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Sample records for 3-d hydrodynamic fem

  1. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  2. 3D FEM Simulation of Flank Wear in Turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attanasio, Aldo; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Giardini, Claudio

    2011-05-01

    This work deals with tool wear simulation. Studying the influence of tool wear on tool life, tool substitution policy and influence on final part quality, surface integrity, cutting forces and power consumption it is important to reduce the global process costs. Adhesion, abrasion, erosion, diffusion, corrosion and fracture are some of the phenomena responsible of the tool wear depending on the selected cutting parameters: cutting velocity, feed rate, depth of cut, …. In some cases these wear mechanisms are described by analytical models as a function of process variables (temperature, pressure and sliding velocity along the cutting surface). These analytical models are suitable to be implemented in FEM codes and they can be utilized to simulate the tool wear. In the present paper a commercial 3D FEM software has been customized to simulate the tool wear during turning operations when cutting AISI 1045 carbon steel with uncoated tungsten carbide tip. The FEM software was improved by means of a suitable subroutine able to modify the tool geometry on the basis of the estimated tool wear as the simulation goes on. Since for the considered couple of tool-workpiece material the main phenomena generating wear are the abrasive and the diffusive ones, the tool wear model implemented into the subroutine was obtained as combination between the Usui's and the Takeyama and Murata's models. A comparison between experimental and simulated flank tool wear curves is reported demonstrating that it is possible to simulate the tool wear development.

  3. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  4. 3D FEM-BEM-coupling method to solve magnetostatic Maxwell equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Feischl, Michael; Praetorius, Dirk; Bergmair, Bernhard; Huber, Thomas; Fuger, Markus; Suess, Dieter

    2012-05-01

    3D magnetostatic Maxwell equations are solved using the direct Johnson-Nédélec FEM-BEM coupling method and a reduced scalar potential approach. The occurring BEM matrices are calculated analytically and approximated by H-matrices using the ACA+ algorithm. In addition a proper preconditioning method is suggested that allows to solve large-scale problems using iterative solvers.

  5. 3D hydrodynamic focusing microfluidics for emerging sensing technologies.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Michael A; Boyd, Darryl A; Mott, David R; Ligler, Frances S

    2015-05-15

    While the physics behind laminar flows has been studied for 200 years, understanding of how to use parallel flows to augment the capabilities of microfluidic systems has been a subject of study primarily over the last decade. The use of one flow to focus another within a microfluidic channel has graduated from a two-dimensional to a three-dimensional process and the design principles are only now becoming established. This review explores the underlying principles for hydrodynamic focusing in three dimensions (3D) using miscible fluids and the application of these principles for creation of biosensors, separation of cells and particles for sample manipulation, and fabrication of materials that could be used for biosensors. Where sufficient information is available, the practicality of devices implementing fluid flows directed in 3D is evaluated and the advantages and limitations of 3D hydrodynamic focusing for the particular application are highlighted.

  6. 3D FEM Geometry and Material Flow Optimization of Porthole-Die Extrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ceretti, Elisabetta; Mazzoni, Luca; Giardini, Claudio

    2007-05-17

    The aim of this work is to design and to improve the geometry of a porthole-die for the production of aluminum components by means of 3D FEM simulations. In fact, the use of finite element models will allow to investigate the effects of the die geometry (webs, extrusion cavity) on the material flow and on the stresses acting on the die so to reduce the die wear and to improve the tool life. The software used to perform the simulations was a commercial FEM code, Deform 3D. The technological data introduced in the FE model have been furnished by METRA S.p.A. Company, partner in this research. The results obtained have been considered valid and helpful by the Company for building a new optimized extrusion porthole-die.

  7. 3-D HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING IN A GEOSPATIAL FRAMEWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, J; Alfred Garrett, A; Larry Koffman, L; David Hayes, D

    2006-08-24

    3-D hydrodynamic models are used by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to simulate the transport of thermal and radionuclide discharges in coastal estuary systems. Development of such models requires accurate bathymetry, coastline, and boundary condition data in conjunction with the ability to rapidly discretize model domains and interpolate the required geospatial data onto the domain. To facilitate rapid and accurate hydrodynamic model development, SRNL has developed a pre- and post-processor application in a geospatial framework to automate the creation of models using existing data. This automated capability allows development of very detailed models to maximize exploitation of available surface water radionuclide sample data and thermal imagery.

  8. Rare meshes FEM scheme for quasi-stationary electromagnetic fields determination 3D problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekmarev, D. T.; Kalinin, A. V.; Sadovsky, V. V.; Tiukhtina, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The initial-boundary value problem for the quasi-stationary magnetic approximation of the Maxwell equations in inhomogeneous media is studied. The considered problem is reduced to the variational problem of determining the vector magnetic potential. The special gauge for vector magnetic and scalar electrical potentials is used. The well-posedness of the problems is established under general conditions on the coefficients and the applicability of the projection methods for these problems is validated. For the numerical solution of this problem provides to use the effective rare mesh FEM scheme for 3D problems. This scheme is well- proven in 3D elasticity and plasticity problems solving.

  9. Parallelization of ICF3D, a Diffusion and Hydrodynamics Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, A. I.; Milovich, J. L.

    1997-11-01

    We describe the parallelization of the unstructured grid ICF3D code. The strategy divides physical space into a collection of disjoint subdomains, one per processing element (PE). The subdomains may be of arbitrary shape but, for efficiency, should have small surface-to-volume ratios. The strategy is ideally suited for distributed memory computers, but also works on shared memory architectures. The hydrodynamic module, which uses a cell-based algorithm using discontinuous finite elements, is parallelized by assigning cells to different PEs. This assignment is done by a separate program and constitutes input data for ICF3D. The diffusion module, a kernel of the heat conduction and radiation diffusion packages, advances continuous fields which are discretized using a nodal finite element method. This module is parallelized by assigning points to individual PEs. The assignment is done within ICF3D. The code is in C++. Special message passing objects (MPO) determine the connectivity of the subdomains and transfer data between them by calling MPI functions. Results are presented on a variety of computers: CRAY T3D and IBM SP2 at Livermore, and Intel's ASCI RED at Sandia, Albuquerque.

  10. Anomalous Surface Deformation of Sapphire Clarified by 3D-FEM Simulation of the Nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Roman; Manninen, Timo; Li, Chunliang; Heiskanen, Kari; Hannula, Simo-Pekka; Lindroos, Veikko; Soga, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Fusahito

    This work clarifies the origin of anomalous surface deformation reflected by peculiar surface patterns around indentation impressions on various crystallographic planes of sapphire. The three-dimensional finite element simulation (3D-FEM) of nanoindentation in Al2O3 crystal allowed the authors to localize the regions in which various kinds of twinning and slip are most prone to be activated. The work provides a novel approach to the “hardness anisotropy”, which was modeled so far using a modified uniaxial-stress approximation of this essentially 3D, non-isotropic contact problem. The calculated results enabled the authors to unravel the asymmetric surface deformation detected on prismatic planes by the high-resolution microscopy, which cannot be explained using simple crystallographic considerations.

  11. Mixed-Mode Fracture and Fatigue Analysis of Cracked 3D Complex Structures using a 3D SGBEM-FEM Alternating Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavanam, Sharada

    The aim of this thesis is to numerically evaluate the mixed-mode Stress Intensity Factors (SIFs) of complex 3D structural geometries with arbitrary 3D cracks using the Symmetric Galerkin Boundary Element Method-Finite Element Method (SGBEM-FEM) Alternating Method. Various structural geometries with different loading scenarios and crack configurations were examined in this thesis to understand the behavior and trends of the mixed-mode SIFs as well as the fatigue life for these complex structural geometries. Although some 3D structures have empirical and numerical solutions that are readily available in the open literature, some do not; therefore this thesis presents the results of fracture and fatigue analyses of these 3D complex structures using the SGBEM-FEM Alternating Method to serve as reference for future studies. Furthermore, there are advantages of using the SGBEM-FEM Alternating Method compared to traditional FEM methods. For example, the fatigue-crack-growth and fatigue life can be better estimated for a structure because different fatigue models (i.e. Walker, Paris, and NASGRO) can be used within the same framework of the SGBEM-FEM Alternating Method. The FEM (un-cracked structure)/BEM(crack model) meshes are modeled independently, which speeds up the computation process and reduces the cost of human labor. A simple coarse mesh can be used for all fracture and fatigue analyses of complex structures. In this thesis, simple coarse meshes were used for 3D complex structures, which were below 5000 elements as compared to traditional FEM, which require meshes where the elements range on the order of ˜250,000 to ˜106 and sometimes even more than that.

  12. Electrical performance analysis of HTS synchronous motor based on 3D FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, S. K.; Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Park, G. S.

    2010-11-01

    A 1-MW class superconducting motor with High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) field coil is analyzed and tested. This machine is a prototype to make sure applicability aimed at generator and industrial motor applications such as blowers, pumps and compressors installed in large plants. This machine has the HTS field coil made of Bi-2223 HTS wire and the conventional copper armature (stator) coils cooled by water. The 1-MW class HTS motor is analyzed by 3D electromagnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) to get magnetic field distribution, self and mutual inductance, and so forth. Especially excitation voltage (Back EMF) is estimated by using the mutual inductance between armature and field coils and compared with experimental result. Open and short circuit tests were conducted in generator mode while a 1.1-MW rated induction machine was rotating the HTS machine. Electrical parameters such as mutual inductance and synchronous inductance are deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM.

  13. 3D hydrodynamic simulations of carbon burning in massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristini, A.; Meakin, C.; Hirschi, R.; Arnett, D.; Georgy, C.; Viallet, M.; Walkington, I.

    2017-10-01

    We present the first detailed 3D hydrodynamic implicit large eddy simulations of turbulent convection of carbon burning in massive stars. Simulations begin with radial profiles mapped from a carbon-burning shell within a 15 M⊙ 1D stellar evolution model. We consider models with 1283, 2563, 5123, and 10243 zones. The turbulent flow properties of these carbon-burning simulations are very similar to the oxygen-burning case. We performed a mean field analysis of the kinetic energy budgets within the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes framework. For the upper convective boundary region, we find that the numerical dissipation is insensitive to resolution for linear mesh resolutions above 512 grid points. For the stiffer, more stratified lower boundary, our highest resolution model still shows signs of decreasing sub-grid dissipation suggesting it is not yet numerically converged. We find that the widths of the upper and lower boundaries are roughly 30 per cent and 10 per cent of the local pressure scaleheights, respectively. The shape of the boundaries is significantly different from those used in stellar evolution models. As in past oxygen-shell-burning simulations, we observe entrainment at both boundaries in our carbon-shell-burning simulations. In the large Péclet number regime found in the advanced phases, the entrainment rate is roughly inversely proportional to the bulk Richardson number, RiB (∝RiB-α, 0.5 ≲ α ≲ 1.0). We thus suggest the use of RiB as a means to take into account the results of 3D hydrodynamics simulations in new 1D prescriptions of convective boundary mixing.

  14. [A 3D FEM model for calculation of electromagnetic fields in transmagnetic stimulation].

    PubMed

    Seilwinder, J; Kammer, T; Andrä, W; Bellemann, M E

    2002-01-01

    We developed a realistic finite elements method (FEM) model of the brain for the calculation of electromagnetic fields in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). A focal butterfly stimulation coil was X-rayed, parameterized, and modeled. The magnetic field components of the TMS coil were calculated and compared for validation to pointwise measurements of the magnetic fields with a Hall sensor. We found a mean deviation of 7.4% at an axial distance of 20 mm to the coil. A 3D brain model with the biological tissues of white and gray matter, bone, and cerebrospinal fluid was developed. At a current sweep of 1000 A in 120 microseconds, the maximum induced current density in gray matter was 177 mA/m2 and the strongest electric field gradient covered an area of 40 mm x 53 mm.

  15. Explicit 3D continuum fracture modeling with smooth particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, W.; Asphaug, E.

    1993-01-01

    Impact phenomena shaped our solar system. As usual for most solar system processes, the scales are far different than we can address directly in the laboratory. Impact velocities are often much higher than we can achieve, sizes are often vastly larger, and most impacts take place in an environment where the only gravitational force is the mutual pull of the impactors. The Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) technique has been applied in the past to the simulations of giant impacts. In these simulations, the colliding objects were so massive (at least a sizeable fraction of the Earth's mass) that material strength was negligible compared to gravity. This assumption can no longer be made when the bodies are much smaller. To this end, we have developed a 3D SPH code that includes a strength model to which we have added a von Mises yielding relation for stresses beyond the Hugoniot Elastic Limit. At the lower stresses associated with brittle failure, we use a rate-dependent strength based on the nucleation of incipient flaws whose number density is given by a Weibull distribution. Following Grady and Kipp and Melosh et al., we introduce a state variable D ('damage'), 0 less than D less than 1, which expresses the local reduction in strength due to crack growth under tensile loading. Unfortunately for the hydrodynamics, Grady and Kipp's model predicts which fragments are the most probable ones and not the ones that are really formed. This means, for example, that if a given laboratory experiment is modeled, the fragment distribution obtained from the Grady-Kipp theory would be equivalent to a ensemble average over many realizations of the experiment. On the other hand, the hydrodynamics itself is explicit and evolves not an ensemble average but very specific fragments. Hence, there is a clear incompatibility with the deterministic nature of the hydrodynamics equations and the statistical approach of the Grady-Kipp dynamical fracture model. We remedy these shortcomings

  16. Explicit 3D continuum fracture modeling with smooth particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, W.; Asphaug, E.

    1993-01-01

    Impact phenomena shaped our solar system. As usual for most solar system processes, the scales are far different than we can address directly in the laboratory. Impact velocities are often much higher than we can achieve, sizes are often vastly larger, and most impacts take place in an environment where the only gravitational force is the mutual pull of the impactors. The Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) technique has been applied in the past to the simulations of giant impacts. In these simulations, the colliding objects were so massive (at least a sizeable fraction of the Earth's mass) that material strength was negligible compared to gravity. This assumption can no longer be made when the bodies are much smaller. To this end, we have developed a 3D SPH code that includes a strength model to which we have added a von Mises yielding relation for stresses beyond the Hugoniot Elastic Limit. At the lower stresses associated with brittle failure, we use a rate-dependent strength based on the nucleation of incipient flaws whose number density is given by a Weibull distribution. Following Grady and Kipp and Melosh et al., we introduce a state variable D ('damage'), 0 less than D less than 1, which expresses the local reduction in strength due to crack growth under tensile loading. Unfortunately for the hydrodynamics, Grady and Kipp's model predicts which fragments are the most probable ones and not the ones that are really formed. This means, for example, that if a given laboratory experiment is modeled, the fragment distribution obtained from the Grady-Kipp theory would be equivalent to a ensemble average over many realizations of the experiment. On the other hand, the hydrodynamics itself is explicit and evolves not an ensemble average but very specific fragments. Hence, there is a clear incompatibility with the deterministic nature of the hydrodynamics equations and the statistical approach of the Grady-Kipp dynamical fracture model. We remedy these shortcomings

  17. Photospheric Emission from Collapsar Jets in 3D Relativistic Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Jin; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Warren, Donald C.; Barkov, Maxim V.

    2015-12-01

    We explore the photospheric emission from a relativistic jet breaking out from a massive stellar envelope based on relativistic hydrodynamical simulations and post-process radiation transfer calculations in three dimensions. To investigate the impact of three-dimensional (3D) dynamics on the emission, two models of injection conditions are considered for the jet at the center of the progenitor star: one with periodic precession and another without precession. We show that structures developed within the jet due to the interaction with the stellar envelope, as well as due to the precession, have a significant imprint on the resulting emission. Particularly, we find that the signature of precession activity by the central engine is not smeared out and can be directly observed in the light curve as a periodic signal. We also show that non-thermal features, which can account for observations of gamma-ray bursts, are produced in the resulting spectra even though only thermal photons are injected initially and the effect of non-thermal particles is not considered.

  18. Parton shower evolution in a 3D hydrodynamical medium

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, Thorsten

    2008-09-15

    We present a Monte Carlo simulation of the perturbative quantum chromodynamics shower developing after a hard process embedded in a heavy-ion collision. The main assumption is that the cascade of branching partons traverses a medium that (consistent with standard radiative energy loss pictures) is characterized by a local transport coefficient q-circumflex that measures the virtuality per unit length transferred to a parton that propagates in this medium. This increase in parton virtuality alters the development of the shower and in essence leads to extra induced radiation and hence a softening of the momentum distribution in the shower. After hadronization, this leads to the concept of a medium-modified fragmentation function. On the level of observables, this is manifest as the suppression of high-transverse-momentum (P{sub T}) hadron spectra. We simulate the soft medium created in heavy-ion collisions by a 3D hydrodynamical evolution and average the medium-modified fragmentation function over this evolution to compare with data on single inclusive hadron suppression and extract the q-circumflex that characterizes the medium. Finally, we discuss possible uncertainties of the model formulation and argue that the data in a soft momentum show evidence of qualitatively different physics that presumably cannot be described by a medium-modified parton shower.

  19. PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION FROM COLLAPSAR JETS IN 3D RELATIVISTIC HYDRODYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Jin; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Warren, Donald C.; Barkov, Maxim V.

    2015-12-01

    We explore the photospheric emission from a relativistic jet breaking out from a massive stellar envelope based on relativistic hydrodynamical simulations and post-process radiation transfer calculations in three dimensions. To investigate the impact of three-dimensional (3D) dynamics on the emission, two models of injection conditions are considered for the jet at the center of the progenitor star: one with periodic precession and another without precession. We show that structures developed within the jet due to the interaction with the stellar envelope, as well as due to the precession, have a significant imprint on the resulting emission. Particularly, we find that the signature of precession activity by the central engine is not smeared out and can be directly observed in the light curve as a periodic signal. We also show that non-thermal features, which can account for observations of gamma-ray bursts, are produced in the resulting spectra even though only thermal photons are injected initially and the effect of non-thermal particles is not considered.

  20. Stresses around a miniscrew. 3-D analysis with the finite element method (FEM).

    PubMed

    Geramy, Allahyar

    2009-11-01

    Miniscrews used for absolute anchorage may induce stresses in the surrounding tissues that are dependent on their proximity to the miniscrew. To determine the stresses in the buccal walls of the sockets of lower molars adjacent to a miniscrew under load when the position and angulation of the miniscrew are changed. Five 3-D FEM models containing the first and second lower molars, their periodontal ligaments and the surrounding spongy and cortical bone, were modelled in SolidWorks 2006 (SolidWorks, Concord, MA, USA) and transferred to the ANSYS Workbench (ANSYS Inc., Southpointe, Canonsburg, PA, U.S.A.). A tensile force of 2 N, decomposed in 3-D space, was applied to a miniscrew inserted between the lower first and second molars. The von Mises (equivalent) stresses along the buccal walls of the sockets of the first and second molars were derived following changes in miniscrew position and angulation. No direct force was applied to the molars. When the miniscrew was inserted at right angles to the bone and midway between the molars the stress in the crestal area was 0.093 MPa. This stress increased proportionally in the first molar socket as the miniscrew was moved towards the first molar and declined when the miniscrew was tipped towards the second molar. Stresses also decreased in the crestal area of the second molar as the miniscrew was moved towards the first molar, but increased when it was tipped towards the second molar. A 30-55 per cent increase in crestal stress in the first molar socket was detected. Stress occurred in the tissues surrounding a miniscrew subjected to a force vector. Changes in the position or angulation of a miniscrew can affect the stress in the socket walls of adjacent teeth.

  1. Evaluation of Bogie Frame Safety of Shanghai Metro Line 1 by 3D FEM Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiongyao, Xie; Guolong, Jin; Rulu, Wang

    2010-05-01

    The vehicle bogies of Shanghai metro line 1 began to crack just in the third year after the trains operated. More than 50 cracks occurred in the succeeding six year during the train operation. This paper evaluated the safety of the motorized bogies. First, the loading conditions imposed on the vehicle structure were calculated based on the measured data in service of the train, and compared with the original design load. Then, this paper calculated simulated the stress of the vehicle bogie by 3D FEM, and presented the distribution of every stress concentration point in Goodman fatigue diagram. The computational locations of the strength less than the safety are agreed with where cracks have happened. Finally, this paper calculated the fatigue life of the motor bracket of the bogie through S-N curve based on revised Miner theory. In conclusion, this paper think that the bogie cracks of Shanghai metro line 1 are contributed by the overburden fatigue load, and ignoring the lateral vibration load in the design of the vehicle bogie is the important cause that bogie cracks occurred far earlier than in the designed time.

  2. Non-Newtonian Fluids Spreading with Surface Tension Effect: 3D Numerical Analysis Using FEM and Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bin; Kieweg, Sarah

    2010-11-01

    Gravity-driven thin film flow down an incline is studied for optimal design of polymeric drug delivery vehicles, such as anti-HIV topical microbicides. We develop a 3D FEM model using non-Newtonian mechanics to model the flow of gels in response to gravity, surface tension and shear-thinning. Constant volume setup is applied within the lubrication approximation scope. The lengthwise profiles of the 3D model agree with our previous 2D finite difference model, while the transverse contact line patterns of the 3D model are compared to the experiments. With incorporation of surface tension, capillary ridges are observed at the leading front in both 2D and 3D models. Previously published studies show that capillary ridge can amplify the fingering instabilities in transverse direction. Sensitivity studies (2D & 3D) and experiments are carried out to describe the influence of surface tension and shear-thinning on capillary ridge and fingering instabilities.

  3. Precision structural engineering of self-rolled-up 3D nanomembranes guided by transient quasi-static FEM modeling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen; Koric, Seid; Yu, Xin; Hsia, K Jimmy; Li, Xiuling

    2014-11-12

    Micro- and nanoscale tubular structures can be formed by strain-induced self-rolled-up nanomembranes. Precision engineering of the shape and dimension determines the performance of devices based on this platform for electronic, optical, and biological applications. A transient quasi-static finite element method (FEM) with moving boundary conditions is proposed as a general approach to design diverse types of three-dimensional (3D) rolled-up geometries. This method captures the dynamic release process of membranes through etching driven by mismatch strain and accurately predicts the final dimensions of rolled-up structures. Guided by the FEM modeling, experimental demonstration using silicon nitride membranes was achieved with unprecedented precision including controlling fractional turns of a rolled-up membrane, anisotropic rolling to form helical structures, and local stress control for 3D hierarchical architectures.

  4. Selectivity of seismic electric signal (SES) of the 2000 Izu earthquake swarm: a 3D FEM numerical simulation model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qinghua; Lin, Yufeng

    2010-01-01

    Although seismic electric signal (SES) has been used for short-term prediction of earthquakes, selectivity of SES still remains as one of the mysterious features. As a case study, we made a numerical simulation based on a 3D finite element method (FEM) on the selectivity of SES observed in the case of the 2000 Izu earthquake swarm. Our numerical results indicated that the existence of conductive channel under Niijima island could explain the reported SES selectivity.

  5. Selectivity of seismic electric signal (SES) of the 2000 Izu earthquake swarm: a 3D FEM numerical simulation model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qinghua; Lin, Yufeng

    2010-01-01

    Although seismic electric signal (SES) has been used for short-term prediction of earthquakes, selectivity of SES still remains as one of the mysterious features. As a case study, we made a numerical simulation based on a 3D finite element method (FEM) on the selectivity of SES observed in the case of the 2000 Izu earthquake swarm. Our numerical results indicated that the existence of conductive channel under Niijima island could explain the reported SES selectivity. PMID:20228625

  6. Constructing stable 3D hydrodynamical models of giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlmann, Sebastian T.; Röpke, Friedrich K.; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker

    2017-02-01

    Hydrodynamical simulations of stellar interactions require stable models of stars as initial conditions. Such initial models, however, are difficult to construct for giant stars because of the wide range in spatial scales of the hydrostatic equilibrium and in dynamical timescales between the core and the envelope of the giant. They are needed for, e.g., modeling the common envelope phase where a giant envelope encompasses both the giant core and a companion star. Here, we present a new method of approximating and reconstructing giant profiles from a stellar evolution code to produce stable models for multi-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. We determine typical stellar stratification profiles with the one-dimensional stellar evolution code mesa. After an appropriate mapping, hydrodynamical simulations are conducted using the moving-mesh code arepo. The giant profiles are approximated by replacing the core of the giant with a point mass and by constructing a suitable continuation of the profile to the center. Different reconstruction methods are tested that can specifically control the convective behaviour of the model. After mapping to a grid, a relaxation procedure that includes damping of spurious velocities yields stable models in three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. Initially convectively stable configurations lead to stable hydrodynamical models while for stratifications that are convectively unstable in the stellar evolution code, simulations recover the convective behaviour of the initial model and show large convective plumes with Mach numbers up to 0.8. Examples are shown for a 2 M⊙ red giant and a 0.67 M⊙ asymptotic giant branch star. A detailed analysis shows that the improved method reliably provides stable models of giant envelopes that can be used as initial conditions for subsequent hydrodynamical simulations of stellar interactions involving giant stars.

  7. 3D Kinematics and Hydrodynamic Analysis of Freely Swimming Cetacean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yan; Sheinberg, Dustin; Liu, Geng; Dong, Haibo; Fish, Frank; Javed, Joveria

    2015-11-01

    It's widely thought that flexibility and the ability to control flexibility are crucial elements in determining the performance of animal swimming. However, there is a lack of quantification of both span-wise and chord-wise deformation of Cetacean's flukes and associated hydrodynamic performance during actively swimming. To fill this gap, we examined the motion and flexure of both dolphin fluke and orca fluke in steady swimming using a combined experimental and computational approach. It is found that the fluke surface morphing can effectively modulate the flow structures and influence the propulsive performance. Findings from this work are fundamental for understanding key kinematic features of effective Cetacean propulsors, and for quantifying the hydrodynamic force production that naturally occurs during different types of swimming. This work is supported by ONR MURI N00014-14-1-0533 and NSF CBET-1313217.

  8. A 3D Hydrodynamic Model for Cytokinesis of Eukaryotic Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    goes wrong may lead to a catastrophe or failure, which may lead to an unwelcome outcome for instance cancer . Thus, a detailed understanding on... biofilm - drug interaction. Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems Series B, 15:417–456, March 2011. 13 [17] Brandon Lindley, Qi Wang, and Tianyu Zhang...Multicomponent hydrodynamic model for heterogeneous biofilms : Two-dimensional numerical simulations of growth and in- teraction with flows. Physical

  9. Description and application of the 3D-CMCC FEM on multi-temporal NDVI satellite imagery and future scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collalti, A.; Natali, S.; Noilè, A.; Mattiuzzi, M.; Marconi, S.; Santini, M.; Valentini, R.

    2013-12-01

    3D-CMCC-Forest Ecosystem Model is a process based model developed to investigate carbon fluxes and partitioning in forest ecosystems, taking into account their structural complexity. Unfortunately process oriented models need a large amount of parameters and input data, which could reduce their usability for large/regional scale applications. For this reason great attention has been progressively paid in developing methodologies to couple ecosystem models to remotely-sensed data acquisition techniques. This work aims to present 3D-CMCC-FEM, together with a procedure developed to make it use temporal NDVI information taken from ALOS-AVNIR2 LB2G high resolution satellite images. With this aim we compared two different case study afferent to two different Italian wide areas, National Park of Madonie (Sicily region) and Comunità Montana del Titerno ed Alto Tammaro (Campania region), respectively. In the former we used the model with a prognostic phenology approach, while in the latter we used a prognostic/diagnostic approach, using satellite data. Results show 3D-CMCC-FEM good capability to simulate GPP, NPP and carbon allocation. Moreover the model seems to be able to simulate the reduction in rates of productivity for hygrophilous species in dry years. Even though 3D-CMCC-FEM in some cases produces slight overestimation, its results may be considered statistically meaningful. In conclusion, we can assess that coupling high resolution satellite data with field information may be a successfully way to simulate physiological processes in forest ecosystems at regional scale, minimizing the loss of preliminary information.

  10. 3D Continuum-Particle Simulations for Multiscale Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesinghe, Sanith; Hornung, Richard; Garcia, Alejandro; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas

    2001-06-01

    An adaptive mesh and algorithmic refinement (AMAR) scheme to model multi-scale, continuum-particle hydrodynamic flows is presented. AMAR ensures the particle description is applied exclusively in regions with high flow gradients and discontinous material interfaces, i.e. regions where the continuum flow assumptions are typically invalid. Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) is used to model the particle regions on the finest grid of the adaptive hierarchy. The continuum flow is modelled using the compressible flow Euler equations and is solved using a second order Godunov scheme. Coupling is achieved by conservation of fluxes across the continuum-particle grid boundaries. The AMAR data structures are supported by a C++ object oriented framework (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure - SAMRAI) which allows for efficient parallel implementation. The scheme also extends to simulations of gas mixtures. Results for test cases are compared with theory and experiment.

  11. 3D-FEM electrical-thermal-mechanical analysis and experiment of Si-based MEMS infrared emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Wang, Na; Chen, Ran-Bin; San, Hai-Sheng; Chen, Xu-Yuan

    2016-11-01

    Designs, simulations, and fabrications of silicon-based MEMS infrared (IR) emitters for gas sensing application are presented. A 3D finite element method (3D-FEM) was used to analyze the coupled electrical-thermal-mechanical properties of a bridge hotplate structure (BHS) IR emitter and closed hotplate structure (CHS) IR emitter using Joule heating and thermal expansion models of COMSOL™. The IR absorptions of n- and p-silicon were calculated for the design of self-heating structure. The BHS and CHS IR emitters were fabricated synchronously using micro-electromechanical systems technology for a direct performance comparison. Both types of IR emitters were characterized by electrical and optical measurements. The experimental results show that BHS IR emitters have higher radiation density, lower power consumption, and faster frequency-response than CHS IR emitters due to the use of a thermal isolation structure and self-heating structure. Meanwhile, the simulated results agree well with the corresponding measured results, which indicate that the 3D-FEM-model is effective and can be used in the optimal design of electro-thermal devices.

  12. 3D Hydrodynamic Simulation of Classical Novae Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Coleman J.

    2015-01-01

    This project investigates the formation and lifecycle of classical novae and determines how parameters such as: white dwarf mass, star mass and separation affect the evolution of the rotating binary system. These parameters affect the accretion rate, frequency of the nova explosions and light curves. Each particle in the simulation represents a volume of hydrogen gas and are initialized randomly in the outer shell of the companion star. The forces on each particle include: gravity, centrifugal, coriolis, friction, and Langevin. The friction and Langevin forces are used to model the viscosity and internal pressure of the gas. A velocity Verlet method with a one second time step is used to compute velocities and positions of the particles. A new particle recycling method was developed which was critical for computing an accurate and stable accretion rate and keeping the particle count reasonable. I used C++ and OpenCL to create my simulations and ran them on two Nvidia GTX580s. My simulations used up to 1 million particles and required up to 10 hours to complete. My simulation results for novae U Scorpii and DD Circinus are consistent with professional hydrodynamic simulations and observed experimental data (light curves and outburst frequencies). When the white dwarf mass is increased, the time between explosions decreases dramatically. My model was used to make the first prediction for the next outburst of nova DD Circinus. My simulations also show that the companion star blocks the expanding gas shell leading to an asymmetrical expanding shell.

  13. Arbitrary-level hanging nodes for adaptive hphp-FEM approximations in 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Kus; Pavel Solin; David Andrs

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we discuss constrained approximation with arbitrary-level hanging nodes in adaptive higher-order finite element methods (hphp-FEM) for three-dimensional problems. This technique enables using highly irregular meshes, and it greatly simplifies the design of adaptive algorithms as it prevents refinements from propagating recursively through the finite element mesh. The technique makes it possible to design efficient adaptive algorithms for purely hexahedral meshes. We present a detailed mathematical description of the method and illustrate it with numerical examples.

  14. 3D FEM analyses on flow field characteristics of the valveless piezoelectric pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun; Zhang, Jianhui; Shi, Weidong; Wang, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Due to the special transportation and heat transfer characteristics, the fractal-like Y-shape branching tube is used in valveless piezoelectric pumps as a no-moving-part valve. However, there have been little analyses on the flow resistance of the valveless piezoelectric pump, which is critical to the performance of the valveless piezoelectric pump with fractal-like Y-shape branching tubes. Flow field of the piezoelectric pump is analyzed by the finite element method, and the pattern of the velocity streamlines is revealed, which can well explain the difference of total flow resistances of the piezoelectric pump. Besides, simplified numerical method is employed to calculate the export flow rate of piezoelectric pump, and the flow field of the piezoelectric pump is presented. The FEM computation shows that the maximum flow rate is 16.4 mL/min. Compared with experimental result, the difference between them is just 55.5%, which verifies the FEM method. The reasons of the difference between dividing and merging flow resistance of the valveless piezoelectric pump with fractal-like Y-shape branching tubes are also investigated in this method. The proposed research provides the instruction to design of novel piezoelectric pump and a rapid method to analyse the pump flow rate.

  15. 3D hydrodynamical and radiative transfer modeling of η Carinae's colliding winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, T. I.; Clementel, N.; Gull, T. R.; Kruip, C. J. H.; Paardekooper, J.-P.; Icke, V.

    We present results of full 3D hydrodynamical and radiative transfer simulations of the colliding stellar winds in the massive binary system η Carinae. We accomplish this by applying the SimpleX algorithm for 3D radiative transfer on an unstructured Voronoi-Delaunay grid to recent 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the binary colliding winds. We use SimpleX to obtain detailed ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium, in 3D, at the resolution of the original SPH simulations. We investigate several computational domain sizes and Luminous Blue Variable primary star mass-loss rates. We furthermore present new methods of visualizing and interacting with output from complex 3D numerical simulations, including 3D interactive graphics and 3D printing. While we initially focus on η Car, the methods employed can be applied to numerous other colliding wind (WR 140, WR 137, WR 19) and dusty `pinwheel' (WR 104, WR 98a) binary systems. Coupled with 3D hydrodynamical simulations, SimpleX simulations have the potential to help determine the regions where various observed time-variable emission and absorption lines form in these unique objects.

  16. Experimental investigation of high mach number 3D hydrodynamic jets at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, B E; Weber, S; Glendinning, S; Lanier, N; Woods, D; Bono, M; Dixit, S; Haynam, C; Holder, J; Kalantar, D; MacGowan, B; Nikitin, A; Rekow, V; Van Wonterghem, B; Moses, E; Stry, P; Wilde, B; Hsing, W; Robey, H

    2004-09-24

    The first hydrodynamics experiments were performed on the National Ignition Facility. A supersonic jet was formed via the interaction of a laser driven shock ({approx}40 Mbars) with 2D and 3D density perturbations. The temporal evolution of the jet's spatial scales and ejected mass were measured with point projection x-ray radiography. Measurements of the large-scale features and mass are in good agreement with 2D and 3D numerical simulations. These experiments are the first quantitative measurements of the evolution of 3D supersonic jets and provide insight into their 3D behavior.

  17. Study on Hot Ring Compression Test of Nimonic 115 Superalloy Using Experimental Observations and 3D FEM Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahriari, D.; Amiri, A.; Sadeghi, M. H.

    2010-07-01

    In hot forging of Nimonic 115, it is desirable to determine friction coefficients. Changing magnitudes of temperature and type of lubricant at the surface of the workpiece and dies influence friction coefficient. This paper describes an experimental investigation of friction under hot forging conditions using the ring compression test. The 3D FEM simulations were used to derive the friction calibration curves and to evaluate material deformation, geometric changes, and load-displacement results. A series of ring compression tests were carried out to obtain friction coefficients for a number of lubricants including mica plate, glass powder, graphite powder, and dry condition. The experiments show how the variations in temperature at the interface affected frictional behavior. On the basis of these results, mica is recommended for hot forging of Nimonic 115 and its friction coefficient is approximately 0.3.

  18. A 3D moisture-stress FEM analysis for time dependent problems in timber structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortino, Stefania; Mirianon, Florian; Toratti, Tomi

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a 3D moisture-stress numerical analysis for timber structures under variable humidity and load conditions. An orthotropic viscoelastic-mechanosorptive material model is specialized on the basis of previous models. Both the constitutive model and the equations needed to describe the moisture flow across the structure are implemented into user subroutines of the Abaqus finite element code and a coupled moisture-stress analysis is performed for several types of mechanical loads and moisture changes. The presented computational approach is validated by analyzing some wood tests described in the literature and comparing the computational results with the reported experimental data.

  19. Evolution of large amplitude 3D fold patterns: A FEM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, D. W.; Dabrowski, M.; Krotkiewski, M.

