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Sample records for 3-d dynamical model

  1. Dynamic deformable models for 3D MRI heart segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Leonid; Bao, Zhaosheng; Gusikov, Igor; Wood, John; Breen, David E.

    2002-05-01

    Automated or semiautomated segmentation of medical images decreases interstudy variation, observer bias, and postprocessing time as well as providing clincally-relevant quantitative data. In this paper we present a new dynamic deformable modeling approach to 3D segmentation. It utilizes recently developed dynamic remeshing techniques and curvature estimation methods to produce high-quality meshes. The approach has been implemented in an interactive environment that allows a user to specify an initial model and identify key features in the data. These features act as hard constraints that the model must not pass through as it deforms. We have employed the method to perform semi-automatic segmentation of heart structures from cine MRI data.

  2. Modeling tree crown dynamics with 3D partial differential equations.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Robert; Letort, Véronique; Cournède, Paul-Henry

    2014-01-01

    We characterize a tree's spatial foliage distribution by the local leaf area density. Considering this spatially continuous variable allows to describe the spatiotemporal evolution of the tree crown by means of 3D partial differential equations. These offer a framework to rigorously take locally and adaptively acting effects into account, notably the growth toward light. Biomass production through photosynthesis and the allocation to foliage and wood are readily included in this model framework. The system of equations stands out due to its inherent dynamic property of self-organization and spontaneous adaptation, generating complex behavior from even only a few parameters. The density-based approach yields spatially structured tree crowns without relying on detailed geometry. We present the methodological fundamentals of such a modeling approach and discuss further prospects and applications. PMID:25101095

  3. Introducing a New 3D Dynamical Model for Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Christof; Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2015-11-01

    The regular or chaotic dynamics of an analytical realistic three dimensional model composed of a spherically symmetric central nucleus, a bar and a flat disk is investigated. For describing the properties of the bar, we introduce a new simple dynamical model and we explore the influence on the character of orbits of all the involved parameters of it, such as the mass and the scale length of the bar, the major semi-axis and the angular velocity of the bar, as well as the energy. Regions of phase space with ordered and chaotic motion are identified in dependence on these parameters and for breaking the rotational symmetry. First, we study in detail the dynamics in the invariant plane z = pz = 0 using the Poincaré map as a basic tool and then study the full three-dimensional case using the Smaller Alignment index method as principal tool for distinguishing between order and chaos. We also present strong evidence obtained through the numerical simulations that our new bar model can realistically describe the formation and the evolution of the observed twin spiral structure in barred galaxies.

  4. Cotranslational processing mechanisms: towards a dynamic 3D model.

    PubMed

    Giglione, Carmela; Fieulaine, Sonia; Meinnel, Thierry

    2009-08-01

    Recent major advances have been made in understanding how cotranslational events are achieved in the course of protein biosynthesis. Specifically, several studies have shed light into the dynamic process of how nascent chains emerging from the ribosome are supported by protein biogenesis factors to ensure both processing and folding mechanisms. To take into account the awareness that coordination is needed, a new 'concerted model' recently proposed simultaneous action of both processes on the ribosome. In the model, any emerging nascent chain is first encountered by the chaperone trigger factor (TF), which forms an open cradle underneath the ribosomal exit tunnel. This cradle serves as a passive router that channels the nascent chains to the first cotranslational event, the proteolysis event performed by the N-terminal methionine excision machinery. Although fascinating, this model clearly raises more questions than it answers. Does the data used to develop this model stand up to scrutiny and, if not, what are the alternative mechanisms that the data suggest? PMID:19647435

  5. Dynamics of free subduction from 3-D boundary element modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong-Hai; Ribe, Neil M.

    2012-06-01

    In order better to understand the physical mechanisms underlying free subduction, we perform three-dimensional boundary-element numerical simulations of a dense fluid sheet with thickness h and viscosity η2 sinking in an `ambient mantle' with viscosity η1. The mantle layer is bounded above by a traction-free surface, and is either (1) infinitely deep or (2) underlain by a rigid boundary at a finite depth H + d, similar to the typical geometry used in laboratory experiments. Instantaneous solutions in configuration (1) show that the sheet's dimensionless `stiffness' S determines whether the slab's sinking speed is controlled by the viscosity of the ambient mantle (S < 1) or the viscosity of the sheet itself (S > 10). Time-dependent solutions with tracers in configuration (2) demonstrate a partial return flow around the leading edge of a retreating slab and return flow around its sides. The extra `edge drag' exerted by the flow around the sides causes transverse deformation of the slab, and makes the sinking speed of a 3-D slab up to 40% less than that of a 2-D slab. A systematic investigation of the slab's interaction with the bottom boundary as a function of η2/η1 and H/h delineates a rich regime diagram of different subduction modes (trench retreating, slab folding, trench advancing) and reveals a new `advancing-folding' mode in which slab folding is preceded by advancing trench motion. The solutions demonstrate that mode selection is controlled by the dip of the leading edge of the slab at the time when it first encounters the bottom boundary.

  6. Dynamic visual image modeling for 3D synthetic scenes in agricultural engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Yan, Juntao; Li, Xiaobo; Ji, Yatai; Li, Xin

    The dynamic visual image modeling for 3D synthetic scenes by using dynamic multichannel binocular visual image based on the mobile self-organizing network. Technologies of 3D modeling synthetic scenes have been widely used in kinds of industries. The main purpose of this paper is to use multiple networks of dynamic visual monitors and sensors to observe an unattended area, to use the advantages of mobile network in rural areas for improving existing mobile network information service further and providing personalized information services. The goal of displaying is to provide perfect representation of synthetic scenes. Using low-power dynamic visual monitors and temperature/humidity sensor or GPS installed in the node equipment, monitoring data will be sent at scheduled time. Then through the mobile self-organizing network, 3D model is rebuilt by synthesizing the returned images. On this basis, we formalize a novel algorithm for multichannel binocular visual 3D images based on fast 3D modeling. Taking advantage of these low prices mobile, mobile self-organizing networks can get a large number of video from where is not suitable for human observation or unable to reach, and accurately synthetic 3D scene. This application will play a great role in promoting its application in agriculture.

  7. How Spatial Abilities and Dynamic Visualizations Interplay When Learning Functional Anatomy with 3D Anatomical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, Sandra; Bétrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaëlle; Hoyek, Nady

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of dynamic visualizations of three-dimensional (3D) models in anatomy curricula may be an adequate solution for spatial difficulties encountered with traditional static learning, as they provide direct visualization of change throughout the viewpoints. However, little research has explored the interplay between learning material…

  8. Stereoscopic 3D Visual Discomfort Prediction: A Dynamic Accommodation and Vergence Interaction Model.

    PubMed

    Oh, Heeseok; Lee, Sanghoon; Bovik, Alan Conrad

    2016-02-01

    The human visual system perceives 3D depth following sensing via its binocular optical system, a series of massively parallel processing units, and a feedback system that controls the mechanical dynamics of eye movements and the crystalline lens. The process of accommodation (focusing of the crystalline lens) and binocular vergence is controlled simultaneously and symbiotically via cross-coupled communication between the two critical depth computation modalities. The output responses of these two subsystems, which are induced by oculomotor control, are used in the computation of a clear and stable cyclopean 3D image from the input stimuli. These subsystems operate in smooth synchronicity when one is viewing the natural world; however, conflicting responses can occur when viewing stereoscopic 3D (S3D) content on fixed displays, causing physiological discomfort. If such occurrences could be predicted, then they might also be avoided (by modifying the acquisition process) or ameliorated (by changing the relative scene depth). Toward this end, we have developed a dynamic accommodation and vergence interaction (DAVI) model that successfully predicts visual discomfort on S3D images. The DAVI model is based on the phasic and reflex responses of the fast fusional vergence mechanism. Quantitative models of accommodation and vergence mismatches are used to conduct visual discomfort prediction. Other 3D perceptual elements are included in the proposed method, including sharpness limits imposed by the depth of focus and fusion limits implied by Panum's fusional area. The DAVI predictor is created by training a support vector machine on features derived from the proposed model and on recorded subjective assessment results. The experimental results are shown to produce accurate predictions of experienced visual discomfort. PMID:26672036

  9. Using articulated scene models for dynamic 3d scene analysis in vista spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuter, Niklas; Swadzba, Agnes; Kummert, Franz; Wachsmuth, Sven

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we describe an efficient but detailed new approach to analyze complex dynamic scenes directly in 3D. The arising information is important for mobile robots to solve tasks in the area of household robotics. In our work a mobile robot builds an articulated scene model by observing the environment in the visual field or rather in the so-called vista space. The articulated scene model consists of essential knowledge about the static background, about autonomously moving entities like humans or robots and finally, in contrast to existing approaches, information about articulated parts. These parts describe movable objects like chairs, doors or other tangible entities, which could be moved by an agent. The combination of the static scene, the self-moving entities and the movable objects in one articulated scene model enhances the calculation of each single part. The reconstruction process for parts of the static scene benefits from removal of the dynamic parts and in turn, the moving parts can be extracted more easily through the knowledge about the background. In our experiments we show, that the system delivers simultaneously an accurate static background model, moving persons and movable objects. This information of the articulated scene model enables a mobile robot to detect and keep track of interaction partners, to navigate safely through the environment and finally, to strengthen the interaction with the user through the knowledge about the 3D articulated objects and 3D scene analysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Hand Gesture Spotting Based on 3D Dynamic Features Using Hidden Markov Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmezain, Mahmoud; Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Michaelis, Bernd

    In this paper, we propose an automatic system that handles hand gesture spotting and recognition simultaneously in stereo color image sequences without any time delay based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). Color and 3D depth map are used to segment hand regions. The hand trajectory will determine in further step using Mean-shift algorithm and Kalman filter to generate 3D dynamic features. Furthermore, k-means clustering algorithm is employed for the HMMs codewords. To spot meaningful gestures accurately, a non-gesture model is proposed, which provides confidence limit for the calculated likelihood by other gesture models. The confidence measures are used as an adaptive threshold for spotting meaningful gestures. Experimental results show that the proposed system can successfully recognize isolated gestures with 98.33% and meaningful gestures with 94.35% reliability for numbers (0-9).

  11. Transforming 2d Cadastral Data Into a Dynamic Smart 3d Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiliakou, E.; Labropoulos, T.; Dimopoulou, E.

    2013-08-01

    3D property registration has become an imperative need in order to optimally reflect all complex cases of the multilayer reality of property rights and restrictions, revealing their vertical component. This paper refers to the potentials and multiple applications of 3D cadastral systems and explores the current state-of-the art, especially the available software with which 3D visualization can be achieved. Within this context, the Hellenic Cadastre's current state is investigated, in particular its data modeling frame. Presenting the methodologies and specifications addressing the registration of 3D properties, the operating cadastral system's shortcomings and merits are pointed out. Nonetheless, current technological advances as well as the availability of sophisticated software packages (proprietary or open source) call for 3D modeling. In order to register and visualize the complex reality in 3D, Esri's CityEngine modeling software has been used, which is specialized in the generation of 3D urban environments, transforming 2D GIS Data into Smart 3D City Models. The application of the 3D model concerns the Campus of the National Technical University of Athens, in which a complex ownership status is established along with approved special zoning regulations. The 3D model was built using different parameters based on input data, derived from cadastral and urban planning datasets, as well as legal documents and architectural plans. The process resulted in a final 3D model, optimally describing the cadastral situation and built environment and proved to be a good practice example of 3D visualization.

  12. Radial electric field 3D modeling for wire arrays driving dynamic hohlraums on Z.

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, Raymond Cecil

    2007-06-01

    The anode-cathode structure of the Z-machine wire array results in a higher negative radial electric field (Er) on the wires near the cathode relative to the anode. The magnitude of this field has been shown to anti-correlate with the axial radiation top/bottom symmetry in the DH (Dynamic Hohlraum). Using 3D modeling, the structure of this field is revealed for different wire-array configurations and for progressive mechanical alterations, providing insight for minimizing the negative Er on the wire array in the anode-to-cathode region of the DH. Also, the 3D model is compared to Sasorov's approximation, which describes Er at the surface of the wire in terms of wire-array parameters.

  13. How spatial abilities and dynamic visualizations interplay when learning functional anatomy with 3D anatomical models.

    PubMed

    Berney, Sandra; Bétrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaëlle; Hoyek, Nady

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of dynamic visualizations of three-dimensional (3D) models in anatomy curricula may be an adequate solution for spatial difficulties encountered with traditional static learning, as they provide direct visualization of change throughout the viewpoints. However, little research has explored the interplay between learning material presentation formats, spatial abilities, and anatomical tasks. First, to understand the cognitive challenges a novice learner would be faced with when first exposed to 3D anatomical content, a six-step cognitive task analysis was developed. Following this, an experimental study was conducted to explore how presentation formats (dynamic vs. static visualizations) support learning of functional anatomy, and affect subsequent anatomical tasks derived from the cognitive task analysis. A second aim was to investigate the interplay between spatial abilities (spatial visualization and spatial relation) and presentation formats when the functional anatomy of a 3D scapula and the associated shoulder flexion movement are learned. Findings showed no main effect of the presentation formats on performances, but revealed the predictive influence of spatial visualization and spatial relation abilities on performance. However, an interesting interaction between presentation formats and spatial relation ability for a specific anatomical task was found. This result highlighted the influence of presentation formats when spatial abilities are involved as well as the differentiated influence of spatial abilities on anatomical tasks. PMID:25689057

  14. Rapid 3D dynamic arterial spin labeling with a sparse model-based image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Fielden, Samuel W; Feng, Xue; Wintermark, Max; Mugler, John P; Meyer, Craig H

    2015-11-01

    Dynamic arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI measures the perfusion bolus at multiple observation times and yields accurate estimates of cerebral blood flow in the presence of variations in arterial transit time. ASL has intrinsically low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and is sensitive to motion, so that extensive signal averaging is typically required, leading to long scan times for dynamic ASL. The goal of this study was to develop an accelerated dynamic ASL method with improved SNR and robustness to motion using a model-based image reconstruction that exploits the inherent sparsity of dynamic ASL data. The first component of this method is a single-shot 3D turbo spin echo spiral pulse sequence accelerated using a combination of parallel imaging and compressed sensing. This pulse sequence was then incorporated into a dynamic pseudo continuous ASL acquisition acquired at multiple observation times, and the resulting images were jointly reconstructed enforcing a model of potential perfusion time courses. Performance of the technique was verified using a numerical phantom and it was validated on normal volunteers on a 3-Tesla scanner. In simulation, a spatial sparsity constraint improved SNR and reduced estimation errors. Combined with a model-based sparsity constraint, the proposed method further improved SNR, reduced estimation error and suppressed motion artifacts. Experimentally, the proposed method resulted in significant improvements, with scan times as short as 20s per time point. These results suggest that the model-based image reconstruction enables rapid dynamic ASL with improved accuracy and robustness. PMID:26169322

  15. Parallel 3-D particle-in-cell modelling of charged ultrarelativistic beam dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boronina, Marina A.; Vshivkov, Vitaly A.

    2015-12-01

    > ) in supercolliders. We use the 3-D set of Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic fields, and the Vlasov equation for the distribution function of the beam particles. The model incorporates automatically the longitudinal effects, which can play a significant role in the cases of super-high densities. We present numerical results for the dynamics of two focused ultrarelativistic beams with a size ratio 10:1:100. The results demonstrate high efficiency of the proposed computational methods and algorithms, which are applicable to a variety of problems in relativistic plasma physics.

  16. Dynamic Characteristics of a Model and Prototype for 3D-RC Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniuddin, Md. Khaja; Vasanthalakshmi, G.; Chethan, K.; Babu, R. Ramesh

    2016-06-01

    Infill walls provide durable and economical partitions that have relatively excellent thermal and sound insulation with high fire resistance. Monolithic infilled walls are provided within RC structures without being analyzed as a combination of concrete and brick elements, although in reality they act as a single unit during earthquakes. The performance of such structures during earthquakes has proved to be superior in comparison to bare frames in terms of stiffness, strength and energy dissipation. To know the dynamic characteristics of monolithic infill wall panels and masonry infill, modal, response spectrum and time history analyses have been carried out on a model and prototype of a 3D RC structure for a comparative study.

  17. A 3D mechanistic model for brittle materials containing evolving flaw distributions under dynamic multiaxial loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guangli; Liu, Junwei; Graham-Brady, Lori; Ramesh, K. T.

    2015-05-01

    We present a validated fully 3D mechanism-based micromechanical constitutive model for brittle solids under dynamic multiaxial loading conditions. Flaw statistics are explicitly incorporated through a defect density, and evolving flaw distributions in both orientation and size. Interactions among cracks are modeled by means of a crack-matrix-effective-medium approach. A tensorial damage parameter is defined based upon the crack length and orientation development under local effective stress fields. At low confining stresses, the wing-cracking mechanism dominates, leading to the degradation of the modulus and peak strength of the material, whereas at high enough confining stresses, the cracking mechanism is completely shut-down and dislocation mechanisms become dominant. The model handles general multiaxial stress states, accounts for evolving internal variables in the form of evolving flaw size and orientation distributions, includes evolving anisotropic damage and irreversible damage strains in a thermodynamically consistent fashion, incorporates rate-dependence through the micromechanics, and includes dynamic bulking based on independent experimental data. Simulation results are discussed and compared with experimental results on one specific structural ceramic, aluminum nitride. We demonstrate that this 3D constitutive model is capable of capturing the general constitutive response of structural ceramics.

  18. Grounding line dynamics inferred from a 3D full-Stokes model solving the contact problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, Lionel; Gagliardini, Olivier; Durand, Gael; Zwinger, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The mass balance of marine ice-sheets, such as the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, is mostly controlled by their grounding line dynamics. Most numerical models simulating marine ice-sheets involve simplifications and do not include all the stress gradients. First results obtained with a 3D full-Stokes model for the grounded ice-sheet / floating ice-shelf transition, using the finite-element code Elmer/Ice, are presented. The initial geometry, which takes into account a dome and a calving front, has been laterally extruded from a previously investigated 2D flowline geometry. The grounding line migration is computed by solving the contact problem between the ice and the rigid downward sloping bedrock, where a non linear friction law is applied in the two horizontal directions. The evolutions of the sea-air and sea-ice interfaces are determined by the solution of a local transport equation. The consistency between the 3D model and the analogous results of the flowline model is shown by comparing the results in the basic extruded case, with no normal flux through lateral boundaries. Thereafter, spatially non uniform perturbations are introduced, to simulate the grounding line dynamics under fully three-dimensional perturbations.

  19. 3D microscale laser dynamic forming: Multiscale modeling and experimental validation

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Huang; Cheng, Gary J.

    2011-05-15

    Microscale laser dynamic forming ({mu}LDF) shows great potential in fabricating robust and high-aspect-ratio metallic microcomponents. Experiments revealed that strain rate and sample size play important roles in determining the dynamic plasticity and final results of {mu}LDF. To further understand these effects, a multiscale modeling methodology is adopted to characterize the microscale dynamic plasticity considering the evolutions of nano-to-submicron dislocations avalanches under shock loading. In this methodology, 3D discrete dislocation dynamics simulations are implemented to derive the yield strength and the initial strain hardening dependence on size and strain rate. It is observed that there exist three dynamic stages during deformation process. The initial strain hardening rate in Stage II increases with strain rate. The mechanical threshold stress model, intrinsically equipped with strain-rate-dependent flow stress and initial hardening, is chosen and modified to incorporate size effect quantitatively. This scale-dependent model, implemented in abaqus/explicit, provides deformation depths and thickness variations in good agreement with experimental results in {mu}LDF.

  20. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  1. 3D Dynamic Echocardiography with a Digitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Osamu; Matani, Ayumu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    1998-05-01

    In this paper,a three-dimensional (3D) dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging system,where a US brightness-mode (B-mode) imagetriggered with an R-wave of electrocardiogram (ECG)was obtained with an ultrasound diagnostic deviceand the location and orientation of the US probewere simultaneously measured with a 3D digitizer, is described.The obtained B-mode imagewas then projected onto a virtual 3D spacewith the proposed interpolation algorithm using a Gaussian operator.Furthermore, a 3D image was presented on a cathode ray tube (CRT)and stored in virtual reality modeling language (VRML).We performed an experimentto reconstruct a 3D heart image in systole using this system.The experimental results indicatethat the system enables the visualization ofthe 3D and internal structure of a heart viewed from any angleand has potential for use in dynamic imaging,intraoperative ultrasonography and tele-medicine.

  2. Self-Consistent 3D Modeling of Electron Cloud Dynamics and Beam Response

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, Miguel; Furman, M.A.; Celata, C.M.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Sonnad, K.G.; Vay, J.-L.; Venturini, M.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Molvik, A.; Stoltz, P.

    2007-04-02

    We present recent advances in the modeling of beam electron-cloud dynamics, including surface effects such as secondary electron emission, gas desorption, etc, and volumetric effects such as ionization of residual gas and charge-exchange reactions. Simulations for the HCX facility with the code WARP/POSINST will be described and their validity demonstrated by benchmarks against measurements. The code models a wide range of physical processes and uses a number of novel techniques, including a large-timestep electron mover that smoothly interpolates between direct orbit calculation and guiding-center drift equations, and a new computational technique, based on a Lorentz transformation to a moving frame, that allows the cost of a fully 3D simulation to be reduced to that of a quasi-static approximation.

  3. A Real-time, 3D Musculoskeletal Model for Dynamic Simulation of Arm Movements

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Edward K.; Blana, Dimitra; van den Bogert, Antonie J.; Kirsch, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroprostheses can be used to restore movement of the upper limb in individuals with high-level spinal cord injury. Development and evaluation of command and control schemes for such devices typically requires real-time, “patient-in-the-loop” experimentation. A real-time, three-dimensional, musculoskeletal model of the upper limb has been developed for use in a simulation environment to allow such testing to be carried out non-invasively. The model provides real-time feedback of human arm dynamics that can be displayed to the user in a virtual reality environment. The model has a three degree-of-freedom gleno-humeral joint as well as elbow flexion/extension and pronation/supination, and contains 22 muscles of the shoulder and elbow divided into multiple elements. The model is able to run in real time on modest desktop hardware and demonstrates that a large-scale, 3D model can be made to run in real time. This is a prerequisite for a real-time, whole arm model that will form part of a dynamic arm simulator for use in the development, testing and user training of neural prosthesis systems. PMID:19272926

  4. Using 3D dynamic models to reproduce X-ray properties of colliding wind binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Christopher Michael Post

    Colliding wind binaries (CWBs) are unique laboratories for X-ray astrophysics. The two massive stars contained in these systems have powerful radiatively driven stellar winds, and the conversion of their kinetic energy to heat (up to 108 K) at the wind-wind collision region generates hard thermal X-rays (up to 10 keV). Rich data sets exist of several multi-year-period systems, as well as key observations of shorter period systems, and detailed models are required to disentangle the phase-locked emission and absorption processes in these systems. To interpret these X-ray light curves and spectra, this dissertation models the wind-wind interaction of CWBs using 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), and solves the 3D formal solution of radiative transfer to synthesize the model X-ray properties, allowing direct comparison with the colliding-wind X-ray spectra observed by, e.g., RXTE and XMM. The multi-year-period, highly eccentric CWBs we examine are eta Carinae and WR140. For the commonly inferred primary mass loss rate of ˜10 -3 Msun/yr, eta Carinae's 3D model reproduces quite well the 2-10 keV RXTE light curve, hardness ratio, and dynamic spectra in absolute units. This agreement includes the ˜3 month X-ray minimum associated with the 1998.0 and 2003.5 periastron passages, which we find to occur as the primary wind encroaches into the secondary wind's acceleration region. This modeling provides further evidence that the observer is mainly viewing the system through the secondary's shock cone, and suggests that periastron occurs ~1 month after the onset of the X-ray minimum. The model RXTE observables of WR140 match the data well in absolute units, although the decrease in model X-rays around periastron is less than observed. There is very good agreement between the observed XMM spectrum taken on the rise before periastron and the model. We also model two short-period CWBs, HD150136, which has a wind-star collision, and delta Orionis A, the closest eclipsing

  5. Toward a 3D dynamic model of a faulty duplex ball bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Gideon; Klein, Renata; Kushnirsky, Alex; Bortman, Jacob

    2015-03-01

    Bearings are vital components for safe and proper operation of machinery. Increasing efficiency of bearing diagnostics usually requires training of health and usage monitoring systems via expensive and time-consuming ground calibration tests. The main goal of this research, therefore, is to improve bearing dynamics modeling tools in order to reduce the time and budget needed to implement the health and usage monitoring approach. The proposed three-dimensional ball bearing dynamic model is based on the classic dynamic and kinematic equations. Interactions between the bodies are simulated using non-linear springs combined with dampers described by Hertz-type contact relation. The force friction is simulated using the hyperbolic-tangent function. The model allows simulation of a wide range of mechanical faults. It is validated by comparison to known bearing behavior and to experimental results. The model results are verified by demonstrating numerical convergence. The model results for the two cases of single and duplex angular ball bearings with axial deformation in the outer ring are presented. The qualitative investigation provides insight into bearing dynamics, the sensitivity study generalizes the qualitative findings for similar cases, and the comparison to the test results validates model reliability. The article demonstrates the variety of the cases that the 3D bearing model can simulate and the findings to which it may lead. The research allowed the identification of new patterns generated by single and duplex bearings with axially deformed outer race. It also enlightened the difference between single and duplex bearing manifestation. In the current research the dynamic model enabled better understanding of the physical behavior of the faulted bearings. Therefore, it is expected that the modeling approach has the potential to simplify and improve the development process of diagnostic algorithms. • A deformed outer race of a single axially loaded bearing is

  6. A 3D Parallel Beam Dynamics Code for Modeling High Brightness Beams in Photoinjectors

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Lidia, S.; Ryne, R.D.; Limborg, C.; /SLAC

    2006-02-13

    In this paper we report on IMPACT-T, a 3D beam dynamics code for modeling high brightness beams in photoinjectors and rf linacs. IMPACT-T is one of the few codes used in the photoinjector community that has a parallel implementation, making it very useful for high statistics simulations of beam halos and beam diagnostics. It has a comprehensive set of beamline elements, and furthermore allows arbitrary overlap of their fields. It is unique in its use of space-charge solvers based on an integrated Green function to efficiently and accurately treat beams with large aspect ratio, and a shifted Green function to efficiently treat image charge effects of a cathode. It is also unique in its inclusion of energy binning in the space-charge calculation to model beams with large energy spread. Together, all these features make IMPACT-T a powerful and versatile tool for modeling beams in photoinjectors and other systems. In this paper we describe the code features and present results of IMPACT-T simulations of the LCLS photoinjectors. We also include a comparison of IMPACT-T and PARMELA results.

  7. A 3d Parallel Beam Dynamics Code for Modeling High BrightnessBeams in Photoinjectors

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.; Lidia, S.; Ryne, R.; Limborg, C.

    2005-05-16

    In this paper we report on IMPACT-T, a 3D beam dynamics code for modeling high brightness beams in photoinjectors and rf linacs. IMPACT-T is one of the few codes used in the photoinjector community that has a parallel implementation, making it very useful for high statistics simulations of beam halos and beam diagnostics. It has a comprehensive set of beamline elements, and furthermore allows arbitrary overlap of their fields. It is unique in its use of space-charge solvers based on an integrated Green function to efficiently and accurately treat beams with large aspect ratio, and a shifted Green function to efficiently treat image charge effects of a cathode. It is also unique in its inclusion of energy binning in the space-charge calculation to model beams with large energy spread. Together, all these features make IMPACT-T a powerful and versatile tool for modeling beams in photoinjectors and other systems. In this paper we describe the code features and present results of IMPACT-T simulations of the LCLS photoinjectors. We also include a comparison of IMPACT-T and PARMELA results.

  8. Dynamic coupling between fluid flow and vein growth in fractures: a 3D numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, J.-O.; Enzmann, F.

    2012-04-01

    Fluid flow is one of the main mass transport mechanisms in the Earth's crust and abundant mineral vein networks are important indicators for fluid flow and fluid rock interaction. These systems are dynamic and part of the so called RTM processes (reaction-transport-mechanics). Understanding of mineral vein systems requires coupling of these processes. Here we present a conceptional model for dynamic vein growth of syntaxial, posttectonic veins generated by advective fluid flow and show first results of a numerical model for this scenario. Vein generation requires three processes to occur: (i) fracture generation by mechanical stress e.g. hydro-fracturing, (ii) flow of a supersaturated fluid on that fracture and (iii) crystallization of phase(s) on or in the fracture. 3D synthetic fractures are generated with the SynFrac code (Ogilvie, et al. 2006). Subsequently solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation for this fracture are computed by a computational fluid dynamics code called GeoDict (Wiegmann 2007). Transport (advective and diffusive) of chemical species to growth sites in the fracture and vein growth are computed by a self-written MATLAB script. The numerical model discretizes the wall rock and fracture geometry by volumetric pixels (voxels). Based on this representation, the model computes the three basic functions for vein generation: (a) nucleation, (b) fluid flow with transport of chemical species and (c) growth. The following conditions were chosen for these three modules. Nucleation is heterogeneous and occurs instantaneously at the wall rock/fracture interface. Advective and diffusive flow of a supersaturated fluid and related transport of chemical species occurs according to the computed fluid flow field by GeoDict. Concentration of chemical species at the inflow is constant, representing external fluid buffering. Changes/decrease in the concentration of chemical species occurs only due to vein growth. Growth of nuclei is limited either by transport of

  9. Dynamics of tokamak plasma surface current in 3D ideal MHD model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, Sergei A.; Svidzinski, V. A.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2013-10-01

    Interest in the surface current which can arise on perturbed sharp plasma vacuum interface in tokamaks was recently generated by a few papers (see and references therein). In dangerous disruption events with plasma-touching-wall scenarios, the surface current can be shared with the wall leading to the strong, damaging forces acting on the wall A relatively simple analytic definition of δ-function surface current proportional to a jump of tangential component of magnetic field nevertheless leads to a complex computational problem on the moving plasma-vacuum interface, requiring the incorporation of non-linear 3D plasma dynamics even in one-fluid ideal MHD. The Disruption Simulation Code (DSC), which had recently been developed in a fully 3D toroidal geometry with adaptation to the moving plasma boundary, is an appropriate tool for accurate self-consistent δfunction surface current calculation. Progress on the DSC-3D development will be presented. Self-consistent surface current calculation under non-linear dynamics of low m kink mode and VDE will be discussed. Work is supported by the US DOE SBIR grant #DE-SC0004487.

  10. Compartment modeling anslysis of C-11 flumazenil kinetics in human brain using dynamic 2D and 3D PET

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Y.; Simpson, N.; Townsend, D.W.

    1994-05-01

    We examined the feasibility of compartment modeling analysis and the numerical accuracy of model parameters of radioligand delivery and binding in the brain using 2D and 3D PET. Two subjects were injected with C-11 flumazenil (FMZ) i.v., and imaged over the brain with a dynamic sequence of 6x20 s, 2x30 s, 4x90 s, 4x180 s, 2x300 s, 2x600 s, and 2x1200 s frames. Different scatter correction methods were applied to the 3D data: No scatter correction (NOC), dual-energy window subtraction (DEW) and convolution-subtraction (CON). The kinetic data for regions listed below were fitted to a 2-compartment, 2-parameter model. Both 2D and 3D results are similar and within the expected range. The 3D %SE was less than 2D despite the smaller dose. The effect of the scatter in 3D parameter estimates appears to be small. These preliminary data indicate temporally sufficient kinetic data can be acquired in 3D mode to perform compartmental analysis of C-11 FMZ. Improved sensitivity in 3D may allow more accurate receptor characterization especially in small structures or in low specific binding areas.

  11. Using 3D dynamic cartography and hydrological modelling for linear streamflow mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drogue, G.; Pfister, L.; Leviandier, T.; Humbert, J.; Hoffmann, L.; El Idrissi, A.; Iffly, J.-F.

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents a regionalization methodology and an original representation of the downstream variation of daily streamflow using a conceptual rainfall-runoff model (HRM) and the 3D visualization tools of the GIS ArcView. The regionalization of the parameters of the HRM model was obtained by fitting simultaneously the runoff series from five sub-basins of the Alzette river basin (Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg) according to the permeability of geological formations. After validating the transposability of the regional parameter values on five test basins, streamflow series were simulated with the model at ungauged sites in one medium size geologically contrasted test basin and interpolated assuming a linear increase of streamflow between modelling points. 3D spatio-temporal cartography of mean annual and high raw and specific discharges are illustrated. During a severe flooding, the propagation of the flood waves in the different parts of the stream network shows an important contribution of sub-basins lying on impervious geological formations (direct runoff) compared with those including permeable geological formations which have a more contrasted hydrological response. The effect of spatial variability of rainfall is clearly perceptible.

  12. Mapping dynamic mechanical remodeling in 3D tumor models via particle tracking microrheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dustin P.; Hanna, William; Celli, Jonathan P.

    2015-03-01

    Particle tracking microrheology (PTM) has recently been employed as a non-destructive way to longitudinally track physical changes in 3D pancreatic tumor co-culture models concomitant with tumor growth and invasion into the extracellular matrix (ECM). While the primary goal of PTM is to quantify local viscoelasticity via the Generalized Stokes-Einstein Relation (GSER), a more simplified way of describing local tissue mechanics lies in the tabulation and subsequent visualization of the spread of probe displacements in a given field of view. Proper analysis of this largely untapped byproduct of standard PTM has the potential to yield valuable insight into the structure and integrity of the ECM. Here, we use clustering algorithms in R to analyze the trajectories of probes in 3D pancreatic tumor/fibroblast co-culture models in an attempt to differentiate between probes that are effectively constrained by the ECM and/or contractile traction forces, and those that exhibit uninhibited mobility in local water-filled pores. We also discuss the potential pitfalls of this method. Accurately and reproducibly quantifying the boundary between these two categories of probe behavior could result in an effective method for measuring the average pore size in a given region of ECM. Such a tool could prove useful for studying stromal depletion, physical impedance to drug delivery, and degradation due to cellular invasion.

  13. 3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

  14. Tidal dynamics of the Terminos Lagoon, Mexico: observations and 3D numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras Ruiz Esparza, Adolfo; Douillet, Pascal; Zavala-Hidalgo, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    The tidal circulation patterns in the Terminos Lagoon were studied based on the analysis of 1 year of measurements and numerical simulations using a baroclinic 3D hydrodynamic model, the MARS3D. A gauging network was installed consisting of six self-recording pressure-temperature sensors, a tide gauge station and two current profilers, with pressure and temperature sensors moored in the main lagoon inlets. Model simulations were validated against current and sea level observations and were used to analyse the circulation patterns caused by the tidal forcing. The numerical model was forced with eight harmonic components, four diurnal ( K 1, O 1, P 1, Q 1) and four semi-diurnal ( M 2, S 2, N 2, K 2), extracted from the TPX0.7 database. The tidal patterns in the study area vary from mixed, mainly diurnal in the two main inlets of the lagoon, to diurnal in its interior. The tidal residual circulation inside the lagoon is dominated by a cyclonic gyre. The results indicate a net flux from the southwest Ciudad del Carmen inlet (CdC) towards the northeast Puerto Real inlet (PtR) along the southern side of the lagoon and the opposite in the northern side. The results indicate two areas of strong currents in the vicinity of the inlets and weak currents inside the lagoon. The area of strong currents in the vicinity of the CdC inlet is larger than that observed in the PtR inlet. Nevertheless, the current analysis indicates that the highest current speeds, which can reach a magnitude of 1.9 m s-1, occurred in PtR. A further analysis of the tide distortion in the inlets revealed that both passages are ebb dominated.

  15. Dynamic earthquake rupture simulation on nonplanar faults embedded in 3D geometrically complex, heterogeneous Earth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duru, K.; Dunham, E. M.; Bydlon, S. A.; Radhakrishnan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic propagation of shear ruptures on a frictional interface is a useful idealization of a natural earthquake.The conditions relating slip rate and fault shear strength are often expressed as nonlinear friction laws.The corresponding initial boundary value problems are both numerically and computationally challenging.In addition, seismic waves generated by earthquake ruptures must be propagated, far away from fault zones, to seismic stations and remote areas.Therefore, reliable and efficient numerical simulations require both provably stable and high order accurate numerical methods.We present a numerical method for:a) enforcing nonlinear friction laws, in a consistent and provably stable manner, suitable for efficient explicit time integration;b) dynamic propagation of earthquake ruptures along rough faults; c) accurate propagation of seismic waves in heterogeneous media with free surface topography.We solve the first order form of the 3D elastic wave equation on a boundary-conforming curvilinear mesh, in terms of particle velocities and stresses that are collocated in space and time, using summation-by-parts finite differences in space. The finite difference stencils are 6th order accurate in the interior and 3rd order accurate close to the boundaries. Boundary and interface conditions are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving semi-discrete energy estimates analogous to the continuous energy estimates we prove numerical stability. Time stepping is performed with a 4th order accurate explicit low storage Runge-Kutta scheme. We have performed extensive numerical experiments using a slip-weakening friction law on non-planar faults, including recent SCEC benchmark problems. We also show simulations on fractal faults revealing the complexity of rupture dynamics on rough faults. We are presently extending our method to rate-and-state friction laws and off-fault plasticity.

  16. RIMBAY - a multi-approximation 3D ice-dynamics model for comprehensive applications: model description and examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, M.; Grosfeld, K.; Barbi, D.; Determann, J.; Goeller, S.; Mayer, C.; Pattyn, F.

    2014-01-01

    Glaciers and ice caps exhibit currently the largest cryospheric contributions to sea level rise. Modelling the dynamics and mass balance of the major ice sheets is therefore an important issue to investigate the current state and the future response of the cryosphere in response to changing environmental conditions, namely global warming. This requires a powerful, easy-to-use, versatile multi-approximation ice dynamics model. Based on the well-known and established ice sheet model of Pattyn (2003) we develop the modular multi-approximation thermomechanic ice model RIMBAY, in which we improve the original version in several aspects like a shallow ice-shallow shelf coupler and a full 3D-grounding-line migration scheme based on Schoof's (2007) heuristic analytical approach. We summarise the full Stokes equations and several approximations implemented within this model and we describe the different numerical discretisations. The results are cross-validated against previous publications dealing with ice modelling, and some additional artificial set-ups demonstrate the robustness of the different solvers and their internal coupling. RIMBAY is designed for an easy adaption to new scientific issues. Hence, we demonstrate in very different set-ups the applicability and functionality of RIMBAY in Earth system science in general and ice modelling in particular.

  17. Modelling crystal plasticity by 3D dislocation dynamics and the finite element method: The Discrete-Continuous Model revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vattré, A.; Devincre, B.; Feyel, F.; Gatti, R.; Groh, S.; Jamond, O.; Roos, A.

    2014-02-01

    A unified model coupling 3D dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations with the finite element (FE) method is revisited. The so-called Discrete-Continuous Model (DCM) aims to predict plastic flow at the (sub-)micron length scale of materials with complex boundary conditions. The evolution of the dislocation microstructure and the short-range dislocation-dislocation interactions are calculated with a DD code. The long-range mechanical fields due to the dislocations are calculated by a FE code, taking into account the boundary conditions. The coupling procedure is based on eigenstrain theory, and the precise manner in which the plastic slip, i.e. the dislocation glide as calculated by the DD code, is transferred to the integration points of the FE mesh is described in full detail. Several test cases are presented, and the DCM is applied to plastic flow in a single-crystal Nickel-based superalloy.

  18. Optimization of a 3D Dynamic Culturing System for In Vitro Modeling of Frontotemporal Neurodegeneration-Relevant Pathologic Features.

    PubMed

    Tunesi, Marta; Fusco, Federica; Fiordaliso, Fabio; Corbelli, Alessandro; Biella, Gloria; Raimondi, Manuela T

    2016-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder that is diagnosed with increasing frequency in clinical setting. Currently, no therapy is available and in addition the molecular basis of the disease are far from being elucidated. Consequently, it is of pivotal importance to develop reliable and cost-effective in vitro models for basic research purposes and drug screening. To this respect, recent results in the field of Alzheimer's disease have suggested that a tridimensional (3D) environment is an added value to better model key pathologic features of the disease. Here, we have tried to add complexity to the 3D cell culturing concept by using a microfluidic bioreactor, where cells are cultured under a continuous flow of medium, thus mimicking the interstitial fluid movement that actually perfuses the body tissues, including the brain. We have implemented this model using a neuronal-like cell line (SH-SY5Y), a widely exploited cell model for neurodegenerative disorders that shows some basic features relevant for FTLD modeling, such as the release of the FTLD-related protein progranulin (PRGN) in specific vesicles (exosomes). We have efficiently seeded the cells on 3D scaffolds, optimized a disease-relevant oxidative stress experiment (by targeting mitochondrial function that is one of the possible FTLD-involved pathological mechanisms) and evaluated cell metabolic activity in dynamic culture in comparison to static conditions, finding that SH-SY5Y cells cultured in 3D scaffold are susceptible to the oxidative damage triggered by a mitochondrial-targeting toxin (6-OHDA) and that the same cells cultured in dynamic conditions kept their basic capacity to secrete PRGN in exosomes once recovered from the bioreactor and plated in standard 2D conditions. We think that a further improvement of our microfluidic system may help in providing a full device where assessing basic FTLD-related features (including PRGN dynamic secretion) that may be

  19. Non-linear dynamic analysis of ancient masonry structures by 3D rigid block models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orduña, Agustin; Ayala, A. Gustavo

    2015-12-01

    This work presents a formulation for non-linear dynamic analysis of unreinforced masonry structures using rigid block models. This procedure is akin to the distinct element family of methods, nevertheless, we assume that small displacements occur and, therefore, the formulation does not involve the search for new contacts between blocks. This proposal is also related to the rigid element method, although, in this case we use full three-dimensional models and a more robust interface formulation.

  20. INCORPORATING DYNAMIC 3D SIMULATION INTO PRA

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R Prescott; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    provide superior results and insights. We also couple the state model with the dynamic 3D simulation analysis representing events (such as flooding) to determine which (if any) components fail. Not only does the simulation take into account any failed items from the state model, but any failures caused by the simulation are incorporated back into the state model and factored into the overall results. Using this method we incorporate accurate 3D simulation results, eliminate static-based PRA issues, and have time ordered failure information.

  1. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  2. Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197

  3. Dynamic earthquake rupture modelled with an unstructured 3-D spectral element method applied to the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, P.; Ampuero, J.-P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Somala, S. N.; Nissen-Meyer, T.

    2014-08-01

    An important goal of computational seismology is to simulate dynamic earthquake rupture and strong ground motion in realistic models that include crustal heterogeneities and complex fault geometries. To accomplish this, we incorporate dynamic rupture modelling capabilities in a spectral element solver on unstructured meshes, the 3-D open source code SPECFEM3D, and employ state-of-the-art software for the generation of unstructured meshes of hexahedral elements. These tools provide high flexibility in representing fault systems with complex geometries, including faults with branches and non-planar faults. The domain size is extended with progressive mesh coarsening to maintain an accurate resolution of the static field. Our implementation of dynamic rupture does not affect the parallel scalability of the code. We verify our implementation by comparing our results to those of two finite element codes on benchmark problems including branched faults. Finally, we present a preliminary dynamic rupture model of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake including a non-planar plate interface with heterogeneous frictional properties and initial stresses. Our simulation reproduces qualitatively the depth-dependent frequency content of the source and the large slip close to the trench observed for this earthquake.

  4. Modelling of river plume dynamics in Öre estuary (Baltic Sea) with Telemac-3D hydrodynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The main property of river plumes is their buoyancy, fresh water discharged by rivers is less dense than the receiving, saline waters. To study the processes of plume formation in case of river discharge into a brackish estuary where salinity is low (3.5 - 5 psu) a three dimensional hydrodynamic model was applied to the Öre estuary in the Baltic Sea. This estuary is a small fjord-like bay in the north part of the Baltic Sea. Size of the bay is about 8 by 8 km with maximum depth of 35 metres. River Öre has a small average freshwater discharge of 35 m3/s. But in spring during snowmelt the discharge can be many times higher. For example, in April 2015 the discharge increased from 8 m3/s to 160 m3/s in 18 days. To study river plume dynamics a finite element based three dimensional baroclinic model TELEMAC - 3D is used. The TELEMAC modelling suite is developed by the National Laboratory of Hydraulics and Environment (LNHE) of Electricité de France (EDF). Modelling domain was approximated by an unstructured mesh with element size varies from 50 to 500 m. In vertical direction a sigma-coordinate with 20 layers was used. Open sea boundary conditions were obtained from the Baltic Sea model HIROMB-BOOS using COPERNICUS marine environment monitoring service. Comparison of modelling results with observations obtained by BONUS COCOA project's field campaign in Öre estuary in 2015 shows that the model plausible simulate river plume dynamics. Modelling of age of freshwater is also discussed. This work resulted from the BONUS COCOA project was supported by BONUS (Art 185), funded jointly by the EU and the Swedish Research Council Formas.

  5. Numerical Modeling of 3-D Dynamics of Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubbles Using the Boundary Integral Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvisi, Michael; Manmi, Kawa; Wang, Qianxi

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are microbubbles stabilized with a shell typically of lipid, polymer, or protein and are emerging as a unique tool for noninvasive therapies ranging from gene delivery to tumor ablation. The nonspherical dynamics of contrast agents are thought to play an important role in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications, for example, causing the emission of subharmonic frequency components and enhancing the uptake of therapeutic agents across cell membranes and tissue interfaces. A three-dimensional model for nonspherical contrast agent dynamics based on the boundary integral method is presented. The effects of the encapsulating shell are approximated by adapting Hoff's model for thin-shell, spherical contrast agents to the nonspherical case. A high-quality mesh of the bubble surface is maintained by implementing a hybrid approach of the Lagrangian method and elastic mesh technique. Numerical analyses for the dynamics of UCAs in an infinite liquid and near a rigid wall are performed in parameter regimes of clinical relevance. The results show that the presence of a coating significantly reduces the oscillation amplitude and period, increases the ultrasound pressure amplitude required to incite jetting, and reduces the jet width and velocity.

  6. Seasonal dynamics and stoichiometry of the planktonic community in the NW Mediterranean Sea: a 3D modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Raybaud, Virginie; Espinasse, Boris; Carlotti, François; Queguiner, Bernard; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Garreau, Pierre; Baklouti, Melika

    2014-01-01

    The 3D hydrodynamic Model for Applications at Regional Scale (MARS3D) was coupled with a biogeochemical model developed with the Ecological Modular Mechanistic Modelling (Eco3M) numerical tool. The three-dimensional coupled model was applied to the NW Mediterranean Sea to study the dynamics of the key biogeochemical processes in the area in relation with hydrodynamic constraints. In particular, we focused on the temporal and spatial variability of intracellular contents of living and non-living compartments. The conceptual scheme of the biogeochemical model accounts for the complex food web of the NW Mediterranean Sea (34 state variables), using flexible plankton stoichiometry. We used mechanistic formulations to describe most of the biogeochemical processes involved in the dynamics of marine pelagic ecosystems. Simulations covered the period from September 1, 2009 to January 31, 2011 (17 months), which enabled comparison of model outputs with situ measurements made during two oceanographic cruises in the region (Costeau-4: April 27-May 2, 2010 and Costeau-6: January 23-January 27, 2011).

  7. Using 3D infrared imaging to calibrate and refine computational fluid dynamic modeling for large computer and data centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Gregory R.

    2011-05-01

    Over the last 10 years, very large government, military, and commercial computer and data center operators have spent millions of dollars trying to optimally cool data centers as each rack has begun to consume as much as 10 times more power than just a few years ago. In fact, the maximum amount of data computation in a computer center is becoming limited by the amount of available power, space and cooling capacity at some data centers. Tens of millions of dollars and megawatts of power are being annually spent to keep data centers cool. The cooling and air flows dynamically change away from any predicted 3-D computational fluid dynamic modeling during construction and as time goes by, and the efficiency and effectiveness of the actual cooling rapidly departs even farther from predicted models. By using 3-D infrared (IR) thermal mapping and other techniques to calibrate and refine the computational fluid dynamic modeling and make appropriate corrections and repairs, the required power for data centers can be dramatically reduced which reduces costs and also improves reliability.

  8. Constraining the Absolute Orientation of eta Carinae's Binary Orbit: A 3-D Dynamical Model for the Broad [Fe III] Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3-D) dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in Eta Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS). This model is based on full 3-D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of Eta Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectro-images of [Fe III] emission line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA(theta) that the orbital plane projection of the line-of-sight makes with the apastron side of the semi-major axis, and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the absolute 3-D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blue-shifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA = +38deg, and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i approx. = 130deg to 145deg, Theta approx. = -15deg to +30deg, and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a P A approx. = 302deg to 327deg east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3-D. The companion star, Eta(sub B), thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modeling to determine the stellar masses.

  9. A molecular dynamics implementation of the 3D Mercedes-Benz water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynninen, T.; Dias, C. L.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Heinonen, V.; Karttunen, M.; Foster, A. S.; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2012-02-01

    The three-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model was recently introduced to account for the structural and thermodynamic properties of water. It treats water molecules as point-like particles with four dangling bonds in tetrahedral coordination, representing H-bonds of water. Its conceptual simplicity renders the model attractive in studies where complex behaviors emerge from H-bond interactions in water, e.g., the hydrophobic effect. A molecular dynamics (MD) implementation of the model is non-trivial and we outline here the mathematical framework of its force-field. Useful routines written in modern Fortran are also provided. This open source code is free and can easily be modified to account for different physical context. The provided code allows both serial and MPI-parallelized execution. Program summaryProgram title: CASHEW (Coarse Approach Simulator for Hydrogen-bonding Effects in Water) Catalogue identifier: AEKM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 20 501 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 551 044 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer: Program has been tested on desktop workstations and a Cray XT4/XT5 supercomputer. Operating system: Linux, Unix, OS X Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: The code has been parallelized using MPI. RAM: Depends on size of system, about 5 MB for 1500 molecules. Classification: 7.7 External routines: A random number generator, Mersenne Twister ( http://www.math.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/m-mat/MT/VERSIONS/FORTRAN/mt95.f90), is used. A copy of the code is included in the distribution. Nature of problem: Molecular dynamics simulation of a new geometric water model. Solution method: New force-field for

  10. Optimization of a 3D Dynamic Culturing System for In Vitro Modeling of Frontotemporal Neurodegeneration-Relevant Pathologic Features

    PubMed Central

    Tunesi, Marta; Fusco, Federica; Fiordaliso, Fabio; Corbelli, Alessandro; Biella, Gloria; Raimondi, Manuela T.

    2016-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder that is diagnosed with increasing frequency in clinical setting. Currently, no therapy is available and in addition the molecular basis of the disease are far from being elucidated. Consequently, it is of pivotal importance to develop reliable and cost-effective in vitro models for basic research purposes and drug screening. To this respect, recent results in the field of Alzheimer’s disease have suggested that a tridimensional (3D) environment is an added value to better model key pathologic features of the disease. Here, we have tried to add complexity to the 3D cell culturing concept by using a microfluidic bioreactor, where cells are cultured under a continuous flow of medium, thus mimicking the interstitial fluid movement that actually perfuses the body tissues, including the brain. We have implemented this model using a neuronal-like cell line (SH-SY5Y), a widely exploited cell model for neurodegenerative disorders that shows some basic features relevant for FTLD modeling, such as the release of the FTLD-related protein progranulin (PRGN) in specific vesicles (exosomes). We have efficiently seeded the cells on 3D scaffolds, optimized a disease-relevant oxidative stress experiment (by targeting mitochondrial function that is one of the possible FTLD-involved pathological mechanisms) and evaluated cell metabolic activity in dynamic culture in comparison to static conditions, finding that SH-SY5Y cells cultured in 3D scaffold are susceptible to the oxidative damage triggered by a mitochondrial-targeting toxin (6-OHDA) and that the same cells cultured in dynamic conditions kept their basic capacity to secrete PRGN in exosomes once recovered from the bioreactor and plated in standard 2D conditions. We think that a further improvement of our microfluidic system may help in providing a full device where assessing basic FTLD-related features (including PRGN dynamic secretion) that may

  11. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  12. Dynamic rupture modeling of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake with an unstructured 3D spectral element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, P.; Ampuero, J. P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Nissen-Meyer, T.

    2011-12-01

    On March 11th 2011, a Mw 9 earthquake stroke Japan causing 28000 victims and triggering a devastating tsunami that caused severe damage along the Japanese coast. The exceptional amount of data recorded by this earthquake, with thousands of sensors located all over Japan, provides a great opportunity for seismologist and engineers to investigate in detail the rupture process in order to better understand the physics of this type of earthquakes and their associated effects, like tsunamis. Here we investigate, by means of dynamic rupture simulations, a plausible mechanism to explain key observations about the rupture process of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake, including the spatial complementarity between high and low frequency aspects of slip (e.g, Simons et al, Science 2011, Meng et al, GRL 2011). To model the dynamic rupture of this event, we use a realistic non-planar fault geometry of the megathrust interface, using the unstructured 3D spectral element open source code SPECFEM3D-SESAME, in which we recently implemented the dynamic fault boundary conditions. This implementation follows the principles introduced by Ampuero (2002) and Kaneko et al. (2008) and involves encapsulated modules plugged into the code. Our current implementation provides the possibility of modeling dynamic rupture for multiple, non-planar faults governed by slip-weakening friction. We successfully verified the code in several SCEC benchmarks, including a 3D problem with branched faults, as well as modeling the rupture of subduction megathrust with a splay fault, finding results comparable to published results. Our first set of simulations is aimed at testing if the diversity of rupture phenomena during the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake (see Ampuero et al in this session) can be overall reproduced by assuming the most basic friction law, linear slip-weakening friction, but prescribing a spatially heterogeneous distribution of the critical slip weakening distance Dc and initial fault stresses. Our

  13. The 1999 Izmit, Turkey, earthquake: A 3D dynamic stress transfer model of intraearthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.A.; Dolan, J.F.; Hartleb, R.; Day, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Before the August 1999 Izmit (Kocaeli), Turkey, earthquake, theoretical studies of earthquake ruptures and geological observations had provided estimates of how far an earthquake might jump to get to a neighboring fault. Both numerical simulations and geological observations suggested that 5 km might be the upper limit if there were no transfer faults. The Izmit earthquake appears to have followed these expectations. It did not jump across any step-over wider than 5 km and was instead stopped by a narrower step-over at its eastern end and possibly by a stress shadow caused by a historic large earthquake at its western end. Our 3D spontaneous rupture simulations of the 1999 Izmit earthquake provide two new insights: (1) the west- to east-striking fault segments of this part of the North Anatolian fault are oriented so as to be low-stress faults and (2) the easternmost segment involved in the August 1999 rupture may be dipping. An interesting feature of the Izmit earthquake is that a 5-km-long gap in surface rupture and an adjacent 25° restraining bend in the fault zone did not stop the earthquake. The latter observation is a warning that significant fault bends in strike-slip faults may not arrest future earthquakes.

  14. Comparing the effects of rheology on the dynamics and topography of 3D subduction-collision models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusok, Adina E.; Kaus, Boris; Popov, Anton

    2015-04-01

    Most of the major mountain belts and orogenic plateaus are found within the overlying plate of active or fossil subduction and/or collision zones. It is well known that they evolve differently from one another as the result of specific combinations of surface and mantle processes. The differences among the structures and evolutions of mountain belts arise for several reasons, such as different strengths of materials, different amounts of regional isostatic compensation, and different mechanisms by which forces are applied to the convergence plates. All these possible controlling factors can change with space and time. Of all the mountain belts and orogenic plateaus, the most striking example is the India-Asia collision zone, which gave rise to the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau, the largest region of elevated topography and anomalously thick crust on Earth. Understanding the formation and evolution of such a highly elevated region has been the focus of many tectonic and numerical models. While some of these models (i.e. thin sheet model) have successfully illustrated some of the basic physics of continental collision, none can simultaneously represent active processes such as subduction, underthrusting, channel flow or extrusion, for which fully 3D models are required. Here, we employed the 3D code LaMEM to investigate the role that subduction, continental collision and indentation play on lithosphere dynamics at convergent margins, and the implications they have for the Asian tectonics. Our model setup resembles a simplified tectonic map of the India-Asia collision zone and we performed long-term 3D simulations to analyse the dynamics and the conditions under which large topographic plateaus, such as the Tibetan Plateau can form in an integrated lithospheric and upper-mantle scale model. Results of models with linear viscous rheologies show different modes between the oceanic subduction side (continuous subduction, trench retreat and slab roll-back) and the

  15. The effect of rheological approximations on the dynamics and topography in 3D subduction-collision models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusok, Adina E.; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Popov, Anton A.

