Science.gov

Sample records for 3-d heterogeneous earth

  1. Accelerating DynEarthSol3D on tightly coupled CPU-GPU heterogeneous processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, Tuan; Choo, Kyoshin; Tan, Eh; Jang, Byunghyun; Choi, Eunseo

    2015-06-01

    DynEarthSol3D (Dynamic Earth Solver in Three Dimensions) is a flexible, open-source finite element solver that models the momentum balance and the heat transfer of elasto-visco-plastic material in the Lagrangian form using unstructured meshes. It provides a platform for the study of the long-term deformation of earth's lithosphere and various problems in civil and geotechnical engineering. However, the continuous computation and update of a very large mesh poses an intolerably high computational burden to developers and users in practice. For example, simulating a small input mesh containing around 3000 elements in 20 million time steps would take more than 10 days on a high-end desktop CPU. In this paper, we explore tightly coupled CPU-GPU heterogeneous processors to address the computing concern by leveraging their new features and developing hardware-architecture-aware optimizations. Our proposed key optimization techniques are three-fold: memory access pattern improvement, data transfer elimination and kernel launch overhead minimization. Experimental results show that our proposed implementation on a tightly coupled heterogeneous processor outperforms all other alternatives including traditional discrete GPU, quad-core CPU using OpenMP, and serial implementations by 67%, 50%, and 154% respectively even though the embedded GPU in the heterogeneous processor has significantly less number of cores than high-end discrete GPU.

  2. Centroid Moment Tensor Inversion in a 3D heterogeneous Earth: Application to the Australasian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejrani, B.; Tkalcic, H.; Fichtner, A.

    2015-12-01

    Australia is surrounded by active complex tectonic belts causing significant seismicity. The recent expansion of permanent seismic networks in the Australasian region provides great opportunity to study Earth structure and a great variety of physical mechanisms responsible for earthquakes.On one hand, a better understanding of the Australasian lithosphere, which is now available through tomographic images from full waveform modelling (Fichtner et al. 2010), provides a powerful tool to scrutinize the determination of earthquake source parameters. Even at relatively long periods (40-200s), the 3D effects of regional structure were shown to significantly alter the global centroid moment tensor solutions (Hingee et al. 2012). Thus, we can now explore other types of uncertainties and test the accuracy of global centroid moment tensor (GCMT) solution for the earthquakes in the Australasian region while checking for the systematic inconsistencies in the solutions. This has a significant bearing on tectonic interpretations. For example, azimuth and plunge of fault planes can be investigated in search for systematic biases.On the other hand, the time has come to take a full advantage of the 3D Earth structural model and embrace ongoing advances in computational power and storage. We develop a semi-automated procedure to calculate the Centroid Moment Tensors in a 3D heterogeneous Earth. We utilize the reciprocity theorem to create Green's functions for point sources covering seismogenic zones of Australasia. We focus on improving the capacity of the method to fully complement the existing monitoring tools at Geosciences Australia. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of detailed velocity structure on Centroid location and double-couple percentages. Moreover Azimuth and Plunge of focal mechanisms in GCMT (Global CMT), were investigated in search for any systematic bias.References: Fichtner, A., Kennett, B.L.N., Igel, H., Bunge, H.-P., 2010. Full waveform tomography for

  3. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  4. Complete synthetic seismograms for 3-D heterogeneous Earth models computed using modified DSM operators and their applicability to inversion for Earth structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Nozomu; Geller, Robert J.; Cummins, Phil R.

    2000-04-01

    We compute complete (including both body and surface waves) synthetic seismograms for laterally and vertically heterogeneous Earth models using the Direct Solution Method (DSM). We use the optimally accurate modified operators derived by Geller and Takeuchi [Geller, R.J., Takeuchi, N., 1995. A new method for computing highly accurate DSM synthetic seismograms. Geophys. J. Int. 123, 449-470] and extended to spherical coordinates by Takeuchi et al. [Takeuchi, N., Geller, R.J., Cummins, P.R., 1996. Highly accurate P-SV complete synthetic seismograms using modified DSM operators. Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1175-1178] and Cummins et al. [Cummins, P.R., Takeuchi, N., Geller, R.J., 1997. Computation of complete synthetic seismograms for laterally heterogenous models using the Direct Solution Method. Geophys. J. Int. 130, 1-16] for 1- and 3-D models, respectively. In this study we greatly reduce the CPU time by treating the laterally heterogeneous structure as a perturbation to a spherically symmetric model (i.e., using the Born approximation). Note, however, that (1) our methods do not require the use of the Born approximation and (2) the reference model for the Born approximation is not required to be spherically symmetric. The synthetic seismograms in this paper are computed using the first-order Born approximation. However, accuracy can be greatly improved by using higher order terms of the Born series; theoretical results are presented in this paper, and some preliminary numerical examples are presented in this volume by Igel et al. [Igel, H., Takeuchi, N., Geller, R.J., Megnin, C., Bunge, H.P., Clévédé, E., Dalkolmo, J., Romanowicz, B., 1998. The COSY project: verification of global seismic modeling algorithms, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., this issue].

  5. Regional seismic wavefield computation on a 3-D heterogeneous Earth model by means of coupled traveling wave synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.

    2002-01-01

    I present a new algorithm for calculating seismic wave propagation through a three-dimensional heterogeneous medium using the framework of mode coupling theory originally developed to perform very low frequency (f < ???0.01-0.05 Hz) seismic wavefield computation. It is a Greens function approach for multiple scattering within a defined volume and employs a truncated traveling wave basis set using the locked mode approximation. Interactions between incident and scattered wavefields are prescribed by mode coupling theory and account for the coupling among surface waves, body waves, and evanescent waves. The described algorithm is, in principle, applicable to global and regional wave propagation problems, but I focus on higher frequency (typically f ??????0.25 Hz) applications at regional and local distances where the locked mode approximation is best utilized and which involve wavefields strongly shaped by propagation through a highly heterogeneous crust. Synthetic examples are shown for P-SV-wave propagation through a semi-ellipsoidal basin and SH-wave propagation through a fault zone.

  6. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  7. World Wind 3D Earth Viewing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Patrick; Maxwell, Christopher; Kim, Randolph; Gaskins, Tom

    2007-01-01

    World Wind allows users to zoom from satellite altitude down to any place on Earth, leveraging high-resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) elevation data to experience Earth in visually rich 3D. In addition to Earth, World Wind can also visualize other planets, and there are already comprehensive data sets for Mars and the Earth's moon, which are as easily accessible as those of Earth. There have been more than 20 million downloads to date, and the software is being used heavily by the Department of Defense due to the code s ability to be extended and the evolution of the code courtesy of NASA and the user community. Primary features include the dynamic access to public domain imagery and its ease of use. All one needs to control World Wind is a two-button mouse. Additional guides and features can be accessed through a simplified menu. A JAVA version will be available soon. Navigation is automated with single clicks of a mouse, or by typing in any location to automatically zoom in to see it. The World Wind install package contains the necessary requirements such as the .NET runtime and managed DirectX library. World Wind can display combinations of data from a variety of sources, including Blue Marble, LandSat 7, SRTM, NASA Scientific Visualization Studio, GLOBE, and much more. A thorough list of features, the user manual, a key chart, and screen shots are available at http://worldwind.arc.nasa.gov.

  8. Ultrasound scatter in heterogeneous 3D microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, B. J.; Roberts, R. A.; Grandin, R. J.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports on a computational study of ultrasound propagation in heterogeneous metal microstructures. Random spatial fluctuations in elastic properties over a range of length scales relative to ultrasound wavelength can give rise to scatter-induced attenuation, backscatter noise, and phase front aberration. It is of interest to quantify the dependence of these phenomena on the microstructure parameters, for the purpose of quantifying deleterious consequences on flaw detectability, and for the purpose of material characterization. Valuable tools for estimation of microstructure parameters (e.g. grain size) through analysis of ultrasound backscatter have been developed based on approximate weak-scattering models. While useful, it is understood that these tools display inherent inaccuracy when multiple scattering phenomena significantly contribute to the measurement. It is the goal of this work to supplement weak scattering model predictions with corrections derived through application of an exact computational scattering model to explicitly prescribed microstructures.

  9. Visualization of 3D Geological Models on Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Um, J.; Park, M.

    2013-05-01

    Google Earth combines satellite imagery, aerial photography, thematic maps and various data sets to make a three-dimensional (3D) interactive image of the world. Currently, Google Earth is a popular visualization tool in a variety of fields and plays an increasingly important role not only for private users in daily life, but also for scientists, practitioners, policymakers and stakeholders in research and application. In this study, a method to visualize 3D geological models on Google Earth is presented. COLLAborative Design Activity (COLLADA, an open standard XML schema for establishing interactive 3D applications) was used to represent different 3D geological models such as borehole, fence section, surface-based 3D volume and 3D grid by triangle meshes (a set of triangles connected by their common edges or corners). In addition, we designed Keyhole Markup Language (KML, the XML-based scripting language of Google Earth) codes to import the COLLADA files into the 3D render window of Google Earth. The method was applied to the Grosmont formation in Alberta, Canada. The application showed that the combination of COLLADA and KML enables Google Earth to effectively visualize 3D geological structures and properties.; Visualization of the (a) boreholes, (b) fence sections, (c) 3D volume model and (d) 3D grid model of Grossmont formation on Google Earth

  10. Elastic wave modelling in 3D heterogeneous media: 3D grid method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianfeng, Zhang; Tielin, Liu

    2002-09-01

    We present a new numerical technique for elastic wave modelling in 3D heterogeneous media with surface topography, which is called the 3D grid method in this paper. This work is an extension of the 2D grid method that models P-SV wave propagation in 2D heterogeneous media. Similar to the finite-element method in the discretization of a numerical mesh, the proposed scheme is flexible in incorporating surface topography and curved interfaces; moreover it satisfies the free-surface boundary conditions of 3D topography naturally. The algorithm, developed from a parsimonious staggered-grid scheme, solves the problem using integral equilibrium around each node, instead of satisfying elastodynamic differential equations at each node as in the conventional finite-difference method. The computational cost and memory requirements for the proposed scheme are approximately the same as those used by the same order finite-difference method. In this paper, a mixed tetrahedral and parallelepiped grid method is presented; and the numerical dispersion and stability criteria on the tetrahedral grid method and parallelepiped grid method are discussed in detail. The proposed scheme is successfully tested against an analytical solution for the 3D Lamb problem and a solution of the boundary method for the diffraction of a hemispherical crater. Moreover, examples of surface-wave propagation in an elastic half-space with a semi-cylindrical trench on the surface and 3D plane-layered model are presented.

  11. Quantifying Interparticle Forces and Heterogeneity in 3D Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, R. C.; Hall, S. A.; Andrade, J. E.; Wright, J.

    2016-08-01

    Interparticle forces in granular materials are intimately linked to mechanical properties and are known to self-organize into heterogeneous structures, or force chains, under external load. Despite progress in understanding the statistics and spatial distribution of interparticle forces in recent decades, a systematic method for measuring forces in opaque, three-dimensional (3D), frictional, stiff granular media has yet to emerge. In this Letter, we present results from an experiment that combines 3D x-ray diffraction, x-ray tomography, and a numerical force inference technique to quantify interparticle forces and their heterogeneity in an assembly of quartz grains undergoing a one-dimensional compression cycle. Forces exhibit an exponential decay above the mean and partition into strong and weak networks. We find a surprising inverse relationship between macroscopic load and the heterogeneity of interparticle forces, despite the clear emergence of two force chains that span the system.

  12. Numerical Results of Earth's Core Accumulation 3-D Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod

    2013-04-01

    For a long time as a most convenient had been the model of mega impact in which the early forming of the Earth's core and mantle had been the consequence of formed protoplanet collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,3] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius, the growing area of the future core can save also the silicate envelope fragments. All existing dynamical accumulation models are constructed by using a spherical-symmetrical model. Hence for understanding the further planet evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on the planet accumulation stage. In that paper we are modeling distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3D- spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach. The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in

  13. Radiation Transport in 3D Heterogeneous Materials: DNS

    SciTech Connect

    Graziani, F

    2003-07-09

    In order to develop a phenomenological approach to transport in 3D heterogeneous media, we have performed direct numerical simulation studies. Using an algorithm based on the lattice random walk to generate random media, we have performed radiographic shots of the sample and digitized both the chord length and optical depth distributions. The optical depth distribution is then used to compute an effective mean free path. As theory predicts, the atomically averaged mean free path is always a minimum value. We have also demonstrated a dependency of mean free path on the distribution of random material.

  14. EarthServer - 3D Visualization on the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Sebastian; Herzig, Pasquale; Bockholt, Ulrich; Jung, Yvonne; Behr, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    EarthServer (www.earthserver.eu), funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Program, is a project to enable the management, access and exploration of massive, multi-dimensional datasets using Open GeoSpatial Consortium (OGC) query and processing language standards like WCS 2.0 and WCPS. To this end, a server/client architecture designed to handle Petabyte/Exabyte volumes of multi-dimensional data is being developed and deployed. As an important part of the EarthServer project, six Lighthouse Applications, major scientific data exploitation initiatives, are being established to make cross-domain, Earth Sciences related data repositories available in an open and unified manner, as service endpoints based on solutions and infrastructure developed within the project. Clients technology developed and deployed in EarthServer ranges from mobile and web clients to immersive virtual reality systems, all designed to interact with a physically and logically distributed server infrastructure using exclusively OGC standards. In this contribution, we would like to present our work on a web-based 3D visualization and interaction client for Earth Sciences data using only technology found in standard web browsers without requiring the user to install plugins or addons. Additionally, we are able to run the earth data visualization client on a wide range of different platforms with very different soft- and hardware requirements such as smart phones (e.g. iOS, Android), different desktop systems etc. High-quality, hardware-accelerated visualization of 3D and 4D content in standard web browsers can be realized now and we believe it will become more and more common to use this fast, lightweight and ubiquitous platform to provide insights into big datasets without requiring the user to set up a specialized client first. With that in mind, we will also point out some of the limitations we encountered using current web technologies. Underlying the EarthServer web client

  15. Modeling radiative transfer in heterogeneous 3D vegetation canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.; Demarez, V.; Pinel, Veronique; Zagolski, Francis

    1995-01-01

    The DART (discrete anisotropic radiative transfer) model simulates radiative transfer in heterogeneous 3-D scenes; here, a forest plantation. Similarly to Kimes model, the scene is divided into a rectangular cell matrix, i.e., a building block for simulating larger scenes. Cells are parallelipipedic. The scene encompasses different landscape features (i.e., trees with leaves and trunks, grass, water, and soil) with specific optical (reflectance, transmittance) and structural (LAI, LAD) characteristics. Radiation directions are subdivided into contiguous sectors with possibly uneven spacing. Topography, hot spot, and multiple interactions (scattering, attenuation) within cells are modeled. Two major steps are distinguished: (1) Illumination of cells by direct sun radiation. Actual locations of within cell scattering are determined for optimizing scattering computation. (2) Interception and scattering of previously scattered radiation. Diffuse atmospheric radiation is input at this level. Multiple scattering is represented with a spherical harmonic decomposition, for reducing data volume. The model iterates on step 2 for all cells, and stops with the energetic equilibrium. This model predicts the bi-directional reflectance factors of 3D canopies, with each scene component contribution; it was successfully tested with homogeneous covers. It gives also the radiation regime with canopies, and consequently some information about volume distribution of photosynthesis rates and primary production.

  16. Multifunctional 3D printing of heterogeneous hydrogel structures.

    PubMed

    Nadernezhad, Ali; Khani, Navid; Skvortsov, Gözde Akdeniz; Toprakhisar, Burak; Bakirci, Ezgi; Menceloglu, Yusuf; Unal, Serkan; Koc, Bahattin

    2016-09-15

    Multimaterial additive manufacturing or three-dimensional (3D) printing of hydrogel structures provides the opportunity to engineer geometrically dependent functionalities. However, current fabrication methods are mostly limited to one type of material or only provide one type of functionality. In this paper, we report a novel method of multimaterial deposition of hydrogel structures based on an aspiration-on-demand protocol, in which the constitutive multimaterial segments of extruded filaments were first assembled in liquid state by sequential aspiration of inks into a glass capillary, followed by in situ gel formation. We printed different patterned objects with varying chemical, electrical, mechanical, and biological properties by tuning process and material related parameters, to demonstrate the abilities of this method in producing heterogeneous and multi-functional hydrogel structures. Our results show the potential of proposed method in producing heterogeneous objects with spatially controlled functionalities while preserving structural integrity at the switching interface between different segments. We anticipate that this method would introduce new opportunities in multimaterial additive manufacturing of hydrogels for diverse applications such as biosensors, flexible electronics, tissue engineering and organ printing.

  17. Multifunctional 3D printing of heterogeneous hydrogel structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadernezhad, Ali; Khani, Navid; Skvortsov, Gözde Akdeniz; Toprakhisar, Burak; Bakirci, Ezgi; Menceloglu, Yusuf; Unal, Serkan; Koc, Bahattin

    2016-09-01

    Multimaterial additive manufacturing or three-dimensional (3D) printing of hydrogel structures provides the opportunity to engineer geometrically dependent functionalities. However, current fabrication methods are mostly limited to one type of material or only provide one type of functionality. In this paper, we report a novel method of multimaterial deposition of hydrogel structures based on an aspiration-on-demand protocol, in which the constitutive multimaterial segments of extruded filaments were first assembled in liquid state by sequential aspiration of inks into a glass capillary, followed by in situ gel formation. We printed different patterned objects with varying chemical, electrical, mechanical, and biological properties by tuning process and material related parameters, to demonstrate the abilities of this method in producing heterogeneous and multi-functional hydrogel structures. Our results show the potential of proposed method in producing heterogeneous objects with spatially controlled functionalities while preserving structural integrity at the switching interface between different segments. We anticipate that this method would introduce new opportunities in multimaterial additive manufacturing of hydrogels for diverse applications such as biosensors, flexible electronics, tissue engineering and organ printing.

  18. Multifunctional 3D printing of heterogeneous hydrogel structures

    PubMed Central

    Nadernezhad, Ali; Khani, Navid; Skvortsov, Gözde Akdeniz; Toprakhisar, Burak; Bakirci, Ezgi; Menceloglu, Yusuf; Unal, Serkan; Koc, Bahattin

    2016-01-01

    Multimaterial additive manufacturing or three-dimensional (3D) printing of hydrogel structures provides the opportunity to engineer geometrically dependent functionalities. However, current fabrication methods are mostly limited to one type of material or only provide one type of functionality. In this paper, we report a novel method of multimaterial deposition of hydrogel structures based on an aspiration-on-demand protocol, in which the constitutive multimaterial segments of extruded filaments were first assembled in liquid state by sequential aspiration of inks into a glass capillary, followed by in situ gel formation. We printed different patterned objects with varying chemical, electrical, mechanical, and biological properties by tuning process and material related parameters, to demonstrate the abilities of this method in producing heterogeneous and multi-functional hydrogel structures. Our results show the potential of proposed method in producing heterogeneous objects with spatially controlled functionalities while preserving structural integrity at the switching interface between different segments. We anticipate that this method would introduce new opportunities in multimaterial additive manufacturing of hydrogels for diverse applications such as biosensors, flexible electronics, tissue engineering and organ printing. PMID:27630079

  19. 3D Orbit Visualization for Earth-Observing Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph C.; Plesea, Lucian; Chafin, Brian G.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2011-01-01

    This software visualizes orbit paths for the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), but was designed to be general and applicable to any Earth-observing mission. The software uses the Google Earth user interface to provide a visual mechanism to explore spacecraft orbit paths, ground footprint locations, and local cloud cover conditions. In addition, a drill-down capability allows for users to point and click on a particular observation frame to pop up ancillary information such as data product filenames and directory paths, latitude, longitude, time stamp, column-average dry air mole fraction of carbon dioxide, and solar zenith angle. This software can be integrated with the ground data system for any Earth-observing mission to automatically generate daily orbit path data products in Google Earth KML format. These KML data products can be directly loaded into the Google Earth application for interactive 3D visualization of the orbit paths for each mission day. Each time the application runs, the daily orbit paths are encapsulated in a KML file for each mission day since the last time the application ran. Alternatively, the daily KML for a specified mission day may be generated. The application automatically extracts the spacecraft position and ground footprint geometry as a function of time from a daily Level 1B data product created and archived by the mission s ground data system software. In addition, ancillary data, such as the column-averaged dry air mole fraction of carbon dioxide and solar zenith angle, are automatically extracted from a Level 2 mission data product. Zoom, pan, and rotate capability are provided through the standard Google Earth interface. Cloud cover is indicated with an image layer from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard the Aqua satellite, which is automatically retrieved from JPL s OnEarth Web service.

  20. Heterogeneous force network in 3D cellularized collagen networks.

    PubMed

    Liang, Long; Jones, Christopher; Chen, Shaohua; Sun, Bo; Jiao, Yang

    2016-10-25

    Collagen networks play an important role in coordinating and regulating collective cellular dynamics via a number of signaling pathways. Here, we investigate the transmission of forces generated by contractile cells in 3D collagen-I networks. Specifically, the graph (bond-node) representations of collagen networks with collagen concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 mg ml(-1) are derived from confocal microscopy data and used to model the network microstructure. Cell contraction is modeled by applying correlated displacements at specific nodes of the network, representing the focal adhesion sites. A nonlinear elastic model is employed to characterize the mechanical behavior of individual fiber bundles including strain hardening during stretching and buckling under compression. A force-based relaxation method is employed to obtain equilibrium network configurations under cell contraction. We find that for all collagen concentrations, the majority of the forces are carried by a small number of heterogeneous force chains emitted from the contracting cells, which is qualitatively consistent with our experimental observations. The force chains consist of fiber segments that either possess a high degree of alignment before cell contraction or are aligned due to fiber reorientation induced by cell contraction. The decay of the forces along the force chains is significantly slower than the decay of radially averaged forces in the system, suggesting that the fibreous nature of biopolymer network structure can support long-range force transmission. The force chains emerge even at very small cell contractions, and the number of force chains increases with increasing cell contraction. At large cell contractions, the fibers close to the cell surface are in the nonlinear regime, and the nonlinear region is localized in a small neighborhood of the cell. In addition, the number of force chains increases with increasing collagen concentration, due to the larger number of focal adhesion sites

  1. CO2 leakage risk in 3D heterogeneous formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Z.; Murray, C. J.; Rockhold, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    In this study we use a stochastic sensitivity analysis framework to evaluate the impact of 3D spatial heterogeneity in permeability on CO2 leakage risk. The leakage is defined as the total mass of CO2 moving into the overburden through the caprock-overburden interface, in both gaseous and liquid (dissolved) phases. The entropy-based framework has the ability to quantify the uncertainty associated with the input parameters/factors in the form of prior pdfs (probability density functions). Effective sampling of the prior pdfs enables us to explore the parameter space and systematically evaluate the individual and combined effects of the factors/parameters of interest on CO2 leakage risk. The parameters that are considered in the study include: mean, variance, and horizontal to vertical spatial anisotropy ratio for caprock permeability, and those same parameters for reservoir permeability. Given the sampled spatial variogram parameters, multiple realizations of permeability fields were generated using GSLIB subroutines. For each permeability field, a numerical simulator STOMP (water-salt-CO2-energy operational mode) is used to simulate the CO2 migration within the reservoir and caprock up to 50 years after injection. Due to intensive computational demand, a scalable version simulator, eSTOMP, is run on the Jaguar supercomputer. We then perform statistical analyses and summarize the relationships between the parameters of interest (mean/variance/anisotropy ratio of caprock/reservoir permeability) and CO2 leakage ratio. We will also present the effects of those parameters on CO2 plume radius and reservoir injectivity.

  2. Heterogeneous force network in 3D cellularized collagen networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Long; Jones, Christopher; Chen, Shaohua; Sun, Bo; Jiao, Yang

    2016-12-01

    Collagen networks play an important role in coordinating and regulating collective cellular dynamics via a number of signaling pathways. Here, we investigate the transmission of forces generated by contractile cells in 3D collagen-I networks. Specifically, the graph (bond-node) representations of collagen networks with collagen concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 mg ml-1 are derived from confocal microscopy data and used to model the network microstructure. Cell contraction is modeled by applying correlated displacements at specific nodes of the network, representing the focal adhesion sites. A nonlinear elastic model is employed to characterize the mechanical behavior of individual fiber bundles including strain hardening during stretching and buckling under compression. A force-based relaxation method is employed to obtain equilibrium network configurations under cell contraction. We find that for all collagen concentrations, the majority of the forces are carried by a small number of heterogeneous force chains emitted from the contracting cells, which is qualitatively consistent with our experimental observations. The force chains consist of fiber segments that either possess a high degree of alignment before cell contraction or are aligned due to fiber reorientation induced by cell contraction. The decay of the forces along the force chains is significantly slower than the decay of radially averaged forces in the system, suggesting that the fibreous nature of biopolymer network structure can support long-range force transmission. The force chains emerge even at very small cell contractions, and the number of force chains increases with increasing cell contraction. At large cell contractions, the fibers close to the cell surface are in the nonlinear regime, and the nonlinear region is localized in a small neighborhood of the cell. In addition, the number of force chains increases with increasing collagen concentration, due to the larger number of focal adhesion sites

  3. Real time 3D and heterogeneous data fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.Q.; Small, D.E.

    1998-03-01

    This project visualizes characterization data in a 3D setting, in real time. Real time in this sense means collecting the data and presenting it before it delays the user, and processing faster than the acquisition systems so no bottlenecks occur. The goals have been to build a volumetric viewer to display 3D data, demonstrate projecting other data, such as images, onto the 3D data, and display both the 3D and projected images as fast as the data became available. The authors have examined several ways to display 3D surface data. The most effective was generating polygonal surface meshes. They have created surface maps form a continuous stream of 3D range data, fused image data onto the geometry, and displayed the data with a standard 3D rendering package. In parallel with this, they have developed a method to project real-time images onto the surface created. A key component is mapping the data on the correct surfaces, which requires a-priori positional information along with accurate calibration of the camera and lens system.

  4. GIA-Induced 3-D Crustal Velocities Predicted Using a New Generation of Viscoelastic Earth Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Latychev, K.; Tamisiea, M. E.; Tromp, J.; Milne, G. A.

    2004-05-01

    In recent work we have described a new finite-volume, time-domain numerical scheme for predicting the response of a complex (Maxwell) viscoelastic Earth model to arbitrary surface mass loads. The method permits the incorporation of 3-D variations in mantle viscoelastic structure including, for example, heterogeneities in elastic plate strength and mantle viscosity. To address these complexities numerically, we have developed our code for a distributed (parallel) computer environment such as a Beowulf PC cluster. In this talk we apply the numerical formulation to compute a suite of predictions of present-day 3-D crustal deformation rates driven by the glacial isostatic adjustment process (GIA). These predictions are generated using an input global ice model and an ocean load computed using a solution to the governing `sea-level equation'. The latter is obtained in a numerical calculation that utilizes the same space-time discretization as in the main solver. Our goal is to assess the sensitivity of previous predictions of GIA-induced 3-D crustal rates based on spherically symmetric Earth models to the introduction of: (1) elastic plate thickness variations within oceanic regions and across the ocean-continent interface; and (2) variations in mantle viscosity inferred, indirectly, from a tomographic model of seismic velocity heterogeneity.

  5. Joint earthquake source inversions using seismo-geodesy and 3-D earth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, J.; Ferreira, A. M. G.; Funning, G. J.

    2014-08-01

    A joint earthquake source inversion technique is presented that uses InSAR and long-period teleseismic data, and, for the first time, takes 3-D Earth structure into account when modelling seismic surface and body waves. Ten average source parameters (Moment, latitude, longitude, depth, strike, dip, rake, length, width and slip) are estimated; hence, the technique is potentially useful for rapid source inversions of moderate magnitude earthquakes using multiple data sets. Unwrapped interferograms and long-period seismic data are jointly inverted for the location, fault geometry and seismic moment, using a hybrid downhill Powell-Monte Carlo algorithm. While the InSAR data are modelled assuming a rectangular dislocation in a homogeneous half-space, seismic data are modelled using the spectral element method for a 3-D earth model. The effect of noise and lateral heterogeneity on the inversions is investigated by carrying out realistic synthetic tests for various earthquakes with different faulting mechanisms and magnitude (Mw 6.0-6.6). Synthetic tests highlight the improvement in the constraint of fault geometry (strike, dip and rake) and moment when InSAR and seismic data are combined. Tests comparing the effect of using a 1-D or 3-D earth model show that long-period surface waves are more sensitive than long-period body waves to the change in earth model. Incorrect source parameters, particularly incorrect fault dip angles, can compensate for systematic errors in the assumed Earth structure, leading to an acceptable data fit despite large discrepancies in source parameters. Three real earthquakes are also investigated: Eureka Valley, California (1993 May 17, Mw 6.0), Aiquile, Bolivia (1998 February 22, Mw 6.6) and Zarand, Iran (2005 May 22, Mw 6.5). These events are located in different tectonic environments and show large discrepancies between InSAR and seismically determined source models. Despite the 40-50 km discrepancies in location between previous geodetic and

  6. Extensible 3D (X3D) Earth Technical Requirements Workshop Summary Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    content within web browsers , developing high performance and lightweight implementations for rendering and interaction, and providing affordable...goals: 40 • Web -based Earth viewing for all, via a simple plug-in to web browsers . Earth viewing should not be trapped inside a “walled garden...or point product solution but should be deployable within a web browser ; • AJAX and “mashup” support. The geospatial data delivered within a web

  7. Measuring heterogenous stress fields in a 3D colloidal glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Neil; Bierbaum, Matthew; Bi, Max; Sethna, James; Cohen, Itai

    Glass in our common experience is hard and fragile. But it still bends, yields, and flows slowly under loads. The yielding of glass, a well documented yet not fully understood flow behavior, is governed by the heterogenous local stresses in the material. While resolving stresses at the atomic scale is not feasible, measurements of stresses at the single particle level in colloidal glasses, a widely used model system for atomic glasses, has recently been made possible using Stress Assessment from Local Structural Anisotropy (SALSA). In this work, we use SALSA to visualize the three dimensional stress network in a hard-sphere glass during start-up shear. By measuring the evolution of this stress network we identify local-yielding. We find that these local-yielding events often require only minimal structural rearrangement and as such have most likely been ignored in previous analyses. We then relate these micro-scale yielding events to the macro-scale flow behavior observed using bulk measurements.

  8. The Earth's Seasons in 3-D--Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckroth, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes a teaching aid made from four colored foam balls mounted on a stiff wire circle used to teach about the changing seasons and earth temperature fluctuations. The spheres represent the Earth at the solstice and equinox positions. (MVL)

  9. The OpenEarth Framework (OEF) for the 3D Visualization of Integrated Earth Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, David; Moreland, John; Baru, Chaitan; Crosby, Chris

    2010-05-01

    Data integration is increasingly important as we strive to combine data from disparate sources and assemble better models of the complex processes operating at the Earth's surface and within its interior. These data are often large, multi-dimensional, and subject to differing conventions for data structures, file formats, coordinate spaces, and units of measure. When visualized, these data require differing, and sometimes conflicting, conventions for visual representations, dimensionality, symbology, and interaction. All of this makes the visualization of integrated Earth science data particularly difficult. The OpenEarth Framework (OEF) is an open-source data integration and visualization suite of applications and libraries being developed by the GEON project at the University of California, San Diego, USA. Funded by the NSF, the project is leveraging virtual globe technology from NASA's WorldWind to create interactive 3D visualization tools that combine and layer data from a wide variety of sources to create a holistic view of features at, above, and beneath the Earth's surface. The OEF architecture is open, cross-platform, modular, and based upon Java. The OEF's modular approach to software architecture yields an array of mix-and-match software components for assembling custom applications. Available modules support file format handling, web service communications, data management, user interaction, and 3D visualization. File parsers handle a variety of formal and de facto standard file formats used in the field. Each one imports data into a general-purpose common data model supporting multidimensional regular and irregular grids, topography, feature geometry, and more. Data within these data models may be manipulated, combined, reprojected, and visualized. The OEF's visualization features support a variety of conventional and new visualization techniques for looking at topography, tomography, point clouds, imagery, maps, and feature geometry. 3D data such as

  10. Heterogeneously Assembled Metamaterials and Metadevices via 3D Modular Transfer Printing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungwoo; Kang, Byungsoo; Keum, Hohyun; Ahmed, Numair; Rogers, John A.; Ferreira, Placid M.; Kim, Seok; Min, Bumki

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials have made the exotic control of the flow of electromagnetic waves possible, which is difficult to achieve with natural materials. In recent years, the emergence of functional metadevices has shown immense potential for the practical realization of highly efficient photonic devices. However, complex and heterogeneous architectures that enable diverse functionalities of metamaterials and metadevices have been challenging to realize because of the limited manufacturing capabilities of conventional fabrication methods. Here, we show that three-dimensional (3D) modular transfer printing can be used to construct diverse metamaterials in complex 3D architectures on universal substrates, which is attractive for achieving on-demand photonic properties. Few repetitive processing steps and rapid constructions are additional advantages of 3D modular transfer printing. Thus, this method provides a fascinating route to generate flexible and stretchable 2D/3D metamaterials and metadevices with heterogeneous material components, complex device architectures, and diverse functionalities. PMID:27283594

  11. 3D Printing of Advanced Biocomposites on Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Gentry, Diana; Micks, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Human exploration off planet is severely limited by the cost of launching materials into space and re-supply. Thus materials brought from earth must be light, stable and reliable at destination. Using traditional approaches a lunar or Mars base would require either transporting a hefty store of metals or heavy manufacturing equipment and construction materials for in situ extraction; both would severely limit any other mission objectives. Long-term human space presence requires periodic replenishment, adding a massive cost overhead. Even robotic missions often sacrifice science goals for heavy radiation and thermal protection. Biology has the potential to solve these problems because it can replicate and repair itself, and do a wide variety of chemical reactions including making food, fuel and materials. Synthetic biology enhances and expands life's evolved repertoire. Using organisms as feedstock, additive manufacturing could make possible the dream of producing bespoke tools, food, smart fabrics and even replacement organs on demand. Image what new products can be enabled by such a technology, on earth or beyond!

  12. 3D Printing of Advanced Biocomposites on Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Gentry, Diana M.; Micks, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Human exploration off planet is severely limited by the cost of launching materials into space and re-supply. Thus materials brought from earth must be light, stable and reliable at destination. Using traditional approaches a lunar or Mars base would require either transporting a hefty store of metals or heavy manufacturing equipment and construction materials for in situ extraction; both would severely limit any other mission objectives. Long-term human space presence requires periodic replenishment, adding a massive cost overhead. Even robotic missions often sacrifice science goals for heavy radiation and thermal protection. Biology has the potential to solve these problems because it can replicate and repair itself, and do a wide variety of chemical reactions including making food, fuel and materials. Synthetic biology can greatly enhance and expand life's evolved repertoire. Using natural and synthetically altered organisms as the feedstock for additive manufacturing could one day make possible the dream of producing bespoke tools, food, smart fabrics and even replacement organs on demand. To this end our lab has produced a proof-of-concept bioprinter with nearly one-cell resolution. Genetically engineering yeast cells to secrete bioproducts subsequent to printing allows the potential to make biomaterials with a fine microstructure. Imagine a production system that, at a few micron scale resolution, can add mollusk shell for compressive strength per unit mass, spider silk or collagen for tensile strength per unit mass, and potentially biologically-deposited wires. Now imagine what new products can be enabled by such a technology, on earth or beyond

  13. 3D Printing of Advanced Biocomposites on Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Gentry, Diana; Micks, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration off planet is severely limited by the cost of launching materials into space and re-supply. Thus materials brought from earth must be light, stable and reliable at destination. Using traditional approaches a lunar or Mars base would require either transporting a hefty store of metals or heavy manufacturing equipment and construction materials for in situ extraction; both would severely limit any other mission objectives. Long-term human space presence requires periodic replenishment, adding a massive cost overhead. Even robotic missions often sacrifice science goals for heavy radiation and thermal protection. Biology has the potential to solve these problems because it can replicate and repair itself, and do a wide variety of chemical reactions including making food, fuel and materials. Synthetic biology can greatly enhance and expand life's evolved repertoire. Using natural and synthetically altered organisms as the feedstock for additive manufacturing could one day make possible the dream of producing bespoke tools, food, smart fabrics and even replacement organs on demand. To this end our lab has produced a proof-of-concept bioprinter with nearly one-cell resolution. Genetically engineering yeast cells to secrete bioproducts subsequent to printing allows the potential to make biomaterials with a fine microstructure. Imagine a production system that, at a few micron scale resolution, can add mollusk shell for compressive strength per unit mass, spider silk or collagen for tensile strength per unit mass, and potentially biologically-deposited wires. Now imagine what new products can be enabled by such a technology, on earth or beyond.

  14. Rapid 3D printing of anatomically accurate and mechanically heterogeneous aortic valve hydrogel scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Hockaday, L A; Kang, K H; Colangelo, N W; Cheung, P Y C; Duan, B; Malone, E; Wu, J; Girardi, L N; Bonassar, L J; Lipson, H; Chu, C C; Butcher, J T

    2012-09-01

    The aortic valve exhibits complex three-dimensional (3D) anatomy and heterogeneity essential for the long-term efficient biomechanical function. These are, however, challenging to mimic in de novo engineered living tissue valve strategies. We present a novel simultaneous 3D printing/photocrosslinking technique for rapidly engineering complex, heterogeneous aortic valve scaffolds. Native anatomic and axisymmetric aortic valve geometries (root wall and tri-leaflets) with 12-22 mm inner diameters (ID) were 3D printed with poly-ethylene glycol-diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogels (700 or 8000 MW) supplemented with alginate. 3D printing geometric accuracy was quantified and compared using Micro-CT. Porcine aortic valve interstitial cells (PAVIC) seeded scaffolds were cultured for up to 21 days. Results showed that blended PEG-DA scaffolds could achieve over tenfold range in elastic modulus (5.3±0.9 to 74.6±1.5 kPa). 3D printing times for valve conduits with mechanically contrasting hydrogels were optimized to 14 to 45 min, increasing linearly with conduit diameter. Larger printed valves had greater shape fidelity (93.3±2.6, 85.1±2.0 and 73.3±5.2% for 22, 17 and 12 mm ID porcine valves; 89.1±4.0, 84.1±5.6 and 66.6±5.2% for simplified valves). PAVIC seeded scaffolds maintained near 100% viability over 21 days. These results demonstrate that 3D hydrogel printing with controlled photocrosslinking can rapidly fabricate anatomical heterogeneous valve conduits that support cell engraftment.

  15. X3D-Earth: Full Globe Coverage Utilizing Multiple Dataset

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    not to visualize the GeoLocation . This will add geometry to the scene to render the Bounding Box at the user defined location . Once the attributes...BING MAPS PLATFORM (FORMERLY MICROSOFT VIRTUAL EARTH...lets you fly anywhere on Earth to view satellite imagery, maps , terrain, 3D buildings, from galaxies in outer space to the canyons of the ocean

  16. Modeling of thin heterogeneous sheets in the discontinuous Galerkin method for 3D transient scattering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubekeur, Mohamed; Kameni Ntichi, Abelin; Pichon, Lionel

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a modeling of heterogeneous sheets in the time domain discontinuous Galerkin method. An homogenization model combined to a sheet interface condition is used to avoid the mesh of these sheets in order to study the transient response of heterogeneous enclosures. The validation of this approach is based on a comparison with the case when the sheet is meshed. To illustrate the efficiency of the interface condition, the simulation of a 3D cavity is performed. Contribution to the topical issue "Numelec 2015 - Elected submissions", edited by Adel Razek

  17. Scales of mantle heterogeneity emerging from 3-D models of advective stretching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, L. H.; Conjeepuram, N.

    2009-12-01

    Heterogeneities are continually introduced into the mantle by subduction, and then are homogenized by stretching, folding, and finally diffusion. The stretching and folding components control the timescale of mixing in the mantle. Mixing has been studied in 2-D and to a lesser extent in 3-D models, often by using statistical analysis of separation of passive tracers. It has been proposed that mixing in 3-D time dependent convection may differ substantially from mixing in 2-D due to the different structure of the flow. To investigate the processes that determine the scales of heterogeneity in the mantle, we use a complementary method, computing the stretching experienced by passive, infinitesimal, ellipsoidal strain markers in 3-D models of mantle convection. This approach has an advantage over more commonly used methods of calculating separation of particles, because we obtain information about deformation (a mechanism to develop different scales of heterogeneity in the mantle) and about orientation of strain ellipsoids (which can result in fabrics that may lead to anisotropy). We investigate both kinematic and dynamic flows. In plate-driven kinematic flows, the toroidal component of the velocity field emerges as an important factor in mixing. Increasing the toroidal energy in the flow increases the complexity of the stretching patterns that develop and persist through time and homogenizes the stretching distribution. By computing the frequency size distribution of the strain ellipsoids we find that a marble cake upper mantle is a natural consequence of plate-driven flow. We also apply this method to evaluate the role of viscosity contrast in development of heterogeneity convection at different Rayleigh numbers. These models yield complex patterns in which tracers can separate or remain isolated, again leading to a marble-cake upper mantle. We use an innovative method of visualizing the distribution of stretching in 3-D to illustrate these results.

  18. 3D Bioprinting of Heterogeneous Aortic Valve Conduits with Alginate/Gelatin Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Bin; Hockaday, Laura A.; Kang, Kevin H.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Heart valve disease is a serious and growing public health problem for which prosthetic replacement is most commonly indicated. Current prosthetic devices are inadequate for younger adults and growing children. Tissue engineered living aortic valve conduits have potential for remodeling, regeneration, and growth, but fabricating natural anatomical complexity with cellular heterogeneity remain challenging. In the current study, we implement 3D bioprinting to fabricate living alginate/gelatin hydrogel valve conduits with anatomical architecture and direct incorporation of dual cell types in a regionally constrained manner. Encapsulated aortic root sinus smooth muscle cells (SMC) and aortic valve leaflet interstitial cells (VIC) were viable within alginate/gelatin hydrogel discs over 7 days in culture. Acellular 3D printed hydrogels exhibited reduced modulus, ultimate strength, and peak strain reducing slightly over 7-day culture, while the tensile biomechanics of cell-laden hydrogels were maintained. Aortic valve conduits were successfully bioprinted with direct encapsulation of SMC in the valve root and VIC in the leaflets. Both cell types were viable (81.4±3.4% for SMC and 83.2±4.0% for VIC) within 3D printed tissues. Encapsulated SMC expressed elevated alpha-smooth muscle actin when printed in stiff matrix, while VIC expressed elevated vimentin in soft matrix. These results demonstrate that anatomically complex, heterogeneously encapsulated aortic valve hydrogel conduits can be fabricated with 3D bioprinting. PMID:23015540

  19. 3D bioprinting: improving in vitro models of metastasis with heterogeneous tumor microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Albritton, Jacob L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Even with many advances in treatment over the past decades, cancer still remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Despite the recognized relationship between metastasis and increased mortality rate, surprisingly little is known about the exact mechanism of metastatic progression. Currently available in vitro models cannot replicate the three-dimensionality and heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment sufficiently to recapitulate many of the known characteristics of tumors in vivo. Our understanding of metastatic progression would thus be boosted by the development of in vitro models that could more completely capture the salient features of cancer biology. Bioengineering groups have been working for over two decades to create in vitro microenvironments for application in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Over this time, advances in 3D printing technology and biomaterials research have jointly led to the creation of 3D bioprinting, which has improved our ability to develop in vitro models with complexity approaching that of the in vivo tumor microenvironment. In this Review, we give an overview of 3D bioprinting methods developed for tissue engineering, which can be directly applied to constructing in vitro models of heterogeneous tumor microenvironments. We discuss considerations and limitations associated with 3D printing and highlight how these advances could be harnessed to better model metastasis and potentially guide the development of anti-cancer strategies. PMID:28067628

  20. 3D Mass Spectrometry Imaging Reveals a Very Heterogeneous Drug Distribution in Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, S.; Morosi, L.; Veglianese, P.; Licandro, S. A.; Frapolli, R.; Zucchetti, M.; Cappelletti, G.; Falciola, L.; Pifferi, V.; Visentin, S.; D’Incalci, M.; Davoli, E.

    2016-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) is a widespread technique used to qualitatively describe in two dimensions the distribution of endogenous or exogenous compounds within tissue sections. Absolute quantification of drugs using MSI is a recent challenge that just in the last years has started to be addressed. Starting from a two dimensional MSI protocol, we developed a three-dimensional pipeline to study drug penetration in tumors and to develop a new drug quantification method by MALDI MSI. Paclitaxel distribution and concentration in different tumors were measured in a 3D model of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM), which is known to be a very heterogeneous neoplasm, highly resistant to different drugs. The 3D computational reconstruction allows an accurate description of tumor PTX penetration, adding information about the heterogeneity of tumor drug distribution due to the complex microenvironment. The use of an internal standard, homogenously sprayed on tissue slices, ensures quantitative results that are similar to those obtained using HPLC. The 3D model gives important information about the drug concentration in different tumor sub-volumes and shows that the great part of each tumor is not reached by the drug, suggesting the concept of pseudo-resistance as a further explanation for ineffective therapies and tumors relapse. PMID:27841316

  1. 3D printing method for freeform fabrication of optical phantoms simulating heterogeneous biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minjie; Shen, Shuwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Erbao; Xu, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    The performance of biomedical optical imaging devices heavily relies on appropriate calibration. However, many of existing calibration phantoms for biomedical optical devices are based on homogenous materials without considering the multi-layer heterogeneous structures observed in biological tissue. Using such a phantom for optical calibration may result in measurement bias. To overcome this problem, we propose a 3D printing method for freeform fabrication of tissue simulating phantoms with multilayer heterogeneous structure. The phantom simulates not only the morphologic characteristics of biological tissue but also absorption and scattering properties. The printing system is based on a 3D motion platform with coordinated control of the DC motors. A special jet nozzle is designed to mix base, scattering, and absorption materials at different ratios. 3D tissue structures are fabricated through layer-by-layer printing with selective deposition of phantom materials of different ingredients. Different mixed ratios of base, scattering and absorption materials have been tested in order to optimize the printing outcome. A spectrometer and a tissue spectrophotometer are used for characterizing phantom absorption and scattering properties. The goal of this project is to fabricate skin tissue simulating phantoms as a traceable standard for the calibration of biomedical optical spectral devices.

  2. A highly heterogeneous 3D PWR core benchmark: deterministic and Monte Carlo method comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaboulay, J.-C.; Damian, F.; Douce, S.; Lopez, F.; Guenaut, C.; Aggery, A.; Poinot-Salanon, C.

    2014-06-01

    Physical analyses of the LWR potential performances with regards to the fuel utilization require an important part of the work dedicated to the validation of the deterministic models used for theses analyses. Advances in both codes and computer technology give the opportunity to perform the validation of these models on complex 3D core configurations closed to the physical situations encountered (both steady-state and transient configurations). In this paper, we used the Monte Carlo Transport code TRIPOLI-4®; to describe a whole 3D large-scale and highly-heterogeneous LWR core. The aim of this study is to validate the deterministic CRONOS2 code to Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-4®; in a relevant PWR core configuration. As a consequence, a 3D pin by pin model with a consistent number of volumes (4.3 millions) and media (around 23,000) is established to precisely characterize the core at equilibrium cycle, namely using a refined burn-up and moderator density maps. The configuration selected for this analysis is a very heterogeneous PWR high conversion core with fissile (MOX fuel) and fertile zones (depleted uranium). Furthermore, a tight pitch lattice is selcted (to increase conversion of 238U in 239Pu) that leads to harder neutron spectrum compared to standard PWR assembly. In these conditions two main subjects will be discussed: the Monte Carlo variance calculation and the assessment of the diffusion operator with two energy groups for the core calculation.