    2008-12-01

    The numerical study of three-dimensional (3D) fold patterns formation in randomly perturbed layers requires large numbers of degrees of freedom (≥100,000,000). We have developed BILAMIN, an unstructured (geometry fitted) mesh implementation of the finite element method for incompressible Stokes flow that is capable of solving such systems. All repetitive and computationally intensive steps are fully parallelized. One of the main components is the iterative solver. We chose the minimum residual method (MINRES) because it allows operating directly on the indefinite systems resulting from the incompressibility condition. We use BILAMIN in a case study of fold pattern evolution. Folds are ubiquitous in nature, and contain both mechanical and kinematic information that can be deciphered with appropriate tools. Our results show that there is a relationship between fold aspect ratio and in-plane loading conditions. We propose that this finding can be used to determine the complete parameter set potentially contained in the geometry of three-dimensional folds: mechanical properties of natural rocks, maximum strain, and relative strength of the in-plane far-field load components. Furthermore, we show how folds in 3D amplify and that there is a second deformation mode, besides continuous amplification, where compression leads to a lateral rearrangement of blocks of folds. Finally, we demonstrate that the textbook prediction of egg carton-shaped dome and basin structures resulting from folding instabilities in constriction is largely oversimplified. The fold patterns resulting in this setting are curved, elongated folds with random orientation.

  20. Monolithic cell counter based on 3D hydrodynamic focusing in microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiè, Petra; Bragheri, Francesca; Osellame, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Hydrodynamic focusing is a powerful technique frequently used in microfluidics that presents a wide range of applications since it allows focusing the sample flowing in the device to a narrow region in the center of the microchannel. In fact thanks to the laminarity of the fluxes in microchannels it is possible to confine the sample solution with a low flow rate by using a sheath flow with a higher flow rate. This in turn allows the flowing of one sample element at a time in the detection region, thus enabling analysis on single particles. Femtosecond laser micromachining is ideally suited to fabricate device integrating full hydrodynamic focusing functionalities thanks to the intrinsic 3D nature of this technique, especially if compared to expensive and complicated lithographic multi-step fabrication processes. Furthermore, because of the possibility to fabricate optical waveguides with the same technology, it is possible to obtain compact optofluidic devices to perform optical analysis of the sample even at the single cell level, as is the case for optical cell stretchers and sorters. In this work we show the fabrication and the fluidic characterization of extremely compact devices having only two inlets for 2D (both in vertical and horizontal planes) as well as full 3D symmetric hydrodynamic focusing. In addition we prove one of the possible application of the hydrodynamic focusing module, by fabricating and validating (both with polystyrene beads and erythrocytes) a monolithic cell counter obtained by integrating optical waveguides in the 3D hydrodynamic focusing device.

  1. Recent Hydrodynamics Improvements to the RELAP5-3D Code

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Riemke; Cliff B. Davis; Richard.R. Schultz

    2009-07-01

    The hydrodynamics section of the RELAP5-3D computer program has been recently improved. Changes were made as follows: (1) improved turbine model, (2) spray model for the pressurizer model, (3) feedwater heater model, (4) radiological transport model, (5) improved pump model, and (6) compressor model.

  2. FEM modeling of 3D photonic crystals and photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Sven; Klose, Roland; Schaedle, Achim; Schmidt, Frank; Zschiedrich, Lin W.

    2005-03-01

    We present a finite-element simulation tool for calculating light fields in 3D nano-optical devices. This allows to solve challenging problems on a standard personal computer. We present solutions to eigenvalue problems, like Bloch-type eigenvalues in photonic crystals and photonic crystal waveguides, and to scattering problems, like the transmission through finite photonic crystals. The discretization is based on unstructured tetrahedral grids with an adaptive grid refinement controlled and steered by an error-estimator. As ansatz functions we use higher order, vectorial elements (Nedelec, edge elements). For a fast convergence of the solution we make use of advanced multi-grid algorithms adapted for the vectorial Maxwell's equations.

  3. Prediction of 3D chip formation in the facing cutting with lathe machine using FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, Yudhi; Tauviqirrahman, Mohamad; Rusnaldy

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the prediction of the chip formation at the machining process using a lathe machine in a more specific way focusing on facing cutting (face turning). The main purpose is to propose a new approach to predict the chip formation with the variation of the cutting directions i.e., the backward and forward direction. In addition, the interaction between stress analysis and chip formation on cutting process was also investigated. The simulations were conducted using three dimensional (3D) finite element method based on ABAQUS software with aluminum and high speed steel (HSS) as the workpiece and the tool materials, respectively. The simulation result showed that the chip resulted using a backward direction depicts a better formation than that using a conventional (forward) direction.

  4. 3D Hydrodynamical and Radiative Transfer Modeling of Eta Carinae's Colliding Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, Thomas Ignatius; Clementel, Nicola; Gull, Theodore R.; Kruip, Chael J. H.; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Icke, Vincent

    2015-08-01

    We present the results of full 3D hydrodynamical and radiative transfer simulations of the colliding stellar winds in the massive binary system Eta Carinae (Clementel, Madura, et al. 2014, MNRAS, 443, 2475 and Clementel, Madura, et al. 2015, MNRAS, 447, 2445). We accomplish this by applying the SimpleX algorithm for 3D radiative transfer on an unstructured Voronoi-Delaunay grid to 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of the binary colliding winds. We use SimpleX to obtain detailed ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium in 3D. We investigate several computational domain sizes and Luminous Blue Variable primary-star mass-loss rates. We show how the SimpleX simulations can be used to generate synthetic spectral data cubes for comparison to data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph as part of a multi-cycle program to map changes in Eta Carinae's spatially extended interacting wind structures across one binary cycle. Comparison of the HST observations to the SimpleX models can help lead to more accurate constraints on the orbital, stellar, and wind parameters of the Eta Carinae system, such as the LBV primary's mass-loss rate and the companion star's temperature and luminosity. We furthermore present new methods of visualizing and interacting with output from complex 3D numerical simulations, including 3D interactive graphics and 3D printing (Madura et al. 2015, arXiv:1503.00716). While we initially focus specifically on Eta Carinae, the methods employed can be applied to numerous other colliding wind (WR 140, WR 137, WR 19) and dusty ‘pinwheel’ (WR 112, WR 104, WR 98a) binary systems. Coupled with 3D hydrodynamical simulations, SimpleX simulations have the potential to help determine the regions where dust can form and survive in these unique objects.

  5. 3D Higher Order Modeling in the BEM/FEM Hybrid Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, P. W.; Wilton, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    Higher order divergence- and curl-conforming bases have been shown to provide significant benefits, in both convergence rate and accuracy, in the 2D hybrid finite element/boundary element formulation (P. Fink and D. Wilton, National Radio Science Meeting, Boulder, CO, Jan. 2000). A critical issue in achieving the potential for accuracy of the approach is the accurate evaluation of all matrix elements. These involve products of high order polynomials and, in some instances, singular Green's functions. In the 2D formulation, the use of a generalized Gaussian quadrature method was found to greatly facilitate the computation and to improve the accuracy of the boundary integral equation self-terms. In this paper, a 3D, hybrid electric field formulation employing higher order bases and higher order elements is presented. The improvements in convergence rate and accuracy, compared to those resulting from lower order modeling, are established. Techniques developed to facilitate the computation of the boundary integral self-terms are also shown to improve the accuracy of these terms. Finally, simple preconditioning techniques are used in conjunction with iterative solution procedures to solve the resulting linear system efficiently. In order to handle the boundary integral singularities in the 3D formulation, the parent element- either a triangle or rectangle-is subdivided into a set of sub-triangles with a common vertex at the singularity. The contribution to the integral from each of the sub-triangles is computed using the Duffy transformation to remove the singularity. This method is shown to greatly facilitate t'pe self-term computation when the bases are of higher order. In addition, the sub-triangles can be further divided to achieve near arbitrary accuracy in the self-term computation. An efficient method for subdividing the parent element is presented. The accuracy obtained using higher order bases is compared to that obtained using lower order bases when the number

  6. 3D correction of AIS in braces designed using CAD/CAM and FEM: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cobetto, Nikita; Aubin, Carl-Éric; Parent, Stefan; Barchi, Soraya; Turgeon, Isabelle; Labelle, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies showed that finite element model (FEM) combined to CAD/CAM improves the design of braces for the conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), using 2D measurements from in-brace radiographs. We aim to assess the immediate effectiveness on curve correction in all three planes of braces designed using CAD/CAM and numerical simulation compared to braces designed with CAD/CAM only. SRS standardized criteria for bracing were followed to recruit 48 AIS patients who were randomized into two groups. For both groups, 3D reconstructions of the spine and patient's torso, respectively built from bi-planar radiographs and surface topography, were obtained and braces were designed using the CAD/CAM approach. For the test group, 3D reconstructions of the spine and patient's torso were additionally used to generate a personalized FEM to simulate and iteratively improve the brace design with the objective of curve correction maximization in three planes and brace material minimization. For the control group (CtrlBraces), average Cobb angle prior to bracing was 29° (thoracic, T) and 25° (lumbar, L) with the planes of maximal curvature (PMC) respectively oriented at 63° and 57° on average with respect to the sagittal plane. Average apical axial rotation prior to bracing was 7° (T) and 9° (L). For the test group (FEMBraces), initial Cobb angles were 33° (T) and 28° (L) with the PMC at 68° (T) and 56° (L) and average apical axial rotation prior to bracing at 9° (T and L). On average, FEMBraces were 50% thinner and had 20% less covering surface than CtrlBraces while reducing T and L curves by 47 and 48%, respectively, compared to 25 and 26% for CtrlBraces. FEMBraces corrected apical axial rotation by 46% compared to 30% for CtrlBraces. The combination of numerical simulation and CAD/CAM approach allowed designing more efficient braces in all three planes, with the advantages of being lighter than standard CAD/CAM braces. Bracing in AIS may

  7. Straightforward 3D hydrodynamic focusing in femtosecond laser fabricated microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Paiè, Petra; Bragheri, Francesca; Vazquez, Rebeca Martinez; Osellame, Roberto

    2014-06-07

    We report on the use of femtosecond laser irradiation followed by chemical etching as a microfabrication tool for innovative microfluidic networks that implement hydrodynamic focusing. The capability of our microfabrication technology to interconnect microchannels in three dimensions was exploited to demonstrate 2D hydrodynamic focusing, either in the horizontal or in the vertical plane, and full 3D hydrodynamic focusing. In all cases only two inlets were required, one for the sample and one for the sheath flows. Fluidic characterization of all devices was provided. In addition, taking advantage of the possibility to write optical waveguides using the same technology, a monolithic cell counter based on 3D hydrodynamic focusing and integrated optical detection was validated. Counting rates up to 5000 cells s(-1) were achieved in this very compact device, where focusing and counting operations were implemented in less than 1 mm(3). Integration of this hydrodynamic focusing module into several devices fabricated by the same technology as optical cell stretchers and cell sorters is envisaged.

  8. New insights on pulsating white dwarfs from 3D radiation-hydrodynamical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Fontaine, Gilles; Ludwig, Hans-Günter; Gianninas, Alexandros; Kilic, Mukremin

    We have recently computed a grid of 3D radiation-hydrodynamical simulations for the atmosphere of pure-hydrogen DA white dwarfs in the range 5.0 < log g < 9.0. Our grid covers the full ZZ Ceti instability strip where pulsating DA white dwarfs are located. We have significantly improved the theoretical framework to study these objects by removing the free parameters of 1D convection, which were previously a major modeling hurdle. We present improved atmospheric parameter determinations based on spectroscopic fits with 3D model spectra, allowing for an updated definition of the empirical edges of the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Our 3D simulations also precisely predict the depth of the convection zones, narrowing down the internal layers where pulsation are being driven. We hope that these 3D effects will be included in asteroseismic models in the future to predict the region of the HR diagram where white dwarfs are expected to pulsate.

  9. The benefit of 3D laser scanning technology in the generation and calibration of FEM models for health assessment of concrete structures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Xu, Xiangyang; Neumann, Ingo

    2014-11-19

    Terrestrial laser scanning technology (TLS) is a new technique for quickly getting three-dimensional information. In this paper we research the health assessment of concrete structures with a Finite Element Method (FEM) model based on TLS. The goal focuses on the benefits of 3D TLS in the generation and calibration of FEM models, in order to build a convenient, efficient and intelligent model which can be widely used for the detection and assessment of bridges, buildings, subways and other objects. After comparing the finite element simulation with surface-based measurement data from TLS, the FEM model is determined to be acceptable with an error of less than 5%. The benefit of TLS lies mainly in the possibility of a surface-based validation of results predicted by the FEM model.

  10. The Benefit of 3D Laser Scanning Technology in the Generation and Calibration of FEM Models for Health Assessment of Concrete Structures

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hao; Xu, Xiangyang; Neumann, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning technology (TLS) is a new technique for quickly getting three-dimensional information. In this paper we research the health assessment of concrete structures with a Finite Element Method (FEM) model based on TLS. The goal focuses on the benefits of 3D TLS in the generation and calibration of FEM models, in order to build a convenient, efficient and intelligent model which can be widely used for the detection and assessment of bridges, buildings, subways and other objects. After comparing the finite element simulation with surface-based measurement data from TLS, the FEM model is determined to be acceptable with an error of less than 5%. The benefit of TLS lies mainly in the possibility of a surface-based validation of results predicted by the FEM model. PMID:25414968

  11. 3D unstructured mesh ALE hydrodynamics with the upwind discontinuous galerkin method

    SciTech Connect

    Kershaw, D S; Milovich, J L; Prasad, M K; Shaw, M J; Shestakov, A I

    1999-05-07

    The authors describe a numerical scheme to solve 3D Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamics on an unstructured mesh using a discontinuous Galerkin method (DGM) and an explicit Runge-Kutta time discretization. Upwinding is achieved through Roe's linearized Riemann solver with the Harten-Hyman entropy fix. For stabilization, a 3D quadratic programming generalization of van Leer's 1D minmod slope limiter is used along with a Lapidus type artificial viscosity. This DGM scheme has been tested on a variety of hydrodynamic test problems and appears to be robust making it the basis for the integrated 3D inertial confinement fusion modeling code (ICF3D). For efficient code development, they use C++ object oriented programming to easily separate the complexities of an unstructured mesh from the basic physics modules. ICF3D is fully parallelized using domain decomposition and the MPI message passing library. It is fully portable. It runs on uniprocessor workstations and massively parallel platforms with distributed and shared memory.

  12. Feasibility of rapid and automated importation of 3D echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) geometry into a finite element (FEM) analysis model

    PubMed Central

    Verhey, Janko F; Nathan, Nadia S

    2004-01-01

    Background Finite element method (FEM) analysis for intraoperative modeling of the left ventricle (LV) is presently not possible. Since 3D structural data of the LV is now obtainable using standard transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) devices intraoperatively, the present study describes a method to transfer this data into a commercially available FEM analysis system: ABAQUS©. Methods In this prospective study TomTec LV Analysis TEE© Software was used for semi-automatic endocardial border detection, reconstruction, and volume-rendering of the clinical 3D echocardiographic data. A newly developed software program MVCP FemCoGen©, written in Delphi, reformats the TomTec file structures in five patients for use in ABAQUS and allows visualization of regional deformation of the LV. Results This study demonstrates that a fully automated importation of 3D TEE data into FEM modeling is feasible and can be efficiently accomplished in the operating room. Conclusion For complete intraoperative 3D LV finite element analysis, three input elements are necessary: 1. time-gaited, reality-based structural information, 2. continuous LV pressure and 3. instantaneous tissue elastance. The first of these elements is now available using the methods presented herein. PMID:15473901

  13. Description of a parallel, 3D, finite element, hydrodynamics-diffusion code

    SciTech Connect

    Milovich, J L; Prasad, M K; Shestakov, A I

    1999-04-11

    We describe a parallel, 3D, unstructured grid finite element, hydrodynamic diffusion code for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications and the ancillary software used to run it. The code system is divided into two entities, a controller and a stand-alone physics code. The code system may reside on different computers; the controller on the user's workstation and the physics code on a supercomputer. The physics code is composed of separate hydrodynamic, equation-of-state, laser energy deposition, heat conduction, and radiation transport packages and is parallelized for distributed memory architectures. For parallelization, a SPMD model is adopted; the domain is decomposed into a disjoint collection of subdomains, one per processing element (PE). The PEs communicate using MPI. The code is used to simulate the hydrodynamic implosion of a spherical bubble.

  14. Sub-micrometer-precision, three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing via "microfluidic drifting".

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Zhang, Xiangjun; Mao, Xiaole; Rufo, Joseph; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Guo, Feng; Zhao, Yanhui; Lapsley, Michael; Li, Peng; McCoy, J Philip; Levine, Stewart J; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-21

    In this article, we demonstrate single-layered, "microfluidic drifting" based three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing devices with particle/cell focal positioning approaching submicron precision along both lateral and vertical directions. By systematically optimizing channel geometries and sample/sheath flow rates, a series of "microfluidic drifting" based 3D hydrodynamic focusing devices with different curvature angles are designed and fabricated. Their performances are then evaluated using confocal microscopy, fast camera imaging, and side-view imaging techniques. Using a device with a curvature angle of 180°, we have achieved a standard deviation of ±0.45 μm in particle focal position and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.37% in flow cytometric measurements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the best CV that has been achieved using a microfluidic flow cytometry device. Moreover, the device showed the capability to distinguish 8 peaks when subjected to a stringent 8-peak rainbow calibration test, signifying the ability to perform sensitive, accurate tests similar to commercial flow cytometers. We have further tested and validated our device by detection of HEK-293 cells. With its advantages in simple fabrication (i.e., single-layered device), precise 3D hydrodynamic focusing (i.e., submicrometer precision along both lateral and vertical directions), and high detection resolution (i.e., low CV), our method could serve as an important basis for high-performance, mass-producible microfluidic flow cytometry.

  15. Structural control on the Tohoku earthquake rupture process investigated by 3D FEM, tsunami and geodetic data.

    PubMed

    Romano, F; Trasatti, E; Lorito, S; Piromallo, C; Piatanesi, A; Ito, Y; Zhao, D; Hirata, K; Lanucara, P; Cocco, M

    2014-07-09

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw = 9.1) highlighted previously unobserved features for megathrust events, such as the large slip in a relatively limited area and the shallow rupture propagation. We use a Finite Element Model (FEM), taking into account the 3D geometrical and structural complexities up to the trench zone, and perform a joint inversion of tsunami and geodetic data to retrieve the earthquake slip distribution. We obtain a close spatial correlation between the main deep slip patch and the local seismic velocity anomalies, and large shallow slip extending also to the North coherently with a seismically observed low-frequency radiation. These observations suggest that the friction controlled the rupture, initially confining the deeper rupture and then driving its propagation up to the trench, where it spreads laterally. These findings are relevant to earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment because they may help to detect regions likely prone to rupture along the megathrust, and to constrain the probability of high slip near the trench. Our estimate of ~40 m slip value around the JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project) drilling zone contributes to constrain the dynamic shear stress and friction coefficient of the fault obtained by temperature measurements to ~0.68 MPa and ~0.10, respectively.

  16. Structural control on the Tohoku earthquake rupture process investigated by 3D FEM, tsunami and geodetic data

    PubMed Central

    Romano, F.; Trasatti, E.; Lorito, S.; Piromallo, C.; Piatanesi, A.; Ito, Y.; Zhao, D.; Hirata, K.; Lanucara, P.; Cocco, M.

    2014-01-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw = 9.1) highlighted previously unobserved features for megathrust events, such as the large slip in a relatively limited area and the shallow rupture propagation. We use a Finite Element Model (FEM), taking into account the 3D geometrical and structural complexities up to the trench zone, and perform a joint inversion of tsunami and geodetic data to retrieve the earthquake slip distribution. We obtain a close spatial correlation between the main deep slip patch and the local seismic velocity anomalies, and large shallow slip extending also to the North coherently with a seismically observed low-frequency radiation. These observations suggest that the friction controlled the rupture, initially confining the deeper rupture and then driving its propagation up to the trench, where it spreads laterally. These findings are relevant to earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment because they may help to detect regions likely prone to rupture along the megathrust, and to constrain the probability of high slip near the trench. Our estimate of ~40 m slip value around the JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project) drilling zone contributes to constrain the dynamic shear stress and friction coefficient of the fault obtained by temperature measurements to ~0.68 MPa and ~0.10, respectively. PMID:25005351

  17. Hydrodynamic growth experiments with the 3-D, “native-roughness” modulations on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, S. V.; Casey, D.; Clark, D. S.; Coppari, F.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A.; Hsing, W.; Landen, O.; Nikroo, A.; Robey, H. F.; Weber, C. R.

    2016-05-01

    Hydrodynamic instability growth experiments with threedimensional (3-D) surface-roughness modulations were performed on plastic (CH) shell spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The initial capsule outer-surface roughness was similar to the standard specifications (“native roughness”) used in a majority of implosions on NIF. At a convergence ratio of ∼3, the measured tent modulations were close to those predicted by 3-D simulations (within ∼15-20%), while measured 3-D, broadband modulations were ∼3-4 times larger than those simulated based on the growth of the known imposed initial surface modulations. One of the hypotheses to explain the results is based on the increased instability amplitudes due to modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule. These new experiments results have prompted looking for ways to reduce UV light exposure during target fabrication.

  18. Hydrodynamics and spatial zonation of the Capo Peloro coastal system (Sicily) through 3-D numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarin, Christian; Bergamasco, Alessandro; Umgiesser, Georg; Cucco, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Since advection and diffusion are the main physical processes that influence the cleaning capacity of coastal transitional waters, the 3-D spatial distribution of the water renewal times was used to delineate a physically-based zonation scheme. The temporal and spatial variations of the hydrodynamics are assessed using a validated three dimensional hydrodynamic finite element model. The developed methodology was applied to the Cape Peloro system, a coastal protected area located in the Messina Strait (Italy) consisting of two connected small brackish basins: the shallow Lake Ganzirri and the deep meromictic Lake Faro. The hydrodynamics of the two coastal lakes shows strong seasonal and spatial variation. The 3-D distribution of the water renewal times suggests a horizontal partition of the Lake Ganzirri into two sub-basins and a vertical zonation of the Lake Faro, with the mixolimnion extending till 10 m depth and the presence of a persistent bottom stagnant layer. The derived physically-based zonation scheme helps in explaining the highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of many biogeochemical variables in the Cape Peloro coastal system.

  19. Numerical 3D Hydrodynamics Study of Gravitational Instabilities in a Circumbinary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Karna Mahadev; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Michael, Scott; Cai, Kai; Durisen, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    We present a 3D hydrodynamical study of gravitational instabilities (GIs) in a circumbinary protoplanetary disk around a Solar mass star and a brown dwarf companion (0.02 M⊙). GIs can play an important, and at times dominant, role in driving the structural evolution of protoplanetary disks. The reported simulations were performed employing CHYMERA, a radiative 3D hydrodynamics code developed by the Indiana University Hydrodynamics Group. The simulations include disk self-gravity and radiative cooling governed by realistic dust opacities. We examine the role of GIs in modulating the thermodynamic state of the disks, and determine the strengths of GI-induced density waves, non-axisymmetric density structures, radial mass transport, and gravitational torques. The principal goal of this study is to determine how the presence of the companion affects the nature and strength of GIs. Results are compared with a parallel simulation of a protoplanetary disk without the presence of the brown dwarf binary companion. We detect no fragmentation in either disk. A persistent vortex forms in the inner region of both disks. The vortex seems to be stabilized by the presence of the binary companion.

  20. Influence of a postural change of the swimmer's head in hydrodynamic performances using 3D CFD.

    PubMed

    Popa, Catalin Viorel; Arfaoui, Ahlem; Fohanno, Stéphane; Taïar, Redha; Polidori, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with recent researches undertaken by the authors in the field of hydrodynamics of human swimming. The aim of this numerical study was to investigate the flow around the entire swimmer's body. The results presented in this article focus on the combination of a 3D computational fluid dynamics code and the use of the k-ω turbulence model, in the range of Reynolds numbers representative of a swimming level varying from national to international competition. Emphasis is placed on the influence of a postural change of the swimmer's head in hydrodynamic performances, which is directly related to the reduction of overall drag. These results confirm and complete those, less accurate, of a preliminary 2D study recently published by the authors and allow the authors to optimise the swimmer's head position in underwater swimming.

  1. Three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing for continuous sampling and analysis of adherent cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunxiu; Wang, Min; Yin, Xuefeng

    2011-10-07

    A simple three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing microfluidic device integrated with continuous sampling, rapid dynamic lysis, capillary electrophoretic (CE) separation and detection of intracellular content is presented. One of the major difficulties in microfluidic cell analysis for adherent cells is that the cells are prone to attaching to the channel surface. To solve this problem, a cross microfluidic chip with three sheath-flow channels located on both sides of and below the sampling channel was developed. With the three sheath flows around the sample solution-containing cells, the formed soft fluid wall prevents the cells from adhering to the channel surface. Labeled cells were 3D hydrodynamically focused by the sheath-flow streams and smoothly introduced into the cross-section one by one. The introduction of sheath-flow streams not only ensured single-cell sampling but avoided blockage of the sampling channel by adherent cells as well. The maximum rate for introduction of individual cells into the separation channel was about 151 cells min(-1). With electric field applied on the separation channel, the aligned cells were driven into the separation channel and rapidly lysed within 400 ms at the entry of the channel by sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) added in the sheath-flow solution. The microfluidic system was evaluated by analysis of reduced glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in single HepG2 cells. The average analysis throughput of ROS and GSH in single cells was 16-18 cells min(-1).

  2. A harmonic polynomial cell (HPC) method for 3D Laplace equation with application in marine hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yan-Lin Faltinsen, Odd M.

    2014-10-01

    We propose a new efficient and accurate numerical method based on harmonic polynomials to solve boundary value problems governed by 3D Laplace equation. The computational domain is discretized by overlapping cells. Within each cell, the velocity potential is represented by the linear superposition of a complete set of harmonic polynomials, which are the elementary solutions of Laplace equation. By its definition, the method is named as Harmonic Polynomial Cell (HPC) method. The characteristics of the accuracy and efficiency of the HPC method are demonstrated by studying analytical cases. Comparisons will be made with some other existing boundary element based methods, e.g. Quadratic Boundary Element Method (QBEM) and the Fast Multipole Accelerated QBEM (FMA-QBEM) and a fourth order Finite Difference Method (FDM). To demonstrate the applications of the method, it is applied to some studies relevant for marine hydrodynamics. Sloshing in 3D rectangular tanks, a fully-nonlinear numerical wave tank, fully-nonlinear wave focusing on a semi-circular shoal, and the nonlinear wave diffraction of a bottom-mounted cylinder in regular waves are studied. The comparisons with the experimental results and other numerical results are all in satisfactory agreement, indicating that the present HPC method is a promising method in solving potential-flow problems. The underlying procedure of the HPC method could also be useful in other fields than marine hydrodynamics involved with solving Laplace equation.

  3. Application of 3D hydrodynamic and particle tracking models for better environmental management of finfish culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Navas, Juan; Telfer, Trevor C.; Ross, Lindsay G.

    2011-04-01

    Hydrographic conditions, and particularly current speeds, have a strong influence on the management of fish cage culture. These hydrodynamic conditions can be used to predict particle movement within the water column and the results used to optimise environmental conditions for effective site selection, setting of environmental quality standards, waste dispersion, and potential disease transfer. To this end, a 3D hydrodynamic model, MOHID, has been coupled to a particle tracking model to study the effects of mean current speed, quiescent water periods and bulk water circulation in Mulroy Bay, Co. Donegal Ireland, an Irish fjard (shallow fjordic system) important to the aquaculture industry. A Lagangrian method simulated the instantaneous release of "particles" emulating discharge from finfish cages to show the behaviour of waste in terms of water circulation and water exchange. The 3D spatial models were used to identify areas of mixed and stratified water using a version of the Simpson-Hunter criteria, and to use this in conjunction with models of current flow for appropriate site selection for salmon aquaculture. The modelled outcomes for stratification were in good agreement with the direct measurements of water column stratification based on observed density profiles. Calculations of the Simpson-Hunter tidal parameter indicated that most of Mulroy Bay was potentially stratified with a well mixed region over the shallow channels where the water is faster flowing. The fjard was characterised by areas of both very low and high mean current speeds, with some areas having long periods of quiescent water. The residual current and the particle tracking animations created through the models revealed an anticlockwise eddy that may influence waste dispersion and potential for disease transfer, among salmon cages and which ensures that the retention time of waste substances from cages is extended. The hydrodynamic model results were incorporated into the ArcView TM GIS

  4. Delft3D-FLOW on PRACE infrastructures for real life hydrodynamic applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donners, John; Genseberger, Menno; Jagers, Bert; de Goede, Erik; Mourits, Adri

    2013-04-01

    PRACE, the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe, offers access to the largest high-performance computing systems in Europe. PRACE invites and helps industry to increase their innovative potential through the use of the PRACE infrastructure. This poster describes different efforts to assist Deltares with porting the open-source simulation software Delft3D-FLOW to PRACE infrastructures. Analysis of the performance on these infrastructures has been done for real life flow applications. Delft3D-FLOW is a 2D and 3D shallow water solver which calculates non-steady flow and transport phenomena resulting from tidal and meteorological forcing on a curvilinear, boundary fitted grid in Cartesian or spherical coordinates. It also includes a module which sediment transport (both suspended and bed total load) and morphological changes for an arbitrary number of cohesive and non-cohesive fractions. As Delft3D-FLOW has been developed over several decades, with a variety of functionality and over 350k lines of source code, porting to PRACE infrastructures needs some effort. At the moment Delft3D-FLOW uses MPI with domain decomposition in one direction as its parallellisation approach. Because it is hard to identify scaling issues if one immediately starts with a complex case with many features enabled, different cases with increasing complexity have been used to investigate scaling of this parallellisation approach on several PRACE platforms. As a base reference case we started with a schematic high-resolution 2D hydrodynamic model of the river Waal that turned out to be surprisingly well-suited to the highly-parallel PRACE machines. Although Delft3D-FLOW employs a sophisticated build system, several modifications were required to port it to most PRACE systems due to the use of specific, highly-tuned compilers and MPI-libraries. After this we moved to a 3D hydrodynamic model of Rotterdam harbour that includes sections of the rivers Rhine and Meuse and a part of the North

  5. 3D FEM Simulations of Drop Test Reliability on 3D-WLP: Effects of Solder Reflow Residual Stress and Molding Resin Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhenini, Soufyane; Tougui, Abdellah; Bouchou, Abdelhake; Mohan, Ranganathan; Dosseul, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Numerous three-dimensional (3D) packaging technologies are currently used for 3D integration. 3D-wafer level package (3D-WLP) appears to be a way to keep increasing the density of the microelectronic components. The reliability of 3D components has to be evaluated on mechanical demonstrators with daisy chains before real production. Numerical modeling is acknowledged as a very efficient tool for design optimization. In this paper, 3D finite-elements calculations are carried out to analyze the effects of molding resin's mechanical properties and thickness on the 3D component's dynamic response under drop loading conditions. Residual stress generated by solder reflow is also discussed. The influences of residual stresses on the numerical estimation of the component behavior during drop loading are studied. Solder reflow residual stresses have an impact on solder plastic strain and die equivalent stress calculations. We have compared the result of two numerical drop test models. Stress-free initial conduction is introduced for the first model. Solder reflow residual stresses are considered as the initial condition for the second drop test model. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons are carried out to show the effect of residual stress in drop test calculations. For the effect of molding resin thickness on the component behavior under drop loading, the stress-free initial condition is considered. The effect of the molding resin's thickness on critical area location is discussed. The solder bump maximum plastic shear strain and the silicon die maximum equivalent stress are used as reliability criteria. Numerical submodeling techniques are used to increase calculation accuracy. Numerical results have contributed to the design optimization of the 3D-WLP component.

  6. Micro flow cytometer with self-aligned 3D hydrodynamic focusing

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Genni; Persichetti, Gianluca; Bernini, Romeo

    2014-01-01

    A micro flow cytometer with a single step 3D hydrodynamic flow focusing has been developed. The proposed design is capable to create a single-file particle stream that is self-aligned with an integrated optical fiber-based detection system, regardless of the flow rate ratio between the focusing and core liquids. The design approach provides the ability to adjust the stream size while keeping the position of the focused stream centered with respect to the focusing channel. The device has been fabricated by direct micro milling of PMMA sheets. Experimental validation of the hydrodynamic sheath focusing effect has been presented and sample stream with tuneable size from about 18 to 50 μm was measured. Flow cytometry measurements have been performed by using 10-23 μm fluorescent particles. From the analysis of the signals collected at each transit event we can confirm that the device was capable to align and measure microparticles with a good coefficient of variance. PMID:25657874

  7. Micro flow cytometer with self-aligned 3D hydrodynamic focusing.

    PubMed

    Testa, Genni; Persichetti, Gianluca; Bernini, Romeo

    2015-01-01

    A micro flow cytometer with a single step 3D hydrodynamic flow focusing has been developed. The proposed design is capable to create a single-file particle stream that is self-aligned with an integrated optical fiber-based detection system, regardless of the flow rate ratio between the focusing and core liquids. The design approach provides the ability to adjust the stream size while keeping the position of the focused stream centered with respect to the focusing channel. The device has been fabricated by direct micro milling of PMMA sheets. Experimental validation of the hydrodynamic sheath focusing effect has been presented and sample stream with tuneable size from about 18 to 50 μm was measured. Flow cytometry measurements have been performed by using 10-23 μm fluorescent particles. From the analysis of the signals collected at each transit event we can confirm that the device was capable to align and measure microparticles with a good coefficient of variance.

  8. New Insights on Pulsating White Dwarfs from 3D Radiation-Hydrodynamical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Fontaine, Gilles; Ludwig, Hans-Günter

    2015-08-01

    We have recently computed a grid of 3D radiation-hydrodynamical simulations for the atmosphere of 70 pure-hydrogen DA white dwarfs in the range 7.0 < log g < 9.0. This includes the full ZZ Ceti instability strip where DA white dwarfs are pulsating, by far the most common type of degenerate pulsators. We have significantly improved the theoretical framework to study these objects by removing the free parameters of 1D convection, which were previously a major modeling hurdle. We will compare our new models with the observed sample of ZZ Ceti stars and highlight the improved derived properties of these objects. In particular, the new spectroscopically determined 3D atmospheric parameters allow for an improved definition of instability strip edges. We have also made new predictions for the size of convection zones, which significantly impact the position where the pulsations are driven, and the region of the HR diagram where white dwarfs are expected to pulsate. Finally, we will present new results from non-adiabatic pulsation calculations.

  9. Gravitational wave signals from 3D neutrino hydrodynamics simulations of core-collapse supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, H.; Müller, B.; Müller, E.; Janka, H.-Th.

    2017-06-01

    We present gravitational wave (GW) signal predictions from four 3D multigroup neutrino hydrodynamics simulations of core-collapse supernovae of progenitors with 11.2, 20 and 27 M⊙. GW emission in the pre-explosion phase strongly depends on whether the post-shock flow is dominated by the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) or convection and differs considerably from 2D models. SASI activity produces a strong signal component below 250 Hz through asymmetric mass motions in the gain layer and a non-resonant coupling to the proto-neutron star (PNS). Both convection- and SASI-dominated models show GW emission above 250 Hz, but with considerably lower amplitudes than in 2D. This is due to a different excitation mechanism for high-frequency l = 2 motions in the PNS surface, which are predominantly excited by PNS convection in 3D. Resonant excitation of high-frequency surface g modes in 3D by mass motions in the gain layer is suppressed compared to 2D because of smaller downflow velocities and a lack of high-frequency variability in the downflows. In the exploding 20 M⊙ model, shock revival results in enhanced low-frequency emission due to a change of the preferred scale of the convective eddies in the PNS convection zone. Estimates of the expected excess power in two frequency bands suggest that second-generation detectors will only be able to detect very nearby events, but that third-generation detectors could distinguish SASI- and convection-dominated models at distances of ˜ 10 kpc.

  10. Single-layer planar on-chip flow cytometer using microfluidic drifting based three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiaole; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Dong, Cheng; Huang, Tony Jun

    2009-06-07

    In this work, we demonstrate an on-chip microfluidic flow cytometry system based on a three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing technique, microfluidic drifting. By inducing Dean flow in a curved microfluidic channel, microfluidic drifting can be used to hydrodynamically focus cells or particles in the vertical direction and enables the 3D hydrodynamic focusing in a single-layer planar microfluidic device. Through theoretical calculation, numerical simulation, and experimental characterization, we found that the microfluidic drifting technique can be effectively applied to three-dimensionally focus microparticles with density and size equivalent to those of human CD4+ T lymphocytes. In addition, we developed a flow cytometry platform by integrating the 3D focusing device with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection system. The system was shown to provide effective high-throughput flow cytometry measurements at a rate of greater than 1700 cells s(-1).

