.11.140.026 and 11.11.220.01) is kindly acknowledged.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.
Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.
Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.
Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.
On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.
The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.
Radiosity diffusion model in 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riley, Jason D.; Arridge, Simon R.; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos; Dehghani, Hamid; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Schweiger, Martin
2001-11-01
We present the Radiosity-Diffusion model in three dimensions(3D), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the model to 3D including an extension to the model to cope with increased complexity of the 3D domain. We show that in 3D more careful consideration must be given to the issues of meshing and visibility to model the transport of light within reasonable computational bounds. We demonstrate the model to be comparable to Monte-Carlo simulations for selected geometries, and show preliminary results of comparisons to measured time-resolved data acquired on resin phantoms.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chatfield, Robert; Houben, Howard; Sachse, Glenn; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
We report on two aspects of the simulation of global transport of plumes originating from subtropical biomass fires. We use of meteorological assimilation (MM5) at 2-degree resolution with a Grail cloud parameterization and a Blackadar-based planetary boundary layer parameterization. Ames's GRACES model provides emissions, transport, and an appropriate level of simulated chemical transformation. We have worked with passive-tracer CO or linear chemistry. This is appropriate since we find major work to be done in evaluating CO source strengths and transport mechanisms before chemical integrations could be meaningful. First, we present mechanisms by which CO and other pollutants are introduced into the free troposphere, and are then transported with hate dilution from approx. 0 to approx. 180 degrees longitude. One principal conduit for these plumes is the vernal subtropical jet; however the plumes appear at various altitudes and latitudes as they influenced by frontal motions and (most likely) radiative processes. A common, repeated pattern of transport has pollutant plumes arriving in the distant Pacific Ocean from Africa and South America at 25 degrees south and 14 km altitude. Following this, there is then a general appearance of pollution at extending down to 5 kin at more equatorial (10 S) and polar latitudes (to 45 S). Second, we evaluate the quantitative success of our simulation. (Such success requires efforts considerably beyond trajectory analyses, and is necessary for our community to claim an understanding of the effects of biomass burning on global atmospheric chemistry and the planet's trend in oxidizing capacity.) We find that we simulate most pollution episodes sampled by Glenn Sachse's CO instrument and the Blake hydrocarbon analyses during PENT A. We will present our current ideas on why our general levels appear satisfactory when the observations are within 20 ppb of background levels, but substantially miss the variability associated with the most
Fribourg, Pierre Frederic; Chami, Mohamed; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Gubellini, Francesca; Marabini, Roberto; Marco, Sergio; Jault, Jean-Michel; Lévy, Daniel
2014-05-15
ABC (ATP-binding cassette) membrane exporters are efflux transporters of a wide diversity of molecule across the membrane at the expense of ATP. A key issue regarding their catalytic cycle is whether or not their nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) are physically disengaged in the resting state. To settle this controversy, we obtained structural data on BmrA, a bacterial multidrug homodimeric ABC transporter, in a membrane-embedded state. BmrA in the apostate was reconstituted in lipid bilayers forming a mixture of ring-shaped structures of 24 or 39 homodimers. Three-dimensional models of the ring-shaped structures of 24 or 39 homodimers were calculated at 2.3 nm and 2.5 nm resolution from cryo-electron microscopy, respectively. In these structures, BmrA adopts an inward-facing open conformation similar to that found in mouse P-glycoprotein structure with the NBDs separated by 3 nm. Both lipidic leaflets delimiting the transmembrane domains of BmrA were clearly resolved. In planar membrane sheets, the NBDs were even more separated. BmrA in an ATP-bound conformation was determined from two-dimensional crystals grown in the presence of ATP and vanadate. A projection map calculated at 1.6 nm resolution shows an open outward-facing conformation. Overall, the data are consistent with a mechanism of drug transport involving large conformational changes of BmrA and show that a bacterial ABC exporter can adopt at least two open inward conformations in lipid membrane. PMID:24630999
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mkhitaryan, Vagharsh; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav; 0 Team
2015-03-01
The hyperfine coupling of a carrier spin to a nuclear spin bath is a predominant channel for the carrier spin relaxation in organic semiconductors. We investigate the hyperfine-induced spin relaxation of a carrier performing a random walk on a d-dimensional regular lattice theoretically, in a transport regime typical for organic semiconductors. We show that in d = 1 and d = 2 the time dependence of spin polarization, P (t) , is dominated by a superexponential decay, crossing over to an exponential tail at long times. The faster decay is attributed to multiple self-intersections (returns) of the random walk trajectories, which occur more often in lower dimensions. We also show, analytically and numerically, that the returns lead to sensitivity of P (t) to external electric and magnetic fields, and this sensitivity strongly depends on dimensionality of the system (d = 1 vs. d = 3). Furthermore, we consider the coordinate dependence of spin polarization, σ (r) , in a hypothetic lateral or vertical organic spin-valve device. We demonstrate that, while σ (r) is essentially exponential, the effect of multiple self-intersections can be identified in transport measurements from the specific field-dependence of spin relaxation length. This work was supported by the Department of Energy-Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.
Qiang, J.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.
2005-05-16
The driver linac of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) requires a great variety of high intensity, high charge state ion beams. In order to design and to optimize the low energy beamline optics of the RIA front end,we have developed a new parallel three-dimensional model to simulate the low energy, multi-species ion beam formation and transport from the ECR ion source extraction region to the focal plane of the analyzing magnet. A multisection overlapped computational domain has been used to break the original transport system into a number of each subsystem, macro-particle tracking is used to obtain the charge density distribution in this subdomain. The three-dimensional Poisson equation is solved within the subdomain and particle tracking is repeated until the solution converges. Two new Poisson solvers based on a combination of the spectral method and the multigrid method have been developed to solve the Poisson equation in cylindrical coordinates for the beam extraction region and in the Frenet-Serret coordinates for the bending magnet region. Some test examples and initial applications will also be presented.
Hierarchical 3D microstructures from pyrolysis of epoxy resin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Volder, Michael; Reynaerts, Dominiek; van Hoof, Chris; Hart, A. John
2012-02-01
Nature is replete with examples of microscale dendrites connected to tree-like backbones ranging from the overall structures of trees to vascular networks. These branched structures have emerged as a result of an optimization between the maximization of a surface area and the minimization of transport losses. Elucidating these sophisticated designs proposed by nature is of paramount importance for the creation of higher-efficiency materials. The fabrication of such structures is however particularly challenging at small scale. In this paper, we focus on amorphous carbon microstructures, which provide a wide electrochemical stability window, excellent bio-compatibility, and cost-effective fabrication. However, relatively few methods have been developed for the fabrication of hierarchical amorphous carbon microstructures.Here we show that novel anisotropic microarchitectures comprising vertically aligned amorphous carbon nanowires CNWs can be made by oxygen plasma treatment of epoxy resins, followed by pyrolysis. Interestingly, these structures can also be shaped into deterministic three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures where nanowires are anchored to a microsized solid carbon core. These structures could play a key role in the development of new electrodes for microsensors, bioprobes, batteries, and fuel cells.
Enhancements to the opera-3d suite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riley, Christopher P.
1997-02-01
The OPERA-3D suite of programs has been enhanced to include 2 additional 3 dimensional finite element based solvers, with complimentary features in the pre- and postprocessing. SOPRANO computes electromagnetic fields at high frequency including displacement current effects. It has 2 modules—a deterministic solution at a user defined frequency and an eigenvalue solution for modal analysis. It is suitable for designing microwave structures and cavities found in particle accelerators. SCALA computes electrostatic fields in the presence of space charge from charged particle beams. The user may define the emission characteristics of electrodes or plasma surfaces and compute the resultant space charge limited beams, including the presence of magnetic fields. Typical applications in particle accelerators are electron guns and ion sources. Other enhancements to the suite include additional capabilities in TOSCA and ELEKTRA, the static and dynamic solvers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ott, Lesley E.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Huntrieser, Heidi; Schumann, Ulrich
2006-01-01
The July 21,1998 thunderstonn observed during the European Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Project (EULINOX) project was simulated using the three-dimensional Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. The simulation successfully reproduced a number of observed storm features including the splitting of the original cell into a southern cell which developed supercell characteristics, and a northern cell which became multicellular. Output from the GCE simulation was used to drive an offline cloud-scale chemical transport model which calculates tracer transport and includes a parameterization of lightning NO(x) production which uses observed flash rates as input. Estimates of lightning NO(x) production were deduced by assuming various values of production per intracloud and production per cloud-to-ground flash and comparing the results with in-cloud aircraft observations. The assumption that both types of flashes produce 360 moles of NO per flash on average compared most favorably with column mass and probability distribution functions calculated from observations. This assumed production per flash corresponds to a global annual lightning NOx source of 7 Tg N per yr. Chemical reactions were included in the model to evaluate the impact of lightning NO(x), on ozone. During the storm, the inclusion of lightning NOx in the model results in a small loss of ozone (on average less than 4 ppbv) at all model levels. Simulations of the chemical environment in the 24 hours following the storm show on average a small increase in the net production of ozone at most levels resulting from lightning NO(x), maximizing at approximately 5 ppbv per day at 5.5 km. Between 8 and 10.5 km, lightning NO(x) causes decreased net ozone production.
Turner, D.
1983-08-01
The T-HEMP3D (Transportable HEMP3D) computer program is a derivative of the STEALTH three-dimensional thermodynamics code developed by Science Applications, Inc., under the direction of Ron Hofmann. STEALTH, in turn, is based entirely on the original HEMP3D code written at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary advantage STEALTH has over its predecessors is that it was designed using modern structured design techniques, with rigorous programming standards enforced. This yields two benefits. First, the code is easily changeable; this is a necessity for a physics code used for research. The second benefit is that the code is easily transportable between different types of computers. The STEALTH program was transferred to LLNL under a cooperative development agreement. Changes were made primarily in three areas: material specification, coordinate generation, and the addition of sliding surface boundary conditions. The code was renamed T-HEMP3D to avoid confusion with other versions of STEALTH. This document summarizes the input to T-HEMP3D, as used at LLNL. It does not describe the physics simulated by the program, nor the numerical techniques employed. Furthermore, it does not describe the separate job steps of coordinate generation and post-processing, including graphical display of results. (WHK)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dadzis, K.; Vizman, D.; Friedrich, J.