  3. Characterizing heterogeneity among virus particles by stochastic 3D signal reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Nan; Gong, Yunye; Wang, Qiu; Zheng, Yili; Doerschuk, Peter C.

    2015-09-01

    In single-particle cryo electron microscopy, many electron microscope images each of a single instance of a biological particle such as a virus or a ribosome are measured and the 3-D electron scattering intensity of the particle is reconstructed by computation. Because each instance of the particle is imaged separately, it should be possible to characterize the heterogeneity of the different instances of the particle as well as a nominal reconstruction of the particle. In this paper, such an algorithm is described and demonstrated on the bacteriophage Hong Kong 97. The algorithm is a statistical maximum likelihood estimator computed by an expectation maximization algorithm implemented in Matlab software.

  4. Application of 3d-ptv To Track Particle Moving Inside Heterogeneous Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenedese, A.; Cushman, J. H.; Moroni, M.

    There exist a number of imaging-based measurement techniques for determining 3D velocity fields in an observation volume. Among these are: a) scanning techniques (Guezennec et al. 1994, Moroni and Cushman, 2001); b) holographic techniques (Hin- sch and Hinrichs 1996); c) defocusing techniques (Willert and Gharib 1992); d) stereo- scopic techniques (Maas et al. 1993, Kasagi and Nishino 1990). We have focused our attention on 3D-PTV which is an experimental technique based on reconstructing 3D trajectories of reflecting tracer particles through a stereoscopic recording of image se- quences. Coordinates are determined first and then trajectories are defined. 3D-PTV requires the operator to light a volume of the test section as opposed to 2D techniques that require a light sheet. Stereoscopic methods share the following basic steps (Pa- pantoniou, 1990): a) stereoscopic calibrated imaging and recording of a suitably illu- minated particle flow; b) subsequent photogrammetric analysis of the resulting images to derive the instantaneous 3-D particle positions and c) tracking of the 3-D coordinate sets in time to derive the tracer trajectories. The ideal setup for obtaining highly accu- rate trajectories requires the cameras to be mounted with the distance between them equal to the distance to the center of the measurement volume (with three cameras this requires a hexagonal cell). But the camera arrangement is usually a compromise between ideal geometrical conditions for a homogeneous distribution of accuracies in the measuring volume and practical restrictions associated with the experiment. The position of the cameras in object space (exterior orientation) and the parameters of each camera (interior orientation) are needed to reconstruct the 3D objects. These pa- rameters can be calculated simultaneously in a so-called "bundle adjustment" or by pre-calibration. A matched index (of refraction) porous medium heterogeneous at the bench scale has been constructed by filling

  5. Using 3D Printers to Model Earth Surface Topography for Increased Student Understanding and Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thesenga, David; Town, James

    2014-05-01

    In February 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour flew a specially modified radar system during an 11-day mission. The purpose of the multinational Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was to "obtain elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth" by using radar interferometry. The data and resulting products are now publicly available for download and give a view of the landscape removed of vegetation, buildings, and other structures. This new view of the Earth's topography allows us to see previously unmapped or poorly mapped regions of the Earth as well as providing a level of detail that was previously unknown using traditional topographic mapping techniques. Understanding and appreciating the geographic terrain is a complex but necessary requirement for middle school aged (11-14yo) students. Abstract in nature, topographic maps and other 2D renderings of the Earth's surface and features do not address the inherent spatial challenges of a concrete-learner and traditional methods of teaching can at times exacerbate the problem. Technological solutions such as 3D-imaging in programs like Google Earth are effective but lack the tactile realness that can make a large difference in learning comprehension and retention for these young students. First developed in the 1980's, 3D printers were not commercial reality until recently and the rapid rise in interest has driven down the cost. With the advent of sub US1500 3D printers, this technology has moved out of the high-end marketplace and into the local office supply store. Schools across the US and elsewhere in the world are adding 3D printers to their technological workspaces and students have begun rapid-prototyping and manufacturing a variety of projects. This project attempted to streamline the process of transforming SRTM data from a GeoTIFF format by way of Python code. The resulting data was then inputted into a CAD-based program for

  6. Constructing 3D heterogeneous hydrogels from electrically manipulated prepolymer droplets and crosslinked microgels

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Min-Yu; Hsu, Yao-Wen; Hsieh, Hsin-Yi; Chen, San-Yuan; Fan, Shih-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Formation of multifunctional, heterogeneous, and encoded hydrogel building blocks, or microgels, by crosslinking and assembly of microgels are two essential steps in establishing hierarchical, complicated, and three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel architectures that recapitulate natural and biological structures or originate new materials by design. However, for the variety of the hydrogel materials crosslinked differently and for the varied scales of microgels and architectures, the formation and assembly processes are usually performed separately, which increases the manufacturing complexity of designed hydrogel materials. We show the construction of hydrogel architectures through programmable formation and assembly on an electromicrofluidic platform, adopting two reciprocal electric manipulations (electrowetting and dielectrophoresis) to manipulate varied objects (i) in multiple phases, including prepolymer liquid droplets and crosslinked microgels, (ii) on a wide range of scales from micrometer functional particles or cells to millimeter-assembled hydrogel architectures, and (iii) with diverse properties, such as conductive and dielectric droplets that are photocrosslinkable, chemically crosslinkable, or thermally crosslinkable. Prepolymer droplets, particles, and dissolved molecules are electrically addressable to adjust the properties of the microgel building blocks in liquid phase that subsequently undergo crosslinking and assembly in a flexible sequence to accomplish heterogeneous and seamless hydrogel architectures. We expect the electromicrofluidic platform to become a general technique to obtain 3D complex architectures. PMID:27819046

  7. A Unified Approach to Joint Regional/Teleseismic Calibration and Event Location with a 3D Earth Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    time to forward model a travel-time data set when a fully 3D raytracing methods is used. An efficient alternative to full 3D raytracing is travel...when a fully 3D raytracing methods is used. An efficient alternative to full 3D raytracing is travel-time linearization, which approximates the...numerical methods are available for raytracing and travel-time calculation in 3D Earth models, such as the finite-difference eikonal method (e.g

  8. 3D print of polymer bonded rare-earth magnets, and 3D magnetic field scanning with an end-user 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, C.; Abert, C.; Bruckner, F.; Groenefeld, M.; Muthsam, O.; Schuschnigg, S.; Sirak, K.; Thanhoffer, R.; Teliban, I.; Vogler, C.; Windl, R.; Suess, D.

    2016-10-01

    3D print is a recently developed technique, for single-unit production, and for structures that have been impossible to build previously. The current work presents a method to 3D print polymer bonded isotropic hard magnets with a low-cost, end-user 3D printer. Commercially available isotropic NdFeB powder inside a PA11 matrix is characterized, and prepared for the printing process. An example of a printed magnet with a complex shape that was designed to generate a specific stray field is presented, and compared with finite element simulation solving the macroscopic Maxwell equations. For magnetic characterization, and comparing 3D printed structures with injection molded parts, hysteresis measurements are performed. To measure the stray field outside the magnet, the printer is upgraded to a 3D magnetic flux density measurement system. To skip an elaborate adjusting of the sensor, a simulation is used to calibrate the angles, sensitivity, and the offset of the sensor. With this setup, a measurement resolution of 0.05 mm along the z-axes is achievable. The effectiveness of our calibration method is shown. With our setup, we are able to print polymer bonded magnetic systems with the freedom of having a specific complex shape with locally tailored magnetic properties. The 3D scanning setup is easy to mount, and with our calibration method we are able to get accurate measuring results of the stray field.

  9. Hydrogeophysical characterization and 3D modeling of heterogeneous unsaturated zone of a sandstone quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winiarski, T.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Goutaland, D.; Bievre, G.; Thevenin, L.; Sevestre, J.; Lassabatère, L.; Perrodin, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The potentially polluted sediments of the French ports, obtained by dredging maintenance operations, have to be disposed by filling-up open quarries why discontinuities can potentially lead to preferential flow. Indeed, flow anisotropy can be created either by: the original quarry structural discontinuities (faults, joints), the material sedimentary bedding or some anthropogenic effect (i.e., cracking induced by the operation of the quarry). The objective of the study is to estimate the role of the quarry heterogeneity on the unsaturated- zone water flow. A conceptual model based on the 3D structural recognition is proposed to study water flow. It is based on the recognition of the 3D geometric structure by using: (1) sedimentary structural geology principles, (2) geophysical measurements (Ground-Penetrating Radar and seismic refraction) performed on a limited but representative zone of the quarry and (3) in-situ Beerkan infiltration tests for soil hydraulic characterization. This new approach has been tested on a small volume (45m x 30m x 8m) of a Cenomanian sandstone quarry on southern France. The hydrogeophysical approach makes it possible to account for stratigraphic discontinuity non visible from the soil surface. GPR resolution is appropriate to resolve the sedimentary structure (direction, dip and bedding density). The seismic refraction completes the analysis by the water table localization. Both capillary retention and hydraulic conductivity curves have been obtained for uniform geometric elements using the BEST algorithm (Beerkan estimation of soil transfer parameters). The resolution of the Richards equation with 3D COMSOL Multiphysics software seems to emphasize the fractures role according to the sandstone initial conditions. Coupling geophysical and hydrodynamic approaches makes it possible to obtain a 3D in-situ realistic block representative of the studied site. Flow modeling on this block makes it possible to evaluate the risk at the quarry scale.

  10. Mach-wave coherence in 3D media with random heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Jagdish C.; Mai, P. Martin; Galis, Martin; Dunham, Eric M.; Imperatori, Walter

    2016-04-01

    We investigate Mach-waves coherence for complex super-shear ruptures embedded in 3D random media that lead to seismic scattering. We simulate Mach-wave using kinematic earthquake sources that include fault-regions over which the rupture propagates at super-shear speed. The local slip rate is modeled with the regularized Yoffe function. The medium heterogeneities are characterized by Von Karman correlation function. We consider various realizations of 3D random media from combinations of different values of correlation length (0.5 km, 2 km, 5 km), standard deviation (5%, 10%, 15%) and Hurst exponent (0.2). Simulations in a homogeneous medium serve as a reference case. The ground-motion simulations (maximum resolved frequency of 5 Hz) are conducted by solving the elasto-dynamic equations of motions using a generalized finite-difference method, assuming a vertical strike-slip fault. The seismic wavefield is sampled at numerous locations within the Mach-cone region to study the properties and evolution of the Mach-waves in scattering media. We find that the medium scattering from random heterogeneities significantly diminishes the coherence of Mach-wave in terms of both amplitude and frequencies. We observe that Mach-waves are considerably scattered at distances RJB > 20 km (and beyond) for random media with standard deviation 10%. The scattering efficiency of the medium for small Hurst exponents (H <= 0.2) is mainly controlled by the standard deviation of the velocity heterogeneities, rather than their correlation length, as both theoretical considerations and numerical experiments indicate. Based on our simulations, we propose that local super-shear ruptures may be more common in nature then reported, but are very difficult to detect due to the strong seismic scattering. We suggest that if an earthquake is recorded within 10-15 km fault perpendicular distance and has high PGA, then inversion should be carried out by allowing rupture speed variations from sub

  11. Propagation of an Earth-Directed Coronal Mass Ejection in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Jason; Gallagher, P. T.; Maloney, S. A.; McAteer, J.

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a new method to reconstruct the 3D evolution of a CME front using the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) onboard the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). On 12 December 2008 an Earth-directed CME was observed by STEREO while the spacecraft were in near quadrature at 86.7 degrees separation. This positioning presents an ideal case for observing its propagation through the combined SECCHI instrument fields-of-view and applying our technique to reconstruct the CME front in 3D. The reconstruction allows us to determine the true CME front kinematics and morphology, and we measure three important dynamic effects at play: deflection from a high latitude source region; an increasing angular width; and interplanetary drag.

  12. Compilation of 3D global conductivity model of the Earth for space weather applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Dmitry; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Palshin, Nikolay

    2015-07-01

    We have compiled a global three-dimensional (3D) conductivity model of the Earth with an ultimate goal to be used for realistic simulation of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC), posing a potential threat to man-made electric systems. Bearing in mind the intrinsic frequency range of the most intense disturbances (magnetospheric substorms) with typical periods ranging from a few minutes to a few hours, the compiled 3D model represents the structure in depth range of 0-100 km, including seawater, sediments, earth crust, and partly the lithosphere/asthenosphere. More explicitly, the model consists of a series of spherical layers, whose vertical and lateral boundaries are established based on available data. To compile a model, global maps of bathymetry, sediment thickness, and upper and lower crust thicknesses as well as lithosphere thickness are utilized. All maps are re-interpolated on a common grid of 0.25×0.25 degree lateral spacing. Once the geometry of different structures is specified, each element of the structure is assigned either a certain conductivity value or conductivity versus depth distribution, according to available laboratory data and conversion laws. A numerical formalism developed for compilation of the model, allows for its further refinement by incorporation of regional 3D conductivity distributions inferred from the real electromagnetic data. So far we included into our model four regional conductivity models, available from recent publications, namely, surface conductance model of Russia, and 3D conductivity models of Fennoscandia, Australia, and northwest of the United States.

  13. On the location of microseismic sources in instable rock slope areas: heterogeneous vs. homogenous 3D velocity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coviello, Velio; Manconi, Andrea; Occhiena, Cristina; Arattano, Massimo; Scavia, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    reliability. Preliminary results show a relevant improvement by considering a more realistic 3D heterogeneous velocity model for the relocation of seismic recordings due to artificial sources with respect to a homogeneous one. Future work will focus on the evaluation of the efficiency of the here presented 3D velocity model for the location of natural microseismic sources. [1] Occhiena, C., Coviello, V., Arattano, M., Chiarle, M., Morra di Cella, U., Pirulli, M., Pogliotti, P., and Scavia, C.: Analysis of microseismic signals and temperature recordings for rock slope stability investigations in high mountain areas, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 2283-2298, doi:10.5194/nhess-12-2283-2012, 2012.

  14. Development of hybrid 3-D hydrological modeling for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM)

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Xubin; Troch, Peter; Pelletier, Jon; Niu, Guo-Yue; Gochis, David

    2015-11-15

    This is the Final Report of our four-year (3-year plus one-year no cost extension) collaborative project between the University of Arizona (UA) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The overall objective of our project is to develop and evaluate the first hybrid 3-D hydrological model with a horizontal grid spacing of 1 km for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM).

  15. Thermocapillary Flow and Coalescences of Heterogeneous Bubble Size Diameter in a Rotating Cylinder: 3D Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhendal, Yousuf; Turan, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Two dimensional axisymmetric and three-dimensional VOF simulations of gas/liquid transient flow were performed using a multiphase flow algorithm based on the finite-volume method. The results for motion of a multiple bubbles of a heterogeneous sizes aligned horizontally and perpendicular to a hot surface incorporating thermocapillary forces in a rotating liquid in a zero-gravity environment have been presented for the first time. No bubbles broke in any of the cases observed. The results also show that collision and agglomeration of bubbles of unequal sizes diameter are different from those of similar size diameters presented from earlier research work of Alhendal et al. Acta Astronaut. 117, 484-496 (2015). Different flow patterns such as thermocapillary bubble migration, collision, and stream function were observed and presented for the 2-D and 3-D models.

  16. Sensitivity Tuning through Additive Heterogeneous Plasmon Coupling between 3D Assembled Plasmonic Nanoparticle and Nanocup Arrays.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sujin; Zhou, Xiangfei; Liu, Gang Logan

    2016-07-01

    Plasmonic substrates have fixed sensitivity once the geometry of the structure is defined. In order to improve the sensitivity, significant research effort has been focused on designing new plasmonic structures, which involves high fabrication costs; however, a method is reported for improving sensitivity not by redesigning the structure but by simply assembling plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) near the evanescent field of the underlying 3D plasmonic nanostructure. Here, a nanoscale Lycurgus cup array (nanoLCA) is employed as a base colorimetric plasmonic substrate and an assembly template. Compared to the nanoLCA, the NP assembled nanoLCA (NP-nanoLCA) exhibits much higher sensitivity for both bulk refractive index sensing and biotin-streptavidin binding detection. The limit of detection of the NP-nanoLCA is at least ten times smaller when detecting biotin-streptavidin conjugation. The numerical calculations confirm the importance of the additive plasmon coupling between the NPs and the nanoLCA for a denser and stronger electric field in the same 3D volumetric space. Tunable sensitivity is accomplished by controlling the number of NPs in each nanocup, or the number density of the hot spots. This simple yet scalable and cost-effective method of using additive heterogeneous plasmon coupling effects will benefit various chemical, medical, and environmental plasmon-based sensors.

  17. A 3D numerical study of antimicrobial persistence in heterogeneous multi-species biofilms.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus; Wang, Zhejun; Wang, Qi

    2016-03-07

    We develop a 3D hydrodynamic model to investigate the mechanism of antimicrobial persistence in a multi-species oral biofilm and its recovery after being treated by bisbiguanide chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX). In addition to the hydrodynamic transport in the spatially heterogeneous biofilm, the model also includes mechanisms of solvent-biomass interaction, bacterial phenotype conversion, and bacteria-drug interaction. A numerical solver for the model is developed using a second order numerical scheme in 3D space and time and implemented on GPUs for high-performance computing. The model is calibrated against a set of experimental data obtained using confocal laser scan microscopy (CLSM) on multi-species oral biofilms, where a quantitative agreement is reached. Our numerical results reveal that quorum sensing molecules and growth factors in this model are instrumental in biofilm formation and recovery after the antimicrobial treatment. In particular, we show that (i) young biofilms are more susceptible to the antimicrobial treatment than the mature ones, (ii) this phenomenon is strongly correlated with volume fractions of the persister and EPS in the biofilm being treated. This suggests that antimicrobial treatment should be best administered to biofilms earlier before they mature to produce a thick protective EPS layer. In addition, the numerical study also indicates that an antimicrobial effect can be achieved should a proper mechanism be devised to minimize the conversion of susceptible bacteria to persisters during and even after the treatment.

  18. Towards more realistic 2D & 3D numerical models of Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghias, Sanaz

    2011-12-01

    There are a number of simplifying assumptions in modeling Earth's deep interior. These are mostly simplifying assumptions that make the mathematics simpler either for less complicated modeling or for numerical efficiency purposes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of some of these simplifying assumptions on 2D and 3D mantle convection models. In particular, the cases with variable coefficients of thermal expansion, alpha, and the inclusion of mineral phase transitions and viscosity stratification have been studied. The coefficient of thermal expansion is temperature- and depth-dependent in Earth. But for simplicity, it has been considered as constant in most mantle convection models and only depth-dependent in others. 2D mantle convection models (2D Cartesian and 2D cylindrical) have been created based on an existing model from Jarvis [1992] to investigate the effects of temperature- and depth-dependent alpha on mantle convection compared with the simplified cases. Also an existing version of a 3D parallel mantle convection model, MC3D, from Lowman et al. [2001] have been modified to include the temperature- and depth-dependent alpha. In the 3D study it has also been investigated that how the effects of temperature- and depth-dependent alpha vary with or without lithospheric plates. There are at least two mineral phase transitions in Earth. There is an exothermic phase boundary at 410km below the surface and an endothermic phase boundary at 660km below the surface. For simplicity, most mantle convection models do not consider any of the phase boundaries. Some consider only the endothermic phase boundary. A 2D cylindrical model from Shahnas and Jarvas [2005] has been employed to investigate the effects of considering both phase boundaries compared to models with either no, or one, phase boundary. Different viscosity stratifications have been used in addition to the phase boundaries.

  19. 3D Observations of Dispersion, Mixing and Reaction in Heterogeneous Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, M.; Bijeljic, B.; Krevor, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Rock structure heterogeneity can have a significant effect on dispersion, mixing and reaction of aqueous components in porous media. To observe the effect of pore structure heterogeneity on reactive transport, core flooding experiments were carried out for a sandstone and two carbonate rocks of different heterogeneity for eight different Peclet numbers ranging from 0.5 to 100. The rock cores were 20cm long and had a diameter of 7.62cm. A device consisting out of three annular regions was used for injection (fig. 1A). An analytical solution to the flow and transport equations for this new inlet configuration was derived to design the experiments (fig. 1B).The dispersion, mixing and reaction of chemical components were visualised in 3D with the use of chemical dopants and a medical CT scanner (fig. 1C). Local transverse dispersion coefficients (Dt) were calculated from the change in variance of the transverse distance travelled by the chemical dopant along the core. The change in variance along the core showed a characteristic pattern for each rock that was independent of spatial location. Heterogeneity was characterized by the spread in local transverse dispersion coefficients. For Peclet number 2, for the homogenous rock the local transverse dispersion coefficients ranged from 4.1x10-4 cm2 min-1 to 5.9x10-4 cm2 min-1 and for the most heterogeneous rock from 2.5x10-3 cm2 min-1 to 7.2x10-3 cm2 min-1. For the reactive transport experiments, an ICP-MS was used to measure the effluent. The core flooding experiments were modelled using both, the CrunchFlow and ToughReact reactive transport codes. High quality data sets of the space and time evolution of the concentration in non-reactive and reactive core-flooding experiments like these can be used as future benchmark test for numerical models. Furthermore, these observations can be used in the development of upscaling techniques for accurate and efficient modelling of chemical processes during flow in porous media.

  20. 3D Online Visualization and Synergy of NASA A-Train Data using Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A.; Kempler, S. J.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Smith, P. M.

    2010-12-01

    Google Earth provides a convenient virtual 3D platform for organizing, visualizing, publishing, and synergizing Earth science data. This kind of platform is increasingly playing an important role in scientific research that involves geospatial data. NASA Goddard Earth Science (GES) Data and Information Service Center (DISC) has had a dedicated Google Earth-based scientific research program for several years. We have implemented numerous tools for a) visualizing two-, three- and four-dimensional Earth science data on Google Earth; b) visualizing and synergizing analyzed results derived from GES DISC’s online analysis system; and c) visualizing results derived from other standard web services (e.g. OGC WMS). All those implementations produce KMZ files that can be opened via Google Earth client and Earth science data are visualized on Google Earth. Google Earth can be used as both a client and a web browser plug-in. Currently, Google Earth’s plug-in in web browser is integrated with GES DISC’s online analysis system as a virtual three dimensional platform to facilitate three-dimensional online interactive data analysis and results visualization. Multiple Google Earth windows are available in one browser window for users visualizing, comparing and synergizing online Earth science data. By utilizing the available GES DISC’s online system, users can interactively select and refine their data products of interest and then generate downloadable KMZ files. These KMZ files are automatically opened in the user’s Google Earth client. Google Earth is used to overlay and manipulate the contained data layers thus providing the ability of data synergy and the inter-comparison and analysis of a wide variety of online scientific measurements. We illustrate our system design and implementation and demonstrate our operation system here. The work at GES DISC allows greater integration between online scientific data analysis systems and three-dimensional visualization, and

  1. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries. PMID:26899876

  2. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries.

  3. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-22

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries.

  4. The Shock Dynamics of Heterogeneous YSO Jets: 3D Simulations Meet Multi-epoch Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, E. C.; Frank, A.; Hartigan, P.; Lebedev, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    High-resolution observations of young stellar object (YSO) jets show them to be composed of many small-scale knots or clumps. In this paper, we report results of 3D numerical simulations designed to study how such clumps interact and create morphologies and kinematic patterns seen in emission line observations. Our simulations focus on clump scale dynamics by imposing velocity differences between spherical, over-dense regions, which then lead to the formation of bow shocks as faster clumps overtake slower material. We show that much of the spatial structure apparent in emission line images of jets arises from the dynamics and interactions of these bow shocks. Our simulations show a variety of time-dependent features, including bright knots associated with Mach stems where the shocks intersect, a “frothy” emission structure that arises from the presence of the Nonlinear Thin Shell Instability along the surfaces of the bow shocks, and the merging and fragmentation of clumps. Our simulations use a new non-equilibrium cooling method to produce synthetic emission maps in Hα and [S ii]. These are directly compared to multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope observations of Herbig–Haro jets. We find excellent agreement between features seen in the simulations and the observations in terms of both proper motion and morphologies. Thus we conclude that YSO jets may be dominated by heterogeneous structures and that interactions between these structures and the shocks they produce can account for many details of YSO jet evolution.

  5. Earth Orbit v2.1: a 3-D visualization and analysis model of Earth's orbit, Milankovitch cycles and insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinov, T. S.; Gilb, R.

    2014-06-01

    Milankovitch theory postulates that periodic variability of Earth's orbital elements is a major climate forcing mechanism, causing, for example, the contemporary glacial-interglacial cycles. There are three Milankovitch orbital parameters: orbital eccentricity, precession and obliquity. The interaction of the amplitudes, periods and phases of these parameters controls the spatio-temporal patterns of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the timing and duration of the seasons. This complexity makes Earth-Sun geometry and Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. Here, we present "Earth Orbit v2.1": an astronomically precise and accurate model that offers 3-D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcing. The model is developed in MATLAB® as a user-friendly graphical user interface. Users are presented with a choice between the Berger (1978a) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. A "demo" mode is also available, which allows the Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other, so that users can isolate the effects of each parameter on orbital geometry, the seasons, and insolation. A 3-D orbital configuration plot, as well as various surface and line plots of insolation and insolation anomalies on various time and space scales are produced. Insolation computations use the model's own orbital geometry with no additional a priori input other than the Milankovitch parameter solutions. Insolation output and the underlying solar declination computation are successfully validated against the results of Laskar et al. (2004) and Meeus (1998), respectively. The model outputs some ancillary parameters as well, e.g., Earth's radius-vector length, solar declination and day length for the chosen date and latitude. Time-series plots of the Milankovitch parameters and several relevant paleoclimatological data sets can be produced. Both

  6. Early Earth plume-lid tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, R.; Gerya, T.

    2016-10-01

    Geological-geochemical evidence point towards higher mantle potential temperature and a different type of tectonics (global plume-lid tectonics) in the early Earth (>3.2 Ga) compared to the present day (global plate tectonics). In order to investigate tectono-magmatic processes associated with plume-lid tectonics and crustal growth under hotter mantle temperature conditions, we conduct a series of 3D high-resolution magmatic-thermomechanical models with the finite-difference code I3ELVIS. No external plate tectonic forces are applied to isolate 3D effects of various plume-lithosphere and crust-mantle interactions. Results of the numerical experiments show two distinct phases in coupled crust-mantle evolution: (1) a longer (80-100 Myr) and relatively quiet 'growth phase' which is marked by growth of crust and lithosphere, followed by (2) a short (∼20 Myr) and catastrophic 'removal phase', where unstable parts of the crust and mantle lithosphere are removed by eclogitic dripping and later delamination. This modelling suggests that the early Earth plume-lid tectonic regime followed a pattern of episodic growth and removal also called episodic overturn with a periodicity of ∼100 Myr.

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Vascular Heterogeneity in Breast Lesions Using Contrast-Enhanced 3-D Harmonic and Subharmonic Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Anush; Eisenbrey, John R.; Machado, Priscilla; Ojeda-Fournier, Haydee; Wilkes, Annina; Sevrukov, Alexander; Mattrey, Robert F.; Wallace, Kirk; Chalek, Carl L.; Thomenius, Kai E.; Forsberg, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Ability to visualize breast lesion vascularity and quantify the vascular heterogeneity using contrast-enhanced 3-D harmonic (HI) and subharmonic (SHI) ultrasound imaging was investigated in a clinical population. Patients (n = 134) identified with breast lesions on mammography were scanned using power Doppler imaging, contrast-enhanced 3-D HI, and 3-D SHI on a modified Logiq 9 scanner (GE Healthcare). A region of interest corresponding to ultrasound contrast agent flow was identified in 4D View (GE Medical Systems) and mapped to raw slice data to generate a map of time-intensity curves for the lesion volume. Time points corresponding to baseline, peak intensity, and washout of ultrasound contrast agent were identified and used to generate and compare vascular heterogeneity plots for malignant and benign lesions. Vascularity was observed with power Doppler imaging in 84 lesions (63 benign and 21 malignant). The 3-D HI showed flow in 8 lesions (5 benign and 3 malignant), whereas 3-D SHI visualized flow in 68 lesions (49 benign and 19 malignant). Analysis of vascular heterogeneity in the 3-D SHI volumes found benign lesions having a significant difference in vascularity between central and peripheral sections (1.71 ± 0.96 vs. 1.13 ± 0.79 dB, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas malignant lesions showed no difference (1.66 ± 1.39 vs. 1.24 ± 1.14 dB, p = 0.24), indicative of more vascular coverage. These preliminary results suggest quantitative evaluation of vascular heterogeneity in breast lesions using contrast-enhanced 3-D SHI is feasible and able to detect variations in vascularity between central and peripheral sections for benign and malignant lesions. PMID:25935933

  8. Quantitative analysis of vascular heterogeneity in breast lesions using contrast-enhanced 3-D harmonic and subharmonic ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Anush; Eisenbrey, John R; Machado, Priscilla; Ojeda-Fournier, Haydee; Wilkes, Annina; Sevrukov, Alexander; Mattrey, Robert F; Wallace, Kirk; Chalek, Carl L; Thomenius, Kai E; Forsberg, Flemming

    2015-03-01

    Ability to visualize breast lesion vascularity and quantify the vascular heterogeneity using contrast-enhanced 3-D harmonic (HI) and subharmonic (SHI) ultrasound imaging was investigated in a clinical population. Patients (n = 134) identified with breast lesions on mammography were scanned using power Doppler imaging, contrast-enhanced 3-D HI, and 3-D SHI on a modified Logiq 9 scanner (GE Healthcare). A region of interest corresponding to ultrasound contrast agent flow was identified in 4D View (GE Medical Systems) and mapped to raw slice data to generate a map of time-intensity curves for the lesion volume. Time points corresponding to baseline, peak intensity, and washout of ultrasound contrast agent were identified and used to generate and compare vascular heterogeneity plots for malignant and benign lesions. Vascularity was observed with power Doppler imaging in 84 lesions (63 benign and 21 malignant). The 3-D HI showed flow in 8 lesions (5 benign and 3 malignant), whereas 3-D SHI visualized flow in 68 lesions (49 benign and 19 malignant). Analysis of vascular heterogeneity in the 3-D SHI volumes found benign lesions having a significant difference in vascularity between central and peripheral sections (1.71 ± 0.96 vs. 1.13 ± 0.79 dB, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas malignant lesions showed no difference (1.66 ± 1.39 vs. 1.24 ± 1.14 dB, p = 0.24), indicative of more vascular coverage. These preliminary results suggest quantitative evaluation of vascular heterogeneity in breast lesions using contrast-enhanced 3-D SHI is feasible and able to detect variations in vascularity between central and peripheral sections for benign and malignant lesions.

  9. Dynamic earthquake rupture simulations on nonplanar faults embedded in 3D geometrically complex, heterogeneous elastic solids

    SciTech Connect

    Duru, Kenneth; Dunham, Eric M.

    2016-01-15

    Dynamic propagation of shear ruptures on a frictional interface in an elastic solid is a useful idealization of natural earthquakes. The conditions relating discontinuities in particle velocities across fault zones and tractions acting on the fault are often expressed as nonlinear friction laws. The corresponding initial boundary value problems are both numerically and computationally challenging. In addition, seismic waves generated by earthquake ruptures must be propagated for many wavelengths away from the fault. Therefore, reliable and efficient numerical simulations require both provably stable and high order accurate numerical methods. We present a high order accurate finite difference method for: a) enforcing nonlinear friction laws, in a consistent and provably stable manner, suitable for efficient explicit time integration; b) dynamic propagation of earthquake ruptures along nonplanar faults; and c) accurate propagation of seismic waves in heterogeneous media with free surface topography. We solve the first order form of the 3D elastic wave equation on a boundary-conforming curvilinear mesh, in terms of particle velocities and stresses that are collocated in space and time, using summation-by-parts (SBP) finite difference operators in space. Boundary and interface conditions are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving semi-discrete energy estimates analogous to the continuous energy estimates we prove numerical stability. The finite difference stencils used in this paper are sixth order accurate in the interior and third order accurate close to the boundaries. However, the method is applicable to any spatial operator with a diagonal norm satisfying the SBP property. Time stepping is performed with a 4th order accurate explicit low storage Runge–Kutta scheme, thus yielding a globally fourth order accurate method in both space and time. We show numerical simulations on band limited self-similar fractal faults revealing the complexity of rupture

  10. Semi-brittle rheology and ice dynamics in DynEarthSol3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Liz C.; Lavier, Luc L.; Choi, Eunseo; Tan, Eh; Catania, Ginny A.

    2017-01-01

    We present a semi-brittle rheology and explore its potential for simulating glacier and ice sheet deformation using a numerical model, DynEarthSol3D (DES), in simple, idealized experiments. DES is a finite-element solver for the dynamic and quasi-static simulation of continuous media. The experiments within demonstrate the potential for DES to simulate ice failure and deformation in dynamic regions of glaciers, especially at quickly changing boundaries like glacier termini in contact with the ocean. We explore the effect that different rheological assumptions have on the pattern of flow and failure. We find that the use of a semi-brittle constitutive law is a sufficient material condition to form the characteristic pattern of basal crevasse-aided pinch-and-swell geometry, which is observed globally in floating portions of ice and can often aid in eroding the ice sheet margins in direct contact with oceans.

  11. KAGLVis - On-line 3D Visualisation of Earth-observing-satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szuba, Marek; Ameri, Parinaz; Grabowski, Udo; Maatouki, Ahmad; Meyer, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    One of the goals of the Large-Scale Data Management and Analysis project is to provide a high-performance framework facilitating management of data acquired by Earth-observing satellites such as Envisat. On the client-facing facet of this framework, we strive to provide visualisation and basic analysis tool which could be used by scientists with minimal to no knowledge of the underlying infrastructure. Our tool, KAGLVis, is a JavaScript client-server Web application which leverages modern Web technologies to provide three-dimensional visualisation of satellite observables on a wide range of client systems. It takes advantage of the WebGL API to employ locally available GPU power for 3D rendering; this approach has been demonstrated to perform well even on relatively weak hardware such as integrated graphics chipsets found in modern laptop computers and with some user-interface tuning could even be usable on embedded devices such as smartphones or tablets. Data is fetched from the database back-end using a ReST API and cached locally, both in memory and using HTML5 Web Storage, to minimise network use. Computations, calculation of cloud altitude from cloud-index measurements for instance, can depending on configuration be performed on either the client or the server side. Keywords: satellite data, Envisat, visualisation, 3D graphics, Web application, WebGL, MEAN stack.

  12. Refining 3D Earth models by unifying geological and geophysical information on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelièvre, P. G.; Carter-McAuslan, A.; Tycholiz, C.; Farquharson, C. G.; Hurich, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    Earth models used for mineral exploration or other subsurface investigations should be consistent with all available geological and geophysical information. Geophysical inversion provides the means to integrate geological information, geophysical survey data, and physical property measurements taken on rock samples. Incorporation of geological information into inversions is always an iterative process. One begins with the geologists' best guess about the Earth (i.e. the geological model) and the models recovered from geophysical inversion may indicate that the geological model should be changed slightly prior to the next iteration of the procedure. In this way, geological and geophysical data can be combined through inversion and we can move towards the creation of a common Earth model consistent with all the available data. As more information is incorporated, the inherent non-uniqueness of the inverse problem is reduced, yielding a higher potential to resolve deeper features that are less well-constrained by the geophysical data alone. Geological ore deposit models are commonly created during delineation drilling. The accuracy of these models is crucial when used to determine if a deposit is economic. 3D geological Earth models typically comprise wireframe surfaces that represent the geological contacts between different rock units. The contacts may be known at points from down-hole intersections and surface mapping, and can be interpolated between boreholes and extrapolated outwards. Contacts may also be interpreted from seismic traces. Wireframe surfaces, comprising tessellated triangular facets, are sufficiently flexible to allow the representation of arbitrarily complicated geological structures. These surfaces can be honoured exactly within fully unstructured 3D volumetric tetrahedral meshes. In contrast, geophysical forward modelling and inversion algorithms typically work with rectilinear meshes when parameterizing the subsurface because this simplifies

  13. Quantifying Key Climate Parameter Uncertainties Using an Earth System Model with a Dynamic 3D Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, R.; Sriver, R. L.; Goes, M. P.; Urban, N.; Matthews, D.; Haran, M.; Keller, K.

    2011-12-01

    Climate projections hinge critically on uncertain climate model parameters such as climate sensitivity, vertical ocean diffusivity and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol forcings. Climate sensitivity is defined as the equilibrium global mean temperature response to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Vertical ocean diffusivity parameterizes sub-grid scale ocean vertical mixing processes. These parameters are typically estimated using Intermediate Complexity Earth System Models (EMICs) that lack a full 3D representation of the oceans, thereby neglecting the effects of mixing on ocean dynamics and meridional overturning. We improve on these studies by employing an EMIC with a dynamic 3D ocean model to estimate these parameters. We carry out historical climate simulations with the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM) varying parameters that affect climate sensitivity, vertical ocean mixing, and effects of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols. We use a Bayesian approach whereby the likelihood of each parameter combination depends on how well the model simulates surface air temperature and upper ocean heat content. We use a Gaussian process emulator to interpolate the model output to an arbitrary parameter setting. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to estimate the posterior probability distribution function (pdf) of these parameters. We explore the sensitivity of the results to prior assumptions about the parameters. In addition, we estimate the relative skill of different observations to constrain the parameters. We quantify the uncertainty in parameter estimates stemming from climate variability, model and observational errors. We explore the sensitivity of key decision-relevant climate projections to these parameters. We find that climate sensitivity and vertical ocean diffusivity estimates are consistent with previously published results. The climate sensitivity pdf is strongly affected by the prior assumptions, and by the scaling

  14. Early Earth tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, R.; Gerya, T.

    2014-12-01

    Early Earth had a higher amount of remaining radiogenic elements as well as a higher amount of leftover primordial heat. Both contributed to the increased temperature in the Earth's interior and it is mainly this increased mantle potential temperature ΔTp that controls the dynamics of the crust and upper mantle and the style of Early Earth tectonics. For a minor increase in temperature ΔTp < 175 K a subduction-collision style ensues which is largely similar to present day plate tectonics. For a moderate increase in ΔTp = 175-250 K subduction can still occur, however plates are strongly weakened and buckling, delamination and Rayleigh-Taylor style dripping of the plate is observed in addition. For higher temperatures ΔTp > 250 K no subduction can be observed anymore and tectonics is dominated by delamination and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. We conduct 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of the crust and upper mantle under Early Earth conditions and a plume tectonics model setup. For varying crustal structures and an increased mantle potential temperature ΔTp, a thermal anomaly in the bottom temperature boundary introduces a plume. The model is able to self-sufficiently form depleted mantle lithosphere after repeated melt removal. New crust can be produced in the form of volcanics or plutonics. To simulate differentiation the newly formed crust can have a range in composition from basaltic over dacitic to granitic depending on its source rock. Models show large amounts of subcrustal decompression melting and consequently large amounts of new formed crust which in turn influences the dynamics. Mantle and crust are convecting separately. Dome-shaped plutons of mafic or felsic composition can be observed in the crust. Between these domes elongated belts of upper crust, volcanics and sediments are formed. These structures look similar to, for example, the Kaapvaal craton in South Africa where the elongated shape of the Barberton

  15. Sensitivity of the Earth Magnetosphere to the Solar Wind Activity: 3D Macroparticle Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraka, S. M.; Ben Jaffel, L.

    2006-05-01

    A new approach is proposed to study the sensitivity of the Earth Magnetosphere to the variability of the Solar Wind bulk velocity. A numerical particles in cell (PIC) method initially proposed by Buneman (1993) has been adopted and modified to carry out the study. Space was stretched as cubic boxes of dimension 155x105x105 Re filled with 2 million of Solar Wind particles, with Earth is located at 60x52x53 Re. The magnetic field of Earth was hypothetically set to zero, and then switched on. The formation of the magnetospheric cavity and its elongation around the planet was observed to evolve with time until a steady state topology of the system is attained with the classical structure of a magnetosphere. We also found that the cavity is repopulated by clouds of particles from the Solar Wind, producing the current sheet-- a thin plasma sheet that stands at the equatorial plane. The study was carried out with the very basic elements of the interaction processes as described by Maxwell and Lorentz equations. IMF was then included as a steady southward magnetic field. Drift velocity of the Solar Wind was changed to simulate compression/depression of the system. 3-D analysis of the response of the magnetosphere dayside to that variation was studied, and the corresponding relaxation time of the magnetopause interface was measured. In response to the Solar Wind drift velocity imposed drop-off, a ~ 15 Re gap in the incoming Solar Wind plasma appeared moving toward Earth. As soon as the gap hit the initial shock of the steady magnetosphere, a reconnection between the Earth magnetic field and IMF was noticed at the dayside magnetopause when IMF was included. Injection of nightside of the magnetosphere by energetic particles due to magnetic erosion and reconnection is observed. During the expansion phase of the disturbance, the outer boundary of the dayside magnetopause broke up during the absence of the IMF as it responded to the reduction of the ram pressure, whilst

  16. Earth tides of an ellipsoidal, inelastic, and laterally heterogeneous Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Shibuya, K.

    2012-12-01

    We used five stations covering a range of latitudes from 60°N to 70°S: METSÄHOVI, STRASBOURG, SUTHERLAND, CANBERRA, and SYOWA with Superconducting Gravimeter with sufficiently high-resolution data available for durations of at least five years to validate theoretical estimation based on an existing method. For the Earth model, we selected the model of Dehant et al. (1999) to validate the latitude dependency and inelasticity of gravimetric factor. We also used the model of Métivier and Conrad (2008) to validate the lateral heterogeneity of gravity observation. For the correction of ocean loading effect, we tested recent four global ocean tide models (TPXO7-atlas, EOT11a, DTU10, and HAMTIDE11a) as well as old ocean tide models. We estimated the misfit between the observed loading effect and the modeled ocean loading effect for the three main waves (O1, K1, and M2) at each station. Anomalous discrepancies at METSÄHOVI and SYOWA based on old ocean tide models were diminished by the use of recent ocean tide models. Gravimetric factors for K1, corrected using optimum recent ocean tide models, showed the possibility of obtaining parameters conforming to the prediction curve of model of inelastic non-hydrostatic Earth. Gravimetric factors corrected using optimum ocean tide models at METSÄHOVI, STRASBOURG, and CANBERRA showed tendencies towards the theoretical values for latitude dependence. However, at SUTHERLAND and SYOWA, large offsets from theoretical values were observed. These stations show the remaining misfits, 0.0733 and 0.0847 microGal, respectively. We think the portion of the anomaly could not be explained by the perturbation from the mantle convection, because the amplitude of gravity perturbation at these stations is very small. For example, at SUTHERLAND, the final residual for K1 band is 85 nanoGal but gravity perturbation by lateral heterogeneity is just ~0.81 nanoGal: Gravity perturbations up to 120 nanoGal for all bands come from mostly in Indonesia

  17. Efficient triple-grid multiscale finite element method for 3D groundwater flow simulation in heterogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yifan; Wu, Jichun; Nan, Tongchao; Xue, Yuqun; Xie, Chunhong; Ji, Haifeng

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, an efficient triple-grid multiscale finite element method (ETMSFEM) is proposed for 3D groundwater simulation in heterogeneous porous media. The main idea of this method is to employ new 3D linear base functions and the domain decomposition technique to solve the local reduced elliptical problem, thereby simplifying the base function construction process and improving the efficiency. Furthermore, by using the ETMSFEM base functions, this method can solve Darcy's equation with high efficiency to obtain a continuous velocity field. Therefore, this method can considerably reduce the computational cost of solving for heads and velocities, which is crucial for large-scale 3D groundwater simulations. In the application section, we present numerical examples to compare the ETMSFEM with several classical methods to demonstrate its efficiency and effectiveness.

  18. Multi-scale modelling of strongly heterogeneous 3D composite structures using spatial Voronoi tessellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Said, Bassam; Ivanov, Dmitry; Long, Andrew C.; Hallett, Stephen R.

    2016-03-01

    3D composite materials are characterized by complex internal yarn architectures, leading to complex deformation and failure development mechanisms. Net-shaped preforms, which are originally periodic in nature, lose their periodicity when the fabric is draped, deformed on a tool, and consolidated to create geometrically complex composite components. As a result, the internal yarn architecture, which dominates the mechanical behaviour, becomes dependent on the structural geometry. Hence, predicting the mechanical behaviour of 3D composites requires an accurate representation of the yarn architecture within structural scale models. When applied to 3D composites, conventional finite element modelling techniques are limited to either homogenised properties at the structural scale, or the unit cell scale for a more detailed material property definition. Consequently, these models fail to capture the complex phenomena occurring across multiple length scales and their effects on a 3D composite's mechanical response. Here a multi-scale modelling approach based on a 3D spatial Voronoi tessellation is proposed. The model creates an intermediate length scale suitable for homogenisation to deal with the non-periodic nature of the final material. Information is passed between the different length scales to allow for the effect of the structural geometry to be taken into account on the smaller scales. The stiffness and surface strain predictions from the proposed model have been found to be in good agreement with experimental results. The proposed modelling framework has been used to gain important insight into the behaviour of this category of materials. It has been observed that the strain and stress distributions are strongly dependent on the internal yarn architecture and consequently on the final component geometry. Even for simple coupon tests, the internal architecture and geometric effects dominate the mechanical response. Consequently, the behaviour of 3D woven

  19. Development of hybrid 3-D hydrological modeling for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM)

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Xubin; Troch, Peter; Pelletier, Jon; Niu, Guo-Yue; Gochis, David

    2015-11-15

    This is the Final Report of our four-year (3-year plus one-year no cost extension) collaborative project between the University of Arizona (UA) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The overall objective of our project is to develop and evaluate the first hybrid 3-D hydrological model with a horizontal grid spacing of 1 km for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM). We have made substantial progress in model development and evaluation, computational efficiencies and software engineering, and data development and evaluation, as discussed in Sections 2-4. Section 5 presents our success in data dissemination, while Section 6 discusses the scientific impacts of our work. Section 7 discusses education and mentoring success of our project, while Section 8 lists our relevant DOE services. All peer-reviewed papers that acknowledged this project are listed in Section 9. Highlights of our achievements include: • We have finished 20 papers (most published already) on model development and evaluation, computational efficiencies and software engineering, and data development and evaluation • The global datasets developed under this project have been permanently archived and publicly available • Some of our research results have already been implemented in WRF and CLM • Patrick Broxton and Michael Brunke have received their Ph.D. • PI Zeng has served on DOE proposal review panels and DOE lab scientific focus area (SFA) review panels

  20. 3-D heterogeneous field data versus 2-D simulations. How can it be accomplished in a sedimentary porous formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvini, G.; Salandin, P.