  11. 3D Printing Meets Computational Astrophysics: Deciphering the Structure of Eta Carinae’s Colliding Winds Using 3D Prints of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, Thomas; Gull, Theodore R.; Clementel, Nicola; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Kruip, Chael; Corcoran, Michael F.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Teodoro, Mairan

    2015-01-01

    We present the first 3D prints of output from a supercomputer simulation of a complex astrophysical system, the colliding stellar winds in the massive (>120 MSun), highly eccentric (e ~ 0.9) binary Eta Carinae. Using a consumer-grade 3D printer (Makerbot Replicator 2X), we successfully printed 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of Eta Carinae's inner (r ~110 AU) wind-wind collision interface at multiple orbital phases. These 3D prints reveal important, previously unknown 'finger-like' structures at orbital phases shortly after periastron (φ ~1.045) that protrude radially outward from the spiral wind-wind collision region. We speculate that these fingers are related to instabilities (e.g. Rayleigh-Taylor) that arise at the interface between the radiatively-cooled layer of dense post-shock primary-star wind and the hot, adiabatic post-shock companion-star wind. The success of our work and easy identification of previously unknown physical features highlight the important role 3D printing can play in the visualization and understanding of complex 3D time-dependent numerical simulations of astrophysical phenomena.

  12. High-resolution modelling of 3D hydrodynamics in coastal archipelagos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettunen, Elina; Tuomi, Laura; Ropponen, Janne; Lignell, Risto

    2016-04-01

    Dynamics of the coastal seas are affected by eutrophication, over-fishing, coastal construction and climate change. To enable the sustainable development of these areas, monitoring and modelling of the state of the sea are needed. The Archipelago Sea, located in the northern part of the semi-enclosed and brackish water Baltic Sea, is one of the most complex coastal areas with over 40 000 small islands and islets. It is also very vulnerable area already heavily stressed with eutrophication. Applicable modelling tools are needed to support the decision making and to provide sufficiently reliable information on the effects of the planned actions on the state of the coastal waters. We used 3D hydrodynamic model COHERENS to model the Archipelago Sea area with high spatial resolution of 0.25 nmi. Boundary conditions for this limited area were provided from coarser resolution, 2 nmi, Baltic Sea grid. In order to evaluate the performance of the high-resolution coastal model implementation a comprehensive measurement dataset was gathered, including hydrographic data from three intensive monitoring stations and several more rarely visited monitoring or research stations. The hydrodynamic model was able to simulate the surface temperature and salinity fields and their seasonal variation with good accuracy in this complex area. The sharp depth gradients typical for this area provided some challenges to the modelling. There was some over mixing and related to too strong vertical currents in the steep slopes of the deeper fault lines. Also the water exchange between the more open sea and coastal areas through narrow channels between the islands is not sufficiently well reproduced with the current resolution, leading to too high bottom temperatures.

  13. Wind forcing of upland lake hydrodynamics: implementation and validation of a 3D numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, L.; French, J.; Burningham, H.; Evans, C.; Battarbee, R.

    2010-12-01

    Upland lakes act as important archives of environmental change, yet inferences based on the analysis of sediment cores are frequently compromised by an incomplete understanding of the hydrodynamic processes controlling the distribution and completeness of lake sediment sequences and their linkages to wider environmental factors. Many upland lakes are characterized by complex vertical and horizontal circulation patterns induced by the action of wind on the water surface. Wind forcing is important not only for the resuspension of bottom sediments in shallow marginal areas, but may also control the broader distribution of sediment accumulation. The work presented here represents the first stage of a project aimed at elucidating the linkages between wind forcing and the distribution of bottom sediments in upland lakes and the extent to which simple 'sediment focusing' models provide an adequate basis for predicting optimal locations for the acquisition of core samples for palaeolimnological analysis. As a first step, a 3D numerical hydrodynamic model is implemented for Llyn Conwy, a small oligotrophic upland lake in North Wales, UK. This utilises the community ocean model, FVCOM, that solves the Navier-Stokes equations in 3D on an unstructured triangular mesh using the finite volume method. A new graphical user interface has been developed for FVCOM to facilitate pre- and post-processing of lake modelling problems. At Llyn Conwy, the model is forced using local meteorological data and validated against vertical temperature profiles recorded by a long-term buoy deployment and short-term observations of vertical current structure measured using an upward-looking acoustic doppler profiler and surface circulation obtained from GPS drifters. Challenges in the application of FVCOM to a small lake include the design of a mesh that ensures numerical stability whilst resolving a complex bathymetry, and the need for careful treatment of model 'spin-up'. Once calibrated, the

  14. Order parameter re-mapping algorithm for 3D phase field model of grain growth using FEM

    SciTech Connect

    Permann, Cody J.; Tonks, Michael R.; Fromm, Bradley; Gaston, Derek R.

    2016-01-14

    Phase field modeling (PFM) is a well-known technique for simulating microstructural evolution. To model grain growth using PFM, typically each grain is assigned a unique non-conserved order parameter and each order parameter field is evolved in time. Traditional approaches using a one-to-one mapping of grains to order parameters present a challenge when modeling large numbers of grains due to the computational expense of using many order parameters. This problem is exacerbated when using an implicit finite element method (FEM), as the global matrix size is proportional to the number of order parameters. While previous work has developed methods to reduce the number of required variables and thus computational complexity and run time, none of the existing approaches can be applied for an implicit FEM implementation of PFM. Here, we present a modular, dynamic, scalable reassignment algorithm suitable for use in such a system. Polycrystal modeling with grain growth and stress require careful tracking of each grain’s position and orientation which is lost when using a reduced order parameter set. In conclusion, the method presented in this paper maintains a unique ID for each grain even after reassignment, to allow the PFM to be tightly coupled to calculations of the stress throughout the polycrystal. Implementation details and comparative results of our approach are presented.

  15. Order parameter re-mapping algorithm for 3D phase field model of grain growth using FEM

    DOE PAGES

    Permann, Cody J.; Tonks, Michael R.; Fromm, Bradley; ...

    2016-01-14

    Phase field modeling (PFM) is a well-known technique for simulating microstructural evolution. To model grain growth using PFM, typically each grain is assigned a unique non-conserved order parameter and each order parameter field is evolved in time. Traditional approaches using a one-to-one mapping of grains to order parameters present a challenge when modeling large numbers of grains due to the computational expense of using many order parameters. This problem is exacerbated when using an implicit finite element method (FEM), as the global matrix size is proportional to the number of order parameters. While previous work has developed methods to reducemore » the number of required variables and thus computational complexity and run time, none of the existing approaches can be applied for an implicit FEM implementation of PFM. Here, we present a modular, dynamic, scalable reassignment algorithm suitable for use in such a system. Polycrystal modeling with grain growth and stress require careful tracking of each grain’s position and orientation which is lost when using a reduced order parameter set. In conclusion, the method presented in this paper maintains a unique ID for each grain even after reassignment, to allow the PFM to be tightly coupled to calculations of the stress throughout the polycrystal. Implementation details and comparative results of our approach are presented.« less

  16. Linking 1D evolutionary to 3D hydrodynamical simulations of massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristini, A.; Meakin, C.; Hirschi, R.; Arnett, D.; Georgy, C.; Viallet, M.

    2016-03-01

    Stellar evolution models of massive stars are important for many areas of astrophysics, for example nucleosynthesis yields, supernova progenitor models and understanding physics under extreme conditions. Turbulence occurs in stars primarily due to nuclear burning at different mass coordinates within the star. The understanding and correct treatment of turbulence and turbulent mixing at convective boundaries in stellar models has been studied for decades but still lacks a definitive solution. This paper presents initial results of a study on convective boundary mixing (CBM) in massive stars. The ‘stiffness’ of a convective boundary can be quantified using the bulk Richardson number ({{Ri}}{{B}}), the ratio of the potential energy for restoration of the boundary to the kinetic energy of turbulent eddies. A ‘stiff’ boundary ({{Ri}}{{B}}˜ {10}4) will suppress CBM, whereas in the opposite case a ‘soft’ boundary ({{Ri}}{{B}}˜ 10) will be more susceptible to CBM. One of the key results obtained so far is that lower convective boundaries (closer to the centre) of nuclear burning shells are ‘stiffer’ than the corresponding upper boundaries, implying limited CBM at lower shell boundaries. This is in agreement with 3D hydrodynamic simulations carried out by Meakin and Arnett (2007 Astrophys. J. 667 448-75). This result also has implications for new CBM prescriptions in massive stars as well as for nuclear burning flame front propagation in super-asymptotic giant branch stars and also the onset of novae.

  17. 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of flood impacts on a building and indoor flooding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gems, Bernhard; Mazzorana, Bruno; Hofer, Thomas; Sturm, Michael; Gabl, Roman; Aufleger, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Given the current challenges in flood risk management and vulnerability assessment of buildings exposed to flood hazards, this study presents three-dimensional numerical modelling of torrential floods and its interaction with buildings. By means of a case study application, the FLOW-3D software is applied to the lower reach of the Rio Vallarsa torrent in the village of Laives (Italy). A single-family house on the flood plain is therefore considered in detail. It is exposed to a 300-year flood hydrograph. Different building representation scenarios, including an entire impervious building envelope and the assumption of fully permeable doors, light shafts and windows, are analysed. The modelling results give insight into the flooding process of the building's interior, the impacting hydrodynamic forces on the exterior and interior walls, and further, they quantify the impact of the flooding of a building on the flow field on the surrounding flood plain. The presented study contributes to the development of a comprehensive physics-based vulnerability assessment framework. For pure water floods, this study presents the possibilities and limits of advanced numerical modelling techniques within flood risk management and, thereby, the planning of local structural protection measures.

  18. Size-Controlled Fabrication of Polyaniline Microfibers Based on 3D Hydrodynamic Focusing Approach.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Imsung; Song, Simon; Uh, Kyungchan; Lee, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong-Man

    2015-07-01

    Owing to the relatively high conductivity and unique redox behavior, polyaniline (PANI) has been one of the most technologically promising conducting polymers. Although various methodologies have been developed, fabrication of PANI microfibers has been a challenging task owing to the poor solubility in most organic solvents. By taking advantage of a microfluidic technology and organic soluble acid labile t-Boc-protected PANI (t-Boc-PANI) as the conducting polymer precursor, fabrication of PANI microfibers in a size-controlled manner is possible. Introduction of a THF solution containing t-Boc-PANI, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as a core flow, and water as a sheath flow into a microfluidic channel with a 3D hydrodynamic focusing effect results in crystallization of the polymer fiber. By changing the flow rate, linear PANI microfibers that range from 16.2 to 39.4 μm in diameter are readily obtained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. 3D Hydrodynamical Calculations on the Fragmentation of Pancakes and Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umemura, Masayuki

    1992-05-01

    The fragmentation of pancakes is numerically investigated by 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics combined with N-body scheme, where the thermal processes by the cooling and heating are explicitly included and the self-gravity is calculated by the direct summation for all particle pairs. We consider baryon-dominated and hot dark matter-dominated pancakes. We find that the fragmentation is triggered in a central cooled dense layer of a pancake, and it obeys a two-step scenario: first the pancake exhibits some filamentary structures after collapse, and then they are torn to numerous fragments, eventually forming chain-like structures. The galaxy formation efficiency in pancake fragmentation is considerably small as fGF ~ exp [-2(M_pan/10(14}M_sun)({1/5)) ]. This is suggestive when compared with the recent observations on X-ray clusters. It is also found that the typical sizes of fragments are proportional to the pancake mass, M_pan. The mass of fragment is determined as M_b ~ 0.3-2times 10(12) M_sun (M_pan/10(15) M_sun) in baryonic component. Moreover the rotation curve of each fragment is asymptotically flat in the outer envelope. Other characteristic quantities as the total mass to baryon mass ratios, the line-of-sight relative peculiar velocity dispersion of fragments, the neutral hydrogen column density of each fragment at the high-redshift epoch, and the intergalactic gas heating and X-ray luminosity are also presented. The fragmentation processes are strongly dependent upon small-scale fluctuations. Unless there is any small-scale seed fluctuations, the pancakes cannot be fragmented. Therefore, a pure neutrino-dominated universe where small-scale fluctuations are thoroughly erased may be unsuccessful in galaxy formation. We require just a small amount of fluctuations of smaller scales than a neutrino collisionless damping scale for the formation of galaxies in the fragmentation scenario.

  20. Magnetic diffusivities in 3D radiative chemo-hydrodynamic simulations of protostellar collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzyurkevich, Natalia; Commerçon, Benoît; Lesaffre, Pierre; Semenov, Dimitry

    2017-07-01

    Context. Both theory and observations of star-forming clouds require simulations that combine the co-evolving chemistry, magneto-hydrodynamics, and radiative transfer in protostellar collapse simulation. A detailed knowledge of self-consistent chemical evolution for the main charge carriers (both gas species and dust grains) allows us to correctly estimate the rate and nature of magnetic dissipation in the collapsing core. This knowledge is critical to answer one of the most significant issues of star and planet formation: what is the magnitude and spatial distribution of magnetic flux as the initial condition to protoplanetary disk evolution? Aims: We use a chemo-dynamical version of RAMSES, which is described in a companion publication, to follow the chemo-dynamical evolution of collapsing dense cores with various dust properties and interpret differences that occur in magnetic diffusivity terms. These differences are crucial to circumstellar disk formation. Methods: We performed 3D chemo-dynamical simulations of 1 M⊙ isolated dense core collapse for a range in dust size assumptions. The number density of dust and its mean size affect the efficiency of charge capturing and the formation of ices. The radiative hydrodynamics and dynamical evolution of chemical abundances were used to reconstruct the magnetic diffusivity terms for clouds with various magnetisation. Results: The simulations are performed for a mean dust size ranging from 0.017 μm to 1 μm, and we adopt both a fixed dust size and a dust size distribution. The chemical abundances for this range of dust sizes are produced by RAMSES and serve as inputs to calculations of Ohmic, ambipolar, and Hall diffusivity terms. Ohmic resistivity only plays a role at the late stage of the collapse in the innermost region of the cloud where gas density is in excess of a few times 1013 cm-3. Ambipolar diffusion is a dominant magnetic diffusivity term in cases where mean dust size is a typical ISM value or larger. We

  1. Review of solutions for 3D hydrodynamic modeling applied to aquaculture in South Pacific atoll lagoons.

    PubMed

    Andréfouët, S; Ouillon, S; Brinkman, R; Falter, J; Douillet, P; Wolk, F; Smith, R; Garen, P; Martinez, E; Laurent, V; Lo, C; Remoissenet, G; Scourzic, B; Gilbert, A; Deleersnijder, E; Steinberg, C; Choukroun, S; Buestel, D

    2006-10-01

    A workshop organized in French Polynesia in November 2004 allowed reviewing the current methods to model the three-dimensional hydrodynamic circulation in semi-enclosed atoll lagoons for aquaculture applications. Mollusk (e.g. pearl oyster, clam) aquaculture is a major source of income for South Pacific countries such as French Polynesia or Cook Islands. This aquaculture now requires a better understanding of circulation patterns to improve the spatial use of the lagoons, especially to define the best area to set larvae collectors. The pelagic larval duration of the relevant species (<20 days) and the size of the semi-closed lagoons (few hundreds of km2) drive the specifications of the model in terms of the spatial and temporal scale. It is considered that, in contrast with fish, mollusk larvae movements are limited and that their cycle occurs completely in the lagoon, without an oceanic stage. Atolls where aquaculture is productive are generally well-bounded, or semi-closed, without significant large and deep openings to the ocean. Nevertheless part of the lagoon circulation is driven by oceanic water inputs through the rim, ocean swells, tides and winds. Therefore, boundary conditions of the lagoon system are defined by the spatial structure of a very shallow rim (exposition and number of hoas), the deep ocean swell climate, tides and wind regimes. To obtain a realistic 3D numerical model of lagoon circulation with adequate forcing, it is thus necessary to connect in an interdisciplinary way a variety of methods (models, remote sensing and in situ data collection) to accurately represent the different components of the lagoon system and its specific boundary conditions. We review here the current methods and tools used to address these different components for a hypothetical atoll of the Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia), representative of the semi-closed lagoons of the South Pacific Ocean. We hope this paper will serve as a guide for similar studies

  2. Comparison between upwind FEM and new algorithm based on the indirect BIEM for 3D moving conductor problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.H. . Living System Research Lab.); Jeon, D.Y.; Hahn, S.Y. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1999-05-01

    In general, an electromagnetic apparatus such as linear induction motors, MAGLEV vehicles or electromagnetic launchers, involves conducting parts in motion. This paper presents a new algorithm based on the indirect boundary integral equation method to analyze the electromagnetic system with a moving conductor. The proposed algorithm yields relatively stable and accurate solutions because a fundamental Green's function of diffusion type is used which is valid for any value of the Peclet number. In addition, computer memory and computing time for 3D computation can be saved considerably by using the boundary integral equations of minimum order and the singular property of the Green's function. In order to prove these, numerical results obtained by the proposed algorithm and the upwind finite element method are compared with their analytic solutions.

  3. The Effect of Framework Design on Stress Distribution in Implant-Supported FPDs: A 3-D FEM Study

    PubMed Central

    Eraslan, Oguz; Inan, Ozgur; Secilmis, Asli

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The biomechanical behavior of the superstructure plays an important role in the functional longevity of dental implants. However, information about the influence of framework design on stresses transmitted to the implants and supporting tissues is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of framework designs on stress distribution at the supporting bone and supporting implants. Methods: In this study, the three-dimensional (3D) finite element stress analysis method was used. Three types of 3D mathematical models simulating three different framework designs for implant-supported 3-unit posterior fixed partial dentures were prepared with supporting structures. Convex (1), concave (2), and conventional (3) pontic framework designs were simulated. A 300-N static vertical occlusal load was applied on the node at the center of occlusal surface of the pontic to calculate the stress distributions. As a second condition, frameworks were directly loaded to evaluate the effect of the framework design clearly. The Solidworks/Cosmosworks structural analysis programs were used for finite element modeling/analysis. Results: The analysis of the von Mises stress values revealed that maximum stress concentrations were located at the loading areas for all models. The pontic side marginal edges of restorations and the necks of implants were other stress concentration regions. There was no clear difference among models when the restorations were loaded at occlusal surfaces. When the veneering porcelain was removed, and load was applied directly to the framework, there was a clear increase in stress concentration with a concave design on supporting implants and bone structure. Conclusions: The present study showed that the use of a concave design in the pontic frameworks of fixed partial dentures increases the von Mises stress levels on implant abutments and supporting bone structure. However, the veneering porcelain element reduces the effect of the

  4. Introduction and guide to LLNL's relativistic 3-D nuclear hydrodynamics code

    SciTech Connect

    Zingman, J.A.; McAbee, T.L.; Alonso, C.T.; Wilson, J.R.

    1987-11-01

    We have constructed a relativistic hydrodynamic model to investigate Bevalac and higher energy, heavy-ion collisions. The basis of the model is a finite-difference solution to covariant hydrodynamics, which will be described in the rest of this paper. This paper also contains: a brief review of the equations and numerical methods we have employed in the solution to the hydrodynamic equations, a detailed description of several of the most important subroutines, and a numerical test on the code. 30 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. 3D-FEM numerical analysis of thermal lithospheric structure in the China continent and its adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Zhang, H.; Shi, Y.

    2010-12-01

    China and its adjacent areas is one of the most active areas of tectonic activity and seismicity in the world. And the thermal structure is one of the determinants of the lithospheric rheology and physical properties. So the thermal structure has great influence on the tectonic deformation, the geological evolution and distribution of earthquakes in the depth. Previous estimations of geotherms are mainly deduced from surface heat flow density and thermal properties, the error would increase with depth. In this study, we will use both the surface temperature and the seismic constrained deep temperature as boundary conditions to make 3-D finite element modeling to investigate 3-D thermal structure of China. By taking the consideration of the presence of terrain in China continent and its adjacent regions, a three-dimensional finite element model was constructed in the spherical coordinate system. The temperature of upper mantle calculated by seismic wave velocity was adopted as the lower boundary condition of the model. The observed annual average atmosphere temperature was utilized as the upper surface boundary condition. According to observations and empirical formula, the heterogeneous thermal parameters were employed in our numerical model. The lithospheric thermal structure of China continent and its adjacent regions was calculated and analyzed in detail. The horizontal distribution of temperature and the heat flow values at different depths, as well as some lateral profiles of temperature fields in China continent are proposed in this paper. Our primary results showed that: at the depth of Moho surface from Crust2.0 data, the distribution of temperature in the eastern part of China continent was lower than that in the western part. On the contrary, the heat flow values in the eastern part were higher than that in western part of China continent. From the lateral profile of the thermal structure in the eastern China area is characterized as the “hot mantle and

  6. Solving 3D relativistic hydrodynamical problems with weighted essentially nonoscillatory discontinuous Galerkin methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugner, Marcus; Dietrich, Tim; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Weyhausen, Andreas; Brügmann, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods coupled to weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) algorithms allow high order convergence for smooth problems and for the simulation of discontinuities and shocks. In this work, we investigate WENO-DG algorithms in the context of numerical general relativity, in particular for general relativistic hydrodynamics. We implement the standard WENO method at different orders, a compact (simple) WENO scheme, as well as an alternative subcell evolution algorithm. To evaluate the performance of the different numerical schemes, we study nonrelativistic, special relativistic, and general relativistic test beds. We present the first three-dimensional simulations of general relativistic hydrodynamics, albeit for a fixed spacetime background, within the framework of WENO-DG methods. The most important test bed is a single Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff star in three dimensions, showing that long term stable simulations of single isolated neutron stars can be obtained with WENO-DG methods.

  7. Enhancement of the Excitation Efficiency of a Torsional Wave PPM EMAT Array for Pipe Inspection by Optimizing the Element Number of the Array Based on 3-D FEM

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yugang; Wu, Xinjun; Sun, Pengfei; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) can generate non-dispersive T(0,1) mode guided waves in a metallic pipe for nondestructive testing (NDT) by using a periodic permanent magnet (PPM) EMAT circular array. In order to enhance the excitation efficiency of the sensor, the effects of varying the number of elements of the array on the excitation efficiency is studied in this paper. The transduction process of the PPM EMAT array is studied based on 3-D finite element method (FEM). The passing signal amplitude of the torsional wave is obtained to represent the excitation efficiency of the sensor. Models with different numbers of elements are established and the results are compared to obtain an optimal element number. The simulation result is verified by experiments. It is shown that after optimization, the amplitudes of both the passing signal and defect signal with the optimal element number are increased by 29%, which verifies the feasibility of this optimal method. The essence of the optimization is to find the best match between the static magnetic field and the eddy current field in a limited circumferential space to obtain the maximum circumferential Lorentz force. PMID:25654722

  8. Enhancement of the excitation efficiency of a torsional wave PPM EMAT array for pipe inspection by optimizing the element number of the array based on 3-D FEM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yugang; Wu, Xinjun; Sun, Pengfei; Li, Jian

    2015-02-03

    Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) can generate non-dispersive T(0,1) mode guided waves in a metallic pipe for nondestructive testing (NDT) by using a periodic permanent magnet (PPM) EMAT circular array. In order to enhance the excitation efficiency of the sensor, the effects of varying the number of elements of the array on the excitation efficiency is studied in this paper. The transduction process of the PPM EMAT array is studied based on 3-D finite element method (FEM). The passing signal amplitude of the torsional wave is obtained to represent the excitation efficiency of the sensor. Models with different numbers of elements are established and the results are compared to obtain an optimal element number. The simulation result is verified by experiments. It is shown that after optimization, the amplitudes of both the passing signal and defect signal with the optimal element number are increased by 29%, which verifies the feasibility of this optimal method. The essence of the optimization is to find the best match between the static magnetic field and the eddy current field in a limited circumferential space to obtain the maximum circumferential Lorentz force.

  9. Cholla: 3D GPU-based hydrodynamics code for astrophysical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Evan E.; Robertson, Brant E.

    2016-07-01

    Cholla (Computational Hydrodynamics On ParaLLel Architectures) models the Euler equations on a static mesh and evolves the fluid properties of thousands of cells simultaneously using GPUs. It can update over ten million cells per GPU-second while using an exact Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction, allowing computation of astrophysical simulations with physically interesting grid resolutions (>256^3) on a single device; calculations can be extended onto multiple devices with nearly ideal scaling beyond 64 GPUs.

  10. Separation efficiency of a hydrodynamic separator using a 3D computational fluid dynamics multiscale approach.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Vivien; Dufresne, Matthieu; Vazquez, Jose; Fischer, Martin; Morin, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to predict the solid separation efficiency of a hydrodynamic separator. The numerical difficulty concerns the discretization of the geometry to simulate both the global behavior and the local phenomena that occur near the screen. In this context, a CFD multiscale approach was used: a global model (at the scale of the device) is used to observe the hydrodynamic behavior within the device; a local model (portion of the screen) is used to determine the local phenomena that occur near the screen. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach was used to model the particle trajectories in both models. The global model shows the influence of the particles' characteristics on the trapping efficiency. A high density favors the sedimentation. In contrast, particles with small densities (1,040 kg/m(3)) are steered by the hydrodynamic behavior and can potentially be trapped by the separator. The use of the local model allows us to observe the particle trajectories near the screen. A comparison between two types of screens (perforated plate vs expanded metal) highlights the turbulent effects created by the shape of the screen.

  11. A 3D Hydrodynamic Model for Heterogeneous Biofilms with Antimicrobial Persistence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    EPS production [9], which leads to gradients in osmotic pressure and contributes to pattern formation of mushroom or tower shaped. Figure 5 depicts two...implemented on graphic processing units (GPUs) for high performance computing, in 3-D space and time. Antimicrobial treatment in an infinitely long quiescent...scheme is devised to solve the model consisting of partial differential equations, which is implemented on graphic processing units (GPUs) for high

  12. The Beale-Kato-Majda Criterion for the 3D Magneto-Hydrodynamics Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qionglei; Miao, Changxing; Zhang, Zhifei

    2007-11-01

    We study the blow-up criterion of smooth solutions to the 3D MHD equations. By means of the Littlewood-Paley decomposition, we prove a Beale-Kato-Majda type blow-up criterion of smooth solutions via the vorticity of velocity only, namely sup_{jinmathbb{Z}}int_0^T\\|Δ_j(nabla× u)\\|_infty dt, where Δ j is the frequency localization operator in the Littlewood-Paley decomposition.

  13. Observations and 3D hydrodynamical models of planetary nebulae with Wolf-Rayet type central stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechy-García, J. S.; Velázquez, P. F.; Peña, M.; Raga, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    We present high-resolution, long-slit spectroscopic observations of two planetary nebulae, M 1-32 and M 3-15, with [WC] central stars located near the Galactic bulge. The observations were obtained with the 2.1-m telescope of the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, San Pedro Mártir. M 1-32 shows wide wings on the base of its emission lines and M 3-15 has two very faint high-velocity knots. In order to model both planetary nebulae, we built a three-dimensional model consisting of a jet interacting with an equatorially concentrated slow wind, emulating the presence of a dense torus, using the Yguazú hydrodynamical code. From our hydrodynamical models, we obtained position-velocity diagrams in the [N II]λ6583 line for comparison with the observations. We find that the spectral characteristics of M 1-32 and M 3-15 can be explained with the same physical model - a jet moving inside an asymptotic giant branch wind - using different parameters (physical conditions and position angles of the jet). In agreement with our model and observations, these objects contain a dense torus seeing pole-on and a bipolar jet escaping through the poles. Then, we propose to classify this kind of objects as spectroscopic bipolar nebulae, although they have been classified morphologically as compact, round, or elliptical nebulae or with `close collimated lobes'.

  14. Developing an integrated 3D-hydrodynamic and emerging contaminant model for assessing water quality in a Yangtze Estuary Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cong; Zhang, Jingjie; Bi, Xiaowei; Xu, Zheng; He, Yiliang; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2017-12-01

    An integrated 3D-hydrodynamic and emerging contaminant model was developed for better understanding of the fate and transport of emerging contaminants in Qingcaosha Reservoir. The reservoir, which supplies drinking water for nearly half of Shanghai's population, is located in Yangtze Delta. The integrated model was built by Delft3D suite, a fully integrated multidimensional modeling software. Atrazine and Bisphenol A (BPA) were selected as two representative emerging contaminants for the study in this reservoir. The hydrodynamic model was calibrated and validated against observations from 2011 to 2015 while the integrated model was calibrated against observations from 2014 to 2015 and then applied to explore the potential risk of high atrazine concentrations in the reservoir driven by agriculture activities. Our results show that the model is capable of describing the spatial and temporal patterns of water temperature, salinity and the dynamic distributions of two representative emerging contaminants (i.e. atrazine and BPA) in the reservoir. The physical and biodegradation processes in this study were found to play a crucial role in determining the fate and transport of atrazine and BPA in the reservoir. The model also provides an insight into the potential risk of emerging contaminants and possible mitigation thresholds. The integrated approach can be a very useful tool to support policy-makers in the future management of Qingcaosha Reservoir. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 3D hydrodynamic lift force model for AREVA fuel assembly in EDF PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Ekomie, S.; Bigot, J.; Dolleans, Ph.; Vallory, J.

    2007-07-01

    The accurate knowledge of the hydrodynamic lift force acting on a fuel assembly in PWR core is necessary to design the hold-down system of this assembly. This paper presents the model used by AREVA NP and EDF for computing this force. It results from a post-processing of sub-channel thermal-hydraulic codes respectively porous medium approach code THYC (EDF) and sub-channel type code FLICA III-F (AREVA NP). This model is based on the application of the Euler's theorem. Some hypotheses used to simplify the complexity of fuel assembly geometry are supported by CFD calculations. Then the model is compared to some experimental results obtained on a single fuel assembly inserted in the HERMES-T test facility located in CEA - Cadarache. Finally, the model is applied to calculate the lift force for the whole core. Various loading patterns including homogenous and mixed cores have been investigated and compared. (authors)

  16. An analytic hydrodynamical model of rotating 3D expansion in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, M. I.; Csörgő, T.

    2016-10-01

    A new exact and analytic solution of non-relativistic fireball hydrodynamics is presented. It describes an expanding three-axis ellipsoid that rotates along one of its principal axes. The observables are calculated using simple analytic formulas. Following earlier works, it is pointed out that azimuthal oscillation of the off-diagonal Bertsch-Pratt radii of Bose-Einstein correlations as well as rapidity dependent directed and third flow measurements provide means to determine the magnitude of the rotation of the fireball. It is argued that observing this rotation and its dependence on collision energy may lead to new information on the equation of state of the strongly interacting quark gluon plasma produced in high energy heavy ion collisions.

  17. An Analytic Hydrodynamical Model of Rotating 3d Expansion in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, M. I.; Csörgő, T.

    A new exact and analytic solution of non-relativistic fireball hydrodynamics is presented. It describes an expanding three-axis ellipsoid that rotates along one of its principal axes. The observables are calculated using simple analytic formulas. Following earlier works, it is pointed out that azimuthal oscillation of the off-diagonal Bertsch-Pratt radii of Bose-Einstein correlations as well as rapidity dependent directed and third flow measurements provide means to determine the magnitude of the rotation of the fireball. It is argued that observing this rotation and its dependence on collision energy may lead to new information on the equation of state of the strongly interacting quark gluon plasma produced in high energy heavy ion collisions.

  18. A 3D unstructured grid nearshore hydrodynamic model based on the vortex force formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Peng; Li, Ming; van der A, Dominic A.; van der Zanden, Joep; Wolf, Judith; Chen, Xueen; Wang, Caixia

    2017-08-01

    A new three-dimensional nearshore hydrodynamic model system is developed based on the unstructured-grid version of the third generation spectral wave model SWAN (Un-SWAN) coupled with the three-dimensional ocean circulation model FVCOM to enable the full representation of the wave-current interaction in the nearshore region. A new wave-current coupling scheme is developed by adopting the vortex-force (VF) scheme to represent the wave-current interaction. The GLS turbulence model is also modified to better reproduce wave-breaking enhanced turbulence, together with a roller transport model to account for the effect of surface wave roller. This new model system is validated first against a theoretical case of obliquely incident waves on a planar beach, and then applied to three test cases: a laboratory scale experiment of normal waves on a beach with a fixed breaker bar, a field experiment of oblique incident waves on a natural, sandy barred beach (Duck'94 experiment), and a laboratory study of normal-incident waves propagating around a shore-parallel breakwater. Overall, the model predictions agree well with the available measurements in these tests, illustrating the robustness and efficiency of the present model for very different spatial scales and hydrodynamic conditions. Sensitivity tests indicate the importance of roller effects and wave energy dissipation on the mean flow (undertow) profile over the depth. These tests further suggest to adopt a spatially varying value for roller effects across the beach. In addition, the parameter values in the GLS turbulence model should be spatially inhomogeneous, which leads to better prediction of the turbulent kinetic energy and an improved prediction of the undertow velocity profile.

  19. Quantitative analysis of 3D hydrodynamic focusing of microparticles by digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perfetti, C.; Iorio, C. S.; El Mallahi, A.; Dubois, F.

    2014-02-01

    In the field of life sciences, the monitoring of biological samples has become a great concern to control the ecosystem evolution. However, their characterization is often time-consuming because the typical size of the organisms/particles of interest is several orders of magnitude smaller than the size of the sample under observation. Optical visualization systems require, then, high magnifications that severely limit the depth of focus and consequently decrease the sampling rate. To tackle this issue, the most straightforward technique consists in focusing the samples to fit the observation field of view by means of so-called "sheath flows". This expedient allows for increasing the overall flow rate, inversely related to the sampling time. In this article, a cost-effective 3D hydro-focusing device is presented. Several flow rates have been tested for both sample and sheath flows, and a thorough investigation of the shape of the focused streamlines conducted in order to validate the prototype design. The 3D position of the sampled micro-objects has been located by digital holographic microscopy and their distribution in cross-sections downstream the injection nozzle compared to numerical simulations. A maximum constriction—ratio between the part of the cross-sections where particles are present with and without focusing sheath flow—of 4.4 % has been observed confirming the potentiality of the technique. Also, a successful match between experiment and numerical simulation has been noted.

  20. 3D geometry and hydrodynamic modifications in fractured and porous rock samples through chemical alterations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noiriel, C. N.

    2011-12-01

    Fractured and porous rocks are the principal path for water flow and potential contamination. Modification of fracture topology and transmissivity by reactive fluids is an important and complex geological process. In carbonate rocks, fractures and porous media properties may change quickly and strongly due to natural processes (e.g. karstification, salt intrusion) or anthropogenic practice (e.g. CO2 geological sequestration). Recent application of X-ray micro-tomography to the Earth Sciences, which allows the visualization of 3D objects with a micrometre resolution, has considerably increased experimental capability by giving access to a 4D spatio-temporal vision (3D geometry + time) of the physical-chemical processes within the rocks. New information is now accessible, which provides a better understanding of the processes and allows the numerical models to be better constrained. I will present the application of X-ray micro-tomography to study changes of petrophysical properties (e.g. porosity, permeability, mineral surface area, etc.) of fractured and porous rocks in response to fluid-rock interactions (dissolution and precipitation). Experimental results will be discussed in regard to numerical modelling of flow and transport. Keywords: X-ray micro-tomography, fracture, porous media, dissolution, precipitation, carbon dioxide sequestration, limestone, reactive surface, geochemical modelling,

  1. An Investigation of the Formation and Line Properties of MgH in 3D Hydrodynamical Model Stellar Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thygesen, Anders O.; Kirby, Evan N.; Gallagher, Andrew J.; Ludwig, Hans-G.; Caffau, Elisabetta; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Sbordone, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Studies of the isotopic composition of magnesium in cool stars have so far relied upon the use of 1D model atmospheres. Since the isotopic ratios derived are based on asymmetries of optical MgH lines, it is important to test the impact from other effects affecting line asymmetries, like stellar convection. Here, we present a theoretical investigation of the effects of including self-consistent modeling of convection. Using spectral syntheses based on 3D hydrodynamical CO5BOLD models of dwarfs (4000 K ≲ T eff ≲ 5160 K, 4.0 ≤ {log}g ≤ 4.5, -3.0≤slant [{Fe}/{{H}}]≤slant -1.0) and giants (T eff ˜ 4000 K, {log}g = 1.5, -3.0≤slant [{Fe}/{{H}}]≤slant -1.0), we perform a detailed analysis comparing 3D and 1D syntheses. We describe the impact on the formation and behavior of MgH lines from using 3D models, and perform a qualitative assessment of the systematics introduced by the use of 1D syntheses. Using 3D model atmospheres significantly affect the strength of the MgH lines, especially in dwarfs, with 1D syntheses requiring an abundance correction of up to +0.69 dex, with the largest for our 5000 K models. The corrections are correlated with T eff and are also affected by the metallicity. The shape of the strong 24MgH component in the 3D syntheses is poorly reproduced in 1D. This results in 1D syntheses underestimating 25Mg by up to ˜5 percentage points and overestimating 24Mg by a similar amount for dwarfs. This discrepancy increases with decreasing metallicity. 26Mg is recovered relatively well, with the largest difference being ˜2 percentage points. The use of 3D for giants has less impact, due to smaller differences in the atmospheric structure and a better reproduction of the line shape in 1D.