2013-03-01
Directional solidification of large multi-crystalline silicon ingots is a distinctly unsteady process with a complex interaction between melt flow, crystallization interface, and species transport. Both the different time-scales and the three-dimensional character make numerical simulations of this process a challenging task. The complexity of such simulations increases further if external magnetic fields are used to enhance the melt flow. In this contribution, several three-dimensional coupled unsteady calculations are carried out for a 22×22×11 cm3 silicon melt directionally solidified in a traveling magnetic field. The justification of various approximations in the numerical models is discussed with an emphasis on the frequently used quasi steady-state models for the calculation of the interface shape. It is shown that an upward traveling magnetic field leads to a symmetric concave interface shape while a downward field results in a convex interface with a distinct asymmetry at the current supplies. These results agree in both unsteady and quasi steady-state calculations, but only unsteady calculations reveal the flow-induced local oscillations of the interface. The unsteady segregation process of carbon and oxygen impurities exhibits a non-uniform concentration along the crystallization interface although the bulk concentration is near to the complete mixing limit in the cases with a traveling magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jialin; Li, Keqiang; Shi, Xiaoyong; Liang, Shengkang; Han, Xiurong; Ma, Qimin; Wang, Xiulin
2014-08-01
The rapid economic and social developments in the Luoyuan and Lianjiang counties of Fujian Province, China, raise certain environment and ecosystem issues. The unusual phytoplankton bloom and eutrophication, for example, have increased in severity in Luoyuan Bay (LB). The constant increase of nutrient loads has largely caused the environmental degradation in LB. Several countermeasures have been implemented to solve these environmental problems. The most effective of these strategies is the reduction of pollutant loadings into the sea in accordance with total pollutant load control (TPLC) plans. A combined three-dimensional hydrodynamic transport-transformation model was constructed to estimate the marine environmental capacity of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The allowed maximum loadings for each discharge unit in LB were calculated with applicable simulation results. The simulation results indicated that the environmental capacity of COD is approximately 11×104 t year-1 when the water quality complies with the marine functional zoning standards for LB. A pollutant reduction scheme to diminish the present levels of mariculture- and domestic-based COD loadings is based on the estimated marine COD environmental capacity. The obtained values imply that the LB waters could comply with the targeted water quality criteria. To meet the revised marine functional zoning standards, discharge loadings from discharge units 1 and 11 should be reduced to 996 and 3236 t year-1, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanborn, C. J.; Fitzpatrick, M.; Cormier, V. F.
2012-12-01
The differences between earthquakes and explosions are largest in the highest recordable frequency band. In this band, scattering of elastic energy by small-scale heterogeneity (less than a wavelength) can equilibrate energy on components of motion and stabilize the behavior of the Lg wave trapped in the Earth's crust. Larger scale structure (greater than a wavelength) can still assume major control over the efficiency or blockage of the Lg and other regional/local seismic waves. We seek to model the combined effects of the large-scale (deterministic) and the small scale (statistical) structure to invert for improved structural models and to evaluate the performance of yield estimators and discriminants at selected IMS monitoring stations in Eurasia. To that end we have modified a 3-D ray tracing code for calculating ray trajectory1 in large-scale deterministic structure by adding new code to calculate mean free path, scattering angle, polarization, and amplitude required by radiative transport theory for the effects of small-scale statistical structure.2 This poster explores the methods of radiative transport for both deterministic and statistical structure, with particular attention given to the scattering model, and presents preliminary synthetic seismograms generated by the code both with and without the effects of statistical scattering. References: (1) Menke, W., www.iris.edu/software/downloads/plotting/. (2) Shearer, P. M., and P.S. Earle, in Advances in Geophysics, Volume 50: Earth Heterogeneity and Scattering Effects on Seismic Waves, H. Sato and M.C. Fehler (ed.), 2008.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco
2011-09-01
Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.
3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D
Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.
2016-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.
Particle Acceleration in 3D Magnetic Reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahlin, J.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.
2015-12-01
Magnetic reconnection is an important driver of energetic particles in phenomena such as magnetospheric storms and solar flares. Using kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we show that the stochastic magnetic field structure which develops during 3D reconnection plays a vital role in particle acceleration and transport. In a 2D system, electrons are trapped in magnetic islands which limits their energy gain. In a 3D system, however, the stochastic magnetic field enables the energetic electrons to access volume-filling acceleration regions and therefore gain energy much more efficiently than in the 2D system. We also examine the relative roles of two important acceleration drivers: parallel electric fields and a Fermi mechanism associated with reflection of charged particles from contracting field lines. We find that parallel electric fields are most important for accelerating low energy particles, whereas Fermi reflection dominates energetic particle production. We also find that proton energization is reduced in the 3D system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.
2013-10-01
Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.
[3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].
Zoller, W G; Liess, H
1994-06-01
Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible. PMID:7919882
2013-10-30
This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.
None
2014-02-26
This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walsh, J. R.
2004-02-01
The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.
1990-01-01
PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.
Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A
2015-12-01
3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertrand, Tanguy; Forget, Francois
2016-04-01
To interpret New Horizons observations and simulate the Pluto climate system, we have developed a Global Climate Model (GCM) of Pluto's atmosphere. In addition to a 3D "dynamical core" which solves the equation of meteorology, the model takes into account the N2 condensation and sublimation and its thermal and dynamical effects, the vertical turbulent mixing, the radiative transfer through methane and carbon monoxide, molecular thermal conduction, and a detailed surface thermal model with different thermal inertia for various timescales (diurnal, seasonal). The GCM also includes a detailed model of the CH4 and CO cycles, taking into account their transport by the atmospheric circulation and turbulence, as well as their condensation and sublimation on the surface and in the atmosphere, possibly forming methane ice clouds. The GCM consistently predicts the 3D methane abundance in the atmosphere, which is used as an input for our radiative transfer calculation. In a second phase, we also developed a volatile transport model, derived from the GCM, which can be run over thousands of years in order to reach consistent initial states for the GCM runs and better explore the seasonal processes on Pluto. Results obtained with the volatile transport model show that the distribution of N2, CH4 and CO ices primarily depends on the seasonal thermal inertia used for the different ices, and is affected by the assumed topography as well. As observed, it is possible to form a large and permanent nitrogen glacier with CO and CH4 ice deposits in an equatorial basin corresponding to Sputnik Planum, while having a surface pressure evolution consistent with stellar occultations and New Horizons data. In addition, most of the methane ice is sequestered with N2 ice in the basin but seasonal polar caps of CH4 frosts also form explaining the bright polar caps observed with Hubble in the 1980s and in line with New Horizons observations. Using such balanced combination of surface and
PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into
PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into
Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S
2015-08-01
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models. PMID:26066320
Unassisted 3D camera calibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.
2012-03-01
With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.
Deterministic hierarchical networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrière, L.; Comellas, F.; Dalfó, C.; Fiol, M. A.
2016-06-01
It has been shown that many networks associated with complex systems are small-world (they have both a large local clustering coefficient and a small diameter) and also scale-free (the degrees are distributed according to a power law). Moreover, these networks are very often hierarchical, as they describe the modularity of the systems that are modeled. Most of the studies for complex networks are based on stochastic methods. However, a deterministic method, with an exact determination of the main relevant parameters of the networks, has proven useful. Indeed, this approach complements and enhances the probabilistic and simulation techniques and, therefore, it provides a better understanding of the modeled systems. In this paper we find the radius, diameter, clustering coefficient and degree distribution of a generic family of deterministic hierarchical small-world scale-free networks that has been considered for modeling real-life complex systems.
Arena3D: visualization of biological networks in 3D
Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; O'Donoghue, Seán I; Satagopam, Venkata P; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Pafilis, Evangelos; Schneider, Reinhard
2008-01-01
Background Complexity is a key problem when visualizing biological networks; as the number of entities increases, most graphical views become incomprehensible. Our goal is to enable many thousands of entities to be visualized meaningfully and with high performance. Results We present a new visualization tool, Arena3D, which introduces a new concept of staggered layers in 3D space. Related data – such as proteins, chemicals, or pathways – can be grouped onto separate layers and arranged via layout algorithms, such as Fruchterman-Reingold, distance geometry, and a novel hierarchical layout. Data on a layer can be clustered via k-means, affinity propagation, Markov clustering, neighbor joining, tree clustering, or UPGMA ('unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean'). A simple input format defines the name and URL for each node, and defines connections or similarity scores between pairs of nodes. The use of Arena3D is illustrated with datasets related to Huntington's disease. Conclusion Arena3D is a user friendly visualization tool that is able to visualize biological or any other network in 3D space. It is free for academic use and runs on any platform. It can be downloaded or lunched directly from . Java3D library and Java 1.5 need to be pre-installed for the software to run. PMID:19040715
Tinker, S.W.
1996-04-01
Reservoir characterization involves the quantification, integration, reduction, and analysis of geological, petrophysical, seismic, and engineering data. This is no small task. A principal goal of reservoir characterization is to derive a spatial understanding of interwell heterogeneity. Traditionally, geologic attempts to characterize interwell heterogeneity have been done using hand-drawn or computer-generated two-dimensional (2-D) maps and cross sections. Results can be improved dramatically using three-dimensional (3-D) interpretation and analysis techniques. Three-dimensional reservoir characterization requires the same input data used in 2-D approaches, and the cost is equal to, and commonly lower than, traditional 2-D methods. The product of 3-D reservoir characterization is a 3-D reservoir model. The language used to communicate the results of a 3-D reservoir model is visualization; i.e., visual images of numerical data. All of the available log and core data in a model area are incorporated in a 3-D model, but the data are depicted as colored cells rather than as log traces. The integrity of the 3-D reservoir model is largely a function of the stratigraphic framework. Interpreting the correct stratigraphic framework for a subsurface reservoir is the most difficult and creative part of the 3-D modeling process. Sequence and seismic stratigraphic interpretation provide the best stratigraphic framework for 3-D reservoir modeling. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the pro- cess of 3-D deterministic reservoir modeling and to illustrate the advantages of using a sequence stratigraphic framework in 3-D modeling. Mixed carbonate and siliciclastic sediment outcrop and subsurface examples from the Permian basin of west Texas and New Mexico will be used as examples, but the concepts and techniques can be applied to reservoirs of any age.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otis, Collin; Ferrero, Pietro; Candler, Graham; Givi, Peyman
2013-11-01
The scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) methodology is implemented into the computer code US3D. This is an unstructured Eulerian finite volume hydrodynamic solver and has proven very effective for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The resulting SFMDF-US3D code is employed for large eddy simulation (LES) on unstructured meshes. Simulations are conducted of subsonic and supersonic flows under non-reacting and reacting conditions. The consistency and the accuracy of the simulated results are assessed along with appraisal of the overall performance of the methodology. The SFMDF-US3D is now capable of simulating high speed flows in complex configurations.