    2009-12-01

    To analyze the impact of the hydraulic conductivity K spatial variability in a real field case (as an example to delimitate a well catchment), numerical simulations can be reasonably developed in a two-dimensional vertical average context. Nevertheless the plume evolution is a consequence of a more complex three-dimensional heterogeneous structure whose vertical variability dominates the dispersion phenomena at local scale. In larger domains, the effect of the vertical heterogeneity combines itself with that one due to the horizontal variability of K, and only when the plume has travelled a large number of (horizontal) integral scales, its evolution can be analyzed in a regional context, under the hypothesis that the transmissivity spatial distribution prevails. Until this limit is reached, the vertical and horizontal variability of K are combined to give a fully 3-D dispersion process. In all these situations, to successfully accomplish the 3-D heterogeneous structure of the aquifer in 2-D simulations, more than the planimetric depth-averaged variability of K must be accounted for. To define the uncertainty related to the use of different planimetric schematizations of the real hydraulic conductivity spatial distribution, we present here the results of some numerical experiments that compare the 3-D plume evolution with 2-D simulations developed by tacking into account different hydraulic conductivity distribution schematization, by considering a hierarchical architecture of media also. This description of a sedimentary formation combined with the finite size of the plume requires theoretical and numerical tools able to take into account the flow field inhomogeneity and the ergodicity lack that characterize the transport phenomena. Following this way it will be possible to quantify / reduce the uncertainty related to a 2-D schematization in a large number of real cases where the domain spans between the local and the regional scale and whose dimension may lead to

  1. Transient Hydraulic Tomography in the Field: 3-D K Estimation and Validation in a Highly Heterogeneous Unconfined Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochstetler, D. L.; Barrash, W.; Kitanidis, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Characterizing subsurface hydraulic properties is essential for predicting flow and transport, and thus, for making informed decisions, such as selection and execution of a groundwater remediation strategy; however, obtaining accurate estimates at the necessary resolution with quantified uncertainty is an ongoing challenge. For over a decade, the development of hydraulic tomography (HT) - i.e., conducting a series of discrete interval hydraulic tests, observing distributed pressure signals, and analyzing the data through inversion of all tests together - has shown promise as a subsurface imaging method. Numerical and laboratory 3-D HT studies have enhanced and validated such methodologies, but there have been far fewer 3-D field characterization studies. We use 3-D transient hydraulic tomography (3-D THT) to characterize a highly heterogeneous unconfined alluvial aquifer at an active industrial site near Assemini, Italy. With 26 pumping tests conducted from 13 isolated vertical locations, and pressure responses measured at 63 spatial locations through five clusters of continuous multichannel tubing, we recorded over 800 drawdown curves during the field testing. Selected measurements from each curve were inverted in order to obtain an estimate of the distributed hydraulic conductivity field K(x) as well as uniform ("effective") values of specific storage Ss and specific yield Sy. The estimated K values varied across seven orders of magnitude, suggesting that this is one of the most heterogeneous sites at which HT has ever been conducted. Furthermore, these results are validated using drawdown observations from seven independent tests with pumping performed at multiple locations other than the main pumping well. The validation results are encouraging, especially given the uncertain nature of the problem. Overall, this research demonstrates the ability of 3-D THT to provide high-resolution of structure and local K at a non-research site at the scale of a contaminant

  2. A 3D Hydrodynamic Model for Heterogeneous Biofilms with Antimicrobial Persistence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    EPS production [9], which leads to gradients in osmotic pressure and contributes to pattern formation of mushroom or tower shaped. Figure 5 depicts two...implemented on graphic processing units (GPUs) for high performance computing, in 3-D space and time. Antimicrobial treatment in an infinitely long quiescent...scheme is devised to solve the model consisting of partial differential equations, which is implemented on graphic processing units (GPUs) for high

  3. Tuning the Origin of Magnetic Relaxation by Substituting the 3d or Rare-Earth Ions into Three Isostructural Cyano-Bridged 3d-4f Heterodinuclear Compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Guo, Zhen; Xie, Shuang; Li, Hui-Li; Zhu, Wen-Hua; Liu, Li; Dong, Xun-Qing; He, Wei-Xun; Ren, Jin-Chao; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Powell, Annie K

    2015-11-02

    Three isostructural cyano-bridged 3d-4f compounds, [YFe(CN)6(hep)2(H2O)4] (1), [DyFe(CN)6(hep)2(H2O)4] (2), and [DyCo(CN)6(hep)2(H2O)4] (3), were successfully assembled by site-targeted substitution of the 3d or rare-earth ions. All compounds have been structurally characterized to display slightly distorted pentagonal-bipyramidal local coordination geometry around the rare-earth ions. Magnetic analyses revealed negligible magnetic coupling in compound 1, antiferromagnetic intradimer interaction in 2, and weak ferromagnetic coupling through dipolar-dipolar interaction in 3. Under an applied direct-current (dc) field, 1 (Hdc = 2.5 kOe, τ0 = 1.3 × 10(-7) s, and Ueff/kB = 23 K) and 3 (Hdc = 2.0 kOe, τ0 = 7.1 × 10(-11) s, and Ueff/kB = 63 K) respectively indicated magnetic relaxation behavior based on a single [Fe(III)]LS ion and a Dy(III) ion; nevertheless, 2 (Hdc = 2.0 kOe, τ0 = 9.7 × 10(-8) s, and Ueff/kB = 23 K) appeared to be a single-molecule magnet based on a cyano-bridged DyFe dimer. Compound 1, which can be regarded as a single-ion magnet of the [Fe(III)]LS ion linked to a diamagnetic Y(III) ion in a cyano-bridged heterodimer, represents one of the rarely investigated examples based on a single Fe(III) ion explored in magnetic relaxation behavior. It demonstrated that the introduction of intradimer magnetic interaction of 2 through a cyano bridge between Dy(III) and [Fe(III)]LS ions negatively affects the energy barrier and χ″(T) peak temperature compared to 3.

  4. Visualising, segmenting and analysing heterogenous glacigenic sediments using 3D x-ray CT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Simon; Diggens, Lucy; Groves, John; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Marsland, Rhona

    2015-04-01

    Whilst there has been significant application of 3D x-ray CT to geological contexts, much of this work has focused on examining properties such as porosity, which are important in reservoir assessment and hydrological evaluations. There has been considerably less attention given to the analysis of the properties of sediments themselves. One particular challenge in CT analysis is to effectively observe and discriminate the relationships between the skeleton and matrix of a sediment. This is particularly challenging in glacial sediments, which comprise an admixture of particles of a wide range of size, morphology and composition within a variably-consolidated sediment body. A key sedimentological component of glacial sediments is their fabric properties. Till fabric data has long been applied to the analysis of the coupling between glaciers and their deformable substrates. This work has typically focused on identifying former ice-flow directions, processes of till deformation and emplacement, and such data is often used to reconcile the sedimentary evidence of former glaciation with the predicted glacier and ice-sheet dynamics derived from numerical models. The collection and interpretation of till fabric data has received significant criticism in recent years, with issues such as low sample populations (typically ~50 grains per sample), small-scale spatial variation in till fabric and operator bias during data collection, all of which compromise the reliability of macro-scale till fabric analysis. Recent studies of micro-scale till fabrics have substantially added to our understanding, and suggest there is systematic variation in particle fabric as a function of particle size. However, these findings are compromised by the 2D nature of the samples (derived from thin sections) capturing only apparent orientations of particles, and are again limited to relatively small datasets. As such, there are fundamental limitations in the quality and application of till fabric

  5. 3D Simulation of Elastic Wave Propagation in Heterogeneous Anisotropic Media in Laplace Domain for Electromagnetic-Seismic Inverse Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, P.; Newman, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    Recent developments in high resolution imaging technology of subsurface objects involves a combination of different geophysical measurements (gravity, EM and seismic). A joint image of the subsurface geophysical attributes (velocity, electrical conductivity and density) requires the consistent treatment of the different geophysical data due to their differing physical nature. For example, in conducting media, which is typical of the Earth's interior, EM energy propagation is defined by a diffusive mechanism and may be characterized by two specific length scales: wavelength and skin depth. However, the propagation of seismic signals is a multiwave process and is characterized by a set of wavelengths. Thus, to consistently treat seismic and electromagnetic data an additional length scale is needed for seismic data that does not directly depend on a wavelength and describes a diffusive process, similar to EM wave propagation in the subsurface. Works by Brown et al.(2005), Shin and Cha(2008), and Shin and Ha(2008) suggest that an artificial damping of seismic wave fields via Laplace-Fourier transformation can be an effective approach to obtain a seismic data that have similar spatial resolution to EM data. The key benefit of such transformation is that diffusive wave-field inversion works well for both data sets: seismic (Brown et al.,2005; Shin and Cha,2008) and electromagnetic (Commer and Newman,2008; Newman et al.,2010). With the recent interest in the Laplace-Fourier domain full waveform inversion, 3D fourth and second-order finite-difference schemes for modeling of seismic wave propagation have been developed (Petrov and Newman, 2010). Incorporation of attenuation and anisotropy into a velocity model is a necessary step for a more realistic description of subsurface media. Here we consider the extension of our method which includes attenuation and VTI anisotropy. Our approach is based on the integro-interpolation technique for velocity-stress formulation. Seven

  6. Heterogeneity of macrophage infiltration and therapeutic response in lung carcinoma revealed by 3D organ imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cuccarese, Michael F.; Dubach, J. Matthew; Pfirschke, Christina; Engblom, Camilla; Garris, Christopher; Miller, Miles A.; Pittet, Mikael J.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Involvement of the immune system in tumour progression is at the forefront of cancer research. Analysis of the tumour immune microenvironment has yielded a wealth of information on tumour biology, and alterations in some immune subtypes, such as tumour-associated macrophages (TAM), can be strong prognostic indicators. Here, we use optical tissue clearing and a TAM-targeting injectable fluorescent nanoparticle (NP) to examine three-dimensional TAM composition, tumour-to-tumour heterogeneity, response to colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) blockade and nanoparticle-based drug delivery in murine pulmonary carcinoma. The method allows for rapid tumour volume assessment and spatial information on TAM infiltration at the cellular level in entire lungs. This method reveals that TAM density was heterogeneous across tumours in the same animal, overall TAM density is different among separate pulmonary tumour models, nanotherapeutic drug delivery correlated with TAM heterogeneity, and successful response to CSF-1R blockade is characterized by enhanced TAM penetration throughout and within tumours. PMID:28176769

  7. EarthSLOT (an Earth Science, Logistics, and Outreach Terrainbase): Or, How You Can Create 3D, Interactive Visualizations of the Earth with Little or No Funds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokein, P.; Nolan, M.

    2004-12-01

    In spring of 2004 we received a Small Grant for Exploratory Research (SGER) from the NSF's Office of Polar Program's Arctic Logistics and Research Support program to create an internet-based, interactive, 3D terrain and data visualization system of the Arctic. A preliminary version of this application, called EarthSLOT, can now be found on-line at www.earthslot.org. EarthSLOT allows users to visualize the earth, whether as a spinning globe from space or from the sea-floor looking up at a mid-ocean ridge or anywhere in between. Flight controls range from completely interactive to following pre-planned routes, and the visualizations can be done real-time over the internet or saved as screen shots or MPG movies. The purpose of this project is to put easy-to-use 3D terrain and visualization tools into the hands of many users at little or no cost to them, by taking care of the complicated and expensive work ourselves. Therefore EarthSLOT may be an ideal tool for scientists with low outreach budgets to share their research with other scientists or the public. Those on a very low budget can use EarthSLOT for free, as can any ordinary user, without modifying it or adding their own data. Example uses would be analyzing the terrain surrounding a field site, adding a 3D visualization of a study area to a presentation, or exploring the vector data added by others to their study areas. Those with about \\$1200 to spend on the necessary commercial software can add their own content to the existing application. For example, an ecologist can add or create shapefiles that outlines their study plots and then link those outlines to web pages containing data or further information. Or a glaciologist can superimpose the locations of mass balance stakes and weather stations on the surface of a glacier, then create an mpg movie that starts in space and zooms down to the stake level to visualize how weather systems on a planetary scale relate to the local measurements. Or scientists

  8. 3D model for laser heating of a heterogeneous turbid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossacci, Michael J.; DiMarzio, Charles A.; Lindberg, Scott C.; Pankratov, Michail M.

    1997-05-01

    In order to better understand the interaction of laser light with biological tissue, a light-transport model is integrated with a heat-transport model. The outputs include temperature as a function of position and time, given the illumination conditions and the optical and thermal properties of the tissue. The optical portion of the algorithm is based on the theory of radiative transfer through a turbid medium. Our computer program models multiple scattering in three dimensions using seven discrete irradiances which approximate the radiative transport equation. The distribution of absorbed light in the tissue is calculated and used as the source term in a discrete approximation to the thermal diffusion equation. Recently, we have been using the model to better understand the laser-heating of heterogeneous tissue. Rather than modeling a homogeneous mixture having properties given by weighted averages of those of tissue and blood, we model this medium as an array of blood vessels in a bloodless dermis background. We are currently analyzing temporal and spatial variations of temperature in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissue having identical blood concentrations. A particular application of the model is to the study of laser coagulation tonsillectomy.

  9. Permafrost sub-grid heterogeneity of soil properties key for 3-D soil processes and future climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Christian

    2016-08-01

    There are massive carbon stocks stored in permafrost-affected soils due to the 3-D soil movement process called cryoturbation. For a reliable projection of the past, recent and future Arctic carbon balance, and hence climate, a reliable concept for representing cryoturbation in a land surface model (LSM) is required. The basis of the underlying transport processes is pedon-scale heterogeneity of soil hydrological and thermal properties as well as insulating layers, such as snow and vegetation. Today we still lack a concept of how to reliably represent pedon-scale properties and processes in a LSM. One possibility could be a statistical approach. This perspective paper demonstrates the importance of sub-grid heterogeneity in permafrost soils as a pre-requisite to implement any lateral transport parametrization. Representing such heterogeneity at the sub-pixel size of a LSM is the next logical step of model advancements. As a result of a theoretical experiment, heterogeneity of thermal and hydrological soil properties alone lead to a remarkable initial sub-grid range of subsoil temperature of 2 deg C, and active-layer thickness of 150 cm in East Siberia. These results show the way forward in representing combined lateral and vertical transport of water and soil in LSMs.

  10. A 3D Cloud-Construction Algorithm for the EarthCARE Satellite Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, H. W.; Jerg, M. P.; Wehr, T.; Kato, S.; Donovan, D. P.; Hogan, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents and assesses an algorithm that constructs 3D distributions of cloud from passive satellite imagery and collocated 2D nadir profiles of cloud properties inferred synergistically from lidar, cloud radar and imager data.

  11. Assessing the habitability of planets with Earth-like atmospheres with 1D and 3D climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godolt, M.; Grenfell, J. L.; Kitzmann, D.; Kunze, M.; Langematz, U.; Patzer, A. B. C.; Rauer, H.; Stracke, B.

    2016-07-01

    Context. The habitable zone (HZ) describes the range of orbital distances around a star where the existence of liquid water on the surface of an Earth-like planet is in principle possible. The applicability of one-dimensional (1D) climate models for the estimation of the HZ boundaries has been questioned by recent three-dimensional (3D) climate studies. While 3D studies can calculate the water vapor, ice albedo, and cloud feedback self-consistently and therefore allow for a deeper understanding and the identification of relevant climate processes, 1D model studies rely on fewer model assumptions and can be more easily applied to the large parameter space possible for extrasolar planets. Aims: We evaluate the applicability of 1D climate models to estimate the potential habitability of Earth-like extrasolar planets by comparing our 1D model results to those of 3D climate studies in the literature. We vary the two important planetary properties, surface albedo and relative humidity, in the 1D model. These depend on climate feedbacks that are not treated self-consistently in most 1D models. Methods: We applied a cloud-free 1D radiative-convective climate model to calculate the climate of Earth-like planets around different types of main-sequence stars with varying surface albedo and relative humidity profile. We compared the results to those of 3D model calculations available in the literature and investigated to what extent the 1D model can approximate the surface temperatures calculated by the 3D models. Results: The 1D parameter study results in a large range of climates possible for an Earth-sized planet with an Earth-like atmosphere and water reservoir at a certain stellar insolation. At some stellar insolations the full spectrum of climate states could be realized, i.e., uninhabitable conditions due to surface temperatures that are too high or too low as well as habitable surface conditions, depending only on the relative humidity and surface albedo assumed. When

  12. Scalable and Adaptive Streaming of 3D Mesh to Heterogeneous Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abderrahim, Zeineb; Bouhlel, Mohamed Salim

    2016-12-01

    This article comprises a presentation of a web platform for the diffusion and visualization of 3D compressed data on the web. Indeed, the major goal of this work resides in the proposal of the transfer adaptation of the three-dimensional data to resources (network bandwidth, the type of visualization terminals, display resolution, user's preferences...). Also, it is an attempt to provide an effective consultation adapted to the user's request (preferences, levels of the requested detail, etc.). Such a platform can adapt the levels of detail to the change in the bandwidth and the rendering time when loading the mesh at the client level. In addition, the levels of detail are adapted to the distance between the object and the camera. These features are able to minimize the latency time and to make the real time interaction possible. The experiences as well as the comparison with the existing solutions show auspicious results in terms of latency, scalability and the quality of the experience offered to the users.

  13. Performance Modeling for 3D Visualization in a Heterogeneous Computing Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Ian; Shalf, John; Ma, Kwan-Liu; Bethel, Wes

    2004-06-30

    The visualization of large, remotely located data sets necessitates the development of a distributed computing pipeline in order to reduce the data, in stages, to a manageable size. The required baseline infrastructure for launching such a distributed pipeline is becoming available, but few services support even marginally optimal resource selection and partitioning of the data analysis workflow. We explore a methodology for building a model of overall application performance using a composition of the analytic models of individual components that comprise the pipeline. The analytic models are shown to be accurate on a testbed of distributed heterogeneous systems. The prediction methodology will form the foundation of a more robust resource management service for future Grid-based visualization applications.

  14. 3D numerical simulation of the long range propagation of acoustical shock waves through a heterogeneous and moving medium

    SciTech Connect

    Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François

    2015-10-28

    Many situations involve the propagation of acoustical shock waves through flows. Natural sources such as lightning, volcano explosions, or meteoroid atmospheric entries, emit loud, low frequency, and impulsive sound that is influenced by atmospheric wind and turbulence. The sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft and explosion noises are examples of intense anthropogenic sources in the atmosphere. The Buzz-Saw-Noise produced by turbo-engine fan blades rotating at supersonic speed also propagates in a fast flow within the engine nacelle. Simulating these situations is challenging, given the 3D nature of the problem, the long range propagation distances relative to the central wavelength, the strongly nonlinear behavior of shocks associated to a wide-band spectrum, and finally the key role of the flow motion. With this in view, the so-called FLHOWARD (acronym for FLow and Heterogeneous One-Way Approximation for Resolution of Diffraction) method is presented with three-dimensional applications. A scalar nonlinear wave equation is established in the framework of atmospheric applications, assuming weak heterogeneities and a slow wind. It takes into account diffraction, absorption and relaxation properties of the atmosphere, quadratic nonlinearities including weak shock waves, heterogeneities of the medium in sound speed and density, and presence of a flow (assuming a mean stratified wind and 3D turbulent ? flow fluctuations of smaller amplitude). This equation is solved in the framework of the one-way method. A split-step technique allows the splitting of the non-linear wave equation into simpler equations, each corresponding to a physical effect. Each sub-equation is solved using an analytical method if possible, and finite-differences otherwise. Nonlinear effects are solved in the time domain, and others in the frequency domain. Homogeneous diffraction is handled by means of the angular spectrum method. Ground is assumed perfectly flat and rigid. Due to the 3D

  15. 3D numerical simulation of the long range propagation of acoustical shock waves through a heterogeneous and moving medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François

    2015-10-01

    Many situations involve the propagation of acoustical shock waves through flows. Natural sources such as lightning, volcano explosions, or meteoroid atmospheric entries, emit loud, low frequency, and impulsive sound that is influenced by atmospheric wind and turbulence. The sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft and explosion noises are examples of intense anthropogenic sources in the atmosphere. The Buzz-Saw-Noise produced by turbo-engine fan blades rotating at supersonic speed also propagates in a fast flow within the engine nacelle. Simulating these situations is challenging, given the 3D nature of the problem, the long range propagation distances relative to the central wavelength, the strongly nonlinear behavior of shocks associated to a wide-band spectrum, and finally the key role of the flow motion. With this in view, the so-called FLHOWARD (acronym for FLow and Heterogeneous One-Way Approximation for Resolution of Diffraction) method is presented with three-dimensional applications. A scalar nonlinear wave equation is established in the framework of atmospheric applications, assuming weak heterogeneities and a slow wind. It takes into account diffraction, absorption and relaxation properties of the atmosphere, quadratic nonlinearities including weak shock waves, heterogeneities of the medium in sound speed and density, and presence of a flow (assuming a mean stratified wind and 3D turbulent ? flow fluctuations of smaller amplitude). This equation is solved in the framework of the one-way method. A split-step technique allows the splitting of the non-linear wave equation into simpler equations, each corresponding to a physical effect. Each sub-equation is solved using an analytical method if possible, and finite-differences otherwise. Nonlinear effects are solved in the time domain, and others in the frequency domain. Homogeneous diffraction is handled by means of the angular spectrum method. Ground is assumed perfectly flat and rigid. Due to the 3D

  16. Bifunctional 3D Cu-MOFs containing glutarates and bipyridyl ligands: selective CO2 sorption and heterogeneous catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Hong; Bae, Jeong Mi; Kim, Wan-Seok; Jo, Young Dan; Kim, Cheal; Kim, Youngmee; Kim, Sung-Jin; Huh, Seong

    2012-11-07

    We report bifunctional three-dimensional (3D) Cu-MOFs with high selectivity of CO(2) over N(2) and H(2) as well as high catalytic activity for transesterification of esters. The Cu-MOFs containing Cu(2) dinuclear units connected by glutarates and bipyridyl ligands are formulated as [{Cu(2)(Glu)(2)(μ-bpa)}·(CH(3)CN)](n) (1) and [{Cu(2)(Glu)(2)(μ-bpp)}·(C(3)H(6)O)](n) (2) (Glu = glutarate, bpa = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane, bpp = 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). These two new bifunctional 3D Cu-MOFs possess very similar pore shape with different pore dimensions. Their gas sorption behaviors were investigated by using CO(2), N(2) and H(2) at suitable temperatures. Both MOFs exhibited good CO(2) selectivity over N(2) and H(2). MOF 1 having a smaller pore dimension exhibited much higher CO(2) adsorption enthalpy than MOF 2 having a larger pore dimension. However, MOF 2 exhibited more enhanced CO(2) uptake ability than MOF 1. A subtle variation of pore dimension indeed influenced the CO(2) uptake ability somewhat significantly especially at higher temperatures such as 273 K and 298 K. Heterogeneous catalytic activities of the MOFs were also investigated in detail. Only MOF 1 appeared to be an efficient, mild, and easily recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the transesterification of esters and constitutes a promising class of heterogeneous catalysts that allowed reuse without a significant loss of activity through twenty runs with ester.

  17. Quantitative moment study and coupling of 4 f rare earth and 3 d metal by transmitted electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X.; Warot-Fonrose, B.; Arras, R.; Dumesnil, K.; Serin, V.

    2016-10-01

    We report a simultaneous investigation of 3 d and 4 f magnetic moments by exploring the Fe -L2 ,3 and Dy -M4 ,5 electron energy-loss edges of a DyF e2/YF e2 superlattice using the energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism (EMCD) technique. Specific EMCD sum rules for M4 ,5 edges were established and carefully applied to the dichroic signal at Dy -M4 ,5 edges, giving an orbital to the effective spin moment ratio of 5.1 ±1.8 . With dynamic diffraction effects considered, the opposite signs of Fe -L3 and Dy -M5 dichroic peaks unambiguously indicate the antiparallel alignment of net Fe 3 d and Dy 4 f moments. The EMCD technique is shown to be an effective tool to locally characterize the 4 f moment of rare earth elements and study 3 d -4 f moment coupling.

  18. Build-and-fill sequences: How subtle paleotopography affects 3-D heterogeneity of potential reservoir facies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKirahan, J.R.; Goldstein, R.H.; Franseen, E.K.

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes the three-dimensional variability of a 20-meter-thick section of Pennsylvanian (Missourian) strata over a 600 km2 area of northeastern Kansas, USA. It hypothesizes that sea-level changes interact with subtle variations in paleotopography to influence the heterogeneity of potential reservoir systems in mixed carbonate-silidclastic systems, commonly produdng build-and-fill sequences. For this analysis, ten lithofacies were identified: (1) phylloid algal boundstone-packstone, (2) skeletal wackestone-packstone, (3) peloidal, skeletal packstone, (4) sandy, skeletal grainstone-packstone, (5) oolite grainstone-packstone, (6) Osagia-brachiopod packstone, (7) fossiliferous siltstone, (8) lenticular bedded-laminated siltstone and fine sandstone, (9) organic-rich mudstone and coal, and (10) massive mudstone. Each facies can be related to depositional environment and base-level changes to develop a sequence stratigraphy consisting of three sequence boundaries and two flooding surfaces. Within this framework, eighteen localities are used to develop a threedimensional framework of the stratigraphy and paleotopography. The studied strata illustrate the model of "build-and-fill". In this example, phylloid algal mounds produce initial relief, and many of the later carbonate and silidclastic deposits are focused into subtle paleotopographic lows, responding to factors related to energy, source, and accommodation, eventually filling the paleotopography. After initial buildup of the phylloid algal mounds, marine and nonmarine siliciclastics, with characteristics of both deltaic lobes and valley fills, were focused into low areas between mounds. After a sea-level rise, oolitic carbonates formed on highs and phylloid algal facies accumulated in lows. A shift in the source direction of siliciclastics resulted from flooding or filling of preexisting paleotopographic lows. Fine-grained silidclastics were concentrated in paleotopographic low areas and resulted in clay

  19. Simplified behaviors from increased heterogeneity: II. 3-D Uranium transport at the decimeter scale and intertank comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Andrew W.; Rodriguez, Derrick R.; Honeyman, Bruce D.

    2013-05-01

    Upscaling from bench scale systems to field scale systems incorporates physical and chemical heterogeneities from atomistic up to field scales. Heterogeneities of intermediate scale (~ 10- 1 m) are impossible to incorporate in a bench scale experiment. To transcend these scale discrepancies, this second in a pair of papers presents results from an intermediate scale, 3-D tank experiment completed using five different particle sizes of uranium contaminated sediment from a former uranium mill field site. The external dimensions of the tank were 2.44 m × 0.61 m × 0.61 m (L × H × W). The five particle sizes were packed in a heterogeneous manner using roughly 11 cm cubes. Small groundwater wells were installed for spatial characterization of chemical gradients and flow parameters. An approximately six month long bromide tracer test was used for flow field characterization. Within the flow domain, local uranium breakthrough curves exhibited a wide range of behaviors. However, the global effluent breakthrough curve was smooth, and not unlike breakthrough curves observed in column scale experiments. This paper concludes with an inter-tank comparison of all three experimental systems presented in this pair of papers. Although there is a wide range of chemical and physical variability between the three tanks, major chemical constituent behaviors are often quite similar or even identical.

  20. Simplified behaviors from increased heterogeneity: II. 3-D uranium transport at the decimeter scale and intertank comparisons.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew W; Rodriguez, Derrick R; Honeyman, Bruce D

    2013-05-01

    Upscaling from bench scale systems to field scale systems incorporates physical and chemical heterogeneities from atomistic up to field scales. Heterogeneities of intermediate scale (~10(-1) m) are impossible to incorporate in a bench scale experiment. To transcend these scale discrepancies, this second in a pair of papers presents results from an intermediate scale, 3-D tank experiment completed using five different particle sizes of uranium contaminated sediment from a former uranium mill field site. The external dimensions of the tank were 2.44 m×0.61 m×0.61 m (L×H×W). The five particle sizes were packed in a heterogeneous manner using roughly 11 cm cubes. Small groundwater wells were installed for spatial characterization of chemical gradients and flow parameters. An approximately six month long bromide tracer test was used for flow field characterization. Within the flow domain, local uranium breakthrough curves exhibited a wide range of behaviors. However, the global effluent breakthrough curve was smooth, and not unlike breakthrough curves observed in column scale experiments. This paper concludes with an inter-tank comparison of all three experimental systems presented in this pair of papers. Although there is a wide range of chemical and physical variability between the three tanks, major chemical constituent behaviors are often quite similar or even identical.

  1. A Unified Approach to Joint Regional/Teleseismic Calibration and Event Location with a 3D Earth Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    difficulties that arise in the pursuit of a unified location/calibration capability. One is to develop fast and accurate raytracing techniques for modeling...that arise in the pursuit of a unified location/calibration capability. One is to develop fast and accurate raytracing techniques for modeling different... raytracing and travel-time calculation in 3D Earth models, such as the finite-difference eikonal method (e.g., Podvin and Lecomte, 1991), fast

  2. EarthServer - an FP7 project to enable the web delivery and analysis of 3D/4D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxton, John; Sen, Marcus; Passmore, James

    2013-04-01

    EarthServer aims at open access and ad-hoc analytics on big Earth Science data, based on the OGC geoservice standards Web Coverage Service (WCS) and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). The WCS model defines "coverages" as a unifying paradigm for multi-dimensional raster data, point clouds, meshes, etc., thereby addressing a wide range of Earth Science data including 3D/4D models. WCPS allows declarative SQL-style queries on coverages. The project is developing a pilot implementing these standards, and will also investigate the use of GeoSciML to describe coverages. Integration of WCPS with XQuery will in turn allow coverages to be queried in combination with their metadata and GeoSciML description. The unified service will support navigation, extraction, aggregation, and ad-hoc analysis on coverage data from SQL. Clients will range from mobile devices to high-end immersive virtual reality, and will enable 3D model visualisation using web browser technology coupled with developing web standards. EarthServer is establishing open-source client and server technology intended to be scalable to Petabyte/Exabyte volumes, based on distributed processing, supercomputing, and cloud virtualization. Implementation will be based on the existing rasdaman server technology developed. Services using rasdaman technology are being installed serving the atmospheric, oceanographic, geological, cryospheric, planetary and general earth observation communities. The geology service (http://earthserver.bgs.ac.uk/) is being provided by BGS and at present includes satellite imagery, superficial thickness data, onshore DTMs and 3D models for the Glasgow area. It is intended to extend the data sets available to include 3D voxel models. Use of the WCPS standard allows queries to be constructed against single or multiple coverages. For example on a single coverage data for a particular area can be selected or data with a particular range of pixel values. Queries on multiple surfaces can be

  3. Lapse-time-dependent coda-wave depth sensitivity to local velocity perturbations in 3-D heterogeneous elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermann, Anne; Planès, Thomas; Hadziioannou, Céline; Campillo, Michel

    2016-10-01

    In the context of seismic monitoring, recent studies made successful use of seismic coda waves to locate medium changes on the horizontal plane. Locating the depth of the changes, however, remains a challenge. In this paper, we use 3-D wavefield simulations to address two problems: first, we evaluate the contribution of surface- and body-wave sensitivity to a change at depth. We introduce a thin layer with a perturbed velocity at different depths and measure the apparent relative velocity changes due to this layer at different times in the coda and for different degrees of heterogeneity of the model. We show that the depth sensitivity can be modelled as a linear combination of body- and surface-wave sensitivity. The lapse-time-dependent sensitivity ratio of body waves and surface waves can be used to build 3-D sensitivity kernels for imaging purposes. Second, we compare the lapse-time behaviour in the presence of a perturbation in horizontal and vertical slabs to address, for instance, the origin of the velocity changes detected after large earthquakes.

  4. Earth abundant bimetallic nanoparticles for heterogeneous catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senn, Jonathan F., Jr.

    Polymer exchange membrane fuel cells have the potential to replace current fossil fuel-based technologies in terms of emissions and efficiency, but CO contamination of H2 fuel, which is derived from steam methane reforming, leads to system inefficiency or failure. Solutions currently under development are bimetallic nanoparticles comprised of earth-abundant metals in different architectures to reduce the concentration of CO by PROX during fuel cell operation. Chapter One introduces the Pt-Sn and Co-Ni bimetallic nanoparticle systems, and the intermetallic and core-shell architectures of interest for catalytic evaluation. Application, theory, and studies associated with the efficacy of these nanoparticles are briefly reviewed. Chapter Two describes the concepts of the synthetic and characterization methods used in this work. Chapter Three presents the synthetic, characterization, and catalytic findings of this research. Pt, PtSn, PtSn2, and Pt 3Sn nanoparticles have been synthesized and supported on gamma-Al2O3. Pt3Sn was shown to be an effective PROX catalyst in various gas feed conditions, such as the gas mixture incorporating 0.1% CO, which displayed a light-off temperatures of ˜95°C. Co and Ni monometallic and CoNi bimetallic nanoparticles have been synthesized and characterized, ultimately leading to the development of target Co Ni core-shell nanoparticles. Proposed studies of catalytic properties of these nanoparticles in preferential oxidation of CO (PROX) reactions will further elucidate the effects of different crystallographic phases, nanoparticle-support interactions, and architecture on catalysis, and provide fundamental understanding of catalysis with nanoparticles composed of earth abundant metals in different architectures.

  5. Conception d'un circuit d'etouffement pour photodiodes a avalanche en mode geiger pour integration heterogene 3d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Alexandre

    sont par consequent bases sur des resultats de simulations avec le logiciel Cadence. Mots-cles : Circuit d'etouffement, Photodiodes a avalanche monophotoniques (PAMP), Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD), Integration 3D heterogene, Drain-Extended MOS (DEMOS), CMOS 130 nm 3D Tezzaron/Chartered, Tomographie d'emission par positrons (TEP)

  6. Revealing plot scale heterogeneity in soil moisture dynamics under contrasting vegetation assemblages using 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Jonathan; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Bradford, John; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is a fundamental component of the water cycle that influences many hydrological processes, such as flooding, solute transport, biogeochemical processes, and land-atmosphere interactions. The relationship between vegetation and soil moisture is complex and reciprocal. Soil moisture may affect vegetation distribution due to its function as the primary source of water, in turn the structure of vegetation canopies regulate water partitioning into interception, throughfall and steam flow. Such spatial differences in inputs, together with complex patterns of water uptake from distributed root networks can create marked heterogeneity in soil moisture dynamics at small scales. Traditional methods of monitoring soil moisture have revolved around limited point measurements, but improved geophysical techniques have facilitated a trend towards more spatially distributed measurements to help understand this heterogeneity. Here, we present a study using 3D ERT surveys in a 3.2km upland catchment in the Scottish Highlands where increasing afforestation (for climate change adaptation, biofuels and conservation) has the potential to increase interception losses and reduce soil moisture storage. The study combined 3D surveys, traditional point measurements and laboratory analysis of soil cores to assess the plot scale soil moisture dynamics in podzolic soils under forest stands of 15m high Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and adjacent non-forest plots dominated by heather (Calluna vulgaris) shrubs (<0.5m high). These dominant species are typical of forest and non-forest vegetation communities the Scottish Highlands. Results showed differences in the soil moisture dynamics under the different vegetation types, with heterogeneous patterns in the forested site mainly correlated with canopy cover and mirroring interception losses. Temporal variability in the forested site was greater, probably due to the interception, and increased evapotranspiration losses relative to the

  7. 3D Online Visualization and Synergy of NASA A-Train Data Using Google Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Aijun; Kempler, Steven; Leptoukh, Gregory; Smith, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This poster presentation reviews the use of Google Earth to assist in three dimensional online visualization of NASA Earth science and geospatial data. The NASA A-Train satellite constellation is a succession of seven sun-synchronous orbit satellites: (1) OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory) (will launch in Feb. 2013), (2) GCOM-W1 (Global Change Observation Mission), (3) Aqua, (4) CloudSat, (5) CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar & Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations), (6) Glory, (7) Aura. The A-Train makes possible synergy of information from multiple resources, so more information about earth condition is obtained from the combined observations than would be possible from the sum of the observations taken independently

  8. Body tides of a convecting, laterally heterogeneous, and aspherical Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MéTivier, Laurent; Conrad, Clinton P.

    2008-11-01

    Precise knowledge of Earth's body tides is crucial for correcting geodetic positioning measurements, satellite gravity surveys, and superconducting gravimeters with nanogal precision. With this aim, body tides are generally computed assuming a radially (or elliptically) stratified Earth. However, seismic tomography surveys and fluid dynamic studies show that thermal convection within Earth's mantle produces significant lateral heterogeneity exemplified by superplumes, superswells, and subducting slabs. To determine the influence of this heterogeneity on body tides, we used a tomographic model to constrain lateral variations in mantle density and rigidity. This heterogeneity drives convective flow that deflects Earth's surface and core-mantle boundaries by a few kilometers; we used a viscous flow model to constrain this dynamically supported asphericity. After verifying this complete Earth model using geoid observations, we used the spectral element method to determine how Earth's body tides are perturbed compared to a spherical Earth. We find maximum radial perturbations of surface and geoid displacements of 0.3 and 0.1 mm, respectively, and tidal gravity variations of 150 nGal. The amplitude of tidal gravity perturbations depends strongly on location and is greatest above large mantle density anomalies: e.g., large dense slabs (South America, Indonesia, Marianas), hot spots (Hawaii, Iceland), and the East African Rift. Predicted gravity perturbations are 100 times larger than the present precision of superconducting gravimeters and are comparable in magnitude to the unexplained residue observed at some gravimeter stations after tidal corrections. While this residue has been attributed to unmodeled loading from ocean tides, body tide perturbations caused by convection-induced mantle heterogeneity may contribute to this observed residue.

  9. EarthNow: Weather and Climate Connections for 3D Spherical Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowley, P.; Ackerman, S. A.; Arkin, P. A.; Pisut, D.; Kohrs, R.; Mooney, M. E.; Schollaert, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    The NOAA Science on a Sphere (SOS) is one of the fastest growing museum and science center exhibits worldwide, with over 80 installations. Rightfully so—few other exhibits captivate and mystify audiences in the way SOS does. Harnessing audience excitement about the science, especially climate change and real-time weather, however, has been challenging for docents. The EarthNow project (http://sphere.ssec.wisc.edu) from the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) allows SOS institutions to go beyond the scientific facts to create meaningful visitor experiences about weather and climate connections. CIMSS, in collaboration with the NOAA Environmental Visualization Lab and the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites, regularly updates a blog-style website, providing a central location for SOS facilitators to find timely weather and climate stories to speak about how current events affect and are affected by global change. Along with these stories, the website also provides relevant, visually appealing SOS-formatted datasets and animations with appropriate annotations, leading to easier comprehension by presenters and the public. Along with discussing the logistics and background of the EarthNow project, this presentation will review the results of our front-end and formative evaluations. The evaluation results will not only allow us to showcase how museums and science centers are using EarthNow, but also what museums need to tackle complex and contentious issues like global climate change.;

  10. Recipe for High Moment Materials with Rare-earth and 3d Transition Metal Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autieri, Carmine; Kumar, P. Anil; Walecki, Dirk; Webers, Samira; Gubbins, Mark A.; Wende, Heiko; Sanyal, Biplab

    2016-07-01

    Materials with high volume magnetization are perpetually needed for the generation of sufficiently large magnetic fields by writer pole of magnetic hard disks, especially for achieving increased areal density in storage media. In search of suitable materials combinations for this purpose, we have employed density functional theory to predict the magnetic coupling between iron and gadolinium layers separated by one to several monolayers of 3d transition metals (Sc-Zn). We demonstrate that it is possible to find ferromagnetic coupling for many of them and in particular for the early transition metals giving rise to high moment. Cr and Mn are the only elements able to produce a significant ferromagnetic coupling for thicker spacer layers. We also present experimental results on two trilayer systems Fe/Sc/Gd and Fe/Mn/Gd. From the experiments, we confirm a ferromagnetic coupling between Fe and Gd across a 3 monolayers Sc spacer or a Mn spacer thicker than 1 monolayer. In addition, we observe a peculiar dependence of Fe/Gd magnetic coupling on the Mn spacer thickness.

  11. Recipe for High Moment Materials with Rare-earth and 3d Transition Metal Composites

    PubMed Central

    Autieri, Carmine; Kumar, P. Anil; Walecki, Dirk; Webers, Samira; Gubbins, Mark A.; Wende, Heiko; Sanyal, Biplab

    2016-01-01

    Materials with high volume magnetization are perpetually needed for the generation of sufficiently large magnetic fields by writer pole of magnetic hard disks, especially for achieving increased areal density in storage media. In search of suitable materials combinations for this purpose, we have employed density functional theory to predict the magnetic coupling between iron and gadolinium layers separated by one to several monolayers of 3d transition metals (Sc-Zn). We demonstrate that it is possible to find ferromagnetic coupling for many of them and in particular for the early transition metals giving rise to high moment. Cr and Mn are the only elements able to produce a significant ferromagnetic coupling for thicker spacer layers. We also present experimental results on two trilayer systems Fe/Sc/Gd and Fe/Mn/Gd. From the experiments, we confirm a ferromagnetic coupling between Fe and Gd across a 3 monolayers Sc spacer or a Mn spacer thicker than 1 monolayer. In addition, we observe a peculiar dependence of Fe/Gd magnetic coupling on the Mn spacer thickness. PMID:27381456

  12. Strong, Multi-Scale Heterogeneity in Earth's Lowermost Mantle.

    PubMed

    Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Young, Mallory; Muir, Jack B; Davies, D Rhodri; Mattesini, Maurizio

    2015-12-17

    The core mantle boundary (CMB) separates Earth's liquid iron outer core from the solid but slowly convecting mantle. The detailed structure and dynamics of the mantle within ~300 km of this interface remain enigmatic: it is a complex region, which exhibits thermal, compositional and phase-related heterogeneity, isolated pockets of partial melt and strong variations in seismic velocity and anisotropy. Nonetheless, characterising the structure of this region is crucial to a better understanding of the mantle's thermo-chemical evolution and the nature of core-mantle interactions. In this study, we examine the heterogeneity spectrum from a recent P-wave tomographic model, which is based upon trans-dimensional and hierarchical Bayesian imaging. Our tomographic technique avoids explicit model parameterization, smoothing and damping. Spectral analyses reveal a multi-scale wavelength content and a power of heterogeneity that is three times larger than previous estimates. Inter alia, the resulting heterogeneity spectrum gives a more complete picture of the lowermost mantle and provides a bridge between the long-wavelength features obtained in global S-wave models and the short-scale dimensions of seismic scatterers. The evidence that we present for strong, multi-scale lowermost mantle heterogeneity has important implications for the nature of lower mantle dynamics and prescribes complex boundary conditions for Earth's geodynamo.

  13. 3D Visualization of near real-time remote-sensing observation for hurricanes field campaign using Google Earth API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P.; Turk, J.; Vu, Q.; Knosp, B.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Poulsen, W. L.; Licata, S.

    2009-12-01

    NASA is planning a new field experiment, the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP), in the summer of 2010 to better understand how tropical storms form and develop into major hurricanes. The DC-8 aircraft and the Global Hawk Unmanned Airborne System (UAS) will be deployed loaded with instruments for measurements including lightning, temperature, 3D wind, precipitation, liquid and ice water contents, aerosol and cloud profiles. During the field campaign, both the spaceborne and the airborne observations will be collected in real-time and integrated with the hurricane forecast models. This observation-model integration will help the campaign achieve its science goals by allowing team members to effectively plan the mission with current forecasts. To support the GRIP experiment, JPL developed a website for interactive visualization of all related remote-sensing observations in the GRIP’s geographical domain using the new Google Earth API. All the observations are collected in near real-time (NRT) with 2 to 5 hour latency. The observations include a 1KM blended Sea Surface Temperature (SST) map from GHRSST L2P products; 6-hour composite images of GOES IR; stability indices, temperature and vapor profiles from AIRS and AMSU-B; microwave brightness temperature and rain index maps from AMSR-E, SSMI and TRMM-TMI; ocean surface wind vectors, vorticity and divergence of the wind from QuikSCAT; the 3D precipitation structure from TRMM-PR and vertical profiles of cloud and precipitation from CloudSAT. All the NRT observations are collected from the data centers and science facilities at NASA and NOAA, subsetted, re-projected, and composited into hourly or daily data products depending on the frequency of the observation. The data products are then displayed on the 3D Google Earth plug-in at the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) website. The data products offered by the TCIS in the Google Earth display include image overlays, wind vectors, clickable

  14. 3-D frequency-domain seismic wave modelling in heterogeneous, anisotropic media using a Gaussian Quadrature Grid (GQG) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhalgh, Stewart; Zhou, Bing; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a modified version of the spectral element method (SEM), called the Gaussian Quadrature Grid (GQG) approach, for frequency domain 3D seismic modelling in arbitrary heterogeneous, anisotropic media. The model may incorporate an arbitrary free-surface topography and irregular subsurface interfaces. Unlike the SEM ,it does not require a powerful mesh generator such as the Delauney Triangular or TetGen. Rather, the GQG approach replaces the element mesh with Gaussian quadrature abscissae to directly sample the physical properties of the model parameters and compute the weighted residual or variational integral. This renders the model discretisation simple and easily matched to the model topography, as well as direct control of the model paramterisation for subsequent inversion. In addition, it offers high accuracy in numerical modelling provided that an appropriate density of the Gaussian quadrature abscissae is employed. The second innovation of the GQG is the incorporation of a new implementation of perfectly matched layers to suppress artificial reflections from the domain margins. We employ PML model parameters (specified complex valued density and elastic moduli) rather than explicitly solving the governing wave equation with a complex co-ordinate system as in conventional approaches. Such an implementation is simple, general, effective and easily extendable to any class of anisotropy and other numerical modelling methods. The accuracy of the GQG approach is controlled by the number of Gaussian quadrature points per minimum wavelength, the so-called sampling density. The optimal sampling density should be the one which enables high definition of geological characteristics and high precision of the variational integral evaluation and spatial differentiation. Our experiments show that satisfactory results can be obtained using sampling densities of 5 points per minimum wavelength. Efficiency of the GQG approach mainly depends on the linear

  15. Study of heterogeneous catalysis by iron-squarate based 3D metal organic framework for the transformation of tetrazines to oxadiazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Soumyabrata; Jena, Himanshu Sekhar; Konar, Sanjit

    2014-07-21

    We present here a simple, milder, and environmentally benign heterogeneous catalytic method for the transformation of tetrazines to oxadiazole derivatives at room temperature (25 °C) using our earlier synthesized iron-squarate based 3D metal organic framework, [Fe3(OH)3(C4O4)(C4O4)0.5]n (FeSq-MOF).

  16. Heterogeneous accretion and the moderately volatile element budget of Earth.

    PubMed

    Schönbächler, M; Carlson, R W; Horan, M F; Mock, T D; Hauri, E H

    2010-05-14

    Several models exist to describe the growth and evolution of Earth; however, variables such as the type of precursor materials, extent of mixing, and material loss during accretion are poorly constrained. High-precision palladium-silver isotope data show that Earth's mantle is similar in 107Ag/109Ag to primitive, volatile-rich chondrites, suggesting that Earth accreted a considerable amount of material with high contents of moderately volatile elements. Contradictory evidence from terrestrial chromium and strontium isotope data are reconciled by heterogeneous accretion, which includes a transition from dominantly volatile-depleted to volatile-rich materials with possibly high water contents. The Moon-forming giant impact probably involved the collision with a Mars-like protoplanet that had an oxidized mantle, enriched in moderately volatile elements.