  2. Single-layer microfluidic device to realize hydrodynamic 3D flow focusing.

    PubMed

    Eluru, Gangadhar; Julius, Lourdes Albina Nirupa; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2016-10-18

    The recent rapid growth of microfluidic applications has witnessed the emergence of several particle flow focusing techniques for analysis and/or further processing. The majority of flow focusing techniques employ an external sheath fluid to achieve sample flow focusing independent of the flow rate, in contrast to sheath-free techniques. However, the introduction of a sheath fluid to surround the sample fluid has complicated the device design and fabrication, generally involving multi-layer fabrication and bonding of multiple polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers. Several promising efforts have been made to reduce the complexity of fabrication. However, most of these methods involved the use of inertial/Dean effects, which in turn demanded the use of higher sample flow rates. In this paper, we report a method of flow focusing that uses a sheath fluid to enclose the sample in a single layer of PDMS, and that possesses applicability for a wide range of sample flow rates. This method of flow focusing uses abrupt channel depth variation and a shift of one of the sample-sheath junctions (termed as 'junction-shift') against the direction of the sample flow. This configuration serves to manipulate the sample fluid with respect to the sheath fluid and achieve the desired flow focusing. This design facilitates the attainment of 3D flow focusing in two sequential steps (depth-wise and then along the lateral direction) and in distinct regions, hence enabling the regions to be used in imaging and non-imaging flow cytometric applications, respectively. Simulations were performed to characterize and determine the optimum set of design parameters. Experimental demonstrations of this technique were carried out by focusing fluorescein dye and blood cells in flow.

  3. An in-depth spectroscopic examination of molecular bands from 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. II. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor 3D model atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, A. J.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Homeier, D.; Plez, B.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Tighter constraints on metal-poor stars we observe are needed to better understand the chemical processes of the early Universe. Computing a stellar spectrum in 3D allows one to model complex stellar behaviours, which cannot be replicated in 1D. Aims: We examine the effect that the intrinsic CNO abundances have on a 3D model structure and the resulting 3D spectrum synthesis. Methods: Model atmospheres were computed in 3D for three distinct CNO chemical compositions using the CO5BOLD model atmosphere code, and their internal structures were examined. Synthetic spectra were computed from these models using Linfor3D and they were compared. New 3D abundance corrections for the G-band and a selection of UV OH lines were also computed. Results: The varying CNO abundances change the metal content of the 3D models. This had an effect on the model structure and the resulting synthesis. However, it was found that the C/O ratio had a larger effect than the overall metal content of a model. Conclusions: Our results suggest that varying the C/O ratio has a substantial impact on the internal structure of the 3D model, even in the hot turn-off star models explored here. This suggests that bespoke 3D models, for specific CNO abundances should be sought. Such effects are not seen in 1D at these temperature regimes.

  4. Surface-effect corrections for solar-like oscillations using 3D hydrodynamical simulations. I. Adiabatic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoi, T.; Samadi, R.; Belkacem, K.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.; Mosser, B.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The CoRoT and Kepler space-borne missions have provided us with a wealth of high-quality observational data that allows for seismic inferences of stellar interiors. This requires the computation of precise and accurate theoretical frequencies, but imperfect modeling of the uppermost stellar layers introduces systematic errors. To overcome this problem, an empirical correction has been introduced by Kjeldsen et al. (2008, ApJ, 683, L175) and is now commonly used for seismic inferences. Nevertheless, we still lack a physical justification allowing for the quantification of the surface-effect corrections. Aims: Our aim is to constrain the surface-effect corrections across the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram using a set of 3D hydrodynamical simulations. Methods: We used a grid of these simulations computed with the CO5BOLD code to model the outer layers of solar-like stars. Upper layers of the corresponding 1D standard models were then replaced by the layers obtained from the horizontally averaged 3D models. The frequency differences between these patched models and the 1D standard models were then calculated using the adiabatic approximation and allowed us to constrain the Kjeldsen et al. power law, as well as a Lorentzian formulation. Results: We find that the surface effects on modal frequencies depend significantly on both the effective temperature and the surface gravity. We further provide the variation in the parameters related to the surface-effect corrections using their power law as well as a Lorentzian formulation. Scaling relations between these parameters and the elevation (related to the Mach number) is also provided. The Lorentzian formulation is shown to be more robust for the whole frequency spectrum, while the power law is not suitable for the frequency shifts in the frequency range above νmax. Finally, we show that, owing to turbulent pressure, the elevation of the uppermost layers modifies the location of the hydrogen ionization zone and

  5. Numerical modelling and measurement of cell trajectories in 3-D under the influence of dielectrophoretic and hydrodynamic forces.

    PubMed

    Holzner, Felix; Hagmeyer, Britta; Schütte, Julia; Kubon, Massimo; Angres, Brigitte; Stelzle, Martin

    2011-09-01

    This research is part of a program aiming at the development of a fluidic microsystem for in vitro drug testing. For this purpose, primary cells need to be assembled to form cellular aggregates in such a way as to resemble the basic functional units of organs. By providing for in vivo-like cellular contacts, proper extracellular matrix interaction and medium perfusion it is expected that cells will retain their phenotype over prolonged periods of time. In this way, in vitro test systems exhibiting in vivo type predictivity in drug testing are envisioned. Towards this goal a 3-D microstructure micro-milled in a cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) was designed in such a way as to assemble liver cells via insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) in a sinusoid-type fashion. First, numeric modelling and simulation of dielectrophoretic and hydrodynamic forces acting on cells in this microsystem was performed. In particular, the problem of the discontinuity of the electric field at the interface between the fluid media in the system and the polymer materials it consists of was addressed. It was shown that in certain cases, the material of the microsystem may be neglected altogether without introducing considerable error into the numerical solution. This simplification enabled the simulation of 3-D cell trajectories in complex chip geometries. Secondly, the assembly of HepG2 cells by insulator-based dielectrophoresis in this device is demonstrated. Finally, theoretical results were validated by recording 3-D cell trajectories and the Clausius-Mossotti factor of liver cells was determined by combining results obtained from both simulation and experiment.

  6. Emission profile variability in hot star winds. A pseudo-3D method based on radiation hydrodynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, L.; Owocki, S. P.

    2002-03-01

    We present theoretical calculations of emission line profile variability based on hot star wind structure calculated numerically using radiation hydrodynamics simulations. A principal goal is to examine how well short-time-scale variations observed in wind emission lines can be modelled by wind structure arising from small-scale instabilities intrinsic to the line-driving of these winds. The simulations here use a new implementation of the Smooth Source Function formalism for line-driving within a one-dimensional (1D) operation of the standard hydrodynamics code ZEUS-2D. As in previous wind instability simulations, the restriction to 1D is necessitated by the computational costs of non-local integrations needed for the line-driving force; but we find that naive application of such simulations within an explicit assumption of spherically symmetric structure leads to an unobserved strong concentration of profile variability toward the line wings. We thus introduce a new ``patch method'' for mimicking a full 3D wind structure by collecting random sequences of 1D simulations to represent the structure evolution along radial rays that extend over a selectable patch-size of solid angle. We provide illustrative results for a selection of patch sizes applied to a simulation with standard assumptions that govern the details of instability-generated wind structure, and show in particular that a typical model with a patch size of about 3 deg can qualitatively reproduce the fundamental properties of observed profile variations. We conclude with a discussion of prospects for extending the simulation method to optically thick winds of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, and for thereby applying our ``patch method'' to dynamical modelling of the extensive variability observed in wind emission lines from these WR stars.

  7. Making Faranoff-Riley I radio sources. I. Numerical hydrodynamic 3D simulations of low-power jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaglia, S.; Bodo, G.; Rossi, P.; Capetti, S.; Mignone, A.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Extragalactic radio sources have been classified into two classes, Fanaroff-Riley I and II, which differ in morphology and radio power. Strongly emitting sources belong to the edge-brightened FR II class, and weakly emitting sources to the edge-darkened FR I class. The origin of this dichotomy is not yet fully understood. Numerical simulations are successful in generating FR II morphologies, but they fail to reproduce the diffuse structure of FR Is. Aims: By means of hydro-dynamical 3D simulations of supersonic jets, we investigate how the displayed morphologies depend on the jet parameters. Bow shocks and Mach disks at the jet head, which are probably responsible for the hot spots in the FR II sources, disappear for a jet kinetic power ℒkin ≲ 1043 erg s-1. This threshold compares favorably with the luminosity at which the FR I/FR II transition is observed. Methods: The problem is addressed by numerical means carrying out 3D HD simulations of supersonic jets that propagate in a non-homogeneous medium with the ambient temperature that increases with distance from the jet origin, which maintains constant pressure. Results: The jet energy in the lower power sources, instead of being deposited at the terminal shock, is gradually dissipated by the turbulence. The jets spread out while propagating, and they smoothly decelerate while mixing with the ambient medium and produce the plumes characteristic of FR I objects. Conclusions: Three-dimensionality is an essential ingredient to explore the FR I evolution becausethe properties of turbulence in two and three dimensions are very different, since there is no energy cascade to small scales in two dimensions, and two-dimensional simulations with the same parameters lead to FRII-like behavior.

  8. Understanding the Impact of Reservoir Operations on Temperature Hydrodynamics at Shasta Lake through 2D and 3D Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallnan, R.; Busby, D.; Saito, L.; Daniels, M.; Danner, E.; Tyler, S.

    2016-12-01

    Stress on California's salmon fisheries as a result of recent drought highlights a need for effective temperature management in the Sacramento River. Cool temperatures are required for Chinook salmon spawning and rearing. At Shasta Dam in northern California, managers use selective reservoir withdrawals to meet downstream temperature thresholds set for Chinook salmon populations. Shasta Dam is equipped with a temperature control device (TCD) that allows for water withdrawals at different reservoir depths. A two-dimensional CE-QUAL-W2 (W2) model of Shasta Reservoir has been used to understand the impacts of TCD operations on reservoir and discharge dynamics at Shasta. W2 models the entire reservoir based on hydrologic and meteorological inputs, and therefore can be used to simulate various hydroclimatic conditions, reservoir operations, and resulting reservoir conditions. A limitation of the W2 model is that it only captures reservoir conditions in two dimensions (length and depth), which may not represent local hydrodynamic effects of TCD operations that could affect simulation of discharge temperatures. Thus, a three-dimensional (3D) model of the TCD and the immediately adjacent upstream reservoir has been constructed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in ANSYS Fluent. This 3D model provides additional insight into the mixing effects of different TCD operations, and resulting reservoir outflow temperatures. The drought conditions of 2015 provide a valuable dataset for assessing the efficacy of modeling the temperature profile of Shasta Reservoir under very low inflow volumes, so the W2 and CFD models are compared for model performance in late 2015. To assist with this assessment, data from a distributed temperature sensing (DTS) deployment at Shasta Lake since August 2015 are used. This presentation describes model results from both W2 as well as the CFD model runs during late 2015, and discuss their efficacy for modeling drought conditions.

  9. Effects of the LBV Primary's Mass-loss Rate on the 3D Hydrodynamics of eta Carinae's Colliding Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madura, Thomas I.; Gull, Theodore R.; Cocoran, M.; Okazaki, A.; Owocki, S.; Russell, C.; Hamaguchi, K.; Clementel, N; Groh, J.; Hillier, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    At the heart of eta Carinae's spectacular "Homunculus" nebula lies an extremely luminous (L(sub Total) greater than approximately 5 × 10(exp 6) solar luminosity) colliding wind binary with a highly eccentric (e approximately 0.9), 5.54-year orbit (Figure 1). The primary of the system, a Luminous Blue Variable (LBV), is our closest (D approximately 2.3 kpc) and best example of a pre-hypernova or pre-gamma ray burst environment. The remarkably consistent and periodic RXTE X-ray light curve surprisingly showed a major change during the system's last periastron in 2009, with the X-ray minimum being approximately 50% shorter than the minima of the previous two cycles1. Between 1998 and 2011, the strengths of various broad stellar wind emission lines (e.g. Halpha, Fe II) in line-of-sight (l.o.s.) also decreased by factors of 1.5 - 3 relative to the continuum2. The current interpretation for these changes is that they are due to a gradual factor of 2 - 4 drop in the primary's mass-loss rate over the last approximately 15 years1, 2. However, while a secular change is seen for a direct view of the central source, little to no change is seen in profiles at high stellar latitudes or reflected off of the dense, circumbinary material known as the "Weigelt blobs"2, 3. Moreover, model spectra generated with CMFGEN predict that a factor of 2 - 4 drop in the primary's mass-loss rate should lead to huge changes in the observed spectrum, which thus far have not been seen. Here we present results from large- (plus or minus 1620 AU) and small- (plus or minus 162 AU) domain, full 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of eta Car's massive binary colliding winds for three different primary-star mass-loss rates (2.4, 4.8, and 8.5 × 10(exp -4) solar mass/yr). The goal is to investigate how the mass-loss rate affects the 3D geometry and dynamics of eta Car's optically-thick wind and spatially-extended wind-wind collision (WWC) regions, both of which are known sources of

  10. Experimental and numerical investigation into micro-flow cytometer with 3-D hydrodynamic focusing effect and micro-weir structure.

    PubMed

    Hou, Hui-Hsiung; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Fu, Lung-Ming; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2009-07-01

    This study presents a novel 3-D hydrodynamic focusing technique for micro-flow cytometers. In the proposed approach, the sample stream is compressed initially in the horizontal direction by a set of sheath flows such that it is constrained to the central region of the microchannel and is then focused in the vertical direction by a second pair of sheath flows. Thereafter, the focused sample stream passes over a micro-weir structure positioned directly beneath an optical detection system to capture polystyrene beads fluorescent signal. The microchannel configuration and operational parameters are optimized by performing a series of numerical simulations. An experimental investigation is then performed using a micro-flow cytometer fabricated using conventional micro-electro-mechanical systems techniques and an isotropic wet etching method. The results indicate that the two sets of sheath flows successfully constrain the sample stream within a narrow, well-defined region of the microchannel. Furthermore, the micro-weir structure prompts the separation of a mixed sample of 5 and 10 microm polystyrene beads in the vertical direction and ensures that the beads flow through the detection region of the microchannel in a sequential fashion and can therefore be reliably detected and counted.

  11. A coupled wave-3-D hydrodynamics model of the Taranto Sea (Italy): a multiple-nesting approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaeta, Maria Gabriella; Samaras, Achilleas G.; Federico, Ivan; Archetti, Renata; Maicu, Francesco; Lorenzetti, Giuliano

    2016-09-01

    The present work describes an operational strategy for the development of a multiscale modeling system, based on a multiple-nesting approach and open-source numerical models. The strategy was applied and validated for the Gulf of Taranto in southern Italy, scaling large-scale oceanographic model results to high-resolution coupled wave-3-D hydrodynamics simulations for the area of Mar Grande in the Taranto Sea. The spatial and temporal high-resolution simulations were performed using the open-source TELEMAC suite, forced by wind data from the COSMO-ME database, boundary wave spectra from the RON buoy at Crotone and results from the Southern Adriatic Northern Ionian coastal Forecasting System (SANIFS) regarding sea levels and current fields. Model validation was carried out using data collected in the Mar Grande basin from a fixed monitoring station and during an oceanographic campaign in October 2014. The overall agreement between measurements and model results in terms of waves, sea levels, surface currents, circulation patterns and vertical velocity profiles is deemed to be satisfactory, and the methodology followed in the process can constitute a useful tool for both research and operational applications in the same field and as support of decisions for management and design of infrastructures.

  12. Influence of the Aral Sea negative water balance on its seasonal circulation patterns: use of a 3D hydrodynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirjacobs, D.; Grégoire, M.; Delhez, E.; Nihoul, J. C. J.

    2004-06-01

    A 3D hydrodynamic model of the Aral Sea was successfully implemented to address the complex hydrodynamic changes induced by the combined effect of hydrologic and climatic change in the Aral region. The first barotropic numerical experiments allowed us to produce a comparative description of the mean general seasonal circulation patterns corresponding to the original situation (1956-1960) and of the average situation for the period from 1981 to 1985, a very low river flow period. The dominant anticyclonic circulation suggested by our seasonal simulation is in good agreement with previous investigations. In addition, this main anticyclonic gyre was shown to be stable and clearly established from February to September, while winter winds led to another circulation scenario. In winter, the main anticyclonic gyre was considerably limited, and cyclonic circulations appeared in the deep western basin and in the northeast of the shallow basin. In contrast, stronger anticyclonic circulation was observed in the Small Aral Sea during winter. As a consequence of the 10-m sea level drop observed between the two periods considered, the 1981-1985 simulation suggests an intensification of seasonal variability. Total water transport of the main gyre was reduced with sea level drop by a minimum of 30% in May and up to 54% in September. Before 1960, the study of the net flows through Berg and Kokaral Straits allowed us to evaluate the component of water exchange between the Small and the Large Seas linked with the general anticyclonic circulation around Kokaral Island. This exchange was lowest in summer (with a mean anticyclonic exchange of 222 m 3/s for July and August), highest in fall and winter (with a mean value of 1356 m 3/s from September to February) and briefly reversed in the spring (mean cyclonic circulation of 316 m 3/s for April and May). In summer, the water exchange due to local circulation at the scale of each strait was comparatively more important because net flows

  13. Constraints on decreases in η Carinae's mass-loss from 3D hydrodynamic simulations of its binary colliding winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Teodoro, M.

    2013-12-01

    Recent work suggests that the mass-loss rate of the primary star ηA in the massive colliding wind binary η Carinae dropped by a factor of 2-3 between 1999 and 2010. We present results from large- (±1545 au) and small- (±155 au) domain, 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of η Car's colliding winds for three ηA mass-loss rates (dot{M}_{η A}= 2.4, 4.8 and 8.5 × 10-4 M⊙ yr-1), investigating the effects on the dynamics of the binary wind-wind collision (WWC). These simulations include orbital motion, optically thin radiative cooling and radiative forces. We find that dot{M}_{η A} greatly affects the time-dependent hydrodynamics at all spatial scales investigated. The simulations also show that the post-shock wind of the companion star ηB switches from the adiabatic to the radiative-cooling regime during periastron passage (φ ≈ 0.985-1.02). This switchover starts later and ends earlier the lower the value of dot{M}_{η A} and is caused by the encroachment of the wind of ηA into the acceleration zone of ηB's wind, plus radiative inhibition of ηB's wind by ηA. The SPH simulations together with 1D radiative transfer models of ηA's spectra reveal that a factor of 2 or more drop in dot{M}_{η A} should lead to substantial changes in numerous multiwavelength observables. Recent observations are not fully consistent with the model predictions, indicating that any drop in dot{M}_{η A} was likely by a factor of ≲2 and occurred after 2004. We speculate that most of the recent observed changes in η Car are due to a small increase in the WWC opening angle that produces significant effects because our line of sight to the system lies close to the dense walls of the WWC zone. A modest decrease in dot{M}_{η A} may be responsible, but changes in the wind/stellar parameters of ηB, while less likely, cannot yet be fully ruled out. We suggest observations during η Car's next periastron in 2014 to further test for decreases in dot{M}_{η A}. If

  14. Constraints on Decreases in Eta Carinae's Mass-loss from 3D Hydrodynamic Simulations of Its Binary Colliding Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Teodoro, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work suggests that the mass-loss rate of the primary star Eta-A in the massive colliding wind binary Eta Carinae dropped by a factor of 2-3 between 1999 and 2010. We present result from large- (+/- 1545 au) and small- (+/- 155 au) domain, 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of Eta Car's colliding winds for three Eta-A mass-loss rates ( (dot-M(sub Eta-A) = 2.4, 4.8 and 8.5 × 10(exp -4) M(solar)/ yr), investigating the effects on the dynamics of the binary wind-wind collision (WWC). These simulations include orbital motion, optically thin radiative cooling and radiative forces. We find that dot-M Eta-A greatly affects the time-dependent hydrodynamics at all spatial scales investigated. The simulations also show that the post-shock wind of the companion star Eta-B switches from the adiabatic to the radiative-cooling regime during periastron passage (Phi approx.= 0.985-1.02). This switchover starts later and ends earlier the lower the value of dot-M Eta-A and is caused by the encroachment of the wind of Eta-A into the acceleration zone of Eta-B's wind, plus radiative inhibition of Eta-B's wind by Eta-A. The SPH simulations together with 1D radiative transfer models of Eta-A's spectra reveal that a factor of 2 or more drop in dot-M EtaA should lead to substantial changes in numerous multiwavelength observables. Recent observations are not fully consistent with the model predictions, indicating that any drop in dot- M Eta-A was likely by a factor of approx. < 2 and occurred after 2004. We speculate that most of the recent observed changes in Eta Car are due to a small increase in the WWC opening angle that produces significant effects because our line of sight to the system lies close to the dense walls of the WWC zone. A modest decrease in dot-M Eta-A may be responsible, but changes in the wind/stellar parameter of Eta-B, while less likely, cannot yet be fully ruled out. We suggest observations during Eta-Car's next periastron in 2014 to further

  15. Hierarchical Statistical 3D ' Atomistic' Simulation of Decanano MOSFETs: Drift-Diffusion, Hydrodynamic and Quantum Mechanical Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asenov, Asen; Brown, A. R.; Slavcheva, G.; Davies, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    voltage only single solution of the nonlinear Poisson equation is sufficient to extract the current with satisfactory accuracy. A pilot version of a hydrodynamic 'atomistic' simulator has been developed in order to study the effect of the nonequilibrium, non local transport in decanano MOSFETs on the random dopant induced current fluctuations. For the first time we have also applied the density gradient approach in 3D to investigate the effect of the quantum confinement on the threshold voltage fluctuations. The developed 'atomistic' simulation techniques have been applied to study various fluctuation resistant MOSFET architectures including epitaxial and delta doped devices.

  16. 3D Hydrodynamic Simulations with Yguazú-A Code to Model a Jet in a Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haro-Corzo, S. A. R.; Velazquez, P.; Diaz, A.

    2009-05-01

    We present preliminary results for a galaxy's jet expanding into an intra-cluster medium (ICM). We attempt to model the jet-gas interaction and the evolution of a extragalactic collimated jet placed at center of computational grid, which it is modeled as a cylinder ejecting gas in the z-axis direction with fixed velocity. It has precession motion around z-axis (period of 10^5 sec.) and orbital motion in XY-plane (period of 500 yr.). This jet is embedded in the ICM, which is modeled as surrounding wind in the XZ plane. We carried out 3D hydrodynamical simulations using Yguazú-A code. This simulation do not include radiative losses. In order to compare the numerical results with observations, we generated synthetic X-ray emission images. X-ray observations with high-resolution of rich cluster of galaxies show diffuse emission with filamentary structure (sometimes called as cooling flow or X-ray filament). Radio observations show a jet-like emission of the central region of the cluster. Joining these observations, in this work we explore the possibility that the jet-ambient gas interaction leads to a filamentary morphology in the X-ray domain. We have found that simulation considering orbital motion offers the possibility to explain the diffuse emission observed in the X-ray domain. The circular orbital motion, additional to precession motion, contribute to disperse the shocked gas and the X-ray appearance of the 3D simulation reproduce some important details of Abel 1795 X-ray emission (Rodriguez-Martinez et al. 2006, A&A, 448, 15): A bright bow-shock at north (spot), where interact directly the jet and the ICM and which is observed in the X-ray image. Meanwhile, in the south side there is no bow-shock X-ray emission, but the wake appears as a X-ray source. This wake is part of the diffuse shocked ambient gas region.

  17. Global 3D radiation-hydrodynamics models of AGB stars. Effects of convection and radial pulsations on atmospheric structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freytag, B.; Liljegren, S.; Höfner, S.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Observations of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with increasing spatial resolution reveal new layers of complexity of atmospheric processes on a variety of scales. Aims: To analyze the physical mechanisms that cause asymmetries and surface structures in observed images, we use detailed 3D dynamical simulations of AGB stars; these simulations self-consistently describe convection and pulsations. Methods: We used the CO5BOLD radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce an exploratory grid of global "star-in-a-box" models of the outer convective envelope and the inner atmosphere of AGB stars to study convection, pulsations, and shock waves and their dependence on stellar and numerical parameters. Results: The model dynamics are governed by the interaction of long-lasting giant convection cells, short-lived surface granules, and strong, radial, fundamental-mode pulsations. Radial pulsations and shorter wavelength, traveling, acoustic waves induce shocks on various scales in the atmosphere. Convection, waves, and shocks all contribute to the dynamical pressure and, thus, to an increase of the stellar radius and to a levitation of material into layers where dust can form. Consequently, the resulting relation of pulsation period and stellar radius is shifted toward larger radii compared to that of non-linear 1D models. The dependence of pulsation period on luminosity agrees well with observed relations. The interaction of the pulsation mode with the non-stationary convective flow causes occasional amplitude changes and phase shifts. The regularity of the pulsations decreases with decreasing gravity as the relative size of convection cells increases. The model stars do not have a well-defined surface. Instead, the light is emitted from a very extended inhomogeneous atmosphere with a complex dynamic pattern of high-contrast features. Conclusions: Our models self-consistently describe convection, convectively generated acoustic noise, fundamental-mode radial

  18. Estimation of environmental capacity of phosphorus in Gorgan Bay, Iran, via a 3D ecological-hydrodynamic model.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Mohammad Hassan; Hadjizadeh Zaker, Nasser

    2016-11-01

    Gorgan Bay is a semi-enclosed basin located in the southeast of the Caspian Sea in Iran and is an important marine habitat for fish and seabirds. In the present study, the environmental capacity of phosphorus in Gorgan Bay was estimated using a 3D ecological-hydrodynamic numerical model and a linear programming model. The distribution of phosphorus, simulated by the numerical model, was used as an index for the occurrence of eutrophication and to determine the water quality response field of each of the pollution sources. The linear programming model was used to calculate and allocate the total maximum allowable loads of phosphorus to each of the pollution sources in a way that eutrophication be prevented and at the same time maximum environmental capacity be achieved. In addition, the effect of an artificial inlet on the environmental capacity of the bay was investigated. Observations of surface currents in Gorgan Bay were made by GPS-tracked surface drifters to provide data for calibration and verification of numerical modeling. Drifters were deployed at five different points across the bay over a period of 5 days. The results indicated that the annual environmental capacity of phosphorus is approximately 141 t if a concentration of 0.0477 mg/l for phosphorus is set as the water quality criterion. Creating an artificial inlet with a width of 1 km in the western part of the bay would result in a threefold increase in the environmental capacity of the study area.

  19. Modelling of river plume dynamics in Öre estuary (Baltic Sea) with Telemac-3D hydrodynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The main property of river plumes is their buoyancy, fresh water discharged by rivers is less dense than the receiving, saline waters. To study the processes of plume formation in case of river discharge into a brackish estuary where salinity is low (3.5 - 5 psu) a three dimensional hydrodynamic model was applied to the Öre estuary in the Baltic Sea. This estuary is a small fjord-like bay in the north part of the Baltic Sea. Size of the bay is about 8 by 8 km with maximum depth of 35 metres. River Öre has a small average freshwater discharge of 35 m3/s. But in spring during snowmelt the discharge can be many times higher. For example, in April 2015 the discharge increased from 8 m3/s to 160 m3/s in 18 days. To study river plume dynamics a finite element based three dimensional baroclinic model TELEMAC - 3D is used. The TELEMAC modelling suite is developed by the National Laboratory of Hydraulics and Environment (LNHE) of Electricité de France (EDF). Modelling domain was approximated by an unstructured mesh with element size varies from 50 to 500 m. In vertical direction a sigma-coordinate with 20 layers was used. Open sea boundary conditions were obtained from the Baltic Sea model HIROMB-BOOS using COPERNICUS marine environment monitoring service. Comparison of modelling results with observations obtained by BONUS COCOA project's field campaign in Öre estuary in 2015 shows that the model plausible simulate river plume dynamics. Modelling of age of freshwater is also discussed. This work resulted from the BONUS COCOA project was supported by BONUS (Art 185), funded jointly by the EU and the Swedish Research Council Formas.

  20. Influence of the Aral Sea negative water balance on its seasonal circulation and ventilation patterns: use of a 3d hydrodynamic model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirjacobs, D.; Grégoire, M.; Delhez, E.; Nihoul, J.

    2003-04-01

    Within the context of the EU INCO-COPERNICUS program "Desertification in the Aral Sea Region: A study of the Natural and Anthropogenic Impacts" (Contract IAC2-CT-2000-10023), a large-scale 3D hydrodynamic model was adapted to address specifically the macroscale processes affecting the Aral Sea water circulation and ventilation. The particular goal of this research is to simulate the effect of lasting negative water balance on the 3D seasonal circulation, temperature, salinity and water-mixing fields of the Aral Sea. The original Aral Sea seasonal hydrodynamism is simulated with the average seasonal forcings corresponding to the period from 1956 to 1960. This first investigation concerns a period of relative stability of the water balance, before the beginning of the drying process. The consequences of the drying process on the hydrodynamic of the Sea will be studied by comparing this first results with the simulation representing the average situation for the years 1981 to 1985, a very low river flow period. For both simulation periods, the forcing considered are the seasonal fluctuations of wind fields, precipitation, evaporation, river discharge and salinity, cloud cover, air temperature and humidity. The meteorological forcings were adapted to the common optimum one-month temporal resolution of the available data sets. Monthly mean kinetic energy flux and surface tensions were calculated from daily ECMWF wind data. Monthly in situ precipitation, surface air temperature and humidity fields were interpolated from data obtained from the Russian Hydrological and Meteorological Institute. Monthly water discharge and average salinity of the river water were considered for both Amu Darya and Syr Darya river over each simulation periods. The water mass conservation routines allowed the simulation of a changing coastline by taking into account local drying and flooding events of particular grid points. Preliminary barotropic runs were realised (for the 1951

  1. Sci-Fri AM: YIS-09: The effect of magnetic interference on a coupled MR-linac system: Optimization of 3D FEM linac model.

    PubMed

    St Aubin, J; Steciw, S; Carlone, M; Fallone, B G

    2008-07-01

    The coupling of a 0.2T bi-planar Magnetic Resonance Imager and medical linear accelerator (linac) is proposed to provide real-time Image Guided Radiotherapy. This coupling necessitates the linac to be within the fringe fields of the bi-planar magnets causing magnetic interference. The design and optimization of the minimum required shielding is necessary to reduce the fringe field magnitudes to a point where a clinically useful radiation beam is produced. A first step to designing shielding is the full 3D radio-frequency modeling of the linac waveguide using the Finite Element Method. Various optimizations were performed on the linac model in order to achieve a desired resonant frequency, π/2 phase shift per cavity and other desired properties. An accelerating cavity (AC) and coupling cavity (CC) was first optimized in 3D to have identical resonant frequencies before the full 3D model was generated. In order to increase the capture efficiency of the injected electrons, the electric field in the first AC was reduced by shifting the first CC towards the gun end of the linac. The input waveguide AC dimensions were adjusted to account of the additional coupling iris and the last full AC had its gap length decreased. This work is the first step to determining the minimum magnetic shielding required to produce a clinically useful radiation beam from a coupled MR-Linac system. The fully optimized 3D model more accurately calculates the electric and magnetic field values since it includes the effects of coupling. © 2008 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Implementation of a 3D Coupled Hydrodynamic and Contaminant Fate Model for PCDD/Fs in Thau Lagoon (France): The Importance of Atmospheric Sources of Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Dueri, Sibylle; Marinov, Dimitar; Fiandrino, Annie; Tronczyński, Jacek; Zaldívar, José-Manuel

    2010-01-01

    A 3D hydrodynamic and contaminant fate model was implemented for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Thau lagoon. The hydrodynamic model was tested against temperature and salinity measurements, while the contaminant fate model was assessed against available data collected at different stations inside the lagoon. The model results allow an assessment of the spatial and temporal variability of the distribution of contaminants in the lagoon, the seasonality of loads and the role of atmospheric deposition for the input of PCDD/Fs. The outcome suggests that air is an important source of PCDD/Fs for this ecosystem, therefore the monitoring of air pollution is very appropriate for assessing the inputs of these contaminants. These results call for the development of integrated environmental protection policies. PMID:20617040

  3. Advantages of 3D FEM numerical modeling over 2D, analyzed in a case study of transient thermal-hydraulic groundwater utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchsluger, Martin; Götzl, Gregor

    2014-05-01

    flow has been realized. In addition the effects of the basement of the building to the groundwater flow have been analyzed. The results of the 2D model show an underestimation of more than 10 % of the performance of the groundwater utilization facility and a considerable smaller groundwater table drawdown compared to the 3D simulations. This is due to the possibility of 3D modeling to consider (i) the heat distribution and storage in the adjacent layers, (ii) the climatic surface effect and (iii) vertical groundwater flow.

  4. Applications of 3D hydrodynamic and particle tracking models in the San Francisco bay-delta estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, P.E.; Donovan, J.M.; Wong, H.F.N.

    2005-01-01

    Three applications of three-dimensional hydrodynamic and particle-tracking models are currently underway by the United States Geological Survey in the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary. The first application is to the San Francisco Bay and a portion of the coastal ocean. The second application is to an important, gated control channel called the Delta Cross Channel, located within the northern portion of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The third application is to a reach of the San Joaquin River near Stockton, California where a significant dissolved oxygen problem exists due, in part, to conditions associated with the deep-water ship channel for the Port of Stockton, California. This paper briefly discusses the hydrodynamic and particle tracking models being used and the three applications. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  5. A facile route to the synthesis of monodisperse nanoscale liposomes using 3D microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing in a concentric capillary array.

    PubMed

    Hood, Renee R; DeVoe, Don L; Atencia, Javier; Vreeland, Wyatt N; Omiatek, Donna M

    2014-07-21

    A novel microscale device has been developed to enable the one-step continuous flow assembly of monodisperse nanoscale liposomes using three-dimensional microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing (3D-MHF) in a concentric capillary array. The 3D-MHF flow technique displays patent advantages over conventional methods for nanoscale liposome manufacture (i.e., bulk-scale alcohol injection and/or sonication) through the on-demand synthesis of consistently uniform liposomes without the need for post-processing strategies. Liposomes produced by the 3D-MHF device are of tunable size, have a factor of two improvement in polydispersity, and a production rate that is four orders of magnitude higher than previous MHF methods, which can be attributed to entirely radially symmetric diffusion of alcohol-solvated lipid into an aqueous flow stream. Moreover, the 3D-MHF platform is simple to construct from low-cost, commercially-available components, which obviates the need for advanced microfabrication strategies necessitated by previous MHF nanoparticle synthesis platforms.

  6. Scaling and performance of a 3-D radiation hydrodynamics code on message-passing parallel computers: final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J C; Norman, M

    1999-10-28

    This report details an investigation into the efficacy of two approaches to solving the radiation diffusion equation within a radiation hydrodynamic simulation. Because leading-edge scientific computing platforms have evolved from large single-node vector processors to parallel aggregates containing tens to thousands of individual CPU's, the ability of an algorithm to maintain high compute efficiency when distributed over a large array of nodes is critically important. The viability of an algorithm thus hinges upon the tripartite question of numerical accuracy, total time to solution, and parallel efficiency.

  7. Detection of unlabeled particles in the low micrometer size range using light scattering and hydrodynamic 3D focusing in a microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Guisheng; Jensen, Thomas G; Kutter, Jörg P

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we describe a microfluidic device composed of integrated microoptical elements and a two-layer microchannel structure for highly sensitive light scattering detection of micro/submicrometer-sized particles. In the two-layer microfluidic system, a sample flow stream is first constrained in the out-of-plane direction into a narrow sheet, and then focused in-plane into a small core region, obtaining on-chip three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing. All the microoptical elements, including waveguides, microlens, and fiber-to-waveguide couplers, and the in-plane focusing channels are fabricated in one SU-8 layer by standard photolithography. The channels for out-of-plane focusing are made in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer by a single cast using a SU-8 master. Numerical and experimental results indicate that the device can realize 3D hydrodynamic focusing reliably over a wide range of Reynolds numbers (0.5 < Re < 20). Polystyrene particles of three sizes (2, 1, and 0.5 μm) were measured in the microfluidic device with integrated optics, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach to detect particles in the low micrometer size range by light scattering detection.