Sperm navigation along helical paths in 3D chemoattractant landscapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jikeli, Jan F.; Alvarez, Luis; Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Wilson, Laurence G.; Pascal, René; Colin, Remy; Pichlo, Magdalena; Rennhack, Andreas; Brenker, Christoph; Kaupp, U. Benjamin
2015-08-01
Sperm require a sense of direction to locate the egg for fertilization. They follow gradients of chemical and physical cues provided by the egg or the oviduct. However, the principles underlying three-dimensional (3D) navigation in chemical landscapes are unknown. Here using holographic microscopy and optochemical techniques, we track sea urchin sperm navigating in 3D chemoattractant gradients. Sperm sense gradients on two timescales, which produces two different steering responses. A periodic component, resulting from the helical swimming, gradually aligns the helix towards the gradient. When incremental path corrections fail and sperm get off course, a sharp turning manoeuvre puts sperm back on track. Turning results from an `off' Ca2+ response signifying a chemoattractant stimulation decrease and, thereby, a drop in cyclic GMP concentration and membrane voltage. These findings highlight the computational sophistication by which sperm sample gradients for deterministic klinotaxis. We provide a conceptual and technical framework for studying microswimmers in 3D chemical landscapes.
Sperm navigation along helical paths in 3D chemoattractant landscapes
Jikeli, Jan F.; Alvarez, Luis; Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Wilson, Laurence G.; Pascal, René; Colin, Remy; Pichlo, Magdalena; Rennhack, Andreas; Brenker, Christoph; Kaupp, U. Benjamin
2015-01-01
Sperm require a sense of direction to locate the egg for fertilization. They follow gradients of chemical and physical cues provided by the egg or the oviduct. However, the principles underlying three-dimensional (3D) navigation in chemical landscapes are unknown. Here using holographic microscopy and optochemical techniques, we track sea urchin sperm navigating in 3D chemoattractant gradients. Sperm sense gradients on two timescales, which produces two different steering responses. A periodic component, resulting from the helical swimming, gradually aligns the helix towards the gradient. When incremental path corrections fail and sperm get off course, a sharp turning manoeuvre puts sperm back on track. Turning results from an ‘off' Ca2+ response signifying a chemoattractant stimulation decrease and, thereby, a drop in cyclic GMP concentration and membrane voltage. These findings highlight the computational sophistication by which sperm sample gradients for deterministic klinotaxis. We provide a conceptual and technical framework for studying microswimmers in 3D chemical landscapes. PMID:26278469
Sperm navigation along helical paths in 3D chemoattractant landscapes.
Jikeli, Jan F; Alvarez, Luis; Friedrich, Benjamin M; Wilson, Laurence G; Pascal, René; Colin, Remy; Pichlo, Magdalena; Rennhack, Andreas; Brenker, Christoph; Kaupp, U Benjamin
2015-01-01
Sperm require a sense of direction to locate the egg for fertilization. They follow gradients of chemical and physical cues provided by the egg or the oviduct. However, the principles underlying three-dimensional (3D) navigation in chemical landscapes are unknown. Here using holographic microscopy and optochemical techniques, we track sea urchin sperm navigating in 3D chemoattractant gradients. Sperm sense gradients on two timescales, which produces two different steering responses. A periodic component, resulting from the helical swimming, gradually aligns the helix towards the gradient. When incremental path corrections fail and sperm get off course, a sharp turning manoeuvre puts sperm back on track. Turning results from an 'off' Ca(2+) response signifying a chemoattractant stimulation decrease and, thereby, a drop in cyclic GMP concentration and membrane voltage. These findings highlight the computational sophistication by which sperm sample gradients for deterministic klinotaxis. We provide a conceptual and technical framework for studying microswimmers in 3D chemical landscapes. PMID:26278469
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trefan, Gyorgy
1993-01-01
The goal of this thesis is to contribute to the ambitious program of the foundation of developing statistical physics using chaos. We build a deterministic model of Brownian motion and provide a microscopic derivation of the Fokker-Planck equation. Since the Brownian motion of a particle is the result of the competing processes of diffusion and dissipation, we create a model where both diffusion and dissipation originate from the same deterministic mechanism--the deterministic interaction of that particle with its environment. We show that standard diffusion which is the basis of the Fokker-Planck equation rests on the Central Limit Theorem, and, consequently, on the possibility of deriving it from a deterministic process with a quickly decaying correlation function. The sensitive dependence on initial conditions, one of the defining properties of chaos insures this rapid decay. We carefully address the problem of deriving dissipation from the interaction of a particle with a fully deterministic nonlinear bath, that we term the booster. We show that the solution of this problem essentially rests on the linear response of a booster to an external perturbation. This raises a long-standing problem concerned with Kubo's Linear Response Theory and the strong criticism against it by van Kampen. Kubo's theory is based on a perturbation treatment of the Liouville equation, which, in turn, is expected to be totally equivalent to a first-order perturbation treatment of single trajectories. Since the boosters are chaotic, and chaos is essential to generate diffusion, the single trajectories are highly unstable and do not respond linearly to weak external perturbation. We adopt chaotic maps as boosters of a Brownian particle, and therefore address the problem of the response of a chaotic booster to an external perturbation. We notice that a fully chaotic map is characterized by an invariant measure which is a continuous function of the control parameters of the map
Chilcoat, S.R. Hildebrand, S.T.
1995-12-31
Travel time computation in inhomogeneous media is essential for pre-stack Kirchhoff imaging in areas such as the sub-salt province in the Gulf of Mexico. The 2D algorithm published by Vinje, et al, has been extended to 3D to compute wavefronts in complicated inhomogeneous media. The 3D wavefront construction algorithm provides many advantages over conventional ray tracing and other methods of computing travel times in 3D. The algorithm dynamically maintains a reasonably consistent ray density without making a priori guesses at the number of rays to shoot. The determination of caustics in 3D is a straight forward geometric procedure. The wavefront algorithm also enables the computation of multi-valued travel time surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan
2016-06-01
Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.
Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin
2015-03-01
We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.
Optofluidic fabrication for 3D-shaped particles.
Paulsen, Kevin S; Di Carlo, Dino; Chung, Aram J
2015-01-01
Complex three-dimensional (3D)-shaped particles could play unique roles in biotechnology, structural mechanics and self-assembly. Current methods of fabricating 3D-shaped particles such as 3D printing, injection moulding or photolithography are limited because of low-resolution, low-throughput or complicated/expensive procedures. Here, we present a novel method called optofluidic fabrication for the generation of complex 3D-shaped polymer particles based on two coupled processes: inertial flow shaping and ultraviolet (UV) light polymerization. Pillars within fluidic platforms are used to deterministically deform photosensitive precursor fluid streams. The channels are then illuminated with patterned UV light to polymerize the photosensitive fluid, creating particles with multi-scale 3D geometries. The fundamental advantages of optofluidic fabrication include high-resolution, multi-scalability, dynamic tunability, simple operation and great potential for bulk fabrication with full automation. Through different combinations of pillar configurations, flow rates and UV light patterns, an infinite set of 3D-shaped particles is available, and a variety are demonstrated. PMID:25904062
Optofluidic fabrication for 3D-shaped particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paulsen, Kevin S.; di Carlo, Dino; Chung, Aram J.
2015-04-01
Complex three-dimensional (3D)-shaped particles could play unique roles in biotechnology, structural mechanics and self-assembly. Current methods of fabricating 3D-shaped particles such as 3D printing, injection moulding or photolithography are limited because of low-resolution, low-throughput or complicated/expensive procedures. Here, we present a novel method called optofluidic fabrication for the generation of complex 3D-shaped polymer particles based on two coupled processes: inertial flow shaping and ultraviolet (UV) light polymerization. Pillars within fluidic platforms are used to deterministically deform photosensitive precursor fluid streams. The channels are then illuminated with patterned UV light to polymerize the photosensitive fluid, creating particles with multi-scale 3D geometries. The fundamental advantages of optofluidic fabrication include high-resolution, multi-scalability, dynamic tunability, simple operation and great potential for bulk fabrication with full automation. Through different combinations of pillar configurations, flow rates and UV light patterns, an infinite set of 3D-shaped particles is available, and a variety are demonstrated.
3D puzzle reconstruction for archeological fragments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jampy, F.; Hostein, A.; Fauvet, E.; Laligant, O.; Truchetet, F.
2015-03-01
The reconstruction of broken artifacts is a common task in archeology domain; it can be supported now by 3D data acquisition device and computer processing. Many works have been dedicated in the past to reconstructing 2D puzzles but very few propose a true 3D approach. We present here a complete solution including a dedicated transportable 3D acquisition set-up and a virtual tool with a graphic interface allowing the archeologists to manipulate the fragments and to, interactively, reconstruct the puzzle. The whole lateral part is acquired by rotating the fragment around an axis chosen within a light sheet thanks to a step-motor synchronized with the camera frame clock. Another camera provides a top view of the fragment under scanning. A scanning accuracy of 100μm is attained. The iterative automatic processing algorithm is based on segmentation into facets of the lateral part of the fragments followed by a 3D matching providing the user with a ranked short list of possible assemblies. The device has been applied to the reconstruction of a set of 1200 fragments from broken tablets supporting a Latin inscription dating from the first century AD.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.
2014-08-01
In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers
Deterministic Bilinear System Identification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Cheh-Han; Juang, Jer-Nan
2013-12-01
A unified identification method is proposed for system realization of a deterministic continuous-time/discrete-time bilinear models from input and output measurement data. A generalized Hankel matrix is formed with the output measurements obtained by applying a set of repeated input sequences to a bilinear system. A computational procedure is developed to extract a time varying discrete-time state-space model from the generalized Hankel matrix. The bilinear system models are realized by transforming the identified time varying discrete-time model to the bilinear models. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed identification method.
Chengjiang Mao
1996-12-31
In typical AI systems, we employ so-called non-deterministic reasoning (NDR), which resorts to some systematic search with backtracking in the search spaces defined by knowledge bases (KBs). An eminent property of NDR is that it facilitates programming, especially programming for those difficult AI problems such as natural language processing for which it is difficult to find algorithms to tell computers what to do at every step. However, poor efficiency of NDR is still an open problem. Our work aims at overcoming this efficiency problem.
YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic
2012-03-01
Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.
Remote 3D Medical Consultation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.
Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.
Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert
2016-03-14
The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia. PMID:26854878
Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools
Dubrule, O.; Samson, P.; Segonds, D.
1996-12-31
The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological {open_quotes}objects{close_quotes} with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.
Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools
Dubrule, O. ); Samson, P. ); Segonds, D. )
1996-01-01
The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological [open quotes]objects[close quotes] with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.