  17. A study of the earth radiation budget using a 3D Monte-Carlo radiative transer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okata, M.; Nakajima, T.; Sato, Y.; Inoue, T.; Donovan, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the earth's radiation budget when data are available from satellite-borne active sensors, i.e. cloud profiling radar (CPR) and lidar, and a multi-spectral imager (MSI) in the project of the Earth Explorer/EarthCARE mission. For this purpose, we first developed forward and backward 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes that can treat a broadband solar flux calculation including thermal infrared emission calculation by k-distribution parameters of Sekiguchi and Nakajima (2008). In order to construct the 3D cloud field, we tried the following three methods: 1) stochastic cloud generated by randomized optical thickness each layer distribution and regularly-distributed tilted clouds, 2) numerical simulations by a non-hydrostatic model with bin cloud microphysics model and 3) Minimum cloud Information Deviation Profiling Method (MIDPM) as explained later. As for the method-2 (numerical modeling method), we employed numerical simulation results of Californian summer stratus clouds simulated by a non-hydrostatic atmospheric model with a bin-type cloud microphysics model based on the JMA NHM model (Iguchi et al., 2008; Sato et al., 2009, 2012) with horizontal (vertical) grid spacing of 100m (20m) and 300m (20m) in a domain of 30km (x), 30km (y), 1.5km (z) and with a horizontally periodic lateral boundary condition. Two different cell systems were simulated depending on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration. In the case of horizontal resolution of 100m, regionally averaged cloud optical thickness, , and standard deviation of COT, were 3.0 and 4.3 for pristine case and 8.5 and 7.4 for polluted case, respectively. In the MIDPM method, we first construct a library of pair of observed vertical profiles from active sensors and collocated imager products at the nadir footprint, i.e. spectral imager radiances, cloud optical thickness (COT), effective particle radius (RE) and cloud top temperature (Tc). We then select a

  18. Incorporation of 3-D Scanning Lidar Data into Google Earth for Real-time Air Pollution Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, C.; Nee, J.; Das, S.; Sun, S.; Hsu, Y.; Chiang, H.; Chen, S.; Lin, P.; Chu, J.; Su, C.; Lee, W.; Su, L.; Chen, C.

    2011-12-01

    3-D Differential Absorption Scanning Lidar (DIASL) system has been designed with small size, light weight, and suitable for installation in various vehicles and places for monitoring of air pollutants and displays a detailed real-time temporal and spatial variability of trace gases via the Google Earth. The fast scanning techniques and visual information can rapidly identify the locations and sources of the polluted gases and assess the most affected areas. It is helpful for Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to protect the people's health and abate the air pollution as quickly as possible. The distributions of the atmospheric pollutants and their relationship with local metrological parameters measured with ground based instruments will also be discussed. Details will be presented in the upcoming symposium.

  19. A Unified Approach to Joint Regional/Teleseismic Calibration and Event Location with a 3D Earth Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    raytracing in 3D models, which has been a serious impediment to the pursuit of 3D event location methods. We will investigate whether, for...Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies 488 3D Raytracing A critical choice in both event location and travel-time tomography with 3D

  20. Mechanism for generating stagnant slabs in 3-D spherical mantle convection models at Earth-like conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Takatoshi; Yamagishi, Yasuko; Hamano, Yozo; Stegman, Dave R.; Suetsugu, Daisuke; Bina, Craig; Inoue, Toru; Wiens, Douglas; Jellinek, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Seismic tomography reveals the natural mode of convection in the Earth is whole mantle with subducted slabs clearly seen as continuous features into the lower mantle. However, simultaneously existing alongside these deep slabs are stagnant slabs which are, if only temporarily, trapped in the upper mantle. Previous numerical models of mantle convection have observed a range of behavior for slabs in the transition zone depending on viscosity stratification and mineral phase transitions, but typically only exhibit flat-lying slabs when mantle convection is layered or trench migration is imposed. We use 3-D spherical models of mantle convection which range up to Earth-like conditions in Rayleigh number to systematically investigate three effects on mantle dynamics: (1) the mineral phase transitions, (2) a strongly temperature-dependent viscosity with plastic yielding at shallow depth, and (3) a viscosity increase in the lower mantle. First a regime diagram is constructed for isoviscous models over a wide range of Rayleigh number and Clapeyron slope for which the convective mode is determined. It agrees very well with previous results from 2-D simulations by Christensen and Yuen (1985), suggesting present-day Earth is in the intermittent convection mode rather than layered or strictly whole mantle. Two calculations at Earth-like conditions (Ra and RaH = 2 í 107 and 5 í 108, respectively) which include effects (2) and (3) are produced with and without the effect of the mineral phase transitions. The first calculation (without the phase transition) successfully produces plate-like behavior with a long wavelength structure and surface heat flow similar to Earth's value. While the observed convective flow pattern in the lower mantle is broader compared to isoviscous models, it basically shows the behavior of whole mantle convection, and does not exhibit any slab flattening at the viscosity increase at 660 km depth. The second calculation which includes the phase

  1. Strong, Multi-Scale Heterogeneity in Earth's Lowermost Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Young, Mallory

    2014-05-01

    The ~300 km thick layer above the Earth's core mantle boundary remains largely an enigma and has proven to be far more than a simple dividing line; rather it is a complex region with a range of proposed phenomena such as thermal and compositional heterogeneity, partial melting and anisotropy. Characterizing the heterogeneity in the lowermost mantle will prove crucial to accurately understanding key geodynamical processes within our planet. Here we obtain compressional wave (P-wave) velocity images and uncertainty estimates for the lowermost mantle using old and newly collected travel time data sensitive to the lowermost mantle and core and collected by waveform cross-correlation. The images obtained by the inversion technique are void of explicit model parameterization and smoothing. To attest to the impressive capabilities of the transdimensional and hierarchical Bayesian inversion scheme, we design a comprehensive, all-embracing synthetic resolution test demonstrating the retrieval of velocity discontinuities, smooth velocity transitions, structures of varying scales and strengths. Subsequent spectral analyses reveal a power of heterogeneity three times larger than previous estimates and a multi-scale wavelength content in the P-wave velocity field of the lowermost mantle. The newly obtained P-wave tomographic images of the lowermost mantle are not dominated by harmonic degree 2 structure as is the case for tomographic images derived from S-wave data. Instead, the heterogeneity size is more uniformly distributed between about 500 and 6000 km. Inter alia, the resulting heterogeneity spectrum provides a bridge between the long-wavelength features of previous global models and the very short-scale dimensions of scatterers mapped in independent studies. Because the long scale features are less dominant in our model than in S-wave velocity maps, we cannot reasonably determine a correlation between them and the position of detected ultra-low velocity zones.

  2. Examination of heterogeneous crossing sequences between toner and rollerball pen strokes by digital microscopy and 3-D laser profilometry.

    PubMed

    Montani, Isabelle; Mazzella, Williams; Guichard, Marion; Marquis, Raymond

    2012-07-01

    The determination of line crossing sequences between rollerball pens and laser printers presents difficulties that may not be overcome using traditional techniques. This research aimed to study the potential of digital microscopy and 3-D laser profilometry to determine line crossing sequences between a toner and an aqueous ink line. Different paper types, rollerball pens, and writing pressure were tested. Correct opinions of the sequence were given for all case scenarios, using both techniques. When the toner was printed before the ink, a light reflection was observed in all crossing specimens, while this was never observed in the other sequence types. The 3-D laser profilometry, more time-consuming, presented the main advantage of providing quantitative results. The findings confirm the potential of the 3-D laser profilometry and demonstrate the efficiency of digital microscopy as a new technique for determining the sequence of line crossings involving rollerball pen ink and toner.

  3. Multidimensional (0D to 3D) Alkaline-Earth Metal Diphosphonates: Synthesis, Structural Diversity, and Luminescence Properties.

    PubMed

    Senthil Raja, Duraisamy; Lin, Pin-Chun; Liu, Wei-Ren; Zhan, Jun-Xiang; Fu, Xin-Yi; Lin, Chia-Her

    2015-05-04

    A series of new alkaline-earth metal diphosphonate frameworks were successfully synthesized under solvothermal reaction condition (160 °C, 3 d) using 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (CH3C(OH)(H2PO3)2, hedpH4) as a diphosphonate building block and Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II), or Ba(II) ions as alkaline-earth metal ion centers in water, dimethylformamide, and/or EtOH media. These diphosphonate frameworks, (H2NMe2)4[Mg(hedpH2)3]·3H2O (1), (H2NMe2)2[Ca(hedpH2)2] (2), (H2NMe2)2[Sr3(hedpH2)4(H2O)2] (3), and [Ba3(hedpH2)3]·H2O (4) exhibited interesting structural topologies (zero-, one-, two-, and three-dimensional (0D, 1D, 2D, and 3D, respectively)), which are mainly depending on the metal ions and the solvents used in the synthesis. The single-crystal analysis of these newly synthesized compounds revealed that 1 was a 0D molecule, 2 has 1D chains, 3 was a 3D molecule, and 4 has 2D layers. All compounds were further characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, solid-state (31)P NMR, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, UV-vis spectra, and infrared spectroscopy. In addition, Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-doped compounds of 1-4, namely, (H2NMe2)4[Ln(x)Mg(1-x)(hedpH2)2(hedpH(2-x))]·3H2O (1Ln), (H2NMe2)2[Ln(x)Ca(1-x)(hedpH2)(hedpH(2-x))] (2Ln), (H2NMe2)2[Ln(x)Sr(3-x)(hedpH2)3(hedpH(2-x))(H2O)2] (3Ln), and [Ln(x)Ba(3-x)(hedpH2)2(hedpH(2-x))]·H2O (4Ln) (where Ln = Eu, Tb), were synthesized, and their photoluminescence properties were studied. The quantum yield of 1Eu-4Eu was measured with reference to commercial red phosphor, Y2O2S:Eu(3+) (YE), and the quantum yield of terbium-doped compounds 1Tb-4Tb was measured with reference to commercial green-emitting phosphor CeMgAl10O17:Tb(3+). Interestingly, the compound 2Eu showed very high quantum yield of 92.2%, which is better than that of the reference commercial red phosphor, YE (90.8%).

  4. Full 3-D TLM simulations of the Earth-ionosphere cavity: Effect of conductivity on the Schumann resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo-Redondo, S.; Salinas, A.; Fornieles, J.; Portí, J.; Lichtenegger, H. I. M.

    2016-06-01

    Schumann resonances can be found in planetary atmospheres, inside the cavity formed by the conducting surface of the planet and the lower ionosphere. They are a powerful tool to investigate both the electric processes that occur in the atmosphere and the characteristics of the surface and the lower ionosphere. Results from a full 3-D model of the Earth-ionosphere electromagnetic cavity based on the Transmission-Line Modeling (TLM) method are presented. A Cartesian scheme with homogeneous cell size of 10 km is used to minimize numerical dispersion present in spherical schemes. Time and frequency domain results have been obtained to study the resonance phenomenon. The effect of conductivity on the Schumann resonances in the cavity is investigated by means of numerical simulations, studying the transition from resonant to nonresonant response and setting the conductivity limit for the resonances to develop inside the cavity. It is found that the transition from resonant to nonresonant behavior occurs for conductivity values above roughly 10-9 S/m. For large losses in the cavity, the resonances are damped, but, in addition, the peak frequencies change according to the local distance to the source and with the particular electromagnetic field component. These spatial variations present steep variations around each mode's nodal position, covering distances around 1/4 of the mode wavelength, the higher modes being more sensitive to this effect than the lower ones. The dependence of the measured frequency on the distance to the source and particular component of the electric field offers information on the source generating these resonances.

  5. Predicting lower mantle heterogeneity from 4-D Earth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flament, Nicolas; Williams, Simon; Müller, Dietmar; Gurnis, Michael; Bower, Dan J.

    2016-04-01

    basal layer ˜ 4% denser than ambient mantle. Increasing convective vigour (Ra ≈ 5 x 108) or decreasing the density of the basal layer decreases both the accuracy and sensitivity of the predicted lower mantle structure. References: D. J. Bower, M. Gurnis, N. Flament, Assimilating lithosphere and slab history in 4-D Earth models. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 238, 8-22 (2015). V. Lekic, S. Cottaar, A. Dziewonski, B. Romanowicz, Cluster analysis of global lower mantle tomography: A new class of structure and implications for chemical heterogeneity. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 357, 68-77 (2012).

  6. Hyporheic Exchange: Analysis of Aquifer Heterogeneity, Channel Morphology and Bedforms- 2D and 3D Simulations Using MODFLOW and MODPATH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, J. R.; Welty, C.; Packman, A.

    2005-12-01

    The main purpose of the simulations in this research is the analysis of three-dimensional surface-groundwater interchange in heterogeneous systems. The effects of channel pattern, bed forms and aquifer heterogeneity on flow interactions between stream and groundwater systems are examined in order to contribute for a better understanding of the hyporheic process. A two-dimensional approach was also adopted to allow comparisons with the three-dimensional results. The grid was designed using the correlation scales of the heterogeneous fields and the scale of the stream meanders. MODFLOW and MODPATH were used to evaluate magnitude, direction and spatial distribution of the exchange flow. PMWIN and PMPATH were used as pre and post-processors during the construction of the models and analysis of results. Gaining and losing streams as well as parallel flow and flow across streams were simulated as idealized cases intended to describe how properties of the streambed and aquifer in low-gradient lowland streams contribute to hyporheic exchange. At first a straight river was analyzed then meandering streams were created with a sine curve and variations on wavelength and amplitude. Bed forms were simulated assuming a sinusoidal distribution of pressure head in the bed surface. Aspects of the influence of bedforms on mechanisms such as "pumping" and "turnover" are expected to be addressed with simulations. Flow velocities between 20 and 40 cm/s in the channel were tested with the objective of showing the influence of river morphology and natural bed forms on the flow exchange in the hyporheic zone. Several meander cycles and four levels of hydraulic conductivity variance were analyzed. Results of flow variances along the cross-sections and wetted perimeter show the increasing on hyporheic exchange as the degree of heterogeneity increases. Particle tracking was performed to define hyporheic residence time distributions. When comparing the homogeneous fields with all degrees of

  7. Component mode synthesis methods applied to 3D heterogeneous core calculations, using the mixed dual finite element solver MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, P.; Baudron, A. M.; Lautard, J. J.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes a new technique for determining the pin power in heterogeneous core calculations. It is based on a domain decomposition with overlapping sub-domains and a component mode synthesis technique for the global flux determination. Local basis functions are used to span a discrete space that allows fundamental global mode approximation through a Galerkin technique. Two approaches are given to obtain these local basis functions: in the first one (Component Mode Synthesis method), the first few spatial eigenfunctions are computed on each sub-domain, using periodic boundary conditions. In the second one (Factorized Component Mode Synthesis method), only the fundamental mode is computed, and we use a factorization principle for the flux in order to replace the higher order Eigenmodes. These different local spatial functions are extended to the global domain by defining them as zero outside the sub-domain. These methods are well-fitted for heterogeneous core calculations because the spatial interface modes are taken into account in the domain decomposition. Although these methods could be applied to higher order angular approximations - particularly easily to a SPN approximation - the numerical results we provide are obtained using a diffusion model. We show the methods' accuracy for reactor cores loaded with UOX and MOX assemblies, for which standard reconstruction techniques are known to perform poorly. Furthermore, we show that our methods are highly and easily parallelizable. (authors)

  8. Constructing 3D branched nanowire coated macroporous metal oxide electrodes with homogeneous or heterogeneous compositions for efficient solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wu-Qiang; Xu, Yang-Fan; Rao, Hua-Shang; Feng, Hao-Lin; Su, Cheng-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin

    2014-05-05

    Light-harvesting and charge collection have attracted increasing attention in the domain of photovoltaic cells, and can be facilitated dramatically by appropriate design of a photonic nanostructure. However, the applicability of current light-harvesting photoanode materials with single component and/or morphology (such as, particles, spheres, wires, sheets) is still limited by drawbacks such as insufficient electron-hole separation and/or light-trapping. Herein, we introduce a universal method to prepare hierarchical assembly of macroporous material-nanowire coated homogenous or heterogeneous metal oxide composite electrodes (TiO2 -TiO2 , SnO2 -TiO2 , and Zn2 SnO4 -TiO2 ; homogenous refers to a material in which the nanowire and the macroporous material have the same composition, i.e. both are TiO2 . Heterogeneous refers to a material in which the nanowires and the macroporous material have different compositions). The dye-sensitized solar cell based on a TiO2 -macroporous material-TiO2 -nanowire homogenous composition electrode shows an impressive conversion efficiency of 9.51 %, which is much higher than that of pure macroporous material-based photoelectrodes to date.

  9. Impact of soil structure heterogeneity on the degradation of organic pollutants at the centimeter scale : 3D Modeling using graph based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair Yemini, Francis; Chenu, Claire; Monga, Olivier; Vieuble Gonond, Laure; Juarez, Sabrina; Pihneiro, Marc; otten, Wilfred; Garnier, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    Contaminant degradation by microorganisms is very variable in soils because of the very heterogeneous spatial relationship of contaminant/degraders. Repacked Soil columns were carried out to study the degradation of 2,4D pesticide labelled with C14 for different scenarios of microorganisms and pesticide initial location. Measurements of global C14-CO2 emission and C14 distribution in the soil column showed that the initial location play a crucial rule on the dissipation of the pollutant. Experiments were simulated using a 3D model able to model microbial degradation and substrate diffusion between aggregates by considering explicitly the 3D structure of soil from CT images. The initial version of the model (Monga et al., 2008) was improved in order to simulate diffusion in samples of large size. Partial differential equations were implemented using freefem++ solver. The model simulates properly the dynamics of 2,4D in the column for the different initial situations. CT images of the same soil but using undisturbed structure instead of repacked aggregates were also carried out. Significant differences of the simulated results were observed between the repacked and the undisturbed soil. The conclusion of our work is that the heterogeneity of the soil structure and location of pollutants and decomposers has a very strong influence on the dissipation of pollutants.

  10. Full-physics 3D heterogeneous simulations of electromagnetic induction fields on level and deformed sea ice

    SciTech Connect

    Samluk, Jesse P.; Geiger, Cathleen A.; Weiss, Chester J.; Kolodzey, James

    2015-10-01

    In this article we explore simulated responses of electromagnetic (EM) signals relative to in situ field surveys and quantify the effects that different values of conductivity in sea ice have on the EM fields. We compute EM responses of ice types with a three-dimensional (3-D) finite-volume discretization of Maxwell's equations and present 2-D sliced visualizations of their associated EM fields at discrete frequencies. Several interesting observations result: First, since the simulator computes the fields everywhere, each gridcell acts as a receiver within the model volume, and captures the complete, coupled interactions between air, snow, sea ice and sea water as a function of their conductivity; second, visualizations demonstrate how 1-D approximations near deformed ice features are violated. But the most important new finding is that changes in conductivity affect EM field response by modifying the magnitude and spatial patterns (i.e. footprint size and shape) of current density and magnetic fields. These effects are demonstrated through a visual feature we define as 'null lines'. Null line shape is affected by changes in conductivity near material boundaries as well as transmitter location. Our results encourage the use of null lines as a planning tool for better ground-truth field measurements near deformed ice types.

  11. Full-physics 3D heterogeneous simulations of electromagnetic induction fields on level and deformed sea ice

    DOE PAGES

    Samluk, Jesse P.; Geiger, Cathleen A.; Weiss, Chester J.; ...

    2015-10-01

    In this article we explore simulated responses of electromagnetic (EM) signals relative to in situ field surveys and quantify the effects that different values of conductivity in sea ice have on the EM fields. We compute EM responses of ice types with a three-dimensional (3-D) finite-volume discretization of Maxwell's equations and present 2-D sliced visualizations of their associated EM fields at discrete frequencies. Several interesting observations result: First, since the simulator computes the fields everywhere, each gridcell acts as a receiver within the model volume, and captures the complete, coupled interactions between air, snow, sea ice and sea water asmore » a function of their conductivity; second, visualizations demonstrate how 1-D approximations near deformed ice features are violated. But the most important new finding is that changes in conductivity affect EM field response by modifying the magnitude and spatial patterns (i.e. footprint size and shape) of current density and magnetic fields. These effects are demonstrated through a visual feature we define as 'null lines'. Null line shape is affected by changes in conductivity near material boundaries as well as transmitter location. Our results encourage the use of null lines as a planning tool for better ground-truth field measurements near deformed ice types.« less

  12. Re-Dimensional Thinking in Earth Science: From 3-D Virtual Reality Panoramas to 2-D Contour Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, John; Carter, Glenda; Butler, Susan; Slykhuis, David; Reid-Griffin, Angelia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of gender and spatial perception on student interactivity with contour maps and non-immersive virtual reality. Eighteen eighth-grade students elected to participate in a six-week activity-based course called "3-D GeoMapping." The course included nine days of activities related to topographic mapping.…

  13. "We Put on the Glasses and Moon Comes Closer!" Urban Second Graders Exploring the Earth, the Sun and Moon through 3D Technologies in a Science and Literacy Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik-Ercan, Zeynep; Zeynep Inan, Hatice; Nowak, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Beomjin

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study describes (a) the ways 3D visualization, coupled with other science and literacy experiences, supported young children's first exploration of the Earth-Sun-Moon system and (b) the perspectives of classroom teachers and children on using 3D visualization. We created three interactive 3D software modules that simulate day…

  14. A heterogeneous sensor network simulation system with integrated terrain data for real-time target detection in 3D space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hong; Tanner, Steve; Rushing, John; Graves, Sara; Criswell, Evans

    2008-03-01

    Large scale sensor networks composed of many low-cost small sensors networked together with a small number of high fidelity position sensors can provide a robust, fast and accurate air defense and warning system. The team has been developing simulations of such large networks, and is now adding terrain data in an effort to provide more realistic analysis of the approach. This work, a heterogeneous sensor network simulation system with integrated terrain data for real-time target detection in a three-dimensional environment is presented. The sensor network can be composed of large numbers of low fidelity binary and bearing-only sensors, and small numbers of high fidelity position sensors, such as radars. The binary and bearing-only sensors are randomly distributed over a large geographic region; while the position sensors are distributed evenly. The elevations of the sensors are determined through the use of DTED Level 0 dataset. The targets are located through fusing measurement information from all types of sensors modeled by the simulation. The network simulation utilizes the same search-based optimization algorithm as in our previous two-dimensional sensor network simulation with some significant modifications. The fusion algorithm is parallelized using spatial decomposition approach: the entire surveillance area is divided into small regions and each region is assigned to one compute node. Each node processes sensor measurements and terrain data only for the assigned sub region. A master process combines the information from all the compute nodes to get the overall network state. The simulation results have indicated that the distributed fusion algorithm is efficient enough so that an optimal solution can be reached before the arrival of the next sensor data with a reasonable time interval, and real-time target detection can be achieved. The simulation was performed on a Linux cluster with communication between nodes facilitated by the Message Passing Interface

  15. High-Resolution 3D Proton MRI of Hyperpolarized Gas Enabled by Parahydrogen and Rh/TiO2 Heterogeneous Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Barskiy, Danila A.; Coffey, Aaron M.; Truong, Milton L.; Salnikov, Oleg G.; Khudorozhkov, Alexander K.; Inozemtseva, Elizaveta A.; Prosvirin, Igor P.; Bukhtiyarov, Valery I.; Waddell, Kevin W.; Koptyug, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    Several supported metal catalysts were synthesized, characterized, and tested in heterogeneous hydrogenation of propene with parahydrogen to maximize nuclear spin hyperpolarization of propane gas using parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). The Rh/TiO2 catalyst with a metal particle size of 1.6 nm was found to be the most active and effective in the pairwise hydrogen addition and robust, demonstrating reproducible results with multiple hydrogenation experiments and stability for ≥1.5 years. 3D 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 1 % hyperpolarized flowing gas with microscale spatial resolution (625 × 625 × 625 μm3) and large imaging matrix (128 × 128 × 32) was demonstrated by using a preclinical 4.7 T scanner and 17.4 s imaging scan time. PMID:24961814

  16. Ground-based Transit Observation of the Habitable-zone Super-Earth K2-3d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, Akihiko; Livingston, John; Narita, Norio; Hirano, Teruyuki; Onitsuka, Masahiro; Ryu, Tsuguru; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko

    2016-12-01

    We report the first ground-based transit observation of K2-3d, a 1.5 R ⊕ planet supposedly within the habitable zone around a bright M-dwarf host star, using the Okayama 188 cm telescope and the multi(grz)-band imager MuSCAT. Although the depth of the transit (0.7 mmag) is smaller than the photometric precisions (1.2, 0.9, and 1.2 mmag per 60 s for the g, r, and z bands, respectively), we marginally but consistently identify the transit signal in all three bands, by taking advantage of the transit parameters from K2, and by introducing a novel technique that leverages multi-band information to reduce the systematics caused by second-order extinction. We also revisit previously analyzed Spitzer transit observations of K2-3d to investigate the possibility of systematic offsets in transit timing, and find that all the timing data can be explained well by a linear ephemeris. We revise the orbital period of K2-3d to be 44.55612 ± 0.00021 days, which corrects the predicted transit times for 2019, i.e., the era of the James Webb Space Telescope, by ∼80 minutes. Our observation demonstrates that (1) even ground-based, 2 m class telescopes can play an important role in refining the transit ephemeris of small-sized, long-period planets, and (2) a multi-band imager is useful to reduce the systematics of atmospheric origin, in particular for bluer bands and for observations conducted at low-altitude observatories.

  17. Waveform inversion for 3-D earth structure using the Direct Solution Method implemented on vector-parallel supercomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Tatsuhiko

    2004-08-01

    We implement the Direct Solution Method (DSM) on a vector-parallel supercomputer and show that it is possible to significantly improve its computational efficiency through parallel computing. We apply the parallel DSM calculation to waveform inversion of long period (250-500 s) surface wave data for three-dimensional (3-D) S-wave velocity structure in the upper and uppermost lower mantle. We use a spherical harmonic expansion to represent lateral variation with the maximum angular degree 16. We find significant low velocities under south Pacific hot spots in the transition zone. This is consistent with other seismological studies conducted in the Superplume project, which suggests deep roots of these hot spots. We also perform simultaneous waveform inversion for 3-D S-wave velocity and Q structure. Since resolution for Q is not good, we develop a new technique in which power spectra are used as data for inversion. We find good correlation between long wavelength patterns of Vs and Q in the transition zone such as high Vs and high Q under the western Pacific.

  18. 3D Transient Hydraulic Tomography (3DTHT): An Efficient Field and Modeling Method for High-Resolution Estimation of Aquifer Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrash, W.; Cardiff, M. A.; Kitanidis, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of hydraulic conductivity (K) is a major control on groundwater flow and contaminant transport. Our limited ability to determine 3D heterogeneous distributions of K is a major reason for increased costs and uncertainties associated with virtually all aspects of groundwater contamination management (e.g., site investigations, risk assessments, remediation method selection/design/operation, monitoring system design/operation). Hydraulic tomography (HT) is an emerging method for directly estimating the spatially variable distribution of K - in a similar fashion to medical or geophysical imaging. Here we present results from 3D transient field-scale experiments (3DTHT) which capture the heterogeneous K distribution in a permeable, moderately heterogeneous, coarse fluvial unconfined aquifer at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS). The results are verified against high-resolution K profiles from multi-level slug tests at BHRS wells. The 3DTHT field system for well instrumentation and data acquisition/feedback is fully modular and portable, and the in-well packer-and-port system is easily assembled and disassembled without expensive support equipment or need for gas pressurization. Tests are run for 15-20 min and the aquifer is allowed to recover while the pumping equipment is repositioned between tests. The tomographic modeling software developed uses as input observations of temporal drawdown behavior from each of numerous zones isolated in numerous observation wells during a series of pumping tests conducted from numerous isolated intervals in one or more pumping wells. The software solves for distributed K (as well as storage parameters Ss and Sy, if desired) and estimates parameter uncertainties using: a transient 3D unconfined forward model in MODFLOW, the adjoint state method for calculating sensitivities (Clemo 2007), and the quasi-linear geostatistical inverse method (Kitanidis 1995) for the inversion. We solve for K at >100,000 sub-m3

  19. Detecting 3D Vegetation Structure with the Galileo Space Probe: Can a Distant Probe Detect Vegetation Structure on Earth?

    PubMed

    Doughty, Christopher E; Wolf, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Sagan et al. (1993) used the Galileo space probe data and first principles to find evidence of life on Earth. Here we ask whether Sagan et al. (1993) could also have detected whether life on Earth had three-dimensional structure, based on the Galileo space probe data. We reanalyse the data from this probe to see if structured vegetation could have been detected in regions with abundant photosynthetic pigments through the anisotropy of reflected shortwave radiation. We compare changing brightness of the Amazon forest (a region where Sagan et al. (1993) noted a red edge in the reflectance spectrum, indicative of photosynthesis) as the planet rotates to a common model of reflectance anisotropy and found measured increase of surface reflectance of 0.019 ± 0.003 versus a 0.007 predicted from only anisotropic effects. We hypothesize the difference was due to minor cloud contamination. However, the Galileo dataset had only a small change in phase angle (sun-satellite position) which reduced the observed anisotropy signal and we demonstrate that theoretically if the probe had a variable phase angle between 0-20°, there would have been a much larger predicted change in surface reflectance of 0.1 and under such a scenario three-dimensional vegetation structure on Earth could possibly have been detected. These results suggest that anisotropic effects may be useful to help determine whether exoplanets have three-dimensional vegetation structure in the future, but that further comparisons between empirical and theoretical results are first necessary.

  20. Detecting 3D Vegetation Structure with the Galileo Space Probe: Can a Distant Probe Detect Vegetation Structure on Earth?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sagan et al. (1993) used the Galileo space probe data and first principles to find evidence of life on Earth. Here we ask whether Sagan et al. (1993) could also have detected whether life on Earth had three-dimensional structure, based on the Galileo space probe data. We reanalyse the data from this probe to see if structured vegetation could have been detected in regions with abundant photosynthetic pigments through the anisotropy of reflected shortwave radiation. We compare changing brightness of the Amazon forest (a region where Sagan et al. (1993) noted a red edge in the reflectance spectrum, indicative of photosynthesis) as the planet rotates to a common model of reflectance anisotropy and found measured increase of surface reflectance of 0.019 ± 0.003 versus a 0.007 predicted from only anisotropic effects. We hypothesize the difference was due to minor cloud contamination. However, the Galileo dataset had only a small change in phase angle (sun-satellite position) which reduced the observed anisotropy signal and we demonstrate that theoretically if the probe had a variable phase angle between 0–20°, there would have been a much larger predicted change in surface reflectance of 0.1 and under such a scenario three-dimensional vegetation structure on Earth could possibly have been detected. These results suggest that anisotropic effects may be useful to help determine whether exoplanets have three-dimensional vegetation structure in the future, but that further comparisons between empirical and theoretical results are first necessary. PMID:27973530

  1. On the oscillation of the laterally heterogeneous earth, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musen, P.

    1975-01-01

    The perturbative effects, as cause by lateral inhomogeneities in the earth structure and by Coriolis force, contaminate the originally toroidal and spheroidal earth's oscillations, making them of mixed type. For this reason, in order to make the computation of the perturbations more uniform and homogeneous, it was suggested that the earth's free oscillations be expanded into a series in terms of generalized harmonics familiar from the theory of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. Making use of Gibbsian symbolism and of some operators from the theory of angular momentum, explicit expressions were deduced for the perturbative terms in the differential equation of the earth's free oscillations. Decomposition of the strain tensor in terms of canonical vectors was also obtained.

  2. A series of rare earth complexes with novel non-interpenetrating 3D networks: synthesis, structures, magnetic and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-Hua; Yang, Lin-Yan; Liao, Sheng-Yun; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Jin-Lei; Du, Pei-Yao; Gu, Wen; Liu, Xin

    2014-04-21

    A series of metal-organic framework {Ln(BCPBA)(H2O)}n {Ln = Nd (1), Sm (2), Eu (3), Tb (4), Dy (5)}; {[Ln(BCPBA)(H2O)](H2O)}n {Ln = Pr (6), Gd (7)} have been synthesized through the hydrothermal synthesis method. These compounds possess non-interpenetrating 3D networks with 10.1438 Å× 17.9149 Å rhombic channels along the [001] direction. The results of temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that compounds 4 and 7 exhibit Ln(III)Ln(III) antiferromagnetic interactions, while compound 5 exhibits Ln(III)Ln(III) ferromagnetic interactions. Frequency dependent out-of-phase signals were observed in alternating current (ac) magnetic susceptibility measurements which indicate that they have slow magnetic relaxation characteristics. The luminescent properties of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 are also discussed. Due to the good match between the lowest triplet state of the ligand and the resonant energy level of the lanthanide ion, compound 4 has longer fluorescence lifetime (τ1 = 400.0000 ms, τ2 = 1143.469 ms) and higher quantum yield (Φ = 42%) compared with other compounds.

  3. Development of a hybrid 3-D hydrological model to simulate hillslopes and the regional unconfined aquifer system in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazenberg, P.; Broxton, P. D.; Brunke, M.; Gochis, D.; Niu, G. Y.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A. A.; Zeng, X.

    2015-12-01

    The terrestrial hydrological system, including surface and subsurface water, is an essential component of the Earth's climate system. Over the past few decades, land surface modelers have built one-dimensional (1D) models resolving the vertical flow of water through the soil column for use in Earth system models (ESMs). These models generally have a relatively coarse model grid size (~25-100 km) and only account for sub-grid lateral hydrological variations using simple parameterization schemes. At the same time, hydrologists have developed detailed high-resolution (~0.1-10 km grid size) three dimensional (3D) models and showed the importance of accounting for the vertical and lateral redistribution of surface and subsurface water on soil moisture, the surface energy balance and ecosystem dynamics on these smaller scales. However, computational constraints have limited the implementation of the high-resolution models for continental and global scale applications. The current work presents a hybrid-3D hydrological approach is presented, where the 1D vertical soil column model (available in many ESMs) is coupled with a high-resolution lateral flow model (h2D) to simulate subsurface flow and overland flow. H2D accounts for both local-scale hillslope and regional-scale unconfined aquifer responses (i.e. riparian zone and wetlands). This approach was shown to give comparable results as those obtained by an explicit 3D Richards model for the subsurface, but improves runtime efficiency considerably. The h3D approach is implemented for the Delaware river basin, where Noah-MP land surface model (LSM) is used to calculated vertical energy and water exchanges with the atmosphere using a 10km grid resolution. Noah-MP was coupled within the WRF-Hydro infrastructure with the lateral 1km grid resolution h2D model, for which the average depth-to-bedrock, hillslope width function and soil parameters were estimated from digital datasets. The ability of this h3D approach to simulate

  4. Global effects of transmitted shock wave propagation through the Earth's inner magnetosphere: First results from 3-D hybrid kinetic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2016-09-01

    We use a new hybrid kinetic model to simulate the response of ring current, outer radiation belt, and plasmaspheric particle populations to impulsive interplanetary shocks. Since particle distributions attending the interplanetary shock waves and in the ring current and radiation belts are non-Maxwellian, wave-particle interactions play a crucial role in energy transport within the inner magnetosphere. Finite gyroradius effects become important in mass loading the shock waves with the background plasma in the presence of higher energy ring current and radiation belt ions and electrons. Initial results show that shocks cause strong deformations in the global structure of the ring current, radiation belt, and plasmasphere. The ion velocity distribution functions at the shock front, in the ring current, and in the radiation belt help us determine energy transport through the Earth's inner magnetosphere.

  5. Global Effects of Transmitted Shock Wave Propagation Through the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere: First Results from 3-D Hybrid Kinetic Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2016-01-01

    We use a new hybrid kinetic model to simulate the response of ring current, outer radiation belt, and plasmaspheric particle populations to impulsive interplanetary shocks. Since particle distributions attending the interplanetary shock waves and in the ring current and radiation belts are non-Maxwellian, waveparticle interactions play a crucial role in energy transport within the inner magnetosphere. Finite gyroradius effects become important in mass loading the shock waves with the background plasma in the presence of higher energy ring current and radiation belt ions and electrons. Initial results show that shocks cause strong deformations in the global structure of the ring current, radiation belt, and plasmasphere. The ion velocity distribution functions at the shock front, in the ring current, and in the radiation belt help us determine energy transport through the Earth's inner magnetosphere.

  6. Exploring the faint young Sun problem and the possible climates of the Archean Earth with a 3-D GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnay, B.; Forget, F.; Wordsworth, R.; Leconte, J.; Millour, E.; Codron, F.; Spiga, A.

    2013-09-01

    Different solutions have been proposed to solve the "faint young Sun problem," defined by the fact that the Earth was not fully frozen during the Archean despite the fainter Sun. Most previous studies were performed with simple 1-D radiative convective models and did not account well for the clouds and ice-albedo feedback or the atmospheric and oceanic transport of energy. We apply a global climate model (GCM) to test the different solutions to the faint young Sun problem. We explore the effect of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4), atmospheric pressure, cloud droplet size, land distribution, and Earth's rotation rate. We show that neglecting organic haze, 100 mbar of CO2 with 2 mbar of CH4 at 3.8 Ga and 10 mbar of CO2 with 2 mbar of CH4 at 2.5 Ga allow a temperate climate (mean surface temperature between 10°C and 20°C). Such amounts of greenhouse gases remain consistent with the geological data. Removing continents produces a warming lower than +4°C. The effect of rotation rate is even more limited. Larger droplets (radii of 17 μm versus 12 μm) and a doubling of the atmospheric pressure produce a similar warming of around +7°C. In our model, ice-free water belts can be maintained up to 25°N/S with less than 1 mbar of CO2 and no methane. An interesting cloud feedback appears above cold oceans, stopping the glaciation. Such a resistance against full glaciation tends to strongly mitigate the faint young Sun problem.

  7. Digital Geology from field to 3D modelling and Google Earth virtual environment: methods and goals from the Furlo Gorge (Northern Apennines - Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Susini, Sara

    2014-05-01

    ­-consistent in showing the structural features of the study area. The work was not so straightforward, but the result is more then satisfying, even if some limitations were not solved (i.e. visualisation of bedding attitudes). Geological maps are fundamental for knowledge transfer among experts but, if combined with the innovative digital methods from survey to 3D model, this knowledges could reach a much larger number of people, allowing a cultural growth and the establishment of a larger awareness of the Earth and Environment.

  8. Geodesy-based estimates of loading rates on faults beneath the Los Angeles basin with a new, computationally efficient method to model dislocations in 3D heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollins, C.; Argus, D. F.; Avouac, J. P.; Landry, W.; Barbot, S.

    2015-12-01

    North-south compression across the Los Angeles basin is accommodated by slip on thrust faults beneath the basin that may present significant seismic hazard to Los Angeles. Previous geodesy-based efforts to constrain the distributions and rates of elastic strain accumulation on these faults [Argus et al 2005, 2012] have found that the elastic model used has a first-order impact on the inferred distribution of locking and creep, underlining the need to accurately incorporate the laterally heterogeneous elastic structure and complex fault geometries of the Los Angeles basin into this analysis. We are using Gamra [Landry and Barbot, in prep.], a newly developed adaptive-meshing finite-difference solver, to compute elastostatic Green's functions that incorporate the full 3D regional elastic structure provided by the SCEC Community Velocity Model. Among preliminary results from benchmarks, forward models and inversions, we find that: 1) for a modeled creep source on the edge dislocation geometry from Argus et al [2005], the use of the SCEC CVM material model produces surface velocities in the hanging wall that are up to ~50% faster than those predicted in an elastic halfspace model; 2) in sensitivity-modulated inversions of the Argus et al [2005] GPS velocity field for slip on the same dislocation source, the use of the CVM deepens the inferred locking depth by ≥3 km compared to an elastic halfspace model; 3) when using finite-difference or finite-element models with Dirichlet boundary conditions (except for the free surface) for problems of this scale, it is necessary to set the boundaries at least ~100 km away from any slip source or data point to guarantee convergence within 5% of analytical solutions (a result which may be applicable to other static dislocation modeling problems and which may scale with the size of the area of interest). Here we will present finalized results from inversions of an updated GPS velocity field [Argus et al, AGU 2015] for the inferred

  9. Ambient noise tomography of the Pyrenees and the surrounding regions: inversion for a 3-D Vs model in the presence of a very heterogeneous crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macquet, Marie; Paul, Anne; Pedersen, Helle A.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Chevrot, Sébastien; Sylvander, Matthieu; Wolyniec, David; Pyrope Working Group

    2014-10-01

    The lithospheric architecture of the Pyrenees is still uncertain and highly debated. Here, we provide new constraints from a high-resolution 3-D S-wave velocity model of the Pyrenees and the adjacent foreland basins. This model is obtained from ambient noise tomography on records of temporary and permanent seismic arrays installed in southwestern France and northern Spain. We first computed group velocity maps for Rayleigh waves in the 5 to 55 s period range using noise correlation stacks at 1500-8500 station pairs. As the crust is very heterogeneous, poor results were obtained using a single starting model in a linearized inversion of group velocity dispersion curves for the shear wave structure. We therefore built a starting model for each grid node by full exploration of the model space. The resulting 3-D shear wave velocity model is compared to data from previous geophysical studies as a validation test. Despite the poor sensitivity of surface waves to seismic discontinuities, the geometry of the top of the basement and the Moho depth are retrieved well, except along the Cantabrian coast. Major reflectors of the ECORS deep seismic sounding profiles in the central and western Pyrenees coincide with sharp velocity gradients in our velocity model. We retrieve the difference between the thicker Iberian crust and the thinner European crust, the presence of low-velocity material of the Iberian crust underthrust beneath the European crust in the central Pyrenees, and the structural dissymmetry between the South Pyrenean Zone and the North Pyrenean Zone at the shallow crustal level. In the Labourd-Mauléon-Arzacq region (western Pyrenees), there is a high S-wave velocity anomaly at 20-30 km in depth, which might explain the positive Bouguer anomaly of the Labourd Massif. This high-velocity lower crust, which is also detected beneath the Parentis area, might be an imprint of the Albian-Aptian rifting phase. The southeastern part of the Massif Central has an unusual

  10. Adsorption of alkali, alkaline-earth, simple and 3d transition metal, and nonmetal atoms on monolayer MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. D.; Fang, Y. M.; Wu, S. Q. E-mail: wsq@xmu.edu.cn; Zhu, Z. Z. E-mail: wsq@xmu.edu.cn

    2015-05-15

    Single adsorption of different atoms on pristine two-dimensional monolayer MoS{sub 2} have been systematically investigated by using density functional calculations with van der Waals correction. The adatoms cover alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, main group metal, 3d-transition metals, coinage metal and nonmetal atoms. Depending on the adatom type, metallic, semimetallic or semiconducting behavior can be found in direct bandgap monolayer MoS{sub 2}. Additionally, local or long-range magnetic moments of two-dimensional MoS{sub 2} sheet can also attained through the adsorption. The detailed atomic-scale knowledge of single adsorption on MoS{sub 2} monolayer is important not only for the sake of a theoretical understanding, but also device level deposition technological application.

  11. Dynamic heterogeneity of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in embryonic stem cell populations captured by single-cell 3D high-content analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tajbakhsh, Jian; Stefanovski, Darko; Tang, George; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Liu, Naiyou; Fair, Jeffrey H.

    2015-03-15

    Cell-surface markers and transcription factors are being used in the assessment of stem cell fate and therapeutic safety, but display significant variability in stem cell cultures. We assessed nuclear patterns of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC, associated with pluripotency), a second important epigenetic mark, and its combination with 5-methylcytosine (5mC, associated with differentiation), also in comparison to more established markers of pluripotency (Oct-4) and endodermal differentiation (FoxA2, Sox17) in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) over a 10-day differentiation course in vitro: by means of confocal and super-resolution imaging together with 3D high-content analysis, an essential tool in single-cell screening. In summary: 1) We did not measure any significant correlation of putative markers with global 5mC or 5hmC. 2) While average Oct-4 levels stagnated on a cell-population base (0.015 lnIU/day), Sox17 and FoxA2 increased 22-fold and 3-fold faster, respectively (Sox17: 0.343 lnIU/day; FoxA2: 0.046 lnIU/day). In comparison, global DNA methylation levels increased 4-fold faster (0.068 lnIU/day), and global hydroxymethylation declined at 0.046 lnIU/day, both with a better explanation of the temporal profile. 3) This progression was concomitant with the occurrence of distinct nuclear codistribution patterns that represented a heterogeneous spectrum of states in differentiation; converging to three major coexisting 5mC/5hmC phenotypes by day 10: 5hmC{sup +}/5mC{sup −}, 5hmC{sup +}/5mC{sup +}, and 5hmC{sup −}/5mC{sup +} cells. 4) Using optical nanoscopy we could delineate the respective topologies of 5mC/5hmC colocalization in subregions of nuclear DNA: in the majority of 5hmC{sup +}/5mC{sup +} cells 5hmC and 5mC predominantly occupied mutually exclusive territories resembling euchromatic and heterochromatic regions, respectively. Simultaneously, in a smaller subset of cells we observed a tighter colocalization of the two cytosine variants, presumably

  12. When good statistical models of aquifer heterogeneity go right: The impact of aquifer permeability structures on 3D flow and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankovic, I.; Maghrebi, M.; Fiori, A.; Dagan, G.

    2017-02-01

    Natural gradient steady flow of mean velocity U takes place in heterogeneous aquifers of random logconductivity Y = lnK , characterized by the univariate PDF f(Y) and autocorrelation ρY. Solute transport is analyzed through the Breakthrough Curve (BTC) at planes at distance x from the injection plane. The study examines the impact of permeability structures sharing same f(Y) and ρY, but differing in higher order statistics (integral scales of variograms of Y classes) upon the numerical solution of flow and transport. Flow and transport are solved for 3D structures, rather than the 2D models adopted in most of previous works. We considered a few permeability structures, including the widely employed multi-Gaussian, the connected and disconnected fields introduced by Zinn and Harvey [2003] and a model characterized by equipartition of the correlation scale among Y values. We also consider the impact of statistical anisotropy of Y, the shape of ρY and local diffusion. The main finding is that unlike 2D, the prediction of the BTC of ergodic plumes by numerical and analytical models for different structures is quite robust, displaying a seemingly universal behavior, and can be used with confidence in applications. However, as a prerequisite the basic parameters KG (the geometric mean), σY2 (the logconductivity variance) and I (the horizontal integral scale of ρY) have to be identified from field data. The results suggest that narrowing down the gap between the BTCs in applications can be achieved by obtaining Kef (the effective conductivity) or U independently (e.g. by pumping tests), rather than attempting to characterize the permeability structure beyond f(Y) and ρY.

  13. Assessing the Chemistry of Tidally Locked Earth-like Planets around M-type Stars Using a 3D Coupled Chemistry-Climate Model (CESM/WACCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzano, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Given recent discoveries there is a very real potential for tidally-locked Earth-like planets to exist orbiting M stars. To determine whether these planets may be habitable it is necessary to understand the nature of their atmospheres. In our investigation we simulate the evolution of present-day Earth while placed in tidally-locked orbit (meaning the same side of the planet always faces the star) around an M dwarf star. We are particularly interested in the evolution of the planet's ozone layer and whether it will shield the planet, and therefore life, from harmful radiation.To accomplish the above objectives we use a state-of-the-art 3-D terrestrial model, the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), which fully couples chemistry and climate, and therefore allows self-consistent simulations of atmospheric constituents and their effects on a planet's climate, surface radiation and thus habitability. Preliminary results show that this model is stable and that a tidally-locked Earth is protected from harmful UV radiation produced by G stars. The next step shall be to adapt this model for an M star by including its UV and visible spectrum.This investigation will both provide an insight into the potential for habitable exoplanets and further define the nature of the habitable zones for M class stars. We will also be able to narrow the definition of the habitable zones around distant stars, which will help us identify these planets in the future. Furthermore, this project will allow for a more thorough analysis of data from past and future exoplanet observing missions by defining the atmospheric composition of Earth-like planets around a variety of types of stars.