    2016-04-01

    Most of the major mountain belts and orogenic plateaus are found within the overlying plate of active or fossil subduction and/or collision zones. Moreover, they evolve differently from one another as the result of specific combinations of surface and mantle processes. These differences arise for several reasons, such as different rheological properties, different amounts of regional isostatic compensation, and different mechanisms by which forces are applied to the convergent plates. Previous 3D geodynamic models of subduction/collision processes have used various rheological approximations, making numerical results difficult to compare, since there is no clear image on the extent of these approximations on the dynamics. Here, we employ the code LaMEM to perform high-resolution long-term 3D simulations of subduction/continental collision in an integrated lithospheric and upper-mantle scale model. We test the effect of rheological approximations on mantle and lithosphere dynamics in a geometrically simplified model setup that resembles a tectonic map of the India-Asia collision zone. We use the "sticky-air" approach to allow for the development of topography and the dynamics of subduction and collision is entirely driven by slab-pull (i.e. "free subduction"). The models exhibit a wide range of behaviours depending on the rheological law employed: from linear to temperature-dependent visco-elasto-plastic rheology that takes into account both diffusion and dislocation creep. For example, we find that slab dynamics varies drastically between end member models: in viscous approximations, slab detachment is slow following a viscous thinning, while for a non-linear visco-elasto-plastic rheology, slab detachment is relatively fast, inducing strong mantle flow in the slab window. We also examine the stress states in the subducting and overriding plates and topography evolution in the upper plate, and we discuss the implications on lithosphere dynamics at convergent margins