The Deterministic Information Bottleneck
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strouse, D. J.; Schwab, David
2015-03-01
A fundamental and ubiquitous task that all organisms face is prediction of the future based on past sensory experience. Since an individual's memory resources are limited and costly, however, there is a tradeoff between memory cost and predictive payoff. The information bottleneck (IB) method (Tishby, Pereira, & Bialek 2000) formulates this tradeoff as a mathematical optimization problem using an information theoretic cost function. IB encourages storing as few bits of past sensory input as possible while selectively preserving the bits that are most predictive of the future. Here we introduce an alternative formulation of the IB method, which we call the deterministic information bottleneck (DIB). First, we argue for an alternative cost function, which better represents the biologically-motivated goal of minimizing required memory resources. Then, we show that this seemingly minor change has the dramatic effect of converting the optimal memory encoder from stochastic to deterministic. Next, we propose an iterative algorithm for solving the DIB problem. Additionally, we compare the IB and DIB methods on a variety of synthetic datasets, and examine the performance of retinal ganglion cell populations relative to the optimal encoding strategy for each problem.
3D Computations and Experiments
Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D
2004-04-05
This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.
3D Computations and Experiments
Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D
2003-05-12
This project is in its first full year after the combining of two previously funded projects: ''3D Code Development'' and ''Dynamic Material Properties''. The motivation behind this move was to emphasize and strengthen the ties between the experimental work and the computational model development in the materials area. The next year's activities will indicate the merging of the two efforts. The current activity is structured in two tasks. Task A, ''Simulations and Measurements'', combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. Task B, ''ALE3D Development'', is a continuation of the non-materials related activities from the previous project.
Improvement of advanced nodal method used in 3D core design system
Rauck, S.; Dall'Osso, A.
2006-07-01
This paper deals with AREVA NP progress in the modelling of neutronic phenomena, evaluated through 3D determinist core codes and using 2-group diffusion theory. Our report highlights the advantages of taking into account the assembly environment in the process used for the building of the 2-group collapsed neutronic parameters, such as cross sections or discontinuity factors. The interest of the present method, developed in order to account for the impact of the environment on the above mentioned parameters, resides (i) in the very definition of a global correlation between collapsed neutronic data calculated in an infinite medium and those calculated in a 3D-geometry, and (ii) in the use of a re-homogenization method. Using this approach, computations match better with actual measurements on control rod worth. They also present smaller differences on pin by pin power values compared to the ones computed with another code considered as a reference since it relies on multigroup transport theory. (authors)
2007-07-20
This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manos, Harry
2016-01-01
Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…
Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya
2007-07-20
This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.
3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim
2015-01-01
As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…
TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code
Mason, W.E.
1992-03-04
TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.
Optoplasmonics: hybridization in 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosa, L.; Gervinskas, G.; Žukauskas, A.; Malinauskas, M.; Brasselet, E.; Juodkazis, S.
2013-12-01
Femtosecond laser fabrication has been used to make hybrid refractive and di ractive micro-optical elements in photo-polymer SZ2080. For applications in micro- uidics, axicon lenses were fabricated (both single and arrays), for generation of light intensity patterns extending through the entire depth of a typically tens-of-micrometers deep channel. Further hybridisation of an axicon with a plasmonic slot is fabricated and demonstrated nu- merically. Spiralling chiral grooves were inscribed into a 100-nm-thick gold coating sputtered over polymerized micro-axicon lenses, using a focused ion beam. This demonstrates possibility of hybridisation between optical and plasmonic 3D micro-optical elements. Numerical modelling of optical performance by 3D-FDTD method is presented.
3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.
1998-12-01
We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.
Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction
LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.
1999-10-12
Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.
Forensic 3D scene reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.
2000-05-01
Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Yuanhe; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wenyi; Tan, Yushan
1997-12-01
A new method of 360 degree turning 3D shape measurement in which light sectioning and phase shifting techniques are both used is presented in this paper. A sine light field is applied in the projected light stripe, meanwhile phase shifting technique is used to calculate phases of the light slit. Thereafter wrapped phase distribution of the slit is formed and the unwrapping process is made by means of the height information based on the light sectioning method. Therefore phase measuring results with better precision can be obtained. At last the target 3D shape data can be produced according to geometric relationships between phases and the object heights. The principles of this method are discussed in detail and experimental results are shown in this paper.
3D Printable Graphene Composite.
Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong
2015-01-01
In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.
2013-01-01
Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.
3D light scanning macrography.
Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D
2001-08-01
The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078
Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.
2011-01-15
The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langhans, Knut; Bezecny, Daniel; Homann, Dennis; Bahr, Detlef; Vogt, Carsten; Blohm, Christian; Scharschmidt, Karl-Heinz
1998-04-01
An improved generation of our 'FELIX 3D Display' is presented. This system is compact, light, modular and easy to transport. The created volumetric images consist of many voxels, which are generated in a half-sphere display volume. In that way a spatial object can be displayed occupying a physical space with height, width and depth. The new FELIX generation uses a screen rotating with 20 revolutions per second. This target screen is mounted by an easy to change mechanism making it possible to use appropriate screens for the specific purpose of the display. An acousto-optic deflection unit with an integrated small diode pumped laser draws the images on the spinning screen. Images can consist of up to 10,000 voxels at a refresh rate of 20 Hz. Currently two different hardware systems are investigated. The first one is based on a standard PCMCIA digital/analog converter card as an interface and is controlled by a notebook. The developed software is provided with a graphical user interface enabling several animation features. The second, new prototype is designed to display images created by standard CAD applications. It includes the development of a new high speed hardware interface suitable for state-of-the- art fast and high resolution scanning devices, which require high data rates. A true 3D volume display as described will complement the broad range of 3D visualization tools, such as volume rendering packages, stereoscopic and virtual reality techniques, which have become widely available in recent years. Potential applications for the FELIX 3D display include imaging in the field so fair traffic control, medical imaging, computer aided design, science as well as entertainment.
[Real time 3D echocardiography].
Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D
2001-07-01
Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630
[Real time 3D echocardiography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.
2001-01-01
Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.
GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)
2013-10-01
The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.
2002-12-01
Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated
Interactive 3D Mars Visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powell, Mark W.
2012-01-01
The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manos, Harry
2016-03-01
Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
This 3-D image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rear hazard-identification camera shows the now-empty lander that carried the rover 283 million miles to Meridiani Planum, Mars. Engineers received confirmation that Opportunity's six wheels successfully rolled off the lander and onto martian soil at 3:01 a.m. PST, January 31, 2004, on the seventh martian day, or sol, of the mission. The rover is approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in front of the lander, facing north.
The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction
Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, Daniel; Sohl, L.E.; Chandler, M.; Williams, Mark; Foley, K.; Stoll, D.K.
2010-01-01
The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an internally consistent and comprehensive global synthesis of a past interval of relatively warm and stable climate. It is regularly used in model studies that aim to better understand Pliocene climate, to improve model performance in future climate scenarios, and to distinguish model-dependent climate effects. The PRISM reconstruction is constantly evolving in order to incorporate additional geographic sites and environmental parameters, and is continuously refined by independent research findings. The new PRISM three dimensional (3D) reconstruction differs from previous PRISM reconstructions in that it includes a subsurface ocean temperature reconstruction, integrates geochemical sea surface temperature proxies to supplement the faunal-based temperature estimates, and uses numerical models for the first time to augment fossil data. Here we describe the components of PRISM3D and describe new findings specific to the new reconstruction. Highlights of the new PRISM3D reconstruction include removal of Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes and creation of open waterways in locations where the current bedrock elevation is less than 25m above modern sea level, due to the removal of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the reduction of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The mid-Piacenzian oceans were characterized by a reduced east-west temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific, but PRISM3D data do not imply permanent El Niño conditions. The reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient that characterized previous PRISM reconstructions is supported by significant displacement of vegetation belts toward the poles, is extended into the Arctic Ocean, and is confirmed by multiple proxies in PRISM3D. Arctic warmth coupled with increased dryness suggests the formation of warm and salty paleo North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and a more vigorous thermohaline circulation system that may
Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise
2012-01-01
The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.
3D Printable Graphene Composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong
2015-07-01
In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.
3D acoustic atmospheric tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony
2014-10-01
This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.
Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.
2013-01-01
The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097
3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishikaw, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.
1998-12-01
We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W=4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure. We also simulate jets with the more realistic initial conditions for injecting jets for helical mangetic field, perturbed density, velocity, and internal energy, which are supposed to be caused in the process of jet generation. Three possible explanations for the observed variability are (i) tidal disruption of a star falling into the black hole, (ii) instabilities in the relativistic accretion disk, and (iii) jet-related PRocesses. New results will be reported at the meeting.
Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C
2013-06-12
The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097
3D Printable Graphene Composite
Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong
2015-01-01
In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673
3D medical thermography device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moghadam, Peyman
2015-05-01
In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.
3D Ion Temperature Reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanabe, Hiroshi; You, Setthivoine; Balandin, Alexander; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi
2009-11-01
The TS-4 experiment at the University of Tokyo collides two spheromaks to form a single high-beta compact toroid. Magnetic reconnection during the merging process heats and accelerates the plasma in toroidal and poloidal directions. The reconnection region has a complex 3D topology determined by the pitch of the spheromak magnetic fields at the merging plane. A pair of multichord passive spectroscopic diagnostics have been established to measure the ion temperature and velocity in the reconnection volume. One setup measures spectral lines across a poloidal plane, retrieving velocity and temperature from Abel inversion. The other, novel setup records spectral lines across another section of the plasma and reconstructs velocity and temperature from 3D vector and 2D scalar tomography techniques. The magnetic field linking both measurement planes is determined from in situ magnetic probe arrays. The ion temperature is then estimated within the volume between the two measurement planes and at the reconnection region. The measurement is followed over several repeatable discharges to follow the heating and acceleration process during the merging reconnection.
Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller
2004-09-01
The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data
3-D simulations of multiple beam klystrons
Smithe, David N.; Bettenhausen, Mike; Ludeking, Larry; Caryotakis, G.; Sprehn, Daryl; Scheitrum, Glenn
1999-05-07
The MAGIC3D simulation code is being used to assess the multi-dimensional physics issues relating to the design and operation of multiple beam klystrons. Investigations, to date, include a detailed study of the mode structure of the cavities in the 19-beam hexagonally packed geometry and a study of the velocity spread caused by the cavity mode's field profile. Some attempts to minimize this effect are investigated. Additional simulations have provided quantification of the beam loading Q in a dual input cavity, and optimization of a dual output cavity. An important goal of the simulations is an accurate picture of beam transport along the length of the MBK. We have quantified the magnitude and spatial variation of the beam-line space charge interactions within a cavity gap. Present simulations have demonstrated the transport of the beam through three cavities (the present limits of our simulation size) without difficulty; additional length simulations are expected. We have also examined unbalanced beam-line scenarios, e.g., one beam-line suppressed, and find little disturbance to the transport in individual cavity tests, with results for multiple cavity transport expected.