  14. Pushing the Limits of Geological Mapping Outside the Earth: 3D Modeling of Strike-Slip and Extensional Fault Systems in Meridiani Planum Region, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Royo, O.

    2014-12-01

    GIS and geological modeling software have radically changed the means by which geological mapping is produced, published and visualized. This type of software environment normally requires a spatially aware reference system to position data and interpretation, often referred as georeferenced data (i.e. geographic data referenced on the Earth). However, for this study we coin the term areoreferenced data (i.e. Mars-referenced "geographic" data). Thanks to the wealth of areoreferenced data made available by the NASA and the HiRise at University of Arizona it is now possible to carry out 3D areographic and areologic (i.e. related to the topography and geology of Mars, respectively) reconstructions in great detail. The present work benefits from the availability of software and areographic data, and presents the results of an areologic map and 3D model of the fault systems in the Meridiani Planum of Mars. The work has been carried out in Move™ (developed by Midland Valley Exploration), a geological modeling toolkit that allows for easy data loading in a wide range of formats as well as straightforward 2D/3D model building tools of geological bodies. Initial data consisted of Digital Terrain Model and orthoimages (NASA/JPL/University of Arizona/USGS). From these we have interpreted several structural domains: right-lateral strike-slip systems with associated releasing bends, which gave room to an extensional event causing a horizontal-axis rotation of the bedding. Bedding ranges from subhorizontal in the southern domain where strike-slip prevails to nearly 40º in the central and northern domains, where a more complex interaction between strike-slip and extensional faults is described. The stratigraphic sequence is mainly composed by moderately rounded well laminated basaltic sandstones (Squyres et al., 2004) in which a high component of sulfurs (e.g. sulfate anhydrate, hexahydrite, epsomite, gypsum) and salts (e.g. halite) has been described (Squyres et al., 2004

  15. Extinct isotope heterogeneities in the mantles of Earth and Mars: Implications for mantle stirring rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Stein B.; Yu, Gang

    2015-04-01

    Heterogeneities in terrestrial samples for 182W/183W and 142Nd/144Nd are only preserved in Hadean and Archean rocks while heterogeneities in 129Xe/130Xe and 136Xe/130Xe persist to very young mantle-derived rocks. In contrast, meteorites from Mars show that the Martian mantle preserves heterogeneities in 182W/183W and 142Nd/144Nd up to the present. As a consequence of the probable "deep magma ocean" core formation process, we assume that the Earth and Mars both had a very early two-mantle-reservoir structure with different initial extinct nuclide isotopic compositions (different 182W/183W, 142Nd/144Nd, 129Xe/130Xe, 136Xe/130Xe ratios). Based on this assumption, we developed a simple stochastic model to trace the evolution of a mantle with two initially distinct layers for the extinct isotopes and its development into a heterogeneous mantle by convective mixing and stretching of these two layers. Using the extinct isotope system 182Hf-182W, we find that the mantles of Earth and Mars exhibit substantially different mixing or stirring rates. This is consistent with Mars having cooled faster than the Earth due to its smaller size, resulting in less efficient mantle mixing for Mars. Moreover, the mantle stirring rate obtained for Earth using 182Hf-182W is consistent with the mantle stirring rate of ~500 Myr constrained by the long-lived isotope system, 87Rb-87Sr and 147Sm-143Nd. The apparent absence of 182W/183W isotopic heterogeneity in modern terrestrial rocks is attributed to very active mantle stirring which reduced the 182W/183W isotopic heterogeneity to a relatively small scale (~83 m for a mantle stirring rate of 500 Myr) compared to the common sampling scale of terrestrial basalts (~30 or 100 km). Our results also support the "deep magma ocean" core formation model as being applicable to both Mars and Earth.

  16. Source inversion analysis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake using Green's functions calculated from a 3-D heterogeneous structure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, W.; Aoi, S.; Maeda, T.; Sekiguchi, H.; Kunugi, T.

    2013-12-01

    Source inversion analysis using near-source strong-motion records with an assumption of 1-D underground structure models has revealed the overall characteristics of the rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki mega-thrust earthquake. This assumption for the structure model is acceptable because the seismic waves radiated during the Tohoku-Oki event were rich in the very-low-frequency contents lower than 0.05 Hz, which are less affected by the small-scale heterogeneous structure. The analysis using more reliable Green's functions even in the higher-frequency range considering complex structure of the subduction zone will illuminate more detailed rupture process in space and time and the transition of the frequency dependence of the wave radiation for the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. In this study, we calculate the near-source Green's functions using a 3-D underground structure model and perform the source inversion analysis using them. The 3-D underground structure model used in this study is the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, 2012). A curved fault model on the Pacific plate interface is discretized into 287 subfaults at ~20 km interval. The Green's functions are calculated using GMS (Aoi et al., 2004), which is a simulation program package for the seismic wave field by the finite difference method using discontinuous grids (Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). Computational region is 136-146.2E in longitude, 34-41.6N in latitude, and 0-100 km in depth. The horizontal and vertical grid intervals are 200 m and 100 m, respectively, for the shallower region and those for the deeper region are tripled. The number of the total grids is 2.1 billion. We derive 300-s records by calculating 36,000 steps with a time interval of 0.0083 second (120 Hz sampling). It takes nearly one hour to compute one case using 48 Graphics Processing Units (GPU) on TSUBAME2.0 supercomputer owned by Tokyo Institute of Technology. In total, 574 cases are

  17. The Role of Grid Computing in the Geosciences: Developing a 3D Seismic Waveform Propagation Tool for Seismologists and EarthScope Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seber, D.; Kaiser, T.; Youn, C.; Santini, C.; Greer, D.; Larsen, S.; Glassley, B.

    2004-12-01

    Advances in the area of information technology (IT) have started to have a significant impact on how geoscientists conduct their daily research activities. Integrated and coordinated resource sharing in the areas of Grid computing, web/grid services, semantic data integration, information management and ontologies along with national computational grids such as TeraGrid now provide tremendous opportunities for geoscientists to conduct novel and efficient research in many areas of the geosciences. One of the national scale projects in this area is the GEON Cyberinfrastructure for the Geosciences Project funded by the NSF. As part of GEON's grid computing environment we have started developing a grid-enabled application (SYNSEIS - SYNthetic SEISmogram generation tool) to help seismologists as well as any other researchers calculate synthetic 3D regional seismic waveforms using a well-tested, finite difference code, E3D, developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. SYNSEIS is built as a grid application and accesses distributed data centers and large computational clusters minimizing the requirements needed to conduct such advance calculations. With SYNSEIS users only need to have access to the Internet and a browser. The entire system is web-based and is accessible from the GEONgrid portal web page (www.geongrid.org). It is built using a service-based architecture and each sub-component in the system is also exposed as a web service, allowing multiple use scenarios for each component if other researchers choose to re-use some of the resources. It provides an interactive user interface with mapping tools and event/station/waveform extraction tools that allow users to seamlessly access IRIS Data Management Center's archives. Though the system currently accesses one 3D crustal model across the US, when more models become available they will be incorporated into the system. Users are able to interactively set their study region, retrieve seismic event and

  18. Determination of focal mechanisms of intermediate-magnitude earthquakes in Mexico, based on Greens functions calculated for a 3D Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo Rodríguez Cardozo, Félix; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala

    2015-04-01

    One important ingredient in the study of the complex active tectonics in Mexico is the analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms, or the seismic moment tensor. They can be determined trough the calculation of Green functions and subsequent inversion for moment-tensor parameters. However, this calculation is gets progressively more difficult as the magnitude of the earthquakes decreases. Large earthquakes excite waves of longer periods that interact weakly with laterally heterogeneities in the crust. For these earthquakes, using 1D velocity models to compute the Greens fucntions works well. The opposite occurs for smaller and intermediate sized events, where the relatively shorter periods excited interact strongly with lateral heterogeneities in the crust and upper mantle and requires more specific or regional 3D models. In this study, we calculate Greens functions for earthquakes in Mexico using a laterally heterogeneous seismic wave speed model, comprised of mantle model S362ANI (Kustowski et al 2008) and crustal model CRUST 2.0 (Bassin et al 1990). Subsequently, we invert the observed seismograms for the seismic moment tensor using a method developed by Liu et al (2004) an implemented by Óscar de La Vega (2014) for earthquakes in Mexico. By following a brute force approach, in which we include all observed Rayleigh and Love waves of the Mexican National Seismic Network (Servicio Sismológico Naciona, SSN), we obtain reliable focal mechanisms for events that excite a considerable amount of low frequency waves (Mw > 4.8). However, we are not able to consistently estimate focal mechanisms for smaller events using this method, due to high noise levels in many of the records. Excluding the noisy records, or noisy parts of the records manually, requires interactive edition of the data, using an efficient tool for the editing. Therefore, we developed a graphical user interface (GUI), based on python and the python library ObsPy, that allows the edition of observed and

  19. On observation of local strong heterogeneity in the Earth's inner core below southeastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnoshchekov, D. N.; Kaazik, P. B.; Ovtchinnikov, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    The dimensions and nature of multi-scale structural heterogeneities in the Earth's inner core (IC) provide important constraints on its mineralogy and formation history. Teleseismic body waves with turn points close to the inner core boundary (ICB) provide a unique tool for imaging the fine structure of the upper IC. In this study, we invoke differential travel times and amplitudes of PKPBC and PKPDF waveforms observed in crossing polar and equatorial paths to provide more constraints on the heterogeneity previously located in the quasi-eastern hemisphere of the IC (Kaazik et al., 2015; Krasnoshchekov et al., 2016). A more refined analysis of quasi-polar PKPBC/PKPDF amplitude ratios measured within the heterogeneity indicates that seismic attenuation is both frequency and depth dependent, and its relatively low Q-factor at 1 Hz of approximately 118 tends to grow with depth. Outside the heterogeneity, no pronounced polar-equatorial differences are observed; the estimated Q factor is about twice as large and not directionally dependent. We also analyse new differential travel times of rays that enable sampling of the anomaly at greater depths. The analysis exhibits the polar - equatorial contrasts observed in the heterogeneity terminate at approximately 520 km below the ICB, which we interpret to be its bottom. The earlier interpretation of the heterogeneity in terms of strong anisotropic volume amidst the almost isotropic eastern hemisphere of the IC can be retained, and the lower bound of anisotropy strength within the anomaly is determined to be 2%.

  20. Influence of Nutrient Availability and Quorum Sensing on the Formation of Metabolically Inactive Microcolonies Within Structurally Heterogeneous Bacterial Biofilms: An Individual-Based 3D Cellular Automata Model.

    PubMed

    Machineni, Lakshmi; Rajapantul, Anil; Nandamuri, Vandana; Pawar, Parag D

    2017-03-01

    The resistance of bacterial biofilms to antibiotic treatment has been attributed to the emergence of structurally heterogeneous microenvironments containing metabolically inactive cell populations. In this study, we use a three-dimensional individual-based cellular automata model to investigate the influence of nutrient availability and quorum sensing on microbial heterogeneity in growing biofilms. Mature biofilms exhibited at least three structurally distinct strata: a high-volume, homogeneous region sandwiched between two compact sections of high heterogeneity. Cell death occurred preferentially in layers in close proximity to the substratum, resulting in increased heterogeneity in this section of the biofilm; the thickness and heterogeneity of this lowermost layer increased with time, ultimately leading to sloughing. The model predicted the formation of metabolically dormant cellular microniches embedded within faster-growing cell clusters. Biofilms utilizing quorum sensing were more heterogeneous compared to their non-quorum sensing counterparts, and resisted sloughing, featuring a cell-devoid layer of EPS atop the substratum upon which the remainder of the biofilm developed. Overall, our study provides a computational framework to analyze metabolic diversity and heterogeneity of biofilm-associated microorganisms and may pave the way toward gaining further insights into the biophysical mechanisms of antibiotic resistance.

  1. `We put on the glasses and Moon comes closer!' Urban Second Graders Exploring the Earth, the Sun and Moon Through 3D Technologies in a Science and Literacy Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isik-Ercan, Zeynep; Zeynep Inan, Hatice; Nowak, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Beomjin

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study describes (a) the ways 3D visualization, coupled with other science and literacy experiences, supported young children's first exploration of the Earth-Sun-Moon system and (b) the perspectives of classroom teachers and children on using 3D visualization. We created three interactive 3D software modules that simulate day and night, Moon phases and seasons. These modules were used in a science and literacy unit for 35 second graders at an urban elementary school in Midwestern USA. Data included pre- and post-interviews, audio-taped lessons and classroom observations. Post-interviews demonstrated that children's knowledge of the shapes and the movements of the Earth and Moon, alternation of day and night, the occurrence of the seasons, and Moon's changing appearance increased. Second graders reported that they enjoyed expanding their knowledge through hands-on experiences; through its reality effect, 3D visualization enabled them to observe the space objects that move in the virtual space. The teachers noted that 3D visualization stimulated children's interest in space and that using 3D visualization in combination with other teaching methods-literacy experiences, videos and photos, simulations, discussions, and presentations-supported student learning. The teachers and the students still experienced challenges using 3D visualization due to technical problems with 3D vision and time constraints. We conclude that 3D visualization offers hands-on experiences for challenging science concepts and may support young children's ability to view phenomena that would typically be observed through direct, long-term observations in outer space. Results imply a reconsideration of assumed capabilities of young children to understand astronomical phenomena.

  2. How to Represent 100-meter Spatial Heterogeneity in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaney, Nathaniel; Shevliakova, Elena; Malyshev, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems play a pivotal role in the Earth system; they have a profound impact on the global climate, food and energy production, freshwater resources, and biodiversity. One of the most fascinating yet challenging aspects of characterizing terrestrial ecosystems is their field-scale (~100 m) spatial heterogeneity. It has been observed repeatedly that the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles at multiple temporal and spatial scales have deep ties to an ecosystem's spatial structure. Current Earth system models largely disregard this important relationship leading to an inadequate representation of ecosystem dynamics. In this presentation, we will show how existing hyperresolution environmental datasets can be harnessed to explicitly represent field-scale spatial heterogeneity in Earth system models. For each macroscale grid cell, these environmental data are clustered according to their field-scale soil and topographic attributes to define unique sub-grid tiles or hydrologic response units (HRUs). The novel Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) LM3-TiHy-PPA land model is then used to simulate these HRUs and their spatial interactions via the exchange of water, energy, and nutrients along explicit topographic gradients. Using historical simulations over the contiguous United States, we will show how a robust representation of field-scale spatial heterogeneity impacts modeled ecosystem dynamics including the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles as well as vegetation composition and distribution.

  3. Corrigendum to "The 3-D strain patterns in Turkey using geodetic velocity fields from the RTK-CORS (TR) network" [J. African Earth Sci. 115 (2016) 246-270

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutoglu, Hakan Senol; Toker, Mustafa; Mekik, Cetin

    2016-12-01

    In the article titled "The 3-D Strain patterns in Turkey using Geodetic velocity fields from the RTK-CORS (TR) Network" published in Journal of African Earth Sciences Vol. 11, pp.246-270, the black arrows on the Figs. 10 and 12 are shifted due to printing error to undesired places. The correct form of Figs. 10 and 12 are given below:

  4. A new time-domain approach for the electromagnetic induction problem in a three-dimensional heterogeneous earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamano, Yozo

    2002-09-01

    We present a new time-domain approach to the forward modelling of 3-D electromagnetic induction in a heterogeneous conducting sphere excited by external and internal sources. This method utilizes the standard decomposition of the magnetic field into toroidal and poloidal parts, and spherical harmonic expansions of both the magnetic fields and the conductivity heterogeneity. Resulting induction equations for the spherical harmonics are solved simultaneously in the time domain. Coupling terms between the electromagnetic fields and the conductivity structure are re-expanded in spherical harmonics, so that the terms can be calculated by matrix multiplications at each time step of the computation. A finite difference approximation was used to solve the set of diffusion equations for the spherical harmonics up to degree 20. This method can be efficiently used to analyse transient geomagnetic variations to estimate the 3-D conductivity structure of the Earth. In order to validate the present approach, we solved an induction problem in simple four-layer mantle models, which consist of the surface layer (r= 6371 - 6351 km, σ=1 S m-1), the upper mantle (r= 6351 - 5971 km, σ= 0.01 S m-1), the transition layer (r= 5971 - 5671 km, σ= 0.01-1 S m-1), and the lower mantle (r= 5671 - 3481 km, σ= 1 S m-1). Conductivity heterogeneities are considered in the surface layer or the transition layer. For these models, temporal variations of the Gauss coefficients in response to a sudden application of P10-type external field were calculated, and the impulse response function of each harmonic component was obtained by differentiating the calculated variations with time. The response functions of the primary induced components, g10, have large initial values and monotonously decay with time. Changes of the decay rate reflect the radial distribution of the electrical conductivity. For the surface heterogeneous models, temporal variations of other secondary induced components have two

  5. Investigating Global 3-D Shear-Wave Anisotropy in the Earth's Mantle from Free Oscillations, Body Waves, Surface Waves and Long-period Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulik, P.; Ekstrom, G.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a framework that can be used to investigate anisotropic velocity, density and anelastic heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle using a wide spectrum (0.3-50 mHz) of seismological observables. We start with the extensive dataset of surface-wave phase anomalies, long-period waveforms, and body-wave travel times collected by Kustowski et al. (2008) for the development of the global model S362ANI. The additional data included in our analysis are splitting functions of spheroidal and toroidal modes, which are analogous to phase velocity maps at low frequencies. We include in this set of observations a new dataset containing the splitting functions of 56 spheroidal fundamental modes and overtones, measured by Deuss et al. (2011, 2012) using data from large recent earthquakes. Apart from providing unique constraints on the long-wavelength elastic and density structure in the mantle, the overtone splitting data are especially sensitive to the velocity (and anisotropic) structure in the transition zone and in the deeper mantle. The detection of anisotropy, a marker of flow, in the transition zone has implications for our understanding of mantle convection. Our forward modeling of the splitting functions, like the other types of data, includes the effects of radial anisotropy (Mochizuki, 1986). We show that the upper-mantle shear-wave anisotropy of S362ANI generates a clear contribution to the splitting functions of the modes that are sensitive to the upper-mantle structure. We explore the tradeoffs between fitting the mode splitting functions and the travel-times of body waves that turn in the transition zone or in the lower mantle (e.g. SS), while observing that the waveforms and the surface wave phase-anomalies provide complementary information about the mantle. Our experiments suggest that the splitting data are sufficiently sensitive to the anisotropy in the mantle such that their inclusion may provide a better depth resolution of the anisotropic shear

  6. Towards an open geospatial service architecture supporting heterogeneous Earth observation missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usländer, Thomas; Marchetti, Pier Giorgio; Coene, Yves

    2011-11-01

    Heterogeneous Earth Observation missions pose the problem that each of them offers its own way and technology of how to search for and access to mission results such as Earth observation datasets. Typically, these tasks are provided by ground segment software services which may be called through corresponding interfaces by client geospatial software applications. This paper presents the design and the architecture of the Heterogeneous Mission Accessibility (HMA) which is an interoperability initiative of the European/Canadian Ground Segment Coordination Body. The final objective of HMA is to leverage the idea of a service-oriented architectural style. This means, that the individual ground segment systems shall be loosely-coupled by means of an HMA Service Network. The paper is an excerpt of the comprehensive "HMA cookbook" to be published soon by the European Space Agency (ESA). It describes the HMA approach for user authentication and authorization based upon standard Web services and the discovery of, the access to and the presentation of datasets by means of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. It is outlined how the feasibility analysis of sensor observation tasks and the ordering of products may be expressed by the service and information models of the OGC Sensor Web Enablement initiative. The paper concludes with a discussion about the follow-on research topic of service-oriented design of Earth observation applications.

  7. The electric field induced in the brain by magnetic stimulation: a 3-D finite-element analysis of the effect of tissue heterogeneity and anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Pedro C; Hallett, Mark; Basser, Peter J

    2003-09-01

    We investigate the effect of tissue heterogeneity and anisotropy on the electric field and current density distribution induced in the brain during magnetic stimulation. Validation of the finite-element (FE) calculations in a homogeneous isotropic sphere showed that the magnitude of the total electric field can be calculated to within an error of approximately 5% in the region of interest, even in the presence of a significant surface charge contribution. We used a high conductivity inclusion within a sphere of lower conductivity to simulate a lesion due to an infarct. Its effect is to increase the electric field induced in the surrounding low conductivity region. This boost is greatest in the vicinity of interfaces that lie perpendicular to the current flow. For physiological values of the conductivity distribution, it can reach a factor of 1.6 and extend many millimeters from the interface. We also show that anisotropy can significantly alter the electric field and current density distributions. Either heterogeneity or anisotropy can introduce a radial electric field component, not present in a homogeneous isotropic conductor. Heterogeneity and anisotropy are predicted to significantly affect the distribution of the electric field induced in the brain. It is, therefore, expected that anatomically faithful FE models of individual brains which incorporate conductivity tensor data derived from diffusion tensor measurements, will provide a better understanding of the location of possible stimulation sites in the brain.

  8. Analysis of 3d complex structure and heterogeneity effects on formation and propagation of regional phases in Eurasia. Final report, 15 August 1992-30 September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Lay, T.; Wu, R.S.

    1994-12-13

    This document is the final report for this grant to develop new three-dimensional wave propagation techniques for high frequency waves in heterogeneous media. The report is divided into four sections, each being a published paper sponsored by this grant. In the first section we formulate a one-way wide-angle elastic wave propagation method for arbitrarily heterogeneous media in both the space and wavenumber domains using elastic Rayleigh integrals and local elastic Born scattering theory. In the second section this complex phase screen method is compared with fourth-order finite differences and exact eigenfunction expansion calculations for two-dimensional inhomogeneous media to assess the accuracy of the one-way propagation algorithm. In the third section, an observational study of continental margin structure influence on Lg propagation is presented, using data from the former Soviet stations for nuclear explosions at Novaya Zemlya. We find that bathymetric features can be correlated with energy levels of Lg, suggesting that waveguide structure influences regional phase energy partitioning. This idea is pursued in the fourth section, using Eurasian earthquake and nuclear explosion data along with information about the crustal structure in Eurasia. We develop empirical relations that reduce the scatter in the P/Lg discriminant at low frequency.

  9. An unsplit Convolutional perfectly matched layer technique improved at grazing incidence for the differential anisotropic elastic wave equation: application to 3D heterogeneous near surface slices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R.; Komatitsch, D.

    2007-05-01

    In geophysical exploration, high computational cost of full waveform inverse problem can be drastically reduced by implementing efficient boundary conditions. In many regions of interest for the oil industry or geophysical exploration, nearly tabular geological structures can be handled and analyzed by setting receivers in wells or/and at large offset. Then, the numerical modelling of waves travelling in thin slices along wells and near surface structures can provide very fast responses if highly accurate absorbing conditions around the slice are introduced in the wave propagation modelling. Here we propose then a Convolutional version of the well known Perfectly Matched layer technique. This optimized version allows the generation of seismic waves travelling close to the boundary layer at almost grazing incidence, which allows the treatment of thin 3D slices. The Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) technique, introduced in 1994 by Bérenger for Maxwell's equations, has become classical in the context of numerical simulations in electromagnetics, in particular for 3D finite difference in the time domain (FDTD) calculations. One of the most attractive properties of a PML model is that no reflection occurs at the interface between the physical domain and the absorbing layer before truncation to a finite-size layer and discretization by a numerical scheme. Therefore, the absorbing layer does not send spurious energy back into the medium. This property holds for any frequency and angle of incidence. However, the layer must be truncated in order to be able to perform numerical simulations, and such truncation creates a reflected wave whose amplitude is amplified by the discretization process. In 2001, Collino and Tsogka introduced a PML model for the elastodynamics equation written as a first-order system in velocity and stress with split unknowns, and discretized it based on the standard 2D staggered-grid finite-difference scheme of Virieux (1986). Then in 2001 and 2004

  10. Investigation of surface wave amplitudes in 3-D velocity and 3-D Q models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Y.; Zhou, Y.

    2010-12-01

    It has been long recognized that seismic amplitudes depend on both wave speed structures and anelasticity (Q) structures. However, the effects of lateral heterogeneities in wave speed and Q structures on seismic amplitudes has not been well understood. We investigate the effects of 3-D wave speed and 3-D anelasticity (Q) structures on surface-wave amplitudes based upon wave propagation simulations of twelve globally-distributed earthquakes and 801 stations in Earth models with and without lateral heterogeneities in wave speed and anelasticity using a Spectral Element Method (SEM). Our tomographic-like 3-D Q models are converted from a velocity model S20RTS using a set of reasonable mineralogical parameters, assuming lateral perturbations in both velocity and Q are due to temperature perturbations. Surface-wave amplitude variations of SEM seismograms are measured in the period range of 50--200 s using boxcar taper, cosine taper and Slepian multi-tapers. We calculate ray-theoretical predictions of surface-wave amplitude perturbations due to elastic focusing, attenuation, and anelastic focusing which respectively depend upon the second spatial derivative (''roughness'') of perturbations in phase velocity, 1/Q, and the roughness of perturbations in 1/Q. Both numerical experiments and theoretical calculations show that (1) for short-period (~ 50 s) surface waves, the effects of amplitude attenuation due to 3-D Q structures are comparable with elastic focusing effects due to 3-D wave speed structures; and (2) for long-period (> 100 s) surface waves, the effects of attenuation become much weaker than elastic focusing; and (3) elastic focusing effects are correlated with anelastic focusing at all periods due to the correlation between velocity and Q models; and (4) amplitude perturbations are depend on measurement techniques and therefore cannot be directly compared with ray-theoretical predictions because ray theory does not account for the effects of measurement

  11. Heterogeneous growth of meteorites and planets, especially the earth and moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. V.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that enough information remains in meteorites to show that the solar nebula was chemically inhomogeneous, and that it did not develop under physical and chemical equilibrium. It is found that the earth is not in chemical equilibrium, and that it still retains vestiges of its heterogeneous growth in spite of prolonged convection and volcanism. The present investigation has the aim to unify simple ideas into a comprehensive, complex scheme for heterogeneous growth of the planets and parent bodies of meteorites. A scheme is considered for the conversion of dust and gas in the solar nebula into the present population of bodies. Attention is given to possible processes for the growth and development of planetesimals from dust via clouds, the major episodes in the development of the solar system, the relation of meteorites to a solar nebula with monotonic variation of temperature and oxidation state, the significance of meteorite properties, the composition of the inner planets, and the development of the earth.

  12. Alkaline earth metal-based metal-organic framework: hydrothermal synthesis, X-ray structure and heterogeneously catalyzed Claisen-Schmidt reaction.

    PubMed

    Saha, Debraj; Maity, Tanmoy; Koner, Subratanath

    2014-09-14

    Two alkaline earth metal-based carboxylate systems, [Mg(HL)(H2O)2]n (1) and [Ca(H2L)2]n (2) (H3L = chelidamic acid) have been hydrothermally synthesized, and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR, elemental analysis, and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Compound 1 has a 2D structure incorporating two water molecules. The dehydrated species, 1a, generated from 1 by removal of the coordinated water, has been characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis, IR, elemental analysis and variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction. Both 1 and its dehydrated species 1a catalyze the Claisen-Schmidt reaction under heterogeneous conditions, but 1a is a more effective catalyst under environmentally friendly conditions. The catalyst can readily be recovered and reused in successive cycles without detectable loss of activity. Compound 2 has a 3D structure and is thermally stable up to 540 °C, but is inactive catalytically.

  13. Fast and Broadband Signal Integrity Analysis of Multiple Vias in Heterogeneous 3D IC and Die-Level Packaging by Using Generalized Foldy-Lax Scattering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Xin

    This dissertation proposal is concerned with the use of fast and broadband full-wave electromagnetic methods for modeling high speed interconnects (e.g, vertical vias and horizontal traces) and passive components (e.g, decoupling capacitors) for structures of PCB and packages, in 3D IC, Die-level packaging and SIW based devices, to effectively modeling the designs signal integrity (SI) and power integrity (PI) aspects. The main contributions finished in this thesis is to create a novel methodology, which hybridizes the Foldy-Lax multiple scattering equations based fast full wave method, method of moment (MoM) based 1D technology, modes decoupling based geometry decomposition and cavity modes expansions, to model and simulate the electromagnetic scattering effects for the irregular power/ground planes, multiple vias and traces, for fast and accurate analysis of link level simulation on multilayer electronic structures. For the modeling details, the interior massively-coupled multiple vias problem is modeled most-analytically by using the Foldy-Lax multiple scattering equations. The dyadic Green's functions of the magnetic field are expressed in terms of waveguide modes in the vertical direction and vector cylindrical wave expansions or cavity modes expansions in the horizontal direction, combined with 2D MoM realized by 1D technology. For the incident field of the case of vias in the arbitrarily shaped antipad in finite large cavity/waveguide, the exciting and scattering field coefficients are calculated based on the transformation which converts surface integration of magnetic surface currents in antipad into 1D line integration of surface charges on the vias and on the ground plane. Geometry decomposition method is applied to model and integrate both the vertical and horizontal interconnects/traces in arbitrarily shaped power/ground planes. Moreover, a new form of multiple scattering equations is derived for solving coupling effects among mixed metallic

  14. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  15. Thermochemical flows couple the Earth's inner core growth to mantle heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Julien; Amit, Hagay; Hulot, Gauthier; Olson, Peter

    2008-08-07

    Seismic waves sampling the top 100 km of the Earth's inner core reveal that the eastern hemisphere (40 degrees E-180 degrees E) is seismically faster, more isotropic and more attenuating than the western hemisphere. The origin of this hemispherical dichotomy is a challenging problem for our understanding of the Earth as a system of dynamically coupled layers. Previously, laboratory experiments have established that thermal control from the lower mantle can drastically affect fluid flow in the outer core, which in turn can induce textural heterogeneity on the inner core solidification front. The resulting texture should be consistent with other expected manifestations of thermal mantle control on the geodynamo, specifically magnetic flux concentrations in the time-average palaeomagnetic field over the past 5 Myr, and preferred eddy locations in flows imaged below the core-mantle boundary by the analysis of historical geomagnetic secular variation. Here we show that a single model of thermochemical convection and dynamo action can account for all these effects by producing a large-scale, long-term outer core flow that couples the heterogeneity of the inner core with that of the lower mantle. The main feature of this thermochemical 'wind' is a cyclonic circulation below Asia, which concentrates magnetic field on the core-mantle boundary at the observed location and locally agrees with core flow images. This wind also causes anomalously high rates of light element release in the eastern hemisphere of the inner core boundary, suggesting that lateral seismic anomalies at the top of the inner core result from mantle-induced variations in its freezing rate.

  16. Dynamic Heterogeneity of DNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation in Embryonic Stem Cell Populations Captured by Single-Cell 3D High-Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tajbakhsh, Jian; Stefanovski, Darko; Tang, George; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Liu, Naiyou; Fair, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-surface markers and transcription factors are being used in the assessment of stem cell fate and therapeutic safety, but display significant variability in stem cell cultures. We assessed nuclear patterns of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC, associated with pluripotency), a second important epigenetic mark, and its combination with 5-methylcytosine (5mC, associated with differentiation), also in comparison to more established markers of pluripotency (Oct-4) and endodermal differentiation (FoxA2, Sox17) in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) over a ten-day differentiation course in vitro: by means of confocal and super-resolution imaging together with high-content analysis, an essential tool in single-cell screening. In summary: 1) We did not measure any significant correlation of putative markers with global 5mC or 5hmC. 2) While average Oct-4 levels stagnated on a cell-population base (0.015 lnIU per day), Sox17 and FoxA2 increased 22-fold and 3-fold faster, respectively (Sox17:0.343 lnIU/day; FoxA2: 0.046 lnIU/day). In comparison, DNA global methylation levels increased 4-fold faster (0.068 lnIU/day), and global hydroxymethylation declined at 0.046 lnIU/day, both with a better explanation of the temporal profile. 3) This progression was concomitant with the occurrence of distinct nuclear codistribution patterns that represented a heterogeneous spectrum of states in differentiation; converging to three major coexisting 5mC/5hmC phenotypes by day 10: 5hmC+/5mC−, 5hmC+/5mC+, and 5hmC−/5mC+ cells. 4) Using optical nanoscopy we could delineate the respective topologies of 5mC/5hmC colocalization in subregions of nuclear DNA: in the majority of 5hmC+/5mC+ cells 5hmC and 5mC predominantly occupied mutually exclusive territories resembling euchromatic and heterochromatic regions, respectively. Simultaneously, in a smaller subset of cells we observed a tighter colocalization of the two cytosine variants, presumably delineating chromatin domains in remodeling. We

  17. Representing Soil Moisture Heterogeneity in the "Super-Parameterized" Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, P. M.; Denning, S.

    2014-12-01

    An approach to representing soil moisture heterogeneity in land-surface models using bins of soil moisture, advancing on the method developed by Sellers et al., 2003 is presented. Structuring land-surface models in this fashion presents a desirable structure for coupling to atmospheric models utilizing the "multi-scale modeling framework", called "super-parameterization" in the Community Earth System Model, CESM. The multi-scale modeling framework substitutes conventional cloud parameterizations with a 2-D cloud-resolving model. By considering soil moisture heterogeneity, the land-surface model is able to utilize the distribution of precipitation simulated by the cloud-resolving model in the super-parameterization, rather than it's summed total.Additionally, treatments of gravitational drainage and runoff in the binned model are proposed and assessed. This is, in general, a conceptual addition to the binned approach of Sellers et al.; but it is also particularly motivated by the fine grid resolution of the cloud-resolving model used in super-parameterization, typically 2km.Preliminary results suggest that the binned-approach improves model representation of dry-down following rain events and may help mitigate some of the excessive latent heat fluxes simulated by the standard land model in the CESM.

  18. Laboratory studies on the heterogeneous chemistry of clay minerals in the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashburn, Courtney Dyan

    Atmospheric mineral aerosol is a potentially important reactive surface that may provide a heterogeneous sink for gas phase species such as nitric acid and oxygenated organic compounds in the Earth's troposphere. Smectite clays, such as montmorillonite, are particularly interesting reactive surfaces because they are commonly found in the atmosphere and have a unique ability to swell. The swelling properties of montmorillonite allow for substantial adsorbed water under humid conditions, possibly promoting further reactivity. The heterogeneous uptake of water, nitric acid and a series of small organic acids on Na-montmorillonite clay under upper tropospheric temperatures and humidities was studied in a high vacuum chamber equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS) and a transmission Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer used to detect the gas and condensed phases, respectively. Water adsorption on montmorillonite clay was measured using FT-IR as a function of relative humidity (RH) with respect to liquid water at temperatures from 212 to 232 K. The specific surface area and adsorbed water content of the swollen clay were determined and are consistent with previous results from gravimetric methods at room temperature. Thus, water adsorption appears to be independent of temperature down to upper tropospheric temperatures. However, the amount of adsorbed water and swollen surface area was found to increase significantly as the RH was raised. Na-montmorillonite was found to contain 10% water by mass at 50% RH and the observed growth curve is comparable to that of ammonium sulfate, a well characterized hygroscopic species. Thus, swelling clays entrained in the Earth's atmosphere may be important cloud condensation nuclei and may indirectly affect the Earth's climate. The heterogeneous uptake of the C1 to C4 organic acids on Na-montmorillonite clay was studied at 212 K as a function of RH, from 0% to 45% RH, organic acid pressure and clay mass. While the

  19. Where should fine-resolution spatial heterogeneity be captured within Earth System Models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J. C.; Hull, R.; Tague, C.; Reyes, J. J.; Liu, M.

    2015-12-01

    Land-atmosphere interactions impact the environment in many ways, such as through partially driving our climate system, and in changing the availability and usability of our natural resources. Earth System Models (EaSMs) are being used increasingly to explore these coupled dynamics from watershed to global scales. However, many EaSMs do not adequately represent landscape-scale spatial heterogeneity that influences land surface response, as relatively coarse resolution simulations are necessitated by computational limitations. Research is needed to understand which types of spatial heterogeneity, over which biomes and climate types, should be represented such that an EaSM accurately captures the aggregate land surface response to a changing climate. Spatial heterogeneity in a landscape arises due to differences in model forcings; in underlying soil, vegetation, and topographic properties that control moisture, energy and nutrient fluxes; and in land surface responses that arise due to spatially-organized connections. While our long-term goal is to understand how each of these sources should be represented in an EaSM, in this study we focus first on parameter heterogeneity. We apply the Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys), a distributed process-based model that was originally developed for catchment-scale applications. We explore the functional form of the hydrologic response of a RHESSys "patch" (a 200-400 m element with homogenous landscape parameters) to an invoked change. According to scale transition theory, a linear response makes it is possible to upscale (or aggregate) the model resolution without biasing the model response. We perform RHESSys simulations for more than 500 individual catchments within the Willamette and Yakima River basins in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. Each catchment was imposed with incremental perturbations of temperature and precipitation. The response curves for hydrologic variables such as

  20. 3D Rare earth porous coordination frameworks with formamide generated in situ syntheses: Crystal structure and down- and up-conversion luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xue; Tian, Jing; Yang, Hong-Y.; Zhao, Kai; Li, Xia

    2013-05-01

    The reaction of RE(NO)₃·6H₂O and formamide yielded the coordination polymers, [RE(HCOO)₄]⁻[NH₂CHNH₂]⁺ (RE=Y 1, Eu 2, Gd 3, Tb 4, Dy 5, Er 6, and Yb 7). They possess 3D porous frameworks with the 1D rhombic channels occupied by [NH₂CHNH₂]⁺ cations. Complexes 2 and 4 display the characteristic down-conversion emissions corresponding to ⁵D₀→⁷FJ (J=1–4) transitions of Eu(III) ion and ⁵D₄→⁷FJ (J=6–3) transitions of Tb(III) ion, respectively. Longer lifetime values of 2.128±0.002 ms (⁵D₀) for 2 and 2.132±0.002 ms (⁵D₄) for 4 have been observed. The up-conversion spectra of the Y:Yb,Er and Gd:Yb,Er codoped complexes exhibit three emission bands around 410 (⁴H9/2→⁴I15/2, blue), 518–570 (⁴S3/2, ²H11/2→⁴I15/2, green), and 655 nm (⁴F9/2→⁴I15/2, red). - Graphical Abstract: The complexes [RE(HCOO)₄]⁻[NH₂CHNH₂]⁺ possess 3D porous frameworks. Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes show characteristic emission of Ln(III) ions. The up-conversion emission of the Y:Yb,Er and Gd:Yb,Er codoped complexes was observed. Highlights: •The reaction of RE(NO)₃·6H₂O and formamide produced complexes [RE(HCOO)₄]⁻[NH₂CHNH₂]⁺. • The complexes possess 3D frameworks with the 1D channels occupied by [NH₂CHNH₂]+ cations. • Eu(III)/Tb(III) complexes display the characteristic down-conversion emission of Ln(III) ions. • The Y:Yb,Er and Gd:Yb,Er doped complexes exhibit the up-conversion emission.

  1. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; ...

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  2. Synthesis and catalytic activity of heterogeneous rare-earth metal catalysts coordinated with multitopic Schiff-base ligands.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yilin; Wu, Guangming; Cen, Dinghai; Chen, Yaofeng; Wang, Limin

    2012-08-28

    Four multitopic Schiff-base ligand precursors were synthesized via condensation of 4,4'-diol-3,3'-diformyl-1,1'-diphenyl or 1,3,5-tris(4-hydroxy-5-formylphenyl)benzene with 2,6-diisopropylaniline or 2,6-dimethylaniline. Amine elimination reactions of Ln[N(SiMe(3))(2)](3) (Ln = La, Nd, Sm or Y) with these multitopic ligand precursors gave ten heterogeneous rare-earth metal catalysts. These heterogeneous rare-earth metal catalysts are active for intramolecular hydroalkoxylation of alkynols, and the catalytic activities are influenced by the ligand and metal ion. The recycling experiment on the most active heterogeneous catalyst showed the catalyst has a good reusability.

  3. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  4. DynEarthSol3D: An Efficient and Flexible Unstructured Finite Element Method to Study Long-Term Tectonic Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, E.; Choi, E.; Lavier, L. L.; Calo, V. M.

    2013-12-01

    Many tectonic problems treat the lithosphere as a compressible elastic material, which can also flow viscously or break in a brittle fashion depending on the stress level applied and the temperature conditions. We present a flexible methodology to address the resulting complex material response, which imposes severe challenges on the discretization and rheological models used. This robust, adaptive, multidimensional, finite element method solves the momentum balance and the heat equation in Lagrangian form with unstructured simplicial mesh (triangles in 2D and tetrahedra in 3D). The mesh locking problem is avoided by using averaged volumetric strain rate to update the stress. The solver uses contingent mesh adaptivity in places where shear strain is focused (localization) during remeshing. A simple scheme of mesh coarsening is employed to prevent tiny elements during remeshing. Lagrangian markers are used to track multiple compositions of rocks. The code is parallelized via OpenMP with graph coloring. We detail the solver and verify it in a number of benchmark problems against analytic and numerical solutions from the literature.

  5. Viscoelastic relaxation in a heterogeneous Earth following the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Kelly; Bürgmann, Roland; Freed, Andrew M.; Banerjee, Paramesh

    2015-12-01

    Consideration of the three-dimensional heterogeneity of mantle rheology allows models of viscoelastic relaxation following the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake to simultaneously fit both the observed far-field and near-field postseismic deformation. We use horizontal and vertical campaign and continuous GPS observations from the Andaman, Nicobar, and Sumatran forearc islands, mainland Sumatra, Thailand, the Malay Peninsula, the Indian Ocean, and southern India, spanning the first five years of postseismic deformation. The postseismic relaxation models consider contributions from the 2004 Mw 9.2 Sumatra-Andaman, the 2005 Mw 8.7 Nias, and 2007 Mw 8.4 Bengkulu earthquakes. Far-field motions to the east of the ruptures are equally well fit by homogeneous or laterally variable earth models. However, only models with contrasting rheology across the subducting slab, a ten-times higher mantle viscosity under the Indian Ocean lithosphere than the backarc mantle, can also produce the observed enduring postseismic uplift along the forearc and lack of far-field transient displacements in southern India. While postseismic uplift of forearc stations can also be produced by rapid and enduring down-dip afterslip, the inferred rheology structure is consistent with the distribution of mantle temperature inferred from seismic tomography.

  6. Updated maps of Moho topography and the earth crust thickness in the Deep Arctic Ocean based on results of potential field zoning and 3-D gravity modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebovsky, Yury; Astafurova, Ekaterina; Chernykh, Andrey; Egorova, Alena; Kaminsky, Valeriy; Korneva, Mariya; Redko, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Both initial (Glebovsky et al., 2013) and updated maps and digital models (DM) of Moho topography and earth crust thickness in the deep Arctic Ocean were compiled using the same procedure. It included several steps: analysis of potential fields information compiled under CAMPGM and ArcGP projects and updating by new Russian data; separation of the study area into individual geostructures; calculation of gravitational effects from two main boundaries lying above Moho, presented by IBCAO grid, and by grid of basement relief (Kaminsky et al., 2012); subtraction of these effects from observed gravity anomalies, and converting of residual anomalies to depths to Moho using Parker's (1974) algorithm. Averaged depth to Moho required by Parker's algorithm to estimate its relative variations was determined from available deep refraction seismic data. It varies for different regional geological structures (basins, ridges and rises) which boundaries were contoured based on results of potential fields zoning. Modeling process for each structure was iterative and calibrated by seismic data. Results that best fit with seismic sections were merged to compile the grid of depths to Moho. This grid was specified by estimation of gravitational effects related both with increasing of density of sediments with depth and with uplift of asthenosphere beneath the Gakkel Ridge (GR). Grids of total and consolidated crust thickness were computed by sequential subtracting the IBCAO and sediment thickness grids from the final grid of depths to Moho. Updated versions of maps and DM of Moho topography and earth crust thickness are specified by recent Russian multi-channel and DSS seismic data collected in 2011-2012. It is confirmed the significant differences in crustal structure between the Eurasian (EB) and Amerasian Basins (AB). The thickness of the consolidated crust in the EB shows a fairly clear bilateral symmetry with respect to the GR. In the Nansen and Amundsen basins it varies from 3 to

  7. Coseismic slip distribution of the 2015 Mw7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake from joint inversion of GPS and InSAR data for slip within a 3-D heterogeneous Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Sui; Masterlark, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    We derive a coseismic slip model of the 2015 Mw7.8 Gorkha earthquake on the basis of GPS and line-of-sight displacements from ALOS-2 descending interferograms, using Green's functions calculated with a 3-D finite element model (FEM). The FEM simulates a nonuniform distribution of elastic material properties and a precise geometric configuration of the irregular topographical surface. The rupturing fault is modeled as a low-angle and north dipping surface within the Main Frontal Thrust along the convergent margin of the Himalayas. The optimal model that inherits heterogeneous material properties provides a significantly better solution than that in a homogenous domain at the 95% confidence interval. The best fit solution for the domain having a nonuniform distribution of material properties reveals a rhombus-shaped slip zone of three composite asperities. Slip is primarily concentrated at a depth of 15 km with both dip-slip (maximum 6.54 m) and strike-slip (maximum 2.0 m) components, giving rise to a geodetic-based moment of 1.09 × 1021 Nm in general agreement with the seismological estimate. The optimal relative weights among GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) are deduced from a new method, MC-HVCE which combines a Monte Carlo search and a Helmert Method of Variance Components Estimation. This method determines the relative weights in a systemic approach which preserves the intrinsic solution smoothness. The joint solution is significantly better than those inverted from each individual data set. This methodology allows us to integrate multiple data sets of geodetic observations with seismic tomography, in an effort to achieve a better understanding of seismic ruptures within crustal heterogeneity.

  8. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  9. Frozen Gaussian approximation for 3-D seismic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Lihui; Tong, Ping; Yang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic introduction on applying frozen Gaussian approximation (FGA) to compute synthetic seismograms in 3-D earth models. In this method, seismic wavefield is decomposed into frozen (fixed-width) Gaussian functions, which propagate along ray paths. Rather than the coherent state solution to the wave equation, this method is rigorously derived by asymptotic expansion on phase plane, with analysis of its accuracy determined by the ratio of short wavelength over large domain size. Similar to other ray-based beam methods (e.g. Gaussian beam methods), one can use relatively small number of Gaussians to get accurate approximations of high-frequency wavefield. The algorithm is embarrassingly parallel, which can drastically speed up the computation with a multicore-processor computer station. We illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method by comparing it to the spectral element method for a 3-D seismic wave propagation in homogeneous media, where one has the analytical solution as a benchmark. As another proof of methodology, simulations of high-frequency seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous media are performed for 3-D waveguide model and smoothed Marmousi model, respectively. The second contribution of this paper is that, we incorporate the Snell's law into the FGA formulation, and asymptotically derive reflection, transmission and free surface conditions for FGA to compute high-frequency seismic wave propagation in high contrast media. We numerically test these conditions by computing traveltime kernels of different phases in the 3-D crust-over-mantle model.

  10. AE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  11. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  12. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  13. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  14. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  15. Venus in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  16. Elasticity of ferropericlase and seismic heterogeneity in the Earth's lower mantle: Ferropericlase High Pressure-Temperature Elasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jing; Lin, Jung-Fu; Jacobsen, Steven D.; Seymour, Nikki M.; Tkachev, Sergey N.; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2016-12-16

    Deciphering the origin of seismic heterogeneity has been one of the major challenges in understanding the geochemistry and geodynamics of the deep mantle. Fully anisotropic elastic properties of constituent minerals at relevant pressure-temperature conditions of the lower mantle can be used to calculate seismic heterogeneity parameters in order to better understand chemically and thermally induced seismic heterogeneities. In this study, the single-crystal elastic properties of ferropericlase (Mg0.94Fe0.06)O were measured using Brillouin spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction at conditions up to 50 GPa and 900 K. The velocity-density results were modeled using third-order finite-strain theory and thermoelastic equations along a representative geotherm to investigate high pressure-temperature and compositional effects on the seismic heterogeneity parameters. Our results demonstrate that from 660 to 2000 km, compressional wave anisotropy of ferropericlase increased from 4% to 9.7%, while shear wave anisotropy increased from 9% to as high as 22.5%. The thermally induced lateral heterogeneity ratio (RS/P = ∂lnVS/∂lnVP) of ferropericlase was calculated to be 1.48 at ambient pressure but decreased to 1.43 at 40 GPa along a representative geotherm. The RS/P of a simplified pyrolite model consisting of 80% bridgmanite and 20% ferropericlase was approximately 1.5, consistent with seismic models at depths from 670 to 1500 km, but showed an increased mismatch at lower mantle depths below ~1500 km. This discrepancy below mid-lower mantle could be due to either a contribution from chemically induced heterogeneity or the effects of the Fe spin transition in the deeper parts of the Earth's lower mantle.

  17. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  18. The Digital Space Shuttle, 3D Graphics, and Knowledge Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Julian E.; Keller, Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    The Digital Shuttle is a knowledge management project that seeks to define symbiotic relationships between 3D graphics and formal knowledge representations (ontologies). 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content, in 2D and 3D CAD forms, and the capability to display systems knowledge. Because the data is so heterogeneous, and the interrelated data structures are complex, 3D graphics combined with ontologies provides mechanisms for navigating the data and visualizing relationships.

  19. Rare earth ions as heterogeneous photocatalysts for the decomposition of dinitrogen monoxide (N{sub 2}O)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Optical and spectroscopic properties of rare earth ions have been extensively investigated. Generally, the photoexcited state of the rare earth cations is generated by the absorption of light, corresonding to the transition of the electrons situated in the inner 4f orbital to the 5d orbitals (4f-5d transition) or to other 4f orbitals (f-f transition). The ions in the excited state have the capability of transfering their excited energy to other molecules in the gas phase or in the adsorbed state. Such energy transfer processes can lead to the rare earth cations acting as photocatalysts. However, little has been reported about their photocatalysts, except for the photochemical evolution of hydrogen and the photochemical conversion of {alpha}-methylstyrene to 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diphenylbutane and 3,4-dimethyl-3,4-diphenylpentanol using europium chlorides in a homogeneous liquid phase. In the present note, the authors report evidence for the heterogeneous photocatalysis of rare earth cations in the decomposition of dinitrogen monoxide (N{sub 2}O) into nitrogen and oxygen molecules. The authors found that praseodymium (Pr) ion-exchanged mordenite and alumina- and silica-alumina-supported Pr are effective photocatalysts for the decomposition of N{sub 2}O. The stoichiometric photodecomposition of N{sub 2}O proceeded only on the Pr-mordenite. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  1. Visualization of 3D Geological Data using COLLADA and KML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yosoon; Um, Jeong-Gi; Park, Myong-Ho

    2013-04-01

    This study presents a method to visualize 3D geological data using COLLAborative Design Activity(COLLADA, an open standard XML schema for establishing interactive 3D applications) and Keyhole Markup Language(KML, the XML-based scripting language of Google Earth).We used COLLADA files to represent different 3D geological data such as borehole, fence section, surface-based 3D volume and 3D grid by triangle meshes(a set of triangles connected by their common edges or corners). The COLLADA files were imported into the 3D render window of Google Earth using KML codes. An application to the Grosmont formation in Alberta, Canada showed that the combination of COLLADA and KML enables Google Earth to visualize 3D geological structures and properties.

  2. How Irreversible Heat Transport Processes Drive Earth's Interdependent Thermal, Structural, and Chemical Evolution Providing a Strongly Heterogeneous, Layered Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, A.; Criss, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Because magmatism conveys radioactive isotopes plus latent heat rapidly upwards while advecting heat, this process links and controls the thermal and chemical evolution of Earth. We present evidence that the lower mantle-upper mantle boundary is a profound chemical discontinuity, leading to observed heterogeneities in the outermost layers that can be directly sampled, and construct an alternative view of Earth's internal workings. Earth's beginning involved cooling via explosive outgassing of substantial ice (mainly CO) buried with dust during accretion. High carbon content is expected from Solar abundances and ice in comets. Reaction of CO with metal provided a carbide-rich core while converting MgSiO3 to olivine via oxidizing reactions. Because thermodynamic law (and buoyancy of hot particles) indicates that primordial heat from gravitational segregation is neither large nor carried downwards, whereas differentiation forced radioactive elements upwards, formation of the core and lower mantle greatly cooled the Earth. Reference conductive geotherms, calculated using accurate and new thermal diffusivity data, require that heat-producing elements are sequestered above 670 km which limits convection to the upper mantle. These irreversible beginnings limit secular cooling to radioactive wind-down, permiting deduction of Earth's inventory of heat-producing elements from today's heat flux. Coupling our estimate for heat producing elements with meteoritic data indicates that Earth's oxide content has been underestimated. Density sorting segregated a Si-rich, peridotitic upper mantle from a refractory, oxide lower mantle with high Ca, Al and Ti contents, consistent with diamond inclusion mineralogy. Early and rapid differentiation means that internal temperatures have long been buffered by freezing of the inner core, allowing survival of crust as old as ca.4 Ga. Magmatism remains important. Melt escaping though stress-induced fractures in the rigid lithosphere imparts a

  3. Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  4. 3D and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Y. C.

    1995-05-01

    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  5. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  6. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  7. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  8. Use of Persistent Identifiers to link Heterogeneous Data Systems in the Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, L.; Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Arko, R. A.; Ferrini, V.; O'hara, S. H.; Walker, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) facility maintains multiple data systems with a wide range of solid earth data types from the marine, terrestrial, and polar environments. Examples of the different data types include syntheses of ultra-high resolution seafloor bathymetry collected on large collaborative cruises and analytical geochemistry measurements collected by single investigators in small, unique projects. These different data types have historically been channeled into separate, discipline-specific databases with search and retrieval tailored for the specific data type. However, a current major goal is to integrate data from different systems to allow interdisciplinary data discovery and scientific analysis. To increase discovery and access across these heterogeneous systems, IEDA employs several unique IDs, including sample IDs (International Geo Sample Number, IGSN), person IDs (GeoPass ID), funding award IDs (NSF Award Number), cruise IDs (from the Marine Geoscience Data System Expedition Metadata Catalog), dataset IDs (DOIs), and publication IDs (DOIs). These IDs allow linking of a sample registry (System for Earth SAmple Registration), data libraries and repositories (e.g. Geochemical Research Library, Marine Geoscience Data System), integrated synthesis databases (e.g. EarthChem Portal, PetDB), and investigator services (IEDA Data Compliance Tool). The linked systems allow efficient discovery of related data across different levels of granularity. In addition, IEDA data systems maintain links with several external data systems, including digital journal publishers. Links have been established between the EarthChem Portal and ScienceDirect through publication DOIs, returning sample-level objects and geochemical analyses for a particular publication. Linking IEDA-hosted data to digital publications with IGSNs at the sample level and with IEDA-allocated dataset DOIs are under development. As an example, an individual investigator could sign up

  9. Modeling and Processing of Continuous 3D Elastic Wavefield Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milkereit, B.; Bohlen, T.

    2001-12-01

    Continuous seismic wavefields are excited by earthquake clustering, induced seismicity in reservoirs, and mining. In hydrocarbon reservoirs, for example, pore pressure changes and fluid flow (mass transfer) will cause incremental deviatoric stresses sufficient to trigger and sustain seismic activity. Here we address three aspects of seismic wavefields in three-dimensional heterogeneous media triggered by distributed sources in space and time: forward modeling, multichannel data processing, and source location imaging. A power law distribution of seismic sources (such as the Gutenberg-Richter law) is used for the modeling of viscoelastic/elastic wave propagation through a realistic earth model. 3D modeling provides new insight in the interaction of multi-source wavefields and the role of scale-dependend elastic model parameters on transmitted and reflected/back-scattered wavefields. There exists a strong correlation between the spatial properties of the compressional, shear wave and density perturbations and the lateral correlation length of the resulting reflected or transmitted seismic wavefields. Modeling is based on the implementation of 3D elastic/viscoelastic FD codes on massive parallel and/or distributed computing resources using MPI (message passing interface). For parallelization, large grid 3D earth models are decomposed into subvolume processing elements whereby each processing element is updating the wavefield within its portion of the grid. Processing of continuous seismic wavefields excited by multiple distributed sources is based on a combination of crosscorrelated or slowness-transformed array data and Kirchhoff or reverse time migration for source location or source volume imaging. The appearance of slowness in both migration and array data processing suggests the possibility of combining them into a single process. In order to place further constraints on the migration, the directivity properties of 3-component receiver arrays can be included in

  10. Numerical Results of 3-D Modeling of Moon Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod; Antipin, Alexandr

    2014-05-01

    For the last time for the model of the Moon usually had been used the model of mega impact in which the forming of the Earth and its sputnik had been the consequence of the Earth's collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,2] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al26,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone and additionally change the content of Moon forming to silicates. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius of the Earth, the growing area of the future Earth's core can save also the silicate envelope fragments [3]. For understanding the further system Earth-Moon evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on its accumulation stage.In that paper we are modeling the changing of temperature,pressure,velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3d spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach.The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in velocity

  11. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  12. Seismic imaging of structural heterogeneity in Earth's mantle: evidence for large-scale mantle flow.

    PubMed

    Ritsema, J; Van Heijst, H J

    2000-01-01

    Systematic analyses of earthquake-generated seismic waves have resulted in models of three-dimensional elastic wavespeed structure in Earth's mantle. This paper describes the development and the dominant characteristics of one of the most recently developed models. This model is based on seismic wave travel times and wave shapes from over 100,000 ground motion recordings of earthquakes that occurred between 1980 and 1998. It shows signatures of plate tectonic processes to a depth of about 1,200 km in the mantle, and it demonstrates the presence of large-scale structure throughout the lower 2,000 km of the mantle. Seismological analyses make it increasingly more convincing that geologic processes shaping Earth's surface are intimately linked to physical processes in the deep mantle.

  13. Conditions of Core Formation in the Early Earth: Single Stage or Heterogeneous Accretion?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Since approx.1990 high pressure and temperature (PT) experiments on metal-silicate systems have showed that partition coefficients [D(met/sil)] for siderophile (iron-loving) elements are much different than those measured at low PT conditions [1,2]. The high PT data have been used to argue for a magma ocean during growth of the early Earth [3,4]. In the ensuing decades there have been hundreds of new experiments carried out and published on a wide range of siderophile elements (> 80 experiments published for Ni, Co, Mo, W, P, Mn, V, Cr, Ga, Cu and Pd). At the same time several different models have been advanced to explain the siderophile elements in Earth's mantle: a) shallow depth magma ocean 25-30 GPa [3,5]; b) deep magma ocean; up to 50 GPa [6,7], and c) early reduced and later oxidized magma ocean [8,9]. Some studies have drawn conclusions based on a small subset of siderophile elements, or a set of elements that provides little leverage on the big picture (like slightly siderophile elements), and no single study has attempted to quantitatively explain more than 5 elements at a time. The purpose of this abstract is to identify issues that have lead to a difference in interpretation, and to present updated predictive expressions based on new experimental data. The resulting expressions will be applied to the siderophile element depletions in Earth's upper mantle.

  14. Doing One Thing Well: Leveraging Microservices for NASA Earth Science Discovery and Access Across Heterogenous Data Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baynes, K.; Gilman, J.; Pilone, D.; Mitchell, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA EOSDIS (Earth Observing System Data and Information System) Common Metadata Repository (CMR) is a continuously evolving metadata system that merges all existing capabilities and metadata from EOS ClearingHOuse (ECHO) and the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) systems. This flagship catalog has been developed with several key requirements: fast search and ingest performance ability to integrate heterogenous external inputs and outputs high availability and resiliency scalability evolvability and expandability This talk will focus on the advantages and potential challenges of tackling these requirements using a microservices architecture, which decomposes system functionality into smaller, loosely-coupled, individually-scalable elements that communicate via well-defined APIs. In addition, time will be spent examining specific elements of the CMR architecture and identifying opportunities for future integrations.

  15. Heterogeneous Earth Accretion and Incomplete Metal-Silicate Reequilibration at High Pressure During Core Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubie, D. C.; Mann, U.; Frost, D. J.; Kegler, P.; Holzheid, A.; Palme, H.

    2007-12-01

    We present a new model of core formation, based on the partitioning of siderophile elements, that involves accreting the Earth through a series of collisions with smaller bodies that had already differentiated at low pressure. Each impact results in a magma ocean in which the core of the impactor reequilibrates with silicate liquid at high pressure before merging with the Earth's protocore. The oxygen contents of the chondritic compositions of the proto-Earth and impactors can be varied. The compositions of coexisting metal and silicate are determined through mass balance combined with partitioning equations for Ni, FeO, Si and other siderophile elements. The oxygen fugacity is fixed by the partitioning of FeO and is a function of P, T and bulk oxygen content. An important constraint for core formation is that core-mantle partition coefficients for Ni and Co must both converge to values of 23-28. Based on a recent study of the partitioning of Ni and Co over a wide P-T range (Kegler et al., EPSL, submitted) together with other published data, this constraint is not satisfied by a single- stage core formation model at any conditions because the partition coefficients converge at values that are much too low. In the present multi-stage model, the correct values can be reached if only part of each impactor core reequilibrates with silicate liquid in the magma ocean (as proposed by previous models based on Hf-W isotope studies). Physically, this would mean that impactor cores fail to emulsify completely as they sink through the magma ocean. Incorporating other elements (e.g. V and Cr) in the model requires, in addition, that the bulk composition of the impactors changes during accretion from reduced (FeO-poor) to oxidised FeO-rich). Then, with the resulting increase in fO2, incomplete reequilibration of the cores during the final 20-30% of Earth accretion is required to satisfy the Ni-Co constraint. In addition, this model enables the concentrations of O and Si in the

  16. Seismic source inversion using Green's reciprocity and a 3-D structural model for the Japanese Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simutė, S.; Fichtner, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present a feasibility study for seismic source inversions using a 3-D velocity model for the Japanese Islands. The approach involves numerically calculating 3-D Green's tensors, which is made efficient by exploiting Green's reciprocity. The rationale for 3-D seismic source inversion has several aspects. For structurally complex regions, such as the Japan area, it is necessary to account for 3-D Earth heterogeneities to prevent unknown structure polluting source solutions. In addition, earthquake source characterisation can serve as a means to delineate existing faults. Source parameters obtained for more realistic Earth models can then facilitate improvements in seismic tomography and early warning systems, which are particularly important for seismically active areas, such as Japan. We have created a database of numerically computed 3-D Green's reciprocals for a 40°× 40°× 600 km size area around the Japanese Archipelago for >150 broadband stations. For this we used a regional 3-D velocity model, recently obtained from full waveform inversion. The model includes attenuation and radial anisotropy and explains seismic waveform data for periods between 10 - 80 s generally well. The aim is to perform source inversions using the database of 3-D Green's tensors. As preliminary steps, we present initial concepts to address issues that are at the basis of our approach. We first investigate to which extent Green's reciprocity works in a discrete domain. Considering substantial amounts of computed Green's tensors we address storage requirements and file formatting. We discuss the importance of the initial source model, as an intelligent choice can substantially reduce the search volume. Possibilities to perform a Bayesian inversion and ways to move to finite source inversion are also explored.

  17. Intraoral 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  18. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  19. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  20. Regoliths in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, John; Cheng, Andrew; Delamere, Allen; Gorevan, Steven; Korotev, Randy; McKay, David; Schmitt, Harrison; Zarnecki, John

    1996-01-01

    A planetary regolith is any layer of fragments, unconsolidated material that may or may not be textually or compositionally altered relative to underlying substrate and occurs on the outer surface of a solar system body. This includes fragmented material from volcanic, sedimentary, and meteoritic infall sources, and derived by any process (e.g. impact and all other endogenic or exogenic processes). Many measurements that can be made from orbit or from Earth-based observations provide information only about the uppermost portions of a regolith and not the underlying substrate(s). Thus an understanding of the formation processes, physical properties, composition, and evolution of planetary regoliths is essential in answering scientific questions posed by the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX). This paper provides examples of measurements required to answer these critical science questions.

  1. Performance of Goddard Earth Observing System GCM Column Radiation Models under Heterogeneous Cloud Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreopoulos, L.; Chou, M.-D.; Khairoutdinov, M.; Barker, H. W.; Cahalan, R. F.

    2003-01-01

    We test the performance of the shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Column Radiation Models (CORAMs) of Chou and collaborators with heterogeneous cloud fields from a global single-day dataset produced by NCAR's Community Atmospheric Model with a 2-D CRM installed in each gridbox. The original SW version of the CORAM performs quite well compared to reference Independent Column Approximation (ICA) calculations for boundary fluxes, largely due to the success of a combined overlap and cloud scaling parameterization scheme. The absolute magnitude of errors relative to ICA are even smaller for the LW CORAM which applies similar overlap. The vertical distribution of heating and cooling within the atmosphere is also simulated quite well with daily-averaged zonal errors always below 0.3 K/d for SW heating rates and 0.6 K/d for LW cooling rates. The SW CORAM's performance improves by introducing a scheme that accounts for cloud inhomogeneity. These results suggest that previous studies demonstrating the inaccuracy of plane-parallel models may have unfairly focused on worst scenario cases, and that current radiative transfer algorithms of General Circulation Models (GCMs) may be more capable than previously thought in estimating realistic spatial and temporal averages of radiative fluxes, as long as they are provided with correct mean cloud profiles. However, even if the errors of the particular CORAMs are small, they seem to be systematic, and the impact of the biases can be fully assessed only with GCM climate simulations.

  2. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  3. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  4. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema

    Ott, Ryan

    2016-07-12

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  5. 3D Geo: An Alternative Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgopoulos, A.

    2016-10-01

    The expression GEO is mostly used to denote relation to the earth. However it should not be confined to what is related to the earth's surface, as other objects also need three dimensional representation and documentation, like cultural heritage objects. They include both tangible and intangible ones. In this paper the 3D data acquisition and 3D modelling of cultural heritage assets are briefly described and their significance is also highlighted. Moreover the organization of such information, related to monuments and artefacts, into relational data bases and its use for various purposes, other than just geometric documentation is also described and presented. In order to help the reader understand the above, several characteristic examples are presented and their methodology explained and their results evaluated.

  6. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Masset, Frédéric; Lega, Elena; Velasco, David

    2017-03-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential (r s), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk (γ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r s or γ, up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r s and γ in our study.

  7. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  8. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

  9. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  10. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  11. UCVM: An Open Source Software Package for Querying and Visualizing 3D Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic velocity models provide foundational data for ground motion simulations that calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) package for both Linux and OS X. This unique framework provides a cohesive way for querying and visualizing 3D models. UCVM v14.3.0, supports many Southern California velocity models including CVM-S4, CVM-H 11.9.1, and CVM-S4.26. The last model was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations on CVM-S4. Recently, UCVM has been used to deliver a prototype of a new 3D model of central California (CCA) also based on full-3D tomographic inversions. UCVM was used to provide initial plots of this model and will be used to deliver CCA to users when the model is publicly released. Visualizing models is also possible with UCVM. Integrated within the platform are plotting utilities that can generate 2D cross-sections, horizontal slices, and basin depth maps. UCVM can also export models in NetCDF format for easy import into IDV and ParaView. UCVM has also been prototyped to export models that are compatible with IRIS' new Earth Model Collaboration (EMC) visualization utility. This capability allows for user-specified horizontal slices and cross-sections to be plotted in the same 3D Earth space. UCVM was designed to help a wide variety of researchers. It is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. It is also used to provide the initial input to SCEC's CyberShake platform. For those interested in specific data points, the software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Also included in the last release was the ability to add small

  12. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  13. Debris Dispersion Model Using Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes web based simulation of Shuttle launch operations and debris dispersion. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable mathematical model and behaviors of Shuttle launch. Because the model is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models provides mechanisms to understand the complexity of launch and range operations. The main focus in the modeling and simulation covers orbital dynamics and range safety. Range safety areas include destruct limit lines, telemetry and tracking and population risk near range. If there is an explosion of Shuttle during launch, debris dispersion is explained. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.

  14. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  15. 3D Buckligami: Digital Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hecke, Martin; de Reus, Koen; Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin

    2014-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit collective buckling in 3D, and create these by a 3D printing/moulding technique. Our structures consist of cubic lattice of anisotropic unit cells, and we show that their mechanical properties are programmable via the orientation of these unit cells.

  16. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  17. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  18. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  19. 3D vision system assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  20. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  1. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  2. Total body irradiation with a compensator fabricated using a 3D optical scanner and a 3D printer.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-In; Joo, Yoon Ha; Lee, Jung Chan; Park, Jong Min

    2017-05-07

    We propose bilateral total body irradiation (TBI) utilizing a 3D printer and a 3D optical scanner. We acquired surface information of an anthropomorphic phantom with the 3D scanner and fabricated the 3D compensator with the 3D printer, which could continuously compensate for the lateral missing tissue of an entire body from the beam's eye view. To test the system's performance, we measured doses with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) as well as EBT3 films with the anthropomorphic phantom during TBI without a compensator, conventional bilateral TBI, and TBI with the 3D compensator (3D TBI). The 3D TBI showed the most uniform dose delivery to the phantom. From the OSLD measurements of the 3D TBI, the deviations between the measured doses and the prescription dose ranged from  -6.7% to 2.4% inside the phantom and from  -2.3% to 0.6% on the phantom's surface. From the EBT3 film measurements, the prescription dose could be delivered to the entire body of the phantom within  ±10% accuracy, except for the chest region, where tissue heterogeneity is extreme. The 3D TBI doses were much more uniform than those of the other irradiation techniques, especially in the anterior-to-posterior direction. The 3D TBI was advantageous, owing to its uniform dose delivery as well as its efficient treatment procedure.

  3. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its

  4. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  5. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  6. 3D visualization of polymer nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, James H

    2009-01-01

    Soft materials and structured polymers are extremely useful nanotechnology building blocks. Block copolymers, in particular, have served as 2D masks for nanolithography and 3D scaffolds for photonic crystals, nanoparticle fabrication, and solar cells. F or many of these applications, the precise 3 dimensional structure and the number and type of defects in the polymer is important for ultimate function. However, directly visualizing the 3D structure of a soft material from the nanometer to millimeter length scales is a significant technical challenge. Here, we propose to develop the instrumentation needed for direct 3D structure determination at near nanometer resolution throughout a nearly millimeter-cubed volume of a soft, potentially heterogeneous, material. This new capability will be a valuable research tool for LANL missions in chemistry, materials science, and nanoscience. Our approach to soft materials visualization builds upon exciting developments in super-resolution optical microscopy that have occurred over the past two years. To date, these new, truly revolutionary, imaging methods have been developed and almost exclusively used for biological applications. However, in addition to biological cells, these super-resolution imaging techniques hold extreme promise for direct visualization of many important nanostructured polymers and other heterogeneous chemical systems. Los Alamos has a unique opportunity to lead the development of these super-resolution imaging methods for problems of chemical rather than biological significance. While these optical methods are limited to systems transparent to visible wavelengths, we stress that many important functional chemicals such as polymers, glasses, sol-gels, aerogels, or colloidal assemblies meet this requirement, with specific examples including materials designed for optical communication, manipulation, or light-harvesting Our Research Goals are: (1) Develop the instrumentation necessary for imaging materials

  7. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  8. 3D Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wilkinson, Curt; Mercer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts farther into the solar system than ever before, with human exploration of Mars as its ultimate goal. One of the technologies required to enable this advanced, Apollo-shaped capsule is a 3-dimensional quartz fiber composite for the vehicle's compression pad. During its mission, the compression pad serves first as a structural component and later as an ablative heat shield, partially consumed on Earth re-entry. This presentation will summarize the development of a new 3D quartz cyanate ester composite material, 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D-MAT), designed to meet the mission requirements for the Orion compression pad. Manufacturing development, aerothermal (arc-jet) testing, structural performance, and the overall status of material development for the 2018 EM-1 flight test will be discussed.

  9. 3D Scan Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: 3D...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title 3D Scan Systems

  10. 3-D inversion of gravity data in spherical coordinates with application to the GRAIL data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qing; Chen, Chao; Li, Yaoguo

    2014-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) inversion of gravity data has been widely used to reconstruct the density distributions of ore bodies, basins, crust, lithosphere, and upper mantle. For global model of 3-D density structures of planetary interior, such as the Earth, the Moon, or Mars, it is necessary to use an inversion algorithm that operates in the spherical coordinates. We develop a 3-D inversion algorithm formulated with specially designed model objective function and radial weighting function in the spherical coordinates. We present regional and global synthetic examples to illustrate the capability of the algorithm. The inverted results show density distribution features consistent with the true models. We also apply the algorithm to a set of lunar Bouguer gravity anomaly derived from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) gravity field and obtain a lunar 3-D density distribution. High-density anomalies are clearly identified underlying lunar basins, a wide region of the lateral density heterogeneities that exist beneath the South Pole-Aitken basin are found, and low-density anomalies are distributed beneath the Feldspathic Highlands Terrane on the lunar far-side. The consistency of these results with those obtained independently from other existing methods verifies the newly developed algorithm.

  11. 3D polymer scaffold arrays.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yang, Yanyin; Dorsey, Shauna M; Ramalingam, Murugan; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a combinatorial platform for fabricating tissue scaffold arrays that can be used for screening cell-material interactions. Traditional research involves preparing samples one at a time for characterization and testing. Combinatorial and high-throughput (CHT) methods lower the cost of research by reducing the amount of time and material required for experiments by combining many samples into miniaturized specimens. In order to help accelerate biomaterials research, many new CHT methods have been developed for screening cell-material interactions where materials are presented to cells as a 2D film or surface. However, biomaterials are frequently used to fabricate 3D scaffolds, cells exist in vivo in a 3D environment and cells cultured in a 3D environment in vitro typically behave more physiologically than those cultured on a 2D surface. Thus, we have developed a platform for fabricating tissue scaffold libraries where biomaterials can be presented to cells in a 3D format.

  12. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  13. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng; K. Maezawa

    2003-02-10

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions.

  14. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  15. Experimental Diagenesis and 3D Printing of Evolving Carbonate Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanorio, T.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how rock microstructures and, in turn, the spatial distribution of the properties of the rock skeleton (porosity, permeability, and elastic properties) evolve because of time-variant, thermo-chemo-mechanical processes is fundamental to decipher changes in the earth's crust due to rock-fluid interactions using remote geophysical monitoring methods. Laboratory experiments undoubtedly play a vital role in understanding the underlying basic rules that are needed to inform both simulations and modeling. Nevertheless, capturing coupled chemo-mechanical processes experimentally is a very challenging problem because as pore space deforms chemo-mechanically, the fluid reacts and flows through a deforming pore space. The result is that as much as we strive to achieve controlled conditions in laboratory experiments, it is extremely difficult to control for all of the possible responses of the highly heterogeneous pore network. To overcome such a limitation, we often resort to the fabrication of rock samples in the laboratory. Nevertheless, analogs are not rocks. This level of complexity requires an approach that advances beyond the limitations of each method, be it experimental or computational. I present an approach that takes advantage of the favorable aspects of experimental diagenesis, multi-scale imaging techniques (from pore scale to 3D rock volumes) and 3D printed models of varying carbonate microstructures. This approach allows us to study the evolution of natural pore network geometries from diagenesis experiments, use the basic rules of the evolving microstructures to drive the digital change of the pore network of the printed models in a well-controlled fashion as much possible in the analog experiments, and then iteratively measure the properties of the printed models at the scale of the laboratory. This integration can help make sense of the trackless evolution of properties in apparently scattered datasets such as those characterizing carbonate

  16. 3-D numerical modeling of plume-induced subduction initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baes, Marzieh; Gerya, taras; Sobolev, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Investigation of mechanisms involved in formation of a new subduction zone can help us to better understand plate tectonics. Despite numerous previous studies, it is still unclear how and where an old oceanic plate starts to subduct beneath the other plate. One of the proposed scenarios for nucleation of subduction is plume-induced subduction initiation, which was investigated in detail, using 2-D models, by Ueda et al. (2008). Recently. Gerya et al. (2015), using 3D numerical models, proposed that plume-lithosphere interaction in the Archean led to the subduction initiation and onset of plate tectonic. In this study, we aim to pursue work of Ueda et al. (2008) by incorporation of 3-D thermo-mechanical models to investigate conditions leading to oceanic subduction initiation as a result of thermal-chemical mantle plume-lithosphere interaction in the modern earth. Results of our experiments show four different deformation regimes in response to plume-lithosphere interaction, that are a) self-sustaining subduction initiation where subduction becomes self-sustained, b) freezing subduction initiation where subduction stops at shallow depths, c) slab break-off where subducting circular slab breaks off soon after formation and d) plume underplating where plume does not pass through the lithosphere but spreads beneath it (failed subduction initiation). These different regimes depend on several parameters such as plume's size, composition and temperature, lithospheric brittle/plastic strength, age of the oceanic lithosphere and presence/absence of lithospheric heterogeneities. Results show that subduction initiates and becomes self-sustained when lithosphere is older than 10 Myr and non-dimensional ratio of the plume buoyancy force and lithospheric strength above the plume is higher than 2.

  17. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  18. Wafer-Level 3D Integration for ULSI Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmann, Ronald J.; Lu, Jian-Qiang

    Three-dimensional (3D) integration in a system-in-a-package (SiP) implementation (packaging-based 3D) is becoming increasingly used in consumer, computer, and communication applications where form factor is critical. In particular, the hand-held market for a growing myriad of voice, data, messaging, and imaging products is enabled by packaging-based 3D integration (i.e., stacking and connecting individual chips). The key drivers are for increased memory capacity and for heterogeneous integration of different IC technologies and functions.

  19. Current progress in 3D printing for cardiovascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mosadegh, Bobak; Xiong, Guanglei; Dunham, Simon; Min, James K

    2015-03-16

    3D printing is a technology that allows the fabrication of structures with arbitrary geometries and heterogeneous material properties. The application of this technology to biological structures that match the complexity of native tissue is of great interest to researchers. This mini-review highlights the current progress of 3D printing for fabricating artificial tissues of the cardiovascular system, specifically the myocardium, heart valves, and coronary arteries. In addition, how 3D printed sensors and actuators can play a role in tissue engineering is discussed. To date, all the work with building 3D cardiac tissues have been proof-of-principle demonstrations, and in most cases, yielded products less effective than other traditional tissue engineering strategies. However, this technology is in its infancy and therefore there is much promise that through collaboration between biologists, engineers and material scientists, 3D bioprinting can make a significant impact on the field of cardiovascular tissue engineering.

  20. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  1. 3D Integration for Wireless Multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmich, Georg

    The convergence of mobile phone, internet, mapping, gaming and office automation tools with high quality video and still imaging capture capability is becoming a strong market trend for portable devices. High-density video encode and decode, 3D graphics for gaming, increased application-software complexity and ultra-high-bandwidth 4G modem technologies are driving the CPU performance and memory bandwidth requirements close to the PC segment. These portable multimedia devices are battery operated, which requires the deployment of new low-power-optimized silicon process technologies and ultra-low-power design techniques at system, architecture and device level. Mobile devices also need to comply with stringent silicon-area and package-volume constraints. As for all consumer devices, low production cost and fast time-to-volume production is key for success. This chapter shows how 3D architectures can bring a possible breakthrough to meet the conflicting power, performance and area constraints. Multiple 3D die-stacking partitioning strategies are described and analyzed on their potential to improve the overall system power, performance and cost for specific application scenarios. Requirements and maturity of the basic process-technology bricks including through-silicon via (TSV) and die-to-die attachment techniques are reviewed. Finally, we highlight new challenges which will arise with 3D stacking and an outlook on how they may be addressed: Higher power density will require thermal design considerations, new EDA tools will need to be developed to cope with the integration of heterogeneous technologies and to guarantee signal and power integrity across the die stack. The silicon/wafer test strategies have to be adapted to handle high-density IO arrays, ultra-thin wafers and provide built-in self-test of attached memories. New standards and business models have to be developed to allow cost-efficient assembly and testing of devices from different silicon and technology

  2. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  3. Macrophage podosomes go 3D.

    PubMed

    Van Goethem, Emeline; Guiet, Romain; Balor, Stéphanie; Charrière, Guillaume M; Poincloux, Renaud; Labrousse, Arnaud; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Le Cabec, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Macrophage tissue infiltration is a critical step in the immune response against microorganisms and is also associated with disease progression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Macrophages are constitutively equipped with specialized structures called podosomes dedicated to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. We recently reported that these structures play a critical role in trans-matrix mesenchymal migration mode, a protease-dependent mechanism. Podosome molecular components and their ECM-degrading activity have been extensively studied in two dimensions (2D), but yet very little is known about their fate in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Therefore, localization of podosome markers and proteolytic activity were carefully examined in human macrophages performing mesenchymal migration. Using our gelled collagen I 3D matrix model to obligate human macrophages to perform mesenchymal migration, classical podosome markers including talin, paxillin, vinculin, gelsolin, cortactin were found to accumulate at the tip of F-actin-rich cell protrusions together with β1 integrin and CD44 but not β2 integrin. Macrophage proteolytic activity was observed at podosome-like protrusion sites using confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. The formation of migration tunnels by macrophages inside the matrix was accomplished by degradation, engulfment and mechanic compaction of the matrix. In addition, videomicroscopy revealed that 3D F-actin-rich protrusions of migrating macrophages were as dynamic as their 2D counterparts. Overall, the specifications of 3D podosomes resembled those of 2D podosome rosettes rather than those of individual podosomes. This observation was further supported by the aspect of 3D podosomes in fibroblasts expressing Hck, a master regulator of podosome rosettes in macrophages. In conclusion, human macrophage podosomes go 3D and take the shape of spherical podosome rosettes when the cells perform mesenchymal migration. This work

  4. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  5. Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  6. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  7. Reaction induced fractures in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulven, Ole Ivar; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The process of fracture formation due to volume changing processes has been studied numerically in a variety of different settings, e.g. fracture initiation in general volume increasing reactions by Ulven et al.[4], weathering of dolerites by Røyne et al.[2], and volume reduction during chemical decomposition prosesses by Malthe-Sørenssen et al.[1]. Common to many previous works is that the simulations were performed in a 2D setting, due to computational limitations. Fractures observed both in field studies and in experiments are in many cases three dimensional. It remains an open question in what cases the simplification to 2D systems is applicable, and when a full 3D simulation is necessary. In this study, we use a newly developed 3D code combining elements from the discrete element model (DEM) with elements from Peridynamics[3]. We study fracture formation in fully three dimensional simulations, and compare them with simulation results from 2D DEM, thus gaining insight in both qualitative and quantitative differences between results from 2D and 3D simulations. References [1] Malthe-Sørenssen, A., Jamtveit, B., and Meakin, P., 'Fracture Patterns Generated by Diffusion Controlled Volume Changing Reactions,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 2006, pp. 245501-1 - 245501-4. [2] Røyne, A., Jamtveit, B., and Malthe-Sørenssen, A., 'Controls on rock weathering rates by reaction-induced hierarchial fracturing,' Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 275, 2008, pp. 364 - 369. [3] Silling, S. A., 'Reformulation of elasticity theory for discontinuities and long-range forces,' J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 48, Issue 1, 2000, pp. 175 - 209 [4] Ulven, O. I., Storheim, H., Austrheim, H., and Malthe-Sørenssen, A., 'Fracture Initiation During Volume Increasing Reactions in Rocks and Applications for CO2 Sequestration', Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 389C, 2014, pp. 132 - 142.

  8. Building the 3-D jugsaw puzzle: Applications of sequence stratigraphy to 3-D reservoir characterization, Permian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tinker, S.W.

    1996-04-01

    Reservoir characterization involves the quantification, integration, reduction, and analysis of geological, petrophysical, seismic, and engineering data. This is no small task. A principal goal of reservoir characterization is to derive a spatial understanding of interwell heterogeneity. Traditionally, geologic attempts to characterize interwell heterogeneity have been done using hand-drawn or computer-generated two-dimensional (2-D) maps and cross sections. Results can be improved dramatically using three-dimensional (3-D) interpretation and analysis techniques. Three-dimensional reservoir characterization requires the same input data used in 2-D approaches, and the cost is equal to, and commonly lower than, traditional 2-D methods. The product of 3-D reservoir characterization is a 3-D reservoir model. The language used to communicate the results of a 3-D reservoir model is visualization; i.e., visual images of numerical data. All of the available log and core data in a model area are incorporated in a 3-D model, but the data are depicted as colored cells rather than as log traces. The integrity of the 3-D reservoir model is largely a function of the stratigraphic framework. Interpreting the correct stratigraphic framework for a subsurface reservoir is the most difficult and creative part of the 3-D modeling process. Sequence and seismic stratigraphic interpretation provide the best stratigraphic framework for 3-D reservoir modeling. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the pro- cess of 3-D deterministic reservoir modeling and to illustrate the advantages of using a sequence stratigraphic framework in 3-D modeling. Mixed carbonate and siliciclastic sediment outcrop and subsurface examples from the Permian basin of west Texas and New Mexico will be used as examples, but the concepts and techniques can be applied to reservoirs of any age.

  9. Validation of 3D Seismic Velocity Models Using the Spectral Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maceira, M.; Larmat, C. S.; Porritt, R. W.; Higdon, D.; Allen, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    For over a decade now, many research institutions have been focusing on addressing the Earth's 3D heterogeneities and complexities by improving tomographic methods. Utilizing dense array datasets, these efforts have led to unprecedented 3D seismic images, but little is done in terms of model validation or to provide any absolute assessment of model uncertainty. Furthermore, the question of "How good is a 3D geophysical model at representing the Earth's true physics? " remains largely not addressed in a time when 3D Earth models are used for societal and energy security. In the last few years, new horizons have opened up in earth structure imaging, with the advent of new numerical and mathematical methods in computational seismology and statistical sciences. We use these methods to tackle the question of model validation taking advantage of unique and extensive High Performance Computing resources available at Los Alamos National Laboratory. We present results from a study focused on validating 3D models for the Western USA generated using both ray-theoretical and finite-frequency approximations. In this manner we do not validate just the model but also the imaging technique. For this test case, we utilize the Dynamic North America (DNA) model family of UC Berkeley, as they are readily available in both formulations. We evaluate model performances by comparing observed and synthetic seismograms generated using the Spectral Element Method. Results show that both, finite-frequency and ray-theoretical DNA09 models, predict the observations well. Waveform cross-correlation coefficients show a difference in performance between models obtained with the finite-frequency or ray-theory limited to smallest periods (<15s), with no perceptible difference at longer periods (50-200s). At those shortest periods, and based on statistical analyses on S-wave phase delay measurements, finite-frequency shows an improvement over ray theory. We are also investigating the breakdown of ray

  10. The World of 3-D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Robin K.

    1991-01-01

    Students explore three-dimensional properties by creating red and green wall decorations related to Christmas. Students examine why images seem to vibrate when red and green pieces are small and close together. Instructions to conduct the activity and construct 3-D glasses are given. (MDH)

  11. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  12. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  13. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  14. Cloud Based Web 3d GIS Taiwan Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, W.-F.; Chang, J.-Y.; Yan, S. Y.; Chen, B.

    2011-09-01

    This article presents the status of the web 3D GIS platform, which has been developed in the National Applied Research Laboratories. The purpose is to develop a global earth observation 3D GIS platform for applications to disaster monitoring and assessment in Taiwan. For quick response to preliminary and detailed assessment after a natural disaster occurs, the web 3D GIS platform is useful to access, transfer, integrate, display and analyze the multi-scale huge data following the international OGC standard. The framework of cloud service for data warehousing management and efficiency enhancement using VMWare is illustrated in this article.

  15. High Resolution 3d Modeling of the Behaim Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menna, F.; Rizzi, A.; Nocerino, E.; Remondino, F.; Gruen, A.

    2012-07-01

    The article describes the 3D surveying and modeling of the Behaim globe, the oldest still existing and intact globe of the earth, preserved at the German National Museum of Nuremberg, Germany. The work is primarily performed using high-resolution digital images and automatic photogrammetric techniques. Triangulation-based laser scanning is also employed to fill some gaps in the derived image-based 3D geometry and perform geometric comparisons. Major problems are encountered in texture mapping. The 3D modeling project and the creation of high-resolution map-projections is performed for scientific, conservation, visualization and education purposes.

  16. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  17. EFFECTS OF HETEROGENEITY ON THE STRENGTH OF 3D COMPOSITES

    SciTech Connect

    M. MAHESH; I. BEYERLEIN; S. PHOENIX

    2001-02-01

    Monte Carlo simulation interpreted with theoretical modeling is used to study the statistical failure modes in unidirectional composites consisting of a hexagonal array of elastic fibers embedded in an elastic matrix. Composite structure is idealized using the chain-of-bundles model in terms of bundles of length {delta} arranged along the fiber direction. Fibers element strengths in {delta}-bundles are taken to be Weibull distributed and Hedgepeth and Van Dyke load sharing is assumed for transverse fiber break arrays. Simulations of {delta}-bundle failure reveal two regimes. When fiber strength variability is low, the dominant failure mode is by growing clusters of fiber breaks up to instability. When this variability is high, cluster formation is suppressed by a more dispersed fiber failure mode. Corresponding to these two cases, they construct simple models that predict the strength distribution of a {delta}-bundle. Their predictions compare very favorably with simulations in the two cases.

  18. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  19. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  20. Comparing swimsuits in 3D.

    PubMed

    van Geer, Erik; Molenbroek, Johan; Schreven, Sander; deVoogd-Claessen, Lenneke; Toussaint, Huib

    2012-01-01

    In competitive swimming, suits have become more important. These suits influence friction, pressure and wave drag. Friction drag is related to the surface properties whereas both pressure and wave drag are greatly influenced by body shape. To find a relationship between the body shape and the drag, the anthropometry of several world class female swimmers wearing different suits was accurately defined using a 3D scanner and traditional measuring methods. The 3D scans delivered more detailed information about the body shape. On the same day the swimmers did performance tests in the water with the tested suits. Afterwards the result of the performance tests and the differences found in body shape was analyzed to determine the deformation caused by a swimsuit and its effect on the swimming performance. Although the amount of data is limited because of the few test subjects, there is an indication that the deformation of the body influences the swimming performance.

  1. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  2. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  3. Bringing 3D Printing to Geophysical Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boghosian, A.; Turrin, M.; Porter, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    3D printing technology has been embraced by many technical fields, and is rapidly making its way into peoples' homes and schools. While there is a growing educational and hobbyist community engaged in the STEM focused technical and intellectual challenges associated with 3D printing, there is unrealized potential for the earth science community to use 3D printing to communicate scientific research to the public. Moreover, 3D printing offers scientists the opportunity to connect students and the public with novel visualizations of real data. As opposed to introducing terrestrial measurements through the use of colormaps and gradients, scientists can represent 3D concepts with 3D models, offering a more intuitive education tool. Furthermore, the tactile aspect of models make geophysical concepts accessible to a wide range of learning styles like kinesthetic or tactile, and learners including both visually impaired and color-blind students.We present a workflow whereby scientists, students, and the general public will be able to 3D print their own versions of geophysical datasets, even adding time through layering to include a 4th dimension, for a "4D" print. This will enable scientists with unique and expert insights into the data to easily create the tools they need to communicate their research. It will allow educators to quickly produce teaching aids for their students. Most importantly, it will enable the students themselves to translate the 2D representation of geophysical data into a 3D representation of that same data, reinforcing spatial reasoning.

  4. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  5. From Surface Data to 3D Geologic Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhont, D.; Luxey, P.; Longuesserre, V.; Monod, B.; Guillaume, B.

    2008-12-01

    New trends in earth sciences are mostly related to technologies allowing graphical representations of the geology in 3D. However, the concept of 3D geologic map is commonly misused. For instance, displays of geologic maps draped onto DEM in rotating perspective views have been misleadingly called 3D geologic maps, but this still cannot provide any volumetric underground information as a true 3D geologic map should. Here, we present a way to produce mathematically and geometrically correct 3D geologic maps constituted by the volume and shape of all geologic features of a given area. The originality of the method is that it is based on the integration of surface data only consisting of (1) geologic maps, (2) satellite images, (3) DEM and (4) bedding dips and strikes. To generate 3D geologic maps, we used a 3D geologic modeler that combines and extrapolates the surface information into a coherent 3D data set. The significance of geometrically correct 3D geologic maps is demonstrated for various geologic settings and applications. 3D models are of primarily importance for educational purposes because they reveal features that standard 2D geologic maps by themselves could not show. The 3D visualization helps in the understanding of the geometrical relationship between the different geologic features and, in turn, for the quantification of the geology at the regional scale. Furthermore, given the logistical challenges associated with modern oil and mineral exploration in remote and rugged terrain, these volume-based models can provide geological and commercial insight prior to seismic evaluation.

  6. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.

  7. A hybrid method for the computation of quasi-3D seismograms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Yder; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    The development of powerful computer clusters and efficient numerical computation methods, such as the Spectral Element Method (SEM) made possible the computation of seismic wave propagation in a heterogeneous 3D earth. However, the cost of theses computations is still problematic for global scale tomography that requires hundreds of such simulations. Part of the ongoing research effort is dedicated to the development of faster modeling methods based on the spectral element method. Capdeville et al. (2002) proposed to couple SEM simulations with normal modes calculation (C-SEM). Nissen-Meyer et al. (2007) used 2D SEM simulations to compute 3D seismograms in a 1D earth model. Thanks to these developments, and for the first time, Lekic et al. (2011) developed a 3D global model of the upper mantle using SEM simulations. At the local and continental scale, adjoint tomography that is using a lot of SEM simulation can be implemented on current computers (Tape, Liu et al. 2009). Due to their smaller size, these models offer higher resolution. They provide us with images of the crust and the upper part of the mantle. In an attempt to teleport such local adjoint tomographic inversions into the deep earth, we are developing a hybrid method where SEM computation are limited to a region of interest within the earth. That region can have an arbitrary shape and size. Outside this region, the seismic wavefield is extrapolated to obtain synthetic data at the Earth's surface. A key feature of the method is the use of a time reversal mirror to inject the wavefield induced by distant seismic source into the region of interest (Robertsson and Chapman 2000). We compute synthetic seismograms as follow: Inside the region of interest, we are using regional spectral element software RegSEM to compute wave propagation in 3D. Outside this region, the wavefield is extrapolated to the surface by convolution with the Green's functions from the mirror to the seismic stations. For now, these

  8. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  9. Earth Science Data Analytics: Bridging Tools and Techniques with the Co-Analysis of Large, Heterogeneous Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, Steve; Mathews, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    The continuum of ever-evolving data management systems affords great opportunities to the enhancement of knowledge and facilitation of science research. To take advantage of these opportunities, it is essential to understand and develop methods that enable data relationships to be examined and the information to be manipulated. This presentation describes the efforts of the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation Earth Science Data Analytics (ESDA) Cluster to understand, define, and facilitate the implementation of ESDA to advance science research. As a result of the void of Earth science data analytics publication material, the cluster has defined ESDA along with 10 goals to set the framework for a common understanding of tools and techniques that are available and still needed to support ESDA.