  8. On Evaluating circulation and temperature stratification under changing water levels in Lake Mead with a 3D hydrodynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Acharya, K.; Chen, D.; Stone, M.; Yu, Z.; Young, M.; Zhu, J.; Shafer, D. S.; Warwick, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    Sustained drought in the western United States since 2000 has led to a significant drop (about 35 meters) in the water level of Lake Mead, the largest reservoir by volume in United States. The drought combined with rapid urban development in southern Nevada and emergence of invasive species has threatened the water quality and ecological processes in Lake Mead. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC), was applied to investigate lake circulation and temperature stratification in parts of Lake Mead (Las Vegas Bay and Boulder Basin) under changing water levels. Besides the inflow from Las Vegas Wash and the Colorado River, the model considered atmospheric changes as well as the boundary conditions restricted by the operation of Hoover Dam. The model was calibrated and verified by using observed data including water level, velocity, and temperature from 2003 and 2005. The model was applied to study the hydrodynamic processes at water level 366.8 m (year 2000) and at water level 338.2 m (year 2008). The high-stage simulation described the pre-drought lake hydrodynamic processes while the low-stage simulation highlighted the drawdown impact on such processes. The results showed that both inflow and wind-driven mixing process played major roles in the thermal stratification and lake circulation in both cases. However, the atmospheric boundary played a more important role than inflow temperature on thermal stratification of Lake Mead during water level decline. Further, the thermal stratification regime and flow circulation pattern in shallow lake regions (e.g.., the Boulder Basin area) were most impacted. The temperature of the lake at the high-stage was more sensitive to inflow temperatures than at low-stage. Furthermore, flow velocities decreased with the decreasing water level due to reduction in wind impacts, particularly in shallow areas of the lake. Such changes in temperature and lake current due to present drought have a

  9. 3D effects on vortex-shedding flow and hydrodynamic coefficients of a vertically oscillating cylinder with a bottom-attached disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Quan; Kou, Yu-feng; Zhu, Ren-qing; Chen, Hong

    2017-08-01

    Vortex-shedding flow induced by the vertical oscillation of a cylinder with bottom-attached disks of different diameter ratio D d/ D c and thickness ratio t d/ D c is studied by a 3D (three-dimensional) numerical model developed in this paper, and compared with the results obtained through 2D (two-dimensional) numerical model. The high-order upwind scheme is applied to stabilize the computation, and convergence is accelerated by the multi-grid method. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the differences between the 2D and 3D simulation results reveal the 3D effect on the flow field characteristics and hydrodynamic coefficients of the vertically oscillating cylinder with a bottom-attached disk. The 3D effect on the fluid field is mainly reflected in the significance of three vortex-shedding patterns: ω x has a greater effect on the flow fields around the sharp edges relative to the vortices generated in the 2D simulation. In the slice along the axial orientation, the vortex effect of ω y along the radial axis is smaller than that of ω x along the circumferential direction, indicating the radial effect on the velocity more pronounced than the circumferential effect around the sharp edges of the disk. The rotational interaction ω z of the fluid in the horizontal plane during the heave motion is insignificant. Based on the 2D and 3D simulation results, the turning points that separate the increasing regimes of the added mass coefficient and damping ratio are identified. The dependence of the turning point on the diameter ratio D d/ D c and thickness ratio t d/ D c are discussed in detail.

  10. Observations and 3D hydrodynamics-based modeling of decadal-scale shoreline change along the Outer Banks, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Ilgar; List, Jeffrey; Warner, John C.; Kumar, Nirnimesh

    2017-01-01

    Long-term decadal-scale shoreline change is an important parameter for quantifying the stability of coastal systems. The decadal-scale coastal change is controlled by processes that occur on short time scales (such as storms) and long-term processes (such as prevailing waves). The ability to predict decadal-scale shoreline change is not well established and the fundamental physical processes controlling this change are not well understood. Here we investigate the processes that create large-scale long-term shoreline change along the Outer Banks of North Carolina, an uninterrupted 60 km stretch of coastline, using both observations and a numerical modeling approach. Shoreline positions for a 24-yr period were derived from aerial photographs of the Outer Banks. Analysis of the shoreline position data showed that, although variable, the shoreline eroded an average of 1.5 m/yr throughout this period. The modeling approach uses a three-dimensional hydrodynamics-based numerical model coupled to a spectral wave model and simulates the full 24-yr time period on a spatial grid running on a short (second scale) time-step to compute the sediment transport patterns. The observations and the model results show similar magnitudes (O(105 m3/yr)) and patterns of alongshore sediment fluxes. Both the observed and the modeled alongshore sediment transport rates have more rapid changes at the north of our section due to continuously curving coastline, and possible effects of alongshore variations in shelf bathymetry. The southern section with a relatively uniform orientation, on the other hand, has less rapid transport rate changes. Alongshore gradients of the modeled sediment fluxes are translated into shoreline change rates that have agreement in some locations but vary in others. Differences between observations and model results are potentially influenced by geologic framework processes not included in the model. Both the observations and the model results show higher rates of

  11. HIGH-TEMPERATURE PROCESSING OF SOLIDS THROUGH SOLAR NEBULAR BOW SHOCKS: 3D RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS SIMULATIONS WITH PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, A. C.; Morris, M. A.; Desch, S. J.

    2013-10-20

    A fundamental, unsolved problem in solar system formation is explaining the melting and crystallization of chondrules found in chondritic meteorites. Theoretical models of chondrule melting in nebular shocks have been shown to be consistent with many aspects of thermal histories inferred for chondrules from laboratory experiments; but, the mechanism driving these shocks is unknown. Planetesimals and planetary embryos on eccentric orbits can produce bow shocks as they move supersonically through the disk gas, and are one possible source of chondrule-melting shocks. We investigate chondrule formation in bow shocks around planetoids through three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. A new radiation transport algorithm that combines elements of flux-limited diffusion and Monte Carlo methods is used to capture the complexity of radiative transport around bow shocks. An equation of state that includes the rotational, vibrational, and dissociation modes of H{sub 2} is also used. Solids are followed directly in the simulations and their thermal histories are recorded. Adiabatic expansion creates rapid cooling of the gas, and tail shocks behind the embryo can cause secondary heating events. Radiative transport is efficient, and bow shocks around planetoids can have luminosities ∼few× 10{sup –8} L{sub ☉}. While barred and radial chondrule textures could be produced in the radiative shocks explored here, porphyritic chondrules may only be possible in the adiabatic limit. We present a series of predicted cooling curves that merit investigation in laboratory experiments to determine whether the solids produced by bow shocks are represented in the meteoritic record by chondrules or other solids.

  12. A microfluidic opto-caloric switch for sorting of particles by using 3D-hydrodynamic focusing based on SLE fabrication capabilities.

    PubMed

    Meineke, G; Hermans, M; Klos, J; Lenenbach, A; Noll, R

    2016-03-07

    In a miniaturised flow switch fluid flows are controlled by reducing the local viscosity via absorption of laser radiation. Through this, the local flow rates are increased to switch the outlet port of a fluid flow carrying the analyte. The microfluidic chip is fabricated using Selective Laser-Induced Etching (SLE). SLE allows novel 3D-hydrodynamic focusing, realising circular shaped channel cross-sections and adapting interaction volume geometries to the profile of the laser radiation for optimised absorption. The performance of the switch is validated experimentally with a dyed analyte and video image processing. The ability to sort particles like cells is demonstrated at 8 Hz using polystyrene beads having a diameter of 8 μm.

  13. Analysis of riverine suspended particulate matter fluxes (Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea) using a synergy of ocean color observations with a 3-D hydrodynamic sediment transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Fouest, Vincent; Chami, Malik; Verney, Romaric

    2015-02-01

    The export of riverine suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the coastal ocean has major implications for the biogeochemical cycles. In the Mediterranean Sea (France), the Rhone River inputs of SPM into the Gulf of Lion (GoL) are highly variable in time, which severely impedes the assessment of SPM fluxes. The objectives of this study are (i) to investigate the prediction of the land-to-ocean flux of SPM using the complementarity (i.e., synergy) between a hydrodynamic sediment transport model and satellite observations, and (ii) to analyze the spatial distribution of the SPM export. An original approach that combines the MARS-3D model with satellite ocean color data is proposed. Satellite-derived SPM and light penetration depth are used to initialize MARS-3D and to validate its predictions. A sensitivity analysis is performed to quantify the impact of riverine SPM size composition and settling rate on the horizontal export of SPM. The best agreement between the model and the satellite in terms of SPM spatial distribution and export is obtained for two conditions: (i) when the relative proportion of "heavy and fast" settling particles significantly increases relative to the "light and slow" ones, and (ii) when the settling rate of heavy and light SPM increases by fivefold. The synergy between MARS-3D and the satellite data improved the SPM flux predictions by 48% near the Rhone River mouth. Our results corroborate the importance of implementing satellite observations within initialization procedures of ocean models since data assimilation techniques may fail for river floods showing strong seasonal variability.

  14. Implications for the crustal Architecture in West Antarctica revealed by the means of depth-to-the-bottom of the magnetic source (DBMS) mapping and 3D FEM geothermal heat flux models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziadek, Ricarda; Gohl, Karsten; Kaul, Norbert

    2017-04-01

    The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) is one of the largest rift systems in the world, which displays unique coupled relationships between tectonic processes and ice sheet dynamics. Palaeo-ice streams have eroded troughs across the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) that today route warm ocean deep water to the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) grounding zone and reinforce dynamic ice sheet thinning. Rift basins, which cut across West Antarctica's landward-sloping shelves, promote ice sheet instability. Young, continental rift systems are regions with significantly elevated geothermal heat flux (GHF), because the transient thermal perturbation to the lithosphere caused by rifting requires 100 m.y. to reach long-term thermal equilibrium. The GHF in this region is, especially on small scales, poorly constrained and suspected to be heterogeneous as a reflection of the distribution of tectonic and volcanic activity along the complex branching geometry of the WARS, which reflects its multi-stage history and structural inheritance. We investigate the crustal architecture and the possible effects of rifting history from the WARS on the ASE ice sheet dynamics, by the use of depth-to-the-bottom of the magnetic source (DBMS) estimates. These are based on airborne-magnetic anomaly data and provide an additional insight into the deeper crustal properties. With the DBMS estimates we reveal spatial changes at the bottom of the igneous crust and the thickness of the magnetic layer, which can be further incorporated into tectonic interpretations. The DBMS also marks an important temperature transition zone of approximately 580°C and therefore serves as a boundary condition for our numerical FEM models in 2D and 3D. On balance, and by comparison to global values, we find average GHF of 90 mWm-2 with spatial variations due to crustal heterogeneities and volcanic activities. This estimate is 30% more than commonly used in ice sheet models in the ASE region.

  15. Analysis of stratification patterns in river-influenced mesotidal and macrotidal estuaries using 3D hydrodynamic modelling and K-means clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárcena, Javier F.; García-Alba, Javier; García, Andrés; Álvarez, César

    2016-11-01

    A methodology to determine the spatial and temporal evolution of stratification in estuaries driven by astronomical tides and river discharges was developed and is presented here. Using a 3D hydrodynamic model, the variation of estuarine currents, water levels and densities was investigated under different realistic forcing conditions. These conditions were classified from a long-term period (>30 years) of river flows and tidal water levels by a K-means clustering approach suggested by Bárcena et al. (2015). The methodology allows computing the location of mixed, partially mixed/stratified and stratified areas in tidal river estuaries along a continuum by means of Richardson's Layer number and the frequency of every model scenario. In order to illustrate the power of the method, it was applied to a case study, the Suances Estuary. In the application case, the Suances Estuary was vertically mixed at its innermost part due to riverine influence. At the outer part, it was also vertically mixed due to the turbulence caused by tidal action. At the intermediate section, it was partially mixed in the main channel or stratified in intertidal areas due to the combined action of forcing, depth gradients between the main channel and intertidal areas, and salinity variations in the water column.

  16. Impact of urban effluents on summer hypoxia in the highly turbid Gironde Estuary, applying a 3D model coupling hydrodynamics, sediment transport and biogeochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajaunie-Salla, Katixa; Wild-Allen, Karen; Sottolichio, Aldo; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Litrico, Xavier; Abril, Gwenaël

    2017-10-01

    Estuaries are increasingly degraded due to coastal urban development and are prone to hypoxia problems. The macro-tidal Gironde Estuary is characterized by a highly concentrated turbidity maximum zone (TMZ). Field observations show that hypoxia occurs in summer in the TMZ at low river flow and a few days after the spring tide peak. In situ data highlight lower dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations around the city of Bordeaux, located in the upper estuary. Interactions between multiple factors limit the understanding of the processes controlling the dynamics of hypoxia. A 3D biogeochemical model was developed, coupled with hydrodynamics and a sediment transport model, to assess the contribution of the TMZ and the impact of urban effluents through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and sewage overflows (SOs) on hypoxia. Our model describes the transport of solutes and suspended material and the biogeochemical mechanisms impacting oxygen: primary production, degradation of all organic matter (i.e. including phytoplankton respiration, degradation of river and urban watershed matter), nitrification and gas exchange. The composition and the degradation rates of each variable were characterized by in situ measurements and experimental data from the study area. The DO model was validated against observations in Bordeaux City. The simulated DO concentrations show good agreement with field observations and satisfactorily reproduce the seasonal and neap-spring time scale variations around the city of Bordeaux. Simulations show a spatial and temporal correlation between the formation of summer hypoxia and the location of the TMZ, with minimum DO centered in the vicinity of Bordeaux. To understand the contribution of the urban watershed forcing, different simulations with the presence or absence of urban effluents were compared. Our results show that in summer, a reduction of POC from SO would increase the DO minimum in the vicinity of Bordeaux by 3% of saturation. Omitting

  17. Three carbon-enhanced metal-poor dwarf stars from the SDSS. Chemical abundances from CO5BOLD 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behara, N. T.; Bonifacio, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Sbordone, L.; González Hernández, J. I.; Caffau, E.

    2010-04-01

    Context. The origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars enriched with both s and r elements is highly debated. Detailed abundances of these types of stars are crucial to understand the nature of their progenitors. Aims: The aim of this investigation is to study in detail the abundances of SDSS J1349-0229, SDSS J0912+0216 and SDSS J1036+1212, three dwarf CEMP stars, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Methods: Using high resolution VLT/UVES spectra (R ~ 30 000) we determine abundances for Li, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and 21 neutron-capture elements. We made use of CO5BOLD 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres in the analysis of the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen abundances. NLTE corrections for Ci and Oi lines were computed using the Kiel code. Results: We classify SDSS J1349-0229 and SDSS J0912+0216 as CEMP-r+s stars. SDSS J1036+1212 belongs to the class CEMP-no/s, with enhanced Ba, but deficient Sr, of which it is the third member discovered to date. Radial-velocity variations have been observed in SDSS J1349-0229, providing evidence that it is a member of a binary system. Conclusions: The chemical composition of the three stars is generally compatible with mass transfer from an AGB companion. However, many details remain difficult to explain. Most notably of those are the abundance of Li at the level of the Spite plateau in SDSS J1036+1212 and the large over-abundance of the pure r-process element Eu in all three stars. Based on observations obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory, Chile (programmes 078.D-0217 and 383.D-0927).

  18. Understanding Long-term, Large-scale Shoreline Change and the Sediment Budget on Fire Island, NY, using a 3D hydrodynamics-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, J. H.; Safak, I.; Warner, J. C.; Schwab, W. C.; Hapke, C. J.; Lentz, E. E.

    2016-02-01

    The processes responsible for long-term (decadal) shoreline change and the related imbalance in the sediment budget on Fire Island, a 50 km long barrier island on the south coast of Long Island, NY, has been the subject of debate. The estimated net rate of sediment leaving the barrier at the west end of the island is approximately double the estimated net rate of sediment entering in the east, but the island-wide average sediment volume change associated with shoreline change is near zero and cannot account for this deficit. A long-held hypothesis is that onshore sediment flux from the inner continental shelf within the western half of the island is responsible for balancing the sediment budget. To investigate this possibility, we use a nested, 3-D, hydrodynamics-based modeling system (COAWST) to simulate the island-wide alongshore and cross-shore transport, in combination with shoreline change observations. The modeled, net alongshore transport gradients in the nearshore predict that the central part of Fire Island should be erosional, yet shoreline change observations show this area to be accretionary. We compare the model-predicted alongshore transport gradients with the flux gradients that would be required to generate the observed shoreline change, to give the pattern of sediment volume gains or losses that cannot be explained by the modeled alongshore transport gradients. Results show that the western 30 km of coast requires an input of sediment, supporting the hypothesis of onshore flux in this area. The modeled cross-shore flux of sediment between the shoreface and inner shelf is consistent these results, with onshore-directed bottom currents creating an environment more conducive to onshore sediment flux in the western 30 km of the island compared to the eastern 20 km. We conclude that the cross-shore flux of sediment can explain the shoreline change observations, and is an integral component of Fire Island's sediment budget.

  19. An in-depth spectroscopic examination of molecular bands from 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. I. Formation of the G-band in metal-poor dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, A. J.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Spite, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Recent developments in the three-dimensional (3D) spectral synthesis code Linfor3D have meant that for the first time, large spectral wavelength regions, such as molecular bands, can be synthesised with it in a short amount of time. Aims: A detailed spectral analysis of the synthetic G-band for several dwarf turn-off-type 3D atmospheres (5850 ≲ Teff [ K ] ≲ 6550, 4.0 ≤ log g ≤ 4.5, - 3.0 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤-1.0) was conducted, under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. We also examine carbon and oxygen molecule formation at various metallicity regimes and discuss the impact it has on the G-band. Methods: Using a qualitative approach, we describe the different behaviours between the 3D atmospheres and the traditional one-dimensional (1D) atmospheres and how the different physics involved inevitably leads to abundance corrections, which differ over varying metallicities. Spectra computed in 1D were fit to every 3D spectrum to determine the 3D abundance correction. Results: Early analysis revealed that the CH molecules that make up the G-band exhibited an oxygen abundance dependency; a higher oxygen abundance leads to weaker CH features. Nitrogen abundances showed zero impact to CH formation. The 3D corrections are also stronger at lower metallicity. Analysis of the 3D corrections to the G-band allows us to assign estimations of the 3D abundance correction to most dwarf stars presented in the literature. Conclusions: The 3D corrections suggest that A(C) in carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with high A(C) would remain unchanged, but would decrease in CEMP stars with lower A(C). It was found that the C/O ratio is an important parameter to the G-band in 3D. Additional testing confirmed that the C/O ratio is an equally important parameter for OH transitions under 3D. This presents a clear interrelation between the carbon and oxygen abundances in 3D atmospheres through their molecular species, which is not seen in 1D.

  20. Overcoming element quality dependence of finite elements with adaptive extended stencil FEM (AES-FEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Rebecca; Delaney, Tristan J.; Jiao, Xiangmin

    2016-11-01

    The finite element methods (FEM) are important techniques in engineering for solving partial differential equations, but they depend heavily on element shape quality for stability and good performance. In this paper, we introduce the Adaptive Extended Stencil Finite Element Method (AES-FEM) as a means for overcoming this dependence on element shape quality. Our method replaces the traditional basis functions with a set of generalized Lagrange polynomial (GLP) basis functions, which we construct using local weighted least-squares approximations. The method preserves the theoretical framework of FEM, and allows imposing essential boundary conditions and integrating the stiffness matrix in the same way as the classical FEM. In addition, AES-FEM can use higher-degree polynomial basis functions than the classical FEM, while virtually preserving the sparsity pattern of the stiffness matrix. We describe the formulation and implementation of AES-FEM, and analyze its consistency and stability. We present numerical experiments in both 2D and 3D for the Poison equation and a time-independent convection-diffusion equation. The numerical results demonstrate that AES-FEM is more accurate than linear FEM, is also more efficient than linear FEM in terms of error versus runtime, and enables much better stability and faster convergence of iterative solvers than linear FEM over poor-quality meshes

  1. Evaluation of 3-d hydrodynamic computer models for prediction of LNG vapor dispersion in the atmosphere. Annual report March 1983-February 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Havens, J.A.; Schreurs, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The FEM3, MARIAH II, SIGMET-N, and ZEPHYR Heavy Gas Dispersion Models have been transferred to the University of Arkansas and installed on a project-dedicated computer system for evaluation. A series of test LNG release scenarios has been simulated to determine the models predicted effects due to variation in dispersion scenario parameters such as gas release rate, wind speed, and atmospheric stability. A series of isothermal, fixed volume, instantaneous releases of Freon-air mixtures has been performed, providing an extensive data base of concentration measurements as a function of radial and vertical position in the developing heavy gas cloud for evaluation of model predictions. A prototype gas sensor, which uses an aspirated flame ionization detector, suitable for concentration measurements in cold gas spills has been developed.

  2. Predictions of non-LTE spectra from large scale 3D magneto-hydrodynamic modelling of wire array Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niasse, Nicolas; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2012-10-01

    The last few years have seen considerable advances in the application of high performance computing techniques to 3D simulations of wire array Z-pinches. Whilst the intense soft X-ray radiation output is the principle application of wire arrays, the ability to encompass spectrally detailed models of this emission within such 3D calculations was thought to be computationally prohibitive. We have developed a non-LTE atomic and radiation physics model with detailed configuration accounting and n-l splitting which is sufficiently streamlined to run in-line with large scale 3D simulations. In order to handle the volume of data generated by the spectral treatment of the billions of numerical cells, a novel data structure derived from a self-balancing binary search tree was developed, enabling the use of non-LTE DCA calculations within large scale 3D simulations for the first time. A brief description of the model is provided and the application of the simulations to understanding the X-ray generation processes within wire array Z-pinches on the Z generator at Sandia National Laboratory is reported. The contribution of the ion temperature and the motion of the unstable plasma at stagnation to the Doppler widths of the lines is described in detail.

  3. Most influential FEMS publications.

    PubMed

    Prosser, James I; Cole, Jeff A; Nielsen, Jens; Bavoil, Patrik M; Häggblom, Max M

    2014-05-01

    A selection of influential FEMS publications to celebrate the 40th anniversary of FEMS. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assimilation of satellite data to 3D hydrodynamic model of Lake Säkylän Pyhäjärvi.

    PubMed

    Mano, Akiko; Malve, Olli; Koponen, Sampsa; Kallio, Kari; Taskinen, Antti; Ropponen, Janne; Juntunen, Janne; Liukko, Ninni

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the applicability of direct insertion of total suspended matter (TSM) concentration field based on turbidity derived from satellite data to numerical simulation, dispersion studies of suspended matter in Lake Säkylän Pyhäjärvi (lake area 154 km²; mean depth 5.4 m) were conducted using the 3D COHERENS simulation model. To evaluate the practicality of direct insertion, five cases with different initialization frequencies were conducted: (1) every time, when satellite data were available; (2) every 10 days; (3) 20 days; (4) 30 days; and (5) control run without repeated initialization. To determine the effectiveness of initialization frequency, three methods of comparison were used: simple spatial differences of TSM concentration without biomass in the lake surface layer; averaged spatial differences between initialization data and the forecasts; and time series of TSM concentration and observation data at 1 m depth at the deepest point of the lake. Results showed that direct insertion improves the forecast significantly, even if it is applied less often.

  5. Incorporating a Semi-Empirical Point Source Discharge Mixing Model into a 3D Nested-Grid Hydrodynamic Model to Examine Residence Time Scales on the Shallow Shelf of a Large Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowen, E. A.; King, A. T.

    2016-12-01

    Cayuga Lake is long (65km), narrow (3km), and deep (130m max). A shallow shelf (<6m deep) extends 2km north from the southern end. Concern about phosphorous and sediment loading has initiated an effort to understand the physical processes controlling water residence time on the shelf. Of particular interest are the influence of a deep lake cooling facility that discharges onto the shelf and internal waves impacting the shelf from the lake basin. To assess the impact of various physical processes on residence time we have employed the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model Si3D, forcing a fine-grid (25m x 25m x 0.1m) simulation of the shelf with output from a coarse-grid (125m x 125m x 0.1m) simulation of the entire lake, and developing an empirically-based near-field point source mixing model for the cooling facility outfall. Si3D solves the continuity equation, the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (employing the hydrostatic assumption for pressure and an eddy viscosity closure for Reynolds stresses), the transport equation for temperature (employing an eddy diffusivity closure), and an equation of state. Vertical eddy viscosity/diffusivity are represented using level 2.5 Mellor-Yamada. Horizontal eddy viscosity/diffusivity are typically set to constants, but we use these to enforce the correct near field dynamics of the cooling facility discharge. The cooling facility outfall is a 23m-long array of nozzles pointed north and discharging with sufficient velocity to induce significant back entrainment (order 10x the 1.5m3/s discharge) and rapid lateral diffusion of momentum and scalars for hundreds of meters downstream. Once the negatively buoyant effluent has lost sufficient momentum, it plunges and spreads under the influence of both momentum and gravity. In the near field, we specify horizontal eddy viscosity/diffusivity within Si3D such that evolution of momentum and scalar fields match semi-empirical predictions for a jet in shallow water with friction

  6. Application of 3D X-ray CT data sets to finite element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, P.L.; Martz, H.E.; Brand, H.R.; Hollerbach, K.

    1995-08-31

    Finite Element Modeling (FEM) is becoming more important as industry drives toward concurrent engineering. A fundamental hindrance to fully exploiting the power of FEM is the human effort required to acquire complex part geometry, particularly as-built geometry, as a FEM mesh. Many Quantitative Non Destructive Evaluation (QNDE) techniques that produce three-dimensional (3D) data sets provide a substantial reduction in the effort required to apply FEM to as-built parts. This paper describes progress at LLNL on the application of 3D X-ray computed tomography (CT) data sets to more rapidly produce high-quality FEM meshes of complex, as-built geometries. Issues related to the volume segmentation of the 3D CT data as well as the use of this segmented data to tailor generic hexahedral FEM meshes to part specific geometries are discussed. The application of these techniques to FEM analysis in the medical field is reported here.

  7. Convection-adapted BEM-based FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofreither, Clemens; Langer, Ulrich; Weißer, Steffen

    2016-12-01

    We present a new discretization method for homogeneous convection-diffusion-reaction boundary value problems in 3D that is a non-standard finite element method with PDE-harmonic shape functions on polyhedral elements. The element stiffness matrices are constructed by means of local boundary element techniques. Our method, which we refer to as a BEM-based FEM, can therefore be considered a local Trefftz method with element-wise (locally) PDE-harmonic shape functions. The Dirichlet boundary data for these shape functions is chosen according to a convection-adapted procedure which solves projections of the PDE onto the edges and faces of the elements. This improves the stability of the discretization method for convection-dominated problems both when compared to a standard FEM and to previous BEM-based FEM approaches, as we demonstrate in several numerical experiments.

  8. Salinity and eutrophication management by in situ continuous real-time monitoring and 3D modelling (hydrodynamics coupled with water quality): the case of the Berre lagoon (Mediterranean, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Laurent; Emma, Gouze

    2010-05-01

    . Since 2008, these three buoys have been also equipped with nitrate, chlorophyll and oxygen probes. Thanks to these measurements, a 3D hydrodynamic model (TELEMAC©) has been developped and validated to better qualify and quantify the relationships between the salinity of the lagoon, the fresh water inputs (from the powerplant and from the rivers), the water exchanges through the Caronte channel and the wind mixing. This model is currently used by the electricity producer to manage fresh water discharges complying with salinity indicators fixed by the European Court of Justice. Then, a biogeochemical model (DelWAQ©) coupled with the hydrodynamic model has been developped to understand the ecosystem functioning and to assess the hydroelectric powerplant implication in the eutrophication of the lagoon. Simulations reproduce quite well: 1/ the seasonal variations of nutrients, 2/ biogeochemical processes, 3/ anoxia events in connection with stratification periods at deep stations and 4/ are able to calculate nutrients budgets over a year. The results show that high primary production rates are based on high dynamical mineralization processes. The allochtonous nutrients sources are not sufficient to feed the phytoplanktonic demand (less than 1%). This models coupling is the only way to compile the physical and biogeochemical variables and processes. It's a tool aiming at a better assessment of the high complexity of the lagoon nutrients cycles. It will help us to understand the powerplant implication for the eutrophication with respect to the anthropised rivers. Moreover we would be able to test various managing scenarii (e.g. drop of nutrients loads) and to suggest new rehabilitation strategies.

  9. MRCK_3D contact detonation algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Rougier, Esteban; Munjiza, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale Combined Finite-Discrete Element Methods (FEM-DEM) and Discrete Element Methods (DEM) simulations involving contact of a large number of separate bod ies need an efficient, robust and flexible contact detection algorithm. In this work the MRCK-3D search algorithm is outlined and its main CPU perfonnances are evaluated. One of the most important aspects of this newly developed search algorithm is that it is applicable to systems consisting of many bodies of different shapes and sizes.

  10. San Francisco Bay test case for 3-D model verification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Peter E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a field test case for 3-D hydrodynamic model verification using data from Carquinez Strait in San Francisco Bay, California. It will be disseminated by the ASCE Computational Hydraulics task committee on 3-D Free-Surface Hydrodynamic Model Verifications during late 1994.

  11. The numerical study of the cavitation-structure interaction around 3D flexible hydrofoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi-liang, Hu; Ying, Chen; Chuan-jing, Lu

    2015-12-01

    The closely coupled approach combined the Finite Volume Method (FVM) solver and the Finite Element Method (FEM) solver is applied to simulation the cavitation-structure interaction of a 3D cantilevered flexible hydrofoil in water tunnel. In the cavitating flow, the elastic hydrofoil would deform or vibrate in bending and twisting mode. And the motion of the foil would affect the characteristics of the cavity and the hydrodynamic load on the foil in turn. With smaller cavitation numbers (σv=2.15), the frequency spectrum of the lift on the foil would contain two frequencies which are associated to the cavity shedding and the first bend frequency of the hydrofoil. With larger cavitation number (σv=2.55), the frequency of the lift is completely dominated by the natural frequency of the foil.

  12. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  13. A 3d-3d appetizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke

    2016-11-01

    We test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 "Lens space theory" T [ L( p, 1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L( p, 1). In particular, for p = 1, we show how the familiar S 3 partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[ L( p, 1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[ L( p, 1)] on the squashed three-sphere S b 3 . This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent G ℂ complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.

  14. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; ...

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  15. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  16. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  17. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; van Loon, Mark

    2017-04-01

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N = 2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N = 2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N = 2∗ theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-'t Hooft loops in the 4d N = 2∗ theory. In the presence of a mass parameter cfor the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  18. A 3d-3d appetizer

    DOE PAGES

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke

    2016-11-02

    Here, we test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 “Lens space theory” T [L(p, 1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p, 1). In particular, for p = 1, we show how the familiar S3 partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p, 1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p, 1)] on the squashed three-sphere Sb3. This enables us tomore » see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent GC complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.« less

  19. A 3d-3d appetizer

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke

    2016-11-02

    Here, we test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 “Lens space theory” T [L(p, 1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p, 1). In particular, for p = 1, we show how the familiar S3 partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p, 1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p, 1)] on the squashed three-sphere Sb3. This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent GC complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.

  20. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  1. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  2. Diamond in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-08-20

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called Diamond Jenness was taken after NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time. 3D glasses are necessary.

  3. 3D Plasmon Ruler

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    In this animation of a 3D plasmon ruler, the plasmonic assembly acts as a transducer to deliver optical information about the structural dynamics of an attached protein. (courtesy of Paul Alivisatos group)

  4. Prominent Rocks - 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-13

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image from NASA Mars Pathfinder. Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

  5. 3D Laser System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-16

    NASA Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel 3D Laser System used for digitizing ice shapes created in the wind tunnel. The ice shapes are later utilized for characterization, analysis, and software development.

  6. AE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  7. Hydrodynamics and Brownian motions of a spheroid near a rigid wall.

    PubMed

    De Corato, M; Greco, F; D'Avino, G; Maffettone, P L

    2015-05-21

    In this work, we study in detail the hydrodynamics and the Brownian motions of a spheroidal particle suspended in a Newtonian fluid near a flat rigid wall. We employ 3D Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations to compute how the mobility tensor of the spheroid varies with both the particle-wall separation distance and the particle orientation. We then study the Brownian motion of the spheroid by means of a discretized Langevin equation. We specifically focus on the additional drift terms arising from the position and orientational dependence of the mobility matrix. In this respect, we also propose a numerically convenient approximation of the orientational divergence of the mobility matrix that is required in the solution of the Langevin equation. Our results illustrate that both hydrodynamics and Brownian motions of a spheroidal particle near a confining wall display novel features from those of a sphere in the same type of confinement.

  8. Delft3D turbine turbulence module

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Chris; Jagers, Bert

    2016-04-18

    The DOE has funded Sandia National Labs (SNL) to develop an open-source modeling tool to guide the design and layout of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) arrays to maximize power production while minimizing environmental effects. This modeling framework simulates flows through and around a MHK arrays while quantifying environmental responses. As an augmented version of the Dutch company, Deltares’s, environmental hydrodynamics code, Delft3D, SNL-Delft3D includes a new module that simulates energy conversion (momentum withdrawal) by MHK devices with commensurate changes in the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate.

  9. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  10. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  11. Forum on Environmental Measurements (FEM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2003 document Forum on Environmental Measurements (FEM or Forum) is established by the Agency's Science and Technology Policy Council (STPC) to promote consistency and consensus within EPA on measurement, monitoring, and laboratory science issues

  12. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  13. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  14. Medical 3-D Printing.

    PubMed

    Furlow, Bryant

    2017-05-01

    Three-dimensional printing is used in the manufacturing industry, medical and pharmaceutical research, drug production, clinical medicine, and dentistry, with implications for precision and personalized medicine. This technology is advancing the development of patient-specific prosthetics, stents, splints, and fixation devices and is changing medical education, treatment decision making, and surgical planning. Diagnostic imaging modalities play a fundamental role in the creation of 3-D printed models. Although most 3-D printed objects are rigid, flexible soft-tissue-like prosthetics also can be produced. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  15. Assessing spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton communities' composition in the Iroise Sea ecosystem (Brittany, France): A 3D modeling approach. Part 2: Linking summer mesoscale distribution of phenotypic diversity to hydrodynamism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadier, Mathilde; Sourisseau, Marc; Gorgues, Thomas; Edwards, Christopher A.; Memery, Laurent

    2017-05-01

    Tidal front ecosystems are especially dynamic environments usually characterized by high phytoplankton biomass and high primary production. However, the description of functional microbial diversity occurring in these regions remains only partially documented. In this article, we use a numerical model, simulating a large number of phytoplankton phenotypes to explore the three-dimensional spatial patterns of phytoplankton abundance and diversity in the Iroise Sea (western Brittany). Our results suggest that, in boreal summer, a seasonally marked tidal front shapes the phytoplankton species richness. A diversity maximum is found in the surface mixed layer located slightly west of the tidal front (i.e., not strictly co-localized with high biomass concentrations) which separates tidally mixed from stratified waters. Differences in phenotypic composition between sub-regions with distinct hydrodynamic regimes (defined by vertical mixing, nutrients gradients and light penetration) are discussed. Local growth and/or physical transport of phytoplankton phenotypes are shown to explain our simulated diversity distribution. We find that a large fraction (64%) of phenotypes present during the considered period of September are ubiquitous, found in the frontal area and on both sides of the front (i.e., over the full simulated domain). The frontal area does not exhibit significant differences between its community composition and that of either the well-mixed region or an offshore Deep Chlorophyll Maximum (DCM). Only three phenotypes (out of 77) specifically grow locally and are found at substantial concentration only in the surface diversity maximum. Thus, this diversity maximum is composed of a combination of ubiquitous phenotypes with specific picoplankton deriving from offshore, stratified waters (including specific phenotypes from both the surface and the DCM) and imported through physical transport, completed by a few local phenotypes. These results are discussed in light

  16. Venus in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  17. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  18. 3-D Grab!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, M. G.; Schofield, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    Modern technologies in imaging greatly extend the potential to present visual information. With recently developed software tools, the perception of the third dimension can not only dramatically enhance presentation, but also allow spatial data to be better encoded. 3-D images can be taken for many subjects with only one camera, carefully moved to generate a stereo pair. Color anaglyph viewing now can be very effective using computer screens, and active filter technologies can enhance visual effects with ever-decreasing cost. We will present various novel results of 3-D imaging, including those from the auroral observations of the new twinned Athabasca University Geophysical Observatories.; Single camera stereo image for viewing with red/cyan glasses.

  19. A new 2D FEM analysis of a disc machine with offset rotor

    SciTech Connect

    Gair, S.; Canova, A.; Eastham, J.F.; Betzer, T.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents a new 2-Dimensional Finite Element Method (2D FEM) analysis of a double sided axial field, permanent magnet excited brushless DC motor. The rotor of the machine is free to move in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the shaft. Computed 2D results are compared with 3D FEM analysis and the new analysis method is shown to give close agreement.