3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.
Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong
2016-04-01
3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680
Deterministic, Nanoscale Fabrication of Mesoscale Objects
Jr., R M; Gilmer, J; Rubenchik, A; Shirk, M
2004-12-08
Neither LLNL nor any other organization has the capability to perform deterministic fabrication of mm-sized objects with arbitrary, {micro}m-sized, 3-D features and with 100-nm-scale accuracy and smoothness. This is particularly true for materials such as high explosives and low-density aerogels, as well as materials such as diamond and vanadium. The motivation for this project was to investigate the physics and chemistry that control the interactions of solid surfaces with laser beams and ion beams, with a view towards their applicability to the desired deterministic fabrication processes. As part of this LDRD project, one of our goals was to advance the state of the art for experimental work, but, in order to create ultimately a deterministic capability for such precision micromachining, another goal was to form a new modeling/simulation capability that could also extend the state of the art in this field. We have achieved both goals. In this project, we have, for the first time, combined a 1-D hydrocode (''HYADES'') with a 3-D molecular dynamics simulator (''MDCASK'') in our modeling studies. In FY02 and FY03, we investigated the ablation/surface-modification processes that occur on copper, gold, and nickel substrates with the use of sub-ps laser pulses. In FY04, we investigated laser ablation of carbon, including laser-enhanced chemical reaction on the carbon surface for both vitreous carbon and carbon aerogels. Both experimental and modeling results will be presented in the report that follows. The immediate impact of our investigation was a much better understanding of the chemical and physical processes that ensure when solid materials are exposed to femtosecond laser pulses. More broadly, we have better positioned LLNL to design a cluster tool for fabricating mesoscale objects utilizing laser pulses and ion-beams as well as more traditional machining/manufacturing techniques for applications such as components in NIF targets, remote sensors, including
2012-01-05
ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less
Sinclair, Michael B
2012-01-05
ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.
3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.
2010-12-01
Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2009-01-01
wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.
The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.
This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.
High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these
3D printed quantum dot light-emitting diodes.
Kong, Yong Lin; Tamargo, Ian A; Kim, Hyoungsoo; Johnson, Blake N; Gupta, Maneesh K; Koh, Tae-Wook; Chin, Huai-An; Steingart, Daniel A; Rand, Barry P; McAlpine, Michael C
2014-12-10
Developing the ability to 3D print various classes of materials possessing distinct properties could enable the freeform generation of active electronics in unique functional, interwoven architectures. Achieving seamless integration of diverse materials with 3D printing is a significant challenge that requires overcoming discrepancies in material properties in addition to ensuring that all the materials are compatible with the 3D printing process. To date, 3D printing has been limited to specific plastics, passive conductors, and a few biological materials. Here, we show that diverse classes of materials can be 3D printed and fully integrated into device components with active properties. Specifically, we demonstrate the seamless interweaving of five different materials, including (1) emissive semiconducting inorganic nanoparticles, (2) an elastomeric matrix, (3) organic polymers as charge transport layers, (4) solid and liquid metal leads, and (5) a UV-adhesive transparent substrate layer. As a proof of concept for demonstrating the integrated functionality of these materials, we 3D printed quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) that exhibit pure and tunable color emission properties. By further incorporating the 3D scanning of surface topologies, we demonstrate the ability to conformally print devices onto curvilinear surfaces, such as contact lenses. Finally, we show that novel architectures that are not easily accessed using standard microfabrication techniques can be constructed, by 3D printing a 2 × 2 × 2 cube of encapsulated LEDs, in which every component of the cube and electronics are 3D printed. Overall, these results suggest that 3D printing is more versatile than has been demonstrated to date and is capable of integrating many distinct classes of materials. PMID:25360485
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2009-01-01
wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.
The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.
This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.
High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these
3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel
2016-07-01
Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed
NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design
Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D
2008-11-05
We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.
3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.
Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel
2016-07-21
Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third
Discrete Method of Images for 3D Radio Propagation Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novak, Roman
2016-09-01
Discretization by rasterization is introduced into the method of images (MI) in the context of 3D deterministic radio propagation modeling as a way to exploit spatial coherence of electromagnetic propagation for fine-grained parallelism. Traditional algebraic treatment of bounding regions and surfaces is replaced by computer graphics rendering of 3D reflections and double refractions while building the image tree. The visibility of reception points and surfaces is also resolved by shader programs. The proposed rasterization is shown to be of comparable run time to that of the fundamentally parallel shooting and bouncing rays. The rasterization does not affect the signal evaluation backtracking step, thus preserving its advantage over the brute force ray-tracing methods in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the rendering resolution may be scaled back for a given level of scenario detail with only marginal impact on the image tree size. This allows selection of scene optimized execution parameters for faster execution, giving the method a competitive edge. The proposed variant of MI can be run on any GPU that supports real-time 3D graphics.
Petrokokkinos, L.; Zourari, K.; Pantelis, E.; Moutsatsos, A.; Karaiskos, P.; Sakelliou, L.; Seimenis, I.; Georgiou, E.; Papagiannis, P.
2011-04-15
Purpose: The aim of this work is the dosimetric validation of a deterministic radiation transport based treatment planning system (BRACHYVISION v. 8.8, referred to as TPS in the following) for multiple {sup 192}Ir source dwell position brachytherapy applications employing a shielded applicator in homogeneous water geometries. Methods: TPS calculations for an irradiation plan employing seven VS2000 {sup 192}Ir high dose rate (HDR) source dwell positions and a partially shielded applicator (GM11004380) were compared to corresponding Monte Carlo (MC) simulation results, as well as experimental results obtained using the VIP polymer gel-magnetic resonance imaging three-dimensional dosimetry method with a custom made phantom. Results: TPS and MC dose distributions were found in agreement which is mainly within {+-}2%. Considerable differences between TPS and MC results (greater than 2%) were observed at points in the penumbra of the shields (i.e., close to the edges of the ''shielded'' segment of the geometries). These differences were experimentally verified and therefore attributed to the TPS. Apart from these regions, experimental and TPS dose distributions were found in agreement within 2 mm distance to agreement and 5% dose difference criteria. As shown in this work, these results mark a significant improvement relative to dosimetry algorithms that disregard the presence of the shielded applicator since the use of the latter leads to dosimetry errors on the order of 20%-30% at the edge of the ''unshielded'' segment of the geometry and even 2%-6% at points corresponding to the potential location of the target volume in clinical applications using the applicator (points in the unshielded segment at short distances from the applicator). Conclusions: Results of this work attest the capability of the TPS to accurately account for the scatter conditions and the increased attenuation involved in HDR brachytherapy applications employing multiple source dwell positions and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hermanns, Maria
The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Yogi, a rock taller than rover Sojourner, is the subject of this image, taken in stereo by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The soil in the foreground has been the location of multiple soil mechanics experiments performed by Sojourner's cleated wheels. Pathfinder scientists were able to control the force inflicted on the soil beneath the rover's wheels, giving them insight into the soil's mechanical properties. The soil mechanics experiments were conducted after this image was taken.
Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.
Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.
2013-03-01
Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.
Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.
2016-06-01
Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.
3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel
2016-07-01
Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed
Virtual 3d City Modeling: Techniques and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.
2013-08-01
-D City model is a very useful for various kinds of applications such as for planning in Navigation, Tourism, Disasters Management, Transportations, Municipality, Urban Environmental Managements and Real-estate industry. So the Construction of Virtual 3-D city models is a most interesting research topic in recent years.
Deterministic multidimensional nonuniform gap sampling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Worley, Bradley; Powers, Robert
2015-12-01
Born from empirical observations in nonuniformly sampled multidimensional NMR data relating to gaps between sampled points, the Poisson-gap sampling method has enjoyed widespread use in biomolecular NMR. While the majority of nonuniform sampling schemes are fully randomly drawn from probability densities that vary over a Nyquist grid, the Poisson-gap scheme employs constrained random deviates to minimize the gaps between sampled grid points. We describe a deterministic gap sampling method, based on the average behavior of Poisson-gap sampling, which performs comparably to its random counterpart with the additional benefit of completely deterministic behavior. We also introduce a general algorithm for multidimensional nonuniform sampling based on a gap equation, and apply it to yield a deterministic sampling scheme that combines burst-mode sampling features with those of Poisson-gap schemes. Finally, we derive a relationship between stochastic gap equations and the expectation value of their sampling probability densities.
Coupled electron-photon radiation transport
Lorence, L.; Kensek, R.P.; Valdez, G.D.; Drumm, C.R.; Fan, W.C.; Powell, J.L.
2000-01-17
Massively-parallel computers allow detailed 3D radiation transport simulations to be performed to analyze the response of complex systems to radiation. This has been recently been demonstrated with the coupled electron-photon Monte Carlo code, ITS. To enable such calculations, the combinatorial geometry capability of ITS was improved. For greater geometrical flexibility, a version of ITS is under development that can track particles in CAD geometries. Deterministic radiation transport codes that utilize an unstructured spatial mesh are also being devised. For electron transport, the authors are investigating second-order forms of the transport equations which, when discretized, yield symmetric positive definite matrices. A novel parallelization strategy, simultaneously solving for spatial and angular unknowns, has been applied to the even- and odd-parity forms of the transport equation on a 2D unstructured spatial mesh. Another second-order form, the self-adjoint angular flux transport equation, also shows promise for electron transport.
3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses
EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.
2002-03-01
Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.
Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.
2012-07-01
It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.
Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.
2006-01-01
Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…
3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications
Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil
2015-01-01
3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997
3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.
3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code
1998-09-23
E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.
3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.
Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil
2015-01-01
3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997
ORPHEE research reactor: 3D core depletion calculation using Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI-4®
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damian, F.; Brun, E.
2014-06-01
ORPHEE is a research reactor located at CEA Saclay. It aims at producing neutron beams for experiments. This is a pool-type reactor (heavy water), and the core is cooled by light water. Its thermal power is 14 MW. ORPHEE core is 90 cm height and has a cross section of 27x27 cm2. It is loaded with eight fuel assemblies characterized by a various number of fuel plates. The fuel plate is composed of aluminium and High Enriched Uranium (HEU). It is a once through core with a fuel cycle length of approximately 100 Equivalent Full Power Days (EFPD) and with a maximum burnup of 40%. Various analyses under progress at CEA concern the determination of the core neutronic parameters during irradiation. Taking into consideration the geometrical complexity of the core and the quasi absence of thermal feedback for nominal operation, the 3D core depletion calculations are performed using the Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI-4® [1,2,3]. A preliminary validation of the depletion calculation was performed on a 2D core configuration by comparison with the deterministic transport code APOLLO2 [4]. The analysis showed the reliability of TRIPOLI-4® to calculate a complex core configuration using a large number of depleting regions with a high level of confidence.