  10. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  11. 3D Nanostructuring of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blick, Robert

    2000-03-01

    Modern semiconductor technology allows to machine devices on the nanometer scale. I will discuss the current limits of the fabrication processes, which enable the definition of single electron transistors with dimensions down to 8 nm. In addition to the conventional 2D patterning and structuring of semiconductors, I will demonstrate how to apply 3D nanostructuring techniques to build freely suspended single-crystal beams with lateral dimension down to 20 nm. In transport measurements in the temperature range from 30 mK up to 100 K these nano-crystals are characterized regarding their electronic as well as their mechanical properties. Moreover, I will present possible applications of these devices.

  12. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  13. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  14. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  15. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  16. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  17. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  18. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  19. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  20. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  1. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  2. 3D structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, William M.; Goodwin, Paul C.

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy achieves double the lateral and axial resolution of wide-field microscopy, using conventional fluorescent dyes, proteins and sample preparation techniques. A three-dimensional interference-fringe pattern excites the fluorescence, filling in the "missing cone" of the wide field optical transfer function, thereby enabling axial (z) discrimination. The pattern acts as a spatial carrier frequency that mixes with the higher spatial frequency components of the image, which usually succumb to the diffraction limit. The fluorescence image encodes the high frequency content as a down-mixed, moiré-like pattern. A series of images is required, wherein the 3D pattern is shifted and rotated, providing down-mixed data for a system of linear equations. Super-resolution is obtained by solving these equations. The speed with which the image series can be obtained can be a problem for the microscopy of living cells. Challenges include pattern-switching speeds, optical efficiency, wavefront quality and fringe contrast, fringe pitch optimization, and polarization issues. We will review some recent developments in 3D-SIM hardware with the goal of super-resolved z-stacks of motile cells.

  3. Reproducing electric field observations during magnetic storms by means of rigorous 3-D modelling and distortion matrix co-estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Püthe, Christoph; Manoj, Chandrasekharan; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2014-12-01

    Electric fields induced in the conducting Earth by geomagnetic disturbances drive currents in power transmission grids, telecommunication lines or buried pipelines, which can cause service disruptions. A key step in the prediction of the hazard to technological systems during magnetic storms is the calculation of the geoelectric field. To address this issue for mid-latitude regions, we revisit a method that involves 3-D modelling of induction processes in a heterogeneous Earth and the construction of a magnetospheric source model described by low-degree spherical harmonics from observatory magnetic data. The actual electric field, however, is known to be perturbed by galvanic effects, arising from very local near-surface heterogeneities or topography, which cannot be included in the model. Galvanic effects are commonly accounted for with a real-valued time-independent distortion matrix, which linearly relates measured and modelled electric fields. Using data of six magnetic storms that occurred between 2000 and 2003, we estimate distortion matrices for observatory sites onshore and on the ocean bottom. Reliable estimates are obtained, and the modellings are found to explain up to 90% of the measurements. We further find that 3-D modelling is crucial for a correct separation of galvanic and inductive effects and a precise prediction of the shape of electric field time series during magnetic storms. Since the method relies on precomputed responses of a 3-D Earth to geomagnetic disturbances, which can be recycled for each storm, the required computational resources are negligible. Our approach is thus suitable for real-time prediction of geomagnetically induced currents by combining it with reliable forecasts of the source field.

  4. Point Cloud Visualization in AN Open Source 3d Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Calle, M.; Gómez-Deck, D.; Koehler, O.; Pulido, F.

    2011-09-01

    During the last years the usage of 3D applications in GIS is becoming more popular. Since the appearance of Google Earth, users are familiarized with 3D environments. On the other hand, nowadays computers with 3D acceleration are common, broadband access is widespread and the public information that can be used in GIS clients that are able to use data from the Internet is constantly increasing. There are currently several libraries suitable for this kind of applications. Based on these facts, and using libraries that are already developed and connected to our own developments, we are working on the implementation of a real 3D GIS with analysis capabilities. Since a 3D GIS such as this can be very interesting for tasks like LiDAR or Laser Scanner point clouds rendering and analysis, special attention is given to get an optimal handling of very large data sets. Glob3 will be a multidimensional GIS in which 3D point clouds could be explored and analysed, even if they are consist of several million points.The latest addition to our visualization libraries is the development of a points cloud server that works regardless of the cloud's size. The server receives and processes petitions from a 3d client (for example glob3, but could be any other, such as one based on WebGL) and delivers the data in the form of pre-processed tiles, depending on the required level of detail.

  5. Airborne mapping of earth-atmosphere exchange processes and remote sensing of surface characteristics over heterogeneous areas

    SciTech Connect

    Schuepp, P.H.; Ogunjemiyo, S.; Mitic, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    Given the spatial heterogeneity of much of the biosphere, and the difficulty in establishing representative observation points at the surface, airborne flux observations coupled with airborne and satellite-based remote sensing plays an increasing role in the description of surface-atmosphere exchange processes. Our paper summarizes flux mapping procedures based on low level airborne sampling by the Canadian Twin Otter research aircraft, over three ecosystems with different degrees of spatial heterogeneity (grassland, mixed agricultural land and boreal forest). Observations show that the degree to which flux maps for heat, moisture and trace gases are correlated, among themselves and with maps of radiometrically observable surface features, cannot be generalized. This means that, wherever possible, algorithms for the prediction of surface-atmosphere exchange processes based on remote sensing observations should be developed for - and tested in - each structurally different ecosystem. The flexibility of deployment of aircraft serves well, both for the gathering of data to develop such algorithms, as well as for their testing at scales that integrate over an adequate sample of the various components that constitute a spatially heterogeneous ecosystem. 23 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Earth system modelling on system-level heterogeneous architectures: EMAC (version 2.42) on the Dynamical Exascale Entry Platform (DEEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christou, Michalis; Christoudias, Theodoros; Morillo, Julián; Alvarez, Damian; Merx, Hendrik

    2016-09-01

    We examine an alternative approach to heterogeneous cluster-computing in the many-core era for Earth system models, using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Hamburg (ECHAM)/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model as a pilot application on the Dynamical Exascale Entry Platform (DEEP). A set of autonomous coprocessors interconnected together, called Booster, complements a conventional HPC Cluster and increases its computing performance, offering extra flexibility to expose multiple levels of parallelism and achieve better scalability. The EMAC model atmospheric chemistry code (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere (MECCA)) was taskified with an offload mechanism implemented using OmpSs directives. The model was ported to the MareNostrum 3 supercomputer to allow testing with Intel Xeon Phi accelerators on a production-size machine. The changes proposed in this paper are expected to contribute to the eventual adoption of Cluster-Booster division and Many Integrated Core (MIC) accelerated architectures in presently available implementations of Earth system models, towards exploiting the potential of a fully Exascale-capable platform.

  7. Open system models of isotopic evolution in Earth's silicate reservoirs: Implications for crustal growth and mantle heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Seema; Paul, Debajyoti; Stracke, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    An open system evolutionary model of the Earth, comprising continental crust (CC), upper and lower mantle (UM, LM), and an additional isolated reservoir (IR) has been developed to study the isotopic evolution of the silicate Earth. The model is solved numerically at 1 Myr time steps over 4.55 Gyr of Earth history to reproduce both the present-day concentrations and isotope ratios of key radioactive decay systems (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and U-Th-Pb) in these terrestrial reservoirs. Various crustal growth scenarios - continuous versus episodic and early versus late crustal growth - and their effect on the evolution of Sr-Nd-Pb isotope systematics in the silicate reservoirs have been evaluated. Modeling results where the present-day UM is ∼60% of the total mantle mass and a lower mantle that is non-primitive reproduce the estimated geochemical composition and isotope ratios in Earth's silicate reservoirs. The isotopic evolution of the silicate Earth is strongly affected by the mode of crustal growth; only an exponential crustal growth pattern with crustal growth since the early Archean satisfactorily explains the chemical and isotopic evolution of the crust-mantle system and accounts for the so-called Pb paradoxes. Assuming that the OIB source is located in the deeper mantle, our model could, however, not reproduce its target ɛNd of +4.6 for the UM, which has been estimated from the average isotope ratios of 32 individual ocean island localities. Hence, either mantle plumes sample the LM in a non-representative way, or the simplified model set-up does not capture the full complexity of Earth's lower mantle (Nd isotope) evolution. Compared to the results obtained for a 4.55 Ga Earth, a model assuming a protracted U-Pb evolution of silicate Earth by ca. 100 Myr reproduces a slightly better fit for the Pb isotope ratios in Earth's silicate reservoirs. One notable feature of successful models is the early depletion of incompatible elements (as well as rapid decrease in Th/U) in

  8. Influence of 3D Teleseismic Body Waves in the Finite-Fault Source Inversion of Subduction Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sladen, A.; Monteiller, V.

    2014-12-01

    Most large earthquakes are generated in subduction zones. To study the complexity of these events, teleseismic body waves offer many advantages over other types of data: they allow to study both the temporal and spatial evolution of slip during the rupture, they don't depend on the presence of nearby land and they allow to study earthquakes regardless of their location. Since the development of teleseismic finite-fault inversion in the 1980th, teleseismic body waves have been simulated using 1D velocity models to take into account propagation effects at the source. Yet, subduction zones are known to be highly heterogeneous: they are characterized by curved and dipping structures, strong seismic velocity contrasts, strong variations of topography and height of the water column. The main reason for relying on a 1D approximation is the computational cost of 3D simulations. And while forward simulations of teleseismic waves in a 3D Earth are only starting to be tractable on modern computers at the frequency range of interest (0.1Hz or shorter), finite-fault source studies require a large number of these simulations. In this work, we present a new and efficient approach to compute 3D teleseismic body waves, in which the full 3D propagation is only computed in a regional domain using discontinuous Galerkin finite-element method, while the rest of the seismic wave field is propagated in a background axisymmetric Earth. The regional and global wave fields are matched using the so-called Total-Field/Scattered-Field technique. This new simulation approach allows us to study the waveform complexities resulting from 3D propagation and investigate how they could improve the resolution and reduce the non-uniqueness of finite-fault inversions.

  9. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-06

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  10. Efficiently Communicating Rich Heterogeneous Geospatial Data from the FeMO2008 Dive Cruise with FlashMap on EarthRef.org

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnett, R. C.; Koppers, A. A.; Staudigel, D.; Staudigel, H.

    2008-12-01

    EarthRef.org is comprehensive and convenient resource for Earth Science reference data and models. It encompasses four main portals: the Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM), the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC), the Seamount Biogeosciences Network (SBN), and the Enduring Resources for Earth Science Education (ERESE). Their underlying databases are publically available and the scientific community has contributed widely and is urged to continue to do so. However, the net result is a vast and largely heterogeneous warehouse of geospatial data ranging from carefully prepared maps of seamounts to geochemical data/metadata, daily reports from seagoing expeditions, large volumes of raw and processed multibeam data, images of paleomagnetic sampling sites, etc. This presents a considerable obstacle for integrating other rich media content, such as videos, images, data files, cruise tracks, and interoperable database results, without overwhelming the web user. The four EarthRef.org portals clearly lend themselves to a more intuitive user interface and has, therefore, been an invaluable test bed for the design and implementation of FlashMap, a versatile KML-driven geospatial browser written for reliability and speed in Adobe Flash. FlashMap allows layers of content to be loaded and displayed over a streaming high-resolution map which can be zoomed and panned similarly to Google Maps and Google Earth. Many organizations, from National Geographic to the USGS, have begun using Google Earth software to display geospatial content. However, Google Earth, as a desktop application, does not integrate cleanly with existing websites requiring the user to navigate away from the browser and focus on a separate application and Google Maps, written in Java Script, does not scale up reliably to large datasets. FlashMap remedies these problems as a web-based application that allows for seamless integration of the real-time display power of Google Earth and the flexibility of

  11. Quasi 3D dispersion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakucz, P.

    2003-04-01

    This paper studies the problem of tracer dispersion in a coloured fluid flowing through a two-phase 3D rough channel-system in a 40 cm*40 cm plexi-container filled by homogen glass fractions and colourless fluid. The unstable interface between the driving coloured fluid and the colourless fluid develops viscous fingers with a fractal structure at high capillary number. Five two-dimensional fractal fronts have been observed at the same time using four cameras along the vertical side-walls and using one camera located above the plexi-container. In possession of five fronts the spatial concentration contours are determined using statistical models. The concentration contours are self-affine fractal curves with a fractal dimension D=2.19. This result is valid for disperison at high Péclet numbers.

  12. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  13. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    ScienceCinema

    Love, Lonnie

    2016-11-02

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  14. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  15. Filling gaps in cultural heritage documentation by 3D photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.

    2015-08-01

    geometry" and to multistage concepts of 3D photographs in Cultural Heritage just started. Furthermore a revised list of the 3D visualization principles, claiming completeness, has been carried out. Beside others in an outlook *It is highly recommended, to list every historical and current stereo view with relevance to Cultural Heritage in a global Monument Information System (MIS), like in google earth. *3D photographs seem to be very suited, to complete and/or at least partly to replace manual archaeological sketches. In this concern the still underestimated 3D effect will be demonstrated, which even allows, e.g., the spatial perception of extremely small scratches etc... *A consequent dealing with 3D Technology even seems to indicate, currently we experience the beginning of a new age of "real 3DPC- screens", which at least could add or even partly replace the conventional 2D screens. Here the spatial visualization is verified without glasses in an all-around vitreous body. In this respect nowadays widespread lasered crystals showing monuments are identified as "Early Bird" 3D products, which, due to low resolution and contrast and due to lack of color, currently might even remember to the status of the invention of photography by Niepce (1827), but seem to promise a great future also in 3D Cultural Heritage documentation. *Last not least 3D printers more and more seem to conquer the IT-market, obviously showing an international competition.

  16. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  17. UCVM: Open Source Software for Understanding and Delivering 3D Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Physics-based ground motion simulations can calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through 3D velocity models of the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) framework to help researchers build structured or unstructured velocity meshes from 3D velocity models for use in wave propagation simulations. The UCVM software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Currently, the platform supports multiple California models, including SCEC CVM-S4 and CVM-H 11.9.1, and has been designed to support models from any region on earth. UCVM is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. In this presentation, we describe improvements to the UCVM software. The current version, UCVM 14.3.0, released in March of 2014, supports the newest Southern California velocity model, CVM-S4.26, which was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations using CVM-S4 as the starting model (Lee et al., this meeting), and the Broadband 1D velocity model used in the CyberShake 14.2 study. We have ported UCVM to multiple Linux distributions and OS X. Also included in this release is the ability to add small-scale stochastic heterogeneities to extract Cartesian meshes for use in high-frequency ground motion simulations. This tool was built using the C language open-source FFT library, FFTW. The stochastic parameters (Hurst exponent, correlation length, and the horizontal/vertical aspect ratio) can be customized by the user. UCVM v14.3.0 also provides visualization scripts for constructing cross-sections, horizontal slices, basin depths, and Vs30 maps. The interface allows researchers to visually review velocity models . Also, UCVM v14.3.0 can extract

  18. Microfluidic titer plate for stratified 3D cell culture.

    PubMed

    Trietsch, Sebastiaan J; Israëls, Guido D; Joore, Jos; Hankemeier, Thomas; Vulto, Paul

    2013-09-21

    Human tissues and organs are inherently heterogeneous. Their functionality is determined by the interplay between different cell types, their secondary architecture, vascular system and gradients of signaling molecules and metabolites. Here we propose a stratified 3D cell culture platform, in which adjacent lanes of gels and liquids are patterned by phaseguides to capture this tissue heterogeneity. We demonstrate 3D cell culture of HepG2 hepatocytes under continuous perfusion, a rifampicin toxicity assay and co-culture with fibroblasts. 4T1 breast cancer cells are used to demonstrate invasion and aggregation models. The platform is incorporated in a microtiter plate format that renders it fully compatible with automation and high-content screening equipment. The extended functionality, ease of handling and full compatibility to standard equipment is an important step towards adoption of Organ-on-a-Chip technology for screening in an industrial setting.

  19. A 3D Level Set Method for Microwave Breast Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, Timothy J.; Hagness, Susan C.; Van Veen, Barry D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Conventional inverse-scattering algorithms for microwave breast imaging result in moderate resolution images with blurred boundaries between tissues. Recent 2D numerical microwave imaging studies demonstrate that the use of a level set method preserves dielectric boundaries, resulting in a more accurate, higher resolution reconstruction of the dielectric properties distribution. Previously proposed level set algorithms are computationally expensive and thus impractical in 3D. In this paper we present a computationally tractable 3D microwave imaging algorithm based on level sets. Methods We reduce the computational cost of the level set method using a Jacobian matrix, rather than an adjoint method, to calculate Frechet derivatives. We demonstrate the feasibility of 3D imaging using simulated array measurements from 3D numerical breast phantoms. We evaluate performance by comparing full 3D reconstructions to those from a conventional microwave imaging technique. We also quantitatively assess the efficacy of our algorithm in evaluating breast density. Results Our reconstructions of 3D numerical breast phantoms improve upon those of a conventional microwave imaging technique. The density estimates from our level set algorithm are more accurate than those of conventional microwave imaging, and the accuracy is greater than that reported for mammographic density estimation. Conclusion Our level set method leads to a feasible level of computational complexity for full 3D imaging, and reconstructs the heterogeneous dielectric properties distribution of the breast more accurately than conventional microwave imaging methods. Significance 3D microwave breast imaging using a level set method is a promising low-cost, non-ionizing alternative to current breast imaging techniques. PMID:26011863

  20. 3D Printing and Digital Rock Physics for Geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Imaging techniques for the analysis of porous structures have revolutionized our ability to quantitatively characterize geomaterials. Digital representations of rock from CT images and physics modeling based on these pore structures provide the opportunity to further advance our quantitative understanding of fluid flow, geomechanics, and geochemistry, and the emergence of coupled behaviors. Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, has revolutionized production of custom parts with complex internal geometries. For the geosciences, recent advances in 3D printing technology may be co-opted to print reproducible porous structures derived from CT-imaging of actual rocks for experimental testing. The use of 3D printed microstructure allows us to surmount typical problems associated with sample-to-sample heterogeneity that plague rock physics testing and to test material response independent from pore-structure variability. Together, imaging, digital rocks and 3D printing potentially enables a new workflow for understanding coupled geophysical processes in a real, but well-defined setting circumventing typical issues associated with reproducibility, enabling full characterization and thus connection of physical phenomena to structure. In this talk we will discuss the possibilities that these technologies can bring to geosciences and present early experiences with coupled multiscale experimental and numerical analysis using 3D printed fractured rock specimens. In particular, we discuss the processes of selection and printing of transparent fractured specimens based on 3D reconstruction of micro-fractured rock to study fluid flow characterization and manipulation. Micro-particle image velocimetry is used to directly visualize 3D single and multiphase flow velocity in 3D fracture networks. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U

  1. Multimaterial magnetically assisted 3D printing of composite materials

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinis, Dimitri; Schaffner, Manuel; Studart, André R.

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has become commonplace for the manufacturing of objects with unusual geometries. Recent developments that enabled printing of multiple materials indicate that the technology can potentially offer a much wider design space beyond unusual shaping. Here we show that a new dimension in this design space can be exploited through the control of the orientation of anisotropic particles used as building blocks during a direct ink-writing process. Particle orientation control is demonstrated by applying low magnetic fields on deposited inks pre-loaded with magnetized stiff platelets. Multimaterial dispensers and a two-component mixing unit provide additional control over the local composition of the printed material. The five-dimensional design space covered by the proposed multimaterial magnetically assisted 3D printing platform (MM-3D printing) opens the way towards the manufacturing of functional heterogeneous materials with exquisite microstructural features thus far only accessible by biological materials grown in nature. PMID:26494528

  2. Multimaterial magnetically assisted 3D printing of composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkinis, Dimitri; Schaffner, Manuel; Studart, André R.

    2015-10-01

    3D printing has become commonplace for the manufacturing of objects with unusual geometries. Recent developments that enabled printing of multiple materials indicate that the technology can potentially offer a much wider design space beyond unusual shaping. Here we show that a new dimension in this design space can be exploited through the control of the orientation of anisotropic particles used as building blocks during a direct ink-writing process. Particle orientation control is demonstrated by applying low magnetic fields on deposited inks pre-loaded with magnetized stiff platelets. Multimaterial dispensers and a two-component mixing unit provide additional control over the local composition of the printed material. The five-dimensional design space covered by the proposed multimaterial magnetically assisted 3D printing platform (MM-3D printing) opens the way towards the manufacturing of functional heterogeneous materials with exquisite microstructural features thus far only accessible by biological materials grown in nature.

  3. 3D Protein Dynamics in the Cell Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anand P; Galland, Rémi; Finch-Edmondson, Megan L; Grenci, Gianluca; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Studer, Vincent; Viasnoff, Virgile; Saunders, Timothy E

    2017-01-10

    The three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the cell nucleus plays an important role in protein dynamics and in regulating gene expression. However, protein dynamics within the 3D nucleus are poorly understood. Here, we present, to our knowledge, a novel combination of 1) single-objective based light-sheet microscopy, 2) photoconvertible proteins, and 3) fluorescence correlation microscopy, to quantitatively measure 3D protein dynamics in the nucleus. We are able to acquire >3400 autocorrelation functions at multiple spatial positions within a nucleus, without significant photobleaching, allowing us to make reliable estimates of diffusion dynamics. Using this tool, we demonstrate spatial heterogeneity in Polymerase II dynamics in live U2OS cells. Further, we provide detailed measurements of human-Yes-associated protein diffusion dynamics in a human gastric cancer epithelial cell line.

  4. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  5. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  6. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  7. 3D visualization for research and teaching in geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, Marina; Constantin Manea, Vlad

    2010-05-01

    Today, we are provided with an abundance of visual images from a variety of sources. In doing research, data visualization represents an important part, and sophisticated models require special tools that should enhance the comprehension of modeling results. Also, helping our students gain visualization skills is an important way to foster greater comprehension when studying geosciences. For these reasons we build a 3D stereo-visualization system, or a GeoWall, that permits to explore in depth 3D modeling results and provide for students an attractive way for data visualization. In this study, we present the architecture of such low cost system, and how is used. The system consists of three main parts: a DLP-3D capable display, a high performance workstation and several pairs of wireless liquid crystal shutter eyewear. The system is capable of 3D stereo visualization of Google Earth and/or 3D numeric modeling results. Also, any 2D image or movie can be instantly viewed in 3D stereo. Such flexible-easy-to-use visualization system proved to be an essential research and teaching tool.

  8. Basic technologies of web services framework for research, discovery, and processing the disparate massive Earth observation data from heterogeneous sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savorskiy, V.; Lupyan, E.; Balashov, I.; Burtsev, M.; Proshin, A.; Tolpin, V.; Ermakov, D.; Chernushich, A.; Panova, O.; Kuznetsov, O.; Vasilyev, V.

    2014-04-01

    Both development and application of remote sensing involves a considerable expenditure of material and intellectual resources. Therefore, it is important to use high-tech means of distribution of remote sensing data and processing results in order to facilitate access for as much as possible number of researchers. It should be accompanied with creation of capabilities for potentially more thorough and comprehensive, i.e. ultimately deeper, acquisition and complex analysis of information about the state of Earth's natural resources. As well objective need in a higher degree of Earth observation (EO) data assimilation is set by conditions of satellite observations, in which the observed objects are uncontrolled state. Progress in addressing this problem is determined to a large extent by order of the distributed EO information system (IS) functioning. Namely, it is largely dependent on reducing the cost of communication processes (data transfer) between spatially distributed IS nodes and data users. One of the most effective ways to improve the efficiency of data exchange processes is the creation of integrated EO IS optimized for running procedures of distributed data processing. The effective EO IS implementation should be based on specific software architecture.

  9. Fast, Automated, 3D Modeling of Building Interiors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-30

    of thermographies with laser scanning point clouds [6]. Given the heterogeneous nature of the two modalities, we propose a feature-based approach...extract 2D lines from thermographies , and 3D lines are extracted through segmentation of the point cloud. Feature- matching and the relative pose between... thermographies and point cloud are obtained from an iterative procedure applied to detect and reject outliers; this includes rotation matrix and

  10. Imaging hypoxia using 3D photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stantz, Keith M.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: The objective is to develop a multivariate in vivo hemodynamic model of tissue oxygenation (MiHMO2) based on 3D photoacoustic spectroscopy. Introduction: Low oxygen levels, or hypoxia, deprives cancer cells of oxygen and confers resistance to irradiation, some chemotherapeutic drugs, and oxygen-dependent therapies (phototherapy) leading to treatment failure and poor disease-free and overall survival. For example, clinical studies of patients with breast carcinomas, cervical cancer, and head and neck carcinomas (HNC) are more likely to suffer local reoccurrence and metastasis if their tumors are hypoxic. A novel method to non invasively measure tumor hypoxia, identify its type, and monitor its heterogeneity is devised by measuring tumor hemodynamics, MiHMO2. Material and Methods: Simulations are performed to compare tumor pO2 levels and hypoxia based on physiology - perfusion, fractional plasma volume, fractional cellular volume - and its hemoglobin status - oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration - based on in vivo measurements of breast, prostate, and ovarian tumors. Simulations of MiHMO2 are performed to assess the influence of scanner resolutions and different mathematic models of oxygen delivery. Results: Sensitivity of pO2 and hypoxic fraction to photoacoustic scanner resolution and dependencies on model complexity will be presented using hemodynamic parameters for different tumors. Conclusions: Photoacoustic CT spectroscopy provides a unique ability to monitor hemodynamic and cellular physiology in tissue, which can be used to longitudinally monitor tumor oxygenation and its response to anti-angiogenic therapies.

  11. [3D emulation of epicardium dynamic mapping].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Yang, Cui-Wei; Fang, Zu-Xiang

    2005-03-01

    In order to realize epicardium dynamic mapping of the whole atria, 3-D graphics are drawn with OpenGL. Some source codes are introduced in the paper to explain how to produce, read, and manipulate 3-D model data.

  12. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  13. 3-D rare earth-doped colloidal photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clara Gonçalves, M.; Fortes, Luis M.; Almeida, Rui M.; Chiasera, Alessandro; Chiappini, Andrea; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2009-07-01

    Three-dimensional photonic bandgap structures have been synthesized by a colloidal/sol-gel route, starting with the self-organization of polystyrene microspheres into opal structures by vertical convective self-assembly, followed by sol-gel infiltration of the interstices with silica or titania doped with Er 3+ and Yb 3+ ions and the removal of the polymeric template by heat treatment. The structural and optical properties of the opals and inverse opals prepared by this method have been studied by scanning electron microscopy and near infra-red spectroscopy. The SEM images show that the photonic crystals contain ordered domains up to ˜600 μm 2. Variable incidence reflectivity spectra have been measured for the opals, infiltrated opals and inverse opals. The corresponding effective refractive indices ( neff) were calculated based on effective-medium approaches. Photoluminescence measurements of the emission of Er 3+ ions at ˜1.5 μm from titania inverse opal structures were performed and are compared with those characteristic of the same ions in bulk titania material in the absence of a photonic bandgap structure.

  14. NASA VERVE: Interactive 3D Visualization Within Eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Tamar; Allan, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    At NASA, we develop myriad Eclipse RCP applications to provide situational awareness for remote systems. The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames Research Center has developed VERVE - a high-performance, robot user interface that provides scientists, robot operators, and mission planners with powerful, interactive 3D displays of remote environments.VERVE includes a 3D Eclipse view with an embedded Java Ardor3D scenario, including SWT and mouse controls which interact with the Ardor3D camera and objects in the scene. VERVE also includes Eclipse views for exploring and editing objects in the Ardor3D scene graph, and a HUD (Heads Up Display) framework allows Growl-style notifications and other textual information to be overlayed onto the 3D scene. We use VERVE to listen to telemetry from robots and display the robots and associated scientific data along the terrain they are exploring; VERVE can be used for any interactive 3D display of data.VERVE is now open source. VERVE derives from the prior Viz system, which was developed for Mars Polar Lander (2001) and used for the Mars Exploration Rover (2003) and the Phoenix Lander (2008). It has been used for ongoing research with IRG's K10 and KRex rovers in various locations. VERVE was used on the International Space Station during two experiments in 2013 - Surface Telerobotics, in which astronauts controlled robots on Earth from the ISS, and SPHERES, where astronauts control a free flying robot on board the ISS.We will show in detail how to code with VERVE, how to interact between SWT controls to the Ardor3D scenario, and share example code.

  15. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  16. True 3d Images and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.

    2012-07-01

    A true 3D image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true 3D image, especially a true 3D oblique image, it has true 3D coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true 3D image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true 3D image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true 3D images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true 3D images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true 3D ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true 3D image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true 3D images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true 3D image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true 3D images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true 3D images and the applications of true 3D images in a couple of 3D city modeling projects.

  17. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  18. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  19. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  20. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  1. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  2. Natural Mineral-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with Heterogeneous Nanocomposite Derived from Hematite and Rare-Earth Minerals.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chen; Cai, Yixiao; Ma, Yue; Wang, Baoyuan; Zhang, Wei; Karlsson, Mikael; Wu, Yan; Zhu, Bin

    2016-08-17

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have attracted much attention worldwide because of their potential for providing clean and reliable electric power. However, their commercialization is subject to the high operating temperatures and costs. To make SOFCs more competitive, here we report a novel and attractive nanocomposite hematite-LaCePrOx (hematite-LCP) synthesized from low-cost natural hematite and LaCePr-carbonate mineral as an electrolyte candidate. This heterogeneous composite exhibits a conductivity as high as 0.116 S cm(-1) at 600 °C with an activation energy of 0.50 eV at 400-600 °C. For the first time, a fuel cell using such a natural mineral-based composite demonstrates a maximum power density of 625 mW cm(-2) at 600 °C and notable power output of 386 mW cm(-2) at 450 °C. The extraordinary ionic conductivity and device performances are primarily attributed to the heterophasic interfacial conduction effect of the hematite-LCP composite. These superior properties, along with the merits of ultralow cost, abundant storage, and eco-friendliness, make the new composite a highly promising material for commercial SOFCs.

  3. The 3-D lattice theory of Flower Constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jeremy J.; Avendaño, Martín E.; Mortari, Daniele

    2013-08-01

    Flower Constellations (FCs) have been extensively studied for use in optimal constellation design. The Harmonic FCs (HFCs) subset, representing the symmetric configurations, have recently been reformulated into 2-D Lattice Flower Constellations (2D-LFCs), encompassing the complete set of HFCs. Elliptic orbits are generally avoided due to the deleterious effects of Earth's oblateness on the constellation, but here we present a novel concept for avoiding this problem and enabling more effective global coverage utilizing elliptic orbits. This new 3D Lattice Flower Constellations (3D-LFCs) framework generalizes the 2D-LFCs, Walker constellations, elliptical Walker constellations, and many of Draim's global coverage constellations. Previous studies have shown FCs can provide improved performance in global navigation over existing Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). We found a 3D-LFC design that improved the average positioning accuracy by 3.5 % while reducing launch \\varDelta v requirements when compared to the existing Galileo GNSS constellation.

  4. Real-Time 3D Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Butler Hine, former director of the Intelligent Mechanism Group (IMG) at Ames Research Center, and five others partnered to start Fourth Planet, Inc., a visualization company that specializes in the intuitive visual representation of dynamic, real-time data over the Internet and Intranet. Over a five-year period, the then NASA researchers performed ten robotic field missions in harsh climes to mimic the end- to-end operations of automated vehicles trekking across another world under control from Earth. The core software technology for these missions was the Virtual Environment Vehicle Interface (VEVI). Fourth Planet has released VEVI4, the fourth generation of the VEVI software, and NetVision. VEVI4 is a cutting-edge computer graphics simulation and remote control applications tool. The NetVision package allows large companies to view and analyze in virtual 3D space such things as the health or performance of their computer network or locate a trouble spot on an electric power grid. Other products are forthcoming. Fourth Planet is currently part of the NASA/Ames Technology Commercialization Center, a business incubator for start-up companies.

  5. 3-D object-oriented image analysis of geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadel, I.; Kerle, N.; van der Meijde, M.

    2014-07-01

    Geophysical data are the main source of information about the subsurface. Geophysical techniques are, however, highly non-unique in determining specific physical parameters and boundaries of subsurface objects. To obtain actual physical information, an inversion process is often applied, in which measurements at or above the Earth surface are inverted into a 2- or 3-D subsurface spatial distribution of the physical property. Interpreting these models into structural objects, related to physical processes, requires a priori knowledge and expert analysis which is susceptible to subjective choices and is therefore often non-repeatable. In this research, we implemented a recently introduced object-based approach to interpret the 3-D inversion results of a single geophysical technique using the available a priori information and the physical and geometrical characteristics of the interpreted objects. The introduced methodology is semi-automatic and repeatable, and allows the extraction of subsurface structures using 3-D object-oriented image analysis (3-D OOA) in an objective knowledge-based classification scheme. The approach allows for a semi-objective setting of thresholds that can be tested and, if necessary, changed in a very fast and efficient way. These changes require only changing the thresholds used in a so-called ruleset, which is composed of algorithms that extract objects from a 3-D data cube. The approach is tested on a synthetic model, which is based on a priori knowledge on objects present in the study area (Tanzania). Object characteristics and thresholds were well defined in a 3-D histogram of velocity versus depth, and objects were fully retrieved. The real model results showed how 3-D OOA can deal with realistic 3-D subsurface conditions in which the boundaries become fuzzy, the object extensions become unclear and the model characteristics vary with depth due to the different physical conditions. As expected, the 3-D histogram of the real data was

  6. 3D Subharmonic Ultrasound Imaging In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbrey, John R.; Sridharan, Anush; Machado, Priscilla; Zhao, Hongjia; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G.; Dave, Jaydev K.; Liu, Ji-Bin; Park, Suhyun; Dianis, Scott; Wallace, Kirk; Thomenius, Kai E.; Forsberg, F.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives While contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging techniques such as harmonic imaging (HI) have evolved to reduce tissue signals using the nonlinear properties of the contrast agent, levels of background suppression have been mixed. Subharmonic imaging (SHI) offers near-complete tissue suppression by centering the receive bandwidth at half the transmitting frequency. In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of 3D SHI and compare it to 3D HI. Materials and Methods 3D HI and SHI were implemented on a Logiq 9 ultrasound scanner (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, Wisconsin) with a 4D10L probe. Four-cycle SHI was implemented to transmit at 5.8 MHz and receive at 2.9 MHz, while 2-cycle HI was implemented to transmit at 5 MHz and receive at 10 MHz. The ultrasound contrast agent Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, North Billerica, MA) was imaged within a flow phantom and the lower pole of two canine kidneys in both HI and SHI modes. Contrast to tissue ratios (CTR) and rendered images were compared offline. Results SHI resulted in significant improvement in CTR levels relative to HI both in vitro (12.11±0.52 vs. 2.67±0.77, p<0.001) and in vivo (5.74±1.92 vs. 2.40±0.48, p=0.04). Rendered 3D SHI images provided better tissue suppression and a greater overall view of vessels in a flow phantom and canine renal vasculature. Conclusions The successful implementation of SHI in 3D allows imaging of vascular networks over a heterogeneous sample volume and should improve future diagnostic accuracy. Additionally, 3D SHI provides improved CTR values relative to 3D HI. PMID:22464198

  7. 3D effects on energetic particle confinement and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spong, Don

    2010-11-01

    Understanding the confinement and stability of energetic particle (EP) populations in 3D magnetic configurations is crucial to the future of all toroidal devices. Tokamaks will have weak symmetry-breaking effects from discrete coils, heterogeneous distributions of ferritic materials and non-symmetric (ELM/RWM) control coils, while stellarators and helical RFP states have dominant 3D features by design. Significant EP issues for 3D systems include: modifications of the plasma equilibrium and potential amplification of field errors, asymmetry enhanced EP losses and their impact both on wall heat loads and the confined EP distribution, 3D modifications to the Alfvén gap and mode structure, and the stability properties of EP-destabilized Alfvén modes. 3D equilibria that resolve localized TBM (test blanket module) asymmetries have now been developed for DIII-D and ITER. Such symmetry breaking leads to enhanced EP losses and focused wall deposition. 3D effects also modify the Alfvén spectrum by increasing the number of possibilities for mode coupling and introducing new gap structures, including the helical and mirror gaps, fine scale ripple-induced gaps and continuum crossing gaps. Improved methods have recently been developed for evaluating these modes and their stability, taking into account the large number of coupled modes and finite orbit width effects. Successful Alfvén mode identifications have been made for a range of stellarators, including W7-AS, LHD, HSX and TJ-II. A comprehensive understanding of energetic particle physics with 3D effects is a necessary prerequisite for wall protection, plasma control and flexibility and for new diagnostic development possibilities in future ignited systems.

  8. The Feedback Between Surface Mobility and Mantle Compositional Heterogeneity: Implications for the Earth and Other Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trim, S. J.; Heron, P. J.; Stein, C.; Lowman, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Planetary surface mobility depends on lithospheric stresses arising from the mantle's convective vigor. Using a model of thermochemical convection featuring force-balanced plates we examine the effect on surface mobility of different fractions of compositionally dense mantle material. Specifically, we introduce a uniform thickness compositionally enriched basal layer in a system with mobile-lid tectonics and monitor whether an active lid is subsequently maintained. We find that long-term surface mobility decreases when enriched material is present. High mobility is always maintained if the total material volume is no more than 1% of the mantle volume. For the inferred volume of the Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) in the present-day Earth, surface mobility is dependent on the buoyancy ratio of the enriched material. If the compositionally dense material self-organizes into provinces, both surface mobility and mantle upwelling vigor become more variable. Generally, upwellings that form at the edges of provinces are more buoyant relative to upwellings that form on the tops of provinces. If enriched material envelops the core, upwelling vigor is diminished so that plates are consumed more quickly than they can fragment, and surface mobility is eventually lost.

  9. The feedback between surface mobility and mantle compositional heterogeneity: Implications for the Earth and other terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trim, S. J.; Heron, P. J.; Stein, C.; Lowman, J. P.

    2014-11-01

    Planetary surface mobility depends on lithospheric stresses arising from the mantle's convective vigor. Using a model of thermochemical convection featuring force-balanced plates we examine the effect on surface mobility of different fractions of compositionally dense mantle material. Specifically, we introduce a uniform thickness compositionally enriched basal layer in a system with mobile-lid tectonics and monitor whether an active lid is subsequently maintained. We find that long-term surface mobility decreases when enriched material is present. High mobility is always maintained if the total material volume is no more than 1% of the mantle volume. For the inferred volume of the Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces in the present-day Earth surface mobility is dependent on the buoyancy ratio of the enriched material. If the compositionally dense material self-organizes into provinces, both surface mobility and mantle upwelling vigor become more variable. Generally, upwellings that form at the edges of provinces are more buoyant relative to upwellings that form on the tops of provinces. If enriched material envelops the core, upwelling vigor is diminished so that plates are consumed more quickly than they can fragment, and surface mobility is eventually lost.

  10. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  11. 3-D Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three-dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x

  12. Mini 3D for shallow gas reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Vallieres, T. des; Enns, D.; Kuehn, H.; Parron, D.; Lafet, Y.; Van Hulle, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Mini 3D project was undertaken by TOTAL and ELF with the support of CEPM (Comite d`Etudes Petrolieres et Marines) to define an economical method of obtaining 3D seismic HR data for shallow gas assessment. An experimental 3D survey was carried out with classical site survey techniques in the North Sea. From these data 19 simulations, were produced to compare different acquisition geometries ranging from dual, 600 m long cables to a single receiver. Results show that short offset, low fold and very simple streamer positioning are sufficient to give a reliable 3D image of gas charged bodies. The 3D data allow a much more accurate risk delineation than 2D HR data. Moreover on financial grounds Mini-3D is comparable in cost to a classical HR 2D survey. In view of these results, such HR 3D should now be the standard for shallow gas surveying.

  13. First 3D view of solar eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    arrival times and impact angles at the Earth," says Dr Thomas Moran of the Catholic University, Washington, USA. In collaboration with Dr Joseph Davila, of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, USA, Moran has analysed two-dimensional images from the ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) in a new way to yield 3D images. Their technique is able to reveal the complex and distorted magnetic fields that travel with the CME cloud and sometimes interact with Earth's own magnetic field, pouring tremendous amounts of energy into the space near Earth. "These magnetic fields are invisible," Moran explains, "but since the CME gas is electrified, it spirals around the magnetic fields, tracing out their shapes." Therefore, a 3D view of the CME electrified gas (called a plasma) gives scientists valuable information on the structure and behaviour of the magnetic fields powering the CME. The new analysis technique for SOHO data determines the three-dimensional structure of a CME by taking a sequence of three SOHO Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) images through various polarisers, at different angles. Whilst the light emitted by the Sun is not polarised, once it is scattered off electrons in the CME plasma it takes up some polarisation. This means that the electric fields of some of the scattered light are forced to oscillate in certain directions, whereas the electric field in the light emitted by the Sun is free to oscillate in all directions. Moran and Davila knew that light from CME structures closer to the plane of the Sun (as seen on the LASCO images) had to be more polarised than light from structures farther from that plane. Thus, by computing the ratio of polarised to unpolarised light for each CME structure, they could measure its distance from the plane. This provided the missing third dimension to the LASCO images. With this technique, the team has confirmed that the structure of CMEs directed towards Earth is an expanding arcade of

  14. Reproducing Electric Field Observations during Magnetic Storms by means of Rigorous 3-D Modelling and Distortion Matrix Co-estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Püthe, Christoph; Manoj, Chandrasekharan; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    Electric fields induced in the conducting Earth during magnetic storms drive currents in power transmission grids, telecommunication lines or buried pipelines. These geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) can cause severe service disruptions. The prediction of GIC is thus of great importance for public and industry. A key step in the prediction of the hazard to technological systems during magnetic storms is the calculation of the geoelectric field. To address this issue for mid-latitude regions, we developed a method that involves 3-D modelling of induction processes in a heterogeneous Earth and the construction of a model of the magnetospheric source. The latter is described by low-degree spherical harmonics; its temporal evolution is derived from observatory magnetic data. Time series of the electric field can be computed for every location on Earth's surface. The actual electric field however is known to be perturbed by galvanic effects, arising from very local near-surface heterogeneities or topography, which cannot be included in the conductivity model. Galvanic effects are commonly accounted for with a real-valued time-independent distortion matrix, which linearly relates measured and computed electric fields. Using data of various magnetic storms that occurred between 2000 and 2003, we estimated distortion matrices for observatory sites onshore and on the ocean bottom. Strong correlations between modellings and measurements validate our method. The distortion matrix estimates prove to be reliable, as they are accurately reproduced for different magnetic storms. We further show that 3-D modelling is crucial for a correct separation of galvanic and inductive effects and a precise prediction of electric field time series during magnetic storms. Since the required computational resources are negligible, our approach is suitable for a real-time prediction of GIC. For this purpose, a reliable forecast of the source field, e.g. based on data from satellites

  15. Chemical and Isotopic Heterogeneities in the Deep Earth:Importance of Lower Mantle Carbonate-rich Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collerson, K. D.; Williams, Q.; Murphy, D.

    2007-12-01

    Evolution of mantle chemical heterogeneity reflects a spectrum of processes. Nature of reservoirs has been inferred from radiogenic isotope and trace element systematics of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and ocean island basalts (OIB) [1]. Carbonatites, kimberlites and lamproites [2-4] also sample depleted and enriched reservoirs, however, their origin remains equivocal. Secular decrease in Th/U ratio in MORB mantle (DMM), homogeneity of Th/U inferred from Pb-isotopic data, and systematic variation in Nb/Th and Nb/U ratios in MORBs [5], show that recycled components in DMM are well mixed. Thus isotopically hererogeneous domains in DMM must be transient features and are unlikely to yield HIMU and EM chemistries. Explanations for HIMU and EM OIB chemistries include involvement of: (1) subcontinental lithospheric mantle; (2) subducted oceanic lithosphere; (3) subducted sediment; or (4) an enigmatic lower mantle (LM) "plume component". Elevated 3He/4He in OIBs and kimberlites [6] and excess 129Xe and high 40Ar/39Ar [e.g., 7-8] and solar 20Ne/22Ne [9] in carbonatites indicate that they were derived from a primitive, isolated, and less degassed source than MORB. Primordial compositions show that this reservoir escaped atmospheric contamination by Ar, Xe, and Ne and pollution by 4He-rich material (from recycled 238U) during subduction. This primitive reservoir likely exists below the depth subducted slabs obviously penetrate (ca. 1700 km) e.g., [10]. That kimberlites are deeply sourced is also shown by lower mantle inclusions in diamond, e.g., [11]. Importantly, Gp. 1 and 2 kimberlites are isotopically similar to HIMU and EM-1 OIBs [4]. We interpret Gp 1 kimberlites as mixtures of HIMU and EM sources, while Gp. 2 kimberlites (close to EM-1) are interpreted as melts of a Ca perovskite-rich reservoir, possibly from slabs in the LM. We model melting of LM phases to simulate evolution of EM1 and HIMU 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 176Hf/177Hf, 207Pb/204Pb, 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204

  16. Melting depths and mantle heterogeneity beneath Hawaii and the East Pacific Rise: Constraints from Na/Ti and rare earth element ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Putirka, K.

    1999-02-01

    Mantle melting calculations are presented that place constraints on the mineralogy of the basalt source region and partial melting depths for oceanic basalts. Melting depths are obtained from pressure-sensitive mineral-melt partition coefficients for Na, Ti, Hf, and the rare earth elements (REE). Melting depths are estimated by comparing model aggregate melt compositions to natural basalts from Hawaii and the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Variations in melting depths in a peridotite mantle are sufficient to yield observed differences in Na/Ti, Lu/Hf, and Sm/Yb between Hawaii and the EPR. Initial melting depths of 95{endash}120 km are calculated for EPR basalts, while melting depths of 200{endash}400 km are calculated for Hawaii, indicating a mantle that is 300&hthinsp;{degree}C hotter at Hawaii. Some isotope ratios at Hawaii are correlated with Na/Ti, indicating vertical stratification to isotopic heterogeneity in the mantle; similar comparisons involving EPR lavas support a layered mantle model. Abundances of Na, Ti, and REE indicate that garnet pyroxenite and eclogite are unlikely source components at Hawaii and may be unnecessary at the EPR. The result that some geochemical features of oceanic lavas appear to require only minor variations in mantle mineral proportions (2{percent} or less) may have important implications regarding the efficiency of mantle mixing. Heterogeneity required by isotopic studies might be accompanied by only subtle differences in bulk composition, and material that is recycled at subduction zones might not persist as mineralogically distinct mantle components. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union

  17. 3-D Visualizations At (Almost) No Expense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlock, R. L.

    2003-12-01

    Like most teaching-oriented public universities, San José State University (part of the California State University system) currently faces severe budgetary constraints. These circumstances prohibit the construction of one or more Geo-Walls on-campus. Nevertheless, the Department of Geology has pursued alternatives that enable our students to benefit from 3-D visualizations such as those used with the Geo-Wall. This experience - a sort of virtual virtuality - depends only on the availability of a computer lab and an optional plotter. Starting in June 2003, we have used the methods described here with two diverse groups of participants: middle- and high-school teachers taking professional development workshops through grants funded by NSF and NASA, and regular university students enrolled in introductory earth science and geology laboratory courses. We use two types of three-dimensional images with our students: visualizations from the on-line Gallery of Virtual Topography (Steve Reynolds), and USGS digital topographic quadrangles that have been transformed into anaglyph files for viewing with 3-D glasses. The procedure for transforming DEMs into these anaglyph files, developed by Paul Morin, is available at http://geosun.sjsu.edu/~sedlock/anaglyph.html. The resulting images can be used with students in one of two ways. First, maps can be printed on a suitable plotter, laminated (optional but preferable), and used repeatedly with different classes. Second, the images can be viewed in school computer labs or by students on their own computers. Chief advantages of the plotter option are (1) full-size maps (single or tiled) viewable in their entirety, and (2) dependability (independent of Internet connections and electrical power). Chief advantages of the computer option are (1) minimal preparation time and no other needed resources, assuming a computer lab with Internet access, and (2) students can work with the images outside of regularly scheduled courses. Both

  18. Lacunarity analysis of raster datasets and 1D, 2D, and 3D point patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Pinliang

    2009-10-01

    Spatial scale plays an important role in many fields. As a scale-dependent measure for spatial heterogeneity, lacunarity describes the distribution of gaps within a set at multiple scales. In Earth science, environmental science, and ecology, lacunarity has been increasingly used for multiscale modeling of spatial patterns. This paper presents the development and implementation of a geographic information system (GIS) software extension for lacunarity analysis of raster datasets and 1D, 2D, and 3D point patterns. Depending on the application requirement, lacunarity analysis can be performed in two modes: global mode or local mode. The extension works for: (1) binary (1-bit) and grey-scale datasets in any raster format supported by ArcGIS and (2) 1D, 2D, and 3D point datasets as shapefiles or geodatabase feature classes. For more effective measurement of lacunarity for different patterns or processes in raster datasets, the extension allows users to define an area of interest (AOI) in four different ways, including using a polygon in an existing feature layer. Additionally, directionality can be taken into account when grey-scale datasets are used for local lacunarity analysis. The methodology and graphical user interface (GUI) are described. The application of the extension is demonstrated using both simulated and real datasets, including Brodatz texture images, a Spaceborne Imaging Radar (SIR-C) image, simulated 1D points on a drainage network, and 3D random and clustered point patterns. The options of lacunarity analysis and the effects of polyline arrangement on lacunarity of 1D points are also discussed. Results from sample data suggest that the lacunarity analysis extension can be used for efficient modeling of spatial patterns at multiple scales.

  19. Measuring Fracture Properties of Meteorites: 3D Scans and Disruption Experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotto-Figueroa, Desireé; Asphaug, Erik; Morris, Melissa A.; Garvie, Laurence

    2014-11-01

    The Arizona State University (ASU) Center for Meteorite Studies (CMS) houses over 30,000 specimens that represent almost every known meteorite type. A number of these are available for fragmentation experiments in small samples, but in most cases non-destructive experiments are desired in order to determine the fundamental mechanical properties of meteorites, and by extension, the Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and other planetary bodies they derive from. We present results from an ongoing suite of measurements and experiments, featuring automated 3D topographic scans of a comprehensive suite of meteorites in the CMS collection, basic mechanical studies, and culminating in catastrophic fragmentation of four representative meteorites: Tamdakht (H5), Allende (CV3), Northwest Africa 869 (L3-6) and Chelyabinsk (LL5). Results will include high-resolution 3D color-shape models of meteorites, including specimens such as the 349g oriented and fusion crusted Martian (shergottite) Tissint, and the delicately fusion crusted and oriented 131g Whetstone Mountains (H5) ordinary chondrite. The 3D color-shape models will allow us to obtain basic physical properties (such as volume to derive density) and to derive fractal dimensions of fractured surfaces. Fractal dimension is closely related to the internal structural heterogeneity and fragmentation of the material, to macroscopic optical properties, and to rubble friction and cohesion. Freshly fractured surfaces of fragments that will result from catastrophic hypervelocity impact experiments will be subsequently scanned and analyzed in order to determine whether fractal dimension is preserved or if it changes with surface maturation.

  20. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  1. 3D change detection - Approaches and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Rongjun; Tian, Jiaojiao; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to the unprecedented technology development of sensors, platforms and algorithms for 3D data acquisition and generation, 3D spaceborne, airborne and close-range data, in the form of image based, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) based point clouds, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and 3D city models, become more accessible than ever before. Change detection (CD) or time-series data analysis in 3D has gained great attention due to its capability of providing volumetric dynamics to facilitate more applications and provide more accurate results. The state-of-the-art CD reviews aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis and to simplify the taxonomy of the traditional remote sensing CD techniques, which mainly sit within the boundary of 2D image/spectrum analysis, largely ignoring the particularities of 3D aspects of the data. The inclusion of 3D data for change detection (termed 3D CD), not only provides a source with different modality for analysis, but also transcends the border of traditional top-view 2D pixel/object-based analysis to highly detailed, oblique view or voxel-based geometric analysis. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of 3D CD using remote sensing and close-range data, in support of both academia and industry researchers who seek for solutions in detecting and analyzing 3D dynamics of various objects of interest. We first describe the general considerations of 3D CD problems in different processing stages and identify CD types based on the information used, being the geometric comparison and geometric-spectral analysis. We then summarize relevant works and practices in urban, environment, ecology and civil applications, etc. Given the broad spectrum of applications and different types of 3D data, we discuss important issues in 3D CD methods. Finally, we present concluding remarks in algorithmic aspects of 3D CD.

  2. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  3. Towards Automated Seismic Moment Tensor Inversion in Australia Using 3D Structural Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingee, M.; Tkalcic, H.; Fichtner, A.; Sambridge, M.; Kennett, B. L.; Gorbatov, A.

    2009-12-01

    There is significant seismic activity in the region around Australia, largely due to the plate boundaries to the north and to the east of the mainland. This seismicity poses serious seismic and tsunamigenic hazard in a wider region, and risk to coastal areas of Australia, and is monitored by Geoscience Australia (GA) using a network of permanent broadband seismometers within Australia. Earthquake and tsunami warning systems were established by the Australian Government and have been using the waveforms from the GA seismological network. The permanent instruments are augmented by non-GA seismic stations based both within and outside of Australia. In particular, seismic moment tensor (MT) solutions for events around Australia as well as local distances are useful for both warning systems and geophysical studies in general. These monitoring systems, however, currently use only one dimensional, spherically-symmetric models of the Earth for source parameter determination. Recently, a novel 3D model of Australia and the surrounding area has been developed from spectral element simulations [1], taking into account not only velocity heterogeneities, but also radial anisotropy and seismic attenuation. This development, inter alia, introduces the potential of providing significant improvements in MT solution accuracy. Allowing reliable MT solutions with reduced dependence on non-GA stations is a secondary advantage. We studied the feasibility of using 1D versus 3D structural models. The accuracy of the 3D model has been investigated, confirming that these models are in most cases superior to the 1D models. A full MT inversion method using a point source approximation was developed as the first step, keeping in mind that for more complex source time functions, a finite source inversion will be needed. Synthetic experiments have been performed with random noise added to the signal to test the code in the both 1D and 3D setting, using a precomputed library of structural Greens

  4. 3D measurement for rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Peter; Lilienblum, Tilo; Sommerkorn, Gerd; Michaelis, Bernd

    1996-08-01

    Optical 3-D measurement is an interesting approach for rapid prototyping. On one hand it's necessary to get the 3-D data of an object and on the other hand it's necessary to check the manufactured object (quality checking). Optical 3-D measurement can realize both. Classical 3-D measurement procedures based on photogrammetry cause systematic errors at strongly curved surfaces or steps in surfaces. One possibility to reduce these errors is to calculate the 3-D coordinates from several successively taken images. Thus it's possible to get higher spatial resolution and to reduce the systematic errors at 'problem surfaces.' Another possibility is to process the measurement values by neural networks. A modified associative memory smoothes and corrects the calculated 3-D coordinates using a-priori knowledge about the measurement object.

  5. Advances toward field application of 3D hydraulic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardiff, M. A.; Barrash, W.; Kitanidis, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    Hydraulic tomography (HT) is a technique that shows great potential for aquifer characterization and one that holds the promise of producing 3D hydraulic property distributions, given suitable equipment. First suggested over 15 years ago, HT assimilates distributed aquifer pressure (head) response data collected during a series of multiple pumping tests to produce estimates of aquifer property variability. Unlike traditional curve-matching analyses, which assume homogeneity or "effective" parameters within the radius of influence of a hydrologic test, HT analysis relies on numerical models with detailed heterogeneity in order to invert for the highly resolved 3D parameter distribution that jointly fits all data. Several numerical and laboratory investigations of characterization using HT have shown that property distributions can be accurately estimated between observation locations when experiments are correctly designed - a property not always shared by other, simpler 1D characterization approaches such as partially-penetrating slug tests. HT may represent one of the best methods available for obtaining detailed 3D aquifer property descriptions, especially in deep or "hard" aquifer materials, where direct-push methods may not be feasible. However, to date HT has not yet been widely adopted at contaminated field sites. We believe that current perceived impediments to HT adoption center around four key issues: 1) A paucity in the scientific literature of proven, cross-validated 3D field applications 2) A lack of guidelines and best practices for performing field 3D HT experiments; 3) Practical difficulty and time commitment associated with the installation of a large number of high-accuracy sampling locations, and the running of a large number of pumping tests; and 4) Computational difficulty associated with solving large-scale inverse problems for parameter identification. In this talk, we present current results in 3D HT research that addresses these four issues

  6. Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-24

    Final Performance Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-01-2007 to 11-30-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D ...ABSTRACT During the tenure of this project a large area updateable 3D color display has been developed for the first time using a new co-polymer...photorefractive polymers have been demonstrated. Moreover, a 6 inch × 6 inch sample was fabricated demonstrating the feasibility of making large area 3D

  7. 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Stratasys 3D printer . PDMS was cast in the negative molds in order to create permanent biocompatible plastic masters (SmoothCast 310). All goals of task...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0304 TITLE: 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David L. Kaplan CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2014 - 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D

  8. 3D carotid plaque MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS There has been significant progress made in 3D carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging techniques in recent years. 3D plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, 3D plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multi-vascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656

  9. 3-D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    3- D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems (Invited Paper) Ted Huffmire∗, Timothy Levin∗, Cynthia Irvine∗, Ryan Kastner† and Timothy Sherwood...address these problems, we propose an approach to trustworthy system development based on 3- D integration, an emerging chip fabrication technique in...which two or more integrated circuit dies are fabricated individually and then combined into a single stack using vertical conductive posts. With 3- D

  10. Hardware Trust Implications of 3-D Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    enhancing a commod- ity processor with a variety of security functions. This paper examines the 3-D design approach and provides an analysis concluding...of key components. The question addressed by this paper is, “Can a 3-D control plane provide useful secure services when it is conjoined with an...untrust- worthy computation plane?” Design-level investigation of this question yields a definite yes. This paper explores 3- D applications and their

  11. Digital holography and 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Partha; Barbastathis, George; Kim, Myung; Kukhtarev, Nickolai

    2011-03-01

    This feature issue on Digital Holography and 3-D Imaging comprises 15 papers on digital holographic techniques and applications, computer-generated holography and encryption techniques, and 3-D display. It is hoped that future work in the area leads to innovative applications of digital holography and 3-D imaging to biology and sensing, and to the development of novel nonlinear dynamic digital holographic techniques.

  12. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  13. 3-D Perspective Kamchatka Peninsula Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions. This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60- meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x 136 km (84 miles) coast to skyline. Location: 58.3 deg. North lat., 160 deg. East long. Orientation: Easterly view, 2 degrees

  14. 3D View of Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D perspective view looking north over Death Valley, California, was produced by draping ASTER nighttime thermal infrared data over topographic data from the US Geological Survey. The ASTER data were acquired April 7, 2000 with the multi-spectral thermal infrared channels, and cover an area of 60 by 80 km (37 by 50 miles). Bands 13, 12, and 10 are displayed in red, green and blue respectively. The data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color variations that highlight differences in types of surface materials. Salt deposits on the floor of Death Valley appear in shades of yellow, green, purple, and pink, indicating presence of carbonate, sulfate, and chloride minerals. The Panamint Mtns. to the west, and the Black Mtns. to the east, are made up of sedimentary limestones, sandstones, shales, and metamorphic rocks. The bright red areas are dominated by the mineral quartz, such as is found in sandstones; green areas are limestones. In the lower center part of the image is Badwater, the lowest point in North America.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER

  15. Regional geothermal 3D modelling in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulsen, S. E.; Balling, N.; Bording, T. S.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    In the pursuit of sustainable and low carbon emission energy sources, increased global attention has been given to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources within recent decades. In 2009 a national multi-disciplinary geothermal research project was established. As a significant part of this project, 3D temperature modelling is to be carried out, with special emphasis on temperatures of potential geothermal reservoirs in the Danish area. The Danish subsurface encompasses low enthalpy geothermal reservoirs of mainly Triassic and Jurassic age. Geothermal plants at Amager (Copenhagen) and Thisted (Northern Jutland) have the capacity of supplying the district heating network with up to 14 MW and 7 MW, respectively, by withdrawing warm pore water from the Gassum (Lower Jurassic/Upper Triassic) and Bunter (Lower Triassic) sandstone reservoirs, respectively. Explorative studies of the subsurface temperature regime typically are based on a combination of observations and modelling. In this study, the open-source groundwater modelling code MODFLOW is modified to simulate the subsurface temperature distribution in three dimensions by taking advantage of the mathematical similarity between saturated groundwater flow (Darcy flow) and heat conduction. A numerical model of the subsurface geology in Denmark is built and parameterized from lithological information derived from joint interpretation of seismic surveys and borehole information. Boundary conditions are constructed from knowledge about the heat flow from the Earth's interior and the shallow ground temperature. Matrix thermal conductivities have been estimated from analysis of high-resolution temperature logs measured in deep wells and porosity-depth relations are included using interpreted main lithologies. The model takes into account the dependency of temperature and pressure on thermal conductivity. Moreover, a transient model based correction of the paleoclimatic thermal disturbance caused by the

  16. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  17. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-07

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  18. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  19. Canada in 3D - Toward a Sustainable 3D Model for Canadian Geology from Diverse Data Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodaric, B.; Pilkington, M.; Snyder, D. B.; St-Onge, M. R.; Russell, H.

    2015-12-01

    Many big science issues span large areas and require data from multiple heterogeneous sources, for example climate change, resource management, and hazard mitigation. Solutions to these issues can significantly benefit from access to a consistent and integrated geological model that would serve as a framework. However, such a model is absent for most large countries including Canada, due to the size of the landmass and the fragmentation of the source data into institutional and disciplinary silos. To overcome these barriers, the "Canada in 3D" (C3D) pilot project was recently launched by the Geological Survey of Canada. C3D is designed to be evergreen, multi-resolution, and inter-disciplinary: (a) it is to be updated regularly upon acquisition of new data; (b) portions vary in resolution and will initially consist of four layers (surficial, sedimentary, crystalline, and mantle) with intermediary patches of higher-resolution fill; and (c) a variety of independently managed data sources are providing inputs, such as geophysical, 3D and 2D geological models, drill logs, and others. Notably, scalability concerns dictate a decentralized and interoperable approach, such that only key control objects, denoting anchors for the modeling process, are imported into the C3D database while retaining provenance links to original sources. The resultant model is managed in the database, contains full modeling provenance as well as links to detailed information on rock units, and is to be visualized in desktop and online environments. It is anticipated that C3D will become the authoritative state of knowledge for the geology of Canada at a national scale.

  20. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

    2014-03-01

    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  1. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  2. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  3. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  4. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary.

  5. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  6. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  7. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  8. Infrastructure for 3D Imaging Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-11

    analysis. (c.) Real time detection & analysis of human gait: using a video camera we capture walking human silhouette for pattern modeling and gait ... analysis . Fig. 5 shows the scanning result result that is fed into a Geo-magic software tool for 3D meshing. Fig. 5: 3D scanning result In

  9. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  10. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  11. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion"…

  12. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  13. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  14. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  15. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  16. 2D/3D switchable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  17. 6D Interpretation of 3D Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herfray, Yannick; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    We show that 3D gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The 3D field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern–Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of 3D gravity exists. More generally, we interpret 3D gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any \\text{SU}(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal \\text{SU}(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to 3D gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.

  18. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  19. Quon 3D language for quantum information

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengwei; Wozniakowski, Alex; Jaffe, Arthur M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a 3D topological picture-language for quantum information. Our approach combines charged excitations carried by strings, with topological properties that arise from embedding the strings in the interior of a 3D manifold with boundary. A quon is a composite that acts as a particle. Specifically, a quon is a hemisphere containing a neutral pair of open strings with opposite charge. We interpret multiquons and their transformations in a natural way. We obtain a type of relation, a string–genus “joint relation,” involving both a string and the 3D manifold. We use the joint relation to obtain a topological interpretation of the C∗-Hopf algebra relations, which are widely used in tensor networks. We obtain a 3D representation of the controlled NOT (CNOT) gate that is considerably simpler than earlier work, and a 3D topological protocol for teleportation. PMID:28167790

  20. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  1. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  2. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D presentations could provide additional sensorial cues (e.g., depth cues) that lead to a higher sense of being surrounded by the stimulus; a connection through general interest such that 3D presentation increases a viewer’s interest that leads to greater attention paid to the stimulus (e.g., "involvement"); and a connection through discomfort, with the 3D goggles causing discomfort that interferes with involvement and thus with memory. The memories of 396 participants who viewed two-dimensional (2D) or 3D movies at movie theaters in Southern California were tested. Within three days of viewing a movie, participants filled out an online anonymous questionnaire that queried them about their movie content memories, subjective movie-going experiences (including emotional reactions and "presence") and demographic backgrounds. The responses to the questionnaire were subjected to path analyses in which several different links between 3D presentation to memory (and other variables) were explored. The results showed there were no effects of 3D presentation, either directly or indirectly, upon memory. However, the largest effects of 3D presentation were on emotions and immersion, with 3D presentation leading to reduced positive emotions, increased negative emotions and lowered immersion, compared to 2D presentations. PMID:28078331

  3. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  4. Parallel 3-D viscoelastic finite difference seismic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlen, Thomas

    2002-10-01

    Computational power has advanced to a state where we can begin to perform wavefield simulations for realistic (complex) 3-D earth models at frequencies of interest to both seismologists and engineers. On serial platforms, however, 3-D calculations are still limited to small grid sizes and short seismic wave traveltimes. To make use of the efficiency of network computers a parallel 3-D viscoelastic finite difference (FD) code is implemented which allows to distribute the work on several PCs or workstations connected via standard ethernet in an in-house network. By using the portable message passing interface standard (MPI) for the communication between processors, running times can be reduced and grid sizes can be increased significantly. Furthermore, the code shows good performance on massive parallel supercomputers which makes the computation of very large grids feasible. This implementation greatly expands the applicability of the 3-D elastic/viscoelastic finite-difference modelling technique by providing an efficient, portable and practical C-program.

  5. Heralding a new paradigm in 3D tumor modeling.

    PubMed

    Fong, Eliza L S; Harrington, Daniel A; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Yu, Hanry

    2016-11-01

    Numerous studies to date have contributed to a paradigm shift in modeling cancer, moving from the traditional two-dimensional culture system to three-dimensional (3D) culture systems for cancer cell culture. This led to the inception of tumor engineering, which has undergone rapid advances over the years. In line with the recognition that tumors are not merely masses of proliferating cancer cells but rather, highly complex tissues consisting of a dynamic extracellular matrix together with stromal, immune and endothelial cells, significant efforts have been made to better recapitulate the tumor microenvironment in 3D. These approaches include the development of engineered matrices and co-cultures to replicate the complexity of tumor-stroma interactions in vitro. However, the tumor engineering and cancer biology fields have traditionally relied heavily on the use of cancer cell lines as a cell source in tumor modeling. While cancer cell lines have contributed to a wealth of knowledge in cancer biology, the use of this cell source is increasingly perceived as a major contributing factor to the dismal failure rate of oncology drugs in drug development. Backing this notion is the increasing evidence that tumors possess intrinsic heterogeneity, which predominantly homogeneous cancer cell lines poorly reflect. Tumor heterogeneity contributes to therapeutic resistance in patients. To overcome this limitation, cancer cell lines are beginning to be replaced by primary tumor cell sources, in the form of patient-derived xenografts and organoids cultures. Moving forward, we propose that further advances in tumor engineering would require that tumor heterogeneity (tumor variants) be taken into consideration together with tumor complexity (tumor-stroma interactions). In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of what has been achieved in recapitulating tumor complexity, and discuss the importance of incorporating tumor heterogeneity into 3D in vitro tumor models. This

  6. Mobile 3D laser scanning technology application in the surveying of urban underground rail transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Youmei; Yang, Bogang; Zhen, Yinan

    2016-11-01

    Mobile 3D laser scanning technology is one hot kind of digital earth technology. 3D completion surveying is relative new concept in surveying and mapping. A kind of mobile 3D laser scanning system was developed for the urban underground rail 3D completion surveying. According to the characteristics of underground rail environment and the characters of the mobile laser scanning system, it designed a suitable test scheme to improving the accuracy of this kind of mobile laser scanning system when it worked under no GPS signal environment. Then it completed the application of this technology in the No.15 rail 3D completion surveying. Meanwhile a set of production process was made for the 3D completion surveying based on this kind of mobile 3D laser scanning technology. These products were also proved the efficiency of the new technology in the rail 3D completion surveying. Using mobile 3D laser scanning technology to complete underground rail completion surveying has been the first time in China until now. It can provide a reference for 3D measurement of rail completion surveying or the 3D completion surveying of other areas.

  7. The imprint of crustal density heterogeneities on regional seismic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płonka, Agnieszka; Blom, Nienke; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Density heterogeneities are the source of mass transport in the Earth. However, the 3-D density structure remains poorly constrained because travel times of seismic waves are only weakly sensitive to density. Inspired by recent developments in seismic waveform tomography, we investigate whether the visibility of 3-D density heterogeneities may be improved by inverting not only travel times of specific seismic phases but complete seismograms.As a first step in this direction, we perform numerical experiments to estimate the effect of 3-D crustal density heterogeneities on regional seismic wave propagation. While a finite number of numerical experiments may not capture the full range of possible scenarios, our results still indicate that realistic crustal density variations may lead to travel-time shifts of up to ˜ 1 s and amplitude variations of several tens of percent over propagation distances of ˜ 1000 km. Both amplitude and travel-time variations increase with increasing epicentral distance and increasing medium complexity, i.e. decreasing correlation length of the heterogeneities. They are practically negligible when the correlation length of the heterogeneities is much larger than the wavelength. However, when the correlation length approaches the wavelength, density-induced waveform perturbations become prominent. Recent regional-scale full-waveform inversions that resolve structure at the scale of a wavelength already reach this regime.Our numerical experiments suggest that waveform perturbations induced by realistic crustal density variations can be observed in high-quality regional seismic data. While density-induced travel-time differences will often be small, amplitude variations exceeding ±10 % are comparable to those induced by 3-D velocity structure and attenuation. While these results certainly encourage more research on the development of 3-D density tomography, they also suggest that current full-waveform inversions that use amplitude

  8. High resolution earthquake source mechanisms in a subduction zone: 3-D waveform simulations of aftershocks from the 2010 Mw 8.8 Chile rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Stephen; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The earthquake rupture process is extremely heterogeneous. For subduction zone earthquakes in particular, it is vital to understand how structural variations in the overriding plate and downgoing slab may control slip style. The large-scale 3-D geometry of subduction plate boundaries is rapidly becoming well understood (e.g. Hayes et al., 2012); however, the nature of slip style along any finer-scale structures remains elusive. Regional earthquake moment tensor (RMT) inversion can shed light on faulting mechanisms. However, many traditional regional moment tensor inversions use simplified (1-D) Earth models (e.g. Agurto et al., 2012; Hayes et al., 2013) that only use the lowest frequency parts of the waveform, which may mask source complexity. As a result, we may have to take care when making small-scale interpretations about the causative fault and its slip style. This situation is compounded further by strong lateral variations in subsurface geology, as well as poor station coverage for recording offshore subduction earthquakes. A formal assessment of the resolving capability of RMT inversions in subduction zones is challenging and the application of 3-D waveform simulation techniques in highly heterogeneous media is needed. We generate 3-D waveform simulations of aftershocks from a large earthquake that struck Chile in 2010. The Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake is the sixth largest earthquake ever recorded. Following the earthquake, there was an international deployment of seismic stations in the rupture area, making this one of the best observed aftershock sequences to date. We therefore have a unique opportunity to compare recorded waveforms with simulated waveforms for many earthquakes, shedding light on the effect of 3-D heterogeneity on source imaging. We perform forward simulations using the spectral element wave propagation code, SPEFEM3D (e.g. Komatitsch et al., 2010) for a set of moderate-sized aftershocks (Mw 4.0-5.5). A detailed knowledge of velocity structure

  9. 3D Numerical simulations of oblique subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malatesta, C.; Gerya, T.; Scambelluri, M.; Crispini, L.; Federico, L.; Capponi, G.

    2012-04-01

    In the past 2D numerical studies (e.g. Gerya et al., 2002; Gorczyk et al., 2007; Malatesta et al., 2012) provided evidence that during intraoceanic subduction a serpentinite channel forms above the downgoing plate. This channel forms as a result of hydration of the mantle wedge by uprising slab-fluids. Rocks buried at high depths are finally exhumed within this buoyant low-viscosity medium. Convergence rate in these 2D models was described by a trench-normal component of velocity. Several present and past subduction zones worldwide are however driven by oblique convergence between the plates, where trench-normal motion of the subducting slab is coupled with trench-parallel displacement of the plates. Can the exhumation mechanism and the exhumation rates of high-pressure rocks be affected by the shear component of subduction? And how uprise of these rocks can vary along the plate margin? We tried to address these questions performing 3D numerical models that simulate an intraoceanic oblique subduction. The models are based on thermo-mechanical equations that are solved with finite differences method and marker-in-cell techniques combined with multigrid approach (Gerya, 2010). In most of the models a narrow oceanic basin (500 km-wide) surrounded by continental margins is depicted. The basin is floored by either layered or heterogeneous oceanic lithosphere with gabbro as discrete bodies in serpentinized peridotite and a basaltic layer on the top. A weak zone in the mantle is prescribed to control the location of subduction initiation and therefore the plate margins geometry. Finally, addition of a third dimension in the simulations allowed us to test the role of different plate margin geometries on oblique subduction dynamics. In particular in each model we modified the dip angle of the weak zone and its "lateral" geometry (e.g. continuous, segmented). We consider "continuous" weak zones either parallel or increasingly moving away from the continental margins

  10. Synthesizing 3D Surfaces from Parameterized Strip Charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Peter I.; Gomez, Julian; Morehouse, Michael; Gawdiak, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    We believe 3D information visualization has the power to unlock new levels of productivity in the monitoring and control of complex processes. Our goal is to provide visual methods to allow for rapid human insight into systems consisting of thousands to millions of parameters. We explore this hypothesis in two complex domains: NASA program management and NASA International Space Station (ISS) spacecraft computer operations. We seek to extend a common form of visualization called the strip chart from 2D to 3D. A strip chart can display the time series progression of a parameter and allows for trends and events to be identified. Strip charts can be overlayed when multiple parameters need to visualized in order to correlate their events. When many parameters are involved, the direct overlaying of strip charts can become confusing and may not fully utilize the graphing area to convey the relationships between the parameters. We provide a solution to this problem by generating 3D surfaces from parameterized strip charts. The 3D surface utilizes significantly more screen area to illustrate the differences in the parameters and the overlayed strip charts, and it can rapidly be scanned by humans to gain insight. The selection of the third dimension must be a parallel or parameterized homogenous resource in the target domain, defined using a finite, ordered, enumerated type, and not a heterogeneous type. We demonstrate our concepts with examples from the NASA program management domain (assessing the state of many plans) and the computers of the ISS (assessing the state of many computers). We identify 2D strip charts in each domain and show how to construct the corresponding 3D surfaces. The user can navigate the surface, zooming in on regions of interest, setting a mark and drilling down to source documents from which the data points have been derived. We close by discussing design issues, related work, and implementation challenges.

  11. Noninvasive computational imaging of cardiac electrophysiology for 3-D infarct.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linwei; Wong, Ken C L; Zhang, Heye; Liu, Huafeng; Shi, Pengcheng

    2011-04-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) creates electrophysiologically altered substrates that are responsible for ventricular arrhythmias, such as tachycardia and fibrillation. The presence, size, location, and composition of infarct scar bear significant prognostic and therapeutic implications for individual subjects. We have developed a statistical physiological model-constrained framework that uses noninvasive body-surface-potential data and tomographic images to estimate subject-specific transmembrane-potential (TMP) dynamics inside the 3-D myocardium. In this paper, we adapt this framework for the purpose of noninvasive imaging, detection, and quantification of 3-D scar mass for postMI patients: the framework requires no prior knowledge of MI and converges to final subject-specific TMP estimates after several passes of estimation with intermediate feedback; based on the primary features of the estimated spatiotemporal TMP dynamics, we provide 3-D imaging of scar tissue and quantitative evaluation of scar location and extent. Phantom experiments were performed on a computational model of realistic heart-torso geometry, considering 87 transmural infarct scars of different sizes and locations inside the myocardium, and 12 compact infarct scars (extent between 10% and 30%) at different transmural depths. Real-data experiments were carried out on BSP and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from four postMI patients, validated by gold standards and existing results. This framework shows unique advantage of noninvasive, quantitative, computational imaging of subject-specific TMP dynamics and infarct mass of the 3-D myocardium, with the potential to reflect details in the spatial structure and tissue composition/heterogeneity of 3-D infarct scar.

  12. 3D Regression Heat Map Analysis of Population Study Data.

    PubMed

    Klemm, Paul; Lawonn, Kai; Glaßer, Sylvia; Niemann, Uli; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Preim, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies comprise heterogeneous data about a subject group to define disease-specific risk factors. These data contain information (features) about a subject's lifestyle, medical status as well as medical image data. Statistical regression analysis is used to evaluate these features and to identify feature combinations indicating a disease (the target feature). We propose an analysis approach of epidemiological data sets by incorporating all features in an exhaustive regression-based analysis. This approach combines all independent features w.r.t. a target feature. It provides a visualization that reveals insights into the data by highlighting relationships. The 3D Regression Heat Map, a novel 3D visual encoding, acts as an overview of the whole data set. It shows all combinations of two to three independent features with a specific target disease. Slicing through the 3D Regression Heat Map allows for the detailed analysis of the underlying relationships. Expert knowledge about disease-specific hypotheses can be included into the analysis by adjusting the regression model formulas. Furthermore, the influences of features can be assessed using a difference view comparing different calculation results. We applied our 3D Regression Heat Map method to a hepatic steatosis data set to reproduce results from a data mining-driven analysis. A qualitative analysis was conducted on a breast density data set. We were able to derive new hypotheses about relations between breast density and breast lesions with breast cancer. With the 3D Regression Heat Map, we present a visual overview of epidemiological data that allows for the first time an interactive regression-based analysis of large feature sets with respect to a disease.

  13. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.

  14. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  15. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  16. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  17. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  18. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc.

  19. The 3D model control of image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, An H.; Stark, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    Telerobotics studies remote control of distant robots by a human operator using supervisory or direct control. Even if the robot manipulators has vision or other senses, problems arise involving control, communications, and delay. The communication delays that may be expected with telerobots working in space stations while being controlled from an Earth lab have led to a number of experiments attempting to circumvent the problem. This delay in communication is a main motivating factor in moving from well understood instantaneous hands-on manual control to less well understood supervisory control; the ultimate step would be the realization of a fully autonomous robot. The 3-D model control plays a crucial role in resolving many conflicting image processing problems that are inherent in resolving in the bottom-up approach of most current machine vision processes. The 3-D model control approach is also capable of providing the necessary visual feedback information for both the control algorithms and for the human operator.

  20. 3D Printing In Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werkheiser, Niki; Cooper, Kenneth; Edmunson, Jennifer; Dunn, Jason; Snyder, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station (ISS). The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment ('3D Print') will be the first machine to perform 3D printing in space. The greater the distance from Earth and the longer the mission duration, the more difficult resupply becomes; this requires a change from the current spares, maintenance, repair, and hardware design model that has been used on the International Space Station (ISS) up until now. Given the extension of the ISS Program, which will inevitably result in replacement parts being required, the ISS is an ideal platform to begin changing the current model for resupply and repair to one that is more suitable for all exploration missions. 3D Printing, more formally known as Additive Manufacturing, is the method of building parts/objects/tools layer-by-layer. The 3D Print experiment will use extrusion-based additive manufacturing, which involves building an object out of plastic deposited by a wire-feed via an extruder head. Parts can be printed from data files loaded on the device at launch, as well as additional files uplinked to the device while on-orbit. The plastic extrusion additive manufacturing process is a low-energy, low-mass solution to many common needs on board the ISS. The 3D Print payload will serve as the ideal first step to proving that process in space. It is unreasonable to expect NASA to launch large blocks of material from which parts or tools can be traditionally machined, and even more unreasonable to fly up multiple drill bits that would be required to machine parts from aerospace-grade materials such as titanium 6-4 alloy and Inconel. The technology to produce parts on demand, in space, offers

  1. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  2. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  3. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  4. 3D Immersive Visualization with Astrophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    We present the refinement of a new 3D immersion technique for astrophysical data visualization.Methodology to create 360 degree spherical panoramas is reviewed. The 3D software package Blender coupled with Python and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to create the final data products. Data can be viewed interactively with a mobile phone or tablet or in a web browser. The technique can apply to different kinds of astronomical data including 3D stellar and galaxy catalogs, images, and planetary maps.

  5. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  6. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  7. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  8. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  9. FUN3D Manual: 13.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.1, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  10. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  11. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  12. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  13. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  14. RHOCUBE: 3D density distributions modeling code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikutta, Robert; Agliozzo, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    RHOCUBE models 3D density distributions on a discrete Cartesian grid and their integrated 2D maps. It can be used for a range of applications, including modeling the electron number density in LBV shells and computing the emission measure. The RHOCUBE Python package provides several 3D density distributions, including a powerlaw shell, truncated Gaussian shell, constant-density torus, dual cones, and spiralling helical tubes, and can accept additional distributions. RHOCUBE provides convenient methods for shifts and rotations in 3D, and if necessary, an arbitrary number of density distributions can be combined into the same model cube and the integration ∫ dz performed through the joint density field.

  15. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  16. 3D-HIM: A 3D High-density Interleaved Memory for Bipolar RRAM Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    JOURNAL ARTICLE (Post Print ) 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) DEC 2010 – NOV 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D -HIM: A 3D HIGH-DENSITY INTERLEAVED MEMORY...emerged as one of the promising candidates for large data storage in computing systems. Moreover, building up RRAM in a three dimensional ( 3D ) stacking...brings in the potential reliability issue. To alleviate the situation, we introduce two novel 3D stacking structures built upon bipolar RRAM

  17. Post-seismic relaxation theory on laterally heterogeneous viscoelastic model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.

    2003-01-01

    Investigation was carried out into the problem of relaxation of a laterally heterogeneous viscoelastic Earth following an impulsive moment release event. The formal solution utilizes a semi-analytic solution for post-seismic deformation on a laterally homogeneous Earth constructed from viscoelastic normal modes, followed by application of mode coupling theory to derive the response on the aspherical Earth. The solution is constructed in the Laplace transform domain using the correspondence principle and is valid for any linear constitutive relationship between stress and strain. The specific implementation described in this paper is a semi-analytic discretization method which assumes isotropic elastic structure and a Maxwell constitutive relation. It accounts for viscoelastic-gravitational coupling under lateral variations in elastic parameters and viscosity. For a given viscoelastic structure and minimum wavelength scale, the computational effort involved with the numerical algorithm is proportional to the volume of the laterally heterogeneous region. Examples are presented of the calculation of post-seismic relaxation with a shallow, laterally heterogeneous volume following synthetic impulsive seismic events, and they illustrate the potentially large effect of regional 3-D heterogeneities on regional deformation patterns.

  18. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  19. Optical 3D surface digitizing in forensic medicine: 3D documentation of skin and bone injuries.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2003-11-26

    Photography process reduces a three-dimensional (3D) wound to a two-dimensional level. If there is a need for a high-resolution 3D dataset of an object, it needs to be three-dimensionally scanned. No-contact optical 3D digitizing surface scanners can be used as a powerful tool for wound and injury-causing instrument analysis in trauma cases. The 3D skin wound and a bone injury documentation using the optical scanner Advanced TOpometric Sensor (ATOS II, GOM International, Switzerland) will be demonstrated using two illustrative cases. Using this 3D optical digitizing method the wounds (the virtual 3D computer model of the skin and the bone injuries) and the virtual 3D model of the injury-causing tool are graphically documented in 3D in real-life size and shape and can be rotated in the CAD program on the computer screen. In addition, the virtual 3D models of the bone injuries and tool can now be compared in a 3D CAD program against one another in virtual space, to see if there are matching areas. Further steps in forensic medicine will be a full 3D surface documentation of the human body and all the forensic relevant injuries using optical 3D scanners.

  20. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing.

  1. Brandenburg 3D - a comprehensive 3D Subsurface Model, Conception of an Infrastructure Node and a Web Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschke, Dorit; Schilling, Maik; Simon, Andreas; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    application enables an intuitive navigation through all available information and allows the visualization of geological maps (2D), seismic transects (2D/3D), wells (2D/3D), and the 3D-model. These achievements will alleviate spatial and geological data management within the German State Geological Offices and foster the interoperability of heterogeneous systems. It will provide guidance to a systematic subsurface management across system, domain and administrative boundaries on the basis of a federated spatial data infrastructure, and include the public in the decision processes (e-Governance). Yet, the interoperability of the systems has to be strongly propelled forward through agreements on standards that need to be decided upon in responsible committees. The project B3D is funded with resources from the European Fund for Regional Development (EFRE).

  2. Quantifying modes of 3D cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Meghan K.; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-01-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943

  3. Modeling cellular processes in 3D.

    PubMed

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2D or 1D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling.

  4. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  5. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  6. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  7. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  8. DNA biosensing with 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2017-01-16

    3D printing, an upcoming technology, has vast potential to transform conventional fabrication processes due to the numerous improvements it can offer to the current methods. To date, the employment of 3D printing technology has been examined for applications in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and biological sciences. In this study, we examined the potential of adopting 3D printing technology for a novel application, electrochemical DNA biosensing. Metal 3D printing was utilized to construct helical-shaped stainless steel electrodes which functioned as a transducing platform for the detection of DNA hybridization. The ability of electroactive methylene blue to intercalate into the double helix structure of double-stranded DNA was then exploited to monitor the DNA hybridization process, with its inherent reduction peak serving as an analytical signal. The designed biosensing approach was found to demonstrate superior selectivity against a non-complementary DNA target, with a detection range of 1-1000 nM.

  9. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  10. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Richards, Dylan Jack; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication.

  11. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  12. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  13. Quantifying Modes of 3D Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-12-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates.

  14. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  15. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  16. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  17. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  18. LANL Studies Earth's Magnetosphere

    ScienceCinema

    Daughton, Bill

    2016-07-12

    A new 3-D supercomputer model presents a new theory of how magnetic reconnection works in high-temperature plasmas. This Los Alamos National Laboratory research supports an upcoming NASA mission to study Earth's magnetosphere in greater detail than ever.

  19. LANL Studies Earth's Magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Daughton, Bill

    2011-04-15

    A new 3-D supercomputer model presents a new theory of how magnetic reconnection works in high-temperature plasmas. This Los Alamos National Laboratory research supports an upcoming NASA mission to study Earth's magnetosphere in greater detail than ever.

  20. 3D liver surgery simulation: computer-assisted surgical planning with 3D simulation software and 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Yukio; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2017-03-27

    To perform accurate hepatectomy without injury, it is necessary to understand the anatomical relationship among the branches of Glisson's sheath, hepatic veins, and tumor. In Japan, three-dimensional (3D) preoperative simulation for liver surgery is becoming increasingly common, and liver 3D modeling and 3D hepatectomy simulation by 3D analysis software for liver surgery have been covered by universal healthcare insurance since 2012. Herein, we review the history of virtual hepatectomy using computer-aided surgery (CAS) and our research to date, and we discuss the future prospects of CAS. We have used the SYNAPSE VINCENT medical imaging system (Fujifilm Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for 3D visualization and virtual resection of the liver since 2010. We developed a novel fusion imaging technique combining 3D computed tomography (CT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The fusion image enables us to easily visualize anatomic relationships among the hepatic arteries, portal veins, bile duct, and tumor in the hepatic hilum. In 2013, we developed an original software, called Liversim, that enables real-time deformation of the liver using physical simulation, and a randomized control trial has recently been conducted to evaluate the use of Liversim and SYNAPSE VINCENT for preoperative simulation and planning. Furthermore, we developed a novel hollow 3D-printed liver model whose surface is covered with frames. This model is useful for safe liver resection, has better visibility, and the production cost is reduced to one-third of a previous model. Preoperative simulation and navigation with CAS in liver resection are expected to help planning and conducting a surgery and surgical education. Thus, a novel CAS system will contribute to not only the performance of reliable hepatectomy but also to surgical education.

  1. Microfabricating 3D Structures by Laser Origami

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-09

    technique generates 3D microstructures by controlled out-of- plane folding of 2D patterns through a variety of laser-based digital fabrication...processes. Digital microfabrication techniques such as laser direct-write (LDW) offer a viable alternative for generating 3D self-folding designs. These...folding at the microscale where manual or mechanized actuation of the smaller struc- tures is not practical. LDW techniques allow micromachining and

  2. Spatioangular Prefiltering for Multiview 3D Displays.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Hirakawa, Keigo; Zwicker, Matthias; Nguyen, Truong

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the reproduction of light fields on multiview 3D displays. A three-way interaction between the input light field signal (which is often aliased), the joint spatioangular sampling grids of multiview 3D displays, and the interview light leakage in modern multiview 3D displays is characterized in the joint spatioangular frequency domain. Reconstruction of light fields by all physical 3D displays is prone to light leakage, which means that the reconstruction low-pass filter implemented by the display is too broad in the angular domain. As a result, 3D displays excessively attenuate angular frequencies. Our analysis shows that this reduces sharpness of the images shown in the 3D displays. In this paper, stereoscopic image recovery is recast as a problem of joint spatioangular signal reconstruction. The combination of the 3D display point spread function and human visual system provides the narrow-band low-pass filter which removes spectral replicas in the reconstructed light field on the multiview display. The nonideality of this filter is corrected with the proposed prefiltering. The proposed light field reconstruction method performs light field antialiasing as well as angular sharpening to compensate for the nonideal response of the 3D display. The union of cosets approach which has been used earlier by others is employed here to model the nonrectangular spatioangular sampling grids on a multiview display in a generic fashion. We confirm the effectiveness of our approach in simulation and in physical hardware, and demonstrate improvement over existing techniques.

  3. Irregular Grid Generation and Rapid 3D Color Display Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson D. Chin, Ph.D.

    2000-05-10

    Computationally efficient and fast methods for irregular grid generation are developed to accurately characterize wellbore and fracture boundaries, and farfield reservoir boundaries, in oil and gas petroleum fields. Advanced reservoir simulation techniques are developed for oilfields described by such ''boundary conforming'' mesh systems. Very rapid, three-dimensional color display algorithms are also developed that allow users to ''interrogate'' 3D earth cubes using ''slice, rotate, and zoom'' functions. Based on expert system ideas, the new methods operate much faster than existing display methodologies and do not require sophisticated computer hardware or software. They are designed to operate with PC based applications.

  4. Auto convergence for stereoscopic 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit

    2012-03-01

    Viewing comfort is an important concern for 3-D capable consumer electronics such as 3-D cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer 3-D cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the 3-D display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo 3-D camera. It significantly improves 3-D viewing comfort.

  5. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  6. 3D steerable wavelets in practice.

    PubMed

    Chenouard, Nicolas; Unser, Michael

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a systematic and practical design for steerable wavelet frames in 3D. Our steerable wavelets are obtained by applying a 3D version of the generalized Riesz transform to a primary isotropic wavelet frame. The novel transform is self-reversible (tight frame) and its elementary constituents (Riesz wavelets) can be efficiently rotated in any 3D direction by forming appropriate linear combinations. Moreover, the basis functions at a given location can be linearly combined to design custom (and adaptive) steerable wavelets. The features of the proposed method are illustrated with the processing and analysis of 3D biomedical data. In particular, we show how those wavelets can be used to characterize directional patterns and to detect edges by means of a 3D monogenic analysis. We also propose a new inverse-problem formalism along with an optimization algorithm for reconstructing 3D images from a sparse set of wavelet-domain edges. The scheme results in high-quality image reconstructions which demonstrate the feature-reduction ability of the steerable wavelets as well as their potential for solving inverse problems.

  7. 3D Viscoelastic traction force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Toyjanova, Jennet; Hannen, Erin; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Darling, Eric M; Henann, David L; Franck, Christian

    2014-10-28

    Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level of viscoelasticity, which could play an important role in how cells sense and transduce tractions. To expand the realm of cell traction measurements and to encompass all materials from elastic to viscoelastic, this paper presents a general, and comprehensive approach for quantifying 3D cell tractions in viscoelastic materials. This methodology includes the experimental characterization of the time-dependent material properties for any viscoelastic material with the subsequent mathematical implementation of the determined material model into a 3D traction force microscopy (3D TFM) framework. Utilizing this new 3D viscoelastic TFM (3D VTFM) approach, we quantify the influence of viscosity on the overall material traction calculations and quantify the error associated with omitting time-dependent material effects, as is the case for all other TFM formulations. We anticipate that the 3D VTFM technique will open up new avenues of cell-material investigations on even more physiologically relevant time-dependent materials including collagen and fibrin gels.

  8. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1996-09-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI photo type using ten thousand lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of Integral Photography and Varifocal type method. In the case of Integral Photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  9. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1997-05-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI proto type using ten thousands lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of integral photography and varifocal type method. In the case of integral photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  10. 3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerwien, N.

    2014-11-01

    In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

  11. Seeing a Stellar Explosion in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    faster in some directions than others, leading to an irregular shape with some parts stretching out further into space. The first material to be ejected from the explosion travelled at an incredible 100 million km per hour, which is about a tenth of the speed of light or around 100 000 times faster than a passenger jet. Even at this breakneck speed it has taken 10 years to reach a previously existing ring of gas and dust puffed out from the dying star. The images also demonstrate that another wave of material is travelling ten times more slowly and is being heated by radioactive elements created in the explosion. "We have established the velocity distribution of the inner ejecta of Supernova 1987A," says lead author Karina Kjær. "Just how a supernova explodes is not very well understood, but the way the star exploded is imprinted on this inner material. We can see that this material was not ejected symmetrically in all directions, but rather seems to have had a preferred direction. Besides, this direction is different to what was expected from the position of the ring." Such asymmetric behaviour was predicted by some of the most recent computer models of supernovae, which found that large-scale instabilities take place during the explosion. The new observations are thus the first direct confirmation of such models. SINFONI is the leading instrument of its kind, and only the level of detail it affords allowed the team to draw their conclusions. Advanced adaptive optics systems counteracted the blurring effects of the Earth's atmosphere while a technique called integral field spectroscopy allowed the astronomers to study several parts of the supernova's chaotic core simultaneously, leading to the build-up of the 3D image. "Integral field spectroscopy is a special technique where for each pixel we get information about the nature and velocity of the gas," says Kjær. "This means that besides the normal picture we also have the velocity along the line of sight. Because we

  12. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints

    PubMed Central

    Coakley, Meghan F.; Hurt, Darrell E.; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C.; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T.; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S.; Huyen, Yentram

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print Exchange fills this gap by providing novel, w