  16. Constraining the absolute orientation of η Carinae's binary orbit: a 3D dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in η Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). This model is based on full 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of η Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectroimages of [Fe III] emission-line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA θ that the orbital plane projection of the line of sight makes with the apastron side of the semimajor axis and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the absolute 3D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blueshifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA =+38° and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i≈ 130° to 145°, θ≈-15° to +30° and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a PA ≈ 302° to 327° east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3D. The companion star, ηB, thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modelling to determine the stellar masses. Footnotes<label>1</label>Low- and high-ionization refer here to atomic species with ionizations potentials (IPs) below and above the IP of hydrogen, 13.6 eV.<label>2</label>Measured in degrees from north to east.<label>3</label>θ is the same as the angle φ defined in fig. 3 of O08.<label>4</label>The outer edge looks circular only because this marks the edge of the spherical computational domain of the SPH simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Ap%26SS.361...46D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Ap%26SS.361...46D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for α Gem AB: orbits and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Docobo, José A.; Andrade, Manuel; Campo, Pedro P.; Ling, Josefina F.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The well-known multiple star system, Castor, and particularly, the [(Aa, Ab), (Ba, Bb)] subsystem, was studied in detail. After a rigorous analysis of the quality controls, a new solution for the visual orbit yielded new values for the different physical and orbital parameters of the system. In addition, a comprehensive investigation of the orbital configuration of the quadruple system allowed us to provide both accurate individual masses and orbital inclinations of the spectroscopic subcomponents, as well as a new value of its orbital parallax. Finally, by means of a numerical analysis of the long-term <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, we obtained the most probable values of the nodal angles of the two spectroscopic subsystems for the first time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4348..348B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4348..348B"><span id="translatedtitle">Micronozzles: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical structural and gas <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, fabrication, and preliminary experimental results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borovkov, Alexei I.; Pyatishev, Evgenij N.; Lurie, Mihail S.; Korshunov, Andrey V.; Akulshin, Y. D.; Dolganov, A. G.; Sabadash, V. O.</p> <p>2001-02-01</p> <p>The tiny engines, founded on the principle of reactive thrust, are one of most perspective actuators developed by modern micromechanics. These engines can be applied for such apparent problems, as orientation and stabilization of small space objects, but also as local or distributed reactive thrust of new phylum of aerospace objects, for control of boundary layer of flying objects and in series of converting power devices of different purposes. Distinctive features of jet tiny engines are profitability (very large thrust-to-weight ratio) and high (milliseconds) response, which makes them to irreplaceable elements in control systems and, specially, in distributed power generations. These features are provided the minimum sizes, high pressure in working chambers and hypersonic velocity of propulsive jet. Topologically micronozzles are designed as the flat batch devices (3 layers as minimum). The lower and upper layers make flat walls of the nozzle and mainly influence on strength properties of the device. The mean layer reshapes geometry and determines gas <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> characteristic of the nozzle. A special problem is the opening-up of the combustion-mixture, which is not esteemed in this work. It is necessary to allow for effect of considerable local stresses arising at the expense of static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> loading at design of the jet tiny engines. Thermal gas <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> processes in the chamber and nozzle determine the values and nature of these stresses, which are hardly studied for the microdevices. The priority is mathematical and experimental simulation of these processes. The most suitable object for initial phase of experimental simulation is the 'cold' engine. The demanded chamber static pressure is formed by external compressed air. In Laboratory of Microtechnology and MicroElectroMechanical Systems a number of such tiny engines with different shapes of the chamber's and the nozzles' surfaces were designed, made and tested. The engines were produced from photosensing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4348..348B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4348..348B"><span id="translatedtitle">Micronozzles: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical structural and gas <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, fabrication, and preliminary experimental results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borovkov, Alexei I.; Pyatishev, Evgenij N.; Lurie, Mihail S.; Korshunov, Andrey V.; Akulshin, Y. D.; Dolganov, A. G.; Sabadash, V. O.</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>The tiny engines, founded on the principle of reactive thrust, are one of most perspective actuators developed by modern micromechanics. These engines can be applied for such apparent problems, as orientation and stabilization of small space objects, but also as local or distributed reactive thrust of new phylum of aerospace objects, for control of boundary layer of flying objects and in series of converting power devices of different purposes. Distinctive features of jet tiny engines are profitability (very large thrust-to-weight ratio) and high (milliseconds) response, which makes them to irreplaceable elements in control systems and, specially, in distributed power generations. These features are provided the minimum sizes, high pressure in working chambers and hypersonic velocity of propulsive jet. Topologically micronozzles are designed as the flat batch devices (3 layers as minimum). The lower and upper layers make flat walls of the nozzle and mainly influence on strength properties of the device. The mean layer reshapes geometry and determines gas <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> characteristic of the nozzle. A special problem is the opening-up of the combustion-mixture, which is not esteemed in this work. It is necessary to allow for effect of considerable local stresses arising at the expense of static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> loading at design of the jet tiny engines. Thermal gas <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> processes in the chamber and nozzle determine the values and nature of these stresses, which are hardly studied for the microdevices. The priority is mathematical and experimental simulation of these processes. The most suitable object for initial phase of experimental simulation is the 'cold' engine. The demanded chamber static pressure is formed by external compressed air. In Laboratory of Microtechnology and MicroElectroMechanical Systems a number of such tiny engines with different shapes of the chamber's and the nozzles' surfaces were designed, made and tested. The engines were produced from photosensing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPArXL15...51A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPArXL15...51A"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Parameters of <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Pulse Function for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> in LOD3 Based on Random Textures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alizadehashrafi, B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The pulse function (PF) is a technique based on procedural preprocessing system to generate a computerized virtual photo of the façade with in a fixed size square(Alizadehashrafi et al., 2009, Musliman et al., 2010). <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Pulse Function (DPF) is an enhanced version of PF which can create the final photo, proportional to real geometry. This can avoid distortion while projecting the computerized photo on the generated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>(Alizadehashrafi and Rahman, 2013). The challenging issue that might be handled for having <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> in LoD3 rather than LOD2, is the final aim that have been achieved in this paper. In the technique based DPF the geometries of the windows and doors are saved in an XML file schema which does not have any connections with the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> in LoD2 and CityGML format. In this research the parameters of <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Pulse Functions are utilized via Ruby programming language in SketchUp Trimble to generate (exact position and deepness) the windows and doors automatically in LoD3 based on the same concept of DPF. The advantage of this technique is automatic generation of huge number of similar geometries e.g. windows by utilizing parameters of DPF along with defining entities and window layers. In case of converting the SKP file to CityGML via FME software or CityGML plugins the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> contains the semantic database about the entities and window layers which can connect the CityGML to MySQL(Alizadehashrafi and Baig, 2014). The concept behind DPF, is to use logical operations to project the texture on the background image which is <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> proportional to real geometry. The process of projection is based on two vertical and horizontal <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pulses starting from upper-left corner of the background wall in down and right directions respectively based on image coordinate system. The logical one/zero on the intersections of two vertical and horizontal <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pulses projects/does not project the texture on the background image. It is possible to define</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ISPArXL15...51A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ISPArXL15...51A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Parameters of <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Pulse Function for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> in LOD3 Based on Random Textures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alizadehashrafi, B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The pulse function (PF) is a technique based on procedural preprocessing system to generate a computerized virtual photo of the façade with in a fixed size square(Alizadehashrafi et al., 2009, Musliman et al., 2010). <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Pulse Function (DPF) is an enhanced version of PF which can create the final photo, proportional to real geometry. This can avoid distortion while projecting the computerized photo on the generated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>(Alizadehashrafi and Rahman, 2013). The challenging issue that might be handled for having <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> in LoD3 rather than LOD2, is the final aim that have been achieved in this paper. In the technique based DPF the geometries of the windows and doors are saved in an XML file schema which does not have any connections with the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> in LoD2 and CityGML format. In this research the parameters of <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Pulse Functions are utilized via Ruby programming language in SketchUp Trimble to generate (exact position and deepness) the windows and doors automatically in LoD3 based on the same concept of DPF. The advantage of this technique is automatic generation of huge number of similar geometries e.g. windows by utilizing parameters of DPF along with defining entities and window layers. In case of converting the SKP file to CityGML via FME software or CityGML plugins the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> contains the semantic database about the entities and window layers which can connect the CityGML to MySQL(Alizadehashrafi and Baig, 2014). The concept behind DPF, is to use logical operations to project the texture on the background image which is <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> proportional to real geometry. The process of projection is based on two vertical and horizontal <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pulses starting from upper-left corner of the background wall in down and right directions respectively based on image coordinate system. The logical one/zero on the intersections of two vertical and horizontal <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pulses projects/does not project the texture on the background image. It is possible to define</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25468341','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25468341"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> network morphology and tension buildup in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of cytokinetic ring assembly.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bidone, Tamara C; Tang, Haosu; Vavylonis, Dimitrios</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>During fission yeast cytokinesis, actin filaments nucleated by cortical formin Cdc12 are captured by myosin motors bound to a band of cortical nodes and bundled by cross-linking proteins. The myosin motors exert forces on the actin filaments, resulting in a net pulling of the nodes into a contractile ring, while cross-linking interactions help align actin filaments and nodes into a single bundle. We used these mechanisms in a three-dimensional computational <span class="hlt">model</span> of contractile ring assembly, with semiflexible actin filaments growing from formins at cortical nodes, capturing of filaments by neighboring nodes, and cross-linking among filaments through attractive interactions. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was used to predict profiles of actin filament density at the cell cortex, morphologies of condensing node-filament networks, and regimes of cortical tension by varying the node pulling force and strength of cross-linking among actin filaments. Results show that cross-linking interactions can lead to confinement of actin filaments at the simulated cortical boundary. We show that the ring-formation region in parameter space lies close to regions leading to clumps, meshworks or double rings, and stars/cables. Since boundaries between regions are not sharp, transient structures that resemble clumps, stars, and meshworks can appear in the process of ring assembly. These results are consistent with prior experiments with mutations in actin-filament turnover regulators, myosin motor activity, and changes in the concentration of cross-linkers that alter the morphology of the condensing network. Transient star shapes appear in some simulations, and these morphologies offer an explanation for star structures observed in prior experimental images. Finally, we quantify tension along actin filaments and forces on nodes during ring assembly and show that the mechanisms describing ring assembly can also drive ring constriction once the ring is formed. PMID:25468341</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=74916&keyword=soil+AND+radiation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64183124&CFTOKEN=81446066','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=74916&keyword=soil+AND+radiation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64183124&CFTOKEN=81446066"><span id="translatedtitle">Modular <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Transport <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>MT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B5..587S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B5..587S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Crowdsourcing Based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial <span class="hlt">model</span> obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate <span class="hlt">models</span> could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=84355&keyword=3D+AND+Modeling&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=67200069&CFTOKEN=73263132','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=84355&keyword=3D+AND+Modeling&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=67200069&CFTOKEN=73263132"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">DYNAMIC</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> QSAR TECHNIQUES: APPLICATIONS IN TOXICOLOGY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Two <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> techniques recently developed to account for conformational flexibility of chemicals in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> QSARs are presented. In addition to the impact of conformational flexibility of chemicals in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> QSAR <span class="hlt">models</span>, the applicability of various molecular descriptors is discussed. The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009AGUFMNG41B1188A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009AGUFMNG41B1188A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertical Scan (V-SCAN) for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Grid Adaptive Mesh Refinement for an atmospheric <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> Core</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andronova, N. G.; Vandenberg, D.; Oehmke, R.; Stout, Q. F.; Penner, J. E.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>One of the major building blocks of a rigorous representation of cloud evolution in global atmospheric <span class="hlt">models</span> is a parallel adaptive grid MPI-based communication library (an Adaptive Blocks for Locally Cartesian Topologies library -- ABLCarT), which manages the block-structured data layout, handles ghost cell updates among neighboring blocks and splits a block as refinements occur. The library has several modules that provide a layer of abstraction for adaptive refinement: blocks, which contain individual cells of user data; shells - the global geometry for the problem, including a sphere, reduced sphere, and now a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sphere; a load balancer for placement of blocks onto processors; and a communication support layer which encapsulates all data movement. A major performance concern with adaptive mesh refinement is how to represent calculations that have need to be sequenced in a particular order in a direction, such as calculating integrals along a specific path (e.g. atmospheric pressure or geopotential in the vertical dimension). This concern is compounded if the blocks have varying levels of refinement, or are scattered across different processors, as can be the case in parallel computing. In this paper we describe an implementation in ABLCarT of a vertical scan operation, which allows computing along vertical paths in the correct order across blocks transparent to their resolution and processor location. We test this functionality on a 2D and a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> advection problem, which tests the performance of the model’s <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (transport) and physics (sources and sinks) for different <span class="hlt">model</span> resolutions needed for inclusion of cloud formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4718466','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4718466"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploration of Novel Inhibitors for Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> QSAR <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and Molecular <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Choi, Light; Woo Lee, Keun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a cytoplasmic, non-receptor tyrosine kinase which is expressed in most of the hematopoietic cells and plays an important role in many cellular signaling pathways. B cell malignancies are dependent on BCR signaling, thus making BTK an efficient therapeutic target. Over the last few years, significant efforts have been made in order to develop BTK inhibitors to treat B-cell malignancies, and autoimmunity or allergy/hypersensitivity but limited success has been achieved. Here in this study, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> QSAR pharmacophore <span class="hlt">models</span> were generated for Btk based on known IC50 values and experimental energy scores with extensive validations. The five features pharmacophore <span class="hlt">model</span>, Hypo1, includes one hydrogen bond acceptor lipid, one hydrogen bond donor, and three hydrophobic features, which has the highest correlation coefficient (0.98), cost difference (112.87), and low RMS (1.68). It was further validated by the Fisher’s randomization method and test set. The well validated Hypo1 was used as a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> query to search novel Btk inhibitors with different chemical scaffold using high throughput virtual screening technique. The screened compounds were further sorted by applying ADMET properties, Lipinski’s rule of five and molecular docking studies to refine the retrieved hits. Furthermore, molecular <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation was employed to study the stability of docked conformation and to investigate the binding interactions in detail. Several important hydrogen bonds with Btk were revealed, which includes the gatekeeper residues Glu475 and Met 477 at the hinge region. Overall, this study suggests that the proposed hits may be more effective inhibitors for cancer and autoimmune therapy. PMID:26784025</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007SPIE.6511E..2GT&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007SPIE.6511E..2GT&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative study of diverse <span class="hlt">model</span> building strategies for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-ASM segmentation of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> gated SPECT data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tobon-Gomez, C.; Butakoff, C.; Ordas, S.; Aguade, S.; Frangi, A. F.</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Over the course of the last two decades, myocardial perfusion with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has emerged as an established and well-validated method for assessing myocardial ischemia, viability, and function. Gated-SPECT imaging integrates traditional perfusion information along with global left ventricular function. Despite of these advantages, inherent limitations of SPECT imaging yield a challenging segmentation problem, since an error of only one voxel along the chamber surface may generate a huge difference in volume calculation. In previous works we implemented a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> statistical <span class="hlt">model</span>-based algorithm for Left Ventricle (LV) segmentation of in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> perfusion SPECT studies. The present work evaluates the relevance of training a different Active Shape <span class="hlt">Model</span> (ASM) for each frame of the gated SPECT imaging acquisition in terms of their subsequent segmentation accuracy. <span class="hlt">Models</span> are subsequently employed to segment the LV cavity of gated SPECT studies of a virtual population. The evaluation is accomplished by comparing point-to-surface (P2S) and volume errors, both against a proper Gold Standard. The dataset comprised 40 voxel phantoms (NCAT, Johns Hopkins, University of of North Carolina). Monte-Carlo simulations were generated with SIMIND (Lund University) and reconstructed to tomographic slices with ASPIRE (University of Michigan).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014938','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014938"><span id="translatedtitle">Development, Verification and Use of Gust <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> in the NASA Computational Fluid <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> Code FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bartels, Robert E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents the implementation of gust <span class="hlt">modeling</span> capability in the CFD code FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The gust capability is verified by computing the response of an airfoil to a sharp edged gust. This result is compared with the theoretical result. The present simulations will be compared with other CFD gust simulations. This paper also serves as a users manual for FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gust analyses using a variety of gust profiles. Finally, the development of an Auto-Regressive Moving-Average (ARMA) reduced order gust <span class="hlt">model</span> using a gust with a Gaussian profile in the FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code is presented. ARMA simulated results of a sequence of one-minus-cosine gusts is shown to compare well with the same gust profile computed with FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is combined with the ARMA <span class="hlt">modeling</span> technique to predict the time varying pressure coefficient increment distribution due to a novel gust profile. The aeroelastic response of a pitch/plunge airfoil to a gust environment is computed with a reduced order <span class="hlt">model</span>, and compared with a direct simulation of the system in the FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code. The two results are found to agree very well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040070714','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040070714"><span id="translatedtitle">Debris Dispersion <span class="hlt">Model</span> Using Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes web based simulation of Shuttle launch operations and debris dispersion. Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> and behaviors of Shuttle launch. Because the <span class="hlt">model</span> is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphics combined with physical <span class="hlt">models</span> provides mechanisms to understand the complexity of launch and range operations. The main focus in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and simulation covers orbital <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and range safety. Range safety areas include destruct limit lines, telemetry and tracking and population risk near range. If there is an explosion of Shuttle during launch, debris dispersion is explained. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287555','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287555"><span id="translatedtitle">Fallon FORGE <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geologic <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Doug Blankenship</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>An x,y,z scattered data file for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Fallon FORGE site. <span class="hlt">Model</span> created in Earthvision by <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Graphic Inc. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was constructed with a grid spacing of 100 m. Geologic surfaces were extrapolated from the input data using a minimum tension gridding algorithm. The data file is tabular data in a text file, with lithology data associated with X,Y,Z grid points. All the relevant information is in the file header (the spatial reference, the projection etc.) In addition all the fields in the data file are identified in the header.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCoPh.273..548T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCoPh.273..548T"><span id="translatedtitle">An overset grid method for integration of fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and geophysics fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> to simulate multiphysics coastal ocean flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, H. S.; Qu, K.; Wu, X. G.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>It is now becoming important to develop our capabilities to simulate coastal ocean flows involved with distinct physical phenomena occurring at a vast range of spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a hybrid <span class="hlt">modeling</span> system for such simulation. The system consists of a fully three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> and a geophysical fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, which couple with each other in two-way and march in time simultaneously. Particularly, in the hybrid system, the solver for incompressible flow on overset meshes (SIFOM) resolves fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> small-scale local flow phenomena, while the unstructured grid finite volume coastal ocean <span class="hlt">model</span> (FVCOM) captures large-scale background flows. The integration of the two <span class="hlt">models</span> are realized via domain decomposition implemented with an overset grid method. Numerical experiments on performance of the system in resolving flow patterns and solution convergence rate show that the SIFOM-FVCOM system works as intended, and its solutions compare reasonably with data obtained with measurements and other computational approaches. Its unparalleled capabilities to predict multiphysics and multiscale phenomena with high-fidelity are demonstrated by three typical applications that are beyond the reach of other currently existing <span class="hlt">models</span>. It is anticipated that the SIFOM-FVCOM system will serve as a new platform to study many emerging coastal ocean problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMEP21A0654Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMEP21A0654Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated Biogeomorphological <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Using Delft<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ye, Q.; Jagers, B.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The skill of numerical morphological <span class="hlt">models</span> has improved significantly from the early 2D uniform, total load sediment <span class="hlt">models</span> (with steady state or infrequent wave updates) to recent <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> with multiple suspended and bed load sediment fractions and bed stratigraphy (online coupled with waves). Although there remain many open questions within this combined field of hydro- and morphodynamics, we observe an increasing need to include biological processes in the overall <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. In riverine and inter-tidal environments, there is often an important influence by riparian vegetation and macrobenthos. Over the past decade more and more researchers have started to extend the simulation environment with wrapper scripts and other quick code hacks to estimate their influence on morphological development in coastal, estuarine and riverine environments. Although one can in this way quickly analyze different approaches, these research tools have generally not been designed with reuse, performance and portability in mind. We have now implemented a reusable, flexible, and efficient two-way link between the Delft<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> open source framework for hydrodynamics, waves and morphology, and the water quality and ecology modules. The same link will be used for 1D, 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> on networks and both structured and unstructured grids. We will describe the concepts of the overall system, and illustrate it with some first results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2576Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2576Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of subduction <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>: plate stagnation and segmentation, and crustal advection in the mantle transition zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoshida, M.; Tajima, F.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Water content in the mantle transition zone (MTZ) has been broadly debated in the Earth science community as a key issue for plate <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> [e.g., Bercovici and Karato, 2003]. In this study, a systematic series of three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) numerical simulation are performed in an attempt to verify two hypotheses for plate subduction with effects of deep water transport: (1) the small-scale behavior of subducted oceanic plate in the MTZ; and (2) the role of subducted crust in the MTZ. These hypotheses are postulated based on the seismic observations characterized by large-scale flattened high velocity anomalies (i.e., stagnant slabs) in the MTZ and discontinuity depth variations. The proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> states that under wet conditions the subducted plate main body of peridotite (olivine rich) is abutted by subducted crustal materials (majorite rich) at the base of the MTZ. The computational domain of mantle convection is confined to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> regional spherical-shell geometry with a thickness of 1000 km and a lateral extent of 10° × 30° in the latitudinal and longitudinal directions. A semi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of subduction zone [Morishige et al., 2010] is applied to let the highly viscous, cold oceanic plate subduct. Weak (low-viscosity) fault zones (WFZs), which presumably correspond to the fault boundaries of large subduction earthquakes, are imposed on the top part of subducting plates. The phase transitions of olivine to wadsleyite and ringwoodite to perovskite+magnesiowüstite with Clapeyron slopes under both "dry" and "wet" conditions are considered based on recent high pressure experiments [e.g., Ohtani and Litasov, 2006]. Another recent experiment provides new evidence for lower-viscosity (weaker strength) of garnet-rich zones than the olivine dominant mantle under wet conditions [Katayama and Karato, 2008]. According to this, the effect of viscosity reduction of oceanic crust is considered under wet condition in the MTZ. Results show that there is a substantial difference</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...18a2172R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...18a2172R"><span id="translatedtitle">The Esri <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city information <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reitz, T.; Schubiger-Banz, S.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Cities solution. The ArcGIS for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Cities solution provides the information <span class="hlt">model</span>, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City Information <span class="hlt">Model</span> and some sample use cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..162B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..162B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> multidisciplinary numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> of polychlorinated biphenyl <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> on the Black Sea north-western shelf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bagaiev, Andrii; Ivanov, Vitaliy</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Black Sea north-western shelf plays a key role in economics of the developing countries such as Ukraine due to food supply, invaluable recreational potential and variety of the relevant maritime shipping routes. On the other hand, a shallow flat shelf is mostly affected by anthropogenic pollution, eutrophication, hypoxia and harmful algae blooms. The research is focused on <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the transport and transformation of PCBs (PolyChlorinated Biphenyls) because they are exceedingly toxic and highly resistant to degradation, hence cumulatively affect marine ecosystems. Being lipophilic compounds, PCBs demonstrate the distinguishing sorption/desorption activity taking part in the biogeochemical fluxes via the organic matter particles and sediments. In the framework of the research, the coastal in-situ data on PCB concentration in the water column and sediments are processed, visualized and analyzed. It is concluded that the main sources of PCBs are related to the Danube discharge and resuspension from the shallow-water sediments. Developed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> is aimed at simulation of PCB contamination of the water column and sediment. The <span class="hlt">model</span> integrates the full physics hydrodynamic block as well as modules, which describe detritus transport and transformation and PCB <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Three state variables are simulated in PCB transport module: concentration in solute, on the settling particles of detritus and in the top layer of sediments. PCB adsorption/desorption on detritus; the reversible PCB fluxes at the water-sediment boundary; destruction of detritus are taken into consideration. Formalization of PCB deposition/resuspension in the sediments is adapted from Van Rijn's <span class="hlt">model</span> of the suspended sediment transport. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was spun up to reconstruct the short term scenario of the instantaneous PCB release from the St. George Arm of Danube. It has been shown that PCB transport on sinking detritus represents the natural buffer mechanism damping the spreading PCB</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15016862','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15016862"><span id="translatedtitle">Progress in the Peeling-Ballooning <span class="hlt">Model</span> of ELMs: Numerical Studies of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Nonlinear ELM <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Snyder, P B; Wilson, H R; Xu, X Q</p> <p>2004-12-13</p> <p>Nonlinear simulations with the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> electromagnetic two-fluid BOUT code are employed to study the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of edge localized modes (ELMs) driven by intermediate wavelength peeling-ballooning modes. It is found that the early behavior of the modes is similar to expectations from linear, ideal peeling-ballooning mode theory, with the modes growing linearly at a fraction of the Alfven frequency. In the non-linear phase, the modes grow explosively, forming a number of extended filaments which propagate rapidly from the outer closed flux region into the open flux region toward the outer wall. Similarities to non-linear linear ballooning theory, as well as additional complexities are observed. Comparison to observations reveals a number of similarities. Implications of the simulations and proposals for the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the full ELM crash are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/836913','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/836913"><span id="translatedtitle">PROGRESS IN THE PEELING-BALLOONING <span class="hlt">MODEL</span> OF ELMS: NUMERICAL STUDIES OF <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> NONLINEAR ELM <span class="hlt">DYNAMICS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>SNYDER,P.B; WILSON,H.R; XU,X.Q</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>Nonlinear simulations with the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> electromagnetic two-fluid BOUT code are employed to study the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of edge localized modes (ELMs) driven by intermediate wavelength peeling-ballooning modes. It is found that the early behavior of the modes is similar to expectations from linear, ideal peeling-ballooning mode theory, with the modes growing linearly at a fraction of the Alfven frequency. In the nonlinear phase, the modes grow explosively, forming a number of extended filaments which propagate rapidly from the outer closed flux region into the open flux region toward the outboard wall. Similarities to non-linear ballooning theory, as well as additional complexities are observed. Comparison to observations reveals a number of similarities. Implications of the simulations and proposals for the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the full ELM crash are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9404038L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9404038L"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> perspective of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> behaviour of heterogeneous solids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Yong; Zhou, Rongxin</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> behaviour of concrete-like materials under high strain rates has been a subject of continuous scrutiny over the years. A prevailing explanation attributes much of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> increase of strength, especially under compression, to the macroscopic inertia confinement. Studies conducted by the authors' group using meso-scale computational <span class="hlt">models</span> suggest that the heterogeneity of the material composition, in particular the involvement of the aggregates, also plays a sensible part in the process of damage evolution and the increase of the bulk strength under high strain rates, and a detailed investigation into this effect would benefit if a realistic representation of the heterogeneity in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can be achieved. This paper presents some recent progress in the development of a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> meso-scale computational <span class="hlt">model</span> incorporating randomly-shaped <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> aggregate particles, including the general validation of the <span class="hlt">model</span>, and application in the simulation of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> response of concrete under high strain rate compression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAn..I4..125R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAn..I4..125R"><span id="translatedtitle">An Evaluative Review of Simulated <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Smart <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Objects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Romeijn, H.; Sheth, F.; Pettit, C. J.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of plants can be an asset for creating agricultural based visualisation products. The continuum of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> plants <span class="hlt">models</span> ranges from static to <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> objects, also known as smart <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects. There is an increasing requirement for smarter simulated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects that are attributed mathematically and/or from biological inputs. A systematic approach to plant simulation offers significant advantages to applications in agricultural research, particularly in simulating plant behaviour and the influences of external environmental factors. This approach of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> plant object visualisation is primarily evident from the visualisation of plants using photographed billboarded images, to more advanced procedural <span class="hlt">models</span> that come closer to simulating realistic virtual plants. However, few programs <span class="hlt">model</span> physical reactions of plants to external factors and even fewer are able to grow plants based on mathematical and/or biological parameters. In this paper, we undertake an evaluation of plant-based object simulation programs currently available, with a focus upon the components and techniques involved in producing these objects. Through an analytical review process we consider the strengths and weaknesses of several program packages, the features and use of these programs and the possible opportunities in deploying these for creating smart <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> plant-based objects to support agricultural research and natural resource management. In creating smart <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects the <span class="hlt">model</span> needs to be informed by both plant physiology and phenology. Expert knowledge will frame the parameters and procedures that will attribute the object and allow the simulation of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> virtual plants. Ultimately, biologically smart <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> virtual plants that react to changes within an environment could be an effective medium to visually represent landscapes and communicate land management scenarios and practices to planners and decision-makers.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22263870','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22263870"><span id="translatedtitle">CQL<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Hybrid-FOW <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the temporal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of NSTX NBI+HHFW discharges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Taylor, G.; Bonoli, P. T.</p> <p>2014-02-12</p> <p>The CQL<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Fokker-Planck code[1] has been upgraded to include physics of finite-orbit-width (FOW) guiding-center orbits[2,3], as compared with the previous zero-orbit-width (ZOW) <span class="hlt">model</span>, and a recent first-order orbit calculation[2]. The Fast Ion Diagnostic FIDA[4,5] signal resulting from neutral beam (NBI) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) RF power injected into the NSTX spherical tokamak can now be <span class="hlt">modeled</span> quite accurately, using ion distributions from the CQL<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Hybrid-FOW code, a rapidly executing variant that includes FOW+gyro-orbit losses to the plasma edge, FOW effects on NBI injection and HHFW diffusion, but does not include neoclassical radial diffusion. Accurate simulation of prompt fast ion (FI) losses is a key feature of the marked <span class="hlt">modeling</span> improvement relative to previous ZOW results. By comparing NBI-only and NBI+HHFW shots, independent confirmation of the usual 35% edge loss of HHFW in NSTX is obtained. Further, HHFW prompt losses from the plasma core are shown to be 3X as large (>25%) as the NBI-only case. The modulated NBI and time-dependent background plasma variations and charge exchange losses of fast ions are accounted for, and the temporal neutron variation is in approximate agreement with NSTX observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8320E..09P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8320E..09P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> shape <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the mitral valve from real-time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrasound images using continuous medial representation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pouch, Alison M.; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Jackson, Benjamin M.; Gorman, Joseph H., III; Gorman, Robert C.; Sehgal, Chandra M.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Purpose: Patient-specific shape analysis of the mitral valve from real-time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrasound (rt-3DUS) has broad application to the assessment and surgical treatment of mitral valve disease. Our goal is to demonstrate that continuous medial representation (cm-rep) is an accurate valve shape representation that can be used for statistical shape <span class="hlt">modeling</span> over the cardiac cycle from rt-3DUS images. Methods: Transesophageal rt-3DUS data acquired from 15 subjects with a range of mitral valve pathology were analyzed. User-initialized segmentation with level sets and symmetric diffeomorphic normalization delineated the mitral leaflets at each time point in the rt-3DUS data series. A deformable cm-rep was fitted to each segmented image of the mitral leaflets in the time series, producing a 4D parametric representation of valve shape in a single cardiac cycle. <span class="hlt">Model</span> fitting accuracy was evaluated by the Dice overlap, and shape interpolation and principal component analysis (PCA) of 4D valve shape were performed. Results: Of the 289 <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images analyzed, the average Dice overlap between each fitted cm-rep and its target segmentation was 0.880+/-0.018 (max=0.912, min=0.819). The results of PCA represented variability in valve morphology and localized leaflet thickness across subjects. Conclusion: Deformable medial <span class="hlt">modeling</span> accurately captures valve geometry in rt-3DUS images over the entire cardiac cycle and enables statistical shape analysis of the mitral valve.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1129429','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1129429"><span id="translatedtitle">BEAMS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Neutral Beam Injection <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lazerson, Samuel</p> <p>2014-04-14</p> <p>With the advent of applied <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> neutral beam injection (NBI) <span class="hlt">model</span>, BEAMS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, which addresses this need by coupling <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> equilibria to a guiding center code capable of <span class="hlt">modeling</span> neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection <span class="hlt">model</span>, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> magnetic fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2340..134S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2340..134S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging using projected <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> fringes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shaw, Michael M.; Atkinson, John T.; Harvey, David M.; Hobson, Clifford A.; Lalor, Michael J.</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>An instrument capable of highly accurate, non-contact range measurement has been developed, which is based upon the principle of projected rotating fringes. More usually known as <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> fringe projection, it is this technique which is exploited in the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> automated range transducer (DART). The intensity waveform seen at the target and sensed by the detector, contains all the information required to accurately determine the fringe order. This, in turn, allows the range to be evaluated by the substitution of the fringe order into a simple algebraic expression. Various techniques for the analysis of the received intensity signals from the surface of the target have been investigated. The accuracy to which the range can be determined ultimately depends upon the accuracy to which the fringe order can be evaluated from the received intensity waveform. It is extremely important to be able to closely determine the fractional fringe order value, to achieve any meaningful results. This paper describes a number of techniques which have been used to analyze the intensity waveform, and critically appraises their suitability in terms of accuracy and required speed of operation. This work also examines the development of this instrument for three-dimensional measurements based on single or two beam systems. Using CCD array detectors, a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> range map of the object's surface may be produced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSpR..56.2738M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSpR..56.2738M"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulating coronal condensation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moschou, S. P.; Keppens, R.; Xia, C.; Fang, X.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present numerical simulations in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> settings where coronal rain phenomena take place in a magnetic configuration of a quadrupolar arcade system. Our simulation is a magnetohydrodynamic simulation including anisotropic thermal conduction, optically thin radiative losses, and parametrised heating as main thermodynamical features to construct a realistic arcade configuration from chromospheric to coronal heights. The plasma evaporation from chromospheric and transition region heights eventually causes localised runaway condensation events and we witness the formation of plasma blobs due to thermal instability, that evolve <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> in the heated arcade part and move gradually downwards due to interchange type <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Unlike earlier 2.5D simulations, in this case there is no large scale prominence formation observed, but a continuous coronal rain develops which shows clear indications of Rayleigh-Taylor or interchange instability, that causes the denser plasma located above the transition region to fall down, as the system moves towards a more stable state. Linear stability analysis is used in the non-linear regime for gaining insight and giving a prediction of the system's evolution. After the plasma blobs descend through interchange, they follow the magnetic field topology more closely in the lower coronal regions, where they are guided by the magnetic dips.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4431..153R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4431..153R"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiosity diffusion <span class="hlt">model</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Riley, Jason D.; Arridge, Simon R.; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos; Dehghani, Hamid; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Schweiger, Martin</p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p>We present the Radiosity-Diffusion <span class="hlt">model</span> in three dimensions(<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> including an extension to the <span class="hlt">model</span> to cope with increased complexity of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> domain. We show that in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> more careful consideration must be given to the issues of meshing and visibility to <span class="hlt">model</span> the transport of light within reasonable computational bounds. We demonstrate the <span class="hlt">model</span> to be comparable to Monte-Carlo simulations for selected geometries, and show preliminary results of comparisons to measured time-resolved data acquired on resin phantoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.6045E..01F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.6045E..01F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> reconstruction of underground goaf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fang, Yuanmin; Zuo, Xiaoqing; Jin, Baoxuan</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>Constructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of underground goaf, we can control the process of mining better and arrange mining work reasonably. However, the shape of goaf and the laneway among goafs are very irregular, which produce great difficulties in data-acquiring and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> reconstruction. In this paper, we research on the method of data-acquiring and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> construction of underground goaf, building topological relation among goafs. The main contents are as follows: a) The paper proposed an efficient encoding rule employed to structure the field measurement data. b) A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> construction method of goaf is put forward, which by means of combining several TIN (triangulated irregular network) pieces, and an efficient automatic processing algorithm of boundary of TIN is proposed. c) Topological relation of goaf <span class="hlt">models</span> is established. TIN object is the basic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> element of goaf <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, and the topological relation among goaf is created and maintained by building the topological relation among TIN objects. Based on this, various <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spatial analysis functions can be performed including transect and volume calculation of goaf. A prototype is developed, which can realized the <span class="hlt">model</span> and algorithm proposed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911446','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911446"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative comparison of hemodynamics in simulated and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> angiography <span class="hlt">models</span> of cerebral aneurysms by use of computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saho, Tatsunori; Onishi, Hideo</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>In this study, we evaluated hemodynamics using simulated <span class="hlt">models</span> and determined how cerebral aneurysms develop in simulated and patient-specific <span class="hlt">models</span> based on medical images. Computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (CFD) was analyzed by use of OpenFOAM software. Flow velocity, stream line, and wall shear stress (WSS) were evaluated in a simulated <span class="hlt">model</span> aneurysm with known geometry and in a three-dimensional angiographic <span class="hlt">model</span>. The ratio of WSS at the aneurysm compared with that at the basilar artery was 1:10 in simulated <span class="hlt">model</span> aneurysms with a diameter of 10 mm and 1:18 in the angiographic <span class="hlt">model</span>, indicating similar tendencies. Vortex flow occurred in both <span class="hlt">model</span> aneurysms, and the WSS decreased in larger <span class="hlt">model</span> aneurysms. The angiographic <span class="hlt">model</span> provided accurate CFD information, and the tendencies of simulated and angiographic <span class="hlt">models</span> were similar. These findings indicate that hemodynamic effects are involved in the development of aneurysms. PMID:25911446</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S42B..07R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S42B..07R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> ground motion <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for M7 <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> rupture earthquake scenarios on the Wasatch fault, Utah</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roten, D.; Olsen, K. B.; Cruz Atienza, V. M.; Pechmann, J. C.; Magistrale, H. W.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The Salt Lake City segment of the Wasatch fault (WFSLC), located on the eastern edge of the Salt Lake Basin (SLB), is capable of producing M7 earthquakes and represents a serious seismic hazard to Salt Lake City, Utah. We simulate a series of rupture scenarios on the WFSLC to quantify the ground motion expected from such M7 events and to assess the importance of amplification effects from basin focusing and source directivity. We use the newly revised Wasatch Front community velocity <span class="hlt">model</span> for our simulations, which is tested by simulating records of three local Mw 3.3-3.7 earthquakes in the frequency band 0.5 to 1.0 Hz. The M7 earthquake scenarios make use of a detailed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> geometry of the WFSLC that we developed based on geological observations. To obtain a suite of realistic source representations for M7 WFSLC simulations we perform spontaneous-rupture simulations on a planar 43 km by 23 km fault with the staggered-grid split-node finite-difference (FD) method. We estimate the initial distribution of shear stress using <span class="hlt">models</span> that assume depth-dependent normal stress for a dipping, normal fault as well as simpler <span class="hlt">models</span> which use constant (depth-independent) normal stress. The slip rate histories from the spontaneous rupture scenarios are projected onto the irregular dipping geometry of the WFSLC and used to simulate 0-1 Hz wave propagation in the SLB area using a 4th-order, staggered-grid visco-elastic FD method. We find that peak ground velocities tend to be larger on the low-velocity sediments on the hanging wall side of the fault than on outcropping rock on the footwall side, confirming results of previous studies on normal faulting earthquakes. The simulated ground motions reveal strong along-strike directivity effects for ruptures nucleating towards the ends of the WFSLC. The 0-1 Hz FD simulations are combined with local scattering operators to obtain broadband (0-10 Hz) synthetics and maps of average peak ground motions. Finally we use broadband</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...587A..12W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...587A..12W"><span id="translatedtitle">Near-infrared spectro-interferometry of Mira variables and comparisons to 1D <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> atmospheres and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> convection simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wittkowski, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Freytag, B.; Scholz, M.; Höfner, S.; Karovicova, I.; Whitelock, P. A.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Aims: We aim at comparing spectro-interferometric observations of Mira variable asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with the latest 1D <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> atmospheres based on self-excited pulsation <span class="hlt">models</span> (CODEX <span class="hlt">models</span>) and with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> atmospheres including pulsation and convection (CO5BOLD <span class="hlt">models</span>) to better understand the processes that extend the molecular atmosphere to radii where dust can form. Methods: We obtained a total of 20 near-infrared K-band spectro-interferometric snapshot observations of the Mira variables o Cet, R Leo, R Aqr, X Hya, W Vel, and R Cnc with a spectral resolution of about 1500. We compared observed flux and visibility spectra with predictions by CODEX 1D <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> atmospheres and with azimuthally averaged intensities based on CO5BOLD <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> atmospheres. Results: Our visibility data confirm the presence of spatially extended molecular atmospheres located above the continuum radii with large-scale inhomogeneities or clumps that contribute a few percent of the total flux. The detailed structure of the inhomogeneities or clumps show a variability on time scales of 3 months and above. Both <span class="hlt">modeling</span> attempts provided satisfactory fits to our data. In particular, they are both consistent with the observed decrease in the visibility function at molecular bands of water vapor and CO, indicating a spatially extended molecular atmosphere. Observational variability phases are mostly consistent with those of the best-fit CODEX <span class="hlt">models</span>, except for near-maximum phases, where data are better described by near-minimum <span class="hlt">models</span>. Rosseland angular diameters derived from the <span class="hlt">model</span> fits are broadly consistent between those based on the 1D and the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> and with earlier observations. We derived fundamental parameters including absolute radii, effective temperatures, and luminosities for our sources. Conclusions: Our results provide a first observational support for theoretical results that shocks induced by convection and pulsation in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016E%26PSL.442...93M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016E%26PSL.442...93M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of mantle flow, crustal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and magma genesis associated with slab roll-back and tearing: The eastern Mediterranean case</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Menant, Armel; Sternai, Pietro; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Gerya, Taras</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Interactions between subduction <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and magma genesis have been intensely investigated, resulting in several conceptual <span class="hlt">models</span> derived from geological, geochemical and geophysical data. To provide physico-chemical constraints on these conceptual <span class="hlt">models</span>, self-consistent numerical simulations containing testable thermo-mechanical parameters are required, especially considering the three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) natural complexity of subduction systems. Here, we use a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> high-resolution petrological and thermo-mechanical numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> to quantify the relative contribution of oceanic and continental subduction/collision, slab roll-back and tearing to magma genesis and transport processes. Our <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results suggest that the space and time distribution and composition of magmas in the overriding plate is controlled by the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> slab <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and related asthenospheric flow. Moreover, the decrease of the bulk lithospheric strength induced by mantle- and crust-derived magmas promotes the propagation of strike-slip and extensional fault zones through the overriding crust as response to slab roll-back and continental collision. Reduction of the lithosphere/asthenosphere rheological contrast by lithospheric weakening also favors the transmission of velocities from the flowing mantle to the crust. Similarities between our <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results and the late Cenozoic tectonic and magmatic evolution across the eastern Mediterranean region suggest an efficient control of mantle flow on the magmatic activity in this region, which in turn promotes lithospheric deformation by mantle drag via melt-induced weakening effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...22c2030Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...22c2030Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> characteristics of a pump-turbine during hydraulic transients of a <span class="hlt">model</span> pumped-storage system: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CFD simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, X. X.; Cheng, Y. G.; Xia, L. S.; Yang, J. D.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The runaway process in a <span class="hlt">model</span> pumped-storage system was simulated for analyzing the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> characteristics of a pump-turbine. The simulation was adopted by coupling 1D (One Dimensional) pipeline MOC (Method of Characteristics) equations with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (Three Dimensional) pump-turbine CFD (Computational Fluid <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span>) <span class="hlt">model</span>, in which the water hammer wave in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> zone was defined by giving a pressure dependent density. We found from the results that the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> performances of the pump-turbine do not coincide with the static operating points, especially in the S-shaped characteristics region, where the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> trajectories follow ring-shaped curves. Specifically, the transient operating points with the same Q11 and M11 in different moving directions of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> trajectories give different n11. The main reason of this phenomenon is that the transient flow patterns inside the pump-turbine are influenced by the ones in the previous time step, which leads to different flow patterns between the points with the same Q11 and M11 in different moving directions of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> trajectories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3597536','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3597536"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial Pattern <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Stem Cell Loss of Pluripotency via Rules-Based Computational <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>White, Douglas E.; Kinney, Melissa A.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Kemp, Melissa L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p> powerful tool to predict stem cell behavior under a number of culture conditions that emulate characteristics of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stem cell niches. PMID:23516345</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1236..467S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1236..467S"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase unwrapping in the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Su, Xianyu; Zhang, Qican</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>In the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape measurement phase distribution has <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> character, in which phase changes along x and y directions in space and also along t direction in time. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> phase unwrapping plays a very important role in the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape measurement. In the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape measurement methods based on the structured illumination, Fourier transformation profilometry (FTP) is particularly fit for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurement, because of only one fringe pattern needed and full field analysis. In this paper some <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> phase unwrapping techniques for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape measurement mainly in our Lab. are presented and reviewed. The basic methods and algorithm design are introduced. The basic methods include direct <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> phase unwrapping, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> diamond phase unwrapping, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> phase unwrapping based on reliability ordering, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> phase unwrapping based on marked fringe tracing. The advantage of the phase unwrapping based on reliability ordering is that the path of phase unwrapping is always along the direction from the pixel with higher reliability parameter value to the pixel with low reliability parameter value. Therefore, in the worse case the error is limited, if there is any, to local minimum areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1166048','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1166048"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Engine Representation Summary Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Computers have been used for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex <span class="hlt">models</span>. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PPCF...56i5019M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PPCF...56i5019M"><span id="translatedtitle">BEAMS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Neutral Beam Injection <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>With the advent of applied <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> neutral beam injection (NBI) <span class="hlt">model</span>, BEAMS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, which addresses this need by coupling <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> equilibria to a guiding center code capable of <span class="hlt">modeling</span> neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI <span class="hlt">model</span>, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H43J..03N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H43J..03N"><span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Water Subsidy on Vegetation <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> in a Semiarid Grassland Catchment: Comparison between Field Measurements and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Ecohydrological <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Niu, G.; Troch, P. A.; Paniconi, C.; Scott, R. L.; Durcik, M.; Zeng, X.; Huxman, T. E.; Goodrich, D. C.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>In water-limited regions, water and carbon fluxes are strongly controlled by soil water availability, which may be highly variable even at very small spatial scales (e.g., meters) due to variations in slope, aspect, soils, and vegetation conditions, as well as water redistribution along hillslopes. This paper examines key factors controlling soil water availability for plant growth and surface CO2 fluxes in a small semi-arid experimental watershed (7.92 ha) in southeastern Arizona, using a land surface <span class="hlt">model</span> (LSM) coupled with a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) process-based hydrological <span class="hlt">model</span>. The LSM accounts for surface energy, water, and carbon exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere, while the hydrological <span class="hlt">model</span> accounts for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface flow in variably saturated porous media and surface flow propagation over hillslopes and in stream channel networks. The coupled <span class="hlt">model</span>, with minor calibration, simulated the observed surface energy, water, and CO2 fluxes well. The <span class="hlt">model</span> mirrored the interannual variability of CO2 fluxes without accounting for the transition from native to exotic bunchgrasses that occurred at this site during the observation period, suggesting that water availability exerts a stronger control on the ecosystem <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> than changes in species. Results from <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> coupled <span class="hlt">model</span> experiments with different lateral saturated hydraulic conductivities demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">model</span> with smaller conductivities improved the simulation of evapotranspiration (ET) and CO2 fluxes, suggesting that lateral subsurface flow was very weak. Experiments with the one-dimensional LSM, which does not explicitly consider either surface or subsurface lateral flows, produced lower-than-observed ET and CO2 fluxes during drought years and in dry-down periods. However, in the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> simulations, the wetter soils in lowland areas along stream channels, mainly induced by lateral overland flow and re-infiltration, provides plants with favorable conditions to produce more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMSA22B..08B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMSA22B..08B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Behavior of Generalized Polar Wind</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barakat, A. R.; Schunk, R. W.; Demars, H. G.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> behavior of the high-latitude plasma during a representative geomagnetic storm is investigated using a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> macroscopic particle-in-cell (mac-PIC) <span class="hlt">model</span>. In this study, we simulate the behavior of a large number ( ˜100 to 1000) of plasma-filled geomagnetic flux tubes. Each flux tube extends from 1200 km to several Earth radii, includes ˜106 simulation particles, and is followed for ˜12 hours. The lower boundary conditions of the <span class="hlt">model</span> are provided by a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> fluid-like <span class="hlt">model</span> that extends down to 100 km. Several physical mechanisms are included such as wave-particle interactions, ion-ion collisions, low-altitude ion energization, and magnetospheric particles. The computing-intensive nature of the <span class="hlt">model</span> requires the utilization of parallel programming techniques. We use a cluster of five nodes, with two (1.6 GHz) processors each, that is available at Utah State University, with the intention of transferring the code to a bigger facility in the future. A <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> picture is assembled from the temporal evolution of the individual flux tubes by keeping track of their locations. This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> picture facilitates comparison with observations, such as radar and satellite measurements. The <span class="hlt">model</span> and its preliminary results are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EP%26S...62..665M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EP%26S...62..665M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Construction of semi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of subduction zone with given plate kinematics in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morishige, M.; Honda, S.; Tackley, P. J.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>We present a semi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subduction zone <span class="hlt">model</span> in a three-dimensional spherical shell. In this <span class="hlt">model</span>, velocity is imposed on the top surface and in a small three-dimensional region around the shallow plate boundary while below this region, the slab is able to subduct under its own weight. Surface plate velocities are given by Euler's theorem of rigid plate rotation on a sphere. The velocity imposed in the region around the plate boundary is determined so that mass conservation inside the region is satisfied. A kinematic trench migration can be easily incorporated in this <span class="hlt">model</span>. As an application of this <span class="hlt">model</span>, mantle flow around slab edges is considered, and we find that the effect of Earth curvature is small by comparing our <span class="hlt">model</span> with a similar one in a rectangular box, at least for the parameters used in this study. As a second application of the <span class="hlt">model</span>, mantle flow around a plate junction is studied, and we find the existence of mantle return flow perpendicular to the plate boundary. Since this <span class="hlt">model</span> can naturally incorporate the spherical geometry and plate movement on the sphere, it is useful for studying a specific subduction zone where the plate kinematics is well constrained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24746017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24746017"><span id="translatedtitle">A multiscale 0-D/<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> approach to patient-specific adaptation of a cerebral autoregulation <span class="hlt">model</span> for computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> studies of cardiopulmonary bypass.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neidlin, Michael; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Kaufmann, Tim A S</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Neurological complication often occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). One of the main causes is hypoperfusion of the cerebral tissue affected by the position of the cannula tip and diminished cerebral autoregulation (CA). Recently, a lumped parameter approach could describe the baroreflex, one of the main mechanisms of cerebral autoregulation, in a computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (CFD) study of CPB. However, the cerebral blood flow (CBF) was overestimated and the physiological meaning of the variables and their impact on the <span class="hlt">model</span> was unknown. In this study, we use a 0-D control circuit representation of the Baroreflex mechanism, to assess the parameters with respect to their physiological meaning and their influence on CBF. Afterwards the parameters are transferred to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-CFD and the static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> behavior of cerebral autoregulation is investigated. The parameters of the baroreflex mechanism can reproduce normotensive, hypertensive and impaired autoregulation behavior. Further on, the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> can mimic the effects of anesthetic agents and other factors controlling <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> CA. The CFD simulations deliver similar results of static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> CBF as the 0-D control circuit. This study shows the feasibility of a multiscale 0-D/<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> approach to include patient-specific cerebral autoregulation into CFD studies. PMID:24746017</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IAUS..265..201L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IAUS..265..201L"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar abundances and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> atmospheres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ludwig, Hans-Günter; Caffau, Elisabetta; Steffen, Matthias; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Freytag, Bernd; Cayrel, Roger</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>We present solar photospheric abundances for 12 elements from optical and near-infrared spectroscopy. The abundance analysis was conducted employing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamical (CO5BOLD) as well as standard 1D hydrostatic <span class="hlt">model</span> atmospheres. We compare our results to others with emphasis on discrepancies and still lingering problems, in particular exemplified by the pivotal abundance of oxygen. We argue that the thermal structure of the lower solar photosphere is very well represented by our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. We obtain an excellent match of the observed center-to-limb variation of the line-blanketed continuum intensity, also at wavelengths shortward of the Balmer jump.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhFl...27b2104W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhFl...27b2104W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles using the boundary integral method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Qianxi; Manmi, Kawa; Calvisi, Michael L.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are microbubbles stabilized with a shell typically of lipid, polymer, or protein and are emerging as a unique tool for noninvasive therapies ranging from gene delivery to tumor ablation. While various <span class="hlt">models</span> have been developed to describe the spherical oscillations of contrast agents, the treatment of nonspherical behavior has received less attention. However, the nonspherical <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of contrast agents are thought to play an important role in therapeutic applications, for example, enhancing the uptake of therapeutic agents across cell membranes and tissue interfaces, and causing tissue ablation. In this paper, a <span class="hlt">model</span> for nonspherical contrast agent <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> based on the boundary integral method is described. The effects of the encapsulating shell are approximated by adapting Hoff's <span class="hlt">model</span> for thin-shell, spherical contrast agents. A high-quality mesh of the bubble surface is maintained by implementing a hybrid approach of the Lagrangian method and elastic mesh technique. The numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> agrees well with a modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation for encapsulated spherical bubbles. Numerical analyses of the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of UCAs in an infinite liquid and near a rigid wall are performed in parameter regimes of clinical relevance. The oscillation amplitude and period decrease significantly due to the coating. A bubble jet forms when the amplitude of ultrasound is sufficiently large, as occurs for bubbles without a coating; however, the threshold amplitude required to incite jetting increases due to the coating. When a UCA is near a rigid boundary subject to acoustic forcing, the jet is directed towards the wall if the acoustic wave propagates perpendicular to the boundary. When the acoustic wave propagates parallel to the rigid boundary, the jet direction has components both along the wave direction and towards the boundary that depend mainly on the dimensionless standoff distance of the bubble from the boundary. In all cases, the jet</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2711338','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2711338"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Hybrid <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Tissue Growth: The Interplay between Cell Population and Mass Transport <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cheng, Gang; Markenscoff, Pauline; Zygourakis, Kyriacos</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Abstract To provide theoretical guidance for the design and in vitro cultivation of bioartificial tissues, we have developed a multiscale computational <span class="hlt">model</span> that can describe the complex interplay between cell population and mass transport <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> that governs the growth of tissues in three-dimensional scaffolds. The <span class="hlt">model</span> has three components: a transient partial differential equation for the simultaneous diffusion and consumption of a limiting nutrient; a cellular automaton describing cell migration, proliferation, and collision; and equations that quantify how the varying nutrient concentration modulates cell division and migration. The hybrid discrete-continuous <span class="hlt">model</span> was parallelized and solved on a distributed-memory multicomputer to study how transport limitations affect tissue regeneration rates under conditions encountered in typical bioreactors. Simulation results show that the severity of transport limitations can be estimated by the magnitude of two dimensionless groups: the Thiele modulus and the Biot number. Key parameters including the initial seeding mode, cell migration speed, and the hydrodynamic conditions in the bioreactor are shown to affect not only the overall rate, but also the pattern of tissue growth. This study lays the groundwork for more comprehensive <span class="hlt">models</span> that can handle mixed cell cultures, multiple nutrients and growth factors, and other cellular processes, such as cell death. PMID:19619455</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ISPAr.XL4..169M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ISPAr.XL4..169M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">NoSQL Based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">Model</span> Management System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mao, B.; Harrie, L.; Cao, J.; Wu, Z.; Shen, J.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>To manage increasingly complicated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span>, a framework based on NoSQL database is proposed in this paper. The framework supports import and export of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> according to international standards such as CityGML, KML/COLLADA and X<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. We also suggest and implement <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> analysis and visualization in the framework. For city <span class="hlt">model</span> analysis, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry data and semantic information (such as name, height, area, price and so on) are stored and processed separately. We use a Map-Reduce method to deal with the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry data since it is more complex, while the semantic analysis is mainly based on database query operation. For visualization, a multiple <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city representation structure CityTree is implemented within the framework to support <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> LODs based on user viewpoint. Also, the proposed framework is easily extensible and supports geoindexes to speed up the querying. Our experimental results show that the proposed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city management system can efficiently fulfil the analysis and visualization requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Photosynthesis&pg=3&id=EJ876145','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Photosynthesis&pg=3&id=EJ876145"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Teaching <span class="hlt">Models</span> for All</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bradley, Joan; Farland-Smith, Donna</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) <span class="hlt">models</span> with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit all students and can be used to teach common high school biology topics, including the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993graz.iafcV....D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993graz.iafcV....D"><span id="translatedtitle">An approach for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mathematical <span class="hlt">modelization</span> of big structures with special respect to Ariane 5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dieker, S.</p> <p>1993-10-01</p> <p>With special respect to Ariane 5, solutions are outlined that allow an improvement of the mathematical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and calculation in structural <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Substructuring, and the application of modern component mode synthesis methods, are necessary. However, most of the methods result in modal degrees of freedom (DOF) of the interfaces and demand a high effort to couple the substructures. A general method is described that overcomes the disadvantages of the modal interface DOFs. As a result, the coupling of substructures is reduced to a simple addition of matrices. All reduced matrices of the substructures are real and symmetric. In a second section, special aspects of <span class="hlt">modeling</span> are discussed. Structural aspects that are taken into account are the viscoelastic material behavior of the propellant of the solid rocket booster, the idealization of fluids and shells, and the fluid-structure-interaction. The coupling between axial, lateral and circumferential wave modes of Ariane 5 is no longer negligible; a hybrid description of the DOFs of the complete launcher by grid point displacements and Fourier series is possible, and offers an additional way to reduce the number of DOFs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994AcAau..34..139D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994AcAau..34..139D"><span id="translatedtitle">An approach for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mathematical <span class="hlt">modelization</span> of big structures with special respect to ARIANE 5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dieker, S.</p> <p></p> <p>With special respect to ARIANE 5, solutions are outlined that allow an improvement of the mathematical <span class="hlt">modelization</span> and calculation in structural <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Substructuring and the application of modern component mode synthesis methods (e.g. Craig-Chang) are necessary. However, most of the methods result in modal degrees of freedom (DOF) of the interfaces and demand a high effort to couple the substructures. In this paper, a general method is described that allows to overcome the disadvantages of the modal interface DOFs. As a result, the coupling of substructures is reduced to a simple addition of matrices. The methods of Craig-Chang and Hurty resp. Craig-Bampton are special applications of this method. All reduced matrices of the substructures are real and symmetric. In a second section, special aspects of <span class="hlt">modelization</span> are discussed. Structural aspects that are taken into accout are the viscoelastic material behaviour of the propellant of the solid rocket booster, the idealization of fluids and shells and the fluid-structure-interaction including the stiffening effect of the tank pressure. Finally, the coupling between axial, lateral and circumferential wave modes of the launcher ARIANE 5 is no longer neglectable. The mathematical representation of the interfaces between adjacent substructures is of some importance. A hybrid description of the DOFs of the complete launcher by grid point displacements and Fourier series is possible and offers an additional way to reduce the number of DOFs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JMS...135...97C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JMS...135...97C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the spatial and temporal population <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the copepod Centropages typicus in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea during the year 2001 using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ecosystem <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carlotti, F.; Eisenhauer, L.; Campbell, R.; Diaz, F.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of a simulated Centropages typicus (Kröyer) population during the year 2001 at the regional scale of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea are addressed using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> coupled physical-biogeochemical <span class="hlt">model</span>. The setup of the coupled biological <span class="hlt">model</span> comprises a pelagic plankton ecosystem <span class="hlt">model</span> and a stage-structured population <span class="hlt">model</span> forced by the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> velocity and temperature fields provided by an eddy-resolving regional circulation <span class="hlt">model</span>. The population <span class="hlt">model</span> for C. typicus (C. t. below) represents demographic processes through five groups of developmental stages, which depend on underlying individual growth and development processes and are forced by both biotic (prey and predator fields) and abiotic (temperature, advection) factors from the coupled physical-biogeochemical <span class="hlt">model</span>. The objective is to characterize C. t. ontogenic habitats driven by physical and trophic processes. The annual <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> are presented for two of the main oceanographic stations in the Gulf of Lions, which are representative of shelf and open sea conditions, while the spatial distributions over the whole area are presented for three dates during the year, in early and late spring and in winter. The simulated spatial patterns of C. t. developmental stages are closely related to mesoscale hydrodynamic features and circulation patterns. The seasonal and spatial distributions on the Gulf of Lions shelf depend on the seasonal interplay between the Rhône river plume, the mesoscale eddies on the shelf and the Northern Current acting as either as a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> barrier between the shelf and the open sea or allowing cross-shelf exchanges. In the central gyre of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, the patchiness of plankton is tightly linked to mesoscale frontal systems, surface eddies and filaments and deep gradients. Due to its flexibility in terms of its diet, C. t. succeeds in maintaining its population in both coastal and offshore areas year round. The simulations suggest that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptLE..74...47P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptLE..74...47P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> transient multiphase <span class="hlt">model</span> for keyhole, vapor plume, and weld pool <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in laser welding including the ambient pressure effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pang, Shengyong; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Jianxin; Shao, Xinyu; Wang, Chunming</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The physical process of deep penetration laser welding involves complex, self-consistent multiphase keyhole, metallic vapor plume, and weld pool <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Currently, efforts are still needed to understand these multiphase <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. In this paper, a novel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> transient multiphase <span class="hlt">model</span> capable of describing a self-consistent keyhole, metallic vapor plume in the keyhole, and weld pool <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in deep penetration fiber laser welding is proposed. Major physical factors of the welding process, such as recoil pressure, surface tension, Marangoni shear stress, Fresnel absorptions mechanisms, heat transfer, and fluid flow in weld pool, keyhole free surface evolutions and solid-liquid-vapor three phase transformations are coupling considered. The effect of ambient pressure in laser welding is rigorously treated using an improved recoil pressure <span class="hlt">model</span>. The predicated weld bead dimensions, transient keyhole instability, weld pool <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, and vapor plume <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> are compared with experimental and literature results, and good agreements are obtained. The predicted results are investigated by not considering the effects of the ambient pressure. It is found that by not considering the effects of ambient pressure, the average keyhole wall temperature is underestimated about 500 K; besides, the average speed of metallic vapor will be significantly overestimated. The ambient pressure is an essential physical factor for a comprehensive understanding the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of deep penetration laser welding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5669...42D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5669...42D"><span id="translatedtitle">Illustrative visualization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doellner, Juergen; Buchholz, Henrik; Nienhaus, Marc; Kirsch, Florian</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>This paper presents an illustrative visualization technique that provides expressive representations of large-scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span>, inspired by the tradition of artistic and cartographic visualizations typically found in bird"s-eye view and panoramic maps. We define a collection of city <span class="hlt">model</span> components and a real-time multi-pass rendering algorithm that achieves comprehensible, abstract <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> depictions based on edge enhancement, color-based and shadow-based depth cues, and procedural facade texturing. Illustrative visualization provides an effective visual interface to urban spatial information and associated thematic information complementing visual interfaces based on the Virtual Reality paradigm, offering a huge potential for graphics design. Primary application areas include city and landscape planning, cartoon worlds in computer games, and tourist information systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/573305','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/573305"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensing and compressing <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krumm, J.</p> <p>1998-02-01</p> <p>The goal of this research project was to create a passive and robust computer vision system for producing <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> computer <span class="hlt">models</span> of arbitrary scenes. Although the authors were unsuccessful in achieving the overall goal, several components of this research have shown significant potential. Of particular interest is the application of parametric eigenspace methods for planar pose measurement of partially occluded objects in gray-level images. The techniques presented provide a simple, accurate, and robust solution to the planar pose measurement problem. In addition, the representational efficiency of eigenspace methods used with gray-level features were successfully extended to binary features, which are less sensitive to illumination changes. The results of this research are presented in two papers that were written during the course of this project. The papers are included in sections 2 and 3. The first section of this report summarizes the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMS...158...34W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMS...158...34W"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertical temperature <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in the Northern Baltic Sea based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and data from shallow-water Argo floats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Westerlund, Antti; Tuomi, Laura</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> often produce errors in the depth of the mixed layer and the vertical density structure. We used the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> NEMO to investigate the effect of vertical turbulence parameterisations on seasonal temperature <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in the Bothnian Sea, Baltic Sea for the years 2012 and 2013. We used vertical profiles from new shallow-water Argo floats, operational in the area since 2012, to validate our <span class="hlt">model</span>. We found that NEMO was able to reproduce the general features of the seasonal temperature variations in the study area, when meteorological forcing was accurate. The k-ε and k-ω schemes were selected for a more detailed analysis. Both schemes showed clear differences, but neither proved superior. While sea surface temperature was better simulated with the k-ω scheme, thermocline depth was clearly better with the k-ε scheme. We investigated the effect of wave-breaking on the mixing of the surface layer. The Craig and Banner parameterisation clearly improved the representation of thermocline depth. However, further tuning of the mixing parameterisations for the Baltic Sea is needed to better simulate the vertical temperature structure. We found the autonomous Baltic Sea Argo floats valuable for <span class="hlt">model</span> validation and performance evaluation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18192707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18192707"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of optically challenging objects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Johnny; Kak, Avinash</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We present a system for constructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of real-world objects with optically challenging surfaces. The system utilizes a new range imaging concept called multi-peak range imaging, which stores multiple candidates of range measurements for each point on the object surface. The multiple measurements include the erroneous range data caused by various surface properties that are not ideal for structured-light range sensing. False measurements generated by spurious reflections are eliminated by applying a series of constraint tests. The constraint tests based on local surface and local sensor visibility are applied first to individual range images. The constraint tests based on global consistency of coordinates and visibility are then applied to all range images acquired from different viewpoints. We show the effectiveness of our method by constructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of five different optically challenging objects. To evaluate the performance of the constraint tests and to examine the effects of the parameters used in the constraint tests, we acquired the ground truth data by painting those objects to suppress the surface-related properties that cause difficulties in range sensing. Experimental results indicate that our method significantly improves upon the traditional methods for constructing reliable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of optically challenging objects. PMID:18192707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014SPIE.9028E..0RB&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014SPIE.9028E..0RB&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Robust hashing for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Rettig, Michael; Steinebach, Martin</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> and applications are of utmost interest in both science and industry. With the increment of their usage, their number and thereby the challenge to correctly identify them increases. Content identification is commonly done by cryptographic hashes. However, they fail as a solution in application scenarios such as computer aided design (CAD), scientific visualization or video games, because even the smallest alteration of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, e.g. conversion or compression operations, massively changes the cryptographic hash as well. Therefore, this work presents a robust hashing algorithm for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mesh data. The algorithm applies several different bit extraction methods. They are built to resist desired alterations of the <span class="hlt">model</span> as well as malicious attacks intending to prevent correct allocation. The different bit extraction methods are tested against each other and, as far as possible, the hashing algorithm is compared to the state of the art. The parameters tested are robustness, security and runtime performance as well as False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR), also the probability calculation of hash collision is included. The introduced hashing algorithm is kept adaptive e.g. in hash length, to serve as a proper tool for all applications in practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EAS....71...81M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EAS....71...81M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Symbiotic Binaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohamed, S.; Booth, R.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W.; Maercker, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Symbiotic binaries consist of a cool, mass-losing giant and an accreting, compact companion. We present <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) <span class="hlt">models</span> of two such interacting binaries, RS Oph and Mira AB. RS Oph is also a recurrent nova system, thus we <span class="hlt">model</span> multiple quiescent mass transfer-nova outburst cycles. The resulting circumstellar structures of both systems are highly complex with the formation of spirals, arcs, shells, equatorial and bipolar outflows. We compare the <span class="hlt">models</span> to recent observations and discuss the implications of our results for related systems, e.g., bipolar nebulae and jets, chemically peculiar stars, and the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4417147','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4417147"><span id="translatedtitle">Inferential <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> chromatin structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Siyu; Xu, Jinbo; Zeng, Jianyang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>For eukaryotic cells, the biological processes involving regulatory DNA elements play an important role in cell cycle. Understanding <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spatial arrangements of chromosomes and revealing long-range chromatin interactions are critical to decipher these biological processes. In recent years, chromosome conformation capture (3C) related techniques have been developed to measure the interaction frequencies between long-range genome loci, which have provided a great opportunity to decode the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> organization of the genome. In this paper, we develop a new Bayesian framework to derive the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> architecture of a chromosome from 3C-based data. By <span class="hlt">modeling</span> each chromosome as a polymer chain, we define the conformational energy based on our current knowledge on polymer physics and use it as prior information in the Bayesian framework. We also propose an expectation-maximization (EM) based algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters of the Bayesian <span class="hlt">model</span> and infer an ensemble of chromatin structures based on interaction frequency data. We have validated our Bayesian inference approach through cross-validation and verified the computed chromatin conformations using the geometric constraints derived from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments. We have further confirmed the inferred chromatin structures using the known genetic interactions derived from other studies in the literature. Our test results have indicated that our Bayesian framework can compute an accurate ensemble of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> chromatin conformations that best interpret the distance constraints derived from 3C-based data and also agree with other sources of geometric constraints derived from experimental evidence in the previous studies. The source code of our approach can be found in https://github.com/wangsy11/InfMod3DGen. PMID:25690896</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24567158','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24567158"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D-dynamic</span> representation of DNA sequences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wąż, Piotr; Bielińska-Wąż, Dorota</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphical representation of DNA sequences is introduced. This representation is called <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D-dynamic</span> representation. It is a generalization of the 2D-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> representation. The sequences are represented by sets of "material points" in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> space. The resulting <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D-dynamic</span> graphs are treated as rigid bodies. The descriptors characterizing the graphs are analogous to the ones used in the classical <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. The classification diagrams derived from this representation are presented and discussed. Due to the third dimension, "the history of the graph" can be recognized graphically because the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D-dynamic</span> graph does not overlap with itself. Specific parts of the graphs correspond to specific parts of the sequence. This feature is essential for graphical comparisons of the sequences. Numerically, both 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> approaches are of high quality. In particular, a difference in a single base between two sequences can be identified and correctly described (one can identify which base) by both 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> methods. PMID:24567158</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..1715063D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..1715063D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the scale dependent <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> SGS <span class="hlt">model</span> in the open source code caffa<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>.MBRi in wall-bounded flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Draper, Martin; Usera, Gabriel</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Scale Dependent <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> (SDDM) has been widely validated in large-eddy simulations using pseudo-spectral codes [1][2][3]. The scale dependency, particularly the potential law, has been proved also in a priori studies [4][5]. To the authors' knowledge there have been only few attempts to use the SDDM in finite difference (FD) and finite volume (FV) codes [6][7], finding some improvements with the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> procedures (scale independent or scale dependent approach), but not showing the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter when using the SDDM. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the SDDM in the open source code caffa<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>.MBRi, an updated version of the code presented in [8]. caffa<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>.MBRi is a FV code, second-order accurate, parallelized with MPI, in which the domain is divided in unstructured blocks of structured grids. To accomplish this, 2 cases are considered: flow between flat plates and flow over a rough surface with the presence of a <span class="hlt">model</span> wind turbine, taking for this case the experimental data presented in [9]. In both cases the standard Smagorinsky <span class="hlt">Model</span> (SM), the Scale Independent <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> (SIDM) and the SDDM are tested. As presented in [6][7] slight improvements are obtained with the SDDM. Nevertheless, the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter supports the generalization of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> procedure proposed in the SDDM, particularly taking into account that no explicit filter is used (the implicit filter is unknown). [1] F. Porté-Agel, C. Meneveau, M.B. Parlange. "A scale-dependent <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for large-eddy simulation: application to a neutral atmospheric boundary layer". Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2000, 415, 261-284. [2] E. Bou-Zeid, C. Meneveau, M. Parlante. "A scale-dependent Lagrangian <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for large eddy simulation of complex turbulent flows". Physics of Fluids, 2005, 17, 025105 (18p). [3] R. Stoll, F. Porté-Agel. "<span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> subgrid-scale <span class="hlt">models</span> for momentum and scalar fluxes in large-eddy simulations of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.P53C1867S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.P53C1867S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of pickup ion velocity distribution function in Titan's plasma environment (TA encounter): <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hybrid kinetic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and comparison with CAPS observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Simpson, D. G.; Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Wave-particle interactions play a very important role in the plasma <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> near Titan: mass loading, excitation of the low-frequency waves and the formation of the particle velocity distribution function, e.g. ring/shell-like distributions, etc. The kinetic approach is important for estimation of the collision processes e.g. a charge exchange. The particle velocity distribution function also plays a key role for understanding the observed particle fluxes. In this report we discuss the ion velocity distribution function <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hybrid <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. The <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is based on recent analysis of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) ion measurements during the TA flyby. In our <span class="hlt">model</span> the background ions, all pickup ions, and ionospheric ions are considered as particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid. Inhomogeneous photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our <span class="hlt">model</span>. The temperatures of the background electrons and pickup electrons were also included into the generalized Ohm's law. We also take into account the collisions between the ions and neutrals. We use Chamberlain profiles for the exosphere's components and include a simple ionosphere <span class="hlt">model</span> with M=28 ions that were generated inside the ionosphere. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. Our <span class="hlt">modeling</span> shows that interaction between background plasma and pickup ions H+, H2+, CH4+ and N2+ has a more complicated structure than was observed in the T9 flyby and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> due to the large gyroradius of the background O+ ions [1,2,3,4]. Special attention will be paid to comparing the simulated pickup ion velocity distribution with CAPS TA observations. We also compare our kinetic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> with other hybrid and MHD <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of Titan's environment. References [1] Sittler, E.C., et al., Energy Deposition Processes in Titan's Upper Atmosphere and Its Induced Magnetosphere. In: Titan from Cassini-Huygens, Brown, R.H., Lebreton J.P., Waite, J.H., Eds</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..DFDG25008G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..DFDG25008G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Surfactant Replacement Therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grotberg, James; Tai, Cheng-Feng; Filoche, Marcel</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Surfactant Replacement Therapy (SRT) involves instillation of a liquid-surfactant mixture directly into the lung airway tree. Though successful in neonatal applications, its use in adults had early success followed by failure. We present the first mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SRT where a liquid plug propagates through the tree from forced inspiration. In two separate <span class="hlt">modeling</span> steps, the plug first deposits a coating film on the airway wall which subtracts from its volume, a ``coating cost''. Then the plug splits unevenly at the airway bifurcation due to gravity. The steps are repeated until a plug ruptures or reaches the tree endpoint alveoli/acinus. The <span class="hlt">model</span> generates <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images of the resulting acinar distribution and calculates two global indexes, efficiency and homogeneity. Simulating published literature, the earlier successful adult SRT studies show comparatively good index values, while the later failed studies do not. Those unsuccessful studies used smaller dose volumes with higher concentration mixtures, apparently assuming a well mixed compartment. The <span class="hlt">model</span> shows that adult lungs are not well mixed in SRT due to the coating cost and gravity effects. Returning to the higher dose volume protocols could save many thousands of lives annually in the US. Supported by NIH Grants HL85156, HL84370 and Agence Nationale de la Recherche, ANR no. 2010-BLAN-1119-05.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1343588','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1343588"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> echocardiography in virtual reality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>van den Bosch, Annemien E; Koning, Anton HJ; Meijboom, Folkert J; McGhie, Jackie S; Simoons, Maarten L; van der Spek, Peter J; Bogers, Ad JJC</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Background This pilot study was performed to evaluate whether virtual reality is applicable for three-dimensional echocardiography and if three-dimensional echocardiographic 'holograms' have the potential to become a clinically useful tool. Methods Three-dimensional echocardiographic data sets from 2 normal subjects and from 4 patients with a mitral valve pathological condition were included in the study. The three-dimensional data sets were acquired with the Philips Sonos 7500 echo-system and transferred to the BARCO (Barco N.V., Kortrijk, Belgium) I-space. Ten independent observers assessed the 6 three-dimensional data sets with and without mitral valve pathology. After 10 minutes' instruction in the I-Space, all of the observers could use the virtual pointer that is necessary to create cut planes in the hologram. Results The 10 independent observers correctly assessed the normal and pathological mitral valve in the holograms (analysis time approximately 10 minutes). Conclusion this report shows that <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> holographic imaging of three-dimensional echocardiographic data is feasible. However, the applicability and use-fullness of this technology in clinical practice is still limited. PMID:16375768</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/894759','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/894759"><span id="translatedtitle">MOSSFRAC: An anisotropic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fracture <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moss, W C; Levatin, J L</p> <p>2006-08-14</p> <p>Despite the intense effort for nearly half a century to construct detailed numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> of plastic flow and plastic damage accumulation, <span class="hlt">models</span> for describing fracture, an equally important damage mechanism still cannot describe basic fracture phenomena. Typical fracture <span class="hlt">models</span> set the stress tensor to zero for tensile fracture and set the deviatoric stress tensor to zero for compressive fracture. One consequence is that the simple case of the tensile fracture of a cylinder under combined compressive radial and tensile axial loads is not <span class="hlt">modeled</span> correctly. The experimental result is a cylinder that can support compressive radial loads, but no axial load, whereas, the typical numerical result is a cylinder with all stresses equal to zero. This incorrect <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of fracture locally also has a global effect, because material that is fracturing produces stress release waves, which propagate from the fracture and influence the surrounding material. Consequently, it would be useful to have a <span class="hlt">model</span> that can describe the stress relief and the resulting anisotropy due to fracture. MOSSFRAC is a material <span class="hlt">model</span> that simulates three-dimensional tensile and shear fracture in initially isotropic elastic-plastic materials, although its framework is also amenable to initially anisotropic materials. It differs from other <span class="hlt">models</span> by accounting for the effects of cracks on the constitutive response of the material, so that the previously described experiment, as well as complicated fracture scenarios are simulated more accurately. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented currently in the LLNL hydrocodes DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, PARADYN, and ALE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The purpose of this technical note is to present a complete qualitative description of the <span class="hlt">model</span> and quantitative descriptions of salient features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015MS%26E...84a2077B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015MS%26E...84a2077B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> microstructure formation in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> directional solidification of transparent <span class="hlt">model</span> alloys: in situ characterization in DECLIC Directional Solidification Insert under diffusion transport in microgravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bergeon, N.; Mota, F. L.; Chen, L.; Tourret, D.; Debierre, J. M.; Guérin, R.; Karma, A.; Billia, B.; Trivedi, R.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>To clarify and characterize the fundamental physical mechanisms active in the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> formation of three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) arrays of cells and dendrites under diffusive growth conditions, in situ monitoring of series of experiments on transparent <span class="hlt">model</span> alloy succinonitrile - 0.24 wt% camphor was carried out under low gravity in the DECLIC Directional Solidification Insert on-board the International Space Station. These experiments offered the very unique opportunity to in situ observe and characterize the whole development of the microstructure in extended <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> patterns. The experimental methods will be first briefly described, including in particular the observation modes and the image analysis procedures developed to quantitatively characterize the patterns. Microgravity environment provided the conditions to get quantitative benchmark data: homogeneous patterns corresponding to homogeneous values of control parameters along the whole interface were obtained. The sequence of microstructure formation will be presented as well as the evolution of the primary spacing which is one of the most important pattern characteristic. Time evolution of this primary spacing during the microstructure development will be analysed to identify the mechanisms of spacing selection and adjustment; the importance of the macroscopic interfacial curvature will be pointed out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22925873','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22925873"><span id="translatedtitle">Sediment <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in shallow Lake Markermeer, The Netherlands: field/laboratory surveys and first results for a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> suspended solids <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelderman, P; De Rozari, P; Mukhopadhyay, S; Ang'weya, R O</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In 2007/08, a study was undertaken on sediment <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in shallow Lake Markermeer, The Netherlands. Firstly, the sediment characteristics median grain size, mud content and loss on ignition showed a spatial as well as water depth related pattern indicating wind-induced sediment transport. Sediment <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> were investigated in a sediment trap field survey at two stations. Sediment yields, virtually all coming from sediment resuspension, were significantly correlated with wind speeds. Resuspension rates for Lake Markermeer were very high, viz. ca. 1,000 g/m(2)day as an annual average, leading to high suspended solids (SS) contents, due to the large lake area and its shallowness (high '<span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Ratio'). Sediment resuspension behaviour was further investigated in preliminary laboratory experiments using a 'micro-flume', applying increasing water currents onto five Lake Markermeer sediments. Resuspension showed a clear exponential behaviour. Finally, a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> was set up for water quality and SS contents in Lake Markermeer; first results showed a good agreement between <span class="hlt">modelled</span> and actual SS contents. Construction of artificial islands and dams will reduce wind fetches and may be expected to cause a substantial decrease in lake water turbidity. PMID:22925873</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26387995','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26387995"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Analysis of the Wrist.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sandow, Michael J</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>With advances in imaging and computing technology the greater capacity to diagnose, plan and deliver care to patients with hand and wrist disorder is being realised. Work in our laboratory, has been able to identify certain specific rules that control wrist motion, and is a step on the pathway to creating a unified theory of carpal mechanics which will incorporate a kinetic biomechanical <span class="hlt">model</span>. This will allow more precise anatomically based as well as quantitative diagnoses, but also an ability to test a proposed intervention in a "what if" scenario. PMID:26387995</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNG41B..01P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNG41B..01P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> Systems Analysis of Fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ocean Features</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pratt, L. J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> systems analysis of transport and stirring processes has been developed most thoroughly for 2D flow fields. The calculation of manifolds, turnstile lobes, transport barriers, etc. based on observations of the ocean is most often conducted near the sea surface, whereas analyses at depth, usually carried out with <span class="hlt">model</span> output, is normally confined to constant-z surfaces. At the meoscale and larger, ocean flows are quasi 2D, but smaller scale (submesoscale) motions, including mixed layer phenomena with significant vertical velocity, may be predominantly <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The zoology of hyperbolic trajectories becomes richer in such cases and their attendant manifolds are much more difficult to calculate. I will describe some of the basic geometrical features and corresponding Lagrangian Coherent Features expected to arise in upper ocean fronts, eddies, and Langmuir circulations. Traditional GFD <span class="hlt">models</span> such as the rotating can flow may capture the important generic features. The <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> systems approach is most helpful when these features are coherent and persistent and the implications and difficulties for this requirement in fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flows will also be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..547D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..547D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Stratigraphic <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Central Aachen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.; Hu, H.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Since 1980s, advanced computer hardware and software technologies, as well as multidisciplinary research have provided possibilities to develop advanced three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) simulation software for geosciences application. Some countries, such as USA1) and Canada2) 3), have built up regional <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> based on archival geological data. Such <span class="hlt">models</span> have played huge roles in engineering geology2), hydrogeology2) 3), geothermal industry1) and so on. In cooperating with the Municipality of Aachen, the Department of Engineering Geology of RWTH Aachen University have built up a computer-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stratigraphic <span class="hlt">model</span> of 50 meter' depth for the center of Aachen, which is a 5 km by 7 km geologically complex area. The uncorrelated data from multi-resources, discontinuous nature and unconformable connection of the units are main challenges for geological <span class="hlt">modeling</span> in this area. The reliability of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> largely depends on the quality and quantity of data. Existing 1D and 2D geological data were collected, including 1) approximately 6970 borehole data of different depth compiled in Microsoft Access database and MapInfo database; 2) a Digital Elevation <span class="hlt">Model</span> (DEM); 3) geological cross sections; and 4) stratigraphic maps in 1m, 2m and 5m depth. Since acquired data are of variable origins, they were managed step by step. The main processes are described below: 1) Typing errors of borehole data were identified and the corrected data were exported to Variowin2.2 to distinguish duplicate points; 2) The surface elevation of borehole data was compared to the DEM, and differences larger than 3m were eliminated. Moreover, where elevation data missed, it was read from the DEM; 3) Considerable data were collected from municipal constructions, such as residential buildings, factories, and roads. Therefore, many boreholes are spatially clustered, and only one or two representative points were picked out in such areas; After above procedures, 5839 boreholes with -x</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3896513','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3896513"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Visualization of Vocal Tract Shaping During Speech</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhu, Yinghua; Kim, Yoon-Chul; Proctor, Michael I.; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.; Nayak, Krishna S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Noninvasive imaging is widely used in speech research as a means to investigate the shaping and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the vocal tract during speech production. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> MRI would be a major advance, as it would provide <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> visualization of the entire vocal tract. We present a novel method for the creation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> movies of vocal tract shaping based on the acquisition of 2D <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> data from parallel slices and temporal alignment of the image sequences using audio information. Multiple sagittal 2D real-time movies with synchronized audio recordings are acquired for English vowel-consonant-vowel stimuli /ala/, /aɹa/, /asa/ and /aʃa/. Audio data are aligned using mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) extracted from windowed intervals of the speech signal. Sagittal image sequences acquired from all slices are then aligned using <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> time warping (DTW). The aligned image sequences enable <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization by creating synthesized movies of the moving airway in the coronal planes, visualizing desired tissue surfaces and tube-shaped vocal tract airway after manual segmentation of targeted articulators and smoothing. The resulting volumes allow for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization of salient aspects of lingual articulation, including the formation of tongue grooves and sublingual cavities, with a temporal resolution of 78 ms. PMID:23204279</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19945159','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19945159"><span id="translatedtitle">Blood flow volume of uterine arteries in human pregnancies determined using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and bi-dimensional imaging, angio-Doppler, and fluid-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rigano, S; Ferrazzi, E; Boito, S; Pennati, G; Padoan, A; Galan, H</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The primary aim of this pilot study was to study uterine artery (UtA) blood flow volume in uneventful human pregnancies delivered at term, at mid and late gestation by means of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and bi-dimensional ultrasound imaging with angio-Doppler combined with fluid-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Secondary aims were to correlate flow volume to placental site and to UtA Pulsatility Index (PI). Women with singleton, low-risk pregnancies were examined at mid and late gestation. The structure and course of the uterine artery (UtA) was studied in each patient by means of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-angio-Doppler and included vessel diameter D, blood flow velocity and PI (measured along the UtA). Fetal weight estimation and placental insertion site were assessed by ultrasound. A robust fluid-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> was applied to calculate absolute flow and flow per unit fetal weight. Mean UtA diameter and blood flow velocity increased significantly (p < 0.0001) from mid-gestation to late gestation from 2.6 mm and 67.5 cm/s, to 3.0 mm and 85.3 cm/s, respectively, yielding an increasing absolute flow troughout gestation. h coefficient, derived by fluid-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> to calculate mean velocity, increased significantly from 0.52 at mid-gestation to 0.57 at late gestation. UtA blood flow volume ml/min/kg-fetal weight was significantly higher at mid-gestation than at late gestation (535 ml/min/kg vs 193 ml/min/kg; p < 0.0001). In cases with strictly lateral placentas the ipsilateral UtA accommodates at mid and late gestation 63% and 67% of the total UtA flow. In central placentas UtA flow was evenly distributed between the two vessels. An inverse correlation was observed between PI and blood flow volume ml/min/kg (Pearson's coefficient r = -0.54). Our work confirms the technological and methodological limitations in the measurement of uterine artery blood flow. However, Doppler measurements supported by three-dimensional angio imaging of the uterine vessel, high resolution imaging and diameter measurement, and a robust</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24462603','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24462603"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> discrete angiogenesis <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> and stochastic simulation for the assessment of blood perfusion coefficient and impact on heat transfer between nanoparticles and malignant tumors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yifat, Jonathan; Gannot, Israel</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Early detection of malignant tumors plays a crucial role in the survivability chances of the patient. Therefore, new and innovative tumor detection methods are constantly searched for. Tumor-specific magnetic-core nano-particles can be used with an alternating magnetic field to detect and treat tumors by hyperthermia. For the analysis of the method effectiveness, the bio-heat transfer between the nanoparticles and the tissue must be carefully studied. Heat diffusion in biological tissue is usually analyzed using the Pennes Bio-Heat Equation, where blood perfusion plays an important role. Malignant tumors are known to initiate an angiogenesis process, where endothelial cell migration from neighboring vasculature eventually leads to the formation of a thick blood capillary network around them. This process allows the tumor to receive its extensive nutrition demands and evolve into a more progressive and potentially fatal tumor. In order to assess the effect of angiogenesis on the bio-heat transfer problem, we have developed a discrete stochastic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> & simulation of tumor-induced angiogenesis. The <span class="hlt">model</span> elaborates other angiogenesis <span class="hlt">models</span> by providing high resolution <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stochastic simulation, capturing of fine angiogenesis morphological features, effects of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> sprout thickness functions, and stochastic parent vessel generator. We show that the angiogenesis realizations produced are well suited for numerical bio-heat transfer analysis. Statistical study on the angiogenesis characteristics was derived using Monte Carlo simulations. According to the statistical analysis, we provide analytical expression for the blood perfusion coefficient in the Pennes equation, as a function of several parameters. This updated form of the Pennes equation could be used for numerical and analytical analyses of the proposed detection and treatment method. PMID:24462603</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DPPBM1002H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DPPBM1002H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huba, Joseph; Joyce, Glenn; Krall, Jonathan</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Post-sunset ionospheric irregularities in the equatorial F region were first observed by Booker and Wells (1938) using ionosondes. This phenomenon has become known as equatorial spread F (ESF). During ESF the equatorial ionosphere becomes unstable because of a Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability: large scale (10s km) electron density ``bubbles'' can develop and rise to high altitudes (1000 km or greater at times). Understanding and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> ESF is important because of its impact on space weather: it causes radio wave scintillation that degrades communication and navigation systems. In fact, it is the focus of of the Air Force Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast Satellite (C/NOFS) mission. We will describe <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulation results from the NRL ionosphere <span class="hlt">models</span> SAMI3 and SAMI3/ESF of this phenomenon. In particular, we will examine the causes of the day-to-day ariability of ESF which is an unresolved problem at this time. Post-sunset ionospheric irregularities in the equatorial F region were first observed by Booker and Wells (1938) using ionosondes. This phenomenon has become known as equatorial spread F (ESF). During ESF the equatorial ionosphere becomes unstable because of a Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability: large scale (10s km) electron density ``bubbles'' can develop and rise to high altitudes (1000 km or greater at times). Understanding and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> ESF is important because of its impact on space weather: it causes radio wave scintillation that degrades communication and navigation systems. In fact, it is the focus of of the Air Force Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast Satellite (C/NOFS) mission. We will describe <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulation results from the NRL ionosphere <span class="hlt">models</span> SAMI3 and SAMI3/ESF of this phenomenon. In particular, we will examine the causes of the day-to-day ariability of ESF which is an unresolved problem at this time. Research supported by ONR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26758425','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26758425"><span id="translatedtitle">Coupling curvature-dependent and shear stress-stimulated neotissue growth in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> bioreactor cultures: a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computational <span class="hlt">model</span> of a complete scaffold.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guyot, Y; Papantoniou, I; Luyten, F P; Geris, L</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The main challenge in tissue engineering consists in understanding and controlling the growth process of in vitro cultured neotissues toward obtaining functional tissues. Computational <span class="hlt">models</span> can provide crucial information on appropriate bioreactor and scaffold design but also on the bioprocess environment and culture conditions. In this study, the development of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> using the level set method to capture the growth of a microporous neotissue domain in a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> culture environment (perfusion bioreactor) was pursued. In our <span class="hlt">model</span>, neotissue growth velocity was influenced by scaffold geometry as well as by flow- induced shear stresses. The neotissue was <span class="hlt">modeled</span> as a homogenous porous medium with a given permeability, and the Brinkman equation was used to calculate the flow profile in both neotissue and void space. Neotissue growth was <span class="hlt">modeled</span> until the scaffold void volume was filled, thus capturing already established experimental observations, in particular the differences between scaffold filling under different flow regimes. This tool is envisaged as a scaffold shape and bioprocess optimization tool with predictive capacities. It will allow controlling fluid flow during long-term culture, whereby neotissue growth alters flow patterns, in order to provide shear stress profiles and magnitudes across the whole scaffold volume influencing, in turn, the neotissue growth. PMID:26758425</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/425521','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/425521"><span id="translatedtitle">Reservoir geology using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> tools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dubrule, O.; Samson, P.; Segonds, D.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir <span class="hlt">models</span>. A structural <span class="hlt">model</span> can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be <span class="hlt">modelled</span> as geological {open_quotes}objects{close_quotes} with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological <span class="hlt">models</span> can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological <span class="hlt">modelling</span> techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6595185','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6595185"><span id="translatedtitle">Reservoir geology using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> tools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dubrule, O. ); Samson, P. ); Segonds, D. )</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir <span class="hlt">models</span>. A structural <span class="hlt">model</span> can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be <span class="hlt">modelled</span> as geological [open quotes]objects[close quotes] with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological <span class="hlt">models</span> can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological <span class="hlt">modelling</span> techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050041720','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050041720"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MHD <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Active Region Loops</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ofman, Leon</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Present imaging and spectroscopic observations of active region loops allow to determine many physical parameters of the coronal loops, such as the density, temperature, velocity of flows in loops, and the magnetic field. However, due to projection effects many of these parameters remain ambiguous. Three dimensional imaging in EUV by the STEREO spacecraft will help to resolve the projection ambiguities, and the observations could be used to setup <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MHD <span class="hlt">models</span> of active region loops to study the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and stability of active regions. Here the results of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MHD <span class="hlt">models</span> of active region loops are presented, and the progress towards more realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MHD <span class="hlt">models</span> of active regions. In particular the effects of impulsive events on the excitation of active region loop oscillations, and the generation, propagations and reflection of EIT waves are shown. It is shown how <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MHD <span class="hlt">models</span> together with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> EUV observations can be used as a diagnostic tool for active region loop physical parameters, and to advance the science of the sources of solar coronal activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6974K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6974K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Earthquake Fracture Simulation (Test Case)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korkusuz Öztürk, Yasemin; Meral Özel, Nurcan; Ando, Ryosuke</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> earthquake fracture simulation is being developed for the fault structures which are non-planar to understand heterogeneous stress states in the Marmara Sea. Locating in a seismic gap, a large earthquake is expected in the center of the Sea of Marmara. Concerning the fact that more than 14 million inhabitants of İstanbul, located very closely to the Marmara Sea, the importance of the analysis of the Central Marmara Sea is extremely high. A few <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> earthquake fracture studies have been already done in the Sea of Marmara for pure right lateral strike-slip stress regimes (Oglesby and Mai, 2012; Aochi and Ulrich, 2015). In this study, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> earthquake fracture <span class="hlt">model</span> with heterogeneous stress patches from the TPV5, a SCEC code validation case, is adapted. In this test <span class="hlt">model</span>, the fault and the ground surfaces are gridded by a scalene triangulation technique using GMSH program. For a grid size changing between 0.616 km and 1.050 km the number of elements for the fault surface is 1984 and for the ground surface is 1216. When these results are compared with Kaneko's results for TPV5 from SPECFEM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, reliable findings could be observed for the first 6.5 seconds (stations on the fault) although a stability problem is encountered after this time threshold. To solve this problem grid sizes are made smaller, so the number of elements increase 7986 for the fault surface and 4867 for the ground surface. On the other hand, computational problems arise in that case, since the computation time is directly proportional to the number of total elements and the required memory also increases with the square of that. Therefore, it is expected that this method can be adapted for less coarse grid cases, regarding the main difficulty coming from the necessity of an effective supercomputer and run time limitations. The main objective of this research is to obtain <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> earthquake rupture scenarios, concerning not only planar and non-planar faults but also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSMTE..04.3303P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSMTE..04.3303P"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of disorder on ageing and memory effects in non-equilibrium critical <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ising <span class="hlt">model</span> relaxing from an ordered state</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prudnikov, Vladimir V.; Prudnikov, Pavel V.; Pospelov, Evgeny A.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We have performed a numerical investigation of the influence of disorder on the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> non-equilibrium evolution of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> site-diluted Ising <span class="hlt">model</span> from a low-temperature initial state with magnetization m 0  =  1. It is shown that two-time dependences of the autocorrelation and integrated response functions for systems with spin concentrations p  =  1.0, 0.95, 0.8, 0.6 and 0.5 demonstrate ageing properties with anomalous slowing-down relaxation and violation of the fluctuation-dissipation ratio. It was revealed that during non-equilibrium critical <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in the long-time regime t-{{t}\\text{w}}\\gg {{t}\\text{w}}\\gg 1 the autocorrelation functions for diluted systems are extremely slow due to the pinning of domain walls on impurity sites. We have found that the fluctuation-dissipation ratio {{X}∞}=0 for diluted systems with spin concentration p  <  1 while the pure system is characterized by {{X}∞}=0.784(7) . The autocorrelation function power-law delay becomes the same as for the time dependence of the magnetization in the critical point and is characterized by exponent -β /zν . Also, for diluted systems we reveal memory effects for critical evolution in the ageing regime with realization of cyclic temperature change and quenching at T<{{T}\\text{c}} .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4181P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4181P"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional geothermal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> in Denmark</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poulsen, S. E.; Balling, N.; Bording, T. S.; Nielsen, S. B.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In the pursuit of sustainable and low carbon emission energy sources, increased global attention has been given to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources within recent decades. In 2009 a national multi-disciplinary geothermal research project was established. As a significant part of this project, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> temperature <span class="hlt">modelling</span> is to be carried out, with special emphasis on temperatures of potential geothermal reservoirs in the Danish area. The Danish subsurface encompasses low enthalpy geothermal reservoirs of mainly Triassic and Jurassic age. Geothermal plants at Amager (Copenhagen) and Thisted (Northern Jutland) have the capacity of supplying the district heating network with up to 14 MW and 7 MW, respectively, by withdrawing warm pore water from the Gassum (Lower Jurassic/Upper Triassic) and Bunter (Lower Triassic) sandstone reservoirs, respectively. Explorative studies of the subsurface temperature regime typically are based on a combination of observations and <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. In this study, the open-source groundwater <span class="hlt">modelling</span> code MODFLOW is modified to simulate the subsurface temperature distribution in three dimensions by taking advantage of the mathematical similarity between saturated groundwater flow (Darcy flow) and heat conduction. A numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> of the subsurface geology in Denmark is built and parameterized from lithological information derived from joint interpretation of seismic surveys and borehole information. Boundary conditions are constructed from knowledge about the heat flow from the Earth's interior and the shallow ground temperature. Matrix thermal conductivities have been estimated from analysis of high-resolution temperature logs measured in deep wells and porosity-depth relations are included using interpreted main lithologies. The <span class="hlt">model</span> takes into account the dependency of temperature and pressure on thermal conductivity. Moreover, a transient <span class="hlt">model</span> based correction of the paleoclimatic thermal disturbance caused by the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRB..121.4067G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRB..121.4067G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A new back-and-forth iterative method for time-reversed convection <span class="hlt">modeling</span>: Implications for the Cenozoic evolution of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> structure and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the mantle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glišović, Petar; Forte, Alessandro M.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> distribution of buoyancy in the convecting mantle drives a suite of convection-related manifestations. Although seismic tomography is providing increasingly resolved images of the present-day mantle heterogeneity, the distribution of mantle density variations in the geological past is unknown, and, by implication, this is true for the convection-related observables. The one major exception is tectonic plate motions, since geologic data are available to estimate their history and they currently provide the only available constraints on the evolution of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> mantle buoyancy in the past. We developed a new back-and-forth iterative method for time-reversed convection <span class="hlt">modeling</span> with a procedure for matching plate velocity data at different instants in the past. The crucial aspect of this reconstruction methodology is to ensure that at all times plates are driven by buoyancy forces in the mantle and not vice versa. Employing tomography-based retrodictions over the Cenozoic, we estimate the global amplitude of the following observables: <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> surface topography, the core-mantle boundary ellipticity, the free-air gravity anomalies, and the global divergence rates of tectonic plates. One of the major benefits of the new data assimilation method is the stable recovery of much shorter wavelength changes in heterogeneity than was possible in our previous work. We now resolve what appears to be two-stage subduction of the Farallon plate under the western U.S. and a deeply rooted East African Plume that is active under the Ethiopian volcanic fields during the Early Eocene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AtmEn..80...58K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AtmEn..80...58K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filter and the decoupled direct <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> method for the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> evaluation of a regional air quality <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kang, Daiwen; Hogrefe, Christian; Foley, Kristen L.; Napelenok, Sergey L.; Mathur, Rohit; Trivikrama Rao, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Regional air quality <span class="hlt">models</span> are being used in a policy-setting to assess the changes in air pollutant concentrations from changes in emissions and meteorology. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> evaluation entails examination of a retrospective case(s) to examine whether an air quality <span class="hlt">model</span> has properly predicted the air quality response to known changes in emissions and/or meteorology. In this study, the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter has been used to spectrally decompose pollutant time series into different forcings that are controlled by different atmospheric processes influencing the predicted and observed pollutant concentrations. Through analyses of the different components influenced by different forcings as part of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> evaluation, we can discern which of the component(s) or scale(s) of forcing are simulated well by the <span class="hlt">model</span> and the component(s) or scale(s) of forcing needing further improvement in the <span class="hlt">model</span>. The KZ filter has been applied to both the observed and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) <span class="hlt">model</span>-predicted summertime ozone (O3) time series in years 2002 and 2005. The 2002-2005 time period is a good candidate for the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> evaluation case study because of the large changes in NOx emissions as a result of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) NOx State Implementation Plan (SIP) call together with a gradual decline in mobile emissions. Results suggest that the CMAQ <span class="hlt">model</span> performs similarly for both years in terms of capturing the observed synoptic-scale forcing. However, the changes in the observed ozone baseline component (i.e. longer-term variations) are not properly captured by the <span class="hlt">model</span> at some locations. The factors contributing to the ozone baseline include emissions loading, boundary conditions, and other parameters that vary slowly over time. Analysis using a reduced form <span class="hlt">model</span> developed from the sensitivity coefficients calculated from the decoupled direct method in three dimensions (DDM-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) reveals that ground-level NOx emissions</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15533619','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15533619"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> physical <span class="hlt">models</span> of amitosis (cytokinesis).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheng, Kang; Zou, Changhua</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Based on Newton's laws, extended Coulomb's law and published biological data, we develop our <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> physical <span class="hlt">models</span> of natural and normal amitosis (cytokinesis), for prokaryotes (bacterial cells) in M phase. We propose following hypotheses: Chromosome rings exclusion: No normally and naturally replicated chromosome rings (RCR) can occupy the same prokaryote, a bacterial cell. The RCR produce spontaneous and strong electromagnetic fields (EMF), that can be alternated environmentally, in protoplasm and cortex. The EMF is approximately a repulsive quasi-static electric (slowly variant and mostly electric) field (EF). The EF forces between the RCR are strong enough, and orderly accumulate contractile proteins that divide the procaryotes in the cell cortex of division plane or directly split the cell compartment envelope longitudinally. The radial component of the EF forces could also make furrows or cleavages of procaryotes. The EF distribution controls the protoplasm partition and completes the amitosis (cytokinesis). After the cytokinesis, the spontaneous and strong EF disappear because the net charge accumulation becomes weak, in the protoplasm. The exclusion is because the two sets of informative objects (RCR) have identical DNA codes information and they are electro magnetically identical, therefore they repulse from each other. We also compare divisions among eukaryotes, prokaryotes, mitochondria and chloroplasts and propose our hypothesis: The principles of our <span class="hlt">models</span> are applied to divisions of mitochondria and chloroplasts of eucaryotes too because these division mechanisms are closer than others in a view of physics. Though we develop our <span class="hlt">model</span> using 1 division plane (i.e., 1 cell is divided into 2 cells) as an example, the principle of our <span class="hlt">model</span> is applied to the cases with multiple division planes (i.e., 1 cell is divided into multiple cells) too. PMID:15533619</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014apn6.confE..60M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014apn6.confE..60M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Stellar Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohamed, S.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Booth, R.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W.; Harries, T.; Mackey, J.; Langer, N.; Corradi, R.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Symbiotic binaries consist of a cool, evolved mass-losing giant and an accreting compact companion. As symbiotic nebulae show similar morphologies to those in planetary nebulae (so much so that it is often difficult to distinguish between the two), they are ideal laboratories for understanding the role a binary companion plays in shaping the circumstellar envelopes in these evolved systems. We will present <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) <span class="hlt">models</span> of interacting binaries, e.g. R Aquarii and Mira, and discuss the formation of spiral outflows, arcs, shells and equatorial density enhancements.We will also discuss the implications of the former for planetary nebulae, e.g. the Egg Nebula and Cat's Eye, and the latter for the formation of bipolar geometries, e.g. M2-9. We also investigate accretion and angular momentum evolution in symbiotic binaries which may be important to understand the formation of jets and more episodic mass-loss features we see in circumstellar envelopes and the orbital characteristics of binary central stars of planetary nebulae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26440264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26440264"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-view and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> deformable part <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pepik, Bojan; Stark, Michael; Gehler, Peter; Schiele, Bernt</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>As objects are inherently <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, they have been <span class="hlt">modeled</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in the early days of computer vision. Due to the ambiguities arising from mapping 2D features to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object representations have been neglected and 2D feature-based <span class="hlt">models</span> are the predominant paradigm in object detection nowadays. While such <span class="hlt">models</span> have achieved outstanding bounding box detection performance, they come with limited expressiveness, as they are clearly limited in their capability of reasoning about <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape or viewpoints. In this work, we bring the worlds of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and 2D object representations closer, by building an object detector which leverages the expressive power of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object representations while at the same time can be robustly matched to image evidence. To that end, we gradually extend the successful deformable part <span class="hlt">model</span> [1] to include viewpoint information and part-level <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry information, resulting in several different <span class="hlt">models</span> with different level of expressiveness. We end up with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object <span class="hlt">model</span>, consisting of multiple object parts represented in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and a continuous appearance <span class="hlt">model</span>. We experimentally verify that our <span class="hlt">models</span>, while providing richer object hypotheses than the 2D object <span class="hlt">models</span>, provide consistently better joint object localization and viewpoint estimation than the state-of-the-art multi-view and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object detectors on various benchmarks (KITTI [2] , <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object classes [3] , Pascal<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>+ [4] , Pascal VOC 2007 [5] , EPFL multi-view cars[6] ). PMID:26440264</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26726782','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26726782"><span id="translatedtitle">How muscle relaxation and laterotrusion resolve open locks of the temporomandibular joint. Forward <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D-modeling</span> of the human masticatory system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tuijt, M; Koolstra, J H; Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M</p> <p>2016-01-25</p> <p>Patients with symptomatic hypermobility of the temporomandibular joint report problems with the closing movement of their jaw. Some are even unable to close their mouth opening wide (open lock). Clinical experience suggests that relaxing the jaw muscles or performing a jaw movement to one side (laterotrusion) might be a solution. The aim of our study was to assess the potential of these strategies for resolving an open lock and we hypothesised that both strategies work equally well in resolving open locks. We assessed the interplay of muscle forces, joint reaction forces and their moments during closing of mouth, following maximal mouth opening. We used a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> biomechanical <span class="hlt">model</span> of the masticatory system with a joint shape and muscle orientation that predispose for an open lock. In a forward <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> approach, the effect of relaxation and laterotrusion strategies was assessed. Performing a laterotrusion movement was predicted to release an open lock for a steeper anterior slope of the articular eminence than relaxing the jaw-closing muscles, herewith we rejected our hypothesis. Both strategies could provide a net jaw closing moment, but only the laterotrusion strategy was able to provide a net posterior force for steeper anterior slope angles. For both strategies, the temporalis muscle appeared pivotal to retrieve the mandibular condyles to the glenoid fossa, due to its' more dorsally oriented working lines. PMID:26726782</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4987952','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4987952"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> genome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J.; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural <span class="hlt">models</span> from 3C data. Here we introduce our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GeNOme <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Engine (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GNOME), a web service which generates <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/. PMID:27185892</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27185892','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27185892"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> genome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural <span class="hlt">models</span> from 3C data. Here we introduce our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GeNOme <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Engine (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GNOME), a web service which generates <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/. PMID:27185892</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFM.T33K..06S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFM.T33K..06S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> quasi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of earthquake cycles of the great Tohoku-oki earthquake by considering high-speed friction and thermal pressurization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shibazaki, B.; Tsutsumi, A.; Shimamoto, T.; Noda, H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Some observational studies [e.g. Hasegawa et al., 2011] suggested that the 2011 great Tohoku-oki Earthquake (Mw 9.0) released roughly all of the accumulated elastic strain on the plate interface owing to considerable weakening of the fault. Recent studies show that considerable weakening can occur at a high slip velocity because of thermal pressurization or thermal weakening processes [Noda and Lapusta, 2010; Di Toro et al., 2011]. Tsutsumi et al. [2011] examined the frictional properties of clay-rich fault materials under water-saturated conditions and found that velocity weakening or strengthening occurs at intermediate slip velocities and that dramatic weakening occurs at high slip velocities. This dramatic weakening at higher slip velocities is caused by pore-fluid pressurization via frictional heating or gouge weakening. In the present study, we investigate the generation mechanism of megathrust earthquakes along the Japan trench by performing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> quasi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> with high-speed friction or thermal pressurization. We propose a rate- and state-dependent friction law with two state variables that exhibit weak velocity weakening or strengthening with a small critical displacement at low to intermediate velocities, but a strong velocity weakening with a large critical displacement at high slip velocities [Shibazaki et al., 2011]. We use this friction law for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> quasi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of a cycle of the great Tohoku-oki earthquake. We set several asperities where velocity weakening occurs at low to intermediate slip velocities. Outside of the asperities, velocity strengthening occurs at low to intermediate slip velocities. At high slip velocities, strong velocity weakening occurs both within and outside of the asperities. The rupture of asperities occurs at intervals of several tens of years, whereas megathrust events occur at much longer intervals (several hundred years). Megathrust slips occur even in regions where velocity strengthening occurs at low to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9875E..0ES','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9875E..0ES"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fast wavelet network <span class="hlt">model</span>-assisted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face recognition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Said, Salwa; Jemai, Olfa; Zaied, Mourad; Ben Amar, Chokri</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In last years, the emergence of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape in face recognition is due to its robustness to pose and illumination changes. These attractive benefits are not all the challenges to achieve satisfactory recognition rate. Other challenges such as facial expressions and computing time of matching algorithms remain to be explored. In this context, we propose our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face recognition approach using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> wavelet networks. Our approach contains two stages: learning stage and recognition stage. For the training we propose a novel algorithm based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fast wavelet transform. From <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> coordinates of the face (x,y,z), we proceed to voxelization to get a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volume which will be decomposed by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fast wavelet transform and <span class="hlt">modeled</span> after that with a wavelet network, then their associated weights are considered as vector features to represent each training face . For the recognition stage, an unknown identity face is projected on all the training WN to obtain a new vector features after every projection. A similarity score is computed between the old and the obtained vector features. To show the efficiency of our approach, experimental results were performed on all the FRGC v.2 benchmark.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CoPhC.185.3424L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CoPhC.185.3424L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulation of the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Chao; Xiong, Hailing</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We write a program to implement the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation (CCA) <span class="hlt">model</span> with java programming language. By using the simulation program, the fractal aggregation growth process can be displayed <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> in the form of a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) figure. Meanwhile, the related kinetics data of aggregation simulation can be also recorded <span class="hlt">dynamically</span>. Compared to the traditional programs, the program has better real-time performance and is more helpful to observe the fractal growth process, which contributes to the scientific study in fractal aggregation. Besides, because of adopting java programming language, the program has very good cross-platform performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/842049','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/842049"><span id="translatedtitle">Atomic-Resolution <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Electron Microscopy with <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Diffraction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O'Keefe, Michael A.; Downing, Kenneth H.; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Meisheng, Hu</p> <p>2005-02-15</p> <p> in zone-axis projections <100>, <010>, <001>, <101>, <310>, and combined to produce a three-dimensional map of Coulomb potential. Images of specimen sections are much more easily interpreted than projection images such as electron micrographs, reducing the need for techniques such as imaging at sub-Rayleigh resolution [6]. Sections through the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> staurolite potential show atom positions as density peaks that display streaking from insufficient sampling in direction [1]. Three different specimens of perfect crystal were required to achieve the five projection directions; this makes the technique atomic-resolution electron crystallography rather than atomic-resolution tomography. Nevertheless, our results illustrate that <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> diffraction need not be a limiting factor in atomic-resolution tomographic reconstruction. We have proposed combining ultra-high (sub-Angstrom) resolution zone-axis images with off-zone images by first using linear reconstruction of the off-zone images while excluding images obtained within a small range of tilts (of the order of 60 milliradian) of any zone-axis orientation [7], since it has been shown that <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> effects can be mitigated by slight off-axis tilt of the specimen [8]. The (partial) reconstruction would then be used as a <span class="hlt">model</span> for forward calculation by image simulation [9] in zone-axis directions and the structure refined iteratively to achieve satisfactory fits with the experimental zone-axis data. Another path to atomic-resolution tomography would combine ''zone-axis tomography'' with high-resolution dark-field hollow-cone (DFHC) imaging. Electron diffraction theory indicates that <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> (multiple) scattering is much reduced under highly-convergent illumination. DFHC TEM is the analog of HAADF STEM, and imaging theory shows that image resolution can be enhanced under these conditions [10]. Images obtained in this mode could provide the initial reconstruction, with zone-axis images used for refinement [11].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2252456S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2252456S"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> shape <span class="hlt">model</span> of Interamnia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sato, Isao</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> shape <span class="hlt">model</span> of the sixth largest of the main belt asteroids, (704) Interamnia, is presented. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is reproduced from its two stellar occultation observations and six lightcurves between 1969 and 2011. The first stellar occultation was the occultation of TYC 234500183 on 1996 December 17 observed from 13 sites in the USA. An elliptical cross section of (344.6±9.6km)×(306.2±9.1km), for position angle P=73.4±12.5 was fitted. The lightcurve around the occultation shows that the peak-to-peak amplitude was 0.04 mag. and the occultation phase was just before the minimum. The second stellar occultation was the occultation of HIP 036189 on 2003 March 23 observed from 39 sites in Japan and Hawaii. An elliptical cross section of (349.8±0.9km)×(303.7±1.7km), for position angle P=86.0±1.1 was fitted. A companion of 8.5 mag. of the occulted star was discovered whose separation is 12±2 mas (milli-arcseconds), P=148±11 . A combined analysis of rotational lightcurves and occultation chords can return more information than can be obtained with either technique alone. From follow-up photometric observations of the asteroid between 2003 and 2011, its rotation period is determined to be 8.728967167±0.00000007 hours, which is accurate enough to fix the rotation phases at other occultation events. The derived north pole is λ2000=259±8, β2000=-50±5 (retrograde rotation); the lengths of the three principal axes are 2a=361.8±2.8km, 2b=324.4±5.0km, 2c=297.3±3.5km, and the mean diameter is D=326.8±3.0km. Supposing the mass of Interamnia as (3.5±0.9)×10-11 solar masses, the density is then ρ=3.8±1.0 g cm-3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287559','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287559"><span id="translatedtitle">West Flank Coso, CA FORGE <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Doug Blankenship</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>This is an x,y,z file of the West Flank FORGE <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span>. <span class="hlt">Model</span> created in Earthvision by <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Graphic Inc. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was constructed with a grid spacing of 100 m. Geologic surfaces were extrapolated from the input data using a minimum tension gridding algorithm. The data file is tabular data in a text file, with lithology data associated with X,Y,Z grid points. All the relevant information is in the file header (the spatial reference, the projection etc.) In addition all the fields in the data file are identified in the header.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoJI.177.1140E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoJI.177.1140E"><span id="translatedtitle">A support-operator method for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> rupture <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ely, Geoffrey P.; Day, Steven M.; Minster, Jean-Bernard</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>We present a numerical method to simulate spontaneous shear crack propagation within a heterogeneous, <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>, viscoelastic medium. Wave motions are computed on a logically rectangular hexahedral mesh, using the generalized finite-difference method of Support Operators (SOM). This approach enables <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of non-planar surfaces and non-planar fault ruptures. Our implementation, the Support Operator Rupture <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> (SORD) code, is highly scalable, enabling large-scale, multiprocessors calculations. The fault surface is <span class="hlt">modelled</span> by coupled double nodes, where rupture occurs as dictated by the local stress conditions and a frictional failure law. The method successfully performs test problems developed for the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC)/U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> earthquake rupture code validation exercise, showing good agreement with semi-analytical boundary integral method results. We undertake further <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> rupture tests to quantify numerical errors introduced by shear deformations to the hexahedral mesh. We generate a family of meshes distorted by simple shearing, in the along-strike direction, up to a maximum of 73°. For SCEC/USGS validation problem number 3, grid-induced errors increase with mesh shear angle, with the logarithm of error approximately proportional to angle over the range tested. At 73°, rms misfits are about 10 per cent for peak slip rate, and 0.5 per cent for both rupture time and total slip, indicating that the method (which, up to now, we have applied mainly to near-vertical strike-slip faulting) is also capable of handling geometries appropriate to low-angle surface-rupturing thrust earthquakes. Additionally, we demonstrate non-planar rupture effects, by modifying the test geometry to include, respectively, cylindrical curvature and sharp kinks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EGUGA..11.8622C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EGUGA..11.8622C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of the Black Sea ecosystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Capet, A.; Gregoire, M.; Beckers, J.-M.; Joassin, P.; Naithani, J.; Soetart, K.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>A coupled physical-biogeochemical <span class="hlt">model</span> has been developed to simulate the ecosystem of the Black Sea at the end of the 80's when eutrophication and invasion by gelatinous organisms seriously affected the stability and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the system. The biogeochemical <span class="hlt">model</span> describes the cycle of carbon, nitrogen, silicate, oxygen and phosphorus through the foodweb from bacteria to gelatinous carnivores and explicitly represents processes in the anoxic layer down to the bottom. For calibration and analyses purposes, the coupled <span class="hlt">model</span> has first been run in 1D at several places in the Black Sea. The biogeochemical <span class="hlt">model</span> involves some hundred parameters which have been first calibrated by hand using published values. Then, an identifiability analysis has been performed in order to determine a subset of 15 identifiable parameters. An automatic calibration subroutine has been used to fine tune these parameters. In 1D, the <span class="hlt">model</span> solution exhibits a complex <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> with several years of transient adjustment. This complexity is imparted by the explicit <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of top predators. The <span class="hlt">model</span> has been calibrated and validated using a large set of data available in the Black Sea TU Ocean Base. The calibrated biogeochemical <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamical <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Black Sea. Results of these <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulations will be presented and compared with maps of in-situ data reconstructed from available data base using the software DIVA (Data Interpolation and Variational analysis).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16...27B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16...27B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Applying <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Visualisation to (Palaeo) Geomorphic Reconstruction: <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> a Tenth Century Jökulhlaup at Sólheimajökull Glacier, South Iceland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Booth, Laura; Isaacs, John</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p> <span class="hlt">Models</span> of the area with aerial photography to create a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> virtual environment, which provides the basis for entering field data to the geomorphic reconstruction. The result is a visual simulation of Sólheimajökull's Tenth Century physical environment which places the flood into geomorphic and topographic context. The wider implications of developing this tool are many when considering its ease of use and first-person navigational controls. The animations allow immediate exposure to environments that are otherwise lost in reality. VolcVis is a powerful tool in bringing reconstructed palaeo-environments back to life, albeit in the virtual sphere. It allows a uniquely contemporary appreciation of an elapsed event; yet which was a critical episode in the geomorphic evolution of this <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> region. When field data are pieced together into a simulation, they hold a greater cohesive strength, giving the results wider applicability and relevance to a range of users and decision-makers, serving both technical and nontechnical perspectives. VolcVis' ability to <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> display field data presents new possibilities for generating hypotheses, and for data sharing with Icelandic hazard mitigation authorities and the general public.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......306S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......306S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Techniques for Print and Digital Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stephens, Megan Ashley</p> <p></p> <p>In developing my thesis, I looked to gain skills using ZBrush to create <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning, and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing. The <span class="hlt">models</span> created compared the hearts of several vertebrates and were intended for students attending Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. I used several resources to create a <span class="hlt">model</span> of the human heart and was able to work from life while creating heart <span class="hlt">models</span> from other vertebrates. I successfully learned ZBrush and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning, and successfully printed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> heart <span class="hlt">models</span>. ZBrush allowed me to create several intricate <span class="hlt">models</span> for use in both animation and print media. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning technique did not fit my needs for the project, but may be of use for later projects. I was able to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> print using two different techniques as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MAR.V1335L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MAR.V1335L"><span id="translatedtitle">The Vibrational <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> HOCl Above Dissociation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Yi-Der; Reichl, Linda; Jung, Christof</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We have analyzed the vibrational <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of HOCl above dissociation using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> energy surface which governs the vibrational <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of HOCl above dissociation. The <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> is dominated by an invariant manifold which is transversally unstable for small spacing between Cl and HO complex, and stable for large spacing. Above dissociation, the InM separates two mirror image periodic orbits, embedded in a large chaotic sea, that can hold a large number of quantum states. These periodic orbits have the capability of forming significant quasibound states of the molecule above dissociation. Welch Foundation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/350855','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/350855"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of metallic grain growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>George, D.; Carlson, N.; Gammel, J.T.; Kuprat, A.</p> <p>1999-06-01</p> <p>This paper will describe simulating metallic grain growth using the Gradient Weighted Moving Finite Elements code, GRAIN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The authors also describe the set of mesh topology change operations developed to respond to changes in the physical topology such as the collapse of grains and to maintain uniform calculational mesh quality. Validation of the method is demonstrated by comparison to analytic calculations. The authors present results of multigrain simulations where grain boundaries evolve by mean curvature motion and include results which incorporate grain boundary orientation dependence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920017792','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920017792"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rocket combustor acoustics <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Priem, Richard J.; Breisacher, Kevin J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The theory and procedures for determining the characteristics of pressure oscillations in rocket engines with prescribed burning rate oscillations are presented. Analyses including radial and hub baffles and absorbers can be performed in one, two, and three dimensions. Pressure and velocity oscillations calculated using this procedure are presented for the SSME to show the influence of baffles and absorbers on the burning rate oscillations required to achieve neutral stability. Comparisons are made between the results obtained utilizing 1-D, 2-D, and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> assumptions with regards to capturing the physical phenomena of interest and computational requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013ISPAn.II2a..33B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013ISPAn.II2a..33B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Spatial Urban Energy <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bahu, J.-M.; Koch, A.; Kremers, E.; Murshed, S. M.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Today's needs to reduce the environmental impact of energy use impose dramatic changes for energy infrastructure and existing demand patterns (e.g. buildings) corresponding to their specific context. In addition, future energy systems are expected to integrate a considerable share of fluctuating power sources and equally a high share of distributed generation of electricity. Energy system <span class="hlt">models</span> capable of describing such future systems and allowing the simulation of the impact of these developments thus require a spatial representation in order to reflect the local context and the boundary conditions. This paper describes two recent research approaches developed at EIFER in the fields of (a) geo-localised simulation of heat energy demand in cities based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> morphological data and (b) spatially explicit Agent-Based <span class="hlt">Models</span> (ABM) for the simulation of smart grids. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> were used to assess solar potential and heat energy demand of residential buildings which enable cities to target the building refurbishment potentials. Distributed energy systems require innovative <span class="hlt">modelling</span> techniques where individual components are represented and can interact. With this approach, several smart grid demonstrators were simulated, where heterogeneous <span class="hlt">models</span> are spatially represented. Coupling <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geodata with energy system ABMs holds different advantages for both approaches. On one hand, energy system <span class="hlt">models</span> can be enhanced with high resolution data from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> and their semantic relations. Furthermore, they allow for spatial analysis and visualisation of the results, with emphasis on spatially and structurally correlations among the different layers (e.g. infrastructure, buildings, administrative zones) to provide an integrated approach. On the other hand, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> can benefit from more detailed system description of energy infrastructure, representing <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> phenomena and high resolution <span class="hlt">models</span> for energy use at component level. The proposed <span class="hlt">modelling</span> strategies</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21260174','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21260174"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> Lorentz symmetry breaking in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and charge fractionalization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Charneski, B.; Gomes, M.; Silva, A. J. da; Mariz, T.; Nascimento, J. R.</p> <p>2009-03-15</p> <p>We analyze the breaking of Lorentz invariance in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of fermion fields self-coupled through four-fermion interactions. The low-energy limit of the theory contains various submodels which are similar to those used in the study of graphene or in the description of irrational charge fractionalization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..GECGT1103H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..GECGT1103H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PIC <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Microcavity Discharge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hopkins, Matthew; Manginell, Ronald; Moore, Christopher; Yee, Benjamin; Moorman, Matthew</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>We present a number of techniques and challenges in simulating the transient behavior of a microcavity discharge. Our microcavities are typically cylindrical with diameters approximately 50 - 100 μm, heights of 50 - 200 μm, pressure near atmospheric, and operate at a few hundred volts. We employ a fully kinetic simulation methodology, the Particle-in-Cell (PIC) method, with interparticle collisions handled via methods based on direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC). In particular, we explicitly include kinetic electrons. Some of the challenges we encounter include variations in number densities, external circuit coupling, and time step resolution constraints. By employing <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> particle weighting (particle weights vary over time by species and location) we can mitigate some of the challenges <span class="hlt">modeling</span> systems with 107 variations in number densities. Smoothing mechanisms have been used to attempt to mitigate external circuit response. We perform our simulations on hundreds or thousands of processing cores to accommodate the computational work inherent in using relatively small time step sizes (e.g., 50 fs for a 100 ns calculation). In addition, particle weighting issues inherent to three-dimensional low temperature plasma systems will be mentioned. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.6093Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.6093Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Effective <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> surface <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for geographic information systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>In this work, we propose a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span>, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform (DTP) with spatial data and query processing capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), multimedia database functionality and graphical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized Directional Replacement Policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in Digital Surface <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> (DSM) and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> graphics standards (e.g. X<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NHESS..16..123Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NHESS..16..123Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Effective <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> surface <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for geographic information systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this work, we propose a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span>, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform with spatial data and query processing capabilities of geographic information systems, multimedia database functionality and graphical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized directional replacement policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in digital surface <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> graphics standards (e.g., X<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..MAR.R1314W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..MAR.R1314W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> structure and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of microtubule self-organization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Jing; Ou-Yang, H. Daniel</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to study the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> assemblies spontaneously formed in microtubule (MT) solutions. Microtubule solutions prepared by mixing and incubating tubulin in the presence of GTP and Oregon Green conjugated taxol in PM buffer were placed in long, sub-millimeter thin glass cells by the capillary action. Within 24 hours, starting with a uniform distribution, microtubules were found to be gradually separated into a few large ``buckled'' bundles along the long direction, and in the middle plane, of the sample cell. A well-defined wavelength of the buckling sinusoids was around 510 μm. The cross section of these round bundles was approximately 40 μm in diameter and the lengths were several centimeters. Detailed analysis of the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> image within the bundles revealed that each bundle seemed to consist of loosely packed MTs. It appeared that MTs were phase separated resulting from attractive interactions between charged MT fibers. The ``buckling'' behavior could be the result of geometrical constraints of the repulsive cell walls and the repulsive interaction between bundles. Detailed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> observations of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> evolution of MT assembly could provide insight to the mechanisms of cellular MT organization and phase separation of charged colloidal rods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3545547','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3545547"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Face <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Using the Multi-Deformable Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hwang, Jinkyu; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Joongrock; Lee, Sangyoun</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we focus on the problem of the accuracy performance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face <span class="hlt">modeling</span> techniques using corresponding features in multiple views, which is quite sensitive to feature extraction errors. To solve the problem, we adopt a statistical <span class="hlt">model</span>-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach in a mirror system consisting of two mirrors and a camera. The overall procedure of our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> facial <span class="hlt">modeling</span> method has two primary steps: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> facial shape estimation using a multiple <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face deformable <span class="hlt">model</span> and texture mapping using seamless cloning that is a type of gradient-domain blending. To evaluate our method's performance, we generate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> faces of 30 individuals and then carry out two tests: accuracy test and robustness test. Our method shows not only highly accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face shape results when compared with the ground truth, but also robustness to feature extraction errors. Moreover, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face rendering results intuitively show that our method is more robust to feature extraction errors than other <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face <span class="hlt">modeling</span> methods. An additional contribution of our method is that a wide range of face textures can be acquired by the mirror system. By using this texture map, we generate realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face for individuals at the end of the paper. PMID:23201976</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26220617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26220617"><span id="translatedtitle">Life in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is never flat: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> to optimise drug delivery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fitzgerald, Kathleen A; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Curtin, Caroline M; O' Brien, Fergal J; O' Driscoll, Caitriona M</p> <p>2015-10-10</p> <p>The development of safe, effective and patient-acceptable drug products is an expensive and lengthy process and the risk of failure at different stages of the development life-cycle is high. Improved biopharmaceutical tools which are robust, easy to use and accurately predict the in vivo response are urgently required to help address these issues. In this review the advantages and challenges of in vitro <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> versus 2D cell culture <span class="hlt">models</span> will be discussed in terms of evaluating new drug products at the pre-clinical development stage. Examples of <span class="hlt">models</span> with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> architecture including scaffolds, cell-derived matrices, multicellular spheroids and biochips will be described. The ability to simulate the microenvironment of tumours and vital organs including the liver, kidney, heart and intestine which have major impact on drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and toxicity will be evaluated. Examples of the application of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> including a role in formulation development, pharmacokinetic profiling and toxicity testing will be critically assessed. Although utilisation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell culture <span class="hlt">models</span> in the field of drug delivery is still in its infancy, the area is attracting high levels of interest and is likely to become a significant in vitro tool to assist in drug product development thus reducing the requirement for unnecessary animal studies. PMID:26220617</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26790959','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26790959"><span id="translatedtitle">Complex flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> around <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> microbot prototypes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martínez-Aranda, Sergio; Galindo-Rosales, Francisco J; Campo-Deaño, Laura</p> <p>2016-02-28</p> <p>A new experimental setup for the study of the complex flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> around <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> microbot prototypes in a straight microchannel has been developed and assessed. The ultimate aim of this work is focused on the analysis of the morphology of different microbot prototypes to get a better insight into their efficiency when they swim through the main conduits of the human circulatory system. The setup consists of a fused silica straight microchannel with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> microbot prototype fastened in the center of the channel cross-section by an extremely thin support. Four different prototypes were considered: a cube, a sphere and two ellipsoids with aspect ratios of 1 : 2 and 1 : 4, respectively. Flow visualization and micro-particle image velocimetry (μPIV) measurements were performed using Newtonian and viscoelastic blood analogue fluids. An efficiency parameter, ℑ, to discriminate the prototypes in terms of flow disturbance has been proposed. PMID:26790959</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/940232','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/940232"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the RELAPS-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Heat Conduction Enclosure <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McCann, Larry D.</p> <p>2008-09-30</p> <p>Three heat conduction problems that have exact solutions are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> with RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> using the conduction enclosure <span class="hlt">model</span>. These comparisons are designed to be used in the RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> development assessment scheduled to be completed in 2009. It is shown that with proper input choices and adequate <span class="hlt">model</span> detail the exact solutions can be matched. In addition, this analysis identified an error and the required correction in the cylindrical and spherical heat conductor <span class="hlt">models</span> in RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> which will be corrected in a future version of RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2598..114S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2598..114S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene <span class="hlt">modeling</span> from multiple range views</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sequeira, Vitor; Goncalves, Joao G. M.; Ribeiro, M. Isabel</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>This paper presents a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene analysis system that automatically reconstructs the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometric <span class="hlt">model</span> of real-world scenes from multiple range images acquired by a laser range finder on board of a mobile robot. The reconstruction is achieved through an integrated procedure including range data acquisition, geometrical feature extraction, registration, and integration of multiple views. Different descriptions of the final <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene <span class="hlt">model</span> are obtained: a polygonal triangular mesh, a surface description in terms of planar and biquadratics surfaces, and a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> boundary representation. Relevant experimental results from the complete <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene <span class="hlt">modeling</span> are presented. Direct applications of this technique include <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction and/or update of architectual or industrial plans into a CAD <span class="hlt">model</span>, design verification of buildings, navigation of autonomous robots, and input to virtual reality systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMIN33B..01C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMIN33B..01C"><span id="translatedtitle">Visualization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geological <span class="hlt">Models</span> on Google Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Y.; Um, J.; Park, M.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Google Earth combines satellite imagery, aerial photography, thematic maps and various data sets to make a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) interactive image of the world. Currently, Google Earth is a popular visualization tool in a variety of fields and plays an increasingly important role not only for private users in daily life, but also for scientists, practitioners, policymakers and stakeholders in research and application. In this study, a method to visualize <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> on Google Earth is presented. COLLAborative Design Activity (COLLADA, an open standard XML schema for establishing interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> applications) was used to represent different <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> such as borehole, fence section, surface-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volume and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> grid by triangle meshes (a set of triangles connected by their common edges or corners). In addition, we designed Keyhole Markup Language (KML, the XML-based scripting language of Google Earth) codes to import the COLLADA files into the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> render window of Google Earth. The method was applied to the Grosmont formation in Alberta, Canada. The application showed that the combination of COLLADA and KML enables Google Earth to effectively visualize <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological structures and properties.; Visualization of the (a) boreholes, (b) fence sections, (c) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volume <span class="hlt">model</span> and (d) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> grid <span class="hlt">model</span> of Grossmont formation on Google Earth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009OcMod..26...91H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009OcMod..26...91H"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparing a quasi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to a full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> nearshore circulation <span class="hlt">model</span>: SHORECIRC and ROMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haas, Kevin A.; Warner, John C.</p> <p></p> <p>Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation <span class="hlt">models</span>, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated <span class="hlt">models</span>. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation <span class="hlt">model</span> that is quasi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH <span class="hlt">model</span>. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ocean circulation <span class="hlt">model</span> which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the <span class="hlt">models</span> with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the <span class="hlt">models</span> are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is faster, however the applicability of the fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033040','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033040"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparing a quasi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to a full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> nearshore circulation <span class="hlt">model</span>: SHORECIRC and ROMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Haas, K.A.; Warner, J.C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation <span class="hlt">models</span>, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated <span class="hlt">models</span>. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation <span class="hlt">model</span> that is quasi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH <span class="hlt">model</span>. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ocean circulation <span class="hlt">model</span> which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the <span class="hlt">models</span> with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the <span class="hlt">models</span> are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is faster, however the applicability of the fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B1..725Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B1..725Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">a Fast Method for Measuring the Similarity Between <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Point Cloud</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zongliang; Li, Jonathan; Li, Xin; Lin, Yangbin; Zhang, Shanxin; Wang, Cheng</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a fast method for measuring the partial Similarity between <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point Cloud (SimMC). It is crucial to measure SimMC for many point cloud-related applications such as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object retrieval and inverse procedural <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. In our proposed method, the surface area of <span class="hlt">model</span> and the Distance from <span class="hlt">Model</span> to point Cloud (DistMC) are exploited as measurements to calculate SimMC. Here, DistMC is defined as the weighted distance of the distances between points sampled from <span class="hlt">model</span> and point cloud. Similarly, Distance from point Cloud to <span class="hlt">Model</span> (DistCM) is defined as the average distance of the distances between points in point cloud and <span class="hlt">model</span>. In order to reduce huge computational burdens brought by calculation of DistCM in some traditional methods, we define SimMC as the ratio of weighted surface area of <span class="hlt">model</span> to DistMC. Compared to those traditional SimMC measuring methods that are only able to measure global similarity, our method is capable of measuring partial similarity by employing distance-weighted strategy. Moreover, our method is able to be faster than other partial similarity assessment methods. We demonstrate the superiority of our method both on synthetic data and laser scanning data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Indexing+AND+multimedia&pg=2&id=EJ869243','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Indexing+AND+multimedia&pg=2&id=EJ869243"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geometry <span class="hlt">Model</span> Search Engine to Support Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tam, Gary K. L.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Zhao, Jianmin</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Due to the popularity of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphics in animation and games, usage of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry deformable <span class="hlt">models</span> increases dramatically. Despite their growing importance, these <span class="hlt">models</span> are difficult and time consuming to build. A distance learning system for the construction of these <span class="hlt">models</span> could greatly facilitate students to learn and practice at different…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2040163','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2040163"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury on CASP7 <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kaján, László; Rychlewski, Leszek</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury, the structure prediction consensus method publicly available in the Meta Server , was evaluated using <span class="hlt">models</span> gathered in the 7th round of the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP7). <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury is an automated expert process that generates protein structure meta-predictions from sets of <span class="hlt">models</span> obtained from partner servers. Results The performance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury was analysed for three aspects. First, we examined the correlation between the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury score and a <span class="hlt">model</span> quality measure: the number of correctly predicted residues. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury score was shown to correlate significantly with the number of correctly predicted residues, the correlation is good enough to be used for prediction. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury was also found to improve upon the competing servers' choice of the best structure <span class="hlt">model</span> in most cases. The value of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury score as a generic reliability measure was also examined. We found that the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury score separates bad <span class="hlt">models</span> from good <span class="hlt">models</span> better than the reliability score of the original server in 27 cases and falls short of it in only 5 cases out of a total of 38. We report the release of a new Meta Server feature: instant <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury scoring of uploaded user <span class="hlt">models</span>. Conclusion The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury score continues to be a good indicator of structural <span class="hlt">model</span> quality. It also provides a generic reliability score, especially important for <span class="hlt">models</span> that were not assigned such by the original server. Individual structure <span class="hlt">modellers</span> can also benefit from the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury scoring system by testing their <span class="hlt">models</span> in the new instant scoring feature available in the Meta Server. PMID:17711571</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3155904','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3155904"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video-based deformation measurement of the pelvis bone under <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> cyclic loading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) deformation of the pelvic bones is a crucial factor in the successful design and longevity of complex orthopaedic oncological implants. The current solutions are often not very promising for the patient; thus it would be interesting to measure the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-deformation of the whole pelvic bone in order to get a more realistic dataset for a better implant design. Therefore we hypothesis if it would be possible to combine a material testing machine with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video motion capturing system, used in clinical gait analysis, to measure the sub millimetre deformation of a whole pelvis specimen. Method A pelvis specimen was placed in a standing position on a material testing machine. Passive reflective markers, traceable by the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video motion capturing system, were fixed to the bony surface of the pelvis specimen. While applying a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> sinusoidal load the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-movement of the markers was recorded by the cameras and afterwards the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-deformation of the pelvis specimen was computed. The accuracy of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-movement of the markers was verified with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-displacement curve with a step function using a manual driven <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> micro-motion-stage. Results The resulting accuracy of the measurement system depended on the number of cameras tracking a marker. The noise level for a marker seen by two cameras was during the stationary phase of the calibration procedure ± 0.036 mm, and ± 0.022 mm if tracked by 6 cameras. The detectable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-movement performed by the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-micro-motion-stage was smaller than the noise level of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-video motion capturing system. Therefore the limiting factor of the setup was the noise level, which resulted in a measurement accuracy for the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> test setup of ± 0.036 mm. Conclusion This <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> test setup opens new possibilities in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> testing of wide range materials, like anatomical specimens, biomaterials, and its combinations. The resulting <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-deformation dataset can be used for a better estimation of material</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3728906','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3728906"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlative Microscopy for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Structural Analysis of <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jun, Sangmi; Zhao, Gongpu; Ning, Jiying; Gibson, Gregory A.; Watkins, Simon C.; Zhang, Peijun</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Cryo-electron tomography (cryoET) allows <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization of cellular structures at molecular resolution in a close-to-physiological state1. However, direct visualization of individual viral complexes in their host cellular environment with cryoET is challenging2, due to the infrequent and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> nature of viral entry, particularly in the case of HIV-1. While time-lapse live-cell imaging has yielded a great deal of information about many aspects of the life cycle of HIV-13-7, the resolution afforded by live-cell microscopy is limited (~ 200 nm). Our work was aimed at developing a correlation method that permits direct visualization of early events of HIV-1 infection by combining live-cell fluorescent light microscopy, cryo-fluorescent microscopy, and cryoET. In this manner, live-cell and cryo-fluorescent signals can be used to accurately guide the sampling in cryoET. Furthermore, structural information obtained from cryoET can be complemented with the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> functional data gained through live-cell imaging of fluorescent labeled target. In this video article, we provide detailed methods and protocols for structural investigation of HIV-1 and host-cell interactions using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> correlative high-speed live-cell imaging and high-resolution cryoET structural analysis. HeLa cells infected with HIV-1 particles were characterized first by confocal live-cell microscopy, and the region containing the same viral particle was then analyzed by cryo-electron tomography for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural details. The correlation between two sets of imaging data, optical imaging and electron imaging, was achieved using a home-built cryo-fluorescence light microscopy stage. The approach detailed here will be valuable, not only for study of virus-host cell interactions, but also for broader applications in cell biology, such as cell signaling, membrane receptor trafficking, and many other <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> cellular processes. PMID:23852318</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5265...24F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5265...24F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> precision surface measurement by <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> structured light</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Franke, Ernest A.; Magee, Michael J.; Mitchell, Joseph N.; Rigney, Michael P.</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>This paper describes a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> imaging technique developed as an internal research project at Southwest Research Institute. The technique is based on an extension of structured light methods in which a projected pattern of parallel lines is rotated over the surface to be measured. A sequence of images is captured and the surface elevation at any location can then be determined from measurements of the temporal pattern, at any point, without considering any other points on the surface. The paper describes techniques for system calibration and surface measurement based on the method of projected quadric shells. Algorithms were developed for image and signal analysis and computer programs were written to calibrate the system and to calculate <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> coordinates of points on a measured surface. A prototype of the <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Structured Light (DSL) <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> imaging system was assembled and typical parts were measured. The design procedure was verified and used to implement several different configurations with different measurement volumes and measurement accuracy. A small-parts measurement accuracy of 32 micrometers (.0012") RMS was verified by measuring the surface of a precision-machined plane. Large aircraft control surfaces were measured with a prototype setup that provided .02" depth resolution over a 4" by 8" field of view. Measurement times are typically less than three minutes for 300,000 points. A patent application has been filed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1182626','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1182626"><span id="translatedtitle">DREAM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulations of inner-belt <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cunningham, Gregory Scott</p> <p>2015-05-26</p> <p>A 1973 paper by Lyons and Thorne explains the two-belt structure for electrons in the inner magnetosphere as a balance between inward radial diffusion and loss to the atmosphere, where the loss to the atmosphere is enabled by pitch-angle scattering from Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. In the 1973 paper, equilibrium solutions to a decoupled set of 1D radial diffusion equations, one for each value of the first invariant of motion, μ, were computed to produce the equilibrium two-belt structure. Each 1D radial diffusion equation incorporated an L-and μ-dependent `lifetime' due to the Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. This decoupling of the problem is appropriate under the assumption that radial diffusion is slow in comparison to pitch-angle scattering. However, for some values of μ and L the lifetime associated with pitch-angle scattering is comparable to the timescale associated with radial diffusion, suggesting that the true equilibrium solutions might reflect `coupled modes' involving pitch-angle scattering and radial diffusion and thus requiring a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> diffusion <span class="hlt">model</span>. In the work we show here, we have computed the equilibrium solutions using our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> diffusion <span class="hlt">model</span>, DREAM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, that allows for such coupling. We find that the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> equilibrium solutions are quite similar to the solutions shown in the 1973 paper when we use the same physical <span class="hlt">models</span> for radial diffusion and pitch-angle scattering from hiss. However, we show that the equilibrium solutions are quite sensitive to various aspects of the physics <span class="hlt">model</span> employed in the 1973 paper that can be improved, suggesting that additional work needs to be done to understand the two-belt structure.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26689764','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26689764"><span id="translatedtitle">Computational <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures and interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawson, Wayne K; Bujnicki, Janusz M</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>RNA molecules have key functions in cellular processes beyond being carriers of protein-coding information. These functions are often dependent on the ability to form complex three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) structures. However, experimental determination of RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures is difficult, which has prompted the development of computational methods for structure prediction from sequence. Recent progress in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of RNA and emerging approaches for predicting RNA interactions with ions, ligands and proteins have been stimulated by successes in protein <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. PMID:26689764</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAnII22...47J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAnII22...47J"><span id="translatedtitle">An Automated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Indoor Topological Navigation Network <span class="hlt">Modelling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jamali, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Boguslawski, P.; Gold, C. M.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Indoor navigation is important for various applications such as disaster management and safety analysis. In the last decade, indoor environment has been a focus of wide research; that includes developing techniques for acquiring indoor data (e.g. Terrestrial laser scanning), <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> indoor <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> indoor navigation <span class="hlt">models</span>. In this paper, an automated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> topological indoor network generated from inaccurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> building <span class="hlt">models</span> is proposed. In a normal scenario, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> indoor navigation network derivation needs accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> with no errors (e.g. gap, intersect) and two cells (e.g. rooms, corridors) should touch each other to build their connections. The presented <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometrical building <span class="hlt">model</span>. For reducing time and cost of indoor building data acquisition process, Trimble LaserAce 1000 as surveying instrument is used. The <span class="hlt">modelling</span> results were validated against an accurate geometry of indoor building environment which was acquired using Trimble M3 total station.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014SPIE.9118E..0EC&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014SPIE.9118E..0EC&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Highway <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> from image and lidar data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Jinfeng; Chu, Henry; Sun, Xiaoduan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We present a new method of highway <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> construction developed based on feature extraction in highway images and LIDAR data. We describe the processing road coordinate data that connect the image frames to the coordinates of the elevation data. Image processing methods are used to extract sky, road, and ground regions as well as significant objects (such as signs and building fronts) in the roadside for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. LIDAR data are interpolated and processed to extract the road lanes as well as other features such as trees, ditches, and elevated objects to form the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry reasoning is used to match the image features to the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. Results from successive frames are integrated to improve the final <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4553..378S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4553..378S"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> infrared scenes using random fields <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shao, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Jianqi</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p>Analysis and simulation of smart munitions requires imagery for the munition's sensor to view. The traditional infrared background simulations are always limited in the plane scene studies. A new method is described to synthesize the images in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> view and with various terrains texture. We develop the random fields <span class="hlt">model</span> and temperature fields to simulate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> infrared scenes. Generalized long-correlation (GLC) <span class="hlt">model</span>, one of random field <span class="hlt">models</span>, will generate both the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> terrains skeleton data and the terrains texture in this work. To build the terrain mesh with the random fields, digital elevation <span class="hlt">models</span> (DEM) are introduced in the paper. And texture mapping technology will perform the task of pasting the texture in the concavo-convex surfaces of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene. The simulation using random fields <span class="hlt">model</span> is a very available method to produce <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> infrared scene with great randomicity and reality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016TDR.....7...83Q&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016TDR.....7...83Q&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">An Automatic Registration Algorithm for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Maxillofacial <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qiu, Luwen; Zhou, Zhongwei; Guo, Jixiang; Lv, Jiancheng</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image registration aims at aligning two <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data sets in a common coordinate system, which has been widely used in computer vision, pattern recognition and computer assisted surgery. One challenging problem in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> registration is that point-wise correspondences between two point sets are often unknown apriori. In this work, we develop an automatic algorithm for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> maxillofacial <span class="hlt">models</span> registration including facial surface <span class="hlt">model</span> and skull <span class="hlt">model</span>. Our proposed registration algorithm can achieve a good alignment result between partial and whole maxillofacial <span class="hlt">model</span> in spite of ambiguous matching, which has a potential application in the oral and maxillofacial reparative and reconstructive surgery. The proposed algorithm includes three steps: (1) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-SIFT features extraction and FPFH descriptors construction; (2) feature matching using SAC-IA; (3) coarse rigid alignment and refinement by ICP. Experiments on facial surfaces and mandible skull <span class="hlt">models</span> demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7023W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7023W"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Vertical <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> in the Northern Baltic Sea based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> and Data from Shallow-Water Argo Floats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Westerlund, Antti; Tuomi, Laura</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Vertical mixing is a challenge for ocean <span class="hlt">models</span>. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> often produce considerable errors in mixed layer depths and vertical temperature structure that can be related to the vertical turbulence parameterisation. These errors can be pronounced in areas with complex hydrography. In the Baltic Sea, for example, there are high horizontal and vertical salinity gradients. Furthermore, thermocline and halocline are located at different depths. This produces stratification conditions challenging for all ocean <span class="hlt">models</span>. We studied vertical mixing with <span class="hlt">modelling</span> experiments and new observational data. NEMO <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ocean <span class="hlt">model</span> has been set up at Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) for the Baltic Sea, based on the NEMO Nordic configuration. The <span class="hlt">model</span> has been discretized on a Baltic Sea - North Sea grid with 2 nautical mile resolution and 56 vertical layers, using FMI-HIRLAM atmospheric forcing. The observational data for Baltic Sea off-shore areas is sparse and new methods are needed to collect data for <span class="hlt">model</span> validation and development. FMI has been testing Argo floats in the Baltic Sea since 2011 in order to increase the amount of observed vertical profiles of salinity and temperature. This is the first time Argo floats have been successfully used in the brackish, shallow waters of the Baltic Sea. This new data set is well suited for evaluating the capability of hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> to produce the vertical structure of temperature. It provides a time series of profiles from the area of interest with good temporal resolution, showing the structure of temperature in the water column throughout the summer. We found that NEMO was able to reproduce the general features of the seasonal temperature variations in the study area, when meteorological forcing was accurate. We ran the <span class="hlt">model</span> with different vertical turbulence parameterisations. The k-ɛ and k-ω schemes showed clear differences, but neither proved superior. While sea surface temperature was better simulated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2996128','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2996128"><span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Calcium in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mazel, Tomáš; Raymond, Rebecca; Raymond-Stintz, Mary; Jett, Stephen; Wilson, Bridget S.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Release of inflammatory mediators by mast cells in type 1 immediate-hypersensitivity allergic reactions relies on antigen-dependent increases in cytosolic calcium. Here, we used a series of electron microscopy images to build a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction representing a slice through a rat tumor mast cell, which then served as a basis for stochastic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of inositol-trisphosphate-mediated calcium responses. The stochastic approach was verified by reaction-diffusion <span class="hlt">modeling</span> within the same geometry. Local proximity of the endoplasmic reticulum to either the plasma membrane or mitochondria is predicted to differentially impact local inositol trisphosphate receptor transport. The explicit consideration of organelle spatial relationships represents an important step toward building a comprehensive, realistic <span class="hlt">model</span> of cellular calcium <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. PMID:19254531</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012uuu..conf02003F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012uuu..conf02003F"><span id="translatedtitle">Extending <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> with legal information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frank, A. U.; Fuhrmann, T.; Navratil, G.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> represent existing physical objects and their topological and functional relations. In everyday life the rights and responsibilities connected to these objects, primarily legally defined rights and obligations but also other socially and culturally established rights, are of importance. The rights and obligations are defined in various laws and it is often difficult to identify the rules applicable for a certain case. The existing 2D cadastres show civil law rights and obligations and plans to extend them to provide information about public law restrictions for land use are in several countries under way. It is tempting to design extensions to the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> to provide information about legal rights in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The paper analyses the different types of information that are needed to reduce conflicts and to facilitate decisions about land use. We identify the role <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> augmented with planning information in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can play, but do not advocate a general conversion from 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> for the legal cadastre. Space is not anisotropic and the up/down dimension is practically very different from the two dimensional plane - this difference must be respected when designing spatial information systems. The conclusions are: (1) continue the current regime for ownership of apartments, which is not ownership of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volume, but co-ownership of a building with exclusive use of some rooms; such exclusive use rights could be shown in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span>; (2) ownership of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volumes for complex and unusual building situations can be reported in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span>, but are not required everywhere; (3) indicate restrictions for land use and building in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span>, with links to the legal sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9524E..1OR','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9524E..1OR"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning <span class="hlt">modeling</span> method application in ancient city reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ren, Pu; Zhou, Mingquan; Du, Guoguang; Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Pengbo</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>With the development of optical engineering technology, the precision of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning equipment becomes higher, and its role in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is getting more distinctive. This paper proposed a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning <span class="hlt">modeling</span> method that has been successfully applied in Chinese ancient city reconstruction. On one hand, for the existing architectures, an improved algorithm based on multiple scanning is adopted. Firstly, two pieces of scanning data were rough rigid registered using spherical displacers and vertex clustering method. Secondly, a global weighted ICP (iterative closest points) method is used to achieve a fine rigid registration. On the other hand, for the buildings which have already disappeared, an exemplar-driven algorithm for rapid <span class="hlt">modeling</span> was proposed. Based on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning technology and the historical data, a system approach was proposed for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and virtual display of ancient city.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8314E..0BY','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8314E..0BY"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonrigid registration and classification of the kidneys in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contrast enhanced (DCE) MR images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Xiaofeng; Ghafourian, Pegah; Sharma, Puneet; Salman, Khalil; Martin, Diego; Fei, Baowei</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>We have applied image analysis methods in the assessment of human kidney perfusion based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI data. This approach consists of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> non-rigid image registration of the kidneys and fuzzy C-mean classification of kidney tissues. The proposed registration method reduced motion artifacts in the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> images and improved the analysis of kidney compartments (cortex, medulla, and cavities). The <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> intensity curves show the successive transition of the contrast agent through kidney compartments. The proposed method for motion correction and kidney compartment classification may be used to improve the validity and usefulness of further <span class="hlt">model</span>-based pharmacokinetic analysis of kidney function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/80250','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/80250"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>-based Bayesian classification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Soenneland, L.; Tenneboe, P.; Gehrmann, T.; Yrke, O.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>The challenging task of the interpreter is to integrate different pieces of information and combine them into an earth <span class="hlt">model</span>. The sophistication level of this earth <span class="hlt">model</span> might vary from the simplest geometrical description to the most complex set of reservoir parameters related to the geometrical description. Obviously the sophistication level also depend on the completeness of the available information. The authors describe the interpreter`s task as a mapping between the observation space and the <span class="hlt">model</span> space. The information available to the interpreter exists in observation space and the task is to infer a <span class="hlt">model</span> in <span class="hlt">model</span>-space. It is well-known that this inversion problem is non-unique. Therefore any attempt to find a solution depend son constraints being added in some manner. The solution will obviously depend on which constraints are introduced and it would be desirable to allow the interpreter to modify the constraints in a problem-dependent manner. They will present a probabilistic framework that gives the interpreter the tools to integrate the different types of information and produce constrained solutions. The constraints can be adapted to the problem at hand.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007acgc.book..155V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007acgc.book..155V"><span id="translatedtitle">Distributed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Information Visualization - Towards Integration of the <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Graphics and Web Services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vucinic, Dean; Deen, Danny; Oanta, Emil; Batarilo, Zvonimir; Lacor, Chris</p> <p></p> <p>This paper focuses on visualization and manipulation of graphical content in distributed network environments. The developed graphical middleware and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> desktop prototypes were specialized for situational awareness. This research was done in the LArge Scale COllaborative decision support Technology (LASCOT) project, which explored and combined software technologies to support human-centred decision support system for crisis management (earthquake, tsunami, flooding, airplane or oil-tanker incidents, chemical, radio-active or other pollutants spreading, etc.). The performed state-of-the-art review did not identify any publicly available large scale distributed application of this kind. Existing proprietary solutions rely on the conventional technologies and 2D representations. Our challenge was to apply the "latest" available technologies, such Java<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, X<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and SOAP, compatible with average computer graphics hardware. The selected technologies are integrated and we demonstrate: the flow of data, which originates from heterogeneous data sources; interoperability across different operating systems and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visual representations to enhance the end-users interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05451&hterms=gap+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dgap%2Bmodel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05451&hterms=gap+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dgap%2Bmodel"><span id="translatedtitle">Opportunity Landing Spot Panorama (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The rocky outcrop traversed by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is visible in this three-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> of the rover's landing site. Opportunity has acquired close-up images along the way, and scientists are using the rover's instruments to closely examine portions of interest. The white fragments that look crumpled near the center of the image are portions of the airbags. Distant scenery is displayed on a spherical backdrop or 'billboard' for context. Artifacts near the top rim of the crater are a result of the transition between the three-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> and the billboard. Portions of the terrain <span class="hlt">model</span> lacking sufficient data appear as blank spaces or gaps, colored reddish-brown for better viewing. This image was generated using special software from NASA's Ames Research Center and a mosaic of images taken by the rover's panoramic camera.<p/> [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view <p/>The rocky outcrop traversed by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is visible in this zoomed-in portion of a three-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> of the rover's landing site. Opportunity has acquired close-up images along the way, and scientists are using the rover's instruments to closely examine portions of interest. The white fragments that look crumpled near the center of the image are portions of the airbags. Distant scenery is displayed on a spherical backdrop or 'billboard' for context. Artifacts near the top rim of the crater are a result of the transition between the three-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> and the billboard. Portions of the terrain <span class="hlt">model</span> lacking sufficient data appear as blank spaces or gaps, colored reddish-brown for better viewing. This image was generated using special software from NASA's Ames Research Center and a mosaic of images taken by the rover's panoramic camera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ISPAr.XL2b..73S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ISPAr.XL2b..73S"><span id="translatedtitle">Virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> City <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>: Techniques and Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as Building, Tree, Vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. There are various terms used for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> such as "Cybertown", "Cybercity", "Virtual City", or "Digital City". <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> are basically a computerized or digital <span class="hlt">model</span> of a city contains the graphic representation of buildings and other objects in 2.5 or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. Generally three main Geomatics approach are using for Virtual <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">models</span> generation, in first approach, researcher are using Conventional techniques such as Vector Map data, DEM, Aerial images, second approach are based on High resolution satellite images with LASER scanning, In third method, many researcher are using Terrestrial images by using Close Range Photogrammetry with DSM & Texture mapping. We start this paper from the introduction of various Geomatics techniques for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. These techniques divided in to two main categories: one is based on Automation (Automatic, Semi-automatic and Manual methods), and another is Based on Data input techniques (one is Photogrammetry, another is Laser Techniques). After details study of this, finally in short, we are trying to give the conclusions of this study. In the last, we are trying to give the conclusions of this research paper and also giving a short view for justification and analysis, and present trend for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. This paper gives an overview about the Techniques related with "Generation of Virtual <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">models</span> using Geomatics Techniques" and the Applications of Virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">models</span>. Photogrammetry, (Close range, Aerial, Satellite), Lasergrammetry, GPS, or combination of these modern Geomatics techniques play a major role to create a virtual <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">model</span>. Each and every techniques and method has some advantages and some drawbacks. Point cloud <span class="hlt">model</span> is a modern trend for virtual <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span>. Photo-realistic, Scalable, Geo-referenced virtual <span class="hlt">3</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120015401&hterms=convection&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dconvection','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120015401&hterms=convection&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dconvection"><span id="translatedtitle">Venusian Applications of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Convection <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bonaccorso, Timary Annie</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study <span class="hlt">models</span> mantle convection on Venus using the 'cubed sphere' code OEDIPUS, which <span class="hlt">models</span> one-sixth of the planet in spherical geometry. We are attempting to balance internal heating, bottom mantle viscosity, and temperature difference across Venus' mantle, in order to create a realistic <span class="hlt">model</span> that matches with current planetary observations. We also have begun to run both lower and upper mantle simulations to determine whether layered (as opposed to whole-mantle) convection might produce more efficient heat transfer, as well as to <span class="hlt">model</span> coronae formation in the upper mantle. Upper mantle simulations are completed using OEDIPUS' Cartesian counterpart, JOCASTA. This summer's central question has been how to define a mantle plume. Traditionally, we have defined a hot plume the region with temperature at or above 40% of the difference between the maximum and horizontally averaged temperature, and a cold plume as the region with 40% of the difference between the minimum and average temperature. For less viscous cases (1020 Pa?s), the plumes generated by that definition lacked vigor, displaying buoyancies 1/100th of those found in previous, higher viscosity simulations (1021 Pa?s). As the mantle plumes with large buoyancy flux are most likely to produce topographic uplift and volcanism, the low viscosity cases' plumes may not produce observable deformation. In an effort to eliminate the smallest plumes, we experimented with different lower bound parameters and temperature percentages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911087','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911087"><span id="translatedtitle">RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Compressor <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>James E. Fisher; Cliff B. Davis; Walter L. Weaver</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>A compressor <span class="hlt">model</span> has been implemented in the RELAP5-3D© code. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is similar to that of the existing pump <span class="hlt">model</span>, and performs the same function on a gas as the pump performs on a single-phase or two-phase fluid. The compressor component consists of an inlet junction and a control volume, and optionally, an outlet junction. This feature permits cascading compressor components in series. The equations describing the physics of the compressor are derived from first principles. These equations are used to obtain the head, the torque, and the energy dissipation. Compressor performance is specified using a map, specific to the design of the machine, in terms of the ratio of outlet-to-inlet total (or stagnation) pressure and adiabatic efficiency as functions of rotational velocity and flow rate. The input quantities are specified in terms of dimensionless variables, which are corrected to stagnation density and stagnation sound speed. A small correction was formulated for the input of efficiency to account for the error introduced by assumption of constant density when integrating the momentum equation. Comparison of the results of steady-state operation of the compressor <span class="hlt">model</span> to those of the MIT design calculation showed excellent agreement for both pressure ratio and power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307717&keyword=Quality+AND+improvement&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65135417&CFTOKEN=72216439','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307717&keyword=Quality+AND+improvement&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65135417&CFTOKEN=72216439"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of Kolomogorov-Zurbenko Filter and the decoupled direct <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> method for the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> evaluation of a regional air quality <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Regional air quality <span class="hlt">models</span> are being used in a policy-setting to estimate the response of air pollutant concentrations to changes in emissions and meteorology. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> evaluation entails examination of a retrospective case(s) to assess whether an air quality <span class="hlt">model</span> has properly p...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL5..537S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL5..537S"><span id="translatedtitle">Image based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">modeling</span> : Comparative study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, second method is Procedural grammar based <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARA42012M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARA42012M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> Polymer Deformation during <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter</p> <p></p> <p>Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition <span class="hlt">modelling</span> technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple <span class="hlt">model</span> of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4949P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4949P"><span id="translatedtitle">Kongsfjorden-MIKE <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Przyborska, Anna; Kosecki, Szymon; Jakacki, Jaromir</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Kongsfjorden is a West Svalbard fjord with a surface area of about 210 km2. It is obvious that the depths of the outer and central basins are influenced by the open sea, under influence of West Spitsbergen Current (WSC), which curry out warm Atlantic water and cold East Spitsbergen Current, while the shallower, inner basin has a large glacial outflow and its maximum depths do not exceed 100 m. Freshwater stored in Spitsbergen glaciers have strong influence on local hydrology and physical fjord conditions. Both, local and shelf conditions have impact on state of the fjord. External forces like tides, velocities at the boundary and atmospheric forces together with sources of cold and dens fresh water in the fjords will give reliable representation of physical conditions in Kongsfjorden. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> could help to solve this problem and we have hope that we find answer which one is the most important for local conditions in fjord. Calculations of balances between cold fresh water and warm and salt will provide additional information that could help to answer the main question of the GAME (Growing of the Arctic Marine Ecosystem) project - what is the reaction of physically controlled Arctic marine ecosystem to temperature rise.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/921740','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/921740"><span id="translatedtitle">ODTLES : a <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> turbulent flow based on one-dimensional turbulence <span class="hlt">modeling</span> concepts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McDermott, Randy; Kerstein, Alan R.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This report describes an approach for extending the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) <span class="hlt">model</span> of Kerstein [6] to treat turbulent flow in three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) domains. This <span class="hlt">model</span>, here called ODTLES, can also be viewed as a new LES <span class="hlt">model</span>. In ODTLES, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> aspects of the flow are captured by embedding three, mutually orthogonal, one-dimensional ODT domain arrays within a coarser <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mesh. The ODTLES <span class="hlt">model</span> is obtained by developing a consistent approach for <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> coupling the different ODT line sets to each other and to the large scale processes that are resolved on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mesh. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented computationally and its performance is tested and evaluated by performing simulations of decaying isotropic turbulence, a standard turbulent flow benchmarking problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15132184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15132184"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>: explaining densification and deformation mechanisms by using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> parameter plots.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Picker, Katharina M</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to analyze very differently deforming materials using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> parameter plots and consequently to gain deeper insights into the densification and deformation process described with the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> in order to define an ideal tableting excipient. The excipients used were dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), sodium chloride (NaCl), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), xylitol, mannitol, alpha-lactose monohydrate, maltose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC), cellulose acetate (CAC), maize starch, potato starch, pregelatinized starch, and maltodextrine. All of the materials were tableted to graded maximum relative densities (rhorel, max) using an eccentric tableting machine. The data which resulted, namely force, displacement, and time, were analyzed by the application of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Different particle size fractions of DCPD, CAC, and MCC were analyzed in addition. Brittle deforming materials such as DCPD exhibited a completely different <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> parameter plot, with low time plasticity, d, and low pressure plasticity, e, and a strong decrease in omega values when densification increased, in contrast to the plastically deforming MCC, which had much higher d, e, and omega values. e and omega values changed only slightly when densification increased for MCC. NaCl showed less of a decrease in omega values than DCPD did, and the d and e values were between those of MCC and DCPD. The sugar alcohols, xylitol and mannitol, behaved in a similar fashion to sodium chloride. This is also valid for the crystalline sugars, alpha-lactose monohydrate, and maltose. However, the sugars are more brittle than the sugar alcohols. The cellulose derivatives, HPMC, NaCMC, and CAC, are as plastic as MCC, however, their elasticity depends on substitution indicated by lower (more elastic) or higher (less elastic) omega values. The native starches, maize starch and potato starch, are very elastic, and pregelatinized starch and maltodextrine are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140002635','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140002635"><span id="translatedtitle">Using the Flow-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> General Moving Object <span class="hlt">Model</span> to Simulate Coupled Liquid Slosh - Container <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> on the SPHERES Slosh Experiment: Aboard the International Space Station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schulman, Richard; Kirk, Daniel; Marsell, Brandon; Roth, Jacob; Schallhorn, Paul</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The SPHERES Slosh Experiment (SSE) is a free floating experimental platform developed for the acquisition of long duration liquid slosh data aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The data sets collected will be used to benchmark numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> to aid in the design of rocket and spacecraft propulsion systems. Utilizing two SPHERES Satellites, the experiment will be moved through different maneuvers designed to induce liquid slosh in the experiment's internal tank. The SSE has a total of twenty-four thrusters to move the experiment. In order to design slosh generating maneuvers, a parametric study with three maneuvers types was conducted using the General Moving Object (GMO) <span class="hlt">model</span> in Flow-30. The three types of maneuvers are a translation maneuver, a rotation maneuver and a combined rotation translation maneuver. The effectiveness of each maneuver to generate slosh is determined by the deviation of the experiment's trajectory as compared to a dry mass trajectory. To fully capture the effect of liquid re-distribution on experiment trajectory, each thruster is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> as an independent force point in the Flow-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulation. This is accomplished by modifying the total number of independent forces in the GMO <span class="hlt">model</span> from the standard five to twenty-four. Results demonstrate that the most effective slosh generating maneuvers for all motions occurs when SSE thrusters are producing the highest changes in SSE acceleration. The results also demonstrate that several centimeters of trajectory deviation between the dry and slosh cases occur during the maneuvers; while these deviations seem small, they are measureable by SSE instrumentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1997SPIE.3023...87A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1997SPIE.3023...87A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D-model</span> building of the jaw impression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahmed, Moumen T.; Yamany, Sameh M.; Hemayed, Elsayed E.; Farag, Aly A.</p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>A novel approach is proposed to obtain a record of the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data acquisition is obtained using intra-oral video cameras. The technique utilizes shape from shading to extract <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information from 2D views of the jaw, and a novel technique for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data registration using genetic algorithms. The resulting <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> can be used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and implant purposes. The overall purpose of this research is to develop a <span class="hlt">model</span>-based vision system for orthodontics to replace traditional approaches. This system will be flexible, accurate, and will reduce the cost of orthodontic treatments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8136E..0CP','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8136E..0CP"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>-based still image object categorization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petre, Raluca-Diana; Zaharia, Titus</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a novel recognition scheme algorithm for semantic labeling of 2D object present in still images. The principle consists of matching unknown 2D objects with categorized <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> in order to infer the semantics of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object to the image. We tested our new recognition framework by using the MPEG-7 and Princeton <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> databases in order to label unknown images randomly selected from the web. Results obtained show promising performances, with recognition rate up to 84%, which opens interesting perspectives in terms of semantic metadata extraction from still images/videos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3948591','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3948591"><span id="translatedtitle">Summary on Several Key Techniques in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geological <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Several key techniques in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">modeling</span> including planar mesh generation, spatial interpolation, and surface intersection are summarized in this paper. Note that these techniques are generic and widely used in various applications but play a key role in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. There are two essential procedures in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">modeling</span>: the first is the simulation of geological interfaces using geometric surfaces and the second is the building of geological objects by means of various geometric computations such as the intersection of surfaces. Discrete geometric surfaces that represent geological interfaces can be generated by creating planar meshes first and then spatially interpolating; those surfaces intersect and then form volumes that represent three-dimensional geological objects such as rock bodies. In this paper, the most commonly used algorithms of the key techniques in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">modeling</span> are summarized. PMID:24772029</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016CG.....90...10W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016CG.....90...10W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Formal representation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural geological <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Yang, Hongjun; Du, Qunle</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The development and widespread application of geological <span class="hlt">modeling</span> methods has increased demands for the integration and sharing services of three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) geological data. However, theoretical research in the field of geological information sciences is limited despite the widespread use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in geology. In particular, fundamental research on the formal representations and standardized spatial descriptions of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural <span class="hlt">models</span> is required. This is necessary for accurate understanding and further applications of geological data in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> space. In this paper, we propose a formal representation method for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural <span class="hlt">models</span> using the theory of point set topology, which produces a mathematical definition for the major types of geological objects. The spatial relationships between geologic boundaries, structures, and units are explained in detail using the 9-intersection <span class="hlt">model</span>. Reasonable conditions for describing the topological space of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural <span class="hlt">models</span> are also provided. The results from this study can be used as potential support for the standardized representation and spatial quality evaluation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural <span class="hlt">models</span>, as well as for specific needs related to <span class="hlt">model</span>-based management, query, and analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17126062','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17126062"><span id="translatedtitle">Metrological validation for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of dental plaster casts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brusco, Nicola; Andreetto, Marco; Lucchese, Luca; Carmignato, Simone; Cortelazzo, Guido M</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>The contribution of this paper is twofold: (1) it presents an automatic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> technique and (2) it advances a procedure for its metrological evaluation in the context of a medical application, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of dental plaster casts. The motivation for this work is the creation of a "virtual gypsotheque" where cumbersome dental plaster casts can be replaced by numerical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, thereby alleviating storage and access problems and allowing dentists and orthodontists the use of novel and unprecedented software tools for their medical evaluations. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> free-form surfaces of anatomical interest is an intriguing mixture of open issues concerning <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, geometrical metrology, and medicine. Of general interest is both the fact that a widespread use of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> in non-engineering applications requires automatic procedures of the kind presented in this work and the adopted validation paradigm for free-form surfaces, rather useful for practical purposes. In this latter respect, the metrological analysis we advance is the first seminal attempt in the field of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and can be readily extended to contexts other than the medical one discussed in this paper. PMID:17126062</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26661474','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26661474"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> from Photos Given Topological Information.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Young Min; Cho, Junghyun; Ahn, Sang Chul</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Reconstructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> given a single-view 2D information is inherently an ill-posed problem and requires additional information such as shape prior or user input.We introduce a method to generate multiple <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of a particular category given corresponding photographs when the topological information is known. While there is a wide range of shapes for an object of a particular category, the basic topology usually remains constant.In consequence, the topological prior needs to be provided only once for each category and can be easily acquired by consulting an existing database of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> or by user input. The input of topological description is only connectivity information between parts; this is in contrast to previous approaches that have required users to interactively mark individual parts. Given the silhouette of an object and the topology, our system automatically finds a skeleton and generates a textured <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> by jointly fitting multiple parts. The proposed method, therefore, opens the possibility of generating a large number of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> by consulting a massive number of photographs. We demonstrate examples of the topological prior and reconstructed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> using photos. PMID:26661474</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B5..147Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B5..147Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance Evaluation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Software for Uav Photogrammetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yanagi, H.; Chikatsu, H.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry, which combines UAV and freely available internet-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software, is widely used as a low-cost and user-friendly photogrammetry technique in the fields such as remote sensing and geosciences. In UAV photogrammetry, only the platform used in conventional aerial photogrammetry is changed. Consequently, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software contributes significantly to its expansion. However, the algorithms of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> software are black box algorithms. As a result, only a few studies have been able to evaluate their accuracy using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> coordinate check points. With this motive, Smart3DCapture and Pix4Dmapper were downloaded from the Internet and commercial software PhotoScan was also employed; investigations were performed in this paper using check points and images obtained from UAV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27294109','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27294109"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the Rabies Virus Glycoprotein Trimer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fernando, Bastida-González; Yersin, Celaya-Trejo; José, Correa-Basurto; Paola, Zárate-Segura</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The RABVG ectodomain is a homotrimer, and trimers are often called spikes. They are responsible for the attachment of the virus through the interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). This makes them relevant in viral pathogenesis. The antigenic structure differs significantly between the trimers and monomers. Surfaces rich in hydrophobic amino acids are important for trimer stabilization in which the C-terminal of the ectodomain plays an important role; to understand these interactions between the G proteins, a mechanistic study of their functions was performed with a molecular <span class="hlt">model</span> of G protein in its trimeric form. This verified its <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conformation. The molecular <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of G protein was performed by a I-TASSER server and was evaluated via a Rachamandran plot and ERRAT program obtained 84.64% and 89.9% of the residues in the favorable regions and overall quality factor, respectively. The molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations were carried out on RABVG trimer at 310 K. From these theoretical studies, we retrieved the RMSD values from Cα atoms to assess stability. Preliminary <span class="hlt">model</span> of G protein of rabies virus stable at 12 ns with molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> was obtained. PMID:27294109</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4879324','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4879324"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the Rabies Virus Glycoprotein Trimer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fernando, Bastida-González; Yersin, Celaya-Trejo; José, Correa-Basurto; Paola, Zárate-Segura</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The RABVG ectodomain is a homotrimer, and trimers are often called spikes. They are responsible for the attachment of the virus through the interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). This makes them relevant in viral pathogenesis. The antigenic structure differs significantly between the trimers and monomers. Surfaces rich in hydrophobic amino acids are important for trimer stabilization in which the C-terminal of the ectodomain plays an important role; to understand these interactions between the G proteins, a mechanistic study of their functions was performed with a molecular <span class="hlt">model</span> of G protein in its trimeric form. This verified its <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conformation. The molecular <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of G protein was performed by a I-TASSER server and was evaluated via a Rachamandran plot and ERRAT program obtained 84.64% and 89.9% of the residues in the favorable regions and overall quality factor, respectively. The molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations were carried out on RABVG trimer at 310 K. From these theoretical studies, we retrieved the RMSD values from Cα atoms to assess stability. Preliminary <span class="hlt">model</span> of G protein of rabies virus stable at 12 ns with molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> was obtained. PMID:27294109</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.380...98L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.380...98L"><span id="translatedtitle">Collision of continental corner from <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zhong-Hai; Xu, Zhiqin; Gerya, Taras; Burg, Jean-Pierre</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Continental collision has been extensively investigated with 2-D numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> assuming infinitely wide plates or insignificant along-strike deformation in the third dimension. However, the corners of natural collision zones normally have structural characteristics that differ from linear parts of mountain belt. We conducted <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> high-resolution numerical simulations to study the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of a continental corner (lateral continental/oceanic transition zone) during subduction/collision. The results demonstrate different modes between the oceanic subduction side (continuous subduction and retreating trench) and the continental collision side (slab break-off and topography uplift). Slab break-off occurs at a depth (⩽100 km to ˜300 km) that depends on the convergence velocity. The numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> produce lateral extrusion of the overriding crust from the collisional side to the subduction side, which is also a phenomenon recognized around natural collision of continental corners, for instance around the western corner of the Arabia-Asia collision zone and around the eastern corner of the India-Asia collision zone. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> results also indicate that extrusion tectonics may be driven both from above by the topography and gravitational potentials and from below by the trench retreat and asthenospheric mantle return flow, which supports the link between deep mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and shallower crustal deformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JCoPh.219..608W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JCoPh.219..608W"><span id="translatedtitle">A parallel algorithm for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dislocation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhiqiang; Ghoniem, Nasr; Swaminarayan, Sriram; LeSar, Richard</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Dislocation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (DD), a discrete <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation method in which dislocations are the fundamental entities, is a powerful tool for investigation of plasticity, deformation and fracture of materials at the micron length scale. However, severe computational difficulties arising from complex, long-range interactions between these curvilinear line defects limit the application of DD in the study of large-scale plastic deformation. We present here the development of a parallel algorithm for accelerated computer simulations of DD. By representing dislocations as a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> set of dislocation particles, we show here that the problem of an interacting ensemble of dislocations can be converted to a problem of a particle ensemble, interacting with a long-range force field. A grid using binary space partitioning is constructed to keep track of node connectivity across domains. We demonstrate the computational efficiency of the parallel micro-plasticity code and discuss how O(N) methods map naturally onto the parallel data structure. Finally, we present results from applications of the parallel code to deformation in single crystal fcc metals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B5..273K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B5..273K"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic Texture Mapping of Architectural and Archaeological <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Today, detailed, complete and exact <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface <span class="hlt">models</span> with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image (ML3DImage) algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013ISPAr.XL2b..47M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013ISPAr.XL2b..47M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Gis-Based Smart Cartography Using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Malinverni, E. S.; Tassetti, A. N.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">Models</span> have evolved to be important tools for urban decision processes and information systems, especially in planning, simulation, analysis, documentation and heritage management. On the other hand existing and in use numerical cartography is often not suitable to be used in GIS because not geometrically and topologically correctly structured. The research aim is to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure and organize a numeric cartography for GIS and turn it into CityGML standardized features. The work is framed around a first phase of methodological analysis aimed to underline which existing standard (like ISO and OGC rules) can be used to improve the quality requirement of a cartographic structure. Subsequently, from this technical specifics, it has been investigated the translation in formal contents, using an owner interchange software (SketchUp), to support some guide lines implementations to generate a GIS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structured in GML3. It has been therefore predisposed a test three-dimensional numerical cartography (scale 1:500, generated from range data captured by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laser scanner), tested on its quality according to the previous standard and edited when and where necessary. Cad files and shapefiles are converted into a final <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> (Google SketchUp <span class="hlt">model</span>) and then exported into a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> (CityGML LoD1/LoD2). The GIS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure has been managed in a GIS environment to run further spatial analysis and energy performance estimate, not achievable in a 2D environment. In particular geometrical building parameters (footprint, volume etc.) are computed and building envelop thermal characteristics are derived from. Lastly, a simulation is carried out to deal with asbestos and home renovating charges and show how the built <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> can support municipal managers with risk diagnosis of the present situation and development of strategies for a sustainable redevelop.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS53E1087Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS53E1087Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of oceanic mercury coupled to carbon biogeochemistry and particle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>: application to the transport and fate or riverine mercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.; Jacob, D. J.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Amos, H. M.; Long, M. S.; Sunderland, E. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Rivers are estimated to deliver 27 Mmol a-1 of mercury (Hg) to ocean margins, which is comparable to the global atmospheric deposition flux of Hg to the ocean. Previous studies presumed that most of this riverine Hg is sequestered by settling to the coastal regions. However, there has been little investigation of the mechanism and efficiency with which this sequestration takes place, and the implications for riverine influence in different ocean regions. Here we develop a global <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> chemical transport <span class="hlt">model</span> for Hg in the ocean (MITgcm-Hg) with ecology (DARWIN <span class="hlt">model</span>). We track offshore export of the discharged Hg from heterogeneous river systems over different ocean regions, and how it is influenced by the interaction of Hg in a variety of geochemical forms with carbon and suspended particles. We constrain our <span class="hlt">model</span> assumptions with available offshore observations that bear strong riverine signals. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> results suggest that some of the riverine Hg is highly refractory, sorbs strongly to particles and does not follow equilibrium partitioning with the dissolved phase. Simulated global Hg evasion from riverine sources is 50 times larger without this refractory particulate pool, which results in a total evasion flux two times larger than our current best estimate. Based on a typology system of global rivers, we calculate that 10% to 60% of the particulate Hg from different rivers settles in ocean margin sediments because of subgrid sedimentation processes. The remaining 7.5 Mmol a-1 (28% of total river discharge) is available for offshore transport, where it undergoes further sedimentation to the shelf (5.3 Mmol a-1) as well as evasion to the atmosphere (0.44 Mmol a-1). Only 1.7 Mmol a-1 (6.4% of the global riverine Hg) reaches the open ocean, although that fraction varies from 2.6% in East Asia because of the blockage of Korean Peninsula to 25% in east North America facilitated by the Gulf Stream. We find large riverine influences over coastal oceans off East Asia</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CG.....85...81S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CG.....85...81S"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of gravel unconstrained flow experiments with the DAN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and RASH<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sauthier, Claire; Pirulli, Marina; Pisani, Gabriele; Scavia, Claudio; Labiouse, Vincent</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Landslide continuum <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> have improved considerably in the last years, but a consensus on the best method of calibrating the input resistance parameter values for predictive analyses has not yet emerged. In the present paper, numerical simulations of a series of laboratory experiments performed at the Laboratory for Rock Mechanics of the EPF Lausanne were undertaken with the RASH<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and DAN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical codes. They aimed at analysing the possibility to use calibrated ranges of parameters (1) in a code different from that they were obtained from and (2) to simulate potential-events made of a material with the same characteristics as back-analysed past-events, but involving a different volume and propagation path. For this purpose, one of the four benchmark laboratory tests was used as past-event to calibrate the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> basal friction angle assuming a Coulomb-type behaviour of the sliding mass, and this back-analysed value was then used to simulate the three other experiments, assumed as potential-events. The computational findings show good correspondence with experimental results in terms of characteristics of the final deposits (i.e., runout, length and width). Furthermore, the obtained best fit values of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> basal friction angle for the two codes turn out to be close to each other and within the range of values measured with pseudo-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> tilting tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoJI.178..541B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoJI.178..541B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> rupture simulations by a finite volume method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benjemaa, M.; Glinsky-Olivier, N.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Virieux, J.</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> rupture of a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> spontaneous crack of arbitrary shape is investigated using a finite volume (FV) approach. The full domain is decomposed in tetrahedra whereas the surface, on which the rupture takes place, is discretized with triangles that are faces of tetrahedra. First of all, the elastodynamic equations are described into a pseudo-conservative form for an easy application of the FV discretization. Explicit boundary conditions are given using criteria based on the conservation of discrete energy through the crack surface. Using a stress-threshold criterion, these conditions specify fluxes through those triangles that have suffered rupture. On these broken surfaces, stress follows a linear slip-weakening law, although other friction laws can be implemented. For The Problem Version 3 of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span>-rupture code verification exercise conducted by the SCEC/USGS, numerical solutions on a planar fault exhibit a very high convergence rate and are in good agreement with the reference one provided by a finite difference (FD) technique. For a non-planar fault of parabolic shape, numerical solutions agree satisfactorily well with those obtained with a semi-analytical boundary integral method in terms of shear stress amplitudes, stopping phases arrival times and stress overshoots. Differences between solutions are attributed to the low-order interpolation of the FV approach, whose results are particularly sensitive to the mesh regularity (structured/unstructured). We expect this method, which is well adapted for multiprocessor parallel computing, to be competitive with others for solving large scale <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ruptures scenarios of seismic sources in the near future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6916E..20E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6916E..20E"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined registration of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tibia and femur implant <span class="hlt">models</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> magnetic resonance images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Siebert, Markus; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger; Graichen, Heiko</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>The most frequent reasons for revision of total knee arthroplasty are loosening and abnormal axial alignment leading to an unphysiological kinematic of the knee implant. To get an idea about the postoperative kinematic of the implant, it is essential to determine the position and orientation of the tibial and femoral prosthesis. Therefore we developed a registration method for fitting <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CAD-<span class="hlt">models</span> of knee joint prostheses into an <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MR image. This rigid registration is the basis for a quantitative analysis of the kinematics of knee implants. Firstly the surface data of the prostheses <span class="hlt">models</span> are converted into a voxel representation; a recursive algorithm determines all boundary voxels of the original triangular surface data. Secondly an initial preconfiguration of the implants by the user is still necessary for the following step: The user has to perform a rough preconfiguration of both remaining prostheses <span class="hlt">models</span>, so that the fine matching process gets a reasonable starting point. After that an automated gradient-based fine matching process determines the best absolute position and orientation: This iterative process changes all 6 parameters (3 rotational- and 3 translational parameters) of a <span class="hlt">model</span> by a minimal amount until a maximum value of the matching function is reached. To examine the spread of the final solutions of the registration, the interobserver variability was measured in a group of testers. This variability, calculated by the relative standard deviation, improved from about 50% (pure manual registration) to 0.5% (rough manual preconfiguration and subsequent fine registration with the automatic fine matching process).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26895542','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26895542"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Bioprinting of Tissue/Organ <span class="hlt">Models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pati, Falguni; Gantelius, Jesper; Svahn, Helene Andersson</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In vitro tissue/organ <span class="hlt">models</span> are useful platforms that can facilitate systematic, repetitive, and quantitative investigations of drugs/chemicals. The primary objective when developing tissue/organ <span class="hlt">models</span> is to reproduce physiologically relevant functions that typically require complex culture systems. Bioprinting offers exciting prospects for constructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tissue/organ <span class="hlt">models</span>, as it enables the reproducible, automated production of complex living tissues. Bioprinted tissues/organs may prove useful for screening novel compounds or predicting toxicity, as the spatial and chemical complexity inherent to native tissues/organs can be recreated. In this Review, we highlight the importance of developing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in vitro tissue/organ <span class="hlt">models</span> by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting techniques, characterization of these <span class="hlt">models</span> for evaluating their resemblance to native tissue, and their application in the prioritization of lead candidates, toxicity testing, and as disease/tumor <span class="hlt">models</span>. PMID:26895542</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H21K..07H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H21K..07H"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing the hybrid-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Hillslope Hydrological <span class="hlt">Model</span> in a Real-World Controlled Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hazenberg, P.; Broxton, P. D.; Gochis, D. J.; Niu, G. Y.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A. A.; Zeng, X.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Hillslopes play an important role for converting rainfall into runoff, and as such, influence theterrestrial <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the Earth's climate system. Recently, we have developed a hybrid-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) hillslope hydrological <span class="hlt">model</span> that couples a 1D vertical soil column <span class="hlt">model</span> with a lateral pseudo-2D saturated zone and overland flow <span class="hlt">model</span>. The h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> gives similar results as the CATchment HYdrological <span class="hlt">model</span> (CATHY), which simulates the subsurface movement of water with the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Richards equation, though the runtime efficiency of the h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is about 2-3 orders of magnitude faster. In the current work, the ability of the h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> to predict real-world hydrological <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> is assessed using a number of recharge-drainage experiments within the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) at the Biosphere 2 near Tucson, Arizona, USA. LEO offers accurate and high-resolution (both temporally and spatially) observations of the inputs, outputs and storage <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of several hillslopes. The level of detail of these observations is generally not possible with real-world hillslope studies. Therefore, LEO offers an optimal environment to test the h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. The h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> captures the observed storage, baseflow, and overland flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of both a larger and a smaller hillslope. Furthermore, it simulates overland flow better than CATHY. The h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> has difficulties correctly representing the height of the saturated zone close to the seepage face of the smaller hillslope, though. There is a gravel layer near this seepage face, and the numerical boundary condition of the h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is insufficient to capture the hydrological <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> within this region. In addition, the h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is used to test the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters change through time due to the migration of soil particles during the recharge-drainage experiments. An in depth calibration of the h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters reveals that the best results are obtained by applying an event-based optimization procedure as compared</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL3..601P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL3..601P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> web visualization of huge CityGML <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prandi, F.; Devigili, F.; Soave, M.; Di Staso, U.; De Amicis, R.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Nowadays, rapid technological development into acquiring geo-spatial information; joined to the capabilities to process these data in a relative short period of time, allows the generation of detailed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> textured city <span class="hlt">models</span> that will become an essential part of the modern city information infrastructure (Spatial Data Infrastructure) and, can be used to integrate various data from different sources for public accessible visualisation and many other applications. One of the main bottlenecks, which at the moment limit the use of these datasets to few experts, is a lack on efficient visualization systems through the web and interoperable frameworks that allow standardising the access to the city <span class="hlt">models</span>. The work presented in this paper tries to satisfy these two requirements developing a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> web-based visualization system based on OGC standards and effective visualization concepts. The architectural framework, based on Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) concepts, provides the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city data to a web client designed to support the view process in a very effective way. The first part of the work is to design a framework compliant to the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Portrayal Service drafted by the of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> standardization working group. The latter is related to the development of an effective web client able to render in an efficient way the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/392716','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/392716"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> electromagnetic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of wakefields in accelerator components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Poole, B.R.; Caporaso, G.J.; Ng, Wang C.; Shang, C.C.; Steich, D.</p> <p>1996-09-18</p> <p>We discuss the use of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic codes for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> accelerator components. Computational <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of cylindrically symmetric structures such as induction accelerator cells has been very successful in predicting the wake potential and wake impedances of these structures, but full <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of complex structures has been limited due to substantial computer resources required for a full <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. New massively parallel <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> time domain electromagnetic codes now under development using conforming unstructured meshes allow a substantial increase in the geometric fidelity of the structures being <span class="hlt">modeled</span>. Development of these new codes are discussed in context of applicability to accelerator problems. Various <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> structures are tested with an existing cubical cell FDTD code and wake impedances compared with simple analytic <span class="hlt">models</span> for the structures; results will be used as benchmarks for testing the new time time domain codes. Structures under consideration include a stripline beam position monitor as well as circular and elliptical apertures in circular waveguides. Excellent agreement for monopole and dipole impedances with <span class="hlt">models</span> were found for these structures below the cutoff frequency of the beam line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21165549','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21165549"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> electromagnetic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of wakefields in accelerator components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Poole, Brian R.; Caporaso, George J.; Ng, Wang C.; Shang, Clifford C.; Steich, David</p> <p>1997-02-01</p> <p>We discuss the use of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic codes for the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of accelerator components. Computational <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of cylindrically symmetric structures such as induction accelerator cells has been extremely successful in predicting the wake potential and wake impedances of these structures, but fully <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of complex structures has been limited due to the substantial computer resources required for a fully <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. New massively parallel <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> time domain electromagnetic codes now under development using conforming unstructured meshes allow a substantial increase in the geometric fidelity of the structures being <span class="hlt">modeled</span>. Development of these new codes will be discussed in the context of their applicability to accelerator problems. A variety of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> structures are tested with an existing cubical cell FDTD code and the wake impedances are compared with simple analytic <span class="hlt">models</span> for the structures. These results will provide a set of benchmarks for testing the new time domain codes. Structures under consideration include a stripline beam position monitor as well as circular and elliptical apertures in circular waveguides. Excellent agreement for the monopole and dipole impedances with the <span class="hlt">models</span> are found for these structures below the cutoff frequency of the beam line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005CoPhC.167...23K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005CoPhC.167...23K"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient sensitivity computations in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> air quality <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kioutsioukis, Ioannis; Melas, Dimitrios; Zerefos, Christos; Ziomas, Ioannis</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>The prediction of ground level ozone for air quality monitoring and assessment is simulated through an integrated system of gridded <span class="hlt">models</span> (meteorological, photochemical), where the atmosphere is represented with a three-dimensional grid that may include thousands of grid cells. The continuity equation solved by the Photochemical Air Quality <span class="hlt">Model</span> (PAQM) reproduces the atmospheric processes (<span class="hlt">dynamical</span>, physical, chemical and radiative), such as moving and mixing air parcels from one grid cell to another, calculating chemical reactions, injecting new emissions. The whole <span class="hlt">modeling</span> procedure includes several sources of uncertainty, especially in the large data sets that describe the status of the domain (boundary conditions, emissions, chemical reaction rates and several others). The robustness of the photochemical simulation is addressed in this work through the deterministic approach of sensitivity analysis. The automatic differentiation tool ADIFOR is applied on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PAQM CAMx and augments its Fortran 77 code by introducing new lines of code that additionally calculate, in only one run, the gradient of the solution vector with respect to its input parameters. The applicability of the approach is evaluated through a sensitivity study of the <span class="hlt">modeled</span> concentrations to perturbations at the boundary conditions and the emissions, for three essentially dissimilar European Metropolises of the Auto-Oil II programme (Athens, Milan, and London).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MS%26E...10a2120W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MS%26E...10a2120W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation of crack propagation in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wijerathne, M. L. L.; Hori, Muneo; Sakaguchi, Hide; Oguni, Kenji</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Some experimental observations of Shock Wave Lithotripsy(SWL), which include <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> crack propagation, are simulated with the aim of reproducing fragmentation of kidney stones with SWL. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the fragmentation of kidney stones by focusing an ultrasonic pressure pulse onto the stones. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> with fine discretization are used to accurately capture the high amplitude shear shock waves. For solving the resulting large scale <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> crack propagation problem, PDS-FEM is used; it provides numerically efficient failure treatments. With a distributed memory parallel code of PDS-FEM, experimentally observed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photoelastic images of transient stress waves and crack patterns in cylindrical samples are successfully reproduced. The numerical crack patterns are in good agreement with the experimental ones, quantitatively. The results shows that the high amplitude shear waves induced in solid, by the lithotriptor generated shock wave, play a dominant role in stone fragmentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714145P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714145P"><span id="translatedtitle">Multivariate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of Scottish soil properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Information regarding soil properties across landscapes at national or continental scales is critical for better soil and environmental management and for climate regulation and adaptation policy. The prediction of soil properties variation in space and time and their uncertainty is an important part of environmental <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. Soil properties, and in particular the 3 fractions of soil texture, exhibit strong co-variation among themselves and therefore taking into account this correlation leads to spatially more accurate results. In this study the continuous vertical and lateral distributions of relevant soil properties in Scottish soils were <span class="hlt">modelled</span> with a multivariate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GAM+GS approach. The approach used involves 1) <span class="hlt">modelling</span> the multivariate trend with full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spatial correlation, i.e., exploiting the values of the neighbouring pixels in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-space, and 2) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> kriging to interpolate the residuals. The values at each cell for each of the considered depth layers were defined using a hybrid GAM-geostatistical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, combining the fitting of a GAM (generalised Additive <span class="hlt">Models</span>) to estimate multivariate trend of the variables, using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> smoother with related covariates. Gaussian simulations of the <span class="hlt">model</span> residuals were used as spatial component to account for local details. A dataset of about 26,000 horizons (7,800 profiles) was used for this study. A validation set was randomly selected as 25% of the full dataset. Numerous covariates derived from globally available data, such as MODIS and SRTM, are considered. The results of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GAM+kriging showed low RMSE values, good R squared and an accurate reproduction of the spatial structure of the data for a range of soil properties. The results have an out-of-sample RMSE between 10 to 15% of the observed range when taking into account the whole profile. The approach followed allows the assessment of the uncertainty of both the trend and the residuals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24967953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24967953"><span id="translatedtitle">Trans<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: a free tool for <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> visualization of EEG activity transmission in the brain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blinowski, Grzegorz; Kamiński, Maciej; Wawer, Dariusz</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The problem of functional connectivity in the brain is in the focus of attention nowadays, since it is crucial for understanding information processing in the brain. A large repertoire of measures of connectivity have been devised, some of them being capable of estimating time-varying directed connectivity. Hence, there is a need for a dedicated software tool for visualizing the propagation of electrical activity in the brain. To this aim, the Trans<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> application was developed. It is an open access tool based on widely available libraries and supporting both Windows XP/Vista/7(™), Linux and Mac environments. Trans<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can create animations of activity propagation between electrodes/sensors, which can be placed by the user on the scalp/cortex of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the head. Various interactive graphic functions for manipulating and visualizing components of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> and input data are available. An application of the Trans<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tool has helped to elucidate the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the phenomena of information processing in motor and cognitive tasks, which otherwise would have been very difficult to observe. Trans<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available at: http://www.eeg.pl/. PMID:24967953</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPRS...75...76Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPRS...75...76Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Perception-based shape retrieval for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> building <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Man; Zhang, Liqiang; Takis Mathiopoulos, P.; Ding, Yusi; Wang, Hao</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>With the help of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> search engines, a large number of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> building <span class="hlt">models</span> can be retrieved freely online. A serious disadvantage of most rotation-insensitive shape descriptors is their inability to distinguish between two <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> building <span class="hlt">models</span> which are different at their main axes, but appear similar when one of them is rotated. To resolve this problem, we present a novel upright-based normalization method which not only correctly rotates such building <span class="hlt">models</span>, but also greatly simplifies and accelerates the abstraction and the matching of building <span class="hlt">models</span>' shape descriptors. Moreover, the abundance of architectural styles significantly hinders the effective shape retrieval of building <span class="hlt">models</span>. Our research has shown that buildings with different designs are not well distinguished by the widely recognized shape descriptors for general <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. Motivated by this observation and to further improve the shape retrieval quality, a new building matching method is introduced and analyzed based on concepts found in the field of perception theory and the well-known Light Field descriptor. The resulting normalized building <span class="hlt">models</span> are first classified using the qualitative shape descriptors of Shell and Unevenness which outline integral geometrical and topological information. These <span class="hlt">models</span> are then put in on orderly fashion with the help of an improved quantitative shape descriptor which we will term as Horizontal Light Field Descriptor, since it assembles detailed shape characteristics. To accurately evaluate the proposed methodology, an enlarged building shape database which extends previous well-known shape benchmarks was implemented as well as a <span class="hlt">model</span> retrieval system supporting inputs from 2D sketches and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. Various experimental performance evaluation results have shown that, as compared to previous methods, retrievals employing the proposed matching methodology are faster and more consistent with human recognition of spatial objects. In addition these performance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26094109','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26094109"><span id="translatedtitle">Microfluidic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell culture: from tools to tissue <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Duinen, Vincent; Trietsch, Sebastiaan J; Joore, Jos; Vulto, Paul; Hankemeier, Thomas</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The transition from 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell culture techniques is an important step in a trend towards better biomimetic tissue <span class="hlt">models</span>. Microfluidics allows spatial control over fluids in micrometer-sized channels has become a valuable tool to further increase the physiological relevance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell culture by enabling spatially controlled co-cultures, perfusion flow and spatial control over of signaling gradients. This paper reviews most important developments in microfluidic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> culture since 2012. Most efforts were exerted in the field of vasculature, both as a tissue on its own and as part of cancer <span class="hlt">models</span>. We observe that the focus is shifting from tool building to implementation of specific tissue <span class="hlt">models</span>. The next big challenge for the field is the full validation of these <span class="hlt">models</span> and subsequently the implementation of these <span class="hlt">models</span> in drug development pipelines of the pharmaceutical industry and ultimately in personalized medicine applications. PMID:26094109</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26603572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26603572"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating Biomaterial- and Microfluidic-Based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Tumor <span class="hlt">Models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carvalho, Mariana R; Lima, Daniela; Reis, Rui L; Correlo, Vitor M; Oliveira, Joaquim M</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with a disease burden estimated to increase over the coming decades. Disease heterogeneity and limited information on cancer biology and disease mechanisms are aspects that 2D cell cultures fail to address. Here, we review the current ‘state-of-the-art’ in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tissue-engineering (TE) <span class="hlt">models</span> developed for, and used in, cancer research. We assess the potential for scaffold-based TE <span class="hlt">models</span> and microfluidics to fill the gap between 2D <span class="hlt">models</span> and clinical application. We also discuss recent advances in combining the principles of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TE <span class="hlt">models</span> and microfluidics, with a special focus on biomaterials and the most promising chip-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. PMID:26603572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27037463','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27037463"><span id="translatedtitle">A spherical harmonics intensity <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segmentation and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape analysis of heterochromatin foci.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eck, Simon; Wörz, Stefan; Müller-Ott, Katharina; Hahn, Matthias; Biesdorf, Andreas; Schotta, Gunnar; Rippe, Karsten; Rohr, Karl</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The genome is partitioned into regions of euchromatin and heterochromatin. The organization of heterochromatin is important for the regulation of cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene silencing, and their misregulation is linked to cancer and other diseases. We present a <span class="hlt">model</span>-based approach for automatic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segmentation and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape analysis of heterochromatin foci from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> confocal light microscopy images. Our approach employs a novel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> intensity <span class="hlt">model</span> based on spherical harmonics, which analytically describes the shape and intensities of the foci. The <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters are determined by fitting the <span class="hlt">model</span> to the image intensities using least-squares minimization. To characterize the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape of the foci, we exploit the computed spherical harmonics coefficients and determine a shape descriptor. We applied our approach to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> synthetic image data as well as real <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> static and real <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> time-lapse microscopy images, and compared the performance with that of previous approaches. It turned out that our approach yields accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segmentation results and performs better than previous approaches. We also show that our approach can be used for quantifying <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape differences of heterochromatin foci. PMID:27037463</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004CG.....30..405W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004CG.....30..405W"><span id="translatedtitle">Topological relations embodied in a generalized tri-prism (GTP) <span class="hlt">model</span> for a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geoscience <span class="hlt">modeling</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Lixin</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geoscience <span class="hlt">modeling</span> system (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GMS) embodied with topological relations is of extreme importance for Geosciences. This paper presents a universal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, generalized tri-prism (GTP) for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GMS and real-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GIS, which is a modification and improvement of former presented analogous tri-prism (ATP) <span class="hlt">model</span> and is the common <span class="hlt">model</span> of pyramid <span class="hlt">model</span>, tetrahedron <span class="hlt">model</span> and tri-prism (TP) <span class="hlt">model</span>. The GTP <span class="hlt">model</span> takes the divergent drill holes, rather than triangulation network after interpolation or vertical parallel drill holes after projection transformation, as its direct data source. Hence, the reliability and quality of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is maximatily ensured. The GTP component is comprised of six primitives as node, TIN-edge, side-edge, TIN-face, side-face and GTP. Besides, three intermediary diagonal lines in each GTP component are temporary applied for spatial operations. Six groups of topological relations between the six primitives are carefully designed for geo-spatial inquiry and geo-spatial analysis. The mechanisms of chipping, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> updating and local refining operations of so constructed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">model</span> are introduced. A real-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> software platform, GeoMo <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>@, developed with VC ++, OPGL and SQL server, demonstrates most of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geo-spatial operations including clipping, separating, uncovering and geo-fence diagram generating based on an actual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">model</span> of a coal mine, Tangshan, P.R. China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9498E..0BB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9498E..0BB"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> on the performance of vision algorithms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benjamin, D. Paul; Lyons, Damian; Lynch, Robert</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>In previous work, we have shown how a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> can be built in real time and synchronized with the environment. This world <span class="hlt">model</span> permits a robot to predict <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in its environment and classify behaviors. In this paper we evaluate the effect of such a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> on the accuracy and speed of various computer vision algorithms, including tracking, optical flow and stereo disparity. We report results based on the KITTI database and on our own videos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013ISPAn.II2a.319U&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013ISPAn.II2a.319U&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Spatial Queries Search: Newfangled Technique of Space Filling Curves in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> City <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uznir, U.; Anton, F.; Suhaibah, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Mioc, D.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The advantages of three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) city <span class="hlt">models</span> can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc.. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using web standards. However, these <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> consume much more storage compared to two dimensional (2D) spatial data. They involve extra geometrical and topological information together with semantic data. Without a proper spatial data clustering method and its corresponding spatial data access method, retrieving portions of and especially searching these <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span>, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data <span class="hlt">model</span> allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> urban objects. In this research, we propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Hilbert curves) for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> or n-dimensional data down to 2D or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Hilbert mappings, in this research, we extend the Hilbert space-filling curve to one higher dimension for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> data implementations. The query performance was tested using a CityGML dataset of 1,000 building blocks and the results are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">modeling</span> will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> adjacency, nearest neighbor information and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a subinterval of the [0, 1] interval to the corresponding portion of the d-dimensional Hilbert's curve, preserves the Lebesgue measure and is Lipschitz continuous. Depending on the applications, several alternatives are possible in order to cluster spatial data together in the third dimension compared to its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26343829','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26343829"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies of [6,6,5] Tricyclic Fused Oxazolidinones as FXa inhibitors using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR, Topomer CoMFA, molecular docking and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Cheng; Ren, Yujie</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>Coagulation factor Xa (Factor Xa, FXa) is a particularly promising target for novel anticoagulant therapy. The first oral factor Xa inhibitor has been approved in the EU and Canada in 2008. In this work, 38 [6,6,5] Tricyclic Fused Oxazolidinones were studied using a combination of molecular <span class="hlt">modeling</span> techniques including three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR), molecular docking, molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and Topomer CoMFA (comparative molecular field analysis) were used to build <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-QSAR <span class="hlt">models</span>. The results show that the best CoMFA <span class="hlt">model</span> has q(2)=0.511 and r(2)=0.984, the best CoMSIA (comparative molecular similarity indices analysis) <span class="hlt">model</span> has q(2)=0.700 and r(2)=0.993 and the Topomer CoMFA analysis has q(2)=0.377 and r(2)=0.886. The results indicated the steric, hydrophobic, H-acceptor and electrostatic fields play key roles in <span class="hlt">models</span>. Molecular docking and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> explored the binding relationship of the ligand and the receptor protein. PMID:26343829</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1090609','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1090609"><span id="translatedtitle">STELLOPT <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Diagnostic Response in ITER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lazerson, Samuel A</p> <p>2013-05-07</p> <p>The ITER three dimensional diagnostic response to an n=3 resonant magnetic perturbation is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> using the STELLOPT code. The in-vessel coils apply a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fi eld which generates a 4 cm edge displacement from axisymmetry as <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by the VMEC <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> equilibrium code. Forward <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of flux loop and magnetic probe response with the DIAGNO code indicates up to 20 % changes in measured plasma signals. Simulated LIDAR measurements of electron temperature indicate 2 cm shifts on the low field side of the plasma. This suggests that the ITER diagnostic will be able to diagnose the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure of the equilibria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptEL..10..477Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptEL..10..477Z"><span id="translatedtitle">MR image denoising method for brain surface <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, De-xin; Liu, Peng-jie; Zhang, De-gan</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of medical images is a critical part of surgical simulation. In this paper, we focus on the magnetic resonance (MR) images denoising for brain <span class="hlt">modeling</span> reconstruction, and exploit a practical solution. We attempt to remove the noise existing in the MR imaging signal and preserve the image characteristics. A wavelet-based adaptive curve shrinkage function is presented in spherical coordinates system. The comparative experiments show that the denoising method can preserve better image details and enhance the coefficients of contours. Using these denoised images, the brain <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization is given through surface triangle mesh <span class="hlt">model</span>, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.7946S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.7946S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">Models</span> to assess flood vulnerability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schröter, Kai; Bochow, Mathias; Schüttig, Martin; Nagel, Claus; Ross, Lutz; Kreibich, Heidi</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Vulnerability, as the product of exposure and susceptibility, is a key factor of the flood risk equation. Furthermore, the estimation of flood loss is very sensitive to the choice of the vulnerability <span class="hlt">model</span>. Still, in contrast to elaborate hazard simulations, vulnerability is often considered in a simplified manner concerning the spatial resolution and geo-location of exposed objects as well as the susceptibility of these objects at risk. Usually, area specific potential flood loss is quantified on the level of aggregated land-use classes, and both hazard intensity and resistance characteristics of affected objects are represented in highly simplified terms. We investigate the potential of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">Models</span> and spatial features derived from remote sensing data to improve the differentiation of vulnerability in flood risk assessment. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">Models</span> are based on CityGML, an application scheme of the Geography Markup Language (GML), which represents the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> topology, semantics and appearance of objects on different levels of detail. As such, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">Models</span> offer detailed spatial information which is useful to describe the exposure and to characterize the susceptibility of residential buildings at risk. This information is further consolidated with spatial features of the building stock derived from remote sensing data. Using this database a spatially detailed flood vulnerability <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed by means of data-mining. Empirical flood damage data are used to derive and to validate flood susceptibility <span class="hlt">models</span> for individual objects. We present first results from a prototype application in the city of Dresden, Germany. The vulnerability <span class="hlt">modeling</span> based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">Models</span> and remote sensing data is compared i) to the generally accepted good engineering practice based on area specific loss potential and ii) to a highly detailed representation of flood vulnerability based on a building typology using urban structure types. Comparisons are drawn in terms of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.1378P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.1378P"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of topography in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> continental-collision <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pusok, A. E.; Kaus, Boris J. P.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Understanding the formation and evolution of high mountain belts, such as the Himalayas and the adjacent Tibetan Plateau, has been the focus of many tectonic and numerical <span class="hlt">models</span>. Here we employ <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> numerical simulations to investigate the role that subduction, collision, and indentation play on lithosphere <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at convergent margins, and to analyze the conditions under which large topographic plateaus can form in an integrated lithospheric and upper mantle-scale <span class="hlt">model</span>. Distinct <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> are obtained for the oceanic subduction side (trench retreat, slab rollback) and the continental-collision side (trench advance, slab detachment, topographic uplift, lateral extrusion). We show that slab pull alone is insufficient to generate high topography in the upper plate, and that external forcing and the presence of strong blocks such as the Tarim Basin are necessary to create and shape anomalously high topographic fronts and plateaus. Moreover, scaling is used to predict four different modes of surface expression in continental-collision <span class="hlt">models</span>: (I) low-amplitude homogeneous shortening, (II) high-amplitude homogeneous shortening, (III) Alpine-type topography with topographic front and low plateau, and (IV) Tibet-Himalaya-type topography with topographic front and high plateau. Results of semianalytical <span class="hlt">models</span> suggest that the Argand number governs the formation of high topographic fronts, while the amplitude of plateaus is controlled by the initial buoyancy ratio of the upper plate. Applying these results to natural examples, we show that the Alps belong to regime (III), the Himalaya-Tibet to regime (IV), whereas the Andes-Altiplano fall at the boundary between regimes (III) and (IV).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27561920','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27561920"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure of human gonadotropin hormone receptor at antagonist state using homology <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, molecular <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation, and cross-docking studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sakhteman, Amirhossein; Khoddami, Minasadat; Negahdaripour, Manica; Mehdizadeh, Arash; Tatar, Mohsen; Ghasemi, Younes</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Human gonadotropin hormone receptor, a G-protein coupled receptor, is the target of many medications used in fertility disorders. Obtaining more structural information about the receptor could be useful in many studies related to drug design. In this study, the structure of human gonadotropin receptor was subjected to homology <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation within a DPPC lipid bilayer for 100 ns. Several frames were thereafter extracted from simulation trajectories representing the receptor at different states. In order to find a proper <span class="hlt">model</span> of the receptor at the antagonist state, all frames were subjected to cross-docking studies of some antagonists with known experimental values (Ki). Frame 194 revealed a reasonable correlation between docking calculated energy scores and experimental activity values (|r| = 0.91). The obtained correlation was validated by means of SSLR and showed the presence of no chance correlation for the obtained <span class="hlt">model</span>. Different structural features reported for the receptor, such as two disulfide bridges and ionic lock between GLU90 and LYS 121 were also investigated in the final <span class="hlt">model</span>. PMID:27561920</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6056..201T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6056..201T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> head <span class="hlt">model</span> classification using optimized EGI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tong, Xin; Wong, Hau-san; Ma, Bo</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>With the general availability of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> digitizers and scanners, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphical <span class="hlt">models</span> have been used widely in a variety of applications. This has led to the development of search engines for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. Especially, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> head <span class="hlt">model</span> classification and retrieval have received more and more attention in view of their many potential applications in criminal identifications, computer animation, movie industry and medical industry. This paper addresses the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> head <span class="hlt">model</span> classification problem using 2D subspace analysis methods such as 2D principal component analysis (2D PCA[3]) and 2D fisher discriminant analysis (2DLDA[5]). It takes advantage of the fact that the histogram is a 2D image, and we can extract the most useful information from these 2D images to get a good result accordingingly. As a result, there are two main advantages: First, we can perform less calculation to obtain the same rate of classification; second, we can reduce the dimensionality more than PCA to obtain a higher efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42..681O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42..681O"><span id="translatedtitle">First <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> simulations of meteor plasma <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oppenheim, Meers M.; Dimant, Yakov S.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Millions of small but detectable meteors hit the Earth's atmosphere every second, creating trails of hot plasma that turbulently diffuse into the background atmosphere. For over 60 years, radars have detected meteor plasmas and used these signals to infer characteristics of the meteoroid population and upper atmosphere, but, despite the importance of meteor radar measurements, the complex processes by which these plasmas evolve have never been thoroughly explained or <span class="hlt">modeled</span>. In this paper, we present the first fully <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> simulations of meteor evolution, showing meteor plasmas developing instabilities, becoming turbulent, and inhomogeneously diffusing into the background ionosphere. These instabilities explain the characteristics and strength of many radar observations, in particular the high-resolution nonspecular echoes made by large radars. The simulations reveal how meteors create strong electric fields that dig out deep plasma channels along the Earth's magnetic fields. They also allow researchers to explore the impacts of the intense winds and wind shears, commonly found at these altitudes, on meteor plasma evolution. This study will allow the development of more sophisticated <span class="hlt">models</span> of meteor radar signals, enabling the extraction of detailed information about the properties of meteoroid particles and the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B4..117B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B4..117B"><span id="translatedtitle">Vhrs Stereo Images for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of Buildings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bujakiewicz, A.; Holc, M.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The paper presents the project which was carried out in the Photogrammetric Laboratory of Warsaw University of Technology. The experiment is concerned with the extraction of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vector data for buildings creation from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photogrammetric <span class="hlt">model</span> based on the Ikonos stereo images. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was reconstructed with photogrammetric workstation - Summit Evolution combined with ArcGIS <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> platform. Accuracy of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> was significantly improved by use for orientation of pair of satellite images the stereo measured tie points distributed uniformly around the <span class="hlt">model</span> area in addition to 5 control points. The RMS for <span class="hlt">model</span> reconstructed on base of the RPC coefficients only were 16,6 m, 2,7 m and 47,4 m, for X, Y and Z coordinates, respectively. By addition of 5 control points the RMS were improved to 0,7 m, 0,7 m 1,0 m, where the best results were achieved when RMS were estimated from deviations in 17 check points (with 5 control points)and amounted to 0,4 m, 0,5 m and 0,6 m, for X, Y, and Z respectively. The extracted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vector data for buildings were integrated with 2D data of the ground footprints and afterwards they were used for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of buildings in Google SketchUp software. The final results were compared with the reference data obtained from other sources. It was found that the shape of buildings (in concern to the number of details) had been reconstructed on level of LoD1, when the accuracy of these <span class="hlt">models</span> corresponded to the level of LoD2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22199777','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22199777"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of amphioxus steroid receptor complexed with estradiol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baker, Michael E.; Chang, David J.</p> <p>2009-08-28</p> <p>The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of amphioxus SR complexed with estradiol. This <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> indicates that although the SR is activated by estradiol, some interactions between estradiol and human ER{alpha} are not conserved in the SR, which can explain the low affinity of estradiol for the SR. These differences between the SR and ER{alpha} in the steroid-binding domain are sufficient to suggest that another steroid is the physiological regulator of the SR. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> predicts that mutation of Glu-346 to Gln will increase the affinity of testosterone for amphioxus SR and elucidate the evolution of steroid-binding to nuclear receptors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SJCE...21d..13M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SJCE...21d..13M"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span> Generated by SFM Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marčiš, Marián</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Using various types of automation in digital photogrammetry is associated with questions such as the accuracy of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> generated on various types of surfaces and textures, the financial costs of the equipment needed, and also the time costs of the processing. This topic deals with the actual technology of computer vision, which allows the automated exterior orientation of images, camera calibration, and the generation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> directly from images of the object itself, based on the automatic detection of significant points. Detailed testing is done using the Agisoft PhotoScan system, and the camera configuration is solved with respect to the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> generated and the time consumption of the calculations for the different types of textures and the different settings for the processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4080...14H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4080...14H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface digitizing and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> development at ITRI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsueh, Wen-Jean</p> <p>2000-06-01</p> <p>This paper gives an overview of the research and development activities in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface digitizing and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> conducted at the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) of Taiwan in the past decade. As a major technology and consulting service provider of the area, ITRI has developed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laser scanning digitizers ranging from low-cost compacts, industrial CAD/CAM digitizing, to large human body scanner, with in-house <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software to provide total solution in reverse engineering that requires processing capabilities of large number of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data. Based on both hardware and software technologies in scanning, merging, registration, surface fitting, reconstruction, and compression, ITRI is now exploring innovative methodologies that provide higher performances, including hardware-based correlation algorithms with advanced camera designs, animation surface <span class="hlt">model</span> reconstruction, and optical tracking for motion capture. It is expected that the need for easy and fast high-quality <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information in the near future will grow exponentially, at the same amazing rate as the internet and the human desire for realistic and natural images.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5796380','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5796380"><span id="translatedtitle">Diffusion approximation for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> radiation distributions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; De Kinder, R.E. Jr.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A three-dimensional transport code DIF<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, based on the diffusion approximation, is used to <span class="hlt">model</span> the spatial distribution of radiation energy arising from volumetric isotropic sources. Future work will be concerned with the determination of irradiances and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of realistic scenarios, relevant to the battlefield conditions. 8 refs., 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM21B2174L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM21B2174L"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of H+, He+ ion reflection at the lunar surface and pickup ion <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in case of oblique/quasi-parallel magnetic field: <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> hybrid kinetic <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J. F.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Sarantos, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The hybrid kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> used here supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the moon-solar wind-magnetosphere of the Earth system. This involves variable upstream magnetic field and solar wind plasma, including energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical to improved interpretation of existing measurements for surface and atmospheric composition from previous missions and planning future missions. Recently, MAP-PAGE-IMA (Plasma energy Angle and Composition Experiment, and Ion Mass Analyzer) onboard Japanese lunar orbiter SELENE (KAGUYA) detected Moon originating ions at 100 km altitude. Ion species of H+, He++, He+, C+, O+, Na+, K+, and Ar+ were definitively identified. The first portion of our <span class="hlt">modeling</span> devotes to a study of the H+, H2+, He+, Na+ pickup ion <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in cases of flow with a oblique and quasi-parallel magnetic field. In the second series of <span class="hlt">modeling</span> we also take into account collisions between ions and the surface of the moon and further sputtering of fragments from the surface of the moon. The ion reflection at the lunar surface is also responsible for wave activity in the upstream flow. The solar wind parameters are chosen from ARTEMIS observations. The hybrid kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> allows us to take into account the finite gyroradius effects of pickup ions and to estimate correctly the ions velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> shows the asymmetric Mach cone, pickup and reflected ion tails, and presents another type of lunar-solar wind interaction. Our simulation may be also important for the study of the interaction between the solar wind and very weak comets, Mercury and Pluto.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/841681','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/841681"><span id="translatedtitle">Incorporation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Shortwave Radiative Effects within the Weather Research and Forecasting <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O'Hirok, W.; Ricchiazzi, P.; Gautier, C.</p> <p>2005-03-18</p> <p>A principal goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to understand the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cloud-radiation problem from scales ranging from the local to the size of global climate <span class="hlt">model</span> (GCM) grid squares. For climate <span class="hlt">models</span> using typical cloud overlap schemes, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative effects are minimal for all but the most complicated cloud fields. However, with the introduction of ''superparameterization'' methods, where sub-grid cloud processes are accounted for by embedding high resolution 2D cloud system resolving <span class="hlt">models</span> within a GCM grid cell, the impact of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative effects on the local scale becomes increasingly relevant (Randall et al. 2003). In a recent study, we examined this issue by comparing the heating rates produced from a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and 1D shortwave radiative transfer <span class="hlt">model</span> for a variety of radar derived cloud fields (O'Hirok and Gautier 2005). As demonstrated in Figure 1, the heating rate differences for a large convective field can be significant where <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> effects produce areas o f intense local heating. This finding, however, does not address the more important question of whether <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative effects can alter the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and structure of a cloud field. To investigate that issue we have incorporated a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative transfer algorithm into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) <span class="hlt">model</span>. Here, we present very preliminary findings of a comparison between cloud fields generated from a high resolution non-hydrostatic mesoscale numerical weather <span class="hlt">model</span> using 1D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative transfer codes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EAS....45..433S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EAS....45..433S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> Gaia CCD pixels with Silvaco <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> engineering software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seabroke, G. M.; Prod'Homme, T.; Hopkinson, G.; Burt, D.; Robbins, M.; Holland, A.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Gaia will only achieve its unprecedented measurement accuracy requirements with detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. We present our Silvaco <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> engineering software <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Gaia CCD pixel and two of its applications for Gaia: (1) physically interpreting supplementary buried channel (SBC) capacity measurements (pocket-pumping and first pixel response) in terms of e2v manufacturing doping alignment tolerances; and (2) deriving electron densities within a charge packet as a function of the number of constituent electrons and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> position within the charge packet as input to microscopic <span class="hlt">models</span> being developed to simulate radiation damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4637086','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4637086"><span id="translatedtitle">Parallel Optimization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Cardiac Electrophysiological <span class="hlt">Model</span> Using GPU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xia, Yong; Wang, Kuanquan; Zhang, Henggui</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Large-scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> virtual heart <span class="hlt">model</span> simulations are highly demanding in computational resources. This imposes a big challenge to the traditional computation resources based on CPU environment, which already cannot meet the requirement of the whole computation demands or are not easily available due to expensive costs. GPU as a parallel computing environment therefore provides an alternative to solve the large-scale computational problems of whole heart <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. In this study, using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sheep atrial <span class="hlt">model</span> as a test bed, we developed a GPU-based simulation algorithm to simulate the conduction of electrical excitation waves in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> atria. In the GPU algorithm, a multicellular tissue <span class="hlt">model</span> was split into two components: one is the single cell <span class="hlt">model</span> (ordinary differential equation) and the other is the diffusion term of the monodomain <span class="hlt">model</span> (partial differential equation). Such a decoupling enabled realization of the GPU parallel algorithm. Furthermore, several optimization strategies were proposed based on the features of the virtual heart <span class="hlt">model</span>, which enabled a 200-fold speedup as compared to a CPU implementation. In conclusion, an optimized GPU algorithm has been developed that provides an economic and powerful platform for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> whole heart simulations. PMID:26581957</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr49B2..349K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr49B2..349K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Geospatial <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> Approach for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Urban Densification Developments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koziatek, O.; Dragićević, S.; Li, S.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>With growing populations, economic pressures, and the need for sustainable practices, many urban regions are rapidly densifying developments in the vertical built dimension with mid- and high-rise buildings. The location of these buildings can be projected based on key factors that are attractive to urban planners, developers, and potential buyers. Current research in this area includes various <span class="hlt">modelling</span> approaches, such as cellular automata and agent-based <span class="hlt">modelling</span>, but the results are mostly linked to raster grids as the smallest spatial units that operate in two spatial dimensions. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop a geospatial <span class="hlt">model</span> that operates on irregular spatial tessellations to <span class="hlt">model</span> mid- and high-rise buildings in three spatial dimensions (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>). The proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> is based on the integration of GIS, fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (MCE), and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GIS-based procedural <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. Part of the City of Surrey, within the Metro Vancouver Region, Canada, has been used to present the simulations of the generated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> building objects. The proposed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> approach was developed using ESRI's CityEngine software and the Computer Generated Architecture (CGA) language.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24505663','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24505663"><span id="translatedtitle">Robust <span class="hlt">model</span>-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fusion using sparse matching for minimally invasive surgery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neumann, Dominik; Grbic, Sasa; John, Matthias; Navab, Nassir; Hornegger, Joachim; Ionasec, Razvan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Classical surgery is being disrupted by minimally invasive and transcatheter procedures. As there is no direct view or access to the affected anatomy, advanced imaging techniques such as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> C-arm CT and C-arm fluoroscopy are routinely used for intra-operative guidance. However, intra-operative modalities have limited image quality of the soft tissue and a reliable assessment of the cardiac anatomy can only be made by injecting contrast agent, which is harmful to the patient and requires complex acquisition protocols. We propose a novel sparse matching approach for fusing high quality pre-operative CT and non-contrasted, non-gated intra-operative C-arm CT by utilizing robust machine learning and numerical optimization techniques. Thus, high-quality patient-specific <span class="hlt">models</span> can be extracted from the pre-operative CT and mapped to the intra-operative imaging environment to guide minimally invasive procedures. Extensive quantitative experiments demonstrate that our <span class="hlt">model</span>-based fusion approach has an average execution time of 2.9 s, while the accuracy lies within expert user confidence intervals. PMID:24505663</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RPFSU..18...47V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RPFSU..18...47V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> Generation From the Engineering Drawing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vaský, Jozef; Eliáš, Michal; Bezák, Pavol; Červeňanská, Zuzana; Izakovič, Ladislav</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The contribution deals with the transformation of engineering drawings in a paper form into a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computer representation. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computer <span class="hlt">model</span> can be further processed in CAD/CAM system, it can be modified, archived, and a technical drawing can be then generated from it as well. The transformation process from paper form to the data one is a complex and difficult one, particularly owing to the different types of drawings, forms of displayed objects and encountered errors and deviations from technical standards. The algorithm for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> generating from an orthogonal vector input representing a simplified technical drawing of the rotational part is described in this contribution. The algorithm was experimentally implemented as ObjectARX application in the AutoCAD system and the test sample as the representation of the rotational part was used for verificaton.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7964E..2KH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7964E..2KH"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape decomposition and comparison for gallbladder <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Weimin; Zhou, Jiayin; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Tao; Su, Yi; Law, Gim Han; Chui, Chee Kong; Chang, Stephen</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>This paper presents an approach to gallbladder shape comparison by using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and decomposition. The gallbladder <span class="hlt">models</span> can be used for shape anomaly analysis and <span class="hlt">model</span> comparison and selection in image guided robotic surgical training, especially for laparoscopic cholecystectomy simulation. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape of a gallbladder is first represented as a surface <span class="hlt">model</span>, reconstructed from the contours segmented in CT data by a scheme of propagation based voxel learning and classification. To better extract the shape feature, the surface mesh is further down-sampled by a decimation filter and smoothed by a Taubin algorithm, followed by applying an advancing front algorithm to further enhance the regularity of the mesh. Multi-scale curvatures are then computed on the regularized mesh for the robust saliency landmark localization on the surface. The shape decomposition is proposed based on the saliency landmarks and the concavity, measured by the distance from the surface point to the convex hull. With a given tolerance the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape can be decomposed and represented as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ellipsoids, which reveal the shape topology and anomaly of a gallbladder. The features based on the decomposed shape <span class="hlt">model</span> are proposed for gallbladder shape comparison, which can be used for new <span class="hlt">model</span> selection. We have collected 19 sets of abdominal CT scan data with gallbladders, some shown in normal shape and some in abnormal shapes. The experiments have shown that the decomposed shapes reveal important topology features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.594...27L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.594...27L"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodiversity: Exploration of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">model</span> space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lindsay, M. D.; Jessell, M. W.; Ailleres, L.; Perrouty, S.; de Kemp, E.; Betts, P. G.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The process of building a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> necessitates the reconciliation of field observations, geophysical interpretation, geological data uncertainty and the prevailing tectonic evolution hypotheses and interpretations. Uncertainty is compounded when clustered data points collected at local scales are statistically upscaled to one or two points for use in regional <span class="hlt">models</span>. Interpretation is required to interpolate between sparse field data points using ambiguous geophysical data in covered terranes. It becomes clear that multiple interpretations are possible during <span class="hlt">model</span> construction. The various interpretations are considered as potential natural representatives, but pragmatism typically dictates that just a single interpretation is offered by the <span class="hlt">modelling</span> process. Uncertainties are introduced into the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> during construction from a variety of sources and through data set optimisation that produces a single <span class="hlt">model</span>. Practices such as these are likely to result in a <span class="hlt">model</span> that does not adequately represent the target geology. A set of geometrical ‘geodiversity’ metrics are used to analyse a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Australia after perturbing geological input data via uncertainty simulation. The resulting sets of perturbed geological observations are used to calculate a suite of geological <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> that display a range of geological architectures. The concept of biodiversity has been adapted for the geosciences to quantify geometric variability, or geodiversity, between <span class="hlt">models</span> in order to understand the effect uncertainty has <span class="hlt">models</span> geometry. Various geometrical relationships (depth, volume, contact surface area, curvature and geological complexity) are used to describe the range of possibilities exhibited throughout the <span class="hlt">model</span> suite. End-member <span class="hlt">models</span> geodiversity metrics are classified in a similar manner to taxonomic descriptions. Further analysis of the <span class="hlt">model</span> suite is performed using principal component analysis (PCA) to determine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316880','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316880"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of the ALICE Photoinjector Upgrade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McKenzie, J. W.; Militsyn, B. L.; Saveliev, Y. M.</p> <p>2009-08-04</p> <p>The injector for the ALICE machine (Accelerators and Lasers In Combined Experiments) at Daresbury Laboratory is based around a 350 kV DC photocathode electron gun. An upgrade is proposed to introduce a load-lock GaAs photocathode preparation facility to allow rapid transfer of photocathodes to the gun without breaking the vacuum system. In the current design this requires side-loading of the photocathodes into the cathode ball. An alternative is to relocate the ceramic insulator vertically which will allow back-loading and also backillumination of the photocathodes. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> electrostatic simulations of the gun chamber are presented for both options along with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> beam <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulations for an off-axis photocathode, introduced to increase photocathode lifetime by reducing damage by ion backbombardment. Beam <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulations are also presented for the entire injector beamline as well as for a proposed extension to the injector beamline to include a diagnostic section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ISPAn.II2a.261S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ISPAn.II2a.261S"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving Semantic Updating Method on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> City <span class="hlt">Models</span> Using Hybrid Semantic-Geometric <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Segmentation Technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharkawi, K.-H.; Abdul-Rahman, A.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Cities and urban areas entities such as building structures are becoming more complex as the modern human civilizations continue to evolve. The ability to plan and manage every territory especially the urban areas is very important to every government in the world. Planning and managing cities and urban areas based on printed maps and 2D data are getting insufficient and inefficient to cope with the complexity of the new developments in big cities. The emergence of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> have boosted the efficiency in analysing and managing urban areas as the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data are proven to represent the real world object more accurately. It has since been adopted as the new trend in buildings and urban management and planning applications. Nowadays, many countries around the world have been generating virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> representation of their major cities. The growing interest in improving the usability of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> has resulted in the development of various tools for analysis based on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span>. Today, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> are generated for various purposes such as for tourism, location-based services, disaster management and urban planning. Meanwhile, <span class="hlt">modelling</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects are getting easier with the emergence of the user-friendly tools for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> available in the market. Generating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> buildings with high accuracy also has become easier with the availability of airborne Lidar and terrestrial laser scanning equipments. The availability and accessibility to this technology makes it more sensible to analyse buildings in urban areas using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data as it accurately represent the real world objects. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has accepted CityGML specifications as one of the international standards for representing and exchanging spatial data, making it easier to visualize, store and manage <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> data efficiently. CityGML able to represents the semantics, geometry, topology and appearance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> in five well-defined Level-of-Details (LoD), namely LoD0</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2040197','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2040197"><span id="translatedtitle">Creating Physical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Stereolithograph <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Brain and Skull</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kelley, Daniel J.; Farhoud, Mohammed; Meyerand, M. Elizabeth; Nelson, David L.; Ramirez, Lincoln F.; Dempsey, Robert J.; Wolf, Alan J.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Davidson, Richard J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The human brain and skull are three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) anatomical structures with complex surfaces. However, medical images are often two dimensional (2D) and provide incomplete visualization of structural morphology. To overcome this loss in dimension, we developed and validated a freely available, semi-automated pathway to build <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> virtual reality (VR) and hand-held, stereolithograph <span class="hlt">models</span>. To evaluate whether surface visualization in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> was more informative than in 2D, undergraduate students (n = 50) used the Gillespie scale to rate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> VR and physical <span class="hlt">models</span> of both a living patient-volunteer's brain and the skull of Phineas Gage, a historically famous railroad worker whose misfortune with a projectile tamping iron provided the first evidence of a structure-function relationship in brain. Using our processing pathway, we successfully fabricated human brain and skull replicas and validated that the stereolithograph <span class="hlt">model</span> preserved the scale of the VR <span class="hlt">model</span>. Based on the Gillespie ratings, students indicated that the biological utility and quality of visual information at the surface of VR and stereolithograph <span class="hlt">models</span> were greater than the 2D images from which they were derived. The method we developed is useful to create VR and stereolithograph <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> from medical images and can be used to <span class="hlt">model</span> hard or soft tissue in living or preserved specimens. Compared to 2D images, VR and stereolithograph <span class="hlt">models</span> provide an extra dimension that enhances both the quality of visual information and utility of surface visualization in neuroscience and medicine. PMID:17971879</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..DPPFP1082T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..DPPFP1082T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of beam kicker in DARHT-2 accelerator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thoma, Carsten; Genoni, Thomas; Hughes, Thomas</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>The DARHT-2 beamline uses a fast stripline kicker developed at LLNL [1] to create a series of short pulses out of a 2 microsecond pulse for use in high resolution x-ray radiography. Normally, a static bias dipole bends the 2 kA, 18 MeV electron beam off axis into a dump. When the fast stripline kicker is activated, the static dipole kick is cancelled by the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> dipole field of the kicker, and the beam travels to the x-ray converter. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> PIC simulations are performed to compute the effect of the kicker on the beam. The calculations incorporate the kicker biplate conductor geometry, allowing for accurate <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the effects of higher multipole fields as well as beam wakefield effects. Beam emittance growth through the kicker is investigated for various beam loads. [1] B.R. Poole and Y.-J. Chen, "Particle Simulations of DARHT-2 Transport System", Proc. PAC 2001 Conference (http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/AccelConf/p01/PAPERS/RPPH034.PDF).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1611296T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1611296T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching the geological subsurface with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thorpe, Steve; Ward, Emma</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> have great potential as a resource when teaching geological concepts as it allows the student to visualise and interrogate UK geology. They are especially useful when dealing with the conversion of 2D field, map and GIS outputs into three dimensional geological units, which is a common problem for many students. Today's earth science students use a variety of skills and processes during their learning experience including spatial thinking, image construction, detecting patterns, making predictions and deducing the orientation of themselves. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> can reinforce spatial thinking strategies and encourage students to think about processes and properties, in turn helping the student to recognise pre-learnt geological principles in the field and to convert what they see at the surface into a picture of what is going on at depth. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been producing digital <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> for over 10 years. The <span class="hlt">models</span> produced are revolutionising the working practices, data standards and products of the BGS. Sharing our geoscience information with academia is highlighted throughout the BGS strategy as is instilling practical skills in future geoscience professionals, such as <span class="hlt">model</span> building and interpretation. In 2009 a project was launched to investigate the potential of the <span class="hlt">models</span> as a teaching resource. The study included justifying if and how the <span class="hlt">models</span> help students to learn, how <span class="hlt">models</span> have been used historically, and how other forms of <span class="hlt">modelling</span> are being used today. BGS now produce <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> for use by anyone teaching or learning geoscience. They incorporate educational strategies that will develop geospatial skills and alleviate potential problems that some students experience. They are contained within contemporary case studies and show standard geological concepts, structures, sedimentary rocks, cross sections and field techniques. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> of the Isle of Wight and Ingleborough</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.4485S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.4485S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geological <span class="hlt">Model</span> for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these <span class="hlt">models</span> can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general <span class="hlt">model</span> that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">model</span> representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">model</span> of Lusi. This <span class="hlt">model</span> is calculated using implicit <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">model</span>, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4712E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4712E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of India-Asia-like collision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>-Erika Püsök, Adina; Kaus, Boris; Popov, Anton</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p> above a strong mantle lithosphere - the jelly sandwich <span class="hlt">model</span> (Burov and Watts, 2006). <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> are thus needed to investigate these hypotheses. However, fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of continent collision zones have only been developed very recently, and presently most research groups have relied on certain explicit assumptions for their codes. Here, we employ the parallel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution <span class="hlt">Model</span>), with a finite difference staggered grid solver, which is capable of simulating lithospheric deformation while simultaneously taking mantle flow and a free surface into account. We here report on first lithospheric and upper-mantle scale simulations in which the Indian lithosphere is indented into Asia. Acknowledgements. Funding was provided by the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC Grant agreement #258830. Numerical computations have been performed on JUQUEEN of the Jülich high-performance computing center. • Beaumont, C., Jamieson, R.A., Nguyen, M.H., Medvedev, S.E., 2004. Crustal channel flows: 1. Numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> with applications to the tectonics of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogeny. J. Geophys. Res. 109, B06406. • Burov, E. & Watts, W.S., 2006. The long-term strength of continental lithosphere: "jelly sandwich" or "crème brûlée"?. GSA Today, 16, doi: 10.1130/1052-5173(2006)1016<1134:TLTSOC>1132.1130.CO;1132. • England P., Houseman, G., 1986. Finite strain calculations of continental deformation. 2. Comparison with the India-Asia collision zone. J. Geophys. Res.- Solid Earth and Planets 91 (B3), 3664-3676. • Jackson, J., 2002. Strength of the continental lithosphere: time to abandon the jelly sandwich?. GSA Today, September, 4-10. • Lechmann, S.M., May, D.A., Kaus, B.J.P., Schmalholz, S.M., 2011. Comparing thin-sheet <span class="hlt">models</span> with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> multilayer <span class="hlt">models</span> for continental collision. Geophy. Int. J. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05164.x • Royden, L.H., Burchfiel, B</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ952044.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ952044.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance and Cognitive Assessment in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fahrer, Nolan E.; Ernst, Jeremy V.; Branoff, Theodore J.; Clark, Aaron C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate identifiable differences between performance and cognitive assessment scores in a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> unit of an engineering drafting course curriculum. The study aimed to provide further investigation of the need of skill-based assessments in engineering/technical graphics courses to potentially increase…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20439141','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20439141"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracking people and cars using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and CCTV.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Edelman, Gerda; Bijhold, Jurrien</p> <p>2010-10-10</p> <p>The aim of this study was to find a method for the reconstruction of movements of people and cars using CCTV footage and a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the environment. A procedure is proposed, in which video streams are synchronized and displayed in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, by using virtual cameras. People and cars are represented by cylinders and boxes, which are moved in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, according to their movements as shown in the video streams. The procedure was developed and tested in an experimental setup with test persons who logged their GPS coordinates as a recording of the ground truth. Results showed that it is possible to implement this procedure and to reconstruct movements of people and cars from video recordings. The procedure was also applied to a forensic case. In this work we experienced that more situational awareness was created by the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, which made it easier to track people on multiple video streams. Based on all experiences from the experimental set up and the case, recommendations are formulated for use in practice. PMID:20439141</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011siam.book..205I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011siam.book..205I"><span id="translatedtitle">A Sketching Interface for Freeform <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Igarashi, Takeo</p> <p></p> <p>This chapter introduces Teddy, a sketch-based <span class="hlt">modeling</span> system to quickly and easily design freeform <span class="hlt">models</span> such as stuffed animals and other rotund objects. The user draws several 2D freeform strokes interactively on the screen and the system automatically constructs plausible <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> polygonal surfaces. Our system supports several <span class="hlt">modeling</span> operations, including the operation to construct a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> polygonal surface from a 2D silhouette drawn by the user: it inflates the region surrounded by the silhouette making a wide area fat, and a narrow area thin. Teddy, our prototype system, is implemented as a Java program, and the mesh construction is done in real-time on a standard PC. Our informal user study showed that a first-time user masters the operations within 10 minutes, and can construct interesting <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> within minutes. We also report the result of a case study where a high school teacher taught various <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> concepts in geography using the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1081550.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1081550.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span> Used in Contours Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alvarez, F. J. Ayala; Parra, E. B. Blazquez; Tubio, F. Montes</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents an experimental research focusing on the view of first year students. The aim is to check the quality of implementing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> integrated in the curriculum. We search to determine students' preference between the various means facilitated in order to understand the given subject. Students have been respondents to prove the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003EAEJA.....6321B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003EAEJA.....6321B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for site effect assessment at Nice (France)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bertrand, E.; Courrioux, G.; Bourgine, B.; Bour, M.; Guillen, A.; Mouroux, P.; Devaux, E.; Duval, A. M.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Assessment of lithologic site effects is based on an accurate knowledge of properties and geometry of superficial geological formations, i.e. ideally a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-4G subsurface <span class="hlt">model</span> (Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics, Geotechnics). Such a <span class="hlt">model</span> has been achieved using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geomodeler ("Geological Editor" developed at BRGM) that allows building <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volumes of geological formations starting from drill-holes data, sections, and geological maps. This software uses a pseudo-stratigraphic pile in order to reproduce geological history and structural relationships (erosion, deposit). The interpolation is achieved through a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> potential field. A geostatistical formulation allows to consider data points of a geological limit as equipotential, and sructural dips as gradient inputs for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> field interpolation. Then isosurfaces corresponding to each limit are combined using formation relationships to provide volumic <span class="hlt">models</span> of geological formations. The first task was to identify the relevant geological formations underlying in Nice area. In a first approach Mesozoic bedrock, Pliocene bedrock, and Quaternary alluvial deposits have been distinguished considering their seismic properties. Then alluvions have been subdivided into 9 groups according to their lithology and granulometry. <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> has been performed considering 2 major erosion surfaces, post-Mesozoic and post-Pliocene. The succession of Quaternary alluviums have been considered as "onlap deposits". Given adjacent lithologies contained in maps and drill holes, these relations lead to logical identification of the roof of formations to be interpolated. The distribution of <span class="hlt">modeled</span> geological formations can be visualised in 3 dimensions or in 2D sections. Besides the visual interest of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> representations, the <span class="hlt">model</span> is first used to build a series of earth columns over a 50m/50m 2D grid. A statistical analysis allowed to identify 73 existing configurations in the Nice district area. Among these, only 15 configurations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712287A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712287A"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Geothermal Area Using Terrestrial Photogrammetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akcay, Ozgun; Cuneyt Erenoglu, Ramazan; Erenoglu, Oya; Yılmazturk, Ferruh; Karaca, Zeki</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Photogrammetry and computer vision, sciences producing high accuracy <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> from digital images based on projective geometry. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> can also be produced using thermal camera images using photogrammetry and computer vision techniques. Thermal images are capable of displaying hotspots on geothermal areas as a heat source in details. In the research, Tuzla geothermal area in Çanakkale province of Turkey is inspected using imaging techniques of terrestrial photogrammetry. Both a digital camera Canon EOS 650D and an infrared camera Optris PI 450 are used to obtain images of the thermal site. Calibration parameters (focal length, principle point, distortion coefficients) of thermal and digital cameras are determined using the calibration test field at the laboratory before the field work. In order to provide the georeferencing and the robustness of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, aluminum discs having diameter of 30 centimeters as ground control points (GCPs) are set to the geothermal area appropriately before imaging. Aluminum targets are chosen as the GCP because they are determined on the image depending on the contrast reflectance rate of the aluminum. Using GNSS RTK receivers supplying ±1 cm accuracy positioning, GCPs are measured so as to implement photogrammetric process successfully with thermal images. Numerous corresponding points are detected on the overlapped images with image matching techniques. Later on, bundle block adjustment is applied to calculate the revised interior orientation parameters of camera and exterior orientation parameters of camera positions. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> showing details of the surface temperatures of the geothermal area are produced with multi view stereo (MVS) technique. The technique is able to produce <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> representation (point cloud, mesh and textured surface) of the field from both the thermal and digital images. The research presents that photogrammetric evaluation of thermal images is a noteworthy method to obtain a quick- accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6813E..0BS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6813E..0BS"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometric <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of hand-woven textile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shidanshidi, H.; Naghdy, F.; Naghdy, G.; Conroy, D. Wood</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Geometric <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and haptic rendering of textile has attracted significant interest over the last decade. A haptic representation is created by adding the physical properties of an object to its geometric configuration. While research has been conducted into geometric <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of fabric, current systems require time-consuming manual recognition of textile specifications and data entry. The development of a generic approach for construction of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometric <span class="hlt">model</span> of a woven textile is pursued in this work. The geometric <span class="hlt">model</span> would be superimposed by a haptic <span class="hlt">model</span> in the future work. The focus at this stage is on hand-woven textile artifacts for display in museums. A fuzzy rule based algorithm is applied to the still images of the artifacts to generate the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. The derived <span class="hlt">model</span> is exported as a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> VRML <span class="hlt">model</span> of the textile for visual representation and haptic rendering. An overview of the approach is provided and the developed algorithm is described. The approach is validated by applying the algorithm to different textile samples and comparing the produced <span class="hlt">models</span> with the actual structure and pattern of the samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20229171','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20229171"><span id="translatedtitle">A biochemical/biophysical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> FE intervertebral disc <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schroeder, Y; Huyghe, J M; van Donkelaar, C C; Ito, K</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Present research focuses on different strategies to preserve the degenerated disc. To assure long-term success of novel approaches, favorable mechanical conditions in the disc tissue are essential. To evaluate these, a <span class="hlt">model</span> is required that can determine internal mechanical conditions which cannot be directly measured as a function of assessable biophysical characteristics. Therefore, the objective is to evaluate if constitutive and material laws acquired on isolated samples of nucleus and annulus tissue can be used directly in a whole-organ <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> FE <span class="hlt">model</span> to describe intervertebral disc behavior. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> osmo-poro-visco-hyper-elastic disc (OVED) <span class="hlt">model</span> describes disc behavior as a function of annulus and nucleus tissue biochemical composition, organization and specific constituent properties. The description of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> collagen network was enhanced to account for smaller fibril structures. Tissue mechanical behavior tests on isolated nucleus and annulus samples were simulated with <span class="hlt">models</span> incorporating tissue composition to calculate the constituent parameter values. The obtained constitutive laws were incorporated into the whole-organ <span class="hlt">model</span>. The overall behavior and disc properties of the <span class="hlt">model</span> were corroborated against in vitro creep experiments of human L4/L5 discs. The OVED <span class="hlt">model</span> simulated isolated tissue experiments on confined compression and uniaxial tensile test and whole-organ disc behavior. This was possible, provided that secondary fiber structures were accounted for. The fair agreement (radial bulge, axial creep deformation and intradiscal pressure) between <span class="hlt">model</span> and experiment was obtained using constitutive properties that are the same for annulus and nucleus. Both tissue <span class="hlt">models</span> differed in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> OVED <span class="hlt">model</span> only by composition. The composition-based <span class="hlt">modeling</span> presents the advantage of reducing the numbers of material parameters to a minimum and to use tissue composition directly as input. Hence, this approach provides the possibility to describe internal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..242G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..242G"><span id="translatedtitle">Use <span class="hlt">Models</span> like Maps in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SDI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gietzel, Jan; Gabriel, Paul; Schaeben, Helmut; Le, Hai Ha</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Digital geological applications have become <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> up to 4D <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of the underground. The <span class="hlt">modellers</span> are working very heterogeneously in terms of its applied software systems. On the other hand the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/4D <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of the subsurface has become part of the geological surveys all around the world. This implies a wide spread group of users working in different institutions aiming to work together on one subsurface <span class="hlt">model</span>. Established <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/4D-<span class="hlt">modelling</span> software systems mainly use a file based approach to store data, which is in a high contrast to the needs of a central administrated and network based data transfer approach. At the department of geophysics and geo information sciences at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, the GST system for managing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and 4D geosciences data in a databases system was developed and is now continued by the company GiGa infosystems. The GST-Framework includes a storage engine, a web service for sharing and a number of client software including a browser based client interface for visualising, accessing and manipulating geological CAD data. Including a check out system GST supports multi user editing on huge <span class="hlt">models</span>, designed to manage seamless high resolution <span class="hlt">models</span> of the subsurface. While working on complex projects various software is used for the creation of the <span class="hlt">model</span>, the prediction of properties and final simulation. A problem rising from the use of several software is the interoperability of the <span class="hlt">models</span>. Due to conversion errors different working groups use mainly different raw data. This results in different <span class="hlt">models</span>, which have to be corrected with additional effort. One platform sharing the <span class="hlt">models</span> is strongly demanded. One high potential solution is a centralized and software independent storage, which will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3640..125Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3640..125Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Robust <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction system for human jaw <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamany, Sameh M.; Farag, Aly A.; Tazman, David; Farman, Allan G.</p> <p>1999-03-01</p> <p>This paper presents a <span class="hlt">model</span>-based vision system for dentistry that will replace traditional approaches used in diagnosis, treatment planning and surgical simulation. Dentistry requires accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> representation of the teeth and jaws for many diagnostic and treatment purposes. For example orthodontic treatment involves the application of force systems to teeth over time to correct malocclusion. In order to evaluate tooth movement progress, the orthodontists monitors this movement by means of visual inspection, intraoral measurements, fabrication of plastic <span class="hlt">models</span>, photographs and radiographs, a process which is both costly and time consuming. In this paper an integrate system has been developed to record the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data is acquired with an intraoral video camera. A modified shape from shading (SFS) technique, using perspective projection and camera calibration, is used to extract accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information from a sequence of 2D images of the jaw. A new technique for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data registration, using a Grid Closest Point transform and genetic algorithms, is used to register the SFS output. Triangulization is then performed, and a solid <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is obtained via a rapid prototype machine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9410L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9410L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geological <span class="hlt">modelling</span> - towards a European level infrastructure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Kathryn A.; van der Krogt, Rob; Busschers, Freek S.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The joint European Geological Surveys are preparing the ground for a "European Geological Data Infrastructure" (EGDI), under the framework of the FP7-project EGDI-Scope. This scoping study, started in June 2012, for a pan-European e-Infrastructure is based on the successes of earlier joint projects including 'OneGeology-Europe' and aims to provide the backbone for serving interoperable, geological data currently held by European Geological Surveys. Also data from past, ongoing and future European projects will be incorporated. The scope will include an investigation of the functional and technical requirements for serving <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> and will look to research the potential for providing a framework to integrate <span class="hlt">models</span> at different scales, and form a structure for enabling the development of new and innovative <span class="hlt">model</span> delivery mechanisms. The EGDI-scope project encourages pan-European inter-disciplinary collaboration between all European Geological Surveys. It aims to enhance emerging web based technologies that will facilitate the delivery of geological data to user communities involved in European policy making and international industry, but also to geoscientific research communities and the general public. Therefore, stakeholder input and communication is imperative to the success, as is the collaboration with all the Geological Surveys of Europe. The most important functional and technical requirements for delivery of such information at pan-European level will be derived from exchanges with relevant European stakeholder representatives and providers of geological data. For handling and delivering <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">model</span> data the project will need to address a number of strategic issues: • Which are the most important issues and queries for the relevant stakeholders, requiring <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span>? How can this be translated to functional requirements for development and design of an integrated European application? • How to handle the very large</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.A43G..06A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.A43G..06A"><span id="translatedtitle">Quasi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Multi-scale <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Framework Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arakawa, A.; Jung, J.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>When <span class="hlt">models</span> are truncated in or near an energetically active range of the spectrum, <span class="hlt">model</span> physics must be changed as the resolution changes. The <span class="hlt">model</span> physics of GCMs and that of CRMs are, however, quite different from each other and at present there is no unified formulation of <span class="hlt">model</span> physics that automatically provides transition between these <span class="hlt">model</span> physics. The Quasi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (Q<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) Multi-scale <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Framework (MMF) is an attempt to bridge this gap. Like the recently proposed Heterogeneous Multiscale Method (HMM) (E and Engquist 2003), MMF combines a macroscopic <span class="hlt">model</span>, GCM, and a microscopic <span class="hlt">model</span>, CRM. Unlike the traditional multiscale methods such as the multi-grid and adapted mesh refinement techniques, HMM and MMF are for solving multi-physics problems. They share the common objective "to design combined macroscopic-microscopic computational methods that are much more efficient than solving the full microscopic <span class="hlt">model</span> and at the same time give the information we need" (E et al. 2008). The question is then how to meet this objective in practice, which can be highly problem dependent. In HHM, the efficiency is gained typically by localization of the microscale problem. Following the pioneering work by Grabowski and Smolarkiewicz (1999) and Grabowski (2001), MMF takes advantage of the fact that 2D CRMs are reasonably successful in simulating deep clouds. In this approach, the efficiency is gained by sacrificing the three-dimensionality of cloud-scale motion. It also "localizes" the algorithm through embedding a CRM in each GCM grid box using cyclic boundary condition. The Q<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MMF is an attempt to reduce the expense due to these constraints by partially including the cloud-scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> effects and extending the CRM beyond individual GCM grid boxes. As currently formulated, the Q<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MMF is a 4D estimation/prediction framework that combines a GCM with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> anelastic cloud-resolving vector vorticity equation <span class="hlt">model</span> (VVM) applied to a network of horizontal grids. The network</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/891572','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/891572"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> HYDRODYNAMIC <span class="hlt">MODELING</span> IN A GEOSPATIAL FRAMEWORK</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bollinger, J; Alfred Garrett, A; Larry Koffman, L; David Hayes, D</p> <p>2006-08-24</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> are used by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to simulate the transport of thermal and radionuclide discharges in coastal estuary systems. Development of such <span class="hlt">models</span> requires accurate bathymetry, coastline, and boundary condition data in conjunction with the ability to rapidly discretize <span class="hlt">model</span> domains and interpolate the required geospatial data onto the domain. To facilitate rapid and accurate hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> development, SRNL has developed a pre- and post-processor application in a geospatial framework to automate the creation of <span class="hlt">models</span> using existing data. This automated capability allows development of very detailed <span class="hlt">models</span> to maximize exploitation of available surface water radionuclide sample data and thermal imagery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.7046M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.7046M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Bernese Part of the Swiss Molasse Basin: visualization of uncertainties in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mock, Samuel; Allenbach, Robin; Reynolds, Lance; Wehrens, Philip; Kurmann-Matzenauer, Eva; Kuhn, Pascal; Michael, Salomè; Di Tommaso, Gennaro; Herwegh, Marco</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Swiss Molasse Basin comprises the western and central part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin. In recent years it has come under closer scrutiny due to its promising geopotentials such as geothermal energy and CO2 sequestration. In order to adress these topics good knowledge of the subsurface is a key prerequisite. For that matter, geological <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> serve as valuable tools. In collaboration with the Swiss Geological Survey (swisstopo) and as part of the project GeoMol CH, a geological <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Swiss Molasse Basin in the Canton of Bern has been built. The <span class="hlt">model</span> covers an area of 1810 km2and reaches depth of up to 6.7 km. It comprises 10 major Cenozoic and Mesozoic units and numerous faults. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is mainly based on 2D seismic data complemented by information from few deep wells. Additionally, data from geological maps and profiles were used for refinement at shallow depths. In total, 1163 km of reflection seismic data, along 77 seismic lines, have been interpreted by different authors with respect to stratigraphy and structures. Both, horizons and faults, have been interpreted in 2D and <span class="hlt">modelled</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> using IHS's Kingdom Suite and Midland Valley's MOVE software packages, respectively. Given the variable degree of subsurface information available, each <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is subject of uncertainty. With the primary input data coming from interpretation of reflection seismic data, a variety of uncertainties comes into play. Some of them are difficult to address (e.g. author's style of interpretation) while others can be quantified (e.g. mis-tie correction, well-tie). An important source of uncertainties is the quality of seismic data; this affects the traceability and lateral continuation of seismic reflectors. By defining quality classes we can semi-quantify this source of uncertainty. In order to visualize the quality and density of the input data in a meaningful way, we introduce quality-weighted data density maps. In combination with the geological <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.253..181N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.253..181N"><span id="translatedtitle">A method for building <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of barchan dunes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nai, Yang; Li-lan, Su; Lin, Wan; Jie, Yang; Shi-yi, Chen; Wei-lu, Hu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The distributions of barchan dunes are usually represented by digital terrain <span class="hlt">models</span> (DTMs) overlaid with digital orthophoto maps. Given that most regions with barchan dues have low relief, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> map obtained from a DTM may ineffectively show the stereoscopic shape of each dune. The method of building <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of barchan dunes using existing <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software seldom considers the geographical environment. As a result, barchan dune <span class="hlt">models</span> are often inconsistent with actual DTMs and incompletely express the morphological characteristics of dunes. Manual construction of barchan dune <span class="hlt">models</span> is also costly and time consuming. Considering these problems, the morphological characteristics of barchan dunes and the mathematical relationships between the morphological parameters of the dunes, such as length, height, and width, are analyzed in this study. The methods of extracting the morphological feature points of barchan dunes, calculating their morphological parameters and building dune outlines and skeleton lines based on the medial axes, are also presented. The dune outlines, skeleton lines, and part of the medial axes of dunes are used to construct a constrained triangulated irregular network. C# and ArcEngine are employed to build <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of barchan dunes automatically. Experimental results of a study conducted in Tengger Desert show that the method can be used to approximate the morphological characteristics of barchan dunes and is less time consuming than manual methods.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22969327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22969327"><span id="translatedtitle">Geometric and colour data fusion for outdoor <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Merchán, Pilar; Adán, Antonio; Salamanca, Santiago; Domínguez, Vicente; Chacón, Ricardo</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper deals with the generation of accurate, dense and coloured <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of outdoor scenarios from scanners. This is a challenging research field in which several problems still remain unsolved. In particular, the process of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> creation in outdoor scenes may be inefficient if the scene is digitalized under unsuitable technical (specific scanner on-board camera) and environmental (rain, dampness, changing illumination) conditions. We address our research towards the integration of images and range data to produce photorealistic <span class="hlt">models</span>. Our proposal is based on decoupling the colour integration and geometry reconstruction stages, making them independent and controlled processes. This issue is approached from two different viewpoints. On the one hand, given a complete <span class="hlt">model</span> (geometry plus texture), we propose a method to modify the original texture provided by the scanner on-board camera with the colour information extracted from external images taken at given moments and under specific environmental conditions. On the other hand, we propose an algorithm to directly assign external images onto the complete geometric <span class="hlt">model</span>, thus avoiding tedious on-line calibration processes. We present the work conducted on two large Roman archaeological sites dating from the first century A.D., namely, the Theatre of Segobriga and the Fori Porticus of Emerita Augusta, both in Spain. The results obtained demonstrate that our approach could be useful in the digitalization and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> fields. PMID:22969327</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25099967','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25099967"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>-based tracking for UAV indoor localization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teulière, Céline; Marchand, Eric; Eck, Laurent</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a novel <span class="hlt">model</span>-based tracking approach for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> localization. One main difficulty of standard <span class="hlt">model</span>-based approach lies in the presence of low-level ambiguities between different edges. In this paper, given a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the edges of the environment, we derive a multiple hypotheses tracker which retrieves the potential poses of the camera from the observations in the image. We also show how these candidate poses can be integrated into a particle filtering framework to guide the particle set toward the peaks of the distribution. Motivated by the UAV indoor localization problem where GPS signal is not available, we validate the algorithm on real image sequences from UAV flights. PMID:25099967</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPD....47.0719M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPD....47.0719M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Babcock-Leighton Solar Dynamo <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miesch, Mark S.; Hazra, Gopal; Karak, Bidya Binay; Teweldebirhan, Kinfe; Upton, Lisa</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We present results from the new STABLE (Surface flux Transport and Babcock Leighton) Dynamo <span class="hlt">Model</span>. STABLE is a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Babcock-Leighton/Flux Transport dynamo <span class="hlt">model</span> in which the source of poloidal field is the explicit emergence, distortion, and dispersal of bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs). In this talk I will discuss initial results with axisymmetric flow fields, focusing on the operation of the <span class="hlt">model</span>, the general features of the cyclic solutions, and the challenge of achieving supercritical dynamo solutions using only the Babcock-Leighton source term. Then I will present dynamo simulations that include <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> convective flow fields based on the observed velocity power spectrum inferred from photospheric Dopplergrams. I'll use these simulations to assess how the explicit transport and amplification of fields by surface convection influences the operation of the dynamo. I will also discuss the role of surface magnetic fields in regulating the subsurface toroidal flux budget.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1006471','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1006471"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Multispectral Light Propagation <span class="hlt">Model</span> For Subcutaneous Veins Imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we describe a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> light propagation <span class="hlt">model</span> aimed at understanding the effects of various physiological properties on subcutaneous vein imaging. In particular, we build upon the well known MCML (Monte Carlo Multi Layer) code and present a tissue <span class="hlt">model</span> that improves upon the current state-of-the-art by: incorporating physiological variation, such as melanin concentration, fat content, and layer thickness; including veins of varying depth and diameter; using curved surfaces from real arm shapes; and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the vessel wall interface. We describe our <span class="hlt">model</span>, present results from the Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, and compare these results with those obtained with other Monte Carlo methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.9046E..0EL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.9046E..0EL"><span id="translatedtitle">Texture blending on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> using casual images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xingming; Liu, Xiaoli; Li, Ameng; Liu, Junyao; Wang, Huijing</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, a method for constructing photorealistic textured <span class="hlt">model</span> using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structured light digitizer is presented. Our method acquisition of range images and texture images around object, and range images are registered and integrated to construct geometric <span class="hlt">model</span> of object. System is calibrated and poses of texture-camera are determined so that the relationship between texture and geometric <span class="hlt">model</span> is established. After that, a global optimization is applied to assign compatible texture to adjacent surface and followed with a level procedure to remove artifacts due to vary lighting, approximate geometric <span class="hlt">model</span> and so on. Lastly, we demonstrate the effect of our method on constructing a real <span class="hlt">model</span> of world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26857817','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26857817"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> alcoholic liver disease <span class="hlt">model</span> on a chip.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, JaeSeo; Choi, BongHwan; No, Da Yoon; Lee, GeonHui; Lee, Seung-Ri; Oh, HyunJik; Lee, Sang-Hoon</p> <p>2016-03-14</p> <p>Alcohol is one of the main causes of liver diseases, and the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) treatment methods has been one of the hottest issues. For this purpose, development of in vitro <span class="hlt">models</span> mimicking the in vivo physiology is one of the critical requirements, and they help to determine the disease mechanisms and to discover the treatment method. Herein, a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) ALD <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed and its superior features in mimicking the in vivo condition were demonstrated. A spheroid-based microfluidic chip was employed for the development of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in vitro <span class="hlt">model</span> of ALD progression. We co-cultured rat primary hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in a fluidic chip to investigate the role of HSCs in the recovery of liver with ALD. An interstitial level of flow derived by an osmotic pump was applied to the chip to provide in vivo mimicking of fluid activity. Using this in vitro tool, we were able to observe structural changes and decreased hepatic functions with the increase in ethanol concentration. The recovery process of liver injured by alcohol was observed by providing fresh culture medium to the damaged <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> liver tissue for few days. A reversibly- and irreversibly-injured ALD <span class="hlt">model</span> was established. The proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> can not only be used for the research of alcoholic disease mechanism, but also has the potential for use in studies of hepatotoxicity and drug screening applications. PMID:26857817</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930038337&hterms=wave+equation+2D&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Bequation%2B2D','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930038337&hterms=wave+equation+2D&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Bequation%2B2D"><span id="translatedtitle">Two-equation turbulence <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> hypersonic flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bardina, J. E.; Coakley, T. J.; Marvin, J. G.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An investigation to verify, incorporate and develop two-equation turbulence <span class="hlt">models</span> for three-dimensional high speed flows is presented. The current design effort of hypersonic vehicles has led to an intensive study of turbulence <span class="hlt">models</span> for compressible hypersonic flows. This research complements an extensive review of experimental data and the current development of 2D turbulence <span class="hlt">models</span>. The review of experimental data on 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flows includes complex hypersonic flows with pressure profiles, skin friction, wall heat transfer, and turbulence statistics data. In a parallel effort, turbulence <span class="hlt">models</span> for high speed flows have been tested against flat plate boundary layers, and are being tested against the 2D database. In the present paper, we present the results of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Navier-Stokes numerical simulations with an improved k-omega two-equation turbulence <span class="hlt">model</span> against experimental data and empirical correlations of an adiabatic flat plate boundary layer, a cold wall flat plate boundary layer, and a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> database flow, the interaction of an oblique shock wave and a thick turbulent boundary layer with a free stream Mach number = 8.18 and Reynolds number = 5 x 10 to the 6th.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002SPIE.4537..501G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002SPIE.4537..501G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Generation and use of human <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-CAD <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grotepass, Juergen; Speyer, Hartmut; Kaiser, Ralf</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>Individualized Products are one of the ten mega trends of the 21st Century with human <span class="hlt">modeling</span> as the key issue for tomorrow's design and product development. The use of human <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software for computer based ergonomic simulations within the production process increases quality while reducing costs by 30- 50 percent and shortening production time. This presentation focuses on the use of human <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-CAD <span class="hlt">models</span> for both, the ergonomic design of working environments and made to measure garment production. Today, the entire production chain can be designed, individualized <span class="hlt">models</span> generated and analyzed in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computer environments. Anthropometric design for ergonomics is matched to human needs, thus preserving health. Ergonomic simulation includes topics as human vision, reachability, kinematics, force and comfort analysis and international design capabilities. In German more than 17 billions of Mark are moved to other industries, because clothes do not fit. Individual clothing tailored to the customer's preference means surplus value, pleasure and perfect fit. The body scanning technology is the key to generation and use of human <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-CAD <span class="hlt">models</span> for both, the ergonomic design of working environments and made to measure garment production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Tectp.579..131V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Tectp.579..131V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cartographic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the Alpine arc</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vouillamoz, Naomi; Sue, Christian; Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Calcagno, Philippe</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We built a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cartography of the Alpine arc, a highly non-cylindrical mountain belt, using the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geo<span class="hlt">Modeller</span> of the BRGM (French geological survey). The <span class="hlt">model</span> allows to handle the large-scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure of seventeen major crustal units of the belt (from the lower crust to the sedimentary cover nappes), and two main discontinuities (the Insubric Line and the Crustal Penninic Front). It provides a unique document to better understand their structural relationships and to produce new sections. The study area comprises the western Alpine arc, from the Jura to the Northwest, up to the Bergell granite intrusion and the Lepontine Dome to the East, and is limited to the South by the Ligurian basin. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is limited vertically 10 km above sea level at the top, and the moho interface at the bottom. We discarded the structural relationships between the Alps sensus stricto and the surrounding geodynamic systems such as the Rhine graben or the connection with the Apennines. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D-model</span> is based on the global integration of various data such as the DEM of the Alps, the moho isobaths, the simplified geological and tectonic maps of the belt, the crustal cross-sections ECORS-CROP and NFP-20, and complementary cross-sections specifically built to precise local complexities. The database has first been integrated in a GIS-project to prepare their implementation in the Geo<span class="hlt">Modeller</span>, by homogenizing the different spatial referencing systems. The global <span class="hlt">model</span> is finally interpolated from all these data, using the potential field method. The final document is a new tri-dimensional cartography that would be used as input for further alpine studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23148493','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23148493"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of dual-gate FinFET.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mil'shtein, Samson; Devarakonda, Lalitha; Zanchi, Brian; Palma, John</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The tendency to have better control of the flow of electrons in a channel of field-effect transistors (FETs) did lead to the design of two gates in junction field-effect transistors, field plates in a variety of metal semiconductor field-effect transistors and high electron mobility transistors, and finally a gate wrapping around three sides of a narrow fin-shaped channel in a FinFET. With the enhanced control, performance trends of all FETs are still challenged by carrier mobility dependence on the strengths of the electrical field along the channel. However, in cases when the ratio of FinFET volume to its surface dramatically decreases, one should carefully consider the surface boundary conditions of the device. Moreover, the inherent non-planar nature of a FinFET demands <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for accurate analysis of the device performance. Using the Silvaco <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tool with quantization effects, we <span class="hlt">modeled</span> a physical FinFET described in the work of Hisamoto et al. (IEEE Tran. Elec. Devices 47:12, 2000) in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. We compared it with a 2D <span class="hlt">model</span> of the same device. We demonstrated that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> produces more accurate results. As <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results came close to experimental measurements, we made the next step of the study by designing a dual-gate FinFET biased at Vg1 >Vg2. It is shown that the dual-gate FinFET carries higher transconductance than the single-gate device. PMID:23148493</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7183027','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7183027"><span id="translatedtitle">Interchain coupling and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of trans-polyacetylene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bronold, F.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>In spite of the success of the SSH <span class="hlt">model</span> for trans-polyacetylene in interpreting many experimental results (e.g. optical and magnetic properties) there remain some aspects of the real material which are outside the scope of the simple 1D <span class="hlt">model</span>. Especially ordering phenomena of doped and undoped trans-polyacetylene as well as transport properties (e.g. electronic and thermal conductivity) are beyond a 1D description. There are many attempts to construct a transport theory for this novel class of materials using solitons or polaxons as the basic ingredients. But so far it is not yet clear whether these typical 1D excitations still exist in crystalline transpolyacetylene. Therefore, to clarify the role which intrinsic self-localized nonlinear excitations characteristic of 1D <span class="hlt">models</span> play in the bulk (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) material, we study the stability of a polaronic excitation against interchain coupling. As a preliminary step we consider first two coupled t-(CH){sub x}-chains where the {pi}-electrons are allowed to hop from one chain to the other. Then we introduce a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> generalization of the SSH <span class="hlt">model</span> and study a polaron in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> crystalline environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10170035','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10170035"><span id="translatedtitle">Interchain coupling and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of trans-polyacetylene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bronold, F.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>In spite of the success of the SSH <span class="hlt">model</span> for trans-polyacetylene in interpreting many experimental results (e.g. optical and magnetic properties) there remain some aspects of the real material which are outside the scope of the simple 1D <span class="hlt">model</span>. Especially ordering phenomena of doped and undoped trans-polyacetylene as well as transport properties (e.g. electronic and thermal conductivity) are beyond a 1D description. There are many attempts to construct a transport theory for this novel class of materials using solitons or polaxons as the basic ingredients. But so far it is not yet clear whether these typical 1D excitations still exist in crystalline transpolyacetylene. Therefore, to clarify the role which intrinsic self-localized nonlinear excitations characteristic of 1D <span class="hlt">models</span> play in the bulk (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) material, we study the stability of a polaronic excitation against interchain coupling. As a preliminary step we consider first two coupled t-(CH){sub x}-chains where the {pi}-electrons are allowed to hop from one chain to the other. Then we introduce a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> generalization of the SSH <span class="hlt">model</span> and study a polaron in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> crystalline environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPRS...71...12G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPRS...71...12G"><span id="translatedtitle">CityGML - Interoperable semantic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span>. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution <span class="hlt">model</span>). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span>, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical <span class="hlt">models</span> such as KML, VRML, or X<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry <span class="hlt">model</span>. Due to this <span class="hlt">model</span> and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013ISPAr.XL4d...1C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013ISPAr.XL4d...1C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> WIFI-Based Indoor Positioning in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Virtual World</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chan, S.; Sohn, G.; Wang, L.; Lee, W.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>A web-based system based on the 3DTown project was proposed using Google Earth plug-in that brings information from indoor positioning devices and real-time sensors into an integrated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> indoor and outdoor virtual world to visualize the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of urban life within the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> context of a city. We addressed limitation of the 3DTown project with particular emphasis on video surveillance camera used for indoor tracking purposes. The proposed solution was to utilize wireless local area network (WLAN) WiFi as a replacement technology for localizing objects of interest due to the wide spread availability and large coverage area of WiFi in indoor building spaces. Indoor positioning was performed using WiFi without modifying existing building infrastructure or introducing additional access points (AP)s. A hybrid probabilistic approach was used for indoor positioning based on previously recorded WiFi fingerprint database in the Petrie Science and Engineering building at York University. In addition, we have developed a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> building <span class="hlt">modeling</span> module that allows for efficient reconstruction of outdoor building <span class="hlt">models</span> to be integrated with indoor building <span class="hlt">models</span>; a sensor module for receiving, distributing, and visualizing real-time sensor data; and a web-based visualization module for users to explore the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> urban life in a virtual world. In order to solve the problems in the implementation of the proposed system, we introduce approaches for integration of indoor building <span class="hlt">models</span> with indoor positioning data, as well as real-time sensor information and visualization on the web-based system. In this paper we report the preliminary results of our prototype system, demonstrating the system's capability for implementing a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> indoor and outdoor virtual world that is composed of discrete modules connected through pre-determined communication protocols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900020484','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900020484"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> control of image processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nguyen, An H.; Stark, Lawrence</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Telerobotics studies remote control of distant robots by a human operator using supervisory or direct control. Even if the robot manipulators has vision or other senses, problems arise involving control, communications, and delay. The communication delays that may be expected with telerobots working in space stations while being controlled from an Earth lab have led to a number of experiments attempting to circumvent the problem. This delay in communication is a main motivating factor in moving from well understood instantaneous hands-on manual control to less well understood supervisory control; the ultimate step would be the realization of a fully autonomous robot. The <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> control plays a crucial role in resolving many conflicting image processing problems that are inherent in resolving in the bottom-up approach of most current machine vision processes. The <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> control approach is also capable of providing the necessary visual feedback information for both the control algorithms and for the human operator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4702..321H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4702..321H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> root canal <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for advanced endodontic treatment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hong, Shane Y.; Dong, Janet</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>More than 14 million teeth receive endodontic (root canal) treatment annually. Before a clinician's inspection and diagnosis, destructive access preparation by removing teeth crown and dentin is usually needed. This paper presents a non-invasive method for accessing internal tooth geometry by building <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> tooth <span class="hlt">model</span> from 2-D radiographic and endoscopic images to be used for an automatic prescription system of computer-aided treatment procedure planning, and for the root canal preparation by an intelligent micro drilling machine with on-line monitoring. It covers the techniques specific for dental application in the radiographic images acquirement, image enhancement, image segmentation and feature recognition, distance measurement and calibration, merging 2D image into <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> representation and display. Included also are the methods to form references for irregular teeth geometry and to do accurately measurement with self-calibration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006AGUFM.S43A1371W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006AGUFM.S43A1371W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geologic <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the Southern Great Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wagoner, J. L.; Myers, S. C.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>We have constructed a regional <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> of the southern Great Basin, in support of a seismic wave propagation investigation of the 1993 Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The <span class="hlt">model</span> is centered on the NPE and spans longitude -119.5° to -112.6°, latitude 34.5° to 39.8°, and a depth from the surface to 150 km below sea level. Hence, the <span class="hlt">model</span> includes the southern half of Nevada, as well as parts of eastern California, western Utah, and a portion of northwestern Arizona. The upper crust is constrained by geologic and geophysical studies, and the lower crust and upper mantle are constrained by geophysical studies. The upper crustal geologic units are Quaternary basin fill, Tertiary deposits, pre-Tertiary deposits, intrusive rocks, and calderas. The lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized with 8 layers, including the Moho. Detailed geologic data, including surface maps, borehole data, and geophysical surveys, were used to define the geology at the NTS. Digital geologic outcrop data were available for both Nevada and Arizona, whereas we scanned and hand digitized geologic maps for California and Utah. Published gravity data (2km spacing) were used to determine the thickness of the Cenozoic deposits and constrain the depth of the basins. The free surface is based on a 10m lateral resolution DEM at the NTS and a 90m resolution DEM elsewhere. The gross geophysical structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface-wave studies. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a compilation of reflection/refraction studies. We used the Earthvision (<span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Graphics, Inc.) software to integrate the geologic and geophysical information into a <span class="hlt">model</span> of x,y,z,p nodes, where p is an integer index representing the geologic unit. For regional seismic simulations we convert this realistic geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> into elastic parameters. Upper crustal units are treated as seismically homogeneous</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8878E..1XS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8878E..1XS"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> faces from samplings via compressive sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Qi; Tang, Yanlong; Hu, Ping</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data is easier to acquire for family entertainment purpose today because of the mass-production, cheapness and portability of domestic RGBD sensors, e.g., Microsoft Kinect. However, the accuracy of facial <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is affected by the roughness and instability of the raw input data from such sensors. To overcome this problem, we introduce compressive sensing (CS) method to build a novel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> super-resolution scheme to reconstruct high-resolution facial <span class="hlt">models</span> from rough samples captured by Kinect. Unlike the simple frame fusion super-resolution method, this approach aims to acquire compressed samples for storage before a high-resolution image is produced. In this scheme, depth frames are firstly captured and then each of them is measured into compressed samples using sparse coding. Next, the samples are fused to produce an optimal one and finally a high-resolution image is recovered from the fused sample. This framework is able to recover <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> facial <span class="hlt">model</span> of a given user from compressed simples and this can reducing storage space as well as measurement cost in future devices e.g., single-pixel depth cameras. Hence, this work can potentially be applied into future applications, such as access control system using face recognition, and smart phones with depth cameras, which need high resolution and little measure time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1011K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1011K"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Results of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Moon Accumulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod; Antipin, Alexandr</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>For the last time for the <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Moon usually had been used the <span class="hlt">model</span> of mega impact in which the forming of the Earth and its sputnik had been the consequence of the Earth's collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,2] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al26,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone and additionally change the content of Moon forming to silicates. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius of the Earth, the growing area of the future Earth's core can save also the silicate envelope fragments [3]. For understanding the further system Earth-Moon evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on its accumulation stage.In that paper we are <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the changing of temperature,pressure,velocity of matter flowing in a block of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach.The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in velocity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhA...47K5204B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhA...47K5204B"><span id="translatedtitle">2D quantum double <span class="hlt">models</span> from a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bernabé Ferreira, Miguel Jorge; Padmanabhan, Pramod; Teotonio-Sobrinho, Paulo</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>In this paper we look at three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) lattice <span class="hlt">models</span> that are generalizations of the state sum <span class="hlt">model</span> used to define the Kuperberg invariant of 3-manifolds. The partition function is a scalar constructed as a tensor network where the building blocks are tensors given by the structure constants of an involutory Hopf algebra A. These <span class="hlt">models</span> are very general and are hard to solve in its entire parameter space. One can obtain familiar <span class="hlt">models</span>, such as ordinary gauge theories, by letting A be the group algebra {C}(G) of a discrete group G and staying on a certain region of the parameter space. We consider the transfer matrix of the <span class="hlt">model</span> and show that quantum double Hamiltonians are derived from a particular choice of the parameters. Such a construction naturally leads to the star and plaquette operators of the quantum double Hamiltonians, of which the toric code is a special case when A={C}({{{Z}}_{2}}). This formulation is convenient to study ground states of these generalized quantum double <span class="hlt">models</span> where they can naturally be interpreted as tensor network states. For a surface Σ, the ground state degeneracy is determined by the Kuperberg 3-manifold invariant of \\Sigma \\times {{S}^{1}}. It is also possible to obtain extra <span class="hlt">models</span> by simply enlarging the allowed parameter space but keeping the solubility of the <span class="hlt">model</span>. While some of these extra <span class="hlt">models</span> have appeared before in the literature, our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> perspective allows for an uniform description of them.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......343B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......343B"><span id="translatedtitle">Right approach to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> using CAD tools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baddam, Mounica Reddy</p> <p></p> <p>The thesis provides a step-by-step methodology to enable an instructor dealing with CAD tools to optimally guide his/her students through an understandable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach which will not only enhance their knowledge about the tool's usage but also enable them to achieve their desired result in comparatively lesser time. In the known practical field, there is particularly very little information available to apply CAD skills to formal beginners' training sessions. Additionally, advent of new software in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> domain cumulates updating into a more difficult task. Keeping up to the industry's advanced requirements emphasizes the importance of more skilled hands in the field of CAD development, rather than just prioritizing manufacturing in terms of complex software features. The thesis analyses different <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches specified to the varieties of CAD tools currently available in the market. Utilizing performance-time databases, learning curves have been generated to measure their performance time, feature count etc. Based on the results, improvement parameters have also been provided for (Asperl, 2005).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.S42A..02E&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.S42A..02E&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Northern California Seismic Attenuation: <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Qp and Qs <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eberhart-Phillips, D. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The northern California crust exhibits a wide range of rock types and deformation processes which produce pronounced heterogeneity in regional attenuation. Using local earthquakes, <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Qp and Qs crustal <span class="hlt">models</span> have been obtained for this region which includes the San Andreas fault system, the Central Valley, the Sierra Nevada batholith, and the Mendocino subduction volcanic system. Path attenuation t* values were determined from P and S spectra of 959 spatially distributed earthquakes, magnitude 2.5-6.0 from 2005-2014, using 1254 stations from NCEDC networks and IRIS Mendocino and Sierra Nevada temporary arrays. The t* data were used in Q inversions, using existing hypocenters and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> velocity <span class="hlt">models</span>, with basic 10-km node spacing. The uneven data coverage was accounted for with linking of nodes into larger areas in order to provide useful Q images across the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> volume. The results at shallow depth (< 2 km) show very low Q in the Sacramento Delta, the Eureka area, and parts of the Bay Area. In the brittle crust, fault zones that have high seismicity exhibit low Q. In the lower crust, low Q is observed along fault zones that have large cumulative displacement and have experienced grain size reduction. Underlying active volcanic areas, low Q features are apparent below 20-km depth. Moderately high Q is associated with igneous rocks of the Sierra Nevada and Salinian block, while the Franciscan subduction complex shows moderately low Q. The most prominent high Q feature is related to the Great Valley Ophiolite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MSSP...66..640M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MSSP...66..640M"><span id="translatedtitle">A 2D magnetic and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mechanical coupled finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> for the study of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> vibrations in the stator of induction motors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martinez, J.; Belahcen, A.; Detoni, J. G.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a coupled Finite Element <span class="hlt">Model</span> in order to study the vibrations in induction motors under steady-state. The <span class="hlt">model</span> utilizes a weak coupling strategy between both magnetic and elastodynamic fields on the structure. Firstly, the problem solves the magnetic vector potential in an axial cut and secondly the former solution is coupled to a three dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> of the stator. The coupling is performed using projection based algorithms between the computed magnetic solution and the three-dimensional mesh. The three-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> of the stator includes both end-windings and end-shields in order to give a realistic picture of the motor. The present <span class="hlt">model</span> is validated using two steps. Firstly, a modal analysis hammer test is used to validate the material characteristic of this complex structure and secondly an array of accelerometer sensors is used in order to study the rotating waves using multi-dimensional spectral techniques. The analysis of the radial vibrations presented in this paper firstly concludes that slot harmonic components are visible when the motor is loaded. Secondly, the multidimensional spectrum presents the most relevant mechanical waves on the stator such as the ones produced by the space harmonics or the saturation of the iron core. The direct retrieval of the wave-number in a multi-dimensional spectrum is able to show the internal current distribution in a non-intrusive way. Experimental results for healthy induction motors are showing mechanical imbalances in a multi-dimensional spectrum in a more straightforward form.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31G1522D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31G1522D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geologic <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the San Diego Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Danskin, W. R.; Cromwell, G.; Glockhoff, C.; Martin, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Prior geologic studies of the San Diego area, including northern Baja California, Mexico, focused on site investigations, characterization of rock formations, or earthquake hazards. No comprehensive, quantitative <span class="hlt">model</span> characterizing the three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) geology of the entire area has been developed. The lack of such a <span class="hlt">model</span> limits understanding of large-scale processes, such as development of ancient landforms, and groundwater movement and availability. To evaluate these regional processes, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to better understand the geologic structure of the San Diego area. A cornerstone of this study is the installation and analysis of 77 wells at 12 multiple-depth monitoring-well sites. Geologic information from these wells was combined with lithologic data from 81 oil exploration wells and municipal and private water wells, gravity and seismic interpretations, and paleontological interpretations. These data were analyzed in conjunction with geologic maps and digital elevation <span class="hlt">models</span> to develop a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> of the San Diego area, in particular of the San Diego embayment. Existing interpretations of regional surficial geology, faulting, and tectonic history provided the framework for this <span class="hlt">model</span>, which was refined by independent evaluation of subsurface geology. Geologic formations were simplified into five sedimentary units (Quaternary, Plio-Pleistocene, Oligocene, Eocene and Cretaceous ages), and one basal crystalline unit (primarily Cretaceous and Jurassic). Complex fault systems are represented in the <span class="hlt">model</span> by ten fault strands that maintain overall displacement. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> corroborates existing geologic concepts of the San Diego area, refines the extent of subsurface geology, and allows users to holistically evaluate subsurface structures and regional hydrogeology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S32C0651M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S32C0651M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and Processing of Continuous <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Elastic Wavefield Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Milkereit, B.; Bohlen, T.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Continuous seismic wavefields are excited by earthquake clustering, induced seismicity in reservoirs, and mining. In hydrocarbon reservoirs, for example, pore pressure changes and fluid flow (mass transfer) will cause incremental deviatoric stresses sufficient to trigger and sustain seismic activity. Here we address three aspects of seismic wavefields in three-dimensional heterogeneous media triggered by distributed sources in space and time: forward <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, multichannel data processing, and source location imaging. A power law distribution of seismic sources (such as the Gutenberg-Richter law) is used for the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of viscoelastic/elastic wave propagation through a realistic earth <span class="hlt">model</span>. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> provides new insight in the interaction of multi-source wavefields and the role of scale-dependend elastic <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters on transmitted and reflected/back-scattered wavefields. There exists a strong correlation between the spatial properties of the compressional, shear wave and density perturbations and the lateral correlation length of the resulting reflected or transmitted seismic wavefields. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> is based on the implementation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> elastic/viscoelastic FD codes on massive parallel and/or distributed computing resources using MPI (message passing interface). For parallelization, large grid <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> earth <span class="hlt">models</span> are decomposed into subvolume processing elements whereby each processing element is updating the wavefield within its portion of the grid. Processing of continuous seismic wavefields excited by multiple distributed sources is based on a combination of crosscorrelated or slowness-transformed array data and Kirchhoff or reverse time migration for source location or source volume imaging. The appearance of slowness in both migration and array data processing suggests the possibility of combining them into a single process. In order to place further constraints on the migration, the directivity properties of 3-component receiver arrays can be included in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr49B2..441S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr49B2..441S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Underwater <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>: Image Enhancement and Point Cloud Filtering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarakinou, I.; Papadimitriou, K.; Georgoula, O.; Patias, P.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This paper examines the results of image enhancement and point cloud filtering on the visual and geometric quality of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> for the representation of underwater features. Specifically it evaluates the combination of effects from the manual editing of images' radiometry (captured at shallow depths) and the selection of parameters for point cloud definition and mesh building (processed in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software). Such datasets, are usually collected by divers, handled by scientists and used for geovisualization purposes. In the presented study, have been created <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> from three sets of images (seafloor, part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) captured at three different depths (3.5m, 10m and 14m respectively). Four <span class="hlt">models</span> have been created from the first dataset (seafloor) in order to evaluate the results from the application of image enhancement techniques and point cloud filtering. The main process for this preliminary study included a) the definition of parameters for the point cloud filtering and the creation of a reference <span class="hlt">model</span>, b) the radiometric editing of images, followed by the creation of three improved <span class="hlt">models</span> and c) the assessment of results by comparing the visual and the geometric quality of improved <span class="hlt">models</span> versus the reference one. Finally, the selected technique is tested on two other data sets in order to examine its appropriateness for different depths (at 10m and 14m) and different objects (part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) in the context of an ongoing research in the Laboratory of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCoPh.275..539F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCoPh.275..539F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical simulations of vesicle and inextensible capsule <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farutin, Alexander; Biben, Thierry; Misbah, Chaouqi</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Vesicles are locally-inextensible fluid membranes, capsules are endowed with in-plane shear elasticity mimicking the cytoskeleton of red blood cells (RBCs), but are extensible, while RBCs are inextensible. We use boundary integral (BI) methods based on the Green function techniques to <span class="hlt">model</span> and solve numerically their <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. We regularize the single layer integral by subtraction of exact identities for the terms involving the normal and the tangential components of the force. The stability and precision of BI calculation is enhanced by taking advantage of additional quadrature nodes located in vertices of an auxiliary mesh, constructed by a standard refinement procedure from the main mesh. We extend the partition of unity technique to boundary integral calculation on triangular meshes. The proposed algorithm offers the same treatment of near-singular integration regardless whether the source and the target points belong to the same surface or not. Bending forces are calculated by using expressions derived from differential geometry. Membrane incompressibility is handled by using two penalization parameters per suspended entity: one for deviation of the global area from prescribed value and another for the sum of squares of local strains defined on each vertex. Extensible or inextensible capsules, a <span class="hlt">model</span> of RBC, are studied by storing the position in the reference configuration for each vertex. The elastic force is then calculated by direct variation of the elastic energy. Various nonequilibrium physical examples on vesicles and capsules will be presented and the convergence and precision tests highlighted. Overall, a good convergence is observed with numerical error inversely proportional to the number of vertices used for surface discretization, the highest order of convergence allowed by piece-wise linear interpolation of the surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMDI23B..08G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMDI23B..08G"><span id="translatedtitle">Subduction zone guided waves: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and attenuation effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garth, T.; Rietbrock, A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Waveform <span class="hlt">modelling</span> is an important tool for understanding complex seismic structures such as subduction zone waveguides. These structures are often simplified to 2D structures for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> purposes to reduce computational costs. In the case of subduction zone waveguide affects, 2D <span class="hlt">models</span> have shown that dispersed arrivals are caused by a low velocity waveguide, inferred to be subducted oceanic crust and/or hydrated outer rise normal faults. However, due to the 2D <span class="hlt">modelling</span> limitations the inferred seismic properties such as velocity contrast and waveguide thickness are still debated. Here we test these limitations with full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> waveform <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. For waveguide effects to be observable the waveform must be accurately <span class="hlt">modelled</span> to relatively high frequencies (> 2 Hz). This requires a small grid spacing due to the high seismic velocities present in subduction zones. A large area must be <span class="hlt">modelled</span> as well due to the long propagation distances (400 - 600 km) of waves interacting with subduction zone waveguides. The combination of the large <span class="hlt">model</span> area and small grid spacing required means that these simulations require a large amount of computational resources, only available at high performance computational centres like the UK National super computer HECTOR (used in this study). To minimize the cost of <span class="hlt">modelling</span> for such a large area, the width of the <span class="hlt">model</span> area perpendicular to the subduction trench (the y-direction) is made as small as possible. This reduces the overall volume of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> domain. Therefore the wave field is simulated in a <span class="hlt">model</span> ';corridor' of the subduction zone velocity structure. This introduces new potential sources of error particularly from grazing wave side reflections in the y-direction. Various dampening methods are explored to reduce these grazing side reflections, including perfectly matched layers (PML) and more traditional exponential dampening layers. Defining a corridor <span class="hlt">model</span> allows waveguide affects to be <span class="hlt">modelled</span> up to at least 2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SPIE.9820E..18R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SPIE.9820E..18R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flare particle <span class="hlt">model</span> for ShipIR/NTCS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramaswamy, Srinivasan; Vaitekunas, David A.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>A key component in any soft-kill response to an incoming guided missile is the flare /chaff decoy used to distract or seduce the seeker homing system away from the naval platform. This paper describes a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flare particle <span class="hlt">model</span> in the naval threat countermeasure simulator (NTCS) of the NATO-standard ship signature <span class="hlt">model</span> (ShipIR), which provides independent control over the size and radial distribution of its signature. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> particles of each flare sub-munition are <span class="hlt">modelled</span> stochastically and rendered using OpenGL z-buffering, 2D projection, and alpha-blending to produce a unique and time varying signature. A sensitivity analysis on each input parameter provides the data and methods needed to synthesize a <span class="hlt">model</span> from an IR measurement of a decoy. The new <span class="hlt">model</span> also eliminated artifacts and deficiencies in our previous <span class="hlt">model</span> which prevented reliable tracks from the adaptive track gate algorithm already presented by Ramaswamy and Vaitekunas (2015). A sequence of scenarios are used to test and demonstrate the new flare <span class="hlt">model</span> during a missile engagement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7261E..26J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7261E..26J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> for treatment of cleft lip</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jiao, Chun; Hong, Dongming; Lu, Hongbing; Wang, Jianqi; Lin, Qin; Liang, Zhengrong</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Cleft lip is a congenital facial deformity with high occurrence rate in China. Surgical procedure involving Millard or Tennison methods is usually employed for treatment of cleft lip. However, due to the elasticity of the soft tissues and the mechanical interaction between skin and maxillary, the occurrence rate of facial abnormality or dehisce is still high after the surgery, leading to multiple operations of the patient. In this study, a framework of constructing a realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> (FEM) for the treatment of cleft lip has been established. It consists of two major steps. The first one is the reconstruction of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometrical <span class="hlt">model</span> of the cleft lip from scanning CT data. The second step is the build-up of a FEM for cleft lip using the geometric <span class="hlt">model</span>, where the material property of all the tetrahedrons was calculated from the CT densities directly using an empirical curve. The simulation results demonstrated (1) the deformation procedure of the <span class="hlt">model</span> step-by-step when forces were applied, (2) the stress distribution inside the <span class="hlt">model</span>, and (3) the displacement of all elements in the <span class="hlt">model</span>. With the computer simulation, the minimal force of having the cleft be repaired is predicted, as well as whether a given force sufficient for the treatment of a specific individual. It indicates that the proposed framework could integrate the treatment planning with stress analysis based on a realistic patient <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9414E..06N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9414E..06N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> statistical shape <span class="hlt">models</span> incorporating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> random forest regression voting for robust CT liver segmentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Norajitra, Tobias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Klaus H.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>During image segmentation, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Statistical Shape <span class="hlt">Models</span> (SSM) usually conduct a limited search for target landmarks within one-dimensional search profiles perpendicular to the <span class="hlt">model</span> surface. In addition, landmark appearance is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> only locally based on linear profiles and weak learners, altogether leading to segmentation errors from landmark ambiguities and limited search coverage. We present a new method for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SSM segmentation based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Random Forest Regression Voting. For each surface landmark, a Random Regression Forest is trained that learns a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spatial displacement function between the according reference landmark and a set of surrounding sample points, based on an infinite set of non-local randomized <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Haar-like features. Landmark search is then conducted omni-directionally within <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> search spaces, where voxelwise forest predictions on landmark position contribute to a common voting map which reflects the overall position estimate. Segmentation experiments were conducted on a set of 45 CT volumes of the human liver, of which 40 images were randomly chosen for training and 5 for testing. Without parameter optimization, using a simple candidate selection and a single resolution approach, excellent results were achieved, while faster convergence and better concavity segmentation were observed, altogether underlining the potential of our approach in terms of increased robustness from distinct landmark detection and from better search coverage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/291042','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/291042"><span id="translatedtitle">PRONTO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> users` instructions: A transient <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> code for nonlinear structural analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Attaway, S.W.; Mello, F.J.; Heinstein, M.W.; Swegle, J.W.; Ratner, J.A.; Zadoks, R.I.</p> <p>1998-06-01</p> <p>This report provides an updated set of users` instructions for PRONTO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. PRONTO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a three-dimensional, transient, solid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> code for analyzing large deformations of highly nonlinear materials subjected to extremely high strain rates. This Lagrangian finite element program uses an explicit time integration operator to integrate the equations of motion. Eight-node, uniform strain, hexahedral elements and four-node, quadrilateral, uniform strain shells are used in the finite element formulation. An adaptive time step control algorithm is used to improve stability and performance in plasticity problems. Hourglass distortions can be eliminated without disturbing the finite element solution using either the Flanagan-Belytschko hourglass control scheme or an assumed strain hourglass control scheme. All constitutive <span class="hlt">models</span> in PRONTO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> are cast in an unrotated configuration defined using the rotation determined from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. A robust contact algorithm allows for the impact and interaction of deforming contact surfaces of quite general geometry. The Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics method has been embedded into PRONTO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> using the contact algorithm to couple it with the finite element method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...33a2033T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...33a2033T"><span id="translatedtitle">Bazhenov fm unconventional reservoir <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">modeling</span> methodology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Telnova, A.; Baranov, V.; Bukhanov, N.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The Bazhenov Formation has been studied for more than 50 years, but its petroleum potential, optimal STOIIP or resource estimation approaches, the methodology used to select a reservoir, determine its properties are still unclear. The distinctive features of bituminous shale are specific geochemical properties chosen as basic parameters to perform the geological <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the Bazhenov deposits and determine the key areas. The main objective of this paper is to choose an optimal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">modeling</span> algorithm and test conventional (petrophysical) and specific (geochemical) properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.S22A1009T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.S22A1009T"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards Forward <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Heterogeneity in D" region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>To, A.; Capdeville, Y.; Romanowicz, B.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The presence of strong lateral heterogeneity in D" is now well documented. While tomographic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> provides constraints on the large scale patterns, strong variations on shorter scales are best addressed by forward <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Appropriate tools are needed for forward <span class="hlt">modeling</span> that will handle strong <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> heterogeneity, at relatively short periods and including diffracted waves. We use a coupled mode/SEM (Spectral Element Method) to compute synthetic seismograms in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of the D" layer down to 1/12s. This coupled method (Capdeville, 2001) affords faster computations than SEM in cases where heterogeneity can be restricted to a specific layer. We compare them with observed waveforms for several events in the Western Pacific. Observed and synthetic travel time trends are very consistent, although in most cases the observed residuals are significantly larger. Waveform amplitudes are less consistent. In order to understand the origin of the amplitude difference, we test the effect of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> heterogeneity on Sdiff phase. In particular, the results show opposite trends in the amplitude of Sdiff due to heterogeneity located near the CMB or well above it. This provides constraints on the location of the causative velocity heterogeneity. Because the forward <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach requires many iterations, the coupled mode/SEM approach is still computationally intensive. It is more efficient to use a less accurate traditional approach to first get closer to a final <span class="hlt">model</span>, and only then use coupled mode/SEM to refine the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Ray theory is the most expedient way to calculate travel times. However, it is an infinite frequency approximation and not appropriate to handle diffracting waves. We show that ray theory predicts larger travel time anomaly for Sdiff phase than the one obtained by coupled mode/SEM. Although it is based on a weak heterogeneity assumption, Non-linear Asymptotic Coupling Theory(NACT) (Li and Romanowicz, 1995) helps to overcome this difficulty. It can handle</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15...51K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15...51K"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Results of Earth's Core Accumulation <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modelling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>For a long time as a most convenient had been the <span class="hlt">model</span> of mega impact in which the early forming of the Earth's core and mantle had been the consequence of formed protoplanet collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,3] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius, the growing area of the future core can save also the silicate envelope fragments. All existing <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> accumulation <span class="hlt">models</span> are constructed by using a spherical-symmetrical <span class="hlt">model</span>. Hence for understanding the further planet evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on the planet accumulation stage. In that paper we are <span class="hlt">modeling</span> distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity of matter flowing in a block of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>- spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach. The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL5..417S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL5..417S"><span id="translatedtitle">Digital <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Borobudur - Integration of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surveying and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suwardhi, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Hanke, K.; Akmalia, R.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The Borobudur temple (Indonesia) is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, now listed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The present state of the temple is the result of restorations after being exposed to natural disasters several times. Today there is still a growing rate of deterioration of the building stones whose causes need further researches. Monitoring programs, supported at institutional level, have been effectively executed to observe the problem. The paper presents the latest efforts to digitally document the Borobudur Temple and its surrounding area in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> with photogrammetric techniques. UAV and terrestrial images were acquired to completely digitize the temple, produce DEM, orthoimages and maps at 1:100 and 1:1000 scale. The results of the project are now employed by the local government organizations to manage the heritage area and plan new policies for the conservation and preservation of the UNESCO site. In order to help data management and policy makers, a web-based information system of the heritage area was also built to visualize and easily access all the data and achieved <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016TDR.....7..102N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016TDR.....7..102N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Discrete Method of Images for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Radio Propagation <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Novak, Roman</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Discretization by rasterization is introduced into the method of images (MI) in the context of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> deterministic radio propagation <span class="hlt">modeling</span> as a way to exploit spatial coherence of electromagnetic propagation for fine-grained parallelism. Traditional algebraic treatment of bounding regions and surfaces is replaced by computer graphics rendering of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reflections and double refractions while building the image tree. The visibility of reception points and surfaces is also resolved by shader programs. The proposed rasterization is shown to be of comparable run time to that of the fundamentally parallel shooting and bouncing rays. The rasterization does not affect the signal evaluation backtracking step, thus preserving its advantage over the brute force ray-tracing methods in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the rendering resolution may be scaled back for a given level of scenario detail with only marginal impact on the image tree size. This allows selection of scene optimized execution parameters for faster execution, giving the method a competitive edge. The proposed variant of MI can be run on any GPU that supports real-time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL2..221C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL2..221C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Building Evacuation Route <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> and Visualization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chan, W.; Armenakis, C.