Higher Order Lagrange Finite Elements In M3D
J. Chen; H.R. Strauss; S.C. Jardin; W. Park; L.E. Sugiyama; G. Fu; J. Breslau
2004-12-17
The M3D code has been using linear finite elements to represent multilevel MHD on 2-D poloidal planes. Triangular higher order elements, up to third order, are constructed here in order to provide M3D the capability to solve highly anisotropic transport problems. It is found that higher order elements are essential to resolve the thin transition layer characteristic of the anisotropic transport equation, particularly when the strong anisotropic direction is not aligned with one of the Cartesian coordinates. The transition layer is measured by the profile width, which is zero for infinite anisotropy. It is shown that only higher order schemes have the ability to make this layer converge towards zero when the anisotropy gets stronger and stronger. Two cases are considered. One has the strong transport direction partially aligned with one of the element edges, the other doesn't have any alignment. Both cases have the strong transport direction misaligned with the grid line by some angles.
3-D Perspective Pasadena, California
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency
The Esri 3D city information model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reitz, T.; Schubiger-Banz, S.
2014-02-01
With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases.
Diffusion approximation for modeling of 3-D radiation distributions
Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; De Kinder, R.E. Jr.
1985-01-01
A three-dimensional transport code DIF3D, based on the diffusion approximation, is used to model the spatial distribution of radiation energy arising from volumetric isotropic sources. Future work will be concerned with the determination of irradiances and modeling of realistic scenarios, relevant to the battlefield conditions. 8 refs., 4 figs.
3D Inverse problem: Seawater intrusions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steklova, K.; Haber, E.
2013-12-01
Modeling of seawater intrusions (SWI) is challenging as it involves solving the governing equations for variable density flow, multiple time scales and varying boundary conditions. Due to the nonlinearity of the equations and the large aquifer domains, 3D computations are a costly process, particularly when solving the inverse SWI problem. In addition the heads and concentration measurements are difficult to obtain due to mixing, saline wedge location is sensitive to aquifer topography, and there is general uncertainty in initial and boundary conditions and parameters. Some of these complications can be overcome by using indirect geophysical data next to standard groundwater measurements, however, the inverse problem is usually simplified, e.g. by zonation for the parameters based on geological information, steady state substitution of the unknown initial conditions, decoupling the equations or reducing the amount of unknown parameters by covariance analysis. In our work we present a discretization of the flow and solute mass balance equations for variable groundwater (GW) flow. A finite difference scheme is to solve pressure equation and a Semi - Lagrangian method for solute transport equation. In this way we are able to choose an arbitrarily large time step without losing stability up to an accuracy requirement coming from the coupled character of the variable density flow equations. We derive analytical sensitivities of the GW model for parameters related to the porous media properties and also the initial solute distribution. Analytically derived sensitivities reduce the computational cost of inverse problem, but also give insight for maximizing information in collected data. If the geophysical data are available it also enables simultaneous calibration in a coupled hydrogeophysical framework. The 3D inverse problem was tested on artificial time dependent data for pressure and solute content coming from a GW forward model and/or geophysical forward model. Two
Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Handy Turner, Tara
2010-02-01
From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.
3D laptop for defense applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David
2012-06-01
Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.
Deterministic models for traffic jams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagel, Kai; Herrmann, Hans J.
1993-10-01
We study several deterministic one-dimensional traffic models. For integer positions and velocities we find the typical high and low density phases separated by a simple transition. If positions and velocities are continuous variables the model shows self-organized critically driven by the slowest car.
Effect of 3D fractal dimension on contact area and asperity interactions in elastoplastic contact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jourani, Abdeljalil
2016-05-01
Few models are devoted to investigate the effect of 3D fractal dimension Ds on contact area and asperity interactions. These models used statistical approaches or two-dimensional deterministic simulations without considering the asperity interactions and elastic-plastic transition regime. In this study, a complete 3D deterministic model is adopted to simulate the contact between fractal surfaces which are generated using a modified two-variable Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function. This model incorporates the asperity interactions and considers the different deformation modes of surface asperities which range from entirely elastic through elastic-plastic to entirely plastic contact. The simulations reveal that the elastoplastic model is more appropriate to calculate the contact area ratio and pressure field. It is also shown that the influence of the asperity interactions cannot be neglected, especially at lower fractal dimension Ds and higher load.
3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team
Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).
3D toroidal physics: testing the boundaries of symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spong, Don
2014-10-01
Toroidal symmetry is an important concept for plasma confinement; it allows the existence of nested flux surface MHD equilibria and conserved invariants for particle motion. However, perfect symmetry is unachievable in realistic toroidal plasma devices. For example, tokamaks have toroidal ripple due to discrete field coils, optimized stellarators do not achieve exact quasi-symmetry, the plasma itself continually seeks lower energy states through helical 3D deformations, and reactors will likely have non-uniform distributions of ferritic steel near the plasma. Also, some level of designed-in 3D magnetic field structure is now anticipated for most concepts in order to lead to a stable, steady-state fusion reactor. Such planned 3D field structures can take many forms, ranging from tokamaks with weak 3D ELM-suppression fields to stellarators with more dominant 3D field structures. There is considerable interest in the development of unified physics models for the full range of 3D effects. Ultimately, the questions of how much symmetry breaking can be tolerated and how to optimize its design must be addressed for all fusion concepts. Fortunately, significant progress is underway in theory, computation and plasma diagnostics on many issues such as magnetic surface quality, plasma screening vs. amplification of 3D perturbations, 3D transport, influence on edge pedestal structures, MHD stability effects, modification of fast ion-driven instabilities, prediction of energetic particle heat loads on plasma-facing materials, effects of 3D fields on turbulence, and magnetic coil design. A closely coupled program of simulation, experimental validation, and design optimization is required to determine what forms and amplitudes of 3D shaping and symmetry breaking will be compatible with future fusion reactors. The development of models to address 3D physics and progress in these areas will be described. This work is supported both by the US Department of Energy under Contract DE
Constructing 3D microtubule networks using holographic optical trapping
Bergman, J.; Osunbayo, O.; Vershinin, M.
2015-01-01
Developing abilities to assemble nanoscale structures is a major scientific and engineering challenge. We report a technique which allows precise positioning and manipulation of individual rigid filaments, enabling construction of custom-designed 3D filament networks. This approach uses holographic optical trapping (HOT) for nano-positioning and microtubules (MTs) as network building blocks. MTs are desirable engineering components due to their high aspect ratio, rigidity, and their ability to serve as substrate for directed nano-transport, reflecting their roles in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. The 3D architecture of MT cytoskeleton is a significant component of its function, however experimental tools to study the roles of this geometric complexity in a controlled environment have been lacking. We demonstrate the broad capabilities of our system by building a self-supporting 3D MT-based nanostructure and by conducting a MT-based transport experiment on a dynamically adjustable 3D MT intersection. Our methodology not only will advance studies of cytoskeletal networks (and associated processes such as MT-based transport) but will also likely find use in engineering nanostructures and devices. PMID:26657337
3D Dynamic Echocardiography with a Digitizer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oshiro, Osamu; Matani, Ayumu; Chihara, Kunihiro
1998-05-01
In this paper,a three-dimensional (3D) dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging system,where a US brightness-mode (B-mode) imagetriggered with an R-wave of electrocardiogram (ECG)was obtained with an ultrasound diagnostic deviceand the location and orientation of the US probewere simultaneously measured with a 3D digitizer, is described.The obtained B-mode imagewas then projected onto a virtual 3D spacewith the proposed interpolation algorithm using a Gaussian operator.Furthermore, a 3D image was presented on a cathode ray tube (CRT)and stored in virtual reality modeling language (VRML).We performed an experimentto reconstruct a 3D heart image in systole using this system.The experimental results indicatethat the system enables the visualization ofthe 3D and internal structure of a heart viewed from any angleand has potential for use in dynamic imaging,intraoperative ultrasonography and tele-medicine.
3D Babcock-Leighton Solar Dynamo Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miesch, Mark S.; Hazra, Gopal; Karak, Bidya Binay; Teweldebirhan, Kinfe; Upton, Lisa
2016-05-01
We present results from the new STABLE (Surface flux Transport and Babcock Leighton) Dynamo Model. STABLE is a 3D Babcock-Leighton/Flux Transport dynamo model in which the source of poloidal field is the explicit emergence, distortion, and dispersal of bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs). In this talk I will discuss initial results with axisymmetric flow fields, focusing on the operation of the model, the general features of the cyclic solutions, and the challenge of achieving supercritical dynamo solutions using only the Babcock-Leighton source term. Then I will present dynamo simulations that include 3D convective flow fields based on the observed velocity power spectrum inferred from photospheric Dopplergrams. I'll use these simulations to assess how the explicit transport and amplification of fields by surface convection influences the operation of the dynamo. I will also discuss the role of surface magnetic fields in regulating the subsurface toroidal flux budget.
3D Scientific Visualization with Blender
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kent, Brian R.
2015-03-01
This is the first book written on using Blender for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.
Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.
2014-08-01
The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.
Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can
2014-03-01
3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.
Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zabunov, Svetoslav
2012-03-01
Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.
Accuracy in Quantitative 3D Image Analysis
Bassel, George W.