  20. Unoriented 3d TFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Lakshya

    2017-05-01

    This paper generalizes two facts about oriented 3d TFTs to the unoriented case. On one hand, it is known that oriented 3d TFTs having a topological boundary condition admit a state-sum construction known as the Turaev-Viro construction. This is related to the string-net construction of fermionic phases of matter. We show how Turaev-Viro construction can be generalized to unoriented 3d TFTs. On the other hand, it is known that the "fermionic" versions of oriented TFTs, known as Spin-TFTs, can be constructed in terms of "shadow" TFTs which are ordinary oriented TFTs with an anomalous ℤ 2 1-form symmetry. We generalize this correspondence to Pin+-TFTs by showing that they can be constructed in terms of ordinary unoriented TFTs with anomalous ℤ 2 1-form symmetry having a mixed anomaly with time-reversal symmetry. The corresponding Pin+-TFT does not have any anomaly for time-reversal symmetry however and hence it can be unambiguously defined on a non-orientable manifold. In case a Pin+-TFT admits a topological boundary condition, one can combine the above two statements to obtain a Turaev-Viro-like construction of Pin+-TFTs. As an application of these ideas, we construct a large class of Pin+-SPT phases.

  1. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  2. Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  3. 3D and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Y. C.

    1995-05-01

    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  4. Three-dimensional FEM model of FBGs in PANDA fibers with experimentally determined model parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Markus; Hopf, Barbara; Koch, Alexander W.; Roths, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    A 3D-FEM model has been developed to improve the understanding of multi-parameter sensing with Bragg gratings in attached or embedded polarization maintaining fibers. The material properties of the fiber, especially Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the fiber's stress applying parts, are crucial for accurate simulations, but are usually not provided by the manufacturers. A methodology is presented to determine the unknown parameters by using experimental characterizations of the fiber and iterative FEM simulations. The resulting 3D-Model is capable of describing the change in birefringence of the free fiber when exposed to longitudinal strain. In future studies the 3D-FEM model will be employed to study the interaction of PANDA fibers with the surrounding materials in which they are embedded.

  5. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  6. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  7. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  8. Verification of a three-dimensional FEM model for FBGs in PANDA fibers by transversal load experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Bennet; Hopf, Barbara; Lindner, Markus; Koch, Alexander W.; Roths, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    A 3D FEM model of an FBG in a PANDA fiber with an extended fiber length of 25.4 mm is presented. Simulating long fiber lengths with limited computer power is achieved by using an iterative solver and by optimizing the FEM mesh. For verification purposes, the model is adapted to a configuration with transversal loads on the fiber. The 3D FEM model results correspond with experimental data and with the results of an additional 2D FEM plain strain model. In further studies, this 3D model shall be applied to more sophisticated situations, for example to study the temperature dependence of surface-glued or embedded FBGs in PANDA fibers that are used for strain-temperature decoupling.

  9. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  10. An efficient finite-element algorithm for 3D layered complex structure modelling.

    PubMed

    Sahalos, J N; Kyriacou, G A; Vafiadis, E

    1994-05-01

    In this paper an efficient finite-element method (FEM) algorithm for complicated three-dimensional (3D) layered type models has been developed. Its unique feature is that it can handle, with memory requirements within the abilities of a simple PC, arbitrarily shaped 3D elements. This task is achieved by storing only the non-zero coefficients of the sparse FEM system of equations. The algorithm is applied to the solution of the Laplace equation in models with up to 79 layers of trilinear general hexahedron elements. The system of equations is solved with the Gauss-Seidel iterative technique.

  11. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  12. Pluto in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-23

    Global stereo mapping of Pluto surface is now possible, as images taken from multiple directions are downlinked from NASA New Horizons spacecraft. Stereo images will eventually provide an accurate topographic map of most of the hemisphere of Pluto seen by New Horizons during the July 14 flyby, which will be key to understanding Pluto's geological history. This example, which requires red/blue stereo glasses for viewing, shows a region 180 miles (300 kilometers) across, centered near longitude 130 E, latitude 20 N (the red square in the global context image). North is to the upper left. The image shows an ancient, heavily cratered region of Pluto, dotted with low hills and cut by deep fractures, which indicate extension of Pluto's crust. Analysis of these stereo images shows that the steep fracture in the upper left of the image is about 1 mile (1.6 kilometers) deep, and the craters in the lower right part of the image are up to 1.3 miles (2.1 km) deep. Smallest visible details are about 0.4 miles (0.6 kilometers) across. You will need 3D glasses to view this image showing an ancient, heavily cratered region of Pluto. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20032

  13. Intraoral 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  14. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  15. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  16. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics. PMID:28952542

  17. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-07-13

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  18. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Masset, Frédéric; Lega, Elena; Velasco, David

    2017-03-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk-planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential (r s), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk (γ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r s or γ, up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r s and γ in our study.

  19. FEM Optimization of Spin Forming Using a Fuzzy Control Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshihara, S.; Ray, P.; MacDonald, B. J.; Koyama, H.; Kawahara, M.

    2004-06-01

    Finite element (FE) simulation of the manufacturing of a conical nosing such as a pressure vessel from circular tubes, using the spin forming method, was performed on the commercially available software package, ANSYS/LS-DYNA3D. The finite element method (FEM) provides a powerful tool for evaluating the potential to form the pressure vessel with proposed modifications to the process. The use of fuzzy logic inference as a control system to achieve the designed shape of the pressure vessel was investigated using the FEM. The path of the roller as a process parameter was decided by the fuzzy inference control algorithm from information of the result of deformation of each element respectively. The fuzzy control algorithm investigated was validated from the results of the production process time and the deformed shape using FE simulation.

  20. Development of surgical simulator based on FEM and deformable volume-rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masutani, Yoshitaka; Inoue, Yusuke; Ishii, Koichi; Kumai, Nori; Kimura, Fumihiko; Sakuma, Ichiro

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, we describe our novel surgical simulation system, which provides FEM-based real-time deformation, interaction by using haptic device, and high-quality visualization of the liver and inner blood vessel structures based on 3D texture-based deformable volume-rendering. Our software system consists of mainly four components of independent processes and threads; (1) 3D texture based volume rendering, (2) haptic device input / output, (3) FEM computation, and (4) inter-process communication management. Tetrahedral meshes for FEM computation and volume-rendering are updated for every frame of image display and deformation. For faster FEM computation, we employed the central-difference method for forced displacement calculation. We implemented our system with dual Pentium Xeon 3GHz PC workstation with 1G byte RAM, a video card with nVIDIA Quadro4 900XGL GPU, and Windows XP Professional OS. As a haptic device, PHANToM desktop was employed. We used liver data of 128x128x128 matrix size as 3D-texture data, which was segmented in abdominal X-ray CT Angiography data set and colored in grayscale and dual-indexed coloring based on radial basis function interpolation. By using window size of 480, we obtained refresh rate of 67 frames/sec for image display and 16 msec for haptic device output. Our preliminary study shows feasibility of surgical simulators with FEM and deformable volume-rendering.

  1. A Mesh Adaptive and Mass Conservative Three Dimensional Numerical Model For Ocean Hydrodynamics and Transport Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savant, G.; Trahan, C. J.

    2016-02-01

    Next generation finite element method (FEM)hydrodynamic and transport code are expected to be at the fore front of Ocean modeling, of particular importance are the FEM codes that conserve hydrodynamic and transport mass (locally and globally). This talk will introduce the new U.S. Army Corps of Engineers enterprise implicit time stepping and multi-dimensional FEM model, this model is characterized by adaptive meshing to resolve the fine detail required to capture baroclinic effects on hydrodynamics as well as on transported quantities such as salt/heat/tracers etc. The FEM developmental theory that guarantees local and global mass conservation, and results from simulations will be presented, also presented will be the aspects of the Eulerian-Lagrangian meshing that removes certain limitations of sigma and z-gridding in hydrodynamic models.

  2. 3-D Radiative Transfer Modeling of Structured Winds in Massive Hot Stars with Wind3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobel, A.; Toalá, J. A.; Blomme, R.

    2011-01-01

    We develop 3-D models of the structured winds of massive hot stars with the Wind3D radiative transfer (RT) code. We investigate the physical properties of large-scale structures observed in the wind of the B-type supergiant HD 64760 with detailed line profile fits to Discrete Absorption Components (DACs) and rotational modulations observed with IUE in Si IV λ1395. We develop parameterized input models for Wind3D with large-scale equatorial wind density- and velocity-structures, or so-called `Co-rotating Interaction Regions' (CIRs) and `Rotational Modulation Regions' (RMRs). The parameterized models offer important advantages for high-performance RT calculations over ab-initio hydrodynamic input models. The acceleration of the input model calculations permits us to simulate and investigate a wide variety of physical conditions in the extended winds of massive hot stars. The new modeling method is very flexible for constraining the dynamic and geometric wind properties of RMRs in HD 64760. We compute that the modulations are produced by a regular pattern of radial density enhancements that protrude almost linearly into the equatorial wind. We find that the modulations are caused by narrow `spoke-like' wind regions. We present a hydrodynamic model showing that the linearly shaped radial wind pattern can be caused by mechanical wave action at the base of the stellar wind from the blue supergiant.

  3. Mode splitting effect in FEMs with oversized Bragg resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Peskov, N. Yu.; Sergeev, A. S.; Kaminsky, A. K.; Perelstein, E. A.; Sedykh, S. N.; Kuzikov, S. V.

    2016-07-15

    Splitting of the fundamental mode in an oversized Bragg resonator with a step of the corrugation phase, which operates over the feedback loop involving the waveguide waves of different transverse structures, was found to be the result of mutual influence of the neighboring zones of the Bragg scattering. Theoretical description of this effect was developed within the framework of the advanced (four-wave) coupled-wave approach. It is shown that mode splitting reduces the selective properties, restricts the output power, and decreases the stability of the narrow-band operating regime in the free-electron maser (FEM) oscillators based on such resonators. The results of the theoretical analysis were confirmed by 3D simulations and “cold” microwave tests. Experimental data on Bragg resonators with different parameters in a 30-GHz FEM are presented. The possibility of reducing the mode splitting by profiling the corrugation parameters is shown. The use of the mode splitting effect for the output power enhancement by passive compression of the double-frequency pulse generated in the FEM with such a resonator is discussed.

  4. RF Wave Simulation Using the MFEM Open Source FEM Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillerman, J.; Shiraiwa, S.; Bonoli, P. T.; Wright, J. C.; Green, D. L.; Kolev, T.

    2016-10-01

    A new plasma wave simulation environment based on the finite element method is presented. MFEM, a scalable open-source FEM library, is used as the basis for this capability. MFEM allows for assembling an FEM matrix of arbitrarily high order in a parallel computing environment. A 3D frequency domain RF physics layer was implemented using a python wrapper for MFEM and a cold collisional plasma model was ported. This physics layer allows for defining the plasma RF wave simulation model without user knowledge of the FEM weak-form formulation. A graphical user interface is built on πScope, a python-based scientific workbench, such that a user can build a model definition file interactively. Benchmark cases have been ported to this new environment, with results being consistent with those obtained using COMSOL multiphysics, GENRAY, and TORIC/TORLH spectral solvers. This work is a first step in bringing to bear the sophisticated computational tool suite that MFEM provides (e.g., adaptive mesh refinement, solver suite, element types) to the linear plasma-wave interaction problem, and within more complicated integrated workflows, such as coupling with core spectral solver, or incorporating additional physics such as an RF sheath potential model or kinetic effects. USDoE Awards DE-FC02-99ER54512, DE-FC02-01ER54648.

  5. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  6. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

  7. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  8. A Novel 3D Hybrid FEM-PO Technique for the Analysis of Scattering Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-23

    Magdalena Salazar-Palma3 Tapan K. Sarkar4 1Departamento de Ingeniería Audiovisual y Comunicaciones , Universidad Politécnica de Madrid 2Departamento de...Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones , Universidad de Alcalá Escuela Politécnica, Campus Universitario, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona Km. 33.600 28806 Alcalá de...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Departamento de Ingeniería Audiovisual y Comunicaciones , Universidad Politécnica de

  9. 3D-FEM and histomorphology of mandibular reconstruction with the titanium functionally dynamic bridging plate.

    PubMed

    Schuller-Götzburg, P; Pleschberger, M; Rammerstorfer, F G; Krenkel, C

    2009-12-01

    Biomechanical investigation of the mandible is difficult due to the complex geometrical structure. A three-dimensional finite element model of the mandible and masticatory muscles was produced with approximately 23,000 hexahedral elements. On this model, mesial and distal portions of the jaw were resected and bridged with a buccal and/or caudally positioned bridging plate. The plate was fixed caudal or buccal to the mandible. The defect was left as it was or reconstructed with an exactly fitting transplant defined as bone. The jaw was loaded at a predefined point. The changes in stresses and deformations of bone, the transplant and the bridging plate were analysed. In the caudally positioned bridging plate, finite element analysis showed lesser stresses around the fixation screws of the bridging plate. During reconstruction of the lateral defect, the buccal (ramus)-caudal (corpus) position of the bridging plate showed fewer stresses and deformations than purely buccal positioning. The caudal position of the bridging plate has biomechanical advantages and facilitates fixation of the plate, and fixation of a bone graft on the jaw stumps. Histomorphological investigations, 12 weeks and 7 years after reconstruction, show partial osseous integration or transformation of autologous iliac crest transplants.

  10. Perception of 3D spatial relations for 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Paul; Pizlo, Zygmunt; Hoffmann, Christoph; Popescu, Voicu S.

    2004-05-01

    We test perception of 3D spatial relations in 3D images rendered by a 3D display (Perspecta from Actuality Systems) and compare it to that of a high-resolution flat panel display. 3D images provide the observer with such depth cues as motion parallax and binocular disparity. Our 3D display is a device that renders a 3D image by displaying, in rapid succession, radial slices through the scene on a rotating screen. The image is contained in a glass globe and can be viewed from virtually any direction. In the psychophysical experiment several families of 3D objects are used as stimuli: primitive shapes (cylinders and cuboids), and complex objects (multi-story buildings, cars, and pieces of furniture). Each object has at least one plane of symmetry. On each trial an object or its "distorted" version is shown at an arbitrary orientation. The distortion is produced by stretching an object in a random direction by 40%. This distortion must eliminate the symmetry of an object. The subject's task is to decide whether or not the presented object is distorted under several viewing conditions (monocular/binocular, with/without motion parallax, and near/far). The subject's performance is measured by the discriminability d', which is a conventional dependent variable in signal detection experiments.

  11. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  12. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  13. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  14. 3D Buckligami: Digital Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hecke, Martin; de Reus, Koen; Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin

    2014-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit collective buckling in 3D, and create these by a 3D printing/moulding technique. Our structures consist of cubic lattice of anisotropic unit cells, and we show that their mechanical properties are programmable via the orientation of these unit cells.

  15. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  16. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  17. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  18. 3D vision system assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  19. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  20. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  1. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  2. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  3. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  4. Non-isothermal 3D SDPD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Potami, Raffaele; Gatsonis, Nikolaos

    2012-11-01

    The study of fluids at micro and nanoscale requires new modeling and computational approaches. Smooth Particle Dissipative Dynamics (SDPD) is a mesh-free method that provides a bridge between the continuum equations of hydrodynamics embedded in the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach and the molecular nature embedded in the DPD approach. SDPD is thermodynamically consistent, does not rely on arbitrary coefficients for its thermostat, involves realistic transport coefficients, and includes fluctuation terms. SDPD is implemented in our work for arbitrary 3D geometries with a methodology to model solid wall boundary conditions. We present simulations for isothermal flows for verification of our approach. The entropy equation is implemented with a velocity-entropy Verlet integration algorithm Flows with heat transfer are simulated for verification of the SDPD. We present also the self-diffusion coefficient derived from SDPD simulations for gases and liquids. Results show the scale dependence of self-diffusion coefficient on SDPD particle size. Computational Mathematics Program of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under grant/contract number FA9550-06-1-0236.

  5. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  6. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models.

  7. 3D Scan Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: 3D...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title 3D Scan Systems

  8. 3D unstructured mesh discontinuous finite element hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, M.K.; Kershaw, D.S.; Shaw, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    The authors present detailed features of the ICF3D hydrodynamics code used for inertial fusion simulations. This code is intended to be a state-of-the-art upgrade of the well-known fluid code, LASNEX. ICF3D employs discontinuous finite elements on a discrete unstructured mesh consisting of a variety of 3D polyhedra including tetrahedra, prisms, and hexahedra. The authors discussed details of how the ROE-averaged second-order convection was applied on the discrete elements, and how the C++ coding interface has helped to simplify implementing the many physics and numerics modules within the code package. The author emphasized the virtues of object-oriented design in large scale projects such as ICF3D.

  9. 3D dynamic simulation of crack propagation in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijerathne, M. L. L.; Hori, Muneo; Sakaguchi, Hide; Oguni, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Some experimental observations of Shock Wave Lithotripsy(SWL), which include 3D dynamic crack propagation, are simulated with the aim of reproducing fragmentation of kidney stones with SWL. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the fragmentation of kidney stones by focusing an ultrasonic pressure pulse onto the stones. 3D models with fine discretization are used to accurately capture the high amplitude shear shock waves. For solving the resulting large scale dynamic crack propagation problem, PDS-FEM is used; it provides numerically efficient failure treatments. With a distributed memory parallel code of PDS-FEM, experimentally observed 3D photoelastic images of transient stress waves and crack patterns in cylindrical samples are successfully reproduced. The numerical crack patterns are in good agreement with the experimental ones, quantitatively. The results shows that the high amplitude shear waves induced in solid, by the lithotriptor generated shock wave, play a dominant role in stone fragmentation.

  10. ASI/MET - 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-13

    The Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package ASI/MET is the mast and windsocks at the center of this stereo image from NASA Mars Pathfinder. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

  11. 3D Models of Immunotherapy

    Cancer.gov

    This collaborative grant is developing 3D models of both mouse and human biology to investigate aspects of therapeutic vaccination in order to answer key questions relevant to human cancer immunotherapy.

  12. 3D polymer scaffold arrays.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yang, Yanyin; Dorsey, Shauna M; Ramalingam, Murugan; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a combinatorial platform for fabricating tissue scaffold arrays that can be used for screening cell-material interactions. Traditional research involves preparing samples one at a time for characterization and testing. Combinatorial and high-throughput (CHT) methods lower the cost of research by reducing the amount of time and material required for experiments by combining many samples into miniaturized specimens. In order to help accelerate biomaterials research, many new CHT methods have been developed for screening cell-material interactions where materials are presented to cells as a 2D film or surface. However, biomaterials are frequently used to fabricate 3D scaffolds, cells exist in vivo in a 3D environment and cells cultured in a 3D environment in vitro typically behave more physiologically than those cultured on a 2D surface. Thus, we have developed a platform for fabricating tissue scaffold libraries where biomaterials can be presented to cells in a 3D format.

  13. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  14. [Tridimensional (3D) endoscopic ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Varas Lorenzo, M J; Muñoz Agel, F; Abad Belando, R

    2007-01-01

    A review and update on 3D endoscopic ultrasonography is included regarding all of this technique s aspects, technical details, and current indications. Images from our own clinical experience are presented.

  15. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  16. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  17. Magneto-hydrodynamical model for plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruikuan; Yang, Jiayan

    2017-10-01

    Based on the Newton's second law and the Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic field, we establish a new 3-D incompressible magneto-hydrodynamics model for the motion of plasma under the standard Coulomb gauge. By using the Galerkin method, we prove the existence of a global weak solution for this new 3-D model.

  18. Recent Improvements To The RELAP5-3D Code

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Riemke; Paul D. Bayless; S. Michael Modro

    2006-06-01

    The RELAP5-3D computer program has been recently improved. Changes were made as follows: (1) heat structures are allowed to be decoupled from hydrodynamic components, (2) built-in material properties for heat structures have been made consistent with those in MATPRO and the Nuclear Systems Materials Handbook (they are now documented in the RELAP5-3D manual, (3) Schrock's flow quality correlation is now used for a downward oriented junction from a horizontal volume for the stratification entrainment/pullthrough model.

  19. Simulation of 3D food printing extrusion and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Masato; Fukuzawa, Daisuke; Murashima, Takahiro; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2017-04-01

    In our 3D food printer, gel food such as gelatin is extruded from syringe and deposited to make a shape. Low viscosity is reasonable when the food is injected. On the other hand, high viscosity or solid state is desirable to keep the food shape after the food is deposited. The selection of the food viscoelastic property is difficult to succeed in the food printing. In general, we need trial and error to appropriate food viscosity. To avoid the trial and error, we are developing a simulation system of 3D food printing using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) which is a kind of particle based simulation method.

  20. LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2004-01-01

    Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

  1. 3-D threat image projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen

    2008-02-01

    Automated Explosive Detection Systems utilizing Computed Tomography perform a series X-ray scans of passenger bags being checked in at the airport, and produce various 2-D projection images and 3-D volumetric images of the bag. The determination as to whether the passenger bag contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed through trained Transportation Security Administration screeners following an approved protocol. In order to keep the screeners vigilant with regards to screening quality, the Transportation Security Administration has mandated the use of Threat Image Projection on 2-D projection X-ray screening equipment used at all US airports. These algorithms insert visual artificial threats into images of the normal passenger bags in order to test the screeners with regards to their screening efficiency and their screening quality at determining threats. This technology for 2-D X-ray system is proven and is widespread amongst multiple manufacturers of X-ray projection systems. Until now, Threat Image Projection has been unsuccessful at being introduced into 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems for numerous reasons. The failure of these prior attempts are mainly due to imaging queues that the screeners pickup on, and therefore make it easy for the screeners to discern the presence of the threat image and thus defeating the intended purpose. This paper presents a novel approach for 3-D Threat Image Projection for 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems. The method presented here is a projection based approach where both the threat object and the bag remain in projection sinogram space. Novel approaches have been developed for projection based object segmentation, projection based streak reduction used for threat object isolation along with scan orientation independence and projection based streak generation for an overall realistic 3-D image. The algorithms are prototyped in MatLab and C++ and demonstrate non discernible 3-D threat

  2. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  3. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  4. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  5. 3D digitising using structured illumination: application to mould redesign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granero, L.; Sánchez, J.; Micó, V.; Esteve, J. J.; Hervás, J.; Simón, S.; Pérez, E.

    2007-06-01

    Conventional techniques applied to three dimensional (3D) acquisition of information has significant limitations depending on the features of the piece under test. Thus, complex curvatures, deeper concavities and higher volumes are some examples of critical factors in which contact digitising systems are not suitable to undertake such kind of task. In these cases, the usage of optical 3D digitization systems implies a more appropriate way to obtain 3D information about the sample. In particular, structured illumination by means of white light provides point-to-point object acquisition with accuracy and resolution that are always below the manufactured tolerances. Moreover, when the object under test is too large, structured illumination can be mixed with photogrammetrical techniques in order to avoid errors by means of the delimitation of the overall working volume. This proceeding presents several real cases applied to mould industry in which 3D shape measurement using white light structured illumination is combined with finite element method (FEM) and laser cladding techniques to allow the repair of the mould.

  6. Impact Damage of 3D Orthogonal Woven Composite Circular Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Changgan; Sun, Baozhong; Qiu, Yiping; Gu, Bohong

    2007-11-01

    The damages of 3D orthogonal woven composite circular plate under quasi-static indentation and transverse impact were tested with Materials Test System (MTS) and modified split Hopkinson bar (SHPB) apparatus. The load vs. displacement curves during quasi-static penetration and impact were obtained to study the energy absorption of the composite plate. The fluctuation of the impact stress waves has been unveiled. Differences of the load-displacement curves between the quasi-static and impact loading are discussed. This work also aims at establishing a unit-cell model to analyze the damage of composites. A user material subroutine which named VUMAT for characterizing the constitutive relationship of the 3-D orthogonal woven composite and the damage evolution is incorporated with a finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit to simulate the impact damage process of the composite plates. From the comparison of the load-displacement curves and energy absorption curves of the composite plate between experimental and FEM simulation, it is shown that the unit-cell model of the 3D woven composite and the VUMAT combined with the ABAQUS/Explicit can calculate the impact responses of the circular plate precisely. Furthermore, the model can also be extended to simulate the impact behavior of the 3D woven composite structures.

  7. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  8. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K.; Johnson, Blake N.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and ‘living’ platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with

  9. Macrophage podosomes go 3D.

    PubMed

    Van Goethem, Emeline; Guiet, Romain; Balor, Stéphanie; Charrière, Guillaume M; Poincloux, Renaud; Labrousse, Arnaud; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Le Cabec, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Macrophage tissue infiltration is a critical step in the immune response against microorganisms and is also associated with disease progression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Macrophages are constitutively equipped with specialized structures called podosomes dedicated to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. We recently reported that these structures play a critical role in trans-matrix mesenchymal migration mode, a protease-dependent mechanism. Podosome molecular components and their ECM-degrading activity have been extensively studied in two dimensions (2D), but yet very little is known about their fate in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Therefore, localization of podosome markers and proteolytic activity were carefully examined in human macrophages performing mesenchymal migration. Using our gelled collagen I 3D matrix model to obligate human macrophages to perform mesenchymal migration, classical podosome markers including talin, paxillin, vinculin, gelsolin, cortactin were found to accumulate at the tip of F-actin-rich cell protrusions together with β1 integrin and CD44 but not β2 integrin. Macrophage proteolytic activity was observed at podosome-like protrusion sites using confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. The formation of migration tunnels by macrophages inside the matrix was accomplished by degradation, engulfment and mechanic compaction of the matrix. In addition, videomicroscopy revealed that 3D F-actin-rich protrusions of migrating macrophages were as dynamic as their 2D counterparts. Overall, the specifications of 3D podosomes resembled those of 2D podosome rosettes rather than those of individual podosomes. This observation was further supported by the aspect of 3D podosomes in fibroblasts expressing Hck, a master regulator of podosome rosettes in macrophages. In conclusion, human macrophage podosomes go 3D and take the shape of spherical podosome rosettes when the cells perform mesenchymal migration. This work

  10. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  11. Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  12. Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  13. Hydrodynamic Hunters.

    PubMed

    Jashnsaz, Hossein; Al Juboori, Mohammed; Weistuch, Corey; Miller, Nicholas; Nguyen, Tyler; Meyerhoff, Viktoria; McCoy, Bryan; Perkins, Stephanie; Wallgren, Ross; Ray, Bruce D; Tsekouras, Konstantinos; Anderson, Gregory G; Pressé, Steve

    2017-03-28

    The Gram-negative Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus (BV) is a model bacterial predator that hunts other bacteria and may serve as a living antibiotic. Despite over 50 years since its discovery, it is suggested that BV probably collides into its prey at random. It remains unclear to what degree, if any, BV uses chemical cues to target its prey. The targeted search problem by the predator for its prey in three dimensions is a difficult problem: it requires the predator to sensitively detect prey and forecast its mobile prey's future position on the basis of previously detected signal. Here instead we find that rather than chemically detecting prey, hydrodynamics forces BV into regions high in prey density, thereby improving its odds of a chance collision with prey and ultimately reducing BV's search space for prey. We do so by showing that BV's dynamics are strongly influenced by self-generated hydrodynamic flow fields forcing BV onto surfaces and, for large enough defects on surfaces, forcing BV in orbital motion around these defects. Key experimental controls and calculations recapitulate the hydrodynamic origin of these behaviors. While BV's prey (Escherichia coli) are too small to trap BV in hydrodynamic orbit, the prey are also susceptible to their own hydrodynamic fields, substantially confining them to surfaces and defects where mobile predator and prey density is now dramatically enhanced. Colocalization, driven by hydrodynamics, ultimately reduces BV's search space for prey from three to two dimensions (on surfaces) even down to a single dimension (around defects). We conclude that BV's search for individual prey remains random, as suggested in the literature, but confined, however-by generic hydrodynamic forces-to reduced dimensionality.

  14. Milling Process FEM Simulation for Identification of Material Parameters Directly from Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Maurel, A.; Fontaine, M.; Thibaud, S.; Michel, G.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-05-17

    An identification procedure for the determination of material parameters that are used for the FEM simulation of milling processes is proposed. This procedure is based on the coupling of a numerical identification procedure and FEM simulations of milling operations. The experimental data result directly from measurements performed during milling experiments. A special device has been instrumented and calibrated to perform force and torque measurements, directly during machining experiments in using a piezoelectric dynamometer and a high frequency charge amplifier. The forces and torques are stored and low pass filtered if necessary, and these data provide the main basis for the identification procedure which is based on coupling 3D FEM simulations of milling and optimization/identification algorithms. The identification approach is mainly based on the Surfaces Response Method in the material parameters space, coupled to a sensitivity analysis. A Moving Least Square Approximation method is used to accelerate the identification process. The material behaviour is described from Johnson-Cook law. A fracture model is also added to consider chip formation and separation. The FEM simulations of milling are performed using explicit ALE based FEM code. The inverse identification method is here applied on a 304L stainless steel and the first results are presented.

  15. Milling Process FEM Simulation for Identification of Material Parameters Directly from Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurel, A.; Fontaine, M.; Thibaud, S.; Michel, G.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    An identification procedure for the determination of material parameters that are used for the FEM simulation of milling processes is proposed. This procedure is based on the coupling of a numerical identification procedure and FEM simulations of milling operations. The experimental data result directly from measurements performed during milling experiments. A special device has been instrumented and calibrated to perform force and torque measurements, directly during machining experiments in using a piezoelectric dynamometer and a high frequency charge amplifier. The forces and torques are stored and low pass filtered if necessary, and these data provide the main basis for the identification procedure which is based on coupling 3D FEM simulations of milling and optimization/identification algorithms. The identification approach is mainly based on the Surfaces Response Method in the material parameters space, coupled to a sensitivity analysis. A Moving Least Square Approximation method is used to accelerate the identification process. The material behaviour is described from Johnson-Cook law. A fracture model is also added to consider chip formation and separation. The FEM simulations of milling are performed using explicit ALE based FEM code. The inverse identification method is here applied on a 304L stainless steel and the first results are presented.

  16. FEM electrode refinement for electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Grychtol, Bartlomiej; Adler, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) reconstructs images of electrical tissue properties within a body from electrical transfer impedance measurements at surface electrodes. Reconstruction of EIT images requires the solution of an inverse problem in soft field tomography, where a sensitivity matrix, J, of the relationship between internal changes and measurements is calculated, and then a pseudo-inverse of J is used to update the image estimate. It is therefore clear that a precise calculation of J is required for solution accuracy. Since it is generally not possible to use analytic solutions, the finite element method (FEM) is typically used. It has generally been recommended in the EIT literature that FEMs be refined near electrodes, since the electric field and sensitivity is largest there. In this paper we analyze the accuracy requirement for FEM refinement near electrodes in EIT and describe a technique to refine arbitrary FEMs.

  17. Group-invariant solutions of hydrodynamics and radiation hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Coggeshall, S.V.

    1993-08-01

    Using the property of invariance under Lie groups of transformations, the equations of hydrodynamics are transformed from partial differential equations to ordinary differential equations, for which special analytic solutions can be found. These particular solutions can be used for (1) numerical benchmarks, (2) the basis for analytic models, and (3) insight into more general solutions. Additionally, group transformations can be used to construct new solutions from existing ones. A space-time projective group is used to generate complicated solutions from simpler solutions. Discussion of these procedures is presented along with examples of analytic of 1,2 and 3-D hydrodynamics.

  18. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  19. Baghdad Sulcus in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-23

    This anaglyph from images captured by NASA Cassini spacecraft shows a dramatic, 3-D view of one of the deep fractures nicknamed tiger stripes on Saturn moon Enceladus which are located near the moon south pole, spray jets of water ice.

  20. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  1. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  2. Ganges Chasma in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-06-25

    Ganges Chasma is part of the Valles Marineris trough system that stretches nearly 5,000 kilometers 3,000 miles across the western equatorial region of Mars. This stereo anaglyph is from NASA Mars Global Surveyor. 3D glasses are necessary.

  3. Opportunity Stretches Out 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-02

    This is a three-dimensional stereo anaglyph of an image taken by the front hazard-identification camera onboard NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, showing the rover arm in its extended position. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  4. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  5. The World of 3-D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Robin K.

    1991-01-01

    Students explore three-dimensional properties by creating red and green wall decorations related to Christmas. Students examine why images seem to vibrate when red and green pieces are small and close together. Instructions to conduct the activity and construct 3-D glasses are given. (MDH)

  6. Rosetta Comet in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-21

    A 3D image shows what it would look like to fly over the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The image was generated by data collected by ESA Philae spacecraft during the decent to the spacecraft initial touchdown on the comet Nov. 12, 2014.

  7. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  8. The Combined Finite-Discrete Element Method applied to the Study of Rock Fracturing Behavior in 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rougier, Esteban; Bradley, Christopher R.; Broom, Scott T.; Knight, Earl E.; Munjiza, Ante; Sussman, Aviva J.; Swift, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction the combined finite-discrete element method (FEM/DEM), has become an excellent tool to address a wide range of problems involving fracturing and fragmentation of solids. Within the context of rock mechanics, the FEM/DEM method has been applied to many complex industrial problems such as block caving, deep mining techniques, rock blasting, seismic waves, packing problems, rock crushing problems, etc. In the real world most of the problems involving fracture and fragmentation of solids are three dimensional problems. With the aim of addressing these problems an improved 2D/3D FEM/DEM capability has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These capabilities include state of the art 3D contact detection, contact interaction, constitutive material models, and fracture models. In this paper, Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) Brazilian experiments are simulated using this improved 2D/3D FEM/DEM approach which is implemented in LANL's MUNROU (Munjiza-Rougier) code. The results presented in this work show excellent agreement with both the SHPB experiments and previous 2D numerical simulations performed by other FEM/DEM research groups.

  9. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  10. 3D finite element model of the diabetic neuropathic foot: a gait analysis driven approach.

    PubMed

    Guiotto, Annamaria; Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2014-09-22

    Diabetic foot is an invalidating complication of diabetes that can lead to foot ulcers. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) allows characterizing the loads developed in the different anatomical structures of the foot in dynamic conditions. The aim of this study was to develop a subject specific 3D foot FE model (FEM) of a diabetic neuropathic (DNS) and a healthy (HS) subject, whose subject specificity can be found in term of foot geometry and boundary conditions. Kinematics, kinetics and plantar pressure (PP) data were extracted from the gait analysis trials of the two subjects with this purpose. The FEM were developed segmenting bones, cartilage and skin from MRI and drawing a horizontal plate as ground support. Materials properties were adopted from previous literature. FE simulations were run with the kinematics and kinetics data of four different phases of the stance phase of gait (heel strike, loading response, midstance and push off). FEMs were then driven by group gait data of 10 neuropathic and 10 healthy subjects. Model validation focused on agreement between FEM-simulated and experimental PP. The peak values and the total distribution of the pressures were compared for this purpose. Results showed that the models were less robust when driven from group data and underestimated the PP in each foot subarea. In particular in the case of the neuropathic subject's model the mean errors between experimental and simulated data were around the 20% of the peak values. This knowledge is crucial in understanding the aetiology of diabetic foot.

  11. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  12. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  13. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  14. 3-D sprag ratcheting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Michael O. (Inventor); Poland, Jr., James W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A ratcheting device comprising a driver head assembly which includes at least two 3-D sprag elements positioned within a first groove within the driver head assembly such that at least one of the 3-D sprag elements may lockingly engage the driver head assembly and a mating hub assembly to allow for rotation of the hub assembly in one direction with respect to the driver head assembly. This arrangement allows the ratcheting tool to impart torque in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction without having to first rotate the ratcheting tool in the direction opposite the direction in which the torque is applied. This arrangement also allows the ratcheting tool to impart torque in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction while in the neutral position.

  15. Comparing swimsuits in 3D.

    PubMed

    van Geer, Erik; Molenbroek, Johan; Schreven, Sander; deVoogd-Claessen, Lenneke; Toussaint, Huib

    2012-01-01

    In competitive swimming, suits have become more important. These suits influence friction, pressure and wave drag. Friction drag is related to the surface properties whereas both pressure and wave drag are greatly influenced by body shape. To find a relationship between the body shape and the drag, the anthropometry of several world class female swimmers wearing different suits was accurately defined using a 3D scanner and traditional measuring methods. The 3D scans delivered more detailed information about the body shape. On the same day the swimmers did performance tests in the water with the tested suits. Afterwards the result of the performance tests and the differences found in body shape was analyzed to determine the deformation caused by a swimsuit and its effect on the swimming performance. Although the amount of data is limited because of the few test subjects, there is an indication that the deformation of the body influences the swimming performance.

  16. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  17. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  18. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  19. Ship Hydrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  20. Ship Hydrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  1. Hydrodynamic instability experiments and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dimonte, G.; Schneider, M.; Frerking, C.E.