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The most common building evacuation approach currently applied is to have evacuation routes planned prior to these emergency events. These routes are usually the shortest and most practical path from each building room to the closest exit. The problem with this approach is that it is not adaptive. It is not responsively configurable relative to the type, intensity, or location of the emergency risk. Moreover, it does not provide any information to the affected persons or to the emergency responders while not allowing for the review of simulated hazard scenarios and alternative evacuation routes. In this paper we address two main tasks. The first is the <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of the spatial risk caused by a hazardous event leading to choosing the optimal evacuation route for a set of options. The second is to generate a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visual representation of the <span class="hlt">model</span> output. A multicriteria decision making (MCDM) approach is used to <span class="hlt">model</span> the risk aiming at finding the optimal evacuation route. This is achieved by using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) on the criteria describing the different alternative evacuation routes. The best route is then chosen to be the alternative with the least cost. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visual representation of the <span class="hlt">model</span> displays the building, the surrounding environment, the evacuee's location, the hazard location, the risk areas and the optimal evacuation pathway to the target safety location. The work has been performed using ESRI's ArcGIS. Using the developed <span class="hlt">models</span>, the user can input the location of the hazard and the location of the evacuee. The system then determines the optimum evacuation route and displays it in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415561','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415561"><span id="translatedtitle">The vibrational <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> HOCl above dissociation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lin, Yi-Der; Reichl, L. E.; Jung, Christof</p> <p>2015-03-28</p> <p>We explore the classical vibrational <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the HOCl molecule for energies above the dissociation energy of the molecule. Above dissociation, we find that the classical <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> is dominated by an invariant manifold which appears to stabilize two periodic orbits at energies significantly above the dissociation energy. These stable periodic orbits can hold a large number of quantum states and likely can support a significant quasibound state of the molecule, well above the dissociation energy. The classical <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and the lifetime of quantum states on the invariant manifold are determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.142l4304L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.142l4304L"><span id="translatedtitle">The vibrational <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> HOCl above dissociation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Yi-Der; Reichl, L. E.; Jung, Christof</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We explore the classical vibrational <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the HOCl molecule for energies above the dissociation energy of the molecule. Above dissociation, we find that the classical <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> is dominated by an invariant manifold which appears to stabilize two periodic orbits at energies significantly above the dissociation energy. These stable periodic orbits can hold a large number of quantum states and likely can support a significant quasibound state of the molecule, well above the dissociation energy. The classical <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and the lifetime of quantum states on the invariant manifold are determined.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911160','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911160"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the GFR with RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cliff B. Davis; Theron D. Marshall; K. D. Weaver</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Significant improvements have been made to the RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computer code for analysis of the Gas Fast Reactor (GFR). These improvements consisted of adding carbon dioxide as a working fluid, improving the turbine component, developing a compressor <span class="hlt">model</span>, and adding the Gnielinski heat transfer correlation. The code improvements were validated, generally through comparisons with independent design calculations. A <span class="hlt">model</span> of the power conversion unit of the GFR was developed. The <span class="hlt">model</span> of the power conversion unit was coupled to a reactor <span class="hlt">model</span> to develop a complete <span class="hlt">model</span> of the GFR system. The RELAP5 <span class="hlt">model</span> of the GFR was used to simulate two transients, one initiated by a reactor trip and the other initiated by a loss of load.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMMR14A..07H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMMR14A..07H"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing Mercury Porosimetry with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Porosity <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hasiuk, F.; Ewing, R. P.; Hu, Q.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Mercury intrusion porosimetry is one of the most widely used techniques to study the porous nature of a geological and man-made materials. In the geosciences, it is commonly used to describe petroleum reservoir and seal rocks as well as to grade aggregates for the design of asphalt and portland cement concretes. It's wide utility stems from its ability to characterize a wide range of pore throat sizes (from nanometers to around a millimeter). The fundamental physical <span class="hlt">model</span> underlying mercury intrusion porosimetry, the Washburn Equation, is based on the assumption that rock porosity can be described as a bundle of cylindrical tubes. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology, also known as rapid prototyping, allows the construction of intricate and accurate <span class="hlt">models</span>, exactly what is required to build <span class="hlt">models</span> of rock porosity. We evaluate the applicability of the Washburn Equation by comparing properties (like porosity, pore and pore throat size distribution, and surface area) computed on digital porosity <span class="hlt">models</span> (built from CT data, CAD designs, or periodic geometries) to properties measured via mercury intrusion porosimetry on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed versions of the same digital porosity <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AIPC.1738I0005V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AIPC.1738I0005V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> tools for architecture and archaeology reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vlad, Ioan; Herban, Ioan Sorin; Stoian, Mircea; Vilceanu, Clara-Beatrice</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The main objective of architectural and patrimonial survey is to provide a precise documentation of the status quo of the surveyed objects (monuments, buildings, archaeological object and sites) for preservation and protection, for scientific studies and restoration purposes, for the presentation to the general public. Cultural heritage documentation includes an interdisciplinary approach having as purpose an overall understanding of the object itself and an integration of the information which characterize it. The accuracy and the precision of the <span class="hlt">model</span> are directly influenced by the quality of the measurements realized on field and by the quality of the software. The software is in the process of continuous development, which brings many improvements. On the other side, compared to aerial photogrammetry, close range photogrammetry and particularly architectural photogrammetry is not limited to vertical photographs with special cameras. The methodology of terrestrial photogrammetry has changed significantly and various photographic acquisitions are widely in use. In this context, the present paper brings forward a comparative study of TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) and digital photogrammetry for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. The authors take into account the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> obtained, the overall costs involved for each technology and method and the 4th dimension - time. The paper proves its applicability as photogrammetric technologies are nowadays used at a large scale for obtaining the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of cultural heritage objects, efficacious in their assessment and monitoring, thus contributing to historic conservation. Its importance also lies in highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each method used - very important issue for both the industrial and scientific segment when facing decisions such as in which technology to invest more research and funds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ISPAr.XL5..249K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ISPAr.XL5..249K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploiting Textured <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span> for Developing Serious Games</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kontogianni, G.; Georgopoulos, A.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Digital technologies have affected significantly many fields of computer graphics such as Games and especially the field of the Serious Games. These games are usually used for educational proposes in many fields such as Health Care, Military applications, Education, Government etc. Especially Digital Cultural Heritage is a scientific area that Serious Games are applied and lately many applications appear in the related literature. Realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> textured <span class="hlt">models</span> which have been produced using different photogrammetric methods could be a useful tool for the creation of Serious Game applications in order to make the final result more realistic and close to the reality. The basic goal of this paper is how <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> textured <span class="hlt">models</span> which are produced by photogrammetric methods can be useful for developing a more realistic environment of a Serious Game. The application of this project aims at the creation of an educational game for the Ancient Agora of Athens. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> used vary not only as far as their production methods (i.e. Time of Flight laser scanner, Structure from Motion, Virtual historical reconstruction etc.) is concerned, but also as far as their era as some of them illustrated according to their existing situation and some others according to how these monuments looked like in the past. The Unity 3D® game developing environment was used for creating this application, in which all these <span class="hlt">models</span> were inserted in the same file format. For the application two diachronic virtual tours of the Athenian Agora were produced. The first one illustrates the Agora as it is today and the second one at the 2nd century A.D. Finally the future perspective for the evolution of this game is presented which includes the addition of some questions that the user will be able to answer. Finally an evaluation is scheduled to be performed at the end of the project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615891K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615891K"><span id="translatedtitle">The Engelbourg's ruins: from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TLS point cloud acquisition to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> virtual and historic <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koehl, Mathieu; Berger, Solveig; Nobile, Sylvain</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Castle of Engelbourg was built at the beginning of the 13th century, at the top of the Schlossberg. It is situated on the territory of the municipality of Thann (France), at the crossroads of Alsace and Lorraine, and dominates the outlet of the valley of Thur. Its strategic position was one of the causes of its systematic destructions during the 17th century, and Louis XIV finished his fate by ordering his demolition in 1673. Today only few vestiges remain, of which a section of the main tower from about 7m of diameter and 4m of wide laying on its slice, unique characteristic in the regional castral landscape. It is visible since the valley, was named "the Eye of the witch", and became a key attraction of the region. The site, which extends over approximately one hectare, is for several years the object of numerous archaeological studies and is at the heart of a project of valuation of the vestiges today. It was indeed a key objective, among the numerous planned works, to realize a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the site in its current state, in other words, a virtual <span class="hlt">model</span> "such as seized", exploitable as well from a cultural and tourist point of view as by scientists and in archaeological researches. The team of the ICube/INSA lab had in responsibility the realization of this <span class="hlt">model</span>, the acquisition of the data until the delivery of the virtual <span class="hlt">model</span>, thanks to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TLS and topographic surveying methods. It was also planned to integrate into this <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, data of 2D archives, stemming from series of former excavations. The objectives of this project were the following ones: • Acquisition of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> digital data of the site and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> • Digitization of the 2D archaeological data and integration in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> • Implementation of a database connected to the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> • Virtual Visit of the site The obtained results allowed us to visualize every <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object individually, under several forms (point clouds, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> meshed objects and <span class="hlt">models</span>, etc.) and at several levels of detail</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714730F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714730F"><span id="translatedtitle">DREAM-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and the importance of <span class="hlt">model</span> inputs and boundary conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Friedel, Reiner; Tu, Weichao; Cunningham, Gregory; Jorgensen, Anders; Chen, Yue</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Recent work on radiation belt <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> diffusion codes such as the Los Alamos "DREAM-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>" code have demonstrated the ability of such codes to reproduce realistic magnetospheric storm events in the relativistic electron <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> - as long as sufficient "event-oriented" boundary conditions and code inputs such as wave powers, low energy boundary conditions, background plasma densities, and last closed drift shell (outer boundary) are available. In this talk we will argue that the main limiting factor in our <span class="hlt">modeling</span> ability is no longer our inability to represent key physical processes that govern the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the radiation belts (radial, pitch angle and energy diffusion) but rather our limitations in specifying accurate boundary conditions and code inputs. We use here DREAM-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> runs to show the sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">modeled</span> outcomes to these boundary conditions and inputs, and also discuss alternate "proxy" approaches to obtain the required inputs from other (ground-based) sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1414116K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1414116K"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent progress in <span class="hlt">modelling</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lithospheric deformation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaus, B. J. P.; Popov, A.; May, D. A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lithospheric deformation remains a challenging task, predominantly because the variations in rock types, as well as nonlinearities due to for example plastic deformation result in sharp and very large jumps in effective viscosity contrast. As a result, there are only a limited number of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> codes available, most of which are using direct solvers which are computationally and memory-wise very demanding. As a result, the resolutions for typical <span class="hlt">model</span> runs are quite modest, despite the use of hundreds of processors (and using much larger computers is unlikely to bring much improvement in this situation). For this reason we recently developed a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> deformation code,called LaMEM: Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution <span class="hlt">Model</span>. LaMEM is written on top of PETSc, and as a result it runs on massive parallel machines and we have a large number of iterative solvers available (including geometric and algebraic multigrid methods). As it remains unclear which solver combinations work best under which conditions, we have implemented most currently suggested methods (such as schur complement reduction or Fully coupled iterations). In addition, we can use either a finite element discretization (with Q1P0, stabilized Q1Q1 or Q2P-1 elements) or a staggered finite difference discretization for the same input geometry, which is based on a marker and cell technique). This gives us he flexibility to test various solver methodologies on the same <span class="hlt">model</span> setup, in terms of accuracy, speed, memory usage etc. Here, we will report on some features of LaMEM, on recent code additions, as well as on some lessons we learned which are important for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lithospheric deformation. Specifically we will discuss: 1) How we combine a particle-and-cell method to make it work with both a finite difference and a (lagrangian, eulerian or ALE) finite element formulation, with only minor code modifications code 2) How finite difference and finite element discretizations compare in terms of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS11C1521M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS11C1521M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of a Nearshore Dye Release</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maxwell, A. R.; Hibler, L. F.; Miller, L. M.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The usage of computer <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software in predicting the behavior of a plume discharged into deep water is well established. Nearfield plume spreading in coastal areas with complex bathymetry is less commonly studied; in addition to geometry, some of the difficulties of this environment include: tidal exchange, temperature, and salinity gradients. Although some researchers have applied complex hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> to this problem, nearfield regions are typically <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by calibration of an empirical or expert system <span class="hlt">model</span>. In the present study, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> Delft<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-FLOW was used to predict the advective transport from a point release in Sequim Bay, Washington. A nested <span class="hlt">model</span> approach was used, wherein a coarse <span class="hlt">model</span> using a mesh extending to nearby tide gages (cell sizes up to 1 km) was run over several tidal cycles in order to provide boundary conditions to a smaller area. The nested mesh (cell sizes up to 30 m) was forced on two open boundaries using the water surface elevation derived from the coarse <span class="hlt">model</span>. Initial experiments with the uncalibrated <span class="hlt">model</span> were conducted in order to predict plume propagation based on the best available field data. Field experiments were subsequently carried out by releasing rhodamine dye into the bay at near-peak flood tidal current and near high slack tidal conditions. Surface and submerged releases were carried out from an anchored vessel. Concurrently collected data from the experiment include temperature, salinity, dye concentration, and hyperspectral imagery, collected from boats and aircraft. A REMUS autonomous underwater vehicle was used to measure current velocity and dye concentration at varying depths, as well as to acquire additional bathymetric information. Preliminary results indicate that the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> offers a reasonable prediction of plume propagation speed and shape. A sensitivity analysis is underway to determine the significant factors in effectively using the <span class="hlt">model</span> as a predictive tool</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3443679','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3443679"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying cellular interaction <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> fluorescence microscopy data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Klauschen, Frederick; Ishii, Masaru; Qi, Hai; Bajénoff, Marc; Egen, Jackson G.; Germain, Ronald N.; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The wealth of information available from advanced fluorescence imaging techniques used to analyze biological processes with high spatial and temporal resolution calls for high-throughput image analysis methods. Here, we describe a fully automated approach to analyzing cellular interaction behavior in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> fluorescence microscopy images. As example application we present the analysis of drug-induced and S1P1-knock-out-related changes in bone-osteoclast interactions. Moreover, we apply our approach to images showing the spatial association of dendritic cells with the fibroblastic reticular cell network within lymph nodes and to microscopy data about T-B lymphocyte synapse formation. Such analyses that yield important information about the molecular mechanisms determining cellular interaction behavior would be very difficult to perform with approaches that rely on manual/semi-automated analyses. This protocol integrates adaptive threshold segmentation, object detection, adaptive color channel merging and neighborhood analysis and permits rapid, standardized, quantitative analysis and comparison of the relevant features in large data sets. PMID:19696749</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15011554','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15011554"><span id="translatedtitle">Blob <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> BOUT Simulations of Tokamak Edge Turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Russell, D; D'Ippolito, D; Myra, J; Nevins, W; Xu, X</p> <p>2004-08-23</p> <p>Propagating filaments of enhanced plasma density, or blobs, observed in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical simulations of a diverted, neutral-fueled tokamak are studied. Fluctuations of vorticity, electrical potential {phi}, temperature T{sub e} and current density J{sub {parallel}} associated with the blobs have a dipole structure perpendicular to the magnetic field and propagate radially with large E {center_dot} B drift velocities (> 1 km/s). The simulation results are consistent with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> blob <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> that incorporates increased parallel plasma resistivity (from neutral cooling of the X-point region), blob disconnection from the divertor sheath, X-point closure of the current loops, and collisional physics to sustain the {phi}, T{sub e}, J{sub {parallel}} dipoles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ITEIS.131...83M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ITEIS.131...83M"><span id="translatedtitle">Discussion of Source Reconstruction <span class="hlt">Models</span> Using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MCG Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Melis, Massimo De; Uchikawa, Yoshinori</p> <p></p> <p>In this study we performed the source reconstruction of magnetocardiographic signals generated by the human heart activity to localize the site of origin of the heart activation. The localizations were performed in a four compartment <span class="hlt">model</span> of the human volume conductor. The analyses were conducted on normal subjects and on a subject affected by the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Different <span class="hlt">models</span> of the source activation were used to evaluate whether a general <span class="hlt">model</span> of the current source can be applied in the study of the cardiac inverse problem. The data analyses were repeated using normal and vector component data of the MCG. The results show that a distributed source <span class="hlt">model</span> has the better accuracy in performing the source reconstructions, and that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MCG data allow finding smaller differences between the different source <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1255246-modeling-moving-systems-relap5','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1255246-modeling-moving-systems-relap5"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> moving systems with RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Mesina, G. L.; Aumiller, David L.; Buschman, Francis X.; Kyle, Matt R.</p> <p>2015-12-04</p> <p>RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is typically used to <span class="hlt">model</span> stationary, land-based reactors. However, it can also <span class="hlt">model</span> reactors in other inertial and accelerating frames of reference. By changing the magnitude of the gravitational vector through user input, RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can <span class="hlt">model</span> reactors on a space station or the moon. The field equations have also been modified to <span class="hlt">model</span> reactors in a non-inertial frame, such as occur in land-based reactors during earthquakes or onboard spacecraft. Transient body forces affect fluid flow in thermal-fluid machinery aboard accelerating crafts during rotational and translational accelerations. It is useful to express the equations of fluid motion in the acceleratingmore » frame of reference attached to the moving craft. However, careful treatment of the rotational and translational kinematics is required to accurately capture the physics of the fluid motion. Correlations for flow at angles between horizontal and vertical are generated via interpolation where no experimental studies or data exist. The equations for three-dimensional fluid motion in a non-inertial frame of reference are developed. As a result, two different systems for describing rotational motion are presented, user input is discussed, and an example is given.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1255246','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1255246"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> moving systems with RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mesina, G. L.; Aumiller, David L.; Buschman, Francis X.; Kyle, Matt R.</p> <p>2015-12-04</p> <p>RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is typically used to <span class="hlt">model</span> stationary, land-based reactors. However, it can also <span class="hlt">model</span> reactors in other inertial and accelerating frames of reference. By changing the magnitude of the gravitational vector through user input, RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can <span class="hlt">model</span> reactors on a space station or the moon. The field equations have also been modified to <span class="hlt">model</span> reactors in a non-inertial frame, such as occur in land-based reactors during earthquakes or onboard spacecraft. Transient body forces affect fluid flow in thermal-fluid machinery aboard accelerating crafts during rotational and translational accelerations. It is useful to express the equations of fluid motion in the accelerating frame of reference attached to the moving craft. However, careful treatment of the rotational and translational kinematics is required to accurately capture the physics of the fluid motion. Correlations for flow at angles between horizontal and vertical are generated via interpolation where no experimental studies or data exist. The equations for three-dimensional fluid motion in a non-inertial frame of reference are developed. As a result, two different systems for describing rotational motion are presented, user input is discussed, and an example is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050240913&hterms=heat+transfer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dheat%2Btransfer','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050240913&hterms=heat+transfer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dheat%2Btransfer"><span id="translatedtitle">Turbomachinery Heat Transfer and Loss <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Navier-Stokes Codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>DeWitt, Kenneth; Ameri, Ali</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This report's contents focus on making use of NASA Glenn on-site computational facilities,to develop, validate, and apply <span class="hlt">models</span> for use in advanced <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> (CFD) codes to enhance the capability to compute heat transfer and losses in turbomachiney.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGP42A..08C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGP42A..08C"><span id="translatedtitle">Reassessing Geophysical <span class="hlt">Models</span> of the Bushveld Complex in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cole, J.; Webb, S. J.; Finn, C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Conceptual geophysical <span class="hlt">models</span> of the Bushveld Igneous Complex show three possible geometries for its mafic component: 1) Separate intrusions with vertical feeders for the eastern and western lobes (Cousins, 1959) 2) Separate dipping sheets for the two lobes (Du Plessis and Kleywegt, 1987) 3) A single saucer-shaped unit connected at depth in the central part between the two lobes (Cawthorn et al, 1998) <span class="hlt">Model</span> three incorporates isostatic adjustment of the crust in response to the weight of the dense mafic material. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was corroborated by results of a broadband seismic array over southern Africa, known as the Southern African Seismic Experiment (SASE) (Nguuri, et al, 2001; Webb et al, 2004). This new information about the crustal thickness only became available in the last decade and could not be considered in the earlier <span class="hlt">models</span>. Nevertheless, there is still on-going debate as to which <span class="hlt">model</span> is correct. All of the <span class="hlt">models</span> published up to now have been done in 2 or 2.5 dimensions. This is not well suited to <span class="hlt">modelling</span> the complex geometry of the Bushveld intrusion. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> takes into account effects of variations in geometry and geophysical properties of lithologies in a full three dimensional sense and therefore affects the shape and amplitude of calculated fields. The main question is how the new knowledge of the increased crustal thickness, as well as the complexity of the Bushveld Complex, will impact on the gravity fields calculated for the existing conceptual <span class="hlt">models</span>, when <span class="hlt">modelling</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The three published geophysical <span class="hlt">models</span> were remodelled using full 3Dl potential field <span class="hlt">modelling</span> software, and including crustal thickness obtained from the SASE. The aim was not to construct very detailed <span class="hlt">models</span>, but to test the existing conceptual <span class="hlt">models</span> in an equally conceptual way. Firstly a specific 2D <span class="hlt">model</span> was recreated in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, without crustal thickening, to establish the difference between 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> results. Then the thicker crust was added. Including the less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CEJPh..10..533Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CEJPh..10..533Z"><span id="translatedtitle">A generic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> of gene expression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhdanov, Vladimir P.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Recent experiments show that mRNAs and proteins can be localized both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. To describe such situations, I present a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mean-field kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> aimed primarily at gene expression in prokaryotic cells, including the formation of mRNA, its translation into protein, and slow diffusion of these species. Under steady-state conditions, the mRNA and protein spatial distribution is described by simple exponential functions. The protein concentration near the gene transcribed into mRNA is shown to depend on the protein and mRNA diffusion coefficients and degradation rate constants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/554167','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/554167"><span id="translatedtitle">Unstructured <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> grid toolbox for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>George, D.</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>Computable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> grids that accurately represent complex multimaterial geometries are essential for both static and time-dependent <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and simulation. LaGriT, the grid toolbox developed at Los Alamos provides a sophisticated set of initial grid generation, grid maintenance and grid optimization tools. We present example grids that demonstrate the flexibility of the grid generator. Additionally, we present the results of an electrostatic calculation and a grain growth problem that illustrate the grid optimization features and the utility of the grid server architecture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T23H..05P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T23H..05P"><span id="translatedtitle">Insights from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical simulations on the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the India-Asia collision zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pusok, A. E.; Kaus, B.; Popov, A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the India-Asia collision zone remains one of the most remarkable topics of the current research interest: the transition from subduction to collision and uplift, followed by the rise of the abnormally thick Tibetan plateau, and the deformation at its Eastern and Western syntaxes, are processes still not fully understood. <span class="hlt">Models</span> that have addressed this topic include wholescale underthrusting of Indian lithospheric mantle under Tibet, distributed homogeneous shortening or the thin-sheet <span class="hlt">model</span>, slip-line field <span class="hlt">model</span> for lateral extrusion or lower crustal flow <span class="hlt">models</span> for the exhumation of the Himalayan units and lateral spreading of the Tibetan plateau. Of these, the thin-sheet <span class="hlt">model</span> has successfully illustrated some of the basic physics of continental collision and has the advantage of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> being reduced to 2D, but one of its major shortcomings is that it cannot simultaneously represent channel flow and gravitational collapse of the mantle lithosphere, since these mechanisms require the lithosphere to interact with the underlying mantle, or to have a vertically non-homogeneous rheology. As a consequence, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> are emerging as powerful tools to understand the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of coupled systems. However, because of yet recent developments and various complexities, the current <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> simulating the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of continent collision zones have relied on certain explicit assumptions, such as replacing part of the asthenosphere with various types of boundary conditions that mimic the effect of mantle flow, in order to focus on the lithospheric/crustal deformation. Here, we employ the parallel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution <span class="hlt">Model</span>), with a finite difference staggered grid solver, which is capable of simulating lithospheric deformation while simultaneously taking mantle flow and a free surface into account. We present qualitative results on lithospheric and upper-mantle scale simulations in which the Indian lithosphere is subducted and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMNG43B0570S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMNG43B0570S"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Global Wave Propagation Through Geodynamic <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schuberth, B.; Piazzoni, A.; Bunge, H.; Igel, H.; Steinle-Neumann, G.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>This project aims at a better understanding of the forward problem of global <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> wave propagation. We use the spectral element program "SPECFEM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>" (Komatitsch and Tromp, 2002a,b) with varying input <span class="hlt">models</span> of seismic velocities derived from mantle convection simulations (Bunge et al., 2002). The purpose of this approach is to obtain seismic velocity <span class="hlt">models</span> independently from seismological studies. In this way one can test the effects of varying parameters of the mantle convection <span class="hlt">models</span> on the seismic wave field. In order to obtain the seismic velocities from the temperature field of the geodynamical simulations we follow a mineral physics approach. Assuming a certain mantle composition (e.g. pyrolite with CMASF composition) we compute the stable phases for each depth (i.e. pressure) and temperature by system Gibbs free energy minimization. Elastic moduli and density are calculated from the equations of state of the stable mineral phases. For this we use a mineral physics database derived from calorimetric experiments (enthalphy and entropy of formation, heat capacity) and EOS parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMMR11A1871G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMMR11A1871G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Melt Distribution in Partially Molten Dunite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garapic, G.; Faul, U.; Brisson, E.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The currently existing <span class="hlt">model</span> of grain-scale melt geometry in the Earth’s upper mantle is derived from theoretical considerations that stem from material science research, combined with relatively low-resolution observations of polished two-dimensional surfaces. This <span class="hlt">model</span> predicts a simple, interconnected network of melt along three-grain edges in static surface energy equilibrium. However, due to a continuous rearrangements of neighboring grains caused by grain growth, melt forms complex shapes among the grains. As a result, it is impossible to construct a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image of the pore space from 2D surfaces, which makes it particularly challenging to resolve the current controversy on whether all two-grain boundaries are wetted or melt-free. We present a new method for reconstruction of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> pore space in partially molten rocks. The method consists of serial sectioning and high resolution imaging (Field Emission SEM) of polished surfaces, followed by image alignment and rendering. The ablation rate during serial sectioning is determined by measuring the depth of a laser hole by interferometry. We removed a total of 25 layers with a spacing of of 1.3.microns between layers. Each layer consists of a mosaic of images approximately 300 x 320 microns in size. Melt regions are identified within each layer by hand-digitizing SEM images. We obtain a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> by stacking the slices, registering each slice, and using alpha shapes as a surface reconstruction technique. The sample we investigated is a partially molten dunite consisting of Fo90 olivine with a mean grain size of 33 microns and 4% melt. It was run in a piston cylinder at 1350°C and 1 GPa for 432 hours to achieve steady state grain growth. Rendering of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> pore space shows that the larger melt pockets at multi-grain junctions change within only a few microns in depth, whereas thin inclusions along two-grain boundaries persist over the entire depth of the imaged volume, which is similar to the mean grain size</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED482119.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED482119.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Prototype Digital Library for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Collections: Tools To Capture, <span class="hlt">Model</span>, Analyze, and Query Complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rowe, Jeremy; Razdan, Anshuman</p> <p></p> <p>The Partnership for Research in Spatial <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> (PRISM) project at Arizona State University (ASU) developed <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and analytic tools to respond to the limitations of two-dimensional (2D) data representations perceived by affiliated discipline scientists, and to take advantage of the enhanced capabilities of three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) data that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMIN13A1816B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMIN13A1816B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Canada in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> - Toward a Sustainable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Canadian Geology from Diverse Data Sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brodaric, B.; Pilkington, M.; Snyder, D. B.; St-Onge, M. R.; Russell, H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Many big science issues span large areas and require data from multiple heterogeneous sources, for example climate change, resource management, and hazard mitigation. Solutions to these issues can significantly benefit from access to a consistent and integrated geological <span class="hlt">model</span> that would serve as a framework. However, such a <span class="hlt">model</span> is absent for most large countries including Canada, due to the size of the landmass and the fragmentation of the source data into institutional and disciplinary silos. To overcome these barriers, the "Canada in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>" (C<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) pilot project was recently launched by the Geological Survey of Canada. C<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is designed to be evergreen, multi-resolution, and inter-disciplinary: (a) it is to be updated regularly upon acquisition of new data; (b) portions vary in resolution and will initially consist of four layers (surficial, sedimentary, crystalline, and mantle) with intermediary patches of higher-resolution fill; and (c) a variety of independently managed data sources are providing inputs, such as geophysical, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and 2D geological <span class="hlt">models</span>, drill logs, and others. Notably, scalability concerns dictate a decentralized and interoperable approach, such that only key control objects, denoting anchors for the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> process, are imported into the C<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> database while retaining provenance links to original sources. The resultant <span class="hlt">model</span> is managed in the database, contains full <span class="hlt">modeling</span> provenance as well as links to detailed information on rock units, and is to be visualized in desktop and online environments. It is anticipated that C<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> will become the authoritative state of knowledge for the geology of Canada at a national scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITI..91.1673K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITI..91.1673K"><span id="translatedtitle">Interactive Cosmetic Makeup of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Point-Based Face <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Jeong-Sik; Choi, Soo-Mi</p> <p></p> <p>We present an interactive system for cosmetic makeup of a point-based face <span class="hlt">model</span> acquired by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanners. We first enhance the texture of a face <span class="hlt">model</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> space using low-pass Gaussian filtering, median filtering, and histogram equalization. The user is provided with a stereoscopic display and haptic feedback, and can perform simulated makeup tasks including the application of foundation, color makeup, and lip gloss. Fast rendering is achieved by processing surfels using the GPU, and we use a BSP tree data structure and a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> local refinement of the facial surface to provide interactive haptics. We have implemented a prototype system and evaluated its performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090024227','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090024227"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Reduced-Order <span class="hlt">Models</span> Using the FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Silva, Walter A.; Vatsa, Veer N.; Biedron, Robert T.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Recent significant improvements to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order <span class="hlt">models</span> (ROMs) are implemented into the FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> unstructured flow solver. These improvements include the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system via a single CFD solution, minimization of the error between the full CFD and the ROM unsteady aero- <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> solution, and computation of a root locus plot of the aeroelastic ROM. Results are presented for a viscous version of the two-dimensional Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) <span class="hlt">model</span> and an inviscid version of the AGARD 445.6 aeroelastic wing using the FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1168896','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1168896"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of tmRNA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Burks, Jody; Zwieb, Christian; Müller, Florian; Wower, Iwona; Wower, Jacek</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Background Trans-translation releases stalled ribosomes from truncated mRNAs and tags defective proteins for proteolytic degradation using transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA). This small stable RNA represents a hybrid of tRNA- and mRNA-like domains connected by a variable number of pseudoknots. Comparative sequence analysis of tmRNAs found in bacteria, plastids, and mitochondria provides considerable insights into their secondary structures. Progress toward understanding the molecular mechanism of template switching, which constitutes an essential step in trans-translation, is hampered by our limited knowledge about the three-dimensional folding of tmRNA. Results To facilitate experimental testing of the molecular intricacies of trans-translation, which often require appropriately modified tmRNA derivatives, we developed a procedure for building three-dimensional <span class="hlt">models</span> of tmRNA. Using comparative sequence analysis, phylogenetically-supported 2-D structures were obtained to serve as input for the program ERNA-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. Motifs containing loops and turns were extracted from the known structures of other RNAs and used to improve the tmRNA <span class="hlt">models</span>. Biologically feasible <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> for the entire tmRNA molecule could be obtained. The <span class="hlt">models</span> were characterized by a functionally significant close proximity between the tRNA-like domain and the resume codon. Potential conformational changes which might lead to a more open structure of tmRNA upon binding to the ribosome are discussed. The method, described in detail for the tmRNAs of Escherichia coli, Bacillus anthracis, and Caulobacter crescentus, is applicable to every tmRNA. Conclusion Improved molecular <span class="hlt">models</span> of biological significance were obtained. These <span class="hlt">models</span> will guide in the design of experiments and provide a better understanding of trans-translation. The comparative procedure described here for tmRNA is easily adopted for the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the members of other RNA families. PMID:15958166</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26753939','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26753939"><span id="translatedtitle">SEARCHBreast Workshop Proceedings: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of Breast Cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morrissey, Bethny; Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Chelala, Claude; Holen, Ingunn; Jones, Louise; Speirs, Valerie</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>SEARCHBreast, a UK initiative supported by the NC3Rs, organised a workshop entitled <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of Breast Cancer. The workshop focused on providing researchers with solutions to overcome some of the perceived barriers to working with human-derived tumour cells, cell lines and tissues, namely: a) the limited access to human-derived material; and b) the difficulty in working with these samples. The workshop presentations provided constructive advice and information on how to best prepare human cells or tissues for further downstream applications. Techniques in developing primary cultures from patient samples, and considerations when preserving tissue slices, were discussed. A common theme throughout the workshop was the importance of ensuring that the cells are grown in conditions as similar to the in vivo microenvironment as possible. Comparisons of the advantages of several in vitro options, such as primary cell cultures, cell line cultures, explants or tissue slices, suggest that all offer great potential applications for breast cancer research, and highlight that it need not be a case of choosing one over the other. The workshop also offered cutting-edge examples of on-chip technologies and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> tumour <span class="hlt">modelling</span> by using virtual pathology, which can contribute to clinically relevant studies and provide insights into breast cancer metastatic mechanisms. PMID:26753939</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21579876','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21579876"><span id="translatedtitle">Topological order in an exactly solvable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spin <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bravyi, Sergey; Leemhuis, Bernhard; Terhal, Barbara M.</p> <p>2011-04-15</p> <p>Research highlights: RHtriangle We study exactly solvable spin <span class="hlt">model</span> with six-qubit nearest neighbor interactions on a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face centered cubic lattice. RHtriangle The ground space of the <span class="hlt">model</span> exhibits topological quantum order. RHtriangle Elementary excitations can be geometrically described as the corners of rectangular-shaped membranes. RHtriangle The ground space can encode 4g qubits where g is the greatest common divisor of the lattice dimensions. RHtriangle Logical operators acting on the encoded qubits are described in terms of closed strings and closed membranes. - Abstract: We study a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> generalization of the toric code <span class="hlt">model</span> introduced recently by Chamon. This is an exactly solvable spin <span class="hlt">model</span> with six-qubit nearest-neighbor interactions on an FCC lattice whose ground space exhibits topological quantum order. The elementary excitations of this <span class="hlt">model</span> which we call monopoles can be geometrically described as the corners of rectangular-shaped membranes. We prove that the creation of an isolated monopole separated from other monopoles by a distance R requires an operator acting on {Omega}(R{sup 2}) qubits. Composite particles that consist of two monopoles (dipoles) and four monopoles (quadrupoles) can be described as end-points of strings. The peculiar feature of the <span class="hlt">model</span> is that dipole-type strings are rigid, that is, such strings must be aligned with face-diagonals of the lattice. For periodic boundary conditions the ground space can encode 4g qubits where g is the greatest common divisor of the lattice dimensions. We describe a complete set of logical operators acting on the encoded qubits in terms of closed strings and closed membranes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22176710','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22176710"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> kinematic and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> analysis of the front crawl tumble turn in elite male swimmers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Puel, F; Morlier, J; Avalos, M; Mesnard, M; Cid, M; Hellard, P</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to identify kinematic and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> variables related to the best tumble turn times (3mRTT, the turn time from 3-m in to 3-m out, independent variable) in ten elite male swimmers using a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) underwater analysis protocol and the Lasso (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) as statistical method. For each swimmer, the best-time turn was analyzed with five stationary and synchronized underwater cameras. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction was performed using the Direct Linear Transformation algorithm. An underwater piezoelectric <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> force platform completed the set-up to compute <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> variables. Data were smoothed by the Savitzky-Golay filtering method. Three variables were considered relevant in the best Lasso <span class="hlt">model</span> (3mRTT=2.58-0.425 RD+0.204 VPe+0.0046 TD): the head-wall distance where rotation starts (RD), the horizontal speed at the force peak (VPe), and the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> length of the path covered during the turn (TD). Furthermore, bivariate analysis showed that upper body (CUBei) and lower limb extension indexes at first contact (CLLei) were also linked to the turn time (r=-0.65 and p<0.05 for both variables). Thus the best turn times were associated with a long RD, slower VPe and reduced TD. By an early transverse rotation, male elite swimmers reach the wall with a slightly flexed posture that results in fast extension. These swimmers opt for a movement that is oriented forward and they focus on reducing the distance covered. PMID:22176710</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MARL13002G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MARL13002G"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation studies of defect textures and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> cholesteric droplets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gimenez-Pinto, Vianney; Lu, Shin-Ying; Selinger, Jonathan; Selinger, Robin</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>We <span class="hlt">model</span> defect texture evolution in droplets of cholesteric liquid crystals by solving for the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the nematic director field. In order to accommodate defects in the simulated texture, we use a finite difference formulation that is explicitly independent of sign reversal of the director at any position in the sample. Textures are visualized using either the Berreman 4x4 matrix method or by mapping free energy density. We study both planar and focal conic cholesteric textures in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> spherical and cylindrical droplets, with the goal to optimize device geometries for bistable display applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..OSS.B1005G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..OSS.B1005G"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation studies of <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and defect textures in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> cholesteric droplets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gimenez-Pinto, Vianney; Lu, Shin-Ying; Selinger, Jonathan; Selinger, Robin</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>We <span class="hlt">model</span> defect texture evolution in droplets of cholesteric liquid crystals by solving for the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the nematic director field. In order to accommodate defects in the simulated texture, we use a finite difference formulation that is explicitly independent of sign reversal of the director at any position in the sample. Textures are visualized using either the Berreman 4x4 matrix method or by mapping free energy density. We study both planar and focal conic cholesteric textures in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> spherical and cylindrical droplets, with the goal to optimize device geometries for bistable display applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70171478','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70171478"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of an aquifer management <span class="hlt">model</span> AQMAN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Puig, Juan Carlos; Rolon-Collazo, L. I.; Pagan-Trinidad, Ishmael</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A computer code that enables the use of the USGS Modular groundwater flow <span class="hlt">model for aquifermanagement modeling</span> has been developed. Aquifermanagement techniques integrate groundwater flow <span class="hlt">modeling</span> with linear quadratic optimization methods for the solution of various aquifer management problems. The <span class="hlt">model</span> AQMAN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, is a modified version of a previously developed two-dimensional AQMAN <span class="hlt">model</span>. The idea of coupling the AQMAN <span class="hlt">model</span> with the MODULAR <span class="hlt">model</span> arose because actual groundwater flow systems behave in a three dimensional manner, therefore requiring treatment as such, and due to the widespread use of MODULAR. The use of the AQMAN3D <span class="hlt">model</span> permits the implementation of the technique known as aquifer managementmodeling. A generalized approach to obtain an optimal solution to an aquifer management problem is proposed, and a sample test problem is presented to illustrate the use of the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Even though the <span class="hlt">model</span> provides the hydrologist with a new and powerful investigative tool, its applicability is limited to confined or quasiconfined systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25157446','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25157446"><span id="translatedtitle">Meshless deformable <span class="hlt">models</span> for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cardiac motion and strain analysis from tagged MRI.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Xiaoxu; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Shaoting; Schaerer, Joël; Qian, Zhen; Huh, Suejung; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Tagged magnetic resonance imaging (TMRI) provides a direct and noninvasive way to visualize the in-wall deformation of the myocardium. Due to the through-plane motion, the tracking of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> trajectories of the material points and the computation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> strain field call for the necessity of building <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cardiac deformable <span class="hlt">models</span>. The intersections of three stacks of orthogonal tagging planes are material points in the myocardium. With these intersections as control points, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> motion can be reconstructed with a novel meshless deformable <span class="hlt">model</span> (MDM). Volumetric MDMs describe an object as point cloud inside the object boundary and the coordinate of each point can be written in parametric functions. A generic heart mesh is registered on the TMRI with polar decomposition. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MDM is generated and deformed with MR image tagging lines. Volumetric MDMs are deformed by calculating the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> function and minimizing the local Laplacian coordinates. The similarity transformation of each point is computed by assuming its neighboring points are making the same transformation. The deformation is computed iteratively until the control points match the target positions in the consecutive image frame. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> strain field is computed from the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> displacement field with moving least squares. We demonstrate that MDMs outperformed the finite element method and the spline method with a numerical phantom. Meshless deformable <span class="hlt">models</span> can track the trajectory of any material point in the myocardium and compute the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> strain field of any particular area. The experimental results on in vivo healthy and patient heart MRI show that the MDM can fully recover the myocardium motion in three dimensions. PMID:25157446</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4876045','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4876045"><span id="translatedtitle">Meshless deformable <span class="hlt">models</span> for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cardiac motion and strain analysis from tagged MRI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Xiaoxu; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Shaoting; Schaerer, Joël; Qian, Zhen; Huh, Suejung; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Tagged magnetic resonance imaging (TMRI) provides a direct and noninvasive way to visualize the in-wall deformation of the myocardium. Due to the through-plane motion, the tracking of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> trajectories of the material points and the computation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> strain field call for the necessity of building <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cardiac deformable <span class="hlt">models</span>. The intersections of three stacks of orthogonal tagging planes are material points in the myocardium. With these intersections as control points, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> motion can be reconstructed with a novel meshless deformable <span class="hlt">model</span> (MDM). Volumetric MDMs describe an object as point cloud inside the object boundary and the coordinate of each point can be written in parametric functions. A generic heart mesh is registered on the TMRI with polar decomposition. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MDM is generated and deformed with MR image tagging lines. Volumetric MDMs are deformed by calculating the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> function and minimizing the local Laplacian coordinates. The similarity transformation of each point is computed by assuming its neighboring points are making the same transformation. The deformation is computed iteratively until the control points match the target positions in the consecutive image frame. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> strain field is computed from the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> displacement field with moving least squares. We demonstrate that MDMs outperformed the finite element method and the spline method with a numerical phantom. Meshless deformable <span class="hlt">models</span> can track the trajectory of any material point in the myocardium and compute the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> strain field of any particular area. The experimental results on in vivo healthy and patient heart MRI show that the MDM can fully recover the myocardium motion in three dimensions. PMID:25157446</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26529460','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26529460"><span id="translatedtitle">Active Exploration of Large <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> Repositories.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Lin; Cao, Yan-Pei; Lai, Yu-Kun; Huang, Hao-Zhi; Kobbelt, Leif; Hu, Shi-Min</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>With broader availability of large-scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> repositories, the need for efficient and effective exploration becomes more and more urgent. Existing <span class="hlt">model</span> retrieval techniques do not scale well with the size of the database since often a large number of very similar objects are returned for a query, and the possibilities to refine the search are quite limited. We propose an interactive approach where the user feeds an active learning procedure by labeling either entire <span class="hlt">models</span> or parts of them as "like" or "dislike" such that the system can automatically update an active set of recommended <span class="hlt">models</span>. To provide an intuitive user interface, candidate <span class="hlt">models</span> are presented based on their estimated relevance for the current query. From the methodological point of view, our main contribution is to exploit not only the similarity between a query and the database <span class="hlt">models</span> but also the similarities among the database <span class="hlt">models</span> themselves. We achieve this by an offline pre-processing stage, where global and local shape descriptors are computed for each <span class="hlt">model</span> and a sparse distance metric is derived that can be evaluated efficiently even for very large databases. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by interactively exploring a repository containing over 100 K <span class="hlt">models</span>. PMID:26529460</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4397982','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4397982"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Tissue-Engineered <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Ewing Sarcoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lamhamedi-Cherradi, Salah-Eddine; Santoro, Marco; Ramammoorthy, Vandhana; Menegaz, Brian A.; Bartholomeusz, Geoffrey; Iles, Lakesla R.; Amin, Hesham M.; Livingston, Andrew J.; Mikos, Antonios G.; Ludwig, Joseph A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Despite longstanding reliance upon monolayer culture for studying cancer cells, and numerous advantages from both a practical and experimental standpoint, a growing body of evidence suggests more complex three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) <span class="hlt">models</span> are necessary to properly mimic many of the critical hallmarks associated with the oncogenesis, maintenance and spread of Ewing sarcoma (ES), the second most common pediatric bone tumor. And as clinicians increasingly turn to biologically-targeted therapies that exert their effects not only on the tumor cells themselves, but also on the surrounding extracellular matrix, it is especially important that preclinical <span class="hlt">models</span> evolve in parallel to reliably measure antineoplastic effects and possible mechanisms of de novo and acquired drug resistance. Herein, we highlight a number of innovative methods used to fabricate biomimetic ES tumors, encompassing both the surrounding cellular milieu and extracellular matrix (ECM), and suggest potential applications to advance our understanding of ES biology, preclinical drug testing, and personalized medicine. PMID:25109853</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AAS...22534420S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AAS...22534420S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the Eta Carinae Little Homunculus Nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steffen, Wolfgang; Teodoro, Mairan; Madura, Thomas; Groh, Jose H.; Gull, Theodore R.; Corcoran, Michael F.; Damineli, Augusto; Hamaguchi, Kenji</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We extend our morpho-kinematic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the Homunculus nebula (Steffen et al., 2014) to the interior nested Little Homunculus. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is based on spectroscopic observations from HST/STIS. We find that the structure of the interior Little Homunculus is rather flat in the polar regions and interacts with the main Homunculus nebula only on one side, towards the periastron direction of the binary orbit. Furthermore, the two lobes of the LH are misaligned, also towards the periastron direction. As an explanation for the misalignment we propose that, in both cases, shortly after the eruptions that created the bipolar nebulae from the primary star, the off-center wind of the secondary has pushed the ejecta towards the periastron directions, since the secondary is most of the time near the apastron. Future hydrodynamic simulations are warranted to confirm this scenario.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4324093','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4324093"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in vitro <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the central nervous system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hopkins, Amy M.; DeSimone, Elise; Chwalek, Karolina; Kaplan, David L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>There are currently more than 600 diseases characterized as affecting the central nervous system (CNS) which inflict neural damage. Unfortunately, few of these conditions have effective treatments available. Although significant efforts have been put into developing new therapeutics, drugs which were promising in the developmental phase have high attrition rates in late stage clinical trials. These failures could be circumvented if current 2D in vitro and in vivo <span class="hlt">models</span> were improved. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, tissue-engineered in vitro systems can address this need and enhance clinical translation through two approaches: (1) bottom-up, and (2) top-down (developmental/regenerative) strategies to reproduce the structure and function of human tissues. Critical challenges remain including biomaterials capable of matching the mechanical properties and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of neural tissues, compartmentalized scaffolds that support heterogeneous tissue architectures reflective of brain organization and structure, and robust functional assays for in vitro tissue validation. The unique design parameters defined by the complex physiology of the CNS for construction and validation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in vitro neural systems are reviewed here. PMID:25461688</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL5..387B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL5..387B"><span id="translatedtitle">Polygonal Shapes Detection in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Complex Architectures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benciolini, G. B.; Vitti, A.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>A sequential application of two global <span class="hlt">models</span> defined on a variational framework is proposed for the detection of polygonal shapes in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of complex architectures. As a first step, the procedure involves the use of the Mumford and Shah (1989) 1st-order variational <span class="hlt">model</span> in dimension two (gridded height data are processed). In the Mumford-Shah <span class="hlt">model</span> an auxiliary function detects the sharp changes, i.e., the discontinuities, of a piecewise smooth approximation of the data. The Mumford-Shah <span class="hlt">model</span> requires the global minimization of a specific functional to simultaneously produce both the smooth approximation and its discontinuities. In the proposed procedure, the edges of the smooth approximation derived by a specific processing of the auxiliary function are then processed using the Blake and Zisserman (1987) 2nd-order variational <span class="hlt">model</span> in dimension one (edges are processed in the plane). This second step permits to describe the edges of an object by means of piecewise almost-linear approximation of the input edges themselves and to detects sharp changes of the first-derivative of the edges so to detect corners. The Mumford-Shah variational <span class="hlt">model</span> is used in two dimensions accepting the original data as primary input. The Blake-Zisserman variational <span class="hlt">model</span> is used in one dimension for the refinement of the description of the edges. The selection among all the boundaries detected by the Mumford-Shah <span class="hlt">model</span> of those that present a shape close to a polygon is performed by considering only those boundaries for which the Blake-Zisserman <span class="hlt">model</span> identified discontinuities in their first derivative. The output of the procedure are hence shapes, coming from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometric data, that can be considered as polygons. The application of the procedure is suitable for, but not limited to, the detection of objects such as foot-print of polygonal buildings, building facade boundaries or windows contours. v The procedure is applied to a height <span class="hlt">model</span> of the building of the Engineering</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015SPIE.9401E..08S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015SPIE.9401E..08S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Advanced prior <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bright field electron tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sreehari, Suhas; Venkatakrishnan, S. V.; Drummy, Lawrence F.; Simmons, Jeffrey P.; Bouman, Charles A.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Many important imaging problems in material science involve reconstruction of images containing repetitive non-local structures. <span class="hlt">Model</span>-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) could in principle exploit such redundancies through the selection of a log prior probability term. However, in practice, determining such a log prior term that accounts for the similarity between distant structures in the image is quite challenging. Much progress has been made in the development of denoising algorithms like non-local means and BM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, and these are known to successfully capture non-local redundancies in images. But the fact that these denoising operations are not explicitly formulated as cost functions makes it unclear as to how to incorporate them in the MBIR framework. In this paper, we formulate a solution to bright field electron tomography by augmenting the existing bright field MBIR method to incorporate any non-local denoising operator as a prior <span class="hlt">model</span>. We accomplish this using a framework we call plug-and-play priors that decouples the log likelihood and the log prior probability terms in the MBIR cost function. We specifically use <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> non-local means (NLM) as the prior <span class="hlt">model</span> in the plug-and-play framework, and showcase high quality tomographic reconstructions of a simulated aluminum spheres dataset, and two real datasets of aluminum spheres and ferritin structures. We observe that streak and smear artifacts are visibly suppressed, and that edges are preserved. Also, we report lower RMSE values compared to the conventional MBIR reconstruction using qGGMRF as the prior <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26684838','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26684838"><span id="translatedtitle">Collaboration of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> context and extracellular matrix in the development of glioma stemness in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Nina K L; Lim, Jia Kai; Leong, Meng Fatt; Sandanaraj, Edwin; Ang, Beng Ti; Tang, Carol; Wan, Andrew C A</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A hierarchy of cellular stemness exists in certain cancers, and any successful strategy to treat such cancers would have to eliminate the self-renewing tumor-initiating cells at the apex of the hierarchy. The cellular microenvironment, in particular the extracellular matrix (ECM), is believed to have a role in regulating stemness. In this work, U251 glioblastoma cells are cultured on electrospun polystyrene (ESPS) scaffolds coated with an array of 7 laminin isoforms to provide a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for stem cell-related genes and proteins expression studies. We observed collaboration between <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> context and laminins in promoting glioma stemness. Depending on the laminin isoform presented, U251 cells cultured on ESPS scaffolds (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) exhibited increased expression of stemness markers compared to those cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (2D). Our results indicate the influence of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (versus 2D) context on integrin expression, specifically, the upregulation of the laminin-binding integrins alpha 6 and beta 4. By a colony forming assay, we showed enhanced clonogenicity of cells grown on ESPS scaffolds in collaboration with laminins 411, 421, 511 and 521. Evaluation of patient glioma databases demonstrated significant enrichment of integrin and ECM pathway networks in tumors of worse prognosis, consistent with our observations. The present results demonstrate how <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> versus 2D context profoundly affects ECM signaling, leading to stemness. PMID:26684838</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PEPI..177..217P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PEPI..177..217P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> density <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Central Andes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prezzi, Claudia B.; Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Sabine</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We developed a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> density <span class="hlt">model</span> of the continental crust, the subducted plate and the upper mantle of the Central Andes between 20-29°S and 74-61°W through the forward <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of Bouguer anomaly. The goal of this contribution is to gain insight on the lithospheric structure integrating the available information (geophysical, geologic, petrologic, and geochemical) in a single <span class="hlt">model</span>. The geometry of our <span class="hlt">model</span> is defined and constrained by hypocentre location, reflection and refraction on and offshore seismic lines, travel time and attenuation tomography, receiver function analysis, magnetotelluric studies, thermal <span class="hlt">models</span> and balanced structural cross-sections. The densities allocated to the different bodies are calculated considering petrologic and geochemical data and pressure and temperature conditions. The <span class="hlt">model</span> consists of 31 parallel E-W vertical planes, where the continental crust comprises distinct bodies, which represent the different morphotectonic units of the Central Andes. We include a partial melting zone at midcrustal depths under the Altiplano-Puna (low-velocity zone) and consider the presence of a rheologically strong block beneath the Salar de Atacama basin, according to recent seismic studies. Contour maps of the depth of the continental Moho, the thickness of the lower crust and the depth to the bottom of the lithosphere below South America are produced. The possible percentage of partial melt in the Central Andes low-velocity zone is estimated. The residual anomaly is calculated by subtracting from the Bouguer anomaly the gravimetric effect of the <span class="hlt">modelled</span> subducted slab and of the <span class="hlt">modelled</span> Moho. Isostatic anomalies are calculated from regional and local isostatic Mohos calculated with and without internal loads, derived from our gravity <span class="hlt">model</span>, which are then compared to the <span class="hlt">modelled</span> continental Moho. This study contributes to a more detailed knowledge of the lithospheric structure of this region of the Andes and provides an integrated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3576..216K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3576..216K"><span id="translatedtitle">Faceless identification: a <span class="hlt">model</span> for person identification using the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> motion as cues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klasen, Lena M.; Li, Haibo</p> <p>1999-02-01</p> <p>Person identification by using biometric methods based on image sequences, or still images, often requires a controllable and cooperative environment during the image capturing stage. In the forensic case the situation is more likely to be the opposite. In this work we propose a method that makes use of the anthropometry of the human body and human actions as cues for identification. Image sequences from surveillance systems are used, which can be seen as monocular image sequences. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> deformable wireframe body <span class="hlt">model</span> is used as a platform to handle the non-rigid information of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> motion of the human body from the image sequence. A recursive method for estimating global motion and local shape variations is presented, using two recursive feedback systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1613099K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1613099K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Brandenburg <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> - a comprehensive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Subsurface <span class="hlt">Model</span>, Conception of an Infrastructure Node and a Web Application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kerschke, Dorit; Schilling, Maik; Simon, Andreas; Wächter, Joachim</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Energiewende and the increasing scarcity of raw materials will lead to an intensified utilization of the subsurface in Germany. Within this context, geological <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is a fundamental approach for integrated decision and planning processes. Initiated by the development of the European Geospatial Infrastructure INSPIRE, the German State Geological Offices started digitizing their predominantly analog archive inventory. Until now, a comprehensive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface <span class="hlt">model</span> of Brandenburg did not exist. Therefore the project B<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> strived to develop a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> as well as a subsequent infrastructure node to integrate all geological and spatial data within the Geodaten-Infrastruktur Brandenburg (Geospatial Infrastructure, GDI-BB) and provide it to the public through an interactive 2D/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> web application. The functionality of the web application is based on a client-server architecture. Server-sided, all available spatial data is published through GeoServer. GeoServer is designed for interoperability and acts as the reference implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Service (WFS) standard that provides the interface that allows requests for geographical features. In addition, GeoServer implements, among others, the high performance certified compliant Web Map Service (WMS) that serves geo-referenced map images. For publishing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data, the OGC Web <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Service (W3DS), a portrayal service for three-dimensional geo-data, is used. The W3DS displays elements representing the geometry, appearance, and behavior of geographic objects. On the client side, the web application is solely based on Free and Open Source Software and leans on the JavaScript API WebGL that allows the interactive rendering of 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphics by means of GPU accelerated usage of physics and image processing as part of the web page canvas without the use of plug-ins. WebGL is supported by most web browsers (e.g., Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, and Opera). The web</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.S51B1266B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.S51B1266B"><span id="translatedtitle">The USGS <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Seismic Velocity <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Northern California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brocher, T. M.; Aagaard, B.; Simpson, R. W.; Jachens, R. C.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>We present a new regional <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic velocity <span class="hlt">model</span> for Northern California for use in strong motion simulations of the 1906 San Francisco and other earthquakes. The <span class="hlt">model</span> includes compressional-wave velocity (Vp), shear-wave velocity (Vs), density, and intrinsic attenuation (Qp, Qs). These properties were assigned for each rock type in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> derived from surface outcrops, boreholes, gravity and magnetic data, and seismic reflection, refraction, and tomography studies. A detailed description of the <span class="hlt">model</span>, USGS Bay Area Velocity <span class="hlt">Model</span> 05.1.0, is available online [http://www.sf06simulation.org/geology/velocitymodel]. For ground motion simulations Vs and Qs are more important parameters than Vp and Qp because the strongest ground motions are generated chiefly by shear and surface wave arrivals. Because Vp data are more common than Vs data, however, we first developed Vp versus depth relations for each rock type and then converted these to Vs versus depth relations. For the most important rock types in Northern California we compiled measurements of Vp versus depth using borehole logs, laboratory measurements on hand samples, seismic refraction profiles, and tomography <span class="hlt">models</span>. These rock types include Salinian and Sierran granitic rocks, metagraywackes and greenstones of the Franciscan Complex, Tertiary and Mesozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and Quaternary and Holocene deposits (Brocher, USGS OFR 05-1317, 2005). Vp versus depth curves were converted to Vs versus depth curves using new empirical nonlinear relations between Vs and Vp (Brocher, BSSA, 2005). These relations, showing that Poisson's ratio is a nonlinear function of Vp, were similarly based on compilations of diverse Vs and Vp measurements on a large suite of rock types, mainly from California and the Pacific Northwest. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is distributed in a discretized form with routines to query the <span class="hlt">model</span> using C++, C, and Fortran 77 programming languages. The geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> was discretized at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDM18006C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDM18006C"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Bubble Merger <span class="hlt">Model</span> for RTI Mixing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Baolian</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In this work we present a <span class="hlt">model</span> for the merger processes of bubbles at the edge of an unstable acceleration driven mixing layer. Steady acceleration defines a self-similar mixing process, with a time-dependent inverse cascade of structures of increasing size. The time evolution is itself a renormalization group evolution. The <span class="hlt">model</span> predicts the growth rate of a Rayleigh-Taylor chaotic fluid-mixing layer. The <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> differs from the 2-D merger <span class="hlt">model</span> in several important ways. Beyond the extension of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to three dimensions, the <span class="hlt">model</span> contains one phenomenological parameter, the variance of the bubble radii at fixed time. The <span class="hlt">model</span> also predicts several experimental numbers: the bubble mixing rate, the mean bubble radius, and the bubble height separation at the time of merger. From these we also obtain the bubble height to the radius aspect ratio, which is in good agreement with experiments. Applications to recent NIF and Omega experiments will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813986B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813986B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of plume-induced subduction initiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baes, Marzieh; Gerya, taras; Sobolev, Stephan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Investigation of mechanisms involved in formation of a new subduction zone can help us to better understand plate tectonics. Despite numerous previous studies, it is still unclear how and where an old oceanic plate starts to subduct beneath the other plate. One of the proposed scenarios for nucleation of subduction is plume-induced subduction initiation, which was investigated in detail, using 2-D <span class="hlt">models</span>, by Ueda et al. (2008). Recently. Gerya et al. (2015), using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical <span class="hlt">models</span>, proposed that plume-lithosphere interaction in the Archean led to the subduction initiation and onset of plate tectonic. In this study, we aim to pursue work of Ueda et al. (2008) by incorporation of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> thermo-mechanical <span class="hlt">models</span> to investigate conditions leading to oceanic subduction initiation as a result of thermal-chemical mantle plume-lithosphere interaction in the modern earth. Results of our experiments show four different deformation regimes in response to plume-lithosphere interaction, that are a) self-sustaining subduction initiation where subduction becomes self-sustained, b) freezing subduction initiation where subduction stops at shallow depths, c) slab break-off where subducting circular slab breaks off soon after formation and d) plume underplating where plume does not pass through the lithosphere but spreads beneath it (failed subduction initiation). These different regimes depend on several parameters such as plume's size, composition and temperature, lithospheric brittle/plastic strength, age of the oceanic lithosphere and presence/absence of lithospheric heterogeneities. Results show that subduction initiates and becomes self-sustained when lithosphere is older than 10 Myr and non-dimensional ratio of the plume buoyancy force and lithospheric strength above the plume is higher than 2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AIPC.1650.1460C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AIPC.1650.1460C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> generation using an airborne swarm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clark, R. A.; Punzo, G.; Dobie, G.; MacLeod, C. N.; Summan, R.; Pierce, G.; Macdonald, M.; Bolton, G.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Using an artificial kinematic field to provide co-ordination between multiple inspection UAVs, the authors herein demonstrate full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> capability based on a photogrammetric system. The operation of the system is demonstrated by generating a full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface <span class="hlt">model</span> of an intermediate level nuclear waste storage drum. Such drums require periodic inspection to ensure that drum distortion or corrosion is carefully monitored. Performing this inspection with multiple airborne platforms enables rapid inspection of structures that are inaccessible to on-surface remote vehicles and are in human-hazardous environments. A three-dimensional surface-meshed <span class="hlt">model</span> of the target can then be constructed in post-processing through photogrammetry analysis of the visual inspection data. The inspection environment uses a tracking system to precisely monitor the position of each aerial vehicle within the enclosure. The vehicles used are commercially available Parrot AR. Drone quadcopters, controlled through a computer interface connected over an IEEE 802.11n (WiFi) network, implementing a distributed controller for each vehicle. This enables the autonomous and distributed elements of the control scheme to be retained, while alleviating the vehicles of the control algorithm's computational load. The control scheme relies on a kinematic field defined with the target at its centre. This field defines the trajectory for all the drones in the volume relative to the central target, enabling the drones to circle the target at a set radius while avoiding drone collisions. This function enables complete coverage along the height of the object, which is assured by transitioning to another inspection band only after completing circumferential coverage. Using a swarm of vehicles, the time until complete coverage can be significantly reduced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391209','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391209"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> generation using an airborne swarm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clark, R. A.; Punzo, G.; Macdonald, M.; Dobie, G.; MacLeod, C. N.; Summan, R.; Pierce, G.; Bolton, G.</p> <p>2015-03-31</p> <p>Using an artificial kinematic field to provide co-ordination between multiple inspection UAVs, the authors herein demonstrate full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> capability based on a photogrammetric system. The operation of the system is demonstrated by generating a full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface <span class="hlt">model</span> of an intermediate level nuclear waste storage drum. Such drums require periodic inspection to ensure that drum distortion or corrosion is carefully monitored. Performing this inspection with multiple airborne platforms enables rapid inspection of structures that are inaccessible to on-surface remote vehicles and are in human-hazardous environments. A three-dimensional surface-meshed <span class="hlt">model</span> of the target can then be constructed in post-processing through photogrammetry analysis of the visual inspection data. The inspection environment uses a tracking system to precisely monitor the position of each aerial vehicle within the enclosure. The vehicles used are commercially available Parrot AR. Drone quadcopters, controlled through a computer interface connected over an IEEE 802.11n (WiFi) network, implementing a distributed controller for each vehicle. This enables the autonomous and distributed elements of the control scheme to be retained, while alleviating the vehicles of the control algorithm’s computational load. The control scheme relies on a kinematic field defined with the target at its centre. This field defines the trajectory for all the drones in the volume relative to the central target, enabling the drones to circle the target at a set radius while avoiding drone collisions. This function enables complete coverage along the height of the object, which is assured by transitioning to another inspection band only after completing circumferential coverage. Using a swarm of vehicles, the time until complete coverage can be significantly reduced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvB..93o5124M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvB..93o5124M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Signatures of topological phase transition in <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">d</span> topological insulators from <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> axion response</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Makhfudz, Imam</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Axion electrodynamics, first proposed in the context of particle physics, manifests itself in condensed matter physics in the topological field theory description of <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">d</span> topological insulators and gives rise to magnetoelectric effect, where applying magnetic (electric) field B (E ) induces polarization (magnetization) p (m ) . We use linear response theory to study the associated topological current using the Fu-Kane-Mele <span class="hlt">model</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">d</span> topological insulators in the presence of time-dependent uniform weak magnetic field. By computing the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> current susceptibility χij jpjp(ω ) , we discover from its static limit an `order parameter' of the topological phase transition between weak topological (or ordinary) insulator and strong topological insulator, found to be continuous. The χij jpjp(ω ) shows a sign-changing singularity at a critical frequency with suppressed strength in the topological insulating state. Our results can be verified in current noise experiment on <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">d</span> TI candidate materials for the detection of such topological phase transition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EJASP2010..203B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EJASP2010..203B"><span id="translatedtitle">2D-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Registration of CT Vertebra Volume to Fluoroscopy Projection: A Calibration <span class="hlt">Model</span> Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bifulco, P.; Cesarelli, M.; Allen, R.; Romano, M.; Fratini, A.; Pasquariello, G.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>This study extends a previous research concerning intervertebral motion registration by means of 2D <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> fluoroscopy to obtain a more comprehensive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> description of vertebral kinematics. The problem of estimating the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rigid pose of a CT volume of a vertebra from its 2D X-ray fluoroscopy projection is addressed. 2D-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> registration is obtained maximising a measure of similarity between Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (obtained from the CT volume) and real fluoroscopic projection. X-ray energy correction was performed. To assess the method a calibration <span class="hlt">model</span> was realised a sheep dry vertebra was rigidly fixed to a frame of reference including metallic markers. Accurate measurement of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> orientation was obtained via single-camera calibration of the markers and held as true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vertebra position; then, vertebra <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> pose was estimated and results compared. Error analysis revealed accuracy of the order of 0.1 degree for the rotation angles of about 1 mm for displacements parallel to the fluoroscopic plane, and of order of 10 mm for the orthogonal displacement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016WRR....52.1089H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016WRR....52.1089H"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing the hybrid-<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> hillslope hydrological <span class="hlt">model</span> in a controlled environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hazenberg, P.; Broxton, P.; Gochis, D.; Niu, G.-Y.; Pangle, L. A.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A.; Zeng, X.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Hillslopes are important for converting rainfall into runoff, influencing the terrestrial <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the Earth's climate system. Recently, we developed a hybrid-<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> (h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) hillslope hydrological <span class="hlt">model</span> that gives similar results as a full <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> hydrological <span class="hlt">model</span> but is up to 2-3 orders of magnitude faster computationally. Here h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is assessed using a number of recharge-drainage experiments within the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) with accurate and high-resolution (both temporally and spatially) observations of the inputs, outputs, and storage <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of several hillslopes. Such detailed measurements are generally not available for real-world hillslopes. Results show that the h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> captures the observed storage, base flow, and overland flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of both the larger LEO and the smaller miniLEO hillslopes very well. Sensitivity tests are also performed to understand h3Ds difficulty in representing the height of the saturated zone close to the seepage face of the miniLEO hillslope. Results reveal that a temporally constant parameters set is able to simulate the response of the miniLEO for each individual event. However, when one focuses on the saturated zone <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at 0.15 m from the seepage face, a stepwise evolution of the optimal <span class="hlt">model</span> parameter for the saturated lateral conductivity parameter of the gravel layer occurs. This evolution might be related to the migration of soil particles within the hillslope. However, it is currently unclear whether and where this takes place (in the seepage face or within the parts of the loamy sand soil).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10194678','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10194678"><span id="translatedtitle">Crashworthiness analysis using advanced material <span class="hlt">models</span> in DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Logan, R.W.; Burger, M.J.; McMichael, L.D.; Parkinson, R.D.</p> <p>1993-10-22</p> <p>As part of an electric vehicle consortium, LLNL and Kaiser Aluminum are conducting experimental and numerical studies on crashworthy aluminum spaceframe designs. They have jointly explored the effect of heat treat on crush behavior and duplicated the experimental behavior with finite-element simulations. The major technical contributions to the state of the art in numerical simulation arise from the development and use of advanced material <span class="hlt">model</span> descriptions for LLNL`s DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code. Constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> enhancements in both flow and failure have been employed for conventional materials such as low-carbon steels, and also for lighter weight materials such as aluminum and fiber composites being considered for future vehicles. The constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> enhancements are developed as extensions from LLNL`s work in anisotropic flow and multiaxial failure <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Analysis quality as a function of level of simplification of material behavior and mesh is explored, as well as the penalty in computation cost that must be paid for using more complex <span class="hlt">models</span> and meshes. The lightweight material <span class="hlt">modeling</span> technology is being used at the vehicle component level to explore the safety implications of small neighborhood electric vehicles manufactured almost exclusively from these materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=file&id=EJ1036367','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=file&id=EJ1036367"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Molecules and Extended Solid <span class="hlt">Models</span> for Teaching Symmetry and Point Groups</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Scalfani, Vincent F.; Vaid, Thomas P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Tangible <span class="hlt">models</span> help students and researchers visualize chemical structures in three dimensions (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>). <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing offers a unique and straightforward approach to fabricate plastic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of molecules and extended solids. In this article, we prepared a series of digital <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> design files of molecular structures that will be useful for teaching…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22494509','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22494509"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy flow in passive and active <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cochlear <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil</p> <p>2015-12-31</p> <p>Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box <span class="hlt">model</span> of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AIPC.1703e0007W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AIPC.1703e0007W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy flow in passive and active <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cochlear <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yanli; Puria, Sunil; Steele, Charles</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box <span class="hlt">model</span> of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136724','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136724"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the San Emidio Geothermal Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>James E. Faulds</p> <p>2013-12-31</p> <p>The San Emidio geothermal system is characterized by a left-step in a west-dipping normal fault system that bounds the western side of the Lake Range. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> consists of 5 geologic units and 55 faults. Overlying Jurrassic-Triassic metasedimentary basement is a ~500 m-1000 m thick section of the Miocene lower Pyramid sequence, pre- syn-extensional Quaternary sedimentary rocks and post-extensional Quaternary rocks. 15-30º eastward dip of the stratigraphy is controlled by the predominant west-dipping fault set. Both geothermal production and injection are concentrated north of the step over in an area of closely spaced west dipping normal faults.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7973E..15S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7973E..15S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lithography <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for ground rule development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarma, Chandra; Bailey, Todd; Lyons, Adam; Shao, Dongbing</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>The ability to incorporate the effect of patterned underlayers in a 3-dimensional physical resist <span class="hlt">model</span> that truly mimics the process on real wafers could be used to formulate robust ground rules for design. We have shown as an example block level simulations, where the resist critical dimension is determined by the presence of STI (shallow trench isolation) and/or patterned gate level underneath & their relative spacing, as confirmed on wafer. We will demonstrate how the results of such study could be used for creating ground rules which are truly dependent on the interaction between the current layer resist & the patterned layers underneath. We have also developed a new way to visualize lithographic process variations in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> space that is useful for simulation analysis that can prove very helpful in ground rule development and process optimization. Such visualization capability in the dataprep flow to flag issues or dispose critical structures increases speed and efficiency in the mask tapeout process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...05..072B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...05..072B"><span id="translatedtitle">Massive fermion <span class="hlt">model</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> and higher spin currents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bonora, L.; Cvitan, M.; Prester, P. Dominis; de Souza, B. Lima; Smolić, I.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We analyze the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> free massive fermion theory coupled to external sources. The presence of a mass explicitly breaks parity invariance. We calculate two- and three-point functions of a gauge current and the energy momentum tensor and, for instance, obtain the well-known result that in the IR limit (but also in the UV one) we reconstruct the relevant CS action. We then couple the <span class="hlt">model</span> to higher spin currents and explicitly work out the spin 3 case. In the UV limit we obtain an effective action which was proposed many years ago as a possible generalization of spin 3 CS action. In the IR limit we derive a different higher spin action. This analysis can evidently be generalized to higher spins. We also discuss the conservation and properties of the correlators we obtain in the intermediate steps of our derivation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136725','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136725"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Faulds, James E.</p> <p>2013-12-31</p> <p>The Neal Hot Springs geothermal system lies in a left-step in a north-striking, west-dipping normal fault system, consisting of the Neal Fault to the south and the Sugarloaf Butte Fault to the north (Edwards, 2013). The Neal Hot Springs <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> consists of 104 faults and 13 stratigraphic units. The stratigraphy is sub-horizontal to dipping <10 degrees and there is no predominant dip-direction. Geothermal production is exclusively from the Neal Fault south of, and within the step-over, while geothermal injection is into both the Neal Fault to the south of the step-over and faults within the step-over.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136723','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136723"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the Tuscarora Geothermal Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Faulds, James E.</p> <p>2013-12-31</p> <p>The Tuscarora geothermal system sits within a ~15 km wide left-step in a major west-dipping range-bounding normal fault system. The step over is defined by the Independence Mountains fault zone and the Bull Runs Mountains fault zone which overlap along strike. Strain is transferred between these major fault segments via and array of northerly striking normal faults with offsets of 10s to 100s of meters and strike lengths of less than 5 km. These faults within the step over are one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the range-bounding fault zones between which they reside. Faults within the broad step define an anticlinal accommodation zone wherein east-dipping faults mainly occupy western half of the accommodation zone and west-dipping faults lie in the eastern half of the accommodation zone. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of Tuscarora encompasses 70 small-offset normal faults that define the accommodation zone and a portion of the Independence Mountains fault zone, which dips beneath the geothermal field. The geothermal system resides in the axial part of the accommodation, straddling the two fault dip domains. The Tuscarora <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> consists of 10 stratigraphic units. Unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium has eroded down into bedrock units, the youngest and stratigraphically highest bedrock units are middle Miocene rhyolite and dacite flows regionally correlated with the Jarbidge Rhyolite and <span class="hlt">modeled</span> with uniform cumulative thickness of ~350 m. Underlying these lava flows are Eocene volcanic rocks of the Big Cottonwood Canyon caldera. These units are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> as intracaldera deposits, including domes, flows, and thick ash deposits that change in thickness and locally pinch out. The Paleozoic basement of consists metasedimenary and metavolcanic rocks, dominated by argillite, siltstone, limestone, quartzite, and metabasalt of the Schoonover and Snow Canyon Formations. Paleozoic formations are lumped in a single basement unit in the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Fault blocks in the eastern</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9679L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9679L"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> parallel <span class="hlt">model</span> of Ganymede's exosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leclercq, Ludivine; Turc, Lucile; François, Leblanc; Ronan, Modolo</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Ganymede is a unique object : it is the biggest moon of our solar system, and the only satellite which has its own intrinsic magnetic field. Its surface is covered by water ice and by regolith. Some previous observations suggest that below its surface may exist an ocean of liquid water. The atmosphere of the planet is poorly known but should be composed essentially of water, hydrogen and oxygen (Marconi et al., Icarus, 2007). These atmospheric particles mainly originate from the surface thanks to sublimation of water-ice and sputtering, a process driven by the magnetospheric Jovian particles impacting Ganymede surface and leading to ejection of atoms and molecules into Ganymede atmosphere. We developed a <span class="hlt">model</span> of Ganymede's atmosphere based on a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Monte Carlo description of the fate of the ejected particles from the surface. This <span class="hlt">model</span> has been parallelized allowing a much better statistical, spatial and temporal description of Ganymede's environment. This <span class="hlt">model</span> includes the main sources of the neutral atmosphere and is able to calculate all its characteristics. It was successfully compared to the few known observations as well as to previous <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. In this presentation, we will present the main characteristics of this <span class="hlt">model</span> and what it tells us on Ganymede's atmosphere, in terms of spatial structure, composition, temporal variability and relations with both magnetosphere and surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH51D1921Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH51D1921Q"><span id="translatedtitle">Equivalent Body Force Finite Elements Method and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Earth <span class="hlt">Model</span> Applied In 2004 Sumatra Earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qu, W.; Cheng, H.; Shi, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 9.1 to 9.3 is the first great earthquake recorded by digital broadband, high-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span>-range seismometers and global positioning system (GPS) equipment, which recorded many high-quality geophysical data sets. The spherical curvature is not negligible in far field especially for large event and the real Earth is laterally inhomogeneity and the analytical results still are difficult to explain the geodetic measurements. We use equivalent body force finite elements method Zhang et al. (2015) and mesh the whole earth, to compute global co-seismic displacements using four fault slip <span class="hlt">models</span> of the 2004 Sumatra earthquake provided by different authors. Comparisons of calculated co-seismic displacements and GPS show that the confidences are well in near field for four <span class="hlt">models</span>, and the confidences are according to different <span class="hlt">models</span>. In the whole four <span class="hlt">models</span>, the Chlieh <span class="hlt">model</span> (Chlieh et al., 2007) is the best as this slip <span class="hlt">model</span> not only accord well with near field data but also far field data. And then we use the best slip <span class="hlt">model</span>, Chlieh <span class="hlt">model</span> to explore influence of three dimensional lateral earth structure on both layered spherically symmetric (PREM) and real <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> heterogeneous earth <span class="hlt">model</span> (Crust 1.0 <span class="hlt">model</span> and GyPSuM). Results show that the effects of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> heterogeneous earth <span class="hlt">model</span> are not negligible and decrease concomitantly with increasing distance from the epicenter. The relative effects of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> crust <span class="hlt">model</span> are 23% and 40% for horizontal and vertical displacements, respectively. The effects of the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> mantle <span class="hlt">model</span> are much smaller than that of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> crust <span class="hlt">model</span> but with wider impacting area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNS43A3870D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNS43A3870D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Electric Current Flow in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Fractured Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Demirel, S.; Roubinet, D.; Irving, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The study of fractured rocks is extremely important in a variety of research fields and applications such as hydrogeology, hydrocarbon extraction and long-term storage of toxic waste. As fractures are highly conductive structures in comparison to the surrounding rock, their presence can be either an advantage or a drawback. For hydrocarbon extraction, fractures allow for quick and easy access to the resource whereas for toxic waste storage their presence increases the risk of leakage and migration of pollutants. In both cases, the identification of fracture network characteristics is an essential step. Recently, we have developed an approach for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> electric current flow in 2D fractured media. This approach is based on a discrete-dual-porosity <span class="hlt">model</span> where fractures are represented explicitly, the matrix is coarsely discretized into blocks, and current flow exchange between the fractures and matrix is analytically evaluated at the fracture-scale and integrated at the block-scale [1]. Although this approach has shown much promise and has proven its efficiency for 2D simulations, its extension to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> remains to be addressed. To this end, we assume that fractures can be represented as two-dimensional finite planes embedded in the surrounding matrix, and we express analytically the distribution of electric potential at the fracture scale. This fracture-scale expression takes into account the electric-current-flow exchange with the surrounding matrix and flow conservation is enforced at the fracture intersections. The fracture-matrix exchange is then integrated at the matrix-block scale where the electric current flow conservation at the block boundaries is formulated with a modified finite volume method. With the objective of providing a low-computational-cost <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach adapted to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulations in fractured media, our <span class="hlt">model</span> is (i) validated and compared to existing <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches and, (ii) used to evaluate the impact of the presence of fractures on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.8218H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.8218H"><span id="translatedtitle">A hybrid-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hillslope hydrological <span class="hlt">model</span> for use in Earth system <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hazenberg, P.; Fang, Y.; Broxton, P.; Gochis, D.; Niu, G.-Y.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A.; Zeng, X.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Hillslope-scale rainfall-runoff processes leading to a fast catchment response are not explicitly included in land surface <span class="hlt">models</span> (LSMs) for use in earth system <span class="hlt">models</span> (ESMs) due to computational constraints. This study presents a hybrid-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hillslope hydrological <span class="hlt">model</span> (h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) that couples a 1-D vertical soil column <span class="hlt">model</span> with a lateral pseudo-2D saturated zone and overland flow <span class="hlt">model</span> for use in ESMs. By representing vertical and lateral responses separately at different spatial resolutions, h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is computationally efficient. The h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> was first tested for three different hillslope planforms (uniform, convergent and divergent). We then compared h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (with single and multiple soil columns) with a complex physically based <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> and a simple 1-D soil moisture <span class="hlt">model</span> coupled with an unconfined aquifer (as typically used in LSMs). It is found that simulations obtained by the simple 1-D <span class="hlt">model</span> vary considerably from the complex <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> and are not able to represent hillslope-scale variations in the lateral flow response. In contrast, the single soil column h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> shows a much better performance and saves computational time by 2-3 orders of magnitude compared with the complex <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. When multiple vertical soil columns are implemented, the resulting hydrological responses (soil moisture, water table depth, and base flow along the hillslope) from h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> are nearly identical to those predicted by the complex <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, but still saves computational time. As such, the computational efficiency of the h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> provides a valuable and promising approach to incorporating hillslope-scale hydrological processes into continental and global-scale ESMs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL5..581T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL5..581T"><span id="translatedtitle">Indoor <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> Benchmark for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geometry Extraction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomson, C.; Boehm, J.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>A combination of faster, cheaper and more accurate hardware, more sophisticated software, and greater industry acceptance have all laid the foundations for an increased desire for accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> parametric <span class="hlt">models</span> of buildings. Pointclouds are the data source of choice currently with static terrestrial laser scanning the predominant tool for large, dense volume measurement. The current importance of pointclouds as the primary source of real world representation is endorsed by CAD software vendor acquisitions of pointcloud engines in 2011. Both the capture and <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of indoor environments require great effort in time by the operator (and therefore cost). Automation is seen as a way to aid this by reducing the workload of the user and some commercial packages have appeared that provide automation to some degree. In the data capture phase, advances in indoor mobile mapping systems are speeding up the process, albeit currently with a reduction in accuracy. As a result this paper presents freely accessible pointcloud datasets of two typical areas of a building each captured with two different capture methods and each with an accurate wholly manually created <span class="hlt">model</span>. These datasets are provided as a benchmark for the research community to gauge the performance and improvements of various techniques for indoor geometry extraction. With this in mind, non-proprietary, interoperable formats are provided such as E57 for the scans and IFC for the reference <span class="hlt">model</span>. The datasets can be found at: <a href="http://indoor-bench.github.io/indoor-bench"target="_blank">http://indoor-bench.github.io/indoor-bench</a>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H23B1496L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H23B1496L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Eutrophication <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> for Lake Simcoe, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Q.; Duckett, F.; Nairn, R.; Brunton, A.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority (LSRCA) and the Province of Ontario are undertaking a series of studies to facilitate management of the pressures of population growth in the Lake Simcoe watershed. With rapid population growth and urban development comes additional land clearing, storm water runoff and the discharge of treated sewage, all of which are sources of increased phosphorus loading to Lake Simcoe. Depressed oxygen levels were linked to phosphorous enrichment of the lake, with the resultant stimulation of algal growth in the sunlit upper waters of the lake, and its subsequent senescence and settling into the hypolimnion where bacterial decomposition consumes oxygen from the stratified waters. This poster describes a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic, thermal and water quality <span class="hlt">model</span> of Lake Simcoe developed using the Danish Hydraulics Institute (DHI) MIKE3 <span class="hlt">model</span>. The hydrodynamic module includes wind-driven circulation, temperature variation, development of the thermocline and thermal stratification, and hydraulic forcing from inflowing tributaries. This is linked to the water quality module which simulates the eutrophication processes in the response of the lake to loadings of phosphorus, such as algal growth, the growth of aquatic plants and subsequent oxygen consumption. The <span class="hlt">model</span> has been calibrated against Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler velocity data, plus measured temperature and water quality data at MOE stations in the lake and water intakes. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is an important assessment tool for the management of the lake and its watersheds, allowing assessment of the impacts of the urban growth and land use change on the water quality in Lake Simcoe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MSAIS..26..139S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MSAIS..26..139S"><span id="translatedtitle">Planetary subsurface investigation by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization <span class="hlt">model</span> .</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seu, R.; Catallo, C.; Tragni, M.; Abbattista, C.; Cinquepalmi, L.</p> <p></p> <p>Subsurface data analysis and visualization represents one of the main aspect in Planetary Observation (i.e. search for water or geological characterization). The data are collected by subsurface sounding radars as instruments on-board of deep space missions. These data are generally represented as 2D radargrams in the perspective of space track and z axes (perpendicular to the subsurface) but without direct correlation to other data acquisition or knowledge on the planet . In many case there are plenty of data from other sensors of the same mission, or other ones, with high continuity in time and in space and specially around the scientific sites of interest (i.e. candidate landing areas or particular scientific interesting sites). The 2D perspective is good to analyse single acquisitions and to perform detailed analysis on the returned echo but are quite useless to compare very large dataset as now are available on many planets and moons of solar system. The best way is to approach the analysis on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization <span class="hlt">model</span> generated from the entire stack of data. First of all this approach allows to navigate the subsurface in all directions and analyses different sections and slices or moreover navigate the iso-surfaces respect to a value (or interval). The last one allows to isolate one or more iso-surfaces and remove, in the visualization mode, other data not interesting for the analysis; finally it helps to individuate the underground <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bodies. Other aspect is the needs to link the on-ground data, as imaging, to the underground one by geographical and context field of view.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713245O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713245O"><span id="translatedtitle">Accurate, low-cost <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D-models</span> of gullies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Onnen, Nils; Gronz, Oliver; Ries, Johannes B.; Brings, Christine</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Soil erosion is a widespread problem in arid and semi-arid areas. The most severe form is the gully erosion. They often cut into agricultural farmland and can make a certain area completely unproductive. To understand the development and processes inside and around gullies, we calculated detailed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D-models</span> of gullies in the Souss Valley in South Morocco. Near Taroudant, we had four study areas with five gullies different in size, volume and activity. By using a Canon HF G30 Camcorder, we made varying series of Full HD videos with 25fps. Afterwards, we used the method Structure from Motion (SfM) to create the <span class="hlt">models</span>. To generate accurate <span class="hlt">models</span> maintaining feasible runtimes, it is necessary to select around 1500-1700 images from the video, while the overlap of neighboring images should be at least 80%. In addition, it is very important to avoid selecting photos that are blurry or out of focus. Nearby pixels of a blurry image tend to have similar color values. That is why we used a MATLAB script to compare the derivatives of the images. The higher the sum of the derivative, the sharper an image of similar objects. MATLAB subdivides the video into image intervals. From each interval, the image with the highest sum is selected. E.g.: 20min. video at 25fps equals 30.000 single images. The program now inspects the first 20 images, saves the sharpest and moves on to the next 20 images etc. Using this algorithm, we selected 1500 images for our <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. With VisualSFM, we calculated features and the matches between all images and produced a point cloud. Then, MeshLab has been used to build a surface out of it using the Poisson surface reconstruction approach. Afterwards we are able to calculate the size and the volume of the gullies. It is also possible to determine soil erosion rates, if we compare the data with old recordings. The final step would be the combination of the terrestrial data with the data from our aerial photography. So far, the method works well and we</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=additive+AND+manufacturing&id=EJ1036361','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=additive+AND+manufacturing&id=EJ1036361"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing of Molecular Potential Energy Surface <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lolur, Phalgun; Dawes, Richard</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Additive manufacturing, commonly known as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, is gaining popularity in a variety of applications and has recently become routinely available. Today, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing services are not only found in engineering design labs and through online companies, but also in university libraries offering student access. In addition, affordable options for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1816089P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1816089P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Digital soil property mapping by geoadditive <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papritz, Andreas</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In many digital soil mapping (DSM) applications, soil properties must be predicted not only for a single but for multiple soil depth intervals. In the GlobalSoilMap project, as an example, predictions are computed for the 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, 100-200 cm depth intervals (Arrouays et al., 2014). Legacy soil data are often used for DSM. It is common for such datasets that soil properties were measured for soil horizons or for layers at varying soil depth and with non-constant thickness (support). This poses problems for DSM: One strategy is to harmonize the soil data to common depth prior to the analyses (e.g. Bishop et al., 1999) and conduct the statistical analyses for each depth interval independently. The disadvantage of this approach is that the predictions for different depths are computed independently from each other so that the predicted depth profiles may be unrealistic. Furthermore, the error induced by the harmonization to common depth is ignored in this approach (Orton et al. 2016). A better strategy is therefore to process all soil data jointly without prior harmonization by a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-analysis that takes soil depth and geographical position explicitly into account. Usually, the non-constant support of the data is then ignored, but Orton et al. (2016) presented recently a geostatistical approach that accounts for non-constant support of soil data and relies on restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) of a linear geostatistical <span class="hlt">model</span> with a separable, heteroscedastic, zonal anisotropic auto-covariance function and area-to-point kriging (Kyriakidis, 2004.) Although this <span class="hlt">model</span> is theoretically coherent and elegant, estimating its many parameters by REML and selecting covariates for the spatial mean function is a formidable task. A simpler approach might be to use geoadditive <span class="hlt">models</span> (Kammann and Wand, 2003; Wand, 2003) for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-analyses of soil data. geoAM extend the scope of the linear <span class="hlt">model</span> with spatially correlated errors to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816089P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816089P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Digital soil property mapping by geoadditive <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papritz, Andreas</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In many digital soil mapping (DSM) applications, soil properties must be predicted not only for a single but for multiple soil depth intervals. In the GlobalSoilMap project, as an example, predictions are computed for the 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, 100-200 cm depth intervals (Arrouays et al., 2014). Legacy soil data are often used for DSM. It is common for such datasets that soil properties were measured for soil horizons or for layers at varying soil depth and with non-constant thickness (support). This poses problems for DSM: One strategy is to harmonize the soil data to common depth prior to the analyses (e.g. Bishop et al., 1999) and conduct the statistical analyses for each depth interval independently. The disadvantage of this approach is that the predictions for different depths are computed independently from each other so that the predicted depth profiles may be unrealistic. Furthermore, the error induced by the harmonization to common depth is ignored in this approach (Orton et al. 2016). A better strategy is therefore to process all soil data jointly without prior harmonization by a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-analysis that takes soil depth and geographical position explicitly into account. Usually, the non-constant support of the data is then ignored, but Orton et al. (2016) presented recently a geostatistical approach that accounts for non-constant support of soil data and relies on restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) of a linear geostatistical <span class="hlt">model</span> with a separable, heteroscedastic, zonal anisotropic auto-covariance function and area-to-point kriging (Kyriakidis, 2004.) Although this <span class="hlt">model</span> is theoretically coherent and elegant, estimating its many parameters by REML and selecting covariates for the spatial mean function is a formidable task. A simpler approach might be to use geoadditive <span class="hlt">models</span> (Kammann and Wand, 2003; Wand, 2003) for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-analyses of soil data. geoAM extend the scope of the linear <span class="hlt">model</span> with spatially correlated errors to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26548801','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26548801"><span id="translatedtitle">Local <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matrix microenvironment regulates cell migration through spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of contractility-dependent adhesions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Doyle, Andrew D; Carvajal, Nicole; Jin, Albert; Matsumoto, Kazue; Yamada, Kenneth M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) modulate cell adhesion <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and motility, but little is known about the roles of local microenvironmental differences in three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) ECMs. Here we generate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> collagen gels of varying matrix microarchitectures to characterize their regulation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> adhesion <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and cell migration. ECMs containing bundled fibrils demonstrate enhanced local adhesion-scale stiffness and increased adhesion stability through balanced ECM/adhesion coupling, whereas highly pliable reticular matrices promote adhesion retraction. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> adhesion <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> are locally regulated by ECM rigidity together with integrin/ECM association and myosin II contractility. Unlike 2D migration, abrogating contractility stalls <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> migration regardless of ECM pore size. We find force is not required for clustering of activated integrins on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> native collagen fibrils. We propose that efficient <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> migration requires local balancing of contractility with ECM stiffness to stabilize adhesions, which facilitates the detachment of activated integrins from ECM fibrils. PMID:26548801</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4643399','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4643399"><span id="translatedtitle">Local <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matrix microenvironment regulates cell migration through spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of contractility-dependent adhesions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Doyle, Andrew D.; Carvajal, Nicole; Jin, Albert; Matsumoto, Kazue; Yamada, Kenneth M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) modulate cell adhesion <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and motility, but little is known about the roles of local microenvironmental differences in three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) ECMs. Here we generate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> collagen gels of varying matrix microarchitectures to characterize their regulation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> adhesion <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and cell migration. ECMs containing bundled fibrils demonstrate enhanced local adhesion-scale stiffness and increased adhesion stability through balanced ECM/adhesion coupling, whereas highly pliable reticular matrices promote adhesion retraction. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> adhesion <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> are locally regulated by ECM rigidity together with integrin/ECM association and myosin II contractility. Unlike 2D migration, abrogating contractility stalls <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> migration regardless of ECM pore size. We find force is not required for clustering of activated integrins on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> native collagen fibrils. We propose that efficient <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> migration requires local balancing of contractility with ECM stiffness to stabilize adhesions, which facilitates the detachment of activated integrins from ECM fibrils. PMID:26548801</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NatCo...6E8720D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NatCo...6E8720D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Local <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matrix microenvironment regulates cell migration through spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of contractility-dependent adhesions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doyle, Andrew D.; Carvajal, Nicole; Jin, Albert; Matsumoto, Kazue; Yamada, Kenneth M.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) modulate cell adhesion <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and motility, but little is known about the roles of local microenvironmental differences in three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) ECMs. Here we generate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> collagen gels of varying matrix microarchitectures to characterize their regulation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> adhesion <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and cell migration. ECMs containing bundled fibrils demonstrate enhanced local adhesion-scale stiffness and increased adhesion stability through balanced ECM/adhesion coupling, whereas highly pliable reticular matrices promote adhesion retraction. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> adhesion <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> are locally regulated by ECM rigidity together with integrin/ECM association and myosin II contractility. Unlike 2D migration, abrogating contractility stalls <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> migration regardless of ECM pore size. We find force is not required for clustering of activated integrins on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> native collagen fibrils. We propose that efficient <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> migration requires local balancing of contractility with ECM stiffness to stabilize adhesions, which facilitates the detachment of activated integrins from ECM fibrils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11540449','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11540449"><span id="translatedtitle">CELSS-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: a broad computer <span class="hlt">model</span> simulating a controlled ecological life support system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schneegurt, M A; Sherman, L A</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>CELSS-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span>, deterministic, and discrete computer simulation of a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) focusing on biological issues. A series of linear difference equations within a graphic-based <span class="hlt">modeling</span> environment, the IThink program, was used to describe a modular CELSS system. The overall <span class="hlt">model</span> included submodels for crop growth chambers, food storage reservoirs, the human crew, a cyanobacterial growth chamber, a waste processor, fixed nitrogen reservoirs, and the atmospheric gases, CO, O2, and N2. The primary process variable was carbon, although oxygen and nitrogen flows were also <span class="hlt">modeled</span>. Most of the input data used in CELSS-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> were from published sources. A separate linear optimization program, What'sBest!, was used to compare options for the crew's vegetarian diet. CELSS-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulations were run for the equivalent of 3 years with a 1-h time interval. Output from simulations run under nominal conditions was used to illustrate <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> changes in the concentrations of atmospheric gases. The modular design of CELSS-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> will allow other configurations and various failure scenarios to be tested and compared. PMID:11540449</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....12788E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....12788E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Finite Difference <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of Basaltic Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Engell-Sørensen, L.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The main purpose of the work was to generate realistic data to be applied for testing of processing and migration tools for basaltic regions. The project is based on the three - dimensional finite difference code (FD), TIGER, made by Sintef. The FD code was optimized (parallelized) by the author, to run on parallel computers. The parallel code enables us to <span class="hlt">model</span> large-scale realistic geological <span class="hlt">models</span> and to apply traditional seismic and micro seismic sources. The parallel code uses multiple processors in order to manipulate subsets of large amounts of data simultaneously. The general anisotropic code uses 21 elastic coefficients. Eight independent coefficients are needed as input parameters for the general TI medium. In the FD code, the elastic wave field computation is implemented by a higher order FD solution to the elastic wave equation and the wave fields are computed on a staggered grid, shifted half a node in one or two directions. The geological <span class="hlt">model</span> is a gridded basalt <span class="hlt">model</span>, which covers from 24 km to 37 km of a real shot line in horizontal direction and from the water surface to the depth of 3.5 km. The 2frac {1}{2}D <span class="hlt">model</span> has been constructed using the compound <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software from Norsk Hydro. The vertical parameter distribution is obtained from observations in two wells. At The depth of between 1100 m to 1500 m, a basalt horizon covers the whole sub surface layers. We have shown that it is possible to simulate a line survey in realistic (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) geological <span class="hlt">models</span> in reasonable time by using high performance computers. The author would like to thank Norsk Hydro, Statoil, GEUS, and SINTEF for very helpful discussions and Parallab for being helpful with the new IBM, p690 Regatta system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CG.....64..126T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CG.....64..126T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GEM: Geo-technical extension towards an integrated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information <span class="hlt">model</span> for infrastructural development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tegtmeier, W.; Zlatanova, S.; van Oosterom, P. J. M.; Hack, H. R. G. K.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>In infrastructural projects, communication as well as information exchange and (re-)use in and between involved parties is difficult. Mainly this is caused by a lack of information harmonisation. Various specialists are working together on the development of an infrastructural project and all use their own specific software and definitions for various information types. In addition, the lack of and/or differences in the use and definition of thematic semantic information regarding the various information types adds to the problem. Realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> describing and integrating parts of the earth already exist, but are generally neglecting the subsurface, and especially the aspects of geology and geo-technology. This paper summarises the research towards the extension of an existing integrated semantic information <span class="hlt">model</span> to include surface as well as subsurface objects and in particular, subsurface geological and geotechnical objects. The major contributions of this research are the definition of geotechnical objects and the mechanism to link them with CityGML, GeoSciML and O&M standard <span class="hlt">models</span>. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is called <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GEM, short for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geotechnical Extension <span class="hlt">Model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITI..91.1149Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITI..91.1149Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> Segmentation and Representation with Implicit Polynomials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Bo; Takamatsu, Jun; Ikeuchi, Katsushi</p> <p></p> <p>When large-scale and complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects are obtained by range finders, it is often necessary to represent them by algebraic surfaces for such purposes as data compression, multi-resolution, noise elimination, and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> recognition. Representing the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data with algebraic surfaces of an implicit polynomial (IP) has proved to offer the advantages that IP representation is capable of encoding geometric properties easily with desired smoothness, few parameters, algebraic/geometric invariants, and robustness to noise and missing data. Unfortunately, generating a high-degree IP surface for a whole complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape is impossible because of high computational cost and numerical instability. In this paper we propose a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segmentation method based on a cut-and-merge approach. Two cutting procedures adopt low-degree IPs to divide and fit the surface segments simultaneously, while avoiding generating high-curved segments. A merging procedure merges the similar adjacent segments to avoid over-segmentation. To prove the effectiveness of this segmentation method, we open up some new vistas for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> applications such as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matching, recognition, and registration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9808E..3HL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9808E..3HL"><span id="translatedtitle">Object-oriented urban <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spatial data <span class="hlt">model</span> organization method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Jing-wen; Li, Wen-qing; Lv, Nan; Su, Tao</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This paper combined the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> data <span class="hlt">model</span> with object-oriented organization method, put forward the <span class="hlt">model</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> data based on object-oriented method, implemented the city <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> to quickly build logical semantic expression and <span class="hlt">model</span>, solved the city <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> spatial information representation problem of the same location with multiple property and the same property with multiple locations, designed the space object structure of point, line, polygon, body for city of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> spatial database, and provided a new thought and method for the city <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> GIS <span class="hlt">model</span> and organization management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6956383','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6956383"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> world <span class="hlt">model</span> builder with a mobile robot</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Z.; Faugeras, O. )</p> <p>1992-08-01</p> <p>This article describes a system to incrementally build a world <span class="hlt">model</span> with a mobile robot in an unknown environment. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is, for the moment, segment based. A trinocular stereo system is used to build a local map about the environment. A global map is obtained by integrating a sequence of stereo frames taken when the robot navigates in the environment. The emphasis of this article is on the representation of the uncertainty of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segments from stereo and on the integration of segments from multiple views. The proposed representation is simple and very convenient to characterize the uncertainty of segment. A Kalman filter is used to merge matched line segments. An important characteristic of this integration strategy is that a segment observed by the stereo system corresponds only to one part of the segment in space, so the union of the different observations gives a better estimate on the segment in space. The authors have succeeded in integrating 35 stereo frames taken in their robot room.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120007853','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120007853"><span id="translatedtitle">Pros and Cons of ID vs. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Klimchuk, James A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Advances in computing capability have led to tremendous improvements in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Entire active regions are being simulated in what might be described as a first principles way, in which plasma heating is treated self consistently rather than through the specification of heating functions. There are limitations to this approach, however, as actual heating mechanisms on the Sun involve spatial scales orders of magnitude smaller than what these simulations can resolve. Other simulations begin to resolve these scales, but they only treat a tiny volume and do not include the all important coupling with larger scales or with other parts of the atmosphere, and so cannot be readily compared with observations. Finally, ID hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> capture the field-aligned evolution of the plasma extremely well and are ideally suited for data comparison, but they treat the heating in a totally ad hoc manner. All of these approaches have important contributions to make, but we must be aware of their limitations. I will highlight some of the strengths. and weaknesses of each.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712519M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712519M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> soil and sediment distributions for assessing catchment structure and hydrological feedbacks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maurer, Thomas; Brück, Yasemine; Hinz, Christoph; Gerke, Horst H.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Structural heterogeneity, namely the spatial distribution of soils and sediments (represented by mineral particles), characterizes catchment hydrological behavior. In natural catchments, local geology and the specific geomorphic processes determine the characteristics and spatial distribution of structures. In constructed catchments, structural features are determined primarily by the construction processes and the geological origin of the parent material. Objectives are scenarios of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> catchment structures in form of complete <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> description of soil hydraulic properties generated from the knowledge of the formation processes. The constructed hydrological catchment 'Hühnerwasser' (Lower Lusatia, Brandenburg, Germany) was used for the calibration and validation of <span class="hlt">model</span> results due to its well-known conditions. For the <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of structural features, a structure generator was used to <span class="hlt">model</span> i) quasi-deterministic sediment distributions using input data from a geological <span class="hlt">model</span> of the parent material excavation site; ii) sediment distributions that are conditioned to measurement data from soil sampling; and iii) stochastic component sediment distributions. All three approaches allow a randomization within definable limits. Furthermore, the spoil cone / spoil ridge orientation, internal layering, surface compaction and internal spoil cone compaction were modified. These generated structural <span class="hlt">models</span> were incorporated in a gridded <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volume <span class="hlt">model</span> constructed with the GOCAD software. For selected scenarios, the impact of structure variation was assessed by hydrological <span class="hlt">modelling</span> with HYDRUS 2D/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> software. For that purpose, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> distributions of soil hydraulic properties were estimated based on generated sediment properties using adapted pedotransfer functions. Results from the hydrological <span class="hlt">model</span> were compared them to measured discharges from the catchment. The impact of structural feature variation on flow behaviour was analysed by comparing different simulation scenarios</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPRS..101..275X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPRS..101..275X"><span id="translatedtitle">Flexible building primitives for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> building <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiong, B.; Jancosek, M.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> building <span class="hlt">models</span>, being the main part of a digital city scene, are essential to all applications related to human activities in urban environments. The development of range sensors and Multi-View Stereo (MVS) technology facilitates our ability to automatically reconstruct level of details 2 (LoD2) <span class="hlt">models</span> of buildings. However, because of the high complexity of building structures, no fully automatic system is currently available for producing building <span class="hlt">models</span>. In order to simplify the problem, a lot of research focuses only on particular buildings shapes, and relatively simple ones. In this paper, we analyze the property of topology graphs of object surfaces, and find that roof topology graphs have three basic elements: loose nodes, loose edges, and minimum cycles. These elements have interesting physical meanings: a loose node is a building with one roof face; a loose edge is a ridge line between two roof faces whose end points are not defined by a third roof face; and a minimum cycle represents a roof corner of a building. Building primitives, which introduce building shape knowledge, are defined according to these three basic elements. Then all buildings can be represented by combining such building primitives. The building parts are searched according to the predefined building primitives, reconstructed independently, and grouped into a complete building <span class="hlt">model</span> in a CSG-style. The shape knowledge is inferred via the building primitives and used as constraints to improve the building <span class="hlt">models</span>, in which all roof parameters are simultaneously adjusted. Experiments show the flexibility of building primitives in both lidar point cloud and stereo point cloud.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AIPC.1685i0008C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AIPC.1685i0008C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> of sonic boom in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> kinematic turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coulouvrat, François; Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p> stratified wind superimposed to a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> random turbulent realization. Propagation is performed either in the case of a shadow zone or of an atmospheric waveguide. To <span class="hlt">model</span> the turbulent ABL, the mean flow and the fluctuations are handled separately. The wind fluctuations are generated using the Random Fluctuations Generation method assuming a von Kármán spectrum and a homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. The mean stratified wind is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> based on the Monin-Obhukov Similarity Theory (MOST). To illustrate the method, the typical case of a sunny day with a strong wind has been chosen. Statistics are obtained on several parameters. It shows the importance of turbulence, which leads to an increase of the mean maximum peak pressure in the shadow zone and to its decrease in the waveguide. Moreover, the formation of random caustics that can lead to an increase of the noise perceived locally is outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPArXL15..729W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPArXL15..729W"><span id="translatedtitle">Methods for Geometric Data Validation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> City <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wagner, D.; Alam, N.; Wewetzer, M.; Pries, M.; Coors, V.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Geometric quality of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> is crucial for data analysis and simulation tasks, which are part of modern applications of the data (e.g. potential heating energy consumption of city quarters, solar potential, etc.). Geometric quality in these contexts is however a different concept as it is for 2D maps. In the latter case, aspects such as positional or temporal accuracy and correctness represent typical quality metrics of the data. They are defined in ISO 19157 and should be mentioned as part of the metadata. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data has a far wider range of aspects which influence their quality, plus the idea of quality itself is application dependent. Thus, concepts for definition of quality are needed, including methods to validate these definitions. Quality on this sense means internal validation and detection of inconsistent or wrong geometry according to a predefined set of rules. A useful starting point would be to have correct geometry in accordance with ISO 19107. A valid solid should consist of planar faces which touch their neighbours exclusively in defined corner points and edges. No gaps between them are allowed, and the whole feature must be 2-manifold. In this paper, we present methods to validate common geometric requirements for building geometry. Different checks based on several algorithms have been implemented to validate a set of rules derived from the solid definition mentioned above (e.g. water tightness of the solid or planarity of its polygons), as they were developed for the software tool CityDoctor. The method of each check is specified, with a special focus on the discussion of tolerance values where they are necessary. The checks include polygon level checks to validate the correctness of each polygon, i.e. closeness of the bounding linear ring and planarity. On the solid level, which is only validated if the polygons have passed validation, correct polygon orientation is checked, after self-intersections outside of defined corner points and edges</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/93462','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/93462"><span id="translatedtitle">EM <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for GPIR using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> FDTD <span class="hlt">modeling</span> codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nelson, S.D.</p> <p>1994-10-01</p> <p>An analysis of the one-, two-, and three-dimensional electrical characteristics of structural cement and concrete is presented. This work connects experimental efforts in characterizing cement and concrete in the frequency and time domains with the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts of these substances. These efforts include Electromagnetic (EM) <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of simple lossless homogeneous materials with aggregate and targets and the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> dispersive and lossy materials with aggregate and complex target geometries for Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar (GPIR). Two- and three-dimensional FDTD codes (developed at LLNL) where used for the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts. Purpose of the experimental and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts is to gain knowledge about the electrical properties of concrete typically used in the construction industry for bridges and other load bearing structures. The goal is to optimize the performance of a high-sample-rate impulse radar and data acquisition system and to design an antenna system to match the characteristics of this material. Results show agreement to within 2 dB of the amplitudes of the experimental and <span class="hlt">modeled</span> data while the frequency peaks correlate to within 10% the differences being due to the unknown exact nature of the aggregate placement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287561','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287561"><span id="translatedtitle">West Flank Coso, CA FORGE <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> temperature <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Doug Blankenship</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>x,y,z data of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> temperature <span class="hlt">model</span> for the West Flank Coso FORGE site. <span class="hlt">Model</span> grid spacing is 250m. The temperature <span class="hlt">model</span> for the Coso geothermal field used over 100 geothermal production sized wells and intermediate-depth temperature holes. At the near surface of this <span class="hlt">model</span>, two boundary temperatures were assumed: (1) areas with surface manifestations, including fumaroles along the northeast striking normal faults and northwest striking dextral faults with the hydrothermal field, a temperature of ~104ËšC was applied to datum at +1066 meters above sea level elevation, and (2) a near-surface temperature at about 10 meters depth, of 20ËšC was applied below the diurnal and annual conductive temperature perturbations. These assumptions were based on heat flow studies conducted at the CVF and for the Mojave Desert. On the edges of the hydrothermal system, a 73ËšC/km (4ËšF/100’) temperature gradient contour was established using conductive gradient data from shallow and intermediate-depth temperature holes. This contour was continued to all elevation datums between the 20ËšC surface and -1520 meters below mean sea level. Because the West Flank is outside of the geothermal field footprint, during Phase 1, the three wells inside the FORGE site were incorporated into the preexisting temperature <span class="hlt">model</span>. To ensure a complete <span class="hlt">model</span> was built based on all the available data sets, measured bottom-hole temperature gradients in certain wells were downward extrapolated to the next deepest elevation datum (or a maximum of about 25% of the well depth where conductive gradients are evident in the lower portions of the wells). After assuring that the margins of the geothermal field were going to be adequately <span class="hlt">modelled</span>, the data was contoured using the Kriging method algorithm. Although the extrapolated temperatures and boundary conditions are not rigorous, the calculated temperatures are anticipated to be within ~6ËšC (20ËšF), or one contour interval, of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/875581','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/875581"><span id="translatedtitle">Synergia: an accelerator <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tool with <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> space charge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Amundson, James F.; Spentzouris, P.; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>High precision <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of space-charge effects, together with accurate treatment of single-particle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, is essential for designing future accelerators as well as optimizing the performance of existing machines. We describe Synergia, a high-fidelity parallel beam <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulation package with fully three dimensional space-charge capabilities and a higher order optics implementation. We describe the computational techniques, the advanced human interface, and the parallel performance obtained using large numbers of macroparticles. We also perform code benchmarks comparing to semi-analytic results and other codes. Finally, we present initial results on particle tune spread, beam halo creation, and emittance growth in the Fermilab booster accelerator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EAS....60..243M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EAS....60..243M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Betelgeuse's Bow Shock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohamed, S.; Mackey, J.; Langer, N.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Betelgeuse, the bright red supergiant (RSG) in Orion, is a runaway star. Its supersonic motion through the interstellar medium has resulted in the formation of a bow shock, a cometary structure pointing in the direction of motion. We present the first <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic simulations of the formation and evolution of Betelgeuse's bow shock. We show that the bow shock morphology depends substantially on the growth timescale for Rayleigh-Taylor versus Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. We discuss our <span class="hlt">models</span> in light of the recent Herschel, GALEX and VLA observations. If the mass in the bow shock shell is low (~few × 10-3 M⊙), as seems to be implied by the AKARI and Herschel observations, then Betelgeuse's bow shock is very young and is unlikely to have reached a steady state. The circular, smooth bow shock shell is consistent with this conclusion. We further discuss the implications of our results, in particular, the possibility that Betelgeuse may have only recently entered the RSG phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4524631','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4524631"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Simulation <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of the Tooth Wear Process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dai, Ning; Hu, Jian; Liu, Hao</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Severe tooth wear is the most common non-caries dental disease, and it can seriously affect oral health. Studying the tooth wear process is time-consuming and difficult, and technological tools are frequently lacking. This paper presents a novel method of digital simulation <span class="hlt">modeling</span> that represents a new way to study tooth wear. First, a feature extraction algorithm is used to obtain anatomical feature points of the tooth without attrition. Second, after the alignment of non-attrition areas, the initial homogeneous surface is generated by means of the RBF (Radial Basic Function) implicit surface and then deformed to the final homogeneous by the contraction and bounding algorithm. Finally, the method of bilinear interpolation based on Laplacian coordinates between tooth with attrition and without attrition is used to inversely reconstruct the sequence of changes of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tooth morphology during gradual tooth wear process. This method can also be used to generate a process simulation of nonlinear tooth wear by means of fitting an attrition curve to the statistical data of attrition index in a certain region. The effectiveness and efficiency of the attrition simulation algorithm are verified through experimental simulation. PMID:26241942</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/385558','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/385558"><span id="translatedtitle">Parallel contact detection algorithm for transient solid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations using PRONTO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Attaway, S.W.; Hendrickson, B.A.; Plimpton, S.J.</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>An efficient, scalable, parallel algorithm for treating material surface contacts in solid mechanics finite element programs has been implemented in a modular way for MIMD parallel computers. The serial contact detection algorithm that was developed previously for the transient <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> finite element code PRONTO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has been extended for use in parallel computation by devising a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> (adaptive) processor load balancing scheme.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014MNRAS.442..229T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014MNRAS.442..229T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> for Kepler's supernova remnant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Toledo-Roy, J. C.; Esquivel, A.; Velázquez, P. F.; Reynoso, E. M.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>We present new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical simulations for Kepler's supernova remnant. In this work we revisit the possibility that the asymmetric shape of the remnant in X-rays is the product of a Type Ia supernova explosion which occurs inside the wind bubble previously created by an AGB companion star. Due to the large peculiar velocity of the system, the interaction of the strong AGB wind with the interstellar medium results in a bow shock structure. In this new <span class="hlt">model</span> we propose that the AGB wind is anisotropic, with properties such as mass-loss rate and density having a latitude dependence, and that the orientation of the polar axis of the AGB star is not aligned with the direction of motion. The ejecta from the Type Ia supernova explosion is <span class="hlt">modelled</span> using a power-law density profile, and we let the remnant evolve for 400 yr. We computed synthetic X-ray maps from the numerical results. We find that the estimated size and peculiar X-ray morphology of Kepler's supernova remnant are well reproduced by considering an AGB mass-loss rate of 10-5 M⊙ yr-1, a wind terminal velocity of 10 km s-1, an ambient medium density of 10-3 cm-3 and an explosion energy of 7 × 1050 erg. The obtained total X-ray luminosity of the remnant in this <span class="hlt">model</span> reaches 6 × 1050 erg, which is within a factor of 2 of the observed value, and the time evolution of the luminosity shows a rate of decrease in recent decades of ˜2.4 per cent yr-1 that is consistent with the observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9838B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9838B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of carbonates petro-acoustic heterogeneities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baden, Dawin; Guglielmi, Yves; Saracco, Ginette; Marié, Lionel; Viseur, Sophie</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Characterizing carbonate reservoirs heterogeneity is a challenging issue for Oil & Gas Industry, CO2 sequestration and all kinds of fluid manipulations in natural reservoirs, due to the significant impact of heterogeneities on fluid flow and storage within the reservoir. Although large scale (> meter) heterogeneities such as layers petrophysical contrasts are well addressed by computing facies-based <span class="hlt">models</span>, low scale (< meter) heterogeneities are often poorly constrained because of the complexity in predicting their spatial arrangement. In this study, we conducted petro-acoustic measurements on cores of different size and diameter (Ø = 1", 1.5" and 5") in order to evaluate anisotropy or heterogeneity in carbonates at different laboratory scales. Different types of heterogeneities which generally occur in carbonate reservoir units (e.g. petrographic, diagenetic, and tectonic related) were sampled. Dry / wet samples were investigated with different ultrasonic apparatus and using different sensors allowing acoustic characterization through a bandwidth varying from 50 to 500 kHz. Comprehensive measurements realized on each samples allowed statistical analyses of petro-acoustic properties such as attenuation, shear and longitudinal wave velocity. The cores properties (geological and acoustic facies) were <span class="hlt">modeled</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> using photogrammetry and GOCAD geo-<span class="hlt">modeler</span>. This method successfully allowed detecting and imaging in three dimensions differential diagenesis effects characterized by the occurrence of decimeter-scale diagenetic horizons in samples assumed to be homogeneous and/or different diagenetic sequences between shells filling and the packing matrix. We then discuss how small interfaces such as cracks, stylolithes and laminations which are also imaged may have guided these differential effects, considering that understanding the processes may be taken as an analogue to actual fluid drainage complexity in deep carbonate reservoir.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21936043','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21936043"><span id="translatedtitle">Facile micropatterning of dual hydrogel systems for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of neurite outgrowth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Curley, J Lowry; Moore, Michael J</p> <p>2011-12-15</p> <p>Understanding how microenvironmental factors influence neurite growth is important to inform studies in nerve regeneration, plasticity, development, and neurophysiology. In vitro <span class="hlt">models</span> attempting to more accurately mimic the physiological environment by provision of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> growth matrix may provide useful foundations. Some limitations of thick <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> culture <span class="hlt">models</span> include hampered solute transport, less-robust neurite growth than on 2D substrates, and difficulty in achieving spatial control of growth. To this end, we describe a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dual hydrogel <span class="hlt">model</span> for embryonic rat day 15 dorsal root ganglion tissue explant growth using a digital micromirror device for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mask projection photolithography. The photolithography method developed allowed simple, reproducible, one-step fabrication of thick hydrogel constructs on a variety of substrates, including permeable cell culture inserts. The relationships between projected mask size, crosslinked hydrogel resolution, and gel thickness were characterized, and resolution was found generally to decrease with increasing gel thickness. Cell viability in thick (481 μm) hydrogel constructs was significantly greater on permeable supports than glass, suggesting transport limitations were somewhat alleviated. The observed neurite growth was abundant and occurred in a spatially controlled manner throughout the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environment, a crucial step in the quest for a more effective biomimetic <span class="hlt">model</span> of neurite outgrowth. PMID:21936043</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3213030','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3213030"><span id="translatedtitle">Facile micropatterning of dual hydrogel systems for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of neurite outgrowth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Curley, J L; Moore, M J</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Understanding how microenvironmental factors influence neurite growth is important to inform studies in nerve regeneration, plasticity, development, and neurophysiology. In vitro <span class="hlt">models</span> attempting to more accurately mimic the physiological environment by provision of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> growth matrix may provide useful foundations. Some limitations of thick <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> culture <span class="hlt">models</span> include hampered solute transport, less-robust neurite growth than on 2D substrates, and difficulty in achieving spatial control of growth. To this end, we describe a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dual hydrogel <span class="hlt">model</span> for embryonic rat day 15 dorsal root ganglion tissue explant growth using a digital micro-mirror device for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mask projection photolithography. The photolithography method developed allowed simple, reproducible, one-step fabrication of thick hydrogel constructs on a variety of substrates, including permeable cell culture inserts. The relationships between projected mask size, crosslinked hydrogel resolution, and gel thickness were characterized, and resolution was found generally to decrease with increasing gel thickness. Cell viability in thick (481 μm) hydrogel constructs was significantly greater on permeable supports than glass, suggesting transport limitations were somewhat alleviated. The observed neurite growth was abundant and occurred in a spatially controlled manner throughout the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environment, a crucial step in the quest for a more effective biomimetic <span class="hlt">model</span> of neurite outgrowth. PMID:21936043</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/939374','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/939374"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution, Interaction, and Intrinsic Properties of Dislocations in Intermetallics: Anisotropic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Dislocation <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Qian Chen</p> <p>2008-08-18</p> <p>The generation, motion, and interaction of dislocations play key roles during the plastic deformation process of crystalline solids. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Dislocation <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> has been employed as a mesoscale simulation algorithm to investigate the collective and cooperative behavior of dislocations. Most current research on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Dislocation <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> is based on the solutions available in the framework of classical isotropic elasticity. However, due to some degree of elastic anisotropy in almost all crystalline solids, it is very necessary to extend <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Dislocation <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> into anisotropic elasticity. In this study, first, the details of efficient and accurate incorporation of the fully anisotropic elasticity into <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> discrete Dislocation <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> by numerically evaluating the derivatives of Green's functions are described. Then the intrinsic properties of perfect dislocations, including their stability, their core properties and disassociation characteristics, in newly discovered rare earth-based intermetallics and in conventional intermetallics are investigated, within the framework of fully anisotropic elasticity supplemented with the atomistic information obtained from the ab initio calculations. Moreover, the evolution and interaction of dislocations in these intermetallics as well as the role of solute segregation are presented by utilizing fully anisotropic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dislocation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. The results from this work clearly indicate the role and the importance of elastic anisotropy on the evolution of dislocation microstructures, the overall ductility and the hardening behavior in these systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22482955','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22482955"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-scale <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of tissues using CompuCell<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Swat, Maciej H; Thomas, Gilberto L; Belmonte, Julio M; Shirinifard, Abbas; Hmeljak, Dimitrij; Glazier, James A</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The study of how cells interact to produce tissue development, homeostasis, or diseases was, until recently, almost purely experimental. Now, multi-cell computer simulation methods, ranging from relatively simple cellular automata to complex immersed-boundary and finite-element mechanistic <span class="hlt">models</span>, allow in silico study of multi-cell phenomena at the tissue scale based on biologically observed cell behaviors and interactions such as movement, adhesion, growth, death, mitosis, secretion of chemicals, chemotaxis, etc. This tutorial introduces the lattice-based Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg (GGH) Monte Carlo multi-cell <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and the open-source GGH-based CompuCell<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulation environment that allows rapid and intuitive <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and simulation of cellular and multi-cellular behaviors in the context of tissue formation and subsequent <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. We also present a walkthrough of four biological <span class="hlt">models</span> and their associated simulations that demonstrate the capabilities of the GGH and CompuCell<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. PMID:22482955</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3612985','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3612985"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-Scale <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Tissues Using CompuCell<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Swat, Maciej H.; Thomas, Gilberto L.; Belmonte, Julio M.; Shirinifard, Abbas; Hmeljak, Dimitrij; Glazier, James A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The study of how cells interact to produce tissue development, homeostasis, or diseases was, until recently, almost purely experimental. Now, multi-cell computer simulation methods, ranging from relatively simple cellular automata to complex immersed-boundary and finite-element mechanistic <span class="hlt">models</span>, allow in silico study of multi-cell phenomena at the tissue scale based on biologically observed cell behaviors and interactions such as movement, adhesion, growth, death, mitosis, secretion of chemicals, chemotaxis, etc. This tutorial introduces the lattice-based Glazier–Graner–Hogeweg (GGH) Monte Carlo multi-cell <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and the open-source GGH-based CompuCell<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulation environment that allows rapid and intuitive <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and simulation of cellular and multi-cellular behaviors in the context of tissue formation and subsequent <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. We also present a walkthrough of four biological <span class="hlt">models</span> and their associated simulations that demonstrate the capabilities of the GGH and CompuCell<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. PMID:22482955</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2007/5092/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2007/5092/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Slope Stability of Coastal Bluffs Using <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Ground-Water Flow, Southwestern Seattle, Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brien, Dianne L.; Reid, Mark E.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Landslides are a common problem on coastal bluffs throughout the world. Along the coastal bluffs of the Puget Sound in Seattle, Washington, landslides range from small, shallow failures to large, deep-seated landslides. Landslides of all types can pose hazards to human lives and property, but deep-seated landslides are of significant concern because their large areal extent can cause extensive property damage. Although many geomorphic processes shape the coastal bluffs of Seattle, we focus on large (greater than 3,000 m3), deepseated, rotational landslides that occur on the steep bluffs along Puget Sound. Many of these larger failures occur in advance outwash deposits of the Vashon Drift (Qva); some failures extend into the underlying Lawton Clay Member of the Vashon Drift (Qvlc). The slope stability of coastal bluffs is controlled by the interplay of three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) variations in gravitational stress, strength, and pore-water pressure. We assess <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> slope-stability using SCOOPS (Reid and others, 2000), a computer program that allows us to search a high-resolution digital-elevation <span class="hlt">model</span> (DEM) to quantify the relative stability of all parts of the landscape by computing the stability and volume of thousands of potential spherical failures. SCOOPS incorporates topography, <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> strength variations, and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> pore pressures. Initially, we use our <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> analysis methods to examine the effects of topography and geology by using heterogeneous material properties, as defined by stratigraphy, without pore pressures. In this scenario, the least-stable areas are located on the steepest slopes, commonly in Qva or Qvlc. However, these locations do not agree well with observations of deep-seated landslides. Historically, both shallow colluvial landslides and deep-seated landslides have been observed near the contact between Qva and Qvlc, and commonly occur in Qva. The low hydraulic conductivity of Qvlc impedes ground-water flow, resulting in elevated pore pressures at the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000768','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000768"><span id="translatedtitle">Verification and Validation of the k-kL Turbulence <span class="hlt">Model</span> in FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and CFL<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Rumsey, Christopher L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The implementation of the k-kL turbulence <span class="hlt">model</span> using multiple computational uid dy- namics (CFD) codes is reported herein. The k-kL <span class="hlt">model</span> is a two-equation turbulence <span class="hlt">model</span> based on Abdol-Hamid's closure and Menter's modi cation to Rotta's two-equation <span class="hlt">model</span>. Rotta shows that a reliable transport equation can be formed from the turbulent length scale L, and the turbulent kinetic energy k. Rotta's equation is well suited for term-by-term mod- eling and displays useful features compared to other two-equation <span class="hlt">models</span>. An important di erence is that this formulation leads to the inclusion of higher-order velocity derivatives in the source terms of the scale equations. This can enhance the ability of the Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers to simulate unsteady ows. The present report documents the formulation of the <span class="hlt">model</span> as implemented in the CFD codes Fun<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and CFL<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. Methodology, veri cation and validation examples are shown. Attached and sepa- rated ow cases are documented and compared with experimental data. The results show generally very good comparisons with canonical and experimental data, as well as matching results code-to-code. The results from this formulation are similar or better than results using the SST turbulence <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.681a2001I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.681a2001I"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> nanostructuring by tightly focused laser pulse: simulations by Lagrangian code and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Inogamov, Nail A.; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>There are many important applications in which the ultrashort diffraction-limited and therefore tightly focused laser pulses irradiates metal films mounted on dielectric substrate. Here we present the detailed picture of laser peeling and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure formation of the thin (relative to a depth of a heat affected zone in the bulk targets) gold films on glass substrate. The underlying physics of such diffraction-limited laser peeling was not well understood previously. Our approach is based on a physical <span class="hlt">model</span> which takes into consideration the new calculations of the two-temperature (2T) equation of state (2T EoS) and the two-temperature transport coefficients together with the coupling parameter between electron and ion subsystems. The usage of the 2T EoS and the kinetic coefficients is required because absorption of an ultrashort pulse with duration of 10-1000 fs excites electron subsystem of metal and transfers substance into the 2T state with hot electrons (typical electron temperatures 1-3 eV) and much colder ions. It is shown that formation of submicrometer-sized <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures is a result of the electron-ion energy transfer, melting, and delamination of film from substrate under combined action of electron and ion pressures, capillary deceleration of the delaminated liquid metal or semiconductor, and ultrafast freezing of molten material. We found that the freezing is going in non-equilibrium regime with strongly overcooled liquid phase. In this case the Stefan approximation is non-applicable because the solidification front speed is limited by the diffusion rate of atoms in the molten material. To solve the problem we have developed the 2T Lagrangian code including all this reach physics in. We also used the high-performance combined Monte- Carlo and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> code for simulation of surface <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> nanostructuring at later times after completion of electron-ion relaxation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5328Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5328Q"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geological <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Nihe ore deposit Constrained by Gravity and Magnetic <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qi, Guang; Yan, Jiayong; Lv, Qingtan; Zhao, Jinhua</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We present a case study on using integrated geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> in mineral exploration at depth. Nihe ore deposit in Anhui Province, is deep hidden ore deposit which was discovered in recent years, this finding is the major driving force of deep mineral exploration work in Luzong. Building <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> elaborate geological <span class="hlt">model</span> has the important significance for prospecting to deep or surround in this area, and can help us better understand the metallogenic law and ore-controlling regularity. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">model</span>, extending a depth from +200m to -1500m in Nihe ore deposit, has been compiled from surface geological map, cross-section, borehole logs and amounts of geological inference. And then the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> have been given physical property parameter for calculating the potential field. <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> the potential response is proposed as means of evaluating the viability of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span>, and the evidence of making small changes to the uncertain parts of the original <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span>. It is expected that the final <span class="hlt">models</span> not only reproduce supplied prior geological knowledge, but also explain the observed geophysical data. The workflow used to develop the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> in this study includes the three major steps, as follows: (1) Determine the basic information of <span class="hlt">Model</span>: Defining the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> limits of the <span class="hlt">model</span> area, the basic geological and structural unit, and the tectonic contact relations and the sedimentary sequences between these units. (2) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> construction: Firstly, a series of 2D geological cross sections over the <span class="hlt">model</span> area are built by using all kinds of prior information, including surface geology, borehole data, seismic sections, and local geologists' knowledge and intuition. Lastly, we put these sections into a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environment according to their profile locations to build a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> by using geostatistics method. (3) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gravity and magnetic <span class="hlt">modeling</span>: we calculate the potential field responses of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, and compare the predicted and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818091C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818091C"><span id="translatedtitle">The use of event-specific <span class="hlt">models</span> in DREAM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cunningham, Gregory</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>DREAM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Fokker-Planck diffusion code that has been used to <span class="hlt">model</span> the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> evolution of MeV electrons in the radiation belts. The effects of drift-resonant ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves and gyro-resonant very-low frequency (VLF) waves, are <span class="hlt">modelled</span> with quasilinear theory, which yields a 1D diffusion equation in dipole L at fixed values of the first and second invariants, and a 2D diffusion equation in pitch-angle and momentum at fixed L. The 1D and 2D diffusion equations are decoupled in DREAM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> because the background field is assumed to be a dipole and the 'cross-terms' are ignored. The diffusion coefficients are determined by the wave intensity in the ULF and VLF frequency ranges, and historically have been determined by statistical <span class="hlt">models</span> for the wave intensity that depend on geomagnetic activity. Recently we have shown that the statistical <span class="hlt">models</span> do not always perform well for a specific event, but 'event-specific' <span class="hlt">models</span> that combine in-situ observations with the statistical <span class="hlt">models</span> can be used to improve the <span class="hlt">model</span>. For example, we have used measurements of the low-energy (~100 keV) population generated by the Van Allen Probes MagEIS instrument to define a low-energy boundary condition for DREAM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> as a function of time and L, and showed that <span class="hlt">modeling</span> this 'seed population' correctly is critical for the <span class="hlt">model</span> to predict the observed acceleration during the October 2012 storm. Similarly, we combined observations of the equatorial chorus wave intensity from the Van Allen Probes EMFISIS instrument, with precipitation observed by the NOAA POES instrument, to define an event-specific low-band chorus wave intensity. We showed that an event-specific <span class="hlt">model</span> for the low-band chorus wave intensity is also critical for the <span class="hlt">model</span> to predict the observed acceleration during the same storm. Our current efforts are aimed at extending our recent work on using event-specific <span class="hlt">models</span> by incorporating non-dipole field <span class="hlt">models</span> into DREAM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> for calculating more realistic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4059506','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4059506"><span id="translatedtitle">Mutual information as a measure of image quality for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> lung imaging with EIT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Crabb, M G; Davidson, J L; Little, R; Wright, P; Morgan, A R; Miller, C A; Naish, J H; Parker, G J M; Kikinis, R; McCann, H; Lionheart, W R B</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We report on a pilot study of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> lung electrical impedance tomography (EIT) at the University of Manchester. Low-noise EIT data at 100 frames per second (fps) were obtained from healthy male subjects during controlled breathing, followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) subsequently used for spatial validation of the EIT reconstruction. The torso surface in the MR image and electrode positions obtained using MRI fiducial markers informed the construction of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> extruded along the caudal-distal axis of the subject. Small changes in the boundary that occur during respiration were accounted for by incorporating the sensitivity with respect to boundary shape into a robust temporal difference reconstruction algorithm. EIT and MRI images were co-registered using the open source medical imaging software, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Slicer. A quantitative comparison of quality of different EIT reconstructions was achieved through calculation of the mutual information with a lung-segmented MR image. EIT reconstructions using a linear shape correction algorithm reduced boundary image artefacts, yielding better contrast of the lungs, and had 10% greater mutual information compared with a standard linear EIT reconstruction. PMID:24710978</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMEP..tmp..348H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMEP..tmp..348H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Finite Element Analysis of the Nonuniform Residual Stress in Ultrasonic Impact Treatment Process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Shengsun; Guo, Chaobo; Wang, Dongpo; Wang, Zhijiang</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The nonuniform distributions of the residual stress were simulated by a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> to analyze the elastic-plastic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) process of multiple impacts on the 2024 aluminum alloy. The evolution of the stress during the impact process was discussed. The successive impacts during the UIT process improve the uniformity of the plastic deformation and decrease the maximum compressive residual stress beneath the former impact indentations. The influences of different controlled parameters, including the initial impact velocity, pin diameter, pin tip, device moving, and offset distances, on the residual stress distributions were analyzed. The influences of the controlled parameters on the residual stress distributions are apparent in the offset direction due to the different surface coverage in different directions. The influences can be used to understand the UIT process and to obtain the desired residual stress by optimizing the controlled parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.5911B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.5911B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of Convective Flow In The Rhine Graben</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bächler, D.; Kohl, T.; Rybach, L.</p> <p></p> <p>Detailed investigations of the temperature distribution in the Rhine Graben indi- cate regular pattern of thermal anomalies following major north-south striking faults. These anomalies remain unexplained by conventional Rhine Graben studies based on 2D east-west striking sections. First analytical solutions for convective flow in vertical faults are applied for a clearly observable anomalous temperature pattern along ma- jor Rhine Graben faults. By these calculations the fault height, fault aperture, minimal fault permeability and time to convective onset is derived from the observed distances. Since analytical solutions are limited to simple <span class="hlt">model</span> geometries further improvement was achieved by numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> simulations, which allow to assume more com- plex initial and boundary conditions. Using the finite volume code TOUGH2 series of anomalies following the same fault were simulated by a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical <span class="hlt">model</span>. Fo- cussing on the predominant north-south permeability structure the <span class="hlt">model</span> consists of a vertical north-south striking fault and surrounding matrix. The fault geometries are based on the analytically predicted fault geometries (aperture=200m, height=3500m) and on the observed temperatures. Comparison of simulation results with observed temperatures shows that the fault is situated between 500 to 600m and 4200m. The fault permeability is taken as 5*10-13m2 and the fluid velocity in the fault is calcu- lated as 10-9 to 10-10 m/s. These results indicate the importance of our considerations since mass flux is much higher in the faults than across them. The minimal age of the anomaly is considered to be 77'000 years, since steady state is reached after this time span. The study proves that the observed temperature anomaly pattern along the gamma fault at Landau can be explained by north-south striking convection systems within fault zones. Similar situations have been found at Soultz. This may be a hint on a general feature of the major north-south striking</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S32B0632P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S32B0632P"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards an Anisotropic Whole Mantle <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Elastic Velocity <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Panning, M. P.; Romanowicz, B.; Gung, Y.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Many studies have documented the existence of anisotropy in the earth's upper mantle, concentrated in the top 200 km. This evidence comes from the study of surface waves as well as shear wave splitting. There is also evidence for shear wave splitting in D", at least in well sampled regions. There are some hints of anisotropy at the base of the transition zone. Tomographic <span class="hlt">models</span> of the upper mantle have been developed with simplifying assumptions about the nature of the anisotropy, in order to minimize the number of free parameters in the inversions. Some assume transverse isotropy (e.g Ekström and Dziewonski, 1997), others include additional degrees of freedom with some realistic constraints on mineralogy (e.g. Montagner and Tanimoto, 1991). Our goal is to investigate anisotropy in the whole mantle, using the framework of waveform inversion, and the nonlinear asymptotic mode coupling theory (NACT), previously developed and applied to the construction of whole-mantle SH velocity <span class="hlt">models</span> (Li and Romanowicz, 1996; Mégnin and Romanowicz, 2000). For this we require a 3 component dataset, and we have extended our automatic transverse (T) component wavepicking procedures to the vertical (Z) and longitudinal (L) component - a non-trivial task given the large number of phases present in the coupled P-SV system. A useful initial assumption, for which the theory has been readily adapted, is that of transverse isotropy. As a first step towards this, we have been investigating inversions using T component and Z,L component data separately. In particular, this allows us to explore the sampling that can be achieved with Z,L component data alone in the deepest part of the mantle. Indeed, D" is in general much better sampled in SH than in SV, owing to the availability of SHdiff at large distances, while SVdiff decays more rapidly due to mantle-core coupling. We present the results of our resolution experiments and discuss the differences between the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SV <span class="hlt">model</span> obtained in well</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003380','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003380"><span id="translatedtitle">Orbiter/External Tank Mate <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Solid <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Godfrey, G. S.; Brandt, B.; Rorden, D.; Kapr, F.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This research and development project presents an overview of the work completed while attending a summer 2004 American Society of Engineering Education/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (ASEE/NASA) Faculty Fellowship. This fellowship was completed at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The scope of the project was to complete parts, assemblies, and drawings that could be used by Ground Support Equipment (GSE) personnel to simulate situations and scenarios commonplace to the space shuttle Orbiter/External Tank (ET) Mate (50004). This mate takes place in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). These simulations could then be used by NASA engineers as decision-making tools. During the summer of 2004, parts were created that defined the Orbiter/ET structural interfaces. Emphasis was placed upon assemblies that included the Orbiter/ET forward attachment (EO-1), aft left thrust strut (EO-2), aft right tripod support structure (EO-3), and crossbeam and aft feedline/umbilical supports. These assemblies are used to attach the Orbiter to the ET. The Orbiter/ET Mate assembly was then used to compare and analyze clearance distances using different Orbiter hang angles. It was found that a 30-minute arc angle change in Orbiter hang angle affected distance at the bipod strut to Orbiter yoke fitting 8.11 inches. A <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> solid <span class="hlt">model</span> library was established as a result of this project. This library contains parts, assemblies, and drawings translated into several formats. This library contains a collection of the following files: sti for sterolithography, stp for neutral file work, shrinkwrap for compression. tiff for photoshop work, jpeg for Internet use, and prt and asm for Pro/Engineer use. This library was made available to NASA engineers so that they could access its contents to make angle, load, and clearance analysis studies. These decision-making tools may be used by Pro/Engineer users and non-users.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004SPIE.5370.1312V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004SPIE.5370.1312V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated robust generation of compact <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> statistical shape <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Tomazevic, Dejan; Pernus, Franjo</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Ascertaining the detailed shape and spatial arrangement of anatomical structures is important not only within diagnostic settings but also in the areas of planning, simulation, intraoperative navigation, and tracking of pathology. Robust, accurate and efficient automated segmentation of anatomical structures is difficult because of their complexity and inter-patient variability. Furthermore, the position of the patient during image acquisition, the imaging device and protocol, image resolution, and other factors induce additional variations in shape and appearance. Statistical shape <span class="hlt">models</span> (SSMs) have proven quite successful in capturing structural variability. A possible approach to obtain a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SSM is to extract reference voxels by precisely segmenting the structure in one, reference image. The corresponding voxels in other images are determined by registering the reference image to each other image. The SSM obtained in this way describes statistically plausible shape variations over the given population as well as variations due to imperfect registration. In this paper, we present a completely automated method that significantly reduces shape variations induced by imperfect registration, thus allowing a more accurate description of variations. At each iteration, the derived SSM is used for coarse registration, which is further improved by describing finer variations of the structure. The method was tested on 64 lumbar spinal column CT scans, from which 23, 38, 45, 46 and 42 volumes of interest containing vertebra L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5, respectively, were extracted. Separate SSMs were generated for each vertebra. The results show that the method is capable of reducing the variations induced by registration errors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26829782','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26829782"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Reconstruction of Human Laryngeal <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> Based on Endoscopic High-Speed Recordings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Semmler, Marion; Kniesburges, Stefan; Birk, Veronika; Ziethe, Anke; Patel, Rita; Dollinger, Michael</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Standard laryngoscopic imaging techniques provide only limited two-dimensional insights into the vocal fold vibrations not taking the vertical component into account. However, previous experiments have shown a significant vertical component in the vibration of the vocal folds. We present a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of the entire superior vocal fold surface from 2D high-speed videoendoscopy via stereo triangulation. In a typical camera-laser set-up the structured laser light pattern is projected on the vocal folds and captured at 4000 fps. The measuring device is suitable for in vivo application since the external dimensions of the miniaturized set-up barely exceed the size of a standard rigid laryngoscope. We provide a conservative estimate on the resulting resolution based on the hardware components and point out the possibilities and limitations of the miniaturized camera-laser set-up. In addition to the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vocal fold surface, we extended previous approaches with a G2-continuous <span class="hlt">model</span> of the vocal fold edge. The clinical applicability was successfully established by the reconstruction of visual data acquired from 2D in vivo high-speed recordings of a female and a male subject. We present extracted <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> parameters like maximum amplitude and velocity in the vertical direction. The additional vertical component reveals deeper insights into the vibratory <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the vocal folds by means of a non-invasive method. The successful miniaturization allows for in vivo application giving access to the most realistic <span class="hlt">model</span> available and hence enables a comprehensive understanding of the human phonation process. PMID:26829782</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411736N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411736N"><span id="translatedtitle">Assimilation of high resolution satellite imagery into the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-CMCC forest ecosystem <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Natali, S.; Collalti, A.; Candini, A.; Della Vecchia, A.; Valentini, R.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The use of satellite observations for the accurate monitoring of the terrestrial biosphere has been carried out since the very early stage of remote sensing applications. The possibility to observe the ground surface with different wavelengths and different observation modes (namely active and passive observations) has given to the scientific community an invaluable tool for the observation of wide areas with a resolution down to the single tree. On the other hand, the continuous development of forest ecosystem <span class="hlt">models</span> has permitted to perform simulations of complex ("natural") forest scenarios to evaluate forest status, forest growth and future <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Both remote sensing and <span class="hlt">modelling</span> forest assessment methods have advantages and disadvantages that could be overcome by the adoption of an integrated approach. In the framework of the European Space Agency Project KLAUS, high resolution optical satellite data has been integrated /assimilated into a forest ecosystem <span class="hlt">model</span> (named <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-CMCC) specifically developed for multi-specie, multi-age forests. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-CMCC permits to simulate forest areas with different forest layers, with different trees at different age on the same point. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">model</span> permits to simulate management activities on the forest, thus evaluating the carbon stock evolution following a specific management scheme. The <span class="hlt">model</span> has been modified including satellite data at 10m resolution, permitting the use of directly measured information, adding to the <span class="hlt">model</span> the real phenological cycle of each simulated point. Satellite images have been collected by the JAXA ALOS-AVNIR-2 sensor. The integration schema has permitted to identify a spatial domain in which each pixel is characterised by a forest structure (species, ages, soil parameters), meteo-climatological parameters and estimated Leaf Area Index from satellite. The resulting software package (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-CMCC-SAT) is built around <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-CMCC: 2D / <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> input datasets are processed iterating on each point of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9808E..2DL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9808E..2DL"><span id="translatedtitle">Research on urban rapid <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and application based on CGA rule</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Jing-wen; Jiang, Jian-wu; Zhou, Song; Yin, Shou-qiang</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Use CityEngine as the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> platform, research on urban rapid <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> technology based on the CGA(Computer Generated Architectur) rule , solved the problem of the rapid creation of urban <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> in large scenes , and research on building texture processing and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> optimization techniques based on CGA rule , using component <span class="hlt">modeling</span> method , solved the problem of texture distortion and <span class="hlt">model</span> redundancy in the traditional fast <span class="hlt">modeling</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> , and development of a three-dimensional view and analysis system based on ArcGIS Engine , realization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> query , distance measurement , specific path flight , <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> marking , Scene export,etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9401031C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9401031C"><span id="translatedtitle">First application of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-MHB on <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> compressive behavior of UHPC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cadoni, Ezio; Dotta, Matteo; Forni, Daniele; Riganti, Gianmario; Albertini, Carlo</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>In order to study the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> behaviour of material in confined conditions a new machine was conceived and called <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Modified Hopkinson Bar (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-MHB). It is a Modified Hopkinson Bar apparatus designed to apply <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> loading in materials having a tri-axial stress state. It consists of a pulse generator system (with pre-tensioned bar and brittle joint), 1 input bar, and 5 output bars. The first results obtained on Ultra High Performance Concrete in compression with three different mono-axial compression states are presented. The results show how the pre-stress states minimize the boundary condition and a more uniform response is obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1047931','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1047931"><span id="translatedtitle">Examination of 1D Solar Cell <span class="hlt">Model</span> Limitations Using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SPICE <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>: Preprint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McMahon, W. E.; Olson, J. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>To examine the limitations of one-dimensional (1D) solar cell <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SPICE-based <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is used to examine in detail the validity of the 1D assumptions as a function of sheet resistance for a <span class="hlt">model</span> cell. The internal voltages and current densities produced by this <span class="hlt">modeling</span> give additional insight into the differences between the 1D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=AutoCAD&pg=2&id=EJ421949','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=AutoCAD&pg=2&id=EJ421949"><span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geometric <span class="hlt">Models</span> to Teach Spatial Geometry Concepts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bertoline, Gary R.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>An explanation of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Computer Aided Design (CAD) usage to teach spatial geometry concepts using nontraditional techniques is presented. The software packages CADKEY and AutoCAD are described as well as their usefulness in solving space geometry problems. (KR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..35...44F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..35...44F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object-oriented image analysis in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geophysical <span class="hlt">modelling</span>: Analysing the central part of the East African Rift System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.; Lauritsen, N.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography <span class="hlt">models</span>. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface structures (objects) based on the seismic tomography <span class="hlt">models</span> and then forward <span class="hlt">modelling</span> these objects. However, this form of object-based approach has been done without a standardized methodology on how to extract the subsurface structures from the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. In this research, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object-oriented image analysis (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> OOA) approach was implemented to extract the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shear wave seismic tomography <span class="hlt">model</span> of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects from the tomography <span class="hlt">model</span> were reconstructed in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> interactive <span class="hlt">modelling</span> environment IGMAS+, and their density contrast values were calculated using an object-based inversion technique to calculate the forward signal of the objects and compare it with the measured satellite gravity. Thus, a new object-based approach was implemented to interpret and extract the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface objects from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geophysical data. We also introduce a new approach to constrain the interpretation of the satellite gravity measurements that can be applied using any <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geophysical <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=communication+AND+facial&id=EJ1095136','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=communication+AND+facial&id=EJ1095136"><span id="translatedtitle">Quasi-Facial Communication for Online Learning Using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wang, Yushun; Zhuang, Yueting</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Online interaction with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> facial animation is an alternative way of face-to-face communication for distance education. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> facial <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is essential for virtual educational environments establishment. This article presents a novel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> facial <span class="hlt">modeling</span> solution that facilitates quasi-facial communication for online learning. Our algorithm builds…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6847262','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6847262"><span id="translatedtitle">Norg underground gas storage - an integrated <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> geological and geophysical reservoir <span class="hlt">modeling</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cohen, J.; Smith, S. ); Huis, R.; Copper, J.; Whyte, S. )</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>The Netherlands have an extensive gas distribution infrastructure supplying 80 x 10[sup 9] m[sup 3] per annum to the domestic and European market. The capacity requirement exceeds 600 x 10[sup 6] sm[sup <span class="hlt">3</span>]/<span class="hlt">d</span>, of which 430 x 10[sup 6] sm[sup <span class="hlt">3</span>]/<span class="hlt">d</span> is provided by the giant Groningen gas field. The Groningen field will soon reach a pressure at which this capacity can no longer be met without considerable investments. It will also become difficult to maintain the market gas quality, because of the increasing supply from small fields with widely varying gas qualities. Underground Gas Storage (UGS) will satisfy both capacity and gas-quality requirements. This UGS must eventually store 4.5 x 10[sup 9] m[sup 3] with injection/production capacities of 36/80-100 x 10[sup 6] sm[sup <span class="hlt">3</span>]/<span class="hlt">d</span>, making it one of the largest UGS projects in the world. These extremely high-capacity requirements demand both high-matrix permeability and good understanding of vertical and lateral reservoir continuity. Matrix permeability is predictable due to the close relationship with the lithofacies defined within the primary Rotliegende depositional <span class="hlt">model</span>. Minor faults, identified on three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) seismic attribute maps, represent potential transmissibility impairment zones, compartmentalizing the reservoir. This was initially suggested by core fracture studies and confirmed by a subsequent field shut-in and pressure buildup test. Lithofacies and seismic structural data are integrated within a computerized reservoir geological <span class="hlt">modeling</span> system known as [open quotes]Monarch[close quotes] to provide a highly detailed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> permeability <span class="hlt">model</span> that is then tranformed into a <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> reservoir simulation. The results confirm the required working volume for the UGS operation and provide a basis for the initial field development planning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DPPYP8062F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DPPYP8062F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Global Braginskii Simulations of Plasma <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> and Turbulence in LAPD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fisher, Dustin; Rogers, Barrett</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> global two-fluid simulations are presented in an ongoing effort to identify and understand the plasma <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA's Basic Science Facility. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> is done using a modified version of the Global Braginskii Solver (GBS) that <span class="hlt">models</span> the plasma from source to edge region on a field-aligned grid using a finite difference method and 4th order Runge-Kutta time stepping. Progress has been made to account for the thermionic cathode emission of fast electrons at the source, the axial dependence of the plasma source, and biasing the front and side walls. Along with trying to understand the effect sheath's and neutrals have in setting the plasma potential, work is being done to <span class="hlt">model</span> the biasable limiter recently used by colleagues at UCLA to better understand flow shear and particle transport in the LAPD. Comparisons of the zero bias case are presented along with analysis of the growth and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of turbulent structures (such as drift waves) seen in the simulations. Supported through CICART under the auspices of the DOE's EPSCoR Grant No. DE-FG02-10ER46372.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1040616','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1040616"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Atmospheric Radiative Transfer for Cloud System-Resolving <span class="hlt">Models</span>: Forward <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> and Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Howard Barker; Jason Cole</p> <p>2012-05-17</p> <p>Utilization of cloud-resolving <span class="hlt">models</span> and multi-dimensional radiative transfer <span class="hlt">models</span> to investigate the importance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiation effects on the numerical simulation of cloud fields and their properties.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1495....3S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1495....3S"><span id="translatedtitle">Computational ocean acoustics: Advances in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ocean acoustic <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Henrik; Jensen, Finn B.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>The numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> of ocean acoustic propagation developed in the 1980's are still in widespread use today, and the field of computational ocean acoustics is often considered a mature field. However, the explosive increase in computational power available to the community has created opportunities for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> phenomena that earlier were beyond reach. Most notably, three-dimensional propagation and scattering problems have been prohibitive computationally, but are now addressed routinely using brute force numerical approaches such as the Finite Element Method, in particular for target scattering problems, where they are being combined with the traditional wave theory propagation <span class="hlt">models</span> in hybrid <span class="hlt">modeling</span> frameworks. Also, recent years has seen the development of hybrid approaches coupling oceanographic circulation <span class="hlt">models</span> with acoustic propagation <span class="hlt">models</span>, enabling the forecasting of sonar performance uncertainty in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ocean environments. These and other advances made over the last couple of decades support the notion that the field of computational ocean acoustics is far from being mature. [Work supported by the Office of Naval Research, Code 321OA].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdWR...66...32M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdWR...66...32M"><span id="translatedtitle">Tree root systems competing for soil moisture in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> soil-plant <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manoli, Gabriele; Bonetti, Sara; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Putti, Mario; Katul, Gabriel; Marani, Marco</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Competition for water among multiple tree rooting systems is investigated using a soil-plant <span class="hlt">model</span> that accounts for soil moisture <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and root water uptake (RWU), whole plant transpiration, and leaf-level photosynthesis. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is based on a numerical solution to the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Richards equation modified to account for a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RWU, trunk xylem, and stomatal conductances. The stomatal conductance is determined by combining a conventional biochemical demand formulation for photosynthesis with an optimization hypothesis that selects stomatal aperture so as to maximize carbon gain for a given water loss. <span class="hlt">Model</span> results compare well with measurements of soil moisture throughout the rooting zone, of total sap flow in the trunk xylem, as well as of leaf water potential collected in a Loblolly pine forest. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is then used to diagnose plant responses to water stress in the presence of competing rooting systems. Unsurprisingly, the overlap between rooting zones is shown to enhance soil drying. However, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spatial <span class="hlt">model</span> yielded transpiration-bulk root-zone soil moisture relations that do not deviate appreciably from their proto-typical form commonly assumed in lumped eco-hydrological <span class="hlt">models</span>. The increased overlap among rooting systems primarily alters the timing at which the point of incipient soil moisture stress is reached by the entire soil-plant system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL4..103C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL4..103C"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi Sensor Data Integration for AN Accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> Generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chhatkuli, S.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel technique of data integration between two different data sets, i.e. laser scanned RGB point cloud and oblique imageries derived <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, to create a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> with more details and better accuracy. In general, aerial imageries are used to create a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span>. Aerial imageries produce an overall decent <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> and generally suit to generate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of building roof and some non-complex terrain. However, the automatically generated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, from aerial imageries, generally suffers from the lack of accuracy in deriving the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of road under the bridges, details under tree canopy, isolated trees, etc. Moreover, the automatically generated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> from aerial imageries also suffers from undulated road surfaces, non-conforming building shapes, loss of minute details like street furniture, etc. in many cases. On the other hand, laser scanned data and images taken from mobile vehicle platform can produce more detailed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> road <span class="hlt">model</span>, street furniture <span class="hlt">model</span>, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of details under bridge, etc. However, laser scanned data and images from mobile vehicle are not suitable to acquire detailed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of tall buildings, roof tops, and so forth. Our proposed approach to integrate multi sensor data compensated each other's weakness and helped to create a very detailed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> with better accuracy. Moreover, the additional details like isolated trees, street furniture, etc. which were missing in the original <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> derived from aerial imageries could also be integrated in the final <span class="hlt">model</span> automatically. During the process, the noise in the laser scanned data for example people, vehicles etc. on the road were also automatically removed. Hence, even though the two dataset were acquired in different time period the integrated data set or the final <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> was generally noise free and without unnecessary details.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24505691','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24505691"><span id="translatedtitle">A stochastic <span class="hlt">model</span> for automatic extraction of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> neuronal morphology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Basu, Sreetama; Kulikova, Maria; Zhizhina, Elena; Ooi, Wei Tsang; Racoceanu, Daniel</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Tubular structures are frequently encountered in bio-medical images. The center-lines of these tubules provide an accurate representation of the topology of the structures. We introduce a stochastic Marked Point Process framework for fully automatic extraction of tubular structures requiring no user interaction or seed points for initialization. Our Marked Point Process <span class="hlt">model</span> enables unsupervised network extraction by fitting a configuration of objects with globally optimal associated energy to the centreline of the arbors. For this purpose we propose special configurations of marked objects and an energy function well adapted for detection of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tubular branches. The optimization of the energy function is achieved by a stochastic, discrete-time multiple birth and death <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Our method finds the centreline, local width and orientation of neuronal arbors and identifies critical nodes like bifurcations and terminals. The proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> is tested on <span class="hlt">3</s