2015-01-01
Quantitative 3D imaging is becoming an increasingly popular and powerful approach to investigate plant growth and development. With the increased use of 3D image analysis, standards to ensure the accuracy and reproducibility of these data are required. This commentary highlights how image acquisition and postprocessing can introduce artifacts into 3D image data and proposes steps to increase both the accuracy and reproducibility of these analyses. It is intended to aid researchers entering the field of 3D image processing of plant cells and tissues and to help general readers in understanding and evaluating such data. PMID:25804539
3D Vortices in Protoplanetary Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamal, Samy; Barranco, Joseph; Marcus, Philip
2010-11-01
Like the atmosphere of Jupiter, protoplanetary disks (thin disks of gas & dust in orbit around newly-formed stars) are characterized by rapid rotation and intense shear, inspiring proposals that disks may also be populated with long-lived, robust storms analogous to the Great Red Spot. Such vortices may play key roles in the formation of stars and planets by transporting angular momentum, as well as trapping and concentrating dust grains, seeding the formation of planetesimals, the "building blocks" of planets. In our previous work (Barranco & Marcus 2005), we showed via numerical simulation (with an anelastic spectral code) that vortices near the midplane of the disk suffer an antisymmetric instability and are destroyed. However, internal gravity waves propagate away from the midplane, amplify and break, creating bands of vorticity that roll-up into new long-lived, stable vortices above and below the midplane. We will present new results on 3D vortex dynamics in protoplanetary disks, exploring the role of factors unique to this context: the Coriolis parameter f, the shear rate σ, and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency N are all of the same order of magnitude. In the region around the midplane N
2009-06-29
JAS3D is a three-dimensional finite element program originally designed to solve Lagrangian quasistatic non-linear mechanics problems, and subsequently extended to include both implicit and explicit dynamics. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. Innovative multilevel nonlinear iterative methods are used to solve the equations. A wide variety of material constitutive models are available, and contact interface logic is implemented. Two Lagrangian uniform-strain elements are available: an eighth-node hexahedronmore » for solids and a four-node quadrilateral for shells. Both use hourglass stiffness to control zero-energy modes. In addition, a version of the hexahedron is available with uniform pressure and a deviatoric response scalable from the mean response of the original element up to a fully-integrated response. Bodies under analysis may be loaded by surface pressures and concentrated forces, specified displacements, or body forces from gravity, steady-state transport, or thermal expansion.« less
Non-isothermal 3D SDPD Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jun; Potami, Raffaele; Gatsonis, Nikolaos
2012-11-01
The study of fluids at micro and nanoscale requires new modeling and computational approaches. Smooth Particle Dissipative Dynamics (SDPD) is a mesh-free method that provides a bridge between the continuum equations of hydrodynamics embedded in the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach and the molecular nature embedded in the DPD approach. SDPD is thermodynamically consistent, does not rely on arbitrary coefficients for its thermostat, involves realistic transport coefficients, and includes fluctuation terms. SDPD is implemented in our work for arbitrary 3D geometries with a methodology to model solid wall boundary conditions. We present simulations for isothermal flows for verification of our approach. The entropy equation is implemented with a velocity-entropy Verlet integration algorithm Flows with heat transfer are simulated for verification of the SDPD. We present also the self-diffusion coefficient derived from SDPD simulations for gases and liquids. Results show the scale dependence of self-diffusion coefficient on SDPD particle size. Computational Mathematics Program of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under grant/contract number FA9550-06-1-0236.
FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koenig, Patti
2005-01-01
FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.
Deterministic relativistic quantum bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adlam, Emily; Kent, Adrian
2015-06-01
We describe new unconditionally secure bit commitment schemes whose security is based on Minkowski causality and the monogamy of quantum entanglement. We first describe an ideal scheme that is purely deterministic, in the sense that neither party needs to generate any secret randomness at any stage. We also describe a variant that allows the committer to proceed deterministically, requires only local randomness generation from the receiver, and allows the commitment to be verified in the neighborhood of the unveiling point. We show that these schemes still offer near-perfect security in the presence of losses and errors, which can be made perfect if the committer uses an extra single random secret bit. We discuss scenarios where these advantages are significant.
3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger
2013-04-01
In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.
Analysis of FBC deterministic chaos
Daw, C.S.
1996-06-01
It has recently been discovered that the performance of a number of fossil energy conversion devices such as fluidized beds, pulsed combustors, steady combustors, and internal combustion engines are affected by deterministic chaos. It is now recognized that understanding and controlling the chaotic elements of these devices can lead to significantly improved energy efficiency and reduced emissions. Application of these techniques to key fossil energy processes are expected to provide important competitive advantages for U.S. industry.
An aerial 3D printing test mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy
2016-05-01
This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.
3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu
2014-10-01
Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32 × 32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.
3D J-Integral Capability in Grizzly
Benjamin Spencer; Marie Backman; Pritam Chakraborty; William Hoffman
2014-09-01
This report summarizes work done to develop a capability to evaluate fracture contour J-Integrals in 3D in the Grizzly code. In the current fiscal year, a previously-developed 2D implementation of a J-Integral evaluation capability has been extended to work in 3D, and to include terms due both to mechanically-induced strains and due to gradients in thermal strains. This capability has been verified against a benchmark solution on a model of a curved crack front in 3D. The thermal term in this integral has been verified against a benchmark problem with a thermal gradient. These developments are part of a larger effort to develop Grizzly as a tool that can be used to predict the evolution of aging processes in nuclear power plant systems, structures, and components, and assess their capacity after being subjected to those aging processes. The capabilities described here have been developed to enable evaluations of Mode- stress intensity factors on axis-aligned flaws in reactor pressure vessels. These can be compared with the fracture toughness of the material to determine whether a pre-existing flaw would begin to propagate during a pos- tulated pressurized thermal shock accident. This report includes a demonstration calculation to show how Grizzly is used to perform a deterministic assessment of such a flaw propagation in a degraded reactor pressure vessel under pressurized thermal shock conditions. The stress intensity is calculated from J, and the toughness is computed using the fracture master curve and the degraded ductile to brittle transition temperature.
Density-tapered spiral arrays for ultrasound 3-D imaging.
Ramalli, Alessandro; Boni, Enrico; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart; Tortoli, Piero
2015-08-01
The current high interest in 3-D ultrasound imaging is pushing the development of 2-D probes with a challenging number of active elements. The most popular approach to limit this number is the sparse array technique, which designs the array layout by means of complex optimization algorithms. These algorithms are typically constrained by a few steering conditions, and, as such, cannot guarantee uniform side-lobe performance at all angles. The performance may be improved by the ungridded extensions of the sparse array technique, but this result is achieved at the expense of a further complication of the optimization process. In this paper, a method to design the layout of large circular arrays with a limited number of elements according to Fermat's spiral seeds and spatial density modulation is proposed and shown to be suitable for application to 3-D ultrasound imaging. This deterministic, aperiodic, and balanced positioning procedure attempts to guarantee uniform performance over a wide range of steering angles. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by simulating and comparing the performance of spiral and dense arrays. A good trade-off for small vessel imaging is found, e.g., in the 60λ spiral array with 1.0λ elements and Blackman density tapering window. Here, the grating lobe level is -16 dB, the lateral resolution is lower than 6λ the depth of field is 120λ and, the average contrast is 10.3 dB, while the sensitivity remains in a 5 dB range for a wide selection of steering angles. The simulation results may represent a reference guide to the design of spiral sparse array probes for different application fields. PMID:26285181
Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.
Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi
2012-08-01
This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary. PMID:22745004
3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf
Al-Husseini, M.; Chimblo, R.
1995-08-01
Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.
A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool
1999-02-09
This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norbury, Keith
2012-01-01
It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…
Stereoscopic Investigations of 3D Coulomb Balls
Kaeding, Sebastian; Melzer, Andre; Arp, Oliver; Block, Dietmar; Piel, Alexander
2005-10-31
In dusty plasmas particles are arranged due to the influence of external forces and the Coulomb interaction. Recently Arp et al. were able to generate 3D spherical dust clouds, so-called Coulomb balls. Here, we present measurements that reveal the full 3D particle trajectories from stereoscopic imaging.
3-D structures of planetary nebulae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steffen, W.
2016-07-01
Recent advances in the 3-D reconstruction of planetary nebulae are reviewed. We include not only results for 3-D reconstructions, but also the current techniques in terms of general methods and software. In order to obtain more accurate reconstructions, we suggest to extend the widely used assumption of homologous nebula expansion to map spectroscopically measured velocity to position along the line of sight.
Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gordon, Dan
2010-01-01
From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…
3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.
2015-01-01
The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…
Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids
1996-07-15
NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.
Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold
2015-01-01
In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…
Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zabunov, Svetoslav
2012-01-01
Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…
Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D…
Quasi 3D modeling of water flow in vadose zone and groundwater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuznetsov, M.; Yakirevich, A.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Sorek, S.; Weisbrod, N.
2012-07-01
SummaryThe complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow models. One habitual simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone are not significant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In such cases the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone above groundwater level can be simulated as a 1D phenomenon, whereas the flow and transport through groundwater are viewed as 2D or 3D phenomena. A new approach for a numerical scheme for 3D variably saturated flow using quasi 3D Richards' equation and finite difference scheme is presented. The corresponding numerical algorithm and the QUASI-3D computer code were developed. Results of the groundwater level simulations were compared with transient laboratory experimental data for 2D data constant-flux infiltration, quasi-3D HYDRUS-MODFLOW numerical model and a FULL-3D numerical model using Richards' equation. Hypothetical 3D examples of infiltration, pumping and groundwater mound dissipation for different spatial-time scales are presented. Water flow simulation for the Alto Piura aquifer (Peru) demonstrates the QUASI-3D model application at the regional scale. Computationally the QUASI-3D code was found to be more efficient by an order of 10-300%, while being accurate with respect to the benchmark fully 3D variable saturation code, when the capillary fringe was considered.
Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wuu, Cheng-Shie
2015-01-01
Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.
Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.
Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26805790
Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors
Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.
2012-06-06
Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.
BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model
Lazerson, Samuel
2014-04-14
With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González-Torre, Iván; Losada, Juan Carlos; Falconer, Ruth; Hapca, Simona; Tarquis, Ana M.
2015-04-01
Soil structure may be defined as the spatial arrangement of soil particles, aggregates and pores. The geometry of each one of these elements, as well as their spatial arrangement, has a great influence on the transport of fluids and solutes through the soil. Fractal/Multifractal methods have been increasingly applied to quantify soil structure thanks to the advances in computer technology (Tarquis et al., 2003). There is no doubt that computed tomography (CT) has provided an alternative for observing intact soil structure. These CT techniques reduce the physical impact to sampling, providing three-dimensional (3D) information and allowing rapid scanning to study sample dynamics in near real-time (Houston et al., 2013a). However, several authors have dedicated attention to the appropriate pore-solid CT threshold (Elliot and Heck, 2007; Houston et al., 2013b) and the better method to estimate the multifractal parameters (Grau et al., 2006; Tarquis et al., 2009). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of the algorithm applied in the multifractal method (box counting and box gliding) and the cube size on the calculation of generalized fractal dimensions (Dq) in grey images without applying any threshold. To this end, soil samples were extracted from different areas plowed with three tools (moldboard, chissel and plow). Soil samples for each of the tillage treatment were packed into polypropylene cylinders of 8 cm diameter and 10 cm high. These were imaged using an mSIMCT at 155keV and 25 mA. An aluminium filter (0.25 mm) was applied to reduce beam hardening and later several corrections where applied during reconstruction. References Elliot, T.R. and Heck, R.J. 2007. A comparison of 2D and 3D thresholding of CT imagery. Can. J. Soil Sci., 87(4), 405-412. Grau, J, Médez, V.; Tarquis, A.M., Saa, A. and Díaz, M.C.. 2006. Comparison of gliding box and box-counting methods in soil image analysis. Geoderma, 134, 349-359. González-Torres, Iván. Theory and
3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nellutla, Shravya
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.
3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo
Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu
2014-01-01
Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828
The psychology of the 3D experience
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew
2013-03-01
With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.
Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.
Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J
2015-01-01
While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233
3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.
Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony
2014-08-01
Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879
Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.
Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S
2014-11-01
Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc. PMID:25361316
Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graf, Norman A.
2012-12-01
Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.
2015-01-01
This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.
2016-01-01
This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.
2016-01-01
This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.
2015-01-01
This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.
3D packaging for integrated circuit systems
Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.
1996-11-01
A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.
A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.
Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee
2009-01-01
In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models. PMID:19147891
New method of 3-D object recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, An-Zhi; Li, Qun Z.; Miao, Peng C.
1991-12-01
In this paper, a new method of 3-D object recognition using optical techniques and a computer is presented. We perform 3-D object recognition using moire contour to obtain the object's 3- D coordinates, projecting drawings of the object in three coordinate planes to describe it and using a method of inquiring library of judgement to match objects. The recognition of a simple geometrical entity is simulated by computer and studied experimentally. The recognition of an object which is composed of a few simple geometrical entities is discussed.
Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
2000-11-07
DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less
An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D
Krasnykh, Anatoly
2003-07-29
An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.
2014-01-01
This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.
2014-01-01
This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.
2015-01-01
This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.
Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
2000-11-07
DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.
Deterministic scale-free networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barabási, Albert-László; Ravasz, Erzsébet; Vicsek, Tamás
2001-10-01
Scale-free networks are abundant in nature and society, describing such diverse systems as the world wide web, the web of human sexual contacts, or the chemical network of a cell. All models used to generate a scale-free topology are stochastic, that is they create networks in which the nodes appear to be randomly connected to each other. Here we propose a simple model that generates scale-free networks in a deterministic fashion. We solve exactly the model, showing that the tail of the degree distribution follows a power law.
3-D Multiphase Segmentation of X-Ray Micro Computed Tomography Data of Geologic Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tuller, M.; Kulkarni, R.; Fink, W.
2011-12-01
Advancements of noninvasive imaging methods such as X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) led to a recent surge of applications in Geoscience. While substantial efforts and resources have been devoted to advance CT technology and micro-scale analysis, the development of a stable 3-D multiphase image segmentation method applicable to large datasets is lacking. To eliminate the need for wet/dry or dual energy scans, image alignment, and subtraction analysis, commonly applied in synchrotron X-Ray micro CT, a segmentation method based on a Bayesian Markov Random Field (MRF) framework amenable to true 3-D multiphase processing was developed and evaluated. Furthermore, several heuristic and deterministic combinatorial optimization schemes required to solve the labeling problem of the MRF image model were implemented and tested for computational efficiency and their impact on segmentation results. Test results for natural and artificial porous media datasets demonstrate great potential of the MRF image model for 3-D multiphase segmentation.
XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.
Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp
2013-01-01
Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080
JAR3D Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known 3D motifs.
Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I; Leontis, Neocles
2016-07-01
Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and 3D structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA 3D structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson-Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA 3D motif. JAR3D finds possible 3D geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in 3D structures of the motif. The JAR3D webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar3d/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR3D. JAR3D will be updated with every release of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417
Wang, Lei; Cherian, Christina; Desmoulin, Sita Kugel; Polin, Lisa; Deng, Yijun; Wu, Jianmei; Hou, Zhanjun; White, Kathryn; Kushner, Juiwanna; Matherly, Larry H.; Gangjee, Aleem
2010-01-01
2-Amino-4-oxo-6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines with a thienoyl side chain and 4-6 carbon bridge lengths (compounds 1-3) were synthesized as substrates for folate receptors (FRs) and the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT). Conversion of acetylene carboxylic acids to α-bromomethylketones and condensation with 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine afforded the 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines. Sonogashira coupling with (S)-2-[(5-bromo-thiophene-2-carbonyl)-amino]-pentanedioic acid diethyl ester, followed by hydrogenation and saponification, afforded 1-3. Compounds 1 and 2 potently inhibited KB and IGROV1 human tumor cells that express FRα, reduced folate carrier (RFC), and PCFT. The analogs were selective for FR- and PCFT over RFC. Glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase was the principal cellular target. In SCID mice with KB tumors, 1 was highly active against both early (3.5 log kill, 1/5 cures) and advanced (3.7 log kill, 4/5 complete remissions) stage tumors. Our results demonstrate potent in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity for 1 due to selective transport by FRs and PCFT over RFC. PMID:20085328
Wang, Lei; Desmoulin, Sita Kugel; Cherian, Christina; Polin, Lisa; White, Kathryn; Kushner, Juiwanna; Fulterer, Andreas; Chang, Min-Hwang; Mitchell, Shermaine; Stout, Mark; Romero, Michael F.; Hou, Zhanjun; Matherly, Larry H.; Gangjee, Aleem
2011-01-01
2-Amino-4-oxo-6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine antifolates with a thienoyl side chain (compounds 1–3, respectively) were synthesized for comparison with compound 4, the previous lead compound of this series. Conversion of hydroxyl acetylen-thiophene carboxylic esters to thiophenyl-α-bromomethylketones and condensation with 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine afforded the 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine compounds of type 18 and 19. Coupling with L-glutamate diethyl ester, followed by saponification, afforded 1–3. Compound 3 selectively inhibited proliferation of cells expressing folate receptors (FRs) α or β, or the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT), including human tumor cells KB and IGROV1 much more potently than 4. Compound 3 was more inhibitory than 4 toward β-glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFTase). Both 3 and 4 depleted cellular ATP pools. In SCID mice with IGROV1 tumors, 3 was more efficacious than 4. Collectively, our results show potent antitumor activity for 3 in vitro and in vivo, associated with its selective membrane transport by FRs and PCFT over RFC and inhibition of GARFTase, clearly establishing the 3-atom bridge as superior to the 1, 2 and 4-atom bridge lengths for the activity of this series. PMID:21879757
Macroscopic Carbon Nanotube-based 3D Monoliths.
Du, Ran; Zhao, Qiuchen; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Jin
2015-07-15
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most promising carbon allotropes with incredible diverse physicochemical properties, thereby enjoying continuous worldwide attention since their discovery about two decades ago. From the point of view of practical applications, assembling individual CNTs into macroscopic functional and high-performance materials is of paramount importance. For example, multiscaled CNT-based assemblies including 1D fibers, 2D films, and 3D monoliths have been developed. Among all of these, monolithic 3D CNT architectures with porous structures have attracted increasing interest in the last few years. In this form, theoretically all individual CNTs are well connected and fully expose their surfaces. These 3D architectures have huge specific surface areas, hierarchical pores, and interconnected conductive networks, resulting in enhanced mass/electron transport and countless accessible active sites for diverse applications (e.g. catalysis, capacitors, and sorption). More importantly, the monolithic form of 3D CNT assemblies can impart additional application potentials to materials, such as free-standing electrodes, sensors, and recyclable sorbents. However, scaling the properties of individual CNTs to 3D assemblies, improving use of the diverse, structure-dependent properties of CNTs, and increasing the performance-to-cost ratio are great unsolved challenges for their real commercialization. This review aims to provide a comprehensive introduction of this young and energetic field, i.e., CNT-based 3D monoliths, with a focus on the preparation principles, current synthetic methods, and typical applications. Opportunities and challenges in this field are also presented. PMID:25740457
3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.
2016-04-01
Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.
3D-printed bioanalytical devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.
2016-07-01
While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.
Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging
Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.
1994-11-15
3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.
Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D
This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...
3D Printing for Tissue Engineering
Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying
2016-01-01
Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728
3D Visualization of Recent Sumatra Earthquake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nayak, Atul; Kilb, Debi
2005-04-01
Scientists and visualization experts at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have created an interactive three-dimensional visualization of the 28 March 2005 magnitude 8.7 earthquake in Sumatra. The visualization shows the earthquake's hypocenter and aftershocks recorded until 29 March 2005, and compares it with the location of the 26 December 2004 magnitude 9 event and the consequent seismicity in that region. The 3D visualization was created using the Fledermaus software developed by Interactive Visualization Systems (http://www.ivs.unb.ca/) and stored as a ``scene'' file. To view this visualization, viewers need to download and install the free viewer program iView3D (http://www.ivs3d.com/products/iview3d).
Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse
NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...
3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula
This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...
Quantifying Modes of 3D Cell Migration.
Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz
2015-12-01
Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943
3D-patterned polymer brush surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Xuechang; Liu, Xuqing; Xie, Zhuang; Zheng, Zijian
2011-12-01
Polymer brush-based three-dimensional (3D) structures are emerging as a powerful platform to engineer a surface by providing abundant spatially distributed chemical and physical properties. In this feature article, we aim to give a summary of the recent progress on the fabrication of 3D structures with polymer brushes, with a particular focus on the micro- and nanoscale. We start with a brief introduction on polymer brushes and the challenges to prepare their 3D structures. Then, we highlight the recent advances of the fabrication approaches on the basis of traditional polymerization time and grafting density strategies, and a recently developed feature density strategy. Finally, we provide some perspective outlooks on the future directions of engineering the 3D structures with polymer brushes.
Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D
Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David
2011-01-01
Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.
2013-01-01
Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.
3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha
This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...
3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda
The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...
Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D
This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...
This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...
3D-printed bioanalytical devices.
Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F
2016-07-15
While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897
Palacios field: A 3-D case history
McWhorter, R.; Torguson, B.
1994-12-31
In late 1992, Mitchell Energy Corporation acquired a 7.75 sq mi (20.0 km{sup 2}) 3-D seismic survey over Palacios field. Matagorda County, Texas. The company shot the survey to help evaluate the field for further development by delineating the fault pattern of the producing Middle Oligocene Frio interval. They compare the mapping of the field before and after the 3-D survey. This comparison shows that the 3-D volume yields superior fault imaging and interpretability compared to the dense 2-D data set. The problems with the 2-D data set are improper imaging of small and oblique faults and insufficient coverage over a complex fault pattern. Whereas the 2-D data set validated a simple fault model, the 3-D volume revealed a more complex history of faulting that includes three different fault systems. This discovery enabled them to reconstruct the depositional and structural history of Palacios field.