    1995-07-01

    Richtmyer-Meshkov experiments are conducted on the Nova laser with strong radiatively driven shocks (Mach > 20) in planar, two-fluid targets with Atwood number A < 0. Single mode interfacial perturbations are used to test linear theory and 3D random perturbations are used to study turbulent mix. Rayleigh-Taylor experiments are conducted on a new facility called the Linear Electric Motor (LEM) in which macroscopic fluids are accelerated electromagnetically with arbitrary acceleration profiles. The initial experiments are described. Hydrodynamic simulations in 2D are in reasonable agreement with the experiments, but these studies show that simulations in 3D with good radiation transport and equation of state are needed.

  2. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.

  3. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.

  4. 3D Models of Stellar Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, S.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Booth, R.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W.; Harries, T.; Mackey, J.; Langer, N.; Corradi, R.

    2014-04-01

    Symbiotic binaries consist of a cool, evolved mass-losing giant and an accreting compact companion. As symbiotic nebulae show similar morphologies to those in planetary nebulae (so much so that it is often difficult to distinguish between the two), they are ideal laboratories for understanding the role a binary companion plays in shaping the circumstellar envelopes in these evolved systems. We will present 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) models of interacting binaries, e.g. R Aquarii and Mira, and discuss the formation of spiral outflows, arcs, shells and equatorial density enhancements.We will also discuss the implications of the former for planetary nebulae, e.g. the Egg Nebula and Cat's Eye, and the latter for the formation of bipolar geometries, e.g. M2-9. We also investigate accretion and angular momentum evolution in symbiotic binaries which may be important to understand the formation of jets and more episodic mass-loss features we see in circumstellar envelopes and the orbital characteristics of binary central stars of planetary nebulae.

  5. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  6. Global analyses of historical masonry buildings: Equivalent frame vs. 3D solid models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementi, Francesco; Mezzapelle, Pardo Antonio; Cocchi, Gianmichele; Lenci, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    The paper analyses the seismic vulnerability of two different masonry buildings. It provides both an advanced 3D modelling with solid elements and an equivalent frame modelling. The global structural behaviour and the dynamic properties of the compound have been evaluated using the Finite Element Modelling (FEM) technique, where the nonlinear behaviour of masonry has been taken into account by proper constitutive assumptions. A sensitivity analysis is done to evaluate the effect of the choice of the structural models.

  7. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, J I

    2003-10-16

    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is to distinguish

  8. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  9. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  10. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  11. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  12. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  13. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  14. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  15. 3D reconstruction on CBCT in the cystic pathology of the jaws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chioran, Doina; Nicoarǎ, Adrian; Roşu, Şerban; Cǎrligeriu, Virgil; Ianeş, Emilia

    2013-10-01

    The paper presents the image acquisition of Cone Beam Computer Tomography scans of human facial bones and their processing in order to obtain a 3D reconstruction model of the skull. The reconstructed model provides useful data to the physician in situations of maxillary cystic pathology but more important is the data about the relationship of the maxillary cyst with the surrounding anatomical elements. Using the B-splines a 3D volume model of the human facial bones can be achieved. This model can be exported in any CAD system, resulting a virtual model witch can be used in FEM analysis.

  16. Traffic Flow Density Distribution Based on FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jing; Cui, Jianming

    In analysis of normal traffic flow, it usually uses the static or dynamic model to numerical analyze based on fluid mechanics. However, in such handling process, the problem of massive modeling and data handling exist, and the accuracy is not high. Finite Element Method (FEM) is a production which is developed from the combination of a modern mathematics, mathematics and computer technology, and it has been widely applied in various domain such as engineering. Based on existing theory of traffic flow, ITS and the development of FEM, a simulation theory of the FEM that solves the problems existing in traffic flow is put forward. Based on this theory, using the existing Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software, the traffic flow is simulated analyzed with fluid mechanics and the dynamics. Massive data processing problem of manually modeling and numerical analysis is solved, and the authenticity of simulation is enhanced.

  17. Bacterial Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauga, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells, yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micrometer scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, I review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  18. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  19. Quantum hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubota, Makoto; Kobayashi, Michikazu; Takeuchi, Hiromitsu

    2013-01-01

    Quantum hydrodynamics in superfluid helium and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) has been recently one of the most important topics in low temperature physics. In these systems, a macroscopic wave function (order parameter) appears because of Bose-Einstein condensation, which creates quantized vortices. Turbulence consisting of quantized vortices is called quantum turbulence (QT). The study of quantized vortices and QT has increased in intensity for two reasons. The first is that recent studies of QT are considerably advanced over older studies, which were chiefly limited to thermal counterflow in 4He, which has no analog with classical traditional turbulence, whereas new studies on QT are focused on a comparison between QT and classical turbulence. The second reason is the realization of atomic BECs in 1995, for which modern optical techniques enable the direct control and visualization of the condensate and can even change the interaction; such direct control is impossible in other quantum condensates like superfluid helium and superconductors. Our group has made many important theoretical and numerical contributions to the field of quantum hydrodynamics of both superfluid helium and atomic BECs. In this article, we review some of the important topics in detail. The topics of quantum hydrodynamics are diverse, so we have not attempted to cover all these topics in this article. We also ensure that the scope of this article does not overlap with our recent review article (arXiv:1004.5458), “Quantized vortices in superfluid helium and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates”, and other review articles.

  20. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  1. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  2. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  3. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  4. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  5. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  6. 3D structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, William M.; Goodwin, Paul C.

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy achieves double the lateral and axial resolution of wide-field microscopy, using conventional fluorescent dyes, proteins and sample preparation techniques. A three-dimensional interference-fringe pattern excites the fluorescence, filling in the "missing cone" of the wide field optical transfer function, thereby enabling axial (z) discrimination. The pattern acts as a spatial carrier frequency that mixes with the higher spatial frequency components of the image, which usually succumb to the diffraction limit. The fluorescence image encodes the high frequency content as a down-mixed, moiré-like pattern. A series of images is required, wherein the 3D pattern is shifted and rotated, providing down-mixed data for a system of linear equations. Super-resolution is obtained by solving these equations. The speed with which the image series can be obtained can be a problem for the microscopy of living cells. Challenges include pattern-switching speeds, optical efficiency, wavefront quality and fringe contrast, fringe pitch optimization, and polarization issues. We will review some recent developments in 3D-SIM hardware with the goal of super-resolved z-stacks of motile cells.

  7. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  8. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  9. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  10. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  11. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  12. Using of Bezier Interpolation in 3D Reconstruction of Human Femur Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth-Tascau, Mirela; Pater, Flavius; Stoia, Dan Ioan; Menyhardt, Karoly; Rosu, Serban; Rusu, Lucian; Vigaru, Cosmina

    2011-09-01

    The paper is focused on image acquisition and processing of CT scans of a human femur bone in order to obtain 3D reconstructions of the human femur. The objective of the presented study was to obtain 3D realistic model of the human femur bone. The reconstructed model provides useful data to the physician but more important are the data and 3D models that can be used for virtual testing of femoral implants and endoprosthesis. Using the B-spline patch a 3D volume model of the human femur bone can be achieved. This model can be easy imported in any CAD system, resulting a virtual femur model witch can be used in FEM analysis.

  13. 3D radiative transfer in colliding wind binaries: Application of the SimpleX algorithm to 3D SPH simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, Thomas; Clementel, Nicola; Kruip, Chael; Icke, Vincent; Gull, Theodore

    2014-09-01

    We present the first results of full 3D radiative transfer simulations of the colliding stellar winds in a massive binary system. We accomplish this by applying the SIMPLEX algorithm for 3D radiative transfer on an unstructured Delaunay grid to recent 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the colliding winds in the binary system η Carinae. We use SIMPLEX to obtain detailed ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium, in 3D, at the resolution of the original SPH simulations. We show how the SIMPLEX simulations can be used to generate synthetic spectral data cubes for comparison to data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph as part of a multi-cycle program to map changes in η Car's extended interacting wind structures across one binary cycle. Comparison of the HST observations to the SIMPLEX models can help lead to more accurate constraints on the orbital, stellar, and wind parameters of the η Car system, such as the primary's mass-loss rate and the companion's temperature and luminosity. While we initially focus specifically on the η Car binary, the numerical methods employed can be applied to numerous other colliding wind (WR140, WR137, WR19) and dusty 'pinwheel' (WR104, WR98a) binary systems. One of the biggest remaining mysteries is how dust can form and survive in such systems that contain a hot, luminous O star. Coupled with 3D hydrodynamical simulations, SIMPLEX simulations have the potential to help determine the regions where dust can form and survive in these unique objects.

  14. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    ScienceCinema

    Love, Lonnie

    2016-11-02

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  15. Quasi 3D dispersion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakucz, P.

    2003-04-01

    This paper studies the problem of tracer dispersion in a coloured fluid flowing through a two-phase 3D rough channel-system in a 40 cm*40 cm plexi-container filled by homogen glass fractions and colourless fluid. The unstable interface between the driving coloured fluid and the colourless fluid develops viscous fingers with a fractal structure at high capillary number. Five two-dimensional fractal fronts have been observed at the same time using four cameras along the vertical side-walls and using one camera located above the plexi-container. In possession of five fronts the spatial concentration contours are determined using statistical models. The concentration contours are self-affine fractal curves with a fractal dimension D=2.19. This result is valid for disperison at high Péclet numbers.

  16. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  17. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  18. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  19. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-06

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  20. Subharmonic wave analysis in crack using the developed FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihara, Tsuyoshi; Shimaya, Koji; Ikegami, Yasushi; Furukawa, Takashi; Komura, Ichiro

    2012-09-01

    As the first step of the improvement of developed FEM code to extend the subharmonic wave generation at nano scale gap crack, we investigated the basic crack model for accurate simulator of subharmonic behavior using the voxel mesh FEM code.

  1. MESA: A 3-D Eulerian hydrocode for penetration mechanics studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, D.A.; Holian, K.S.; Henninger, R.

    1991-01-01

    We describe an explicit, finite-difference hydrocode, called MESA, and compare calculations to metal and ceramic plate impacts with spall and to Taylor cylinder tests. The MESA code was developed with support from DARPA, the Army and the Marine Corps for use in armor/anti-armor problems primarily, but the code has been used for a number of other applications. MESA includes 2-D and 3-D Eulerian hydrodynamics, a number of material strength and fracture models, and a programmed burn high explosives model. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Single-step assembly of complex 3-D microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, E.E.; Howe, R.T.; Rodgers, M.S.

    2000-01-04

    This paper describes three-dimensional microstructures fabricated in a planar process and assembled in a single step. Multiple plates are constrained by hinges in such a way as to reduce the assembly process to a single degree-of-freedom of motion. Serial microassembly of these structures is simpler; moreover, self-assembly using hydrodynamic forces during release is much more feasible than with earlier, multiple degree-of-freedom hinged structures. A 250-{micro}m corner cube reflector, a 6-sided closed box, and a 3-D model of the Berkeley Campanile clock tower have been demonstrated in the 4-level polysilicon SUMMiT MEMS foundry.

  3. 3D Simulations of the Beehive Proplyd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feitosa, J. A.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Cerqueira, A. H.

    2014-10-01

    Some star formation regions, like the Orion nebula, have stars of different masses, from massive stars, responsible for strong ionizing winds and HII regions, to low-mass stars, which spend a long time in the protostellar phase, and are frequently associated with protostellar disks and jets. Massive O or B stars emit a great deal of UV radiation, able to dissociate the hydrogen molecule (FUV radiation, energies between 6-13 eV), to ionize the atomic hydrogen (EUV radiation, energies greater than 13.6 eV) and heat the gas. Around these stars, a large and hot (10^{4}K) region is formed, known as HII region. T-Tauri stars inside HII regions produce a type of young stellar object, a proplyd, described with accuracy in O'Dell et al. (1993). Proplyds exhibit a cometary shape from which we can distinguish a central low-mass star with an accretion disk, an ionization front, a photodissociation region and, sometimes, an external bow shock and a protostellar jet. Its morphological characteristics depends on the distance between the low-mass star and the source of the ionizing radiation. The Beehive, a giant proplyd in Orion Nebula, has attracted attention due to its exotic system of rings coaxial to the HH540 jet's axis. Bally et al. (2005) suggested that the rings are perturbations due to the crossing of the ionization front by the jet. In this work, we test this hypothesis making 3D hydrodynamic numerical simulations over an adaptive grid, using the Yguazú-A code (Raga et al., 2000), properly adapted for the Beehive conditions. Our results show that the jet causes a perturbation in the ionization front of the proplyd, but is necessary to adjust carefully some parameters of the jet like its velocity and ejection frequency in order to have the results matching the observations.

  4. Voxel Datacubes for 3D Visualization in Blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gárate, Matías

    2017-05-01

    The growth of computational astrophysics and the complexity of multi-dimensional data sets evidences the need for new versatile visualization tools for both the analysis and presentation of the data. In this work, we show how to use the open-source software Blender as a three-dimensional (3D) visualization tool to study and visualize numerical simulation results, focusing on astrophysical hydrodynamic experiments. With a datacube as input, the software can generate a volume rendering of the 3D data, show the evolution of a simulation in time, and do a fly-around camera animation to highlight the points of interest. We explain the process to import simulation outputs into Blender using the voxel data format, and how to set up a visualization scene in the software interface. This method allows scientists to perform a complementary visual analysis of their data and display their results in an appealing way, both for outreach and science presentations.

  5. Penetration of rod projectiles in semi-infinite targets : a validation test for Eulerian X-FEM in ALEGRA.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Leavy, Richard Brian; Niederhaus, John Henry J.

    2013-03-01

    The finite-element shock hydrodynamics code ALEGRA has recently been upgraded to include an X-FEM implementation in 2D for simulating impact, sliding, and release between materials in the Eulerian frame. For validation testing purposes, the problem of long-rod penetration in semi-infinite targets is considered in this report, at velocities of 500 to 3000 m/s. We describe testing simulations done using ALEGRA with and without the X-FEM capability, in order to verify its adequacy by showing X-FEM recovers the good results found with the standard ALEGRA formulation. The X-FEM results for depth of penetration differ from previously measured experimental data by less than 2%, and from the standard formulation results by less than 1%. They converge monotonically under mesh refinement at first order. Sensitivities to domain size and rear boundary condition are investigated and shown to be small. Aside from some simulation stability issues, X-FEM is found to produce good results for this classical impact and penetration problem.

  6. Hydrodynamic supercontinuum.

    PubMed

    Chabchoub, A; Hoffmann, N; Onorato, M; Genty, G; Dudley, J M; Akhmediev, N

    2013-08-02

    We report the experimental observation of multi-bound-soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) in the context of hydrodynamic surface gravity waves. Higher-order N-soliton solutions with N=2, 3 are studied in detail and shown to be associated with self-focusing in the wave group dynamics and the generation of a steep localized carrier wave underneath the group envelope. We also show that for larger input soliton numbers, the wave group experiences irreversible spectral broadening, which we refer to as a hydrodynamic supercontinuum by analogy with optics. This process is shown to be associated with the fission of the initial multisoliton into individual fundamental solitons due to higher-order nonlinear perturbations to the NLS. Numerical simulations using an extended NLS model described by the modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation, show excellent agreement with experiment and highlight the universal role that higher-order nonlinear perturbations to the NLS play in supercontinuum generation.

  7. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  8. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  9. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  10. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  11. 3D plasmonic nanoantennas integrated with MEA biosensors.

    PubMed

    Dipalo, Michele; Messina, Gabriele C; Amin, Hayder; La Rocca, Rosanna; Shalabaeva, Victoria; Simi, Alessandro; Maccione, Alessandro; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Berdondini, Luca; De Angelis, Francesco

    2015-02-28

    Neuronal signaling in brain circuits occurs at multiple scales ranging from molecules and cells to large neuronal assemblies. However, current sensing neurotechnologies are not designed for parallel access of signals at multiple scales. With the aim of combining nanoscale molecular sensing with electrical neural activity recordings within large neuronal assemblies, in this work three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanoantennas are integrated with multielectrode arrays (MEA). Nanoantennas are fabricated by fast ion beam milling on optical resist; gold is deposited on the nanoantennas in order to connect them electrically to the MEA microelectrodes and to obtain plasmonic behavior. The optical properties of these 3D nanostructures are studied through finite elements method (FEM) simulations that show a high electromagnetic field enhancement. This plasmonic enhancement is confirmed by surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy of a dye performed in liquid, which presents an enhancement of almost 100 times the incident field amplitude at resonant excitation. Finally, the reported MEA devices are tested on cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Neurons develop by extending branches on the nanostructured electrodes and extracellular action potentials are recorded over multiple days in vitro. Raman spectra of living neurons cultured on the nanoantennas are also acquired. These results highlight that these nanostructures could be potential candidates for combining electrophysiological measures of large networks with simultaneous spectroscopic investigations at the molecular level.

  12. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  13. Consistency between 2D-3D Sediment Transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaret, Catherine; Jodeau, Magali

    2017-04-01

    Sediment transport models have been developed and applied by the engineering community to estimate transport rates and morphodynamic bed evolutions in river flows, coastal and estuarine conditions. Environmental modelling systems like the open-source Telemac modelling system include a hierarchy of models from 1D (Mascaret), 2D (Telemac-2D/Sisyphe) and 3D (Telemac-3D/Sedi-3D) and include a wide range of processes to represent sediment flow interactions under more and more complex situations (cohesive, non-cohesive and mixed sediment). Despite some tremendous progresses in the numerical techniques and computing resources, the quality/accuracy of model results mainly depend on the numerous choices and skills of the modeler. In complex situations involving stratification effects, complex geometry, recirculating flows… 2D model assumptions are no longer valid. A full 3D turbulent flow model is then required in order to capture the vertical mixing processes and to represent accurately the coupled flow/sediment distribution. However a number of theoretical and numerical difficulties arise when dealing with sediment transport modelling in 3D which will be high-lighted : (1) Dependency of model results to the vertical grid refinement and choice of boundary conditions and numerical scheme (2) The choice of turbulence model determines also the sediment vertical distribution which is governed by a balance between the downward settling term and upward turbulent diffusion. (3) The use of different numerical schemes for both hydrodynamics (mean and turbulent flow) and sediment transport modelling can lead to some inconsistency including a mismatch in the definition of numerical cells and definition of boundary conditions. We discuss here those present issues and present some detailed comparison between 2D and 3D simulations on a set of validation test cases which are available in the Telemac 7.2 release using both cohesive and non-cohesive sediments.

  14. FEM × DEM: a new efficient multi-scale approach for geotechnical problems with strain localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trung Kien; Claramunt, Albert Argilaga; Caillerie, Denis; Combe, Gaël; Dal Pont, Stefano; Desrues, Jacques; Richefeu, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents a multi-scale modeling of Boundary Value Problem (BVP) approach involving cohesive-frictional granular materials in the FEM × DEM multi-scale framework. On the DEM side, a 3D model is defined based on the interactions of spherical particles. This DEM model is built through a numerical homogenization process applied to a Volume Element (VE). It is then paired with a Finite Element code. Using this numerical tool that combines two scales within the same framework, we conducted simulations of biaxial and pressuremeter tests on a cohesive-frictional granular medium. In these cases, it is known that strain localization does occur at the macroscopic level, but since FEMs suffer from severe mesh dependency as soon as shear band starts to develop, the second gradient regularization technique has been used. As a consequence, the objectivity of the computation with respect to mesh dependency is restored.

  15. 3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

    2002-03-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

  16. America's National Parks 3d (4)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-04-11

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 4)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  17. America's National Parks 3d (3)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 3)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  18. America's National Parks 3d (2)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 2)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  19. America's National Parks 3d (1)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 1)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  20. 3D ultrasound in fetal spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Schramm, T; Gloning, K-P; Minderer, S; Tutschek, B

    2008-12-01

    3D ultrasound can be used to study the fetal spine, but skeletal mode can be inconclusive for the diagnosis of fetal spina bifida. We illustrate a diagnostic approach using 2D and 3D ultrasound and indicate possible pitfalls.

  1. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  2. [3D emulation of epicardium dynamic mapping].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Yang, Cui-Wei; Fang, Zu-Xiang

    2005-03-01

    In order to realize epicardium dynamic mapping of the whole atria, 3-D graphics are drawn with OpenGL. Some source codes are introduced in the paper to explain how to produce, read, and manipulate 3-D model data.

  3. Iterative deformable FEM model for nonrigid PET/MRI breast image coregistration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unlu, Mehmet Z.; Krol, Andrzej; Magri, Alphonso; Feiglin, David H.; Mandel, James A.; Lipson, Edward D.; Coman, Ioana L.; Lee, Wei; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen

    2006-03-01

    We implemented an iterative nonrigid registration algorithm to accurately combine functional (PET) and anatomical (MRI) images in 3D. Our method relies on a Finite Element Method (FEM) and a set of fiducial skin markers (FSM) placed on breast surface. The method is applicable if the stress conditions in the imaged breast are virtually the same in PET and MRI. In the first phase, the displacement vectors of the corresponding FSM observed in MRI and PET are determined, then FEM is used to distribute FSM displacements linearly over the entire breast volume. Our FEM model relies on the analogy between each of the orthogonal components of displacement field, and the temperature distribution field in a steady state heat transfer (SSHT) in solids. The problem can thus be solved via standard heat-conduction FEM software, with arbitrary conductivity of surface elements set much higher than that of volume elements. After determining the displacements at all mesh nodes, moving (MRI) breast volume is registered to target (PET) breast volume using an image-warping algorithm. In the second iteration, to correct for any residual surface and volume misregistration, a refinement process is applied to the moving image, which was already grossly aligned with the target image in 3D using FSM. To perform this process we determine a number of corresponding points on each moving and target image surfaces using a nearest-point approach. Then, after estimating the displacement vectors between the corresponding points on the surfaces we apply our SSHT model again. We tested our model on twelve patients with suspicious breast lesions. By using lesions visible in both PET and MRI, we established that the target registration error is below two PET voxels. The surface registration error is comparable to the spatial resolution of PET.

  4. 3-D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    modifications to the floor planning stage of the 3-D design flow that are necessary to support our design approach. We strongly recommend that the 3-D EDA ...and we outline problems, challenges, attacks, solutions, and topics for future research. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Requirements for automated 3-D IC design tools for the physical layout of components. Since fully automated Electronic Design Automation ( EDA ) for 3-D

  5. True 3d Images and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.

    2012-07-01

    A true 3D image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true 3D image, especially a true 3D oblique image, it has true 3D coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true 3D image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true 3D image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true 3D images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true 3D images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true 3D ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true 3D image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true 3D images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true 3D image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true 3D images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true 3D images and the applications of true 3D images in a couple of 3D city modeling projects.

  6. Microfabricating 3D Structures by Laser Origami

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-09

    10.1117/2.1201111.003952 Microfabricating 3D structures by laser origami Alberto Piqué, Scott Mathews, Andrew Birnbaum, and Nicholas Charipar A new...folding known as origami allows the transformation of flat patterns into 3D shapes. A similar approach can be used to generate 3D structures com...materials Figure 1. (A–C) Schematic illustrating the steps in the laser origami process and (D) a resulting folded out-of-plane 3D structure. that can

  7. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  8. Using Delft3D to Simulate Current Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, S. C.; Chartrand, C.; Roberts, J.

    2015-12-01

    As public concern with renewable energy increases, current energy conversion (CEC) technology is being developed to optimize energy output and minimize environmental impact. CEC turbines generate energy from tidal and current systems and create wakes that interact with turbines located downstream of a device. The placement of devices can greatly influence power generation and structural reliability. CECs can also alter the ecosystem process surrounding the turbines, such as flow regimes, sediment dynamics, and water quality. Software is needed to investigate specific CEC sites to simulate power generation and hydrodynamic responses of a flow through a CEC turbine array. This work validates Delft3D against several flume experiments by simulating the power generation and hydrodynamic response of flow through a turbine or actuator disc(s). Model parameters are then calibrated against these data sets to reproduce momentum removal and wake recovery data with 3-D flow simulations. Simulated wake profiles and turbulence intensities compare favorably to the experimental data and demonstrate the utility and accuracy of a fast-running tool for future siting and analysis of CEC arrays in complex domains.

  9. Calculation of strain images of a breast-mimicking phantom from 3D CT image data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae G; Aowlad Hossain, A B M; Shin, Jong H; Lee, Soo Y

    2012-09-01

    Elastography is a medical imaging modality to visualize the elasticity of soft tissues. Ultrasound and MRI have been exclusively used for elastography of soft tissues since they can sensitize the tissues' minute displacements of an order of μm. It is known that ultrasound and MRI elastography show cancerous tissues with much higher contrast than conventional ultrasound and MRI. To evaluate possibility of combining elastography with x-ray imaging, we have calculated strain images of a breast-mimicking phantom from its 3D CT image data. We first simulated the x-ray elastography using a FEM model which incorporated both the elasticity and x-ray attenuation behaviors of breast tissues. After validating the x-ray elastography scheme by simulation, we made a breast-mimicking phantom that contained a hard inclusion against soft background. With a micro-CT, we took 3D images of the phantom twice, changing the compressing force to the phantom. From the two 3D phantom images taken with two different compression ratios, we calculated the displacement vector maps that represented the compression-induced pixel displacements. In calculating the displacement vectors, we tracked the movements of image feature patterns from the less-compressed-phantom images to the more-compressed-phantom images using the 3D image correlation technique. We obtained strain images of the phantom by differentiating the displacement vector maps. The FEM simulation has shown that x-ray strain imaging is possible by tracking image feature patterns in the 3D CT images of the breast-mimicking phantom. The experimental displacement and strain images of a breast-mimicking phantom, obtained from the 3D micro-CT images taken with 0%-3% compression ratios, show behaviors similar to the FEM simulation results. The contrast and noise performance of the strain images improves as the phantom compression ratio increases. We have experimentally shown that we can improve x-ray strain image quality by applying 3D

  10. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  11. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  12. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  13. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  14. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  15. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  16. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  17. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  18. Hybrid local FEM/global LISA modeling of guided wave propagation and interaction with damage in composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a hybrid modeling technique for the efficient simulation of guided wave propagation and interaction with damage in composite structures. This hybrid approach uses a local finite element model (FEM) to compute the excitability of guided waves generated by piezoelectric transducers, while the global domain wave propagation, wave-damage interaction, and boundary reflections are modeled with the local interaction simulation approach (LISA). A small-size multi-physics FEM with non-reflective boundaries (NRB) was built to obtain the excitability information of guided waves generated by the transmitter. Frequency-domain harmonic analysis was carried out to obtain the solution for all the frequencies of interest. Fourier and inverse Fourier transform and frequency domain convolution techniques are used to obtain the time domain 3-D displacement field underneath the transmitter under an arbitrary excitation. This 3-D displacement field is then fed into the highly efficient time domain LISA simulation module to compute guided wave propagation, interaction with damage, and reflections at structural boundaries. The damping effect of composite materials was considered in the modified LISA formulation. The grids for complex structures were generated using commercial FEM preprocessors and converted to LISA connectivity format. Parallelization of the global LISA solution was achieved through Compute Unified Design Architecture (CUDA) running on Graphical Processing Unit (GPU). The multi-physics local FEM can reliably capture the detailed dimensions and local dynamics of the piezoelectric transducers. The global domain LISA can accurately solve the 3-D elastodynamic wave equations in a highly efficient manner. By combining the local FEM with global LISA, the efficient and accurate simulation of guided wave structural health monitoring procedure is achieved. Two numerical case studies are presented: (1) wave propagation in a unidirectional CFRP composite plate

  19. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  20. The modelling of VLF Trimpis using both finite element and 3D Born Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, K.; Nunn, D.; Hayakawa, M.

    This paper investigates the numerical modelling of VLF Trimpis produced by a D region inhomogeneity on the Great Circle Path. Two different codes are used. The first is a 2D finite element method (FEM) code, whose solutions are valid in the non-Born limit. The second is a 3D model that invokes the Born approximation. The predicted Trimpis from these codes compare closely, thus confirming the validity of both models. The modal scattering matrices have a comparable structure, and indicate strong scattering between the dominant TM modes. Analysis of the scattering matrix from the FEM code delineates the Born regime. For a LIE with a radius of 100kms, the Born approximation becomes invalid at an electron density perturbation of about 8 el/cc.

  1. Simultaneous Aerodynamic and Structural Design Optimization (SASDO) for a 3-D Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gumbert, Clyde R.; Hou, Gene J.-W.; Newman, Perry A.

    2001-01-01

    The formulation and implementation of an optimization method called Simultaneous Aerodynamic and Structural Design Optimization (SASDO) is shown as an extension of the Simultaneous Aerodynamic Analysis and Design Optimization (SAADO) method. It is extended by the inclusion of structure element sizing parameters as design variables and Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis responses as constraints. The method aims to reduce the computational expense. incurred in performing shape and sizing optimization using state-of-the-art Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow analysis, FEM structural analysis and sensitivity analysis tools. SASDO is applied to a simple. isolated, 3-D wing in inviscid flow. Results show that the method finds the saine local optimum as a conventional optimization method with some reduction in the computational cost and without significant modifications; to the analysis tools.

  2. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  3. An FEM approach for the characterization of the RF field homogeneity at high field.

    PubMed

    Guclu, C; Kashmar, G; Hacinliyan, A; Nalcioglu, O

    1997-01-01

    High field magnetic resonance offers new opportunities because of its high SNR and better spectral resolution for MRI and MRS. However, new problems also emerge at high field. As the field strength increases, the wavelength in the tissue becomes shorter and comparable with the body dimensions. This perturbs the field and also causes standing waves within the patient as a result of the impedance mismatching at the tissue interfaces. Due to the complexity of the boundary conditions and the solution of Maxwell's equations, an exact analytical calculation for a loaded RF resonator has not been possible. In this paper, we present a birdcage coil simulation study based on a 3D finite element method (FEM) model for the characterization of the field within the tissue. First, the accuracy of the FEM solutions is validated by the 2D analytical solutions at 64 and 223 MHz. In these solutions, the frequency dependence of the conductivity and permittivity is also taken into account. Then, a more realistic 3D model is studied. The results are compared with the experimental measurements. It is shown that the 3D model makes it possible to explore the effects of the end rings in the presence of a tissue sample inside the coil.

  4. Mini 3D for shallow gas reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Vallieres, T. des; Enns, D.; Kuehn, H.; Parron, D.; Lafet, Y.; Van Hulle, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Mini 3D project was undertaken by TOTAL and ELF with the support of CEPM (Comite d`Etudes Petrolieres et Marines) to define an economical method of obtaining 3D seismic HR data for shallow gas assessment. An experimental 3D survey was carried out with classical site survey techniques in the North Sea. From these data 19 simulations, were produced to compare different acquisition geometries ranging from dual, 600 m long cables to a single receiver. Results show that short offset, low fold and very simple streamer positioning are sufficient to give a reliable 3D image of gas charged bodies. The 3D data allow a much more accurate risk delineation than 2D HR data. Moreover on financial grounds Mini-3D is comparable in cost to a classical HR 2D survey. In view of these results, such HR 3D should now be the standard for shallow gas surveying.

  5. FEM1 proteins are ancient regulators of SLBP degradation.

    PubMed

    Dankert, John F; Pagan, Julia K; Starostina, Natalia G; Kipreos, Edward T; Pagano, Michele

    2017-03-19

    FEM1A, FEM1B, and FEM1C are evolutionarily-conserved VHL-box proteins, the substrate recognition subunits of CUL2-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. Here, we report that FEM1 proteins are ancient regulators of Stem-Loop Binding Protein (SLBP), a conserved protein that interacts with the stem loop structure located in the 3' end of canonical histone mRNAs and functions in mRNA cleavage, translation and degradation. SLBP levels are highest during S-phase coinciding with histone synthesis. The ubiquitin ligase complex SCF(cyclin F) targets SLBP for degradation in G2 phase; however, the regulation of SLBP during other stages of the cell cycle is poorly understood. We provide evidence that FEM1A, FEM1B, and FEM1C interact with and mediate the degradation of SLBP. Cyclin F, FEM1A, FEM1B and FEM1C all interact with a region in SLBP's N-terminus using distinct degrons. An SLBP mutant that is unable to interact with all 4 ligases is expressed at higher levels than wild type SLBP and does not oscillate during the cell cycle. We demonstrate that orthologues of SLBP and FEM1 proteins interact in C. elegans and D. melanogaster, suggesting that the pathway is evolutionarily conserved. Furthermore, we show that FEM1 depletion in C. elegans results in the upregulation of SLBP ortholog CDL-1 in oocytes. Notably, cyclin F is absent in flies and worms, suggesting that FEM1 proteins play an important role in SLBP targeting in lower eukaryotes.

  6. FEM Modeling of Extrusion of Square Billet to Square Product Through Cosine Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Akshaya Kumar; Maity, Kalipada; Sahoo, Susanta Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The die profile plays an important role in reduction of extrusion load, evolution of uniform micro-structure and overall improvement of surface integrity of reproduct. In the present investigation, a numerical FEM approach has been carried out for extrusion through cosine die profile using DEFORM-3D software for steady state deformation using rigid plastic material. The extrusion load has been predicted. The comparison made with the experimental results. To show the validity and effectiveness of the result, experiments on hot extrusion were performed, and the results of computation are found to be in good agreement with those of the experiments.

  7. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  8. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  9. 3D change detection - Approaches and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Rongjun; Tian, Jiaojiao; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to the unprecedented technology development of sensors, platforms and algorithms for 3D data acquisition and generation, 3D spaceborne, airborne and close-range data, in the form of image based, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) based point clouds, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and 3D city models, become more accessible than ever before. Change detection (CD) or time-series data analysis in 3D has gained great attention due to its capability of providing volumetric dynamics to facilitate more applications and provide more accurate results. The state-of-the-art CD reviews aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis and to simplify the taxonomy of the traditional remote sensing CD techniques, which mainly sit within the boundary of 2D image/spectrum analysis, largely ignoring the particularities of 3D aspects of the data. The inclusion of 3D data for change detection (termed 3D CD), not only provides a source with different modality for analysis, but also transcends the border of traditional top-view 2D pixel/object-based analysis to highly detailed, oblique view or voxel-based geometric analysis. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of 3D CD using remote sensing and close-range data, in support of both academia and industry researchers who seek for solutions in detecting and analyzing 3D dynamics of various objects of interest. We first describe the general considerations of 3D CD problems in different processing stages and identify CD types based on the information used, being the geometric comparison and geometric-spectral analysis. We then summarize relevant works and practices in urban, environment, ecology and civil applications, etc. Given the broad spectrum of applications and different types of 3D data, we discuss important issues in 3D CD methods. Finally, we present concluding remarks in algorithmic aspects of 3D CD.

  10. 3D flow focusing for microfluidic flow cytometry with ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnyawali, Vaskar; Strohm, Eric M.; Daghighi, Yasaman; van de Vondervoort, Mia; Kolios, Michael C.; Tsai, Scott S. H.

    2015-11-01

    We are developing a flow cytometer that detects unique acoustic signature waves generated from single cells due to interactions between the cells and ultrasound waves. The generated acoustic waves depend on the size and biomechanical properties of the cells and are sufficient for identifying cells in the medium. A microfluidic system capable of focusing cells through a 10 x 10 μm ultrasound beam cross section was developed to facilitate acoustic measurements of single cells. The cells are streamlined in a hydro-dynamically 3D focused flow in a 300 x 300 μm channel made using PDMS. 3D focusing is realized by lateral sheath flows and an inlet needle (inner diameter 100 μm). The accuracy of the 3D flow focusing is measured using a dye and detecting its localization using confocal microscopy. Each flowing cell would be probed by an ultrasound pulse, which has a center frequency of 375 MHz and bandwidth of 250 MHz. The same probe would also be used for recording the scattered waves from the cells, which would be processed to distinguish the physical and biomechanical characteristics of the cells, eventually identifying them. This technique has potential applications in detecting circulating tumor cells, blood cells and blood-related diseases.

  11. Gravitational Wave Signals from 2D and 3D Core Collapse Supernova Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakunin, Konstantin; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Marronetti, Pedro; Bruenn, Stephen; Hix, W. Raphael; Lentz, Eric J.; Messer, O. E. Bronson; Harris, J. Austin; Endeve, Eirik; Blondin, John

    2016-03-01

    We study two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) core-collapse supernovae (CCSN) using our first-principles CCSN simulations performed with the neutrino hydrodynamics code CHIMERA. The following physics is included: Newtonian hydrodynamics with a nuclear equation of state capable of describing matter in both NSE and non-NSE, MGFLD neutrino transport with realistic neutrino interactions, an effective GR gravitational potential, and a nuclear reaction network. Both our 2D and 3D models achieve explosion, which in turn enables us to determine their complete gravitational wave signals. In this talk, we present them, and we analyze the similarities and differences between the 2D and 3D signals.

  12. Transverse Crack Detection in 3D Angle Interlock Glass Fibre Composites Using Acoustic Emission

    PubMed Central

    Gresil, Matthieu; Saleh, Mohamed Nasr; Soutis, Constantinos

    2016-01-01

    In addition to manufacturing cost and production rates, damage resistance has become a major issue for the composites industry. Three-dimensional (3D) woven composites have superior through-thickness properties compared to two-dimensional (2D) laminates, for example, improved impact damage resistance, high interlaminar fracture toughness and reduced notch sensitivity. The performance of 3D woven preforms is dependent on the fabric architecture, which is determined by the binding pattern. For this study, angle interlock (AI) structures with through-thickness binding were manufactured. The AI cracking simulation shows that the transverse component is the one that leads to transverse matrix cracking in the weft yarn under tensile loading. Monitoring of acoustic emission (AE) during mechanical loading is an effective tool in the study of damage processes in glass fiber-reinforced composites. Tests were performed with piezoelectric sensors bonded on a tensile specimen acting as passive receivers of AE signals. An experimental data has been generated which was useful to validate the multi-physics finite element method (MP-FEM), providing insight into the damage behaviour of novel 3D AI glass fibre composites. MP-FEM and experimental data showed that transverse crack generated a predominant flexural mode A0 and also a less energetic extensional mode S0. PMID:28773821

  13. Transverse Crack Detection in 3D Angle Interlock Glass Fibre Composites Using Acoustic Emission.

    PubMed

    Gresil, Matthieu; Saleh, Mohamed Nasr; Soutis, Constantinos

    2016-08-16

    In addition to manufacturing cost and production rates, damage resistance has become a major issue for the composites industry. Three-dimensional (3D) woven composites have superior through-thickness properties compared to two-dimensional (2D) laminates, for example, improved impact damage resistance, high interlaminar fracture toughness and reduced notch sensitivity. The performance of 3D woven preforms is dependent on the fabric architecture, which is determined by the binding pattern. For this study, angle interlock (AI) structures with through-thickness binding were manufactured. The AI cracking simulation shows that the transverse component is the one that leads to transverse matrix cracking in the weft yarn under tensile loading. Monitoring of acoustic emission (AE) during mechanical loading is an effective tool in the study of damage processes in glass fiber-reinforced composites. Tests were performed with piezoelectric sensors bonded on a tensile specimen acting as passive receivers of AE signals. An experimental data has been generated which was useful to validate the multi-physics finite element method (MP-FEM), providing insight into the damage behaviour of novel 3D AI glass fibre composites. MP-FEM and experimental data showed that transverse crack generated a predominant flexural mode A0 and also a less energetic extensional mode S0.

  14. Chromatin hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Bruinsma, Robijn; Grosberg, Alexander Y; Rabin, Yitzhak; Zidovska, Alexandra

    2014-05-06

    Following recent observations of large scale correlated motion of chromatin inside the nuclei of live differentiated cells, we present a hydrodynamic theory-the two-fluid model-in which the content of a nucleus is described as a chromatin solution with the nucleoplasm playing the role of the solvent and the chromatin fiber that of a solute. This system is subject to both passive thermal fluctuations and active scalar and vector events that are associated with free energy consumption, such as ATP hydrolysis. Scalar events drive the longitudinal viscoelastic modes (where the chromatin fiber moves relative to the solvent) while vector events generate the transverse modes (where the chromatin fiber moves together with the solvent). Using linear response methods, we derive explicit expressions for the response functions that connect the chromatin density and velocity correlation functions to the corresponding correlation functions of the active sources and the complex viscoelastic moduli of the chromatin solution. We then derive general expressions for the flow spectral density of the chromatin velocity field. We use the theory to analyze experimental results recently obtained by one of the present authors and her co-workers. We find that the time dependence of the experimental data for both native and ATP-depleted chromatin can be well-fitted using a simple model-the Maxwell fluid-for the complex modulus, although there is some discrepancy in terms of the wavevector dependence. Thermal fluctuations of ATP-depleted cells are predominantly longitudinal. ATP-active cells exhibit intense transverse long wavelength velocity fluctuations driven by force dipoles. Fluctuations with wavenumbers larger than a few inverse microns are dominated by concentration fluctuations with the same spectrum as thermal fluctuations but with increased intensity.

  15. Heating properties of the needle type applicator made of shape memory alloy by 3-D anatomical human head model.

    PubMed

    Mimoto, N; Kato, K; Kanazawa, Y; Shindo, Y; Tsuchiya, K; Kubo, M; Uzuka, T; Takahashi, H; Fujii, Y

    2009-01-01

    Since the human brain is protected by the skull, it is not easy to non-invasively heat deep brain tumors with electromagnetic energy for hyperthermia treatments. Generally, needle type applicators were used in clinical practice to heat brain tumors. To expand the heating area of needle type applicators, we have developed a new type of needle made of a shape memory alloy (SMA). In this paper, heating properties of the proposed SMA needle type applicator were discussed. Here, in order to apply the SMA needle type applicator clinically. First, we constructed an anatomical 3-D FEM model from MRI and X-ray CT images using 3D-CAD software. Second, we estimated electric and temperature distributions to confirm the SMA needle type applicator using the FEM soft were JMAG-Studio. From these results, it was confirmed that the proposed method can expand the heating area and control the heating of various sizes of brain tumors.

  16. 3D Printer Coupon removal and stowage

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-09

    iss042e031282 (12/09/2014) ---US Astronaut Barry (Butch) Wilmore holding a 3D coupon works with the new 3D printer aboard the International Space Station. The 3D Printing experiment in zero gravity demonstrates that a 3D printer works normally in space. In general, a 3D printer extrudes streams of heated plastic, metal or other material, building layer on top of layer to create 3 dimensional objects. Testing a 3D printer using relatively low-temperature plastic feedstock on the International Space Station is the first step towards establishing an on-demand machine shop in space, a critical enabling component for deep-space crewed missions and in-space manufacturing.

  17. 3D measurement for rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Peter; Lilienblum, Tilo; Sommerkorn, Gerd; Michaelis, Bernd

    1996-08-01

    Optical 3-D measurement is an interesting approach for rapid prototyping. On one hand it's necessary to get the 3-D data of an object and on the other hand it's necessary to check the manufactured object (quality checking). Optical 3-D measurement can realize both. Classical 3-D measurement procedures based on photogrammetry cause systematic errors at strongly curved surfaces or steps in surfaces. One possibility to reduce these errors is to calculate the 3-D coordinates from several successively taken images. Thus it's possible to get higher spatial resolution and to reduce the systematic errors at 'problem surfaces.' Another possibility is to process the measurement values by neural networks. A modified associative memory smoothes and corrects the calculated 3-D coordinates using a-priori knowledge about the measurement object.

  18. Spectral element method for band-structure calculations of 3D phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Linlin; Liu, Na; Zhou, Jianyang; Zhou, Yuanguo; Wang, Jiamin; Huo Liu, Qing

    2016-11-01

    The spectral element method (SEM) is a special kind of high-order finite element method (FEM) which combines the flexibility of a finite element method with the accuracy of a spectral method. In contrast to the traditional FEM, the SEM exhibits advantages in the high-order accuracy as the error decreases exponentially with the increase of interpolation degree by employing the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre (GLL) polynomials as basis functions. In this study, the spectral element method is developed for the first time for the determination of band structures of 3D isotropic/anisotropic phononic crystals (PCs). Based on the Bloch theorem, we present a novel, intuitive discretization formulation for Navier equation in the SEM scheme for periodic media. By virtue of using the orthogonal Legendre polynomials, the generalized eigenvalue problem is converted to a regular one in our SEM implementation to improve the efficiency. Besides, according to the specific geometry structure, 8-node and 27-node hexahedral elements as well as an analytic mesh have been used to accurately capture curved PC models in our SEM scheme. To verify its accuracy and efficiency, this study analyses the phononic-crystal plates with square and triangular lattice arrangements, and the 3D cubic phononic crystals consisting of simple cubic (SC), bulk central cubic (BCC) and faced central cubic (FCC) lattices with isotropic or anisotropic scatters. All the numerical results considered demonstrate that SEM is superior to the conventional FEM and can be an efficient alternative method for accurate determination of band structures of 3D phononic crystals.

  19. Expedient Gap Definition Using 3D LADAR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Research and Development Center (ERDC), ASI has developed an algorithm to reduce the 3D point cloud acquired with the LADAR system into sets of 2D ...developed an algorithm to extract from this 3D point cloud any user-defined number of 2D slices. ASI has incorporated this sensor and algorithm into...direction, ASI has developed an algorithm to condense the 3D point cloud acquired with the LADAR system into sets of 2D profiles that describe the

  20. Digital holography and 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Partha; Barbastathis, George; Kim, Myung; Kukhtarev, Nickolai

    2011-03-01

    This feature issue on Digital Holography and 3-D Imaging comprises 15 papers on digital holographic techniques and applications, computer-generated holography and encryption techniques, and 3-D display. It is hoped that future work in the area leads to innovative applications of digital holography and 3-D imaging to biology and sensing, and to the development of novel nonlinear dynamic digital holographic techniques.

  1. 3D carotid plaque MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS There has been significant progress made in 3D carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging techniques in recent years. 3D plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, 3D plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multi-vascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656

  2. Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-24

    Final Performance Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-01-2007 to 11-30-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D ...ABSTRACT During the tenure of this project a large area updateable 3D color display has been developed for the first time using a new co-polymer...photorefractive polymers have been demonstrated. Moreover, a 6 inch × 6 inch sample was fabricated demonstrating the feasibility of making large area 3D

  3. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  4. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  5. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, T.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories, and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  6. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1993-11-30

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  7. TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1991-05-01

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  8. TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  9. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  10. Spacetime Discontinuous Galerkin FEM: Spectral Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi, R.; Omidi, O.; Clarke, P. L.

    2014-11-01

    Materials in nature demonstrate certain spectral shapes in terms of their material properties. Since successful experimental demonstrations in 2000, metamaterials have provided a means to engineer materials with desired spectral shapes for their material properties. Computational tools are employed in two different aspects for metamaterial modeling: 1. Mircoscale unit cell analysis to derive and possibly optimize material's spectral response; 2. macroscale to analyze their interaction with conventional material. We compare two different approaches of Time-Domain (TD) and Frequency Domain (FD) methods for metamaterial applications. Finally, we discuss advantages of the TD method of Spacetime Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (FEM) for spectral analysis of metamaterials.

  11. An extended 3D discrete-continuous model and its application on single- and bi-crystal micropillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Minsheng; Liang, Shuang; Li, Zhenhuan

    2017-04-01

    A 3D discrete-continuous model (3D DCM), which couples the 3D discrete dislocation dynamics (3D DDD) and finite element method (FEM), is extended in this study. New schemes for two key information transfers between DDD and FEM, i.e. plastic-strain distribution from DDD to FEM and stress transfer from FEM to DDD, are suggested. The plastic strain induced by moving dislocation segments is distributed to an elementary spheroid (ellipsoid or sphere) via a specific new distribution function. The influence of various interfaces (such as free surfaces and grain boundaries (GBs)) on the plastic-strain distribution is specially considered. By these treatments, the deformation fields can be solved accurately even for dislocations on slip planes severely inclined to the FE mesh, with no spurious stress concentration points produced. In addition, a stress correction by singular and non-singular theoretical solutions within a cut-off sphere is introduced to calculate the stress on the dislocations accurately. By these schemes, the present DCM becomes less sensitive to the FE mesh and more numerically efficient, which can also consider the interaction between neighboring dislocations appropriately even though they reside in the same FE mesh. Furthermore, the present DCM has been employed to model the compression of single-crystal and bi-crystal micropillars with rigid and dislocation-absorbed GBs. The influence of internal GB on the jerky stress-strain response and deformation mode is studied in detail to shed more light on these important micro-plastic problems.

  12. 3D printing meets computational astrophysics: deciphering the structure of η Carinae's inner colliding winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, T. I.; Clementel, N.; Gull, T. R.; Kruip, C. J. H.; Paardekooper, J.-P.

    2015-06-01

    We present the first 3D prints of output from a supercomputer simulation of a complex astrophysical system, the colliding stellar winds in the massive (≳120 M⊙), highly eccentric (e ˜ 0.9) binary star system η Carinae. We demonstrate the methodology used to incorporate 3D interactive figures into a PDF (Portable Document Format) journal publication and the benefits of using 3D visualization and 3D printing as tools to analyse data from multidimensional numerical simulations. Using a consumer-grade 3D printer (MakerBot Replicator 2X), we successfully printed 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of η Carinae's inner (r ˜ 110 au) wind-wind collision interface at multiple orbital phases. The 3D prints and visualizations reveal important, previously unknown `finger-like' structures at orbital phases shortly after periastron (φ ˜ 1.045) that protrude radially outwards from the spiral wind-wind collision region. We speculate that these fingers are related to instabilities (e.g. thin-shell, Rayleigh-Taylor) that arise at the interface between the radiatively cooled layer of dense post-shock primary-star wind and the fast (3000 km s-1), adiabatic post-shock companion-star wind. The success of our work and easy identification of previously unrecognized physical features highlight the important role 3D printing and interactive graphics can play in the visualization and understanding of complex 3D time-dependent numerical simulations of astrophysical phenomena.

  13. 3-D Modeling of a Nearshore Dye Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, A. R.; Hibler, L. F.; Miller, L. M.

    2006-12-01

    The usage of computer modeling software in predicting the behavior of a plume discharged into deep water is well established. Nearfield plume spreading in coastal areas with complex bathymetry is less commonly studied; in addition to geometry, some of the difficulties of this environment include: tidal exchange, temperature, and salinity gradients. Although some researchers have applied complex hydrodynamic models to this problem, nearfield regions are typically modeled by calibration of an empirical or expert system model. In the present study, the 3D hydrodynamic model Delft3D-FLOW was used to predict the advective transport from a point release in Sequim Bay, Washington. A nested model approach was used, wherein a coarse model using a mesh extending to nearby tide gages (cell sizes up to 1 km) was run over several tidal cycles in order to provide boundary conditions to a smaller area. The nested mesh (cell sizes up to 30 m) was forced on two open boundaries using the water surface elevation derived from the coarse model. Initial experiments with the uncalibrated model were conducted in order to predict plume propagation based on the best available field data. Field experiments were subsequently carried out by releasing rhodamine dye into the bay at near-peak flood tidal current and near high slack tidal conditions. Surface and submerged releases were carried out from an anchored vessel. Concurrently collected data from the experiment include temperature, salinity, dye concentration, and hyperspectral imagery, collected from boats and aircraft. A REMUS autonomous underwater vehicle was used to measure current velocity and dye concentration at varying depths, as well as to acquire additional bathymetric information. Preliminary results indicate that the 3D hydrodynamic model offers a reasonable prediction of plume propagation speed and shape. A sensitivity analysis is underway to determine the significant factors in effectively using the model as a predictive tool

  14. 3D plasmonic nanoantennas integrated with MEA biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipalo, Michele; Messina, Gabriele C.; Amin, Hayder; La Rocca, Rosanna; Shalabaeva, Victoria; Simi, Alessandro; Maccione, Alessandro; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Berdondini, Luca; de Angelis, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    Neuronal signaling in brain circuits occurs at multiple scales ranging from molecules and cells to large neuronal assemblies. However, current sensing neurotechnologies are not designed for parallel access of signals at multiple scales. With the aim of combining nanoscale molecular sensing with electrical neural activity recordings within large neuronal assemblies, in this work three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanoantennas are integrated with multielectrode arrays (MEA). Nanoantennas are fabricated by fast ion beam milling on optical resist; gold is deposited on the nanoantennas in order to connect them electrically to the MEA microelectrodes and to obtain plasmonic behavior. The optical properties of these 3D nanostructures are studied through finite elements method (FEM) simulations that show a high electromagnetic field enhancement. This plasmonic enhancement is confirmed by surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy of a dye performed in liquid, which presents an enhancement of almost 100 times the incident field amplitude at resonant excitation. Finally, the reported MEA devices are tested on cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Neurons develop by extending branches on the nanostructured electrodes and extracellular action potentials are recorded over multiple days in vitro. Raman spectra of living neurons cultured on the nanoantennas are also acquired. These results highlight that these nanostructures could be potential candidates for combining electrophysiological measures of large networks with simultaneous spectroscopic investigations at the molecular level.Neuronal signaling in brain circuits occurs at multiple scales ranging from molecules and cells to large neuronal assemblies. However, current sensing neurotechnologies are not designed for parallel access of signals at multiple scales. With the aim of combining nanoscale molecular sensing with electrical neural activity recordings within large neuronal assemblies, in this work three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic

  15. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  16. Analysis of thin-walled structural elements via 3D standard BEM with generic substructuring

    SciTech Connect

    De Araujo, Francisco Celio; Gray, Leonard J

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the application of standard 3D Boundary Element Methods to solve thin-walled structural elements (needle-like/shell-like solids). A subregion-by-subregion data structure, incorporating iterative solvers and discontinuous boundary elements, is presented. To efficiently and accurately evaluate the quasi-singular integrals, special quadrature methods are applied. In addition, structured matrix-vector products, designed to avoid the excessive number of conditional tests during solver iterations, are proposed. Numerical results for complex thin-walled BE models are validated by comparison with FEM calculations and previously published BEM analyses.

  17. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  18. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  19. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  20. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-07

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  1. Nonrigid registration of dynamic breast F-18-FDG PET/CT images using deformable FEM model and CT image warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Alphonso; Krol, Andrzej; Unlu, Mehmet; Lipson, Edward; Mandel, James; McGraw, Wendy; Lee, Wei; Coman, Ioana; Feiglin, David

    2007-03-01

    This study was undertaken to correct for motion artifacts in dynamic breast F-18-FDG PET/CT images, to improve differential-image quality, and to increase accuracy of time-activity curves. Dynamic PET studies, with subjects prone, and breast suspended freely employed a protocol with 50 frames, each 1-minute long. A 30 s long CT scan was acquired immediately before the first PET frame. F-18-FDG was administered during the first PET time frame. Fiducial skin markers (FSMs) each containing ~0.5 μCi of Ge-68 were taped to each breast. In our PET/PET registration method we utilized CT data. For corresponding FSMs visible on the 1 st and n th frames, the geometrical centroids of FSMs were found and their displacement vectors were estimated and used to deform the finite element method (FEM) mesh of the CT image (registered with 1 st PET frame) to match the consecutive dynamic PET time frames. Each mesh was then deformed to match the 1 st PET frame using known FSM displacement vectors as FEM loads, and the warped PET timeframe volume was created. All PET time frames were thus nonrigidly registered with the first frame. An analogy between orthogonal components of the displacement field and the temperature distribution in steady-state heat transfer in solids is used, via standard heat-conduction FEM software with "conductivity" of surface elements set arbitrarily significantly higher than that of volume elements. Consequently, the surface reaches steady state before the volume. This prevents creation of concentrated FEM loads at the locations of FSMs and reaching incorrect FEM solution. We observe improved similarity between the 1 st and n th frames. The contrast and the spatial definition of metabolically hyperactive regions are superior in the registered 3D images compared to unregistered 3D images. Additional work is needed to eliminate small image artifacts due to FSMs.

  2. The 3D Flow Field Around an Embedded Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Artymowicz, Pawel; Wu, Yanqin

    2015-10-01

    3D modifications to the well-studied 2D flow topology around an embedded planet have the potential to resolve long-standing problems in planet formation theory. We present a detailed analysis of the 3D isothermal flow field around a 5 Earth-mass planet on a fixed circular orbit, simulated using our graphics processing unit hydrodynamics code PEnGUIn. We find that, overall, the horseshoe region has a columnar structure extending vertically much beyond the Hill sphere of the planet. This columnar structure is only broken for some of the widest horseshoe streamlines, along which high altitude fluid descends rapidly into the planet’s Bondi sphere, performs one horseshoe turn, and exits the Bondi sphere radially in the midplane. A portion of this flow exits the horseshoe region altogether, which we refer to as the “transient” horseshoe flow. The flow continues as it rolls up into a pair of up-down symmetric horizontal vortex lines shed into the wake of the planet. This flow, unique to 3D, affects both planet accretion and migration. It prevents the planet from sustaining a hydrostatic atmosphere due to its intrusion into the Bondi sphere, and leads to a significant corotation torque on the planet, unanticipated by 2D analysis. In the reported simulation, starting with a {{Σ }}˜ {r}-3/2 radial surface density profile, this torque is positive and partially cancels with the negative differential Lindblad torque, resulting in a factor of three slower planet migration rate. Finally, we report 3D effects can be suppressed by a sufficiently large disk viscosity, leading to results similar to 2D.

  3. A new 3D dynamical biomechanical tongue model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, Jean-Michel; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan; Wilhelms-Tricarico, Reiner

    2004-05-01

    A new dynamical biomechanical tongue model is being developed to study speech motor control. In spite of its computational complexity, a 3D representation was chosen in order to account for various contacts between tongue and external structures such as teeth, palate, and vocal tract walls. A fair representation of tongue muscle anatomy is provided, by designing the finite element mesh from the visible human data set (female subject). Model geometry was then matched to a human speaker, so that simulations can be quantitatively compared to experimental MRI data. A set of 11 muscles is modeled, whose role in speech gestures is well established. Each muscle is defined by a set of elements whose elastic properties change with muscle activation. Muscles forces are applied to the tongue model via macrofibers defined within the mesh by muscle specific sets of nodes. These forces are currently specified as step functions. Boundary conditions are set using zero-displacement nodes simulating attachments of tongue on bony structures. The nonlinear mechanical properties of tongue soft tissues are modeled using a hyperelastic material. Three-dimensional tongue deformations generated by each muscle, using FEM software ANSYS for computation, will be presented. Implications for speech motor control will be proposed.

  4. A new 3D dynamical biomechanical tongue model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, Jean-Michel; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan; Wilhelms-Tricarico, Reiner

    2001-05-01

    A new dynamical biomechanical tongue model is being developed to study speech motor control. In spite of its computational complexity, a 3D representation was chosen in order to account for various contacts between tongue and external structures such as teeth, palate, and vocal tract walls. A fair representation of tongue muscle anatomy is provided, by designing the finite element mesh from the visible human data set (female subject). Model geometry was then matched to a human speaker, so that simulations can be quantitatively compared to experimental MRI data. A set of 11 muscles is modeled, whose role in speech gestures is well established. Each muscle is defined by a set of elements whose elastic properties change with muscle activation. Muscles forces are applied to the tongue model via macrofibers defined within the mesh by muscle specific sets of nodes. These forces are currently specified as step functions. Boundary conditions are set using zero-displacement nodes simulating attachments of tongue on bony structures. The nonlinear mechanical properties of tongue soft tissues are modeled using a hyperelastic material. Three-dimensional tongue deformations generated by each muscle, using FEM software ANSYS for computation, will be presented. Implications for speech motor control will be proposed.

  5. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  6. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion"…

  7. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  8. Infrastructure for 3D Imaging Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-11

    analysis. (c.) Real time detection & analysis of human gait: using a video camera we capture walking human silhouette for pattern modeling and gait ... analysis . Fig. 5 shows the scanning result result that is fed into a Geo-magic software tool for 3D meshing. Fig. 5: 3D scanning result In

  9. Berries on the Ground 2 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-12

    This 3-D anaglyph, from NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, shows a microscopic image taken of soil featuring round, blueberry-shaped rock formations on the crater floor at Meridiani Planum, Mars. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  10. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  11. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  12. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  13. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  14. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  15. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  16. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  17. Computer Assisted Cancer Device - 3D Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    tomosynthesis images of the breast. iCAD has identified several sources of 3D tomosynthesis data, and has begun adapting its image analysis...collaborative relationships with major manufacturers of tomosynthesis equipment. 21. iCAD believes that tomosynthesis , a 3D breast imaging technique...purported advantages of tomosynthesis relative to conventional mammography include; improved lesion visibility, improved lesion detectability and

  18. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  19. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  20. Case study of 3D fingerprints applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Liang, Jinrong; Shen, Linlin; Yang, Meng; Zhang, David; Lai, Zhihui

    2017-01-01

    Human fingers are 3D objects. More information will be provided if three dimensional (3D) fingerprints are available compared with two dimensional (2D) fingerprints. Thus, this paper firstly collected 3D finger point cloud data by Structured-light Illumination method. Additional features from 3D fingerprint images are then studied and extracted. The applications of these features are finally discussed. A series of experiments are conducted to demonstrate the helpfulness of 3D information to fingerprint recognition. Results show that a quick alignment can be easily implemented under the guidance of 3D finger shape feature even though this feature does not work for fingerprint recognition directly. The newly defined distinctive 3D shape ridge feature can be used for personal authentication with Equal Error Rate (EER) of ~8.3%. Also, it is helpful to remove false core point. Furthermore, a promising of EER ~1.3% is realized by combining this feature with 2D features for fingerprint recognition which indicates the prospect of 3D fingerprint recognition.

  1. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  2. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary.

  3. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  4. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  5. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  6. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  7. DOUGLAS XA3D-1 #413 AIRPLANE.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1955-07-27

    DOUGLAS XA3D-1 #413 AIRPLANE MOUNTED IN THE NACA AMES RESEARCH CENTER'S 40X80_FOOT SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL Testing the boundary layer control of the A3D in the 40 x 80 wind tunnel. Boundary layer control was added to increase the lift of the wing for take off from an aircraft carrier.

  8. DOUGLAS XA3D-1 #413 AIRPLANE.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1955-07-27

    DOUGLAS XA3D-1 #413 AIRPLANE MOUNTED IN THE NACA AMES RESEARCH CENTER'S 40X80_FOOT SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL sweptback wing Testing the wing boundary layer control of the A3D in the 40 x 80 wind tunnel. Boundary layer control was added to increase the lift of the wing for aircraft carrier take off and landing.

  9. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  10. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

    2014-03-01

    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  11. Quon 3D language for quantum information

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengwei; Wozniakowski, Alex; Jaffe, Arthur M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a 3D topological picture-language for quantum information. Our approach combines charged excitations carried by strings, with topological properties that arise from embedding the strings in the interior of a 3D manifold with boundary. A quon is a composite that acts as a particle. Specifically, a quon is a hemisphere containing a neutral pair of open strings with opposite charge. We interpret multiquons and their transformations in a natural way. We obtain a type of relation, a string–genus “joint relation,” involving both a string and the 3D manifold. We use the joint relation to obtain a topological interpretation of the C∗-Hopf algebra relations, which are widely used in tensor networks. We obtain a 3D representation of the controlled NOT (CNOT) gate that is considerably simpler than earlier work, and a 3D topological protocol for teleportation. PMID:28167790

  12. 2D/3D switchable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  13. 6D Interpretation of 3D Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herfray, Yannick; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    We show that 3D gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The 3D field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern–Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of 3D gravity exists. More generally, we interpret 3D gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any \\text{SU}(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal \\text{SU}(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to 3D gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.

  14. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  15. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  16. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  17. Supernova hydrodynamics experiments using the Nova laser

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B.A.; Glendinning, S.G.; Estabrook, K.; Wallace, R.J.; Rubenchik, A.; Kane, J.; Arnett, D.; Drake, R.P.; McCray, R.

    1997-04-01

    We are developing experiments using the Nova laser to investigate two areas of physics relevant to core-collapse supernovae (SN): (1) compressible nonlinear hydrodynamic mixing and (2) radiative shock hydrodynamics. In the former, we are examining the differences between the 2D and 3D evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, an issue critical to the observables emerging from SN in the first year after exploding. In the latter, we are investigating the evolution of a colliding plasma system relevant to the ejecta-stellar wind interactions of the early stages of SN remnant formation. The experiments and astrophysical implications are discussed.

  18. 3D Hot Test Simulations of a 220 GHz Folded Waveguide Traveling Wave Tube Using a CFDTD PIC Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming-Chieh; Song, Heather

    2015-11-01

    Millimeter or sub-THz wave sources centered at 220 GHz is of interest due to the potential for its commercial and military applications including high resolution radar, remote sensing, and high-data-rate communications. It has been demonstrated via 3D cold test finite element method (FEM) simulations that a folded waveguide traveling wave tube (FWTWT) can be designed and optimized at this frequency range with a small signal gain of 18 dB over a comparatively broad (-3 dB) bandwidth of ~ 10%. On the other hand, 3D hot test simulations of a V-band ladder TWT have been successfully demonstrated using a conformal finite-difference time-domain (CFDTD) particle-in-cell (PIC) method for center frequency of 50 GHz. In the present work, the 220 GHz FWTWT designs have been reviewed and studied. 3D Cold test simulations using both the CFDTD and FEM methods have been carried out and compared with each other as basis for 3D hot test CFDTD PIC simulations. The preliminary simulation result shows that the gain-bandwidth features at 220 GHz are achievable while carefully avoiding beam interceptions. Our study shows that the interaction characteristics are very sensitive to the operating beam parameters. Detail simulation results and discussions will be presented.

  19. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  20. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D presentations could provide additional sensorial cues (e.g., depth cues) that lead to a higher sense of being surrounded by the stimulus; a connection through general interest such that 3D presentation increases a viewer’s interest that leads to greater attention paid to the stimulus (e.g., "involvement"); and a connection through discomfort, with the 3D goggles causing discomfort that interferes with involvement and thus with memory. The memories of 396 participants who viewed two-dimensional (2D) or 3D movies at movie theaters in Southern California were tested. Within three days of viewing a movie, participants filled out an online anonymous questionnaire that queried them about their movie content memories, subjective movie-going experiences (including emotional reactions and "presence") and demographic backgrounds. The responses to the questionnaire were subjected to path analyses in which several different links between 3D presentation to memory (and other variables) were explored. The results showed there were no effects of 3D presentation, either directly or indirectly, upon memory. However, the largest effects of 3D presentation were on emotions and immersion, with 3D presentation leading to reduced positive emotions, increased negative emotions and lowered immersion, compared to 2D presentations. PMID:28078331

  1. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  2. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  3. Photon Scattering in 3D Radiative MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayek, Wolfgang

    2009-09-01

    Recent results from 3D time-dependent radiative hydrodynamic simulations of stellar atmospheres are presented, which include the effects of coherent scattering in the radiative transfer treatment. Rayleigh scattering and electron scattering are accounted for in the source function, requiring an iterative solution of the transfer equation. Opacities and scattering coefficients are treated in the multigroup opacity approximation. The impact of scattering on the horizontal mean temperature structure is investigated, which is an important diagnostic for model atmospheres, with implications for line formation and stellar abundance measurements. We find that continuum scattering is not important for the atmosphere of a metal-poor Sun with metailicity [Fe/H] = -3.0, similar to the previously investigated photosphere at solar metallicity.

  4. 3D Model of the Eta Carinae Little Homunculus Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Wolfgang; Teodoro, Mairan; Madura, Thomas; Groh, Jose H.; Gull, Theodore R.; Corcoran, Michael F.; Damineli, Augusto; Hamaguchi, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We extend our morpho-kinematic 3D modeling of the Homunculus nebula (Steffen et al., 2014) to the interior nested Little Homunculus. The model is based on spectroscopic observations from HST/STIS. We find that the structure of the interior Little Homunculus is rather flat in the polar regions and interacts with the main Homunculus nebula only on one side, towards the periastron direction of the binary orbit. Furthermore, the two lobes of the LH are misaligned, also towards the periastron direction. As an explanation for the misalignment we propose that, in both cases, shortly after the eruptions that created the bipolar nebulae from the primary star, the off-center wind of the secondary has pushed the ejecta towards the periastron directions, since the secondary is most of the time near the apastron. Future hydrodynamic simulations are warranted to confirm this scenario.

  5. 3D Radiative Transfer models of Planetary Nebulae with CRONOS and CLOUDY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederwanger, F.; Öttl, Silvia; Kimeswenger, S.; Kissmann, R.; Reitberger, K.

    2014-04-01

    We present our ideas about a new setup for a full 3D radiative transfer hydrodynamic (RT-HD) computation for planetary nebulae (PNe). The setup is based on the 3D MHD code CRONOS, using low dissipative conservation numerical schemes for hydrodynamics and MHD (Kissmann et al. 2009), and on CLOUDY (Ferland et al. 2013). New to our ideas is the implementation of CLOUDY for the radiative terms. While in previous works internal cooling was calculated using analytical cooling curves from Dalgarno&McCray (1972) for the lower temperatures and from Gerritsen&Icke (1997) for the high temperature regime, we intend to use the sophisticated physics of CLOUDY in a similar way as for CLOUDY 3D (Morisset, 2011). The hydrodynamic calculations provide the density and velocity structure. Repeatedly, a CLOUDY model is calculated to derive cooling, absorption and radiative pressure acceleration terms for the hydro code. We show the feasibility of this setup for symmetric and asymmetric geometries of PNe. Euclidean grids are used to avoid imprinting. We present first tests for this setup and first results on the numerical stability. These simulations were run using different geometries, like e.g. disks. Another group is working on 3D models of particle acceleration in radiatively driven colliding winds of massive star binary systems. Although this is a completely different energy regime, binary systems are of great interest for asymmetric PNe as well. The setup allows us simulations using any arbitrary geometry.

  6. The role of 3D-hydraulics in habitat modelling of hydropeaking events.

    PubMed

    Pisaturo, Giuseppe Roberto; Righetti, Maurizio; Dumbser, Michael; Noack, Markus; Schneider, Matthias; Cavedon, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    One way to study ecological implications induced by hydropeaking represents the coupling of hydrodynamic models with habitat suitability models, in which hydrodynamic parameters are typically used to describe the physical habitat of indicator species. This article discusses the differences in habitat suitability assessment between 2D and 3D CFD modelling as input for the habitat simulation tool CASiMiR. In the first part of the article, the accuracy of the hydraulic model is evaluated by comparing the model results with laboratory (model of a laboratory channel with erodible bed) and field measurements (Valsura River, Bolzano, Italy). In the second part, the habitat suitability for the Valsura River case study (affected by hydropeaking), is analyzed comparing different approaches for the reconstruction of the velocity field (depth-averaged velocities from 2D modelling, bottom velocity field reconstruction with log-law approach from 2D modelling and bottom velocity field from 3D modelling). The results show that the habitat suitability index (HSI) using 2D or 3D hydrodynamic models can be significantly different. These differences can be ascribed to a higher capability to depict the features of the flow field with highly variable and heterogeneous boundary conditions and to the possibility to simulate the near bed hydrodynamic parameters, which are relevant for certain target species. In particular, the HSI-values using 3D hydraulics lead to larger areas of highly suitable habitats compared to 2D simulations. Moreover, considering the entire flow range of hydropeaking events, the habitat simulations with bottom flow velocities from 3D modelling provide suitable habitats over the entire flow range representing the availability of stable suitable habitats, while the habitat availability of 2D modelled flow velocity is continuously decreasing with increasing flow rates.

  7. 3-D Eutrophication Modeling for Lake Simcoe, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Q.; Duckett, F.; Nairn, R.; Brunton, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority (LSRCA) and the Province of Ontario are undertaking a series of studies to facilitate management of the pressures of population growth in the Lake Simcoe watershed. With rapid population growth and urban development comes additional land clearing, storm water runoff and the discharge of treated sewage, all of which are sources of increased phosphorus loading to Lake Simcoe. Depressed oxygen levels were linked to phosphorous enrichment of the lake, with the resultant stimulation of algal growth in the sunlit upper waters of the lake, and its subsequent senescence and settling into the hypolimnion where bacterial decomposition consumes oxygen from the stratified waters. This poster describes a 3-D hydrodynamic, thermal and water quality model of Lake Simcoe developed using the Danish Hydraulics Institute (DHI) MIKE3 model. The hydrodynamic module includes wind-driven circulation, temperature variation, development of the thermocline and thermal stratification, and hydraulic forcing from inflowing tributaries. This is linked to the water quality module which simulates the eutrophication processes in the response of the lake to loadings of phosphorus, such as algal growth, the growth of aquatic plants and subsequent oxygen consumption. The model has been calibrated against Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler velocity data, plus measured temperature and water quality data at MOE stations in the lake and water intakes. The model is an important assessment tool for the management of the lake and its watersheds, allowing assessment of the impacts of the urban growth and land use change on the water quality in Lake Simcoe.

  8. The CONV-3D code for DNS CFD calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudanov, Vladimir; ALCF ThermHydraX Team

    2014-03-01

    The CONV-3D code for DNS CFD calculation of thermal and hydrodynamics on Fast Reactor with use of supercomputers is developed. This code is highly effective in a scalability at the high performance computers such as ``Chebyshev'', ``Lomonosov'' (Moscow State University, Russia), Blue Gene/Q(ALCF MIRA, ANL). The scalability is reached up to 106 processors. The code was validated on a series of the well known tests in a wide range of Rayleigh (106-1016) and Reynolds (103-105. Such code was validated on the blind tests OECD/NEA of the turbulent intermixing in horizontal subchannels of the fuel assembly at normal pressure and temperature (Matis-H), of the flows in T-junction and the report IBRAE/ANL was published. The good coincidence of numerical predictions with experimental data was reached, that specifies applicability of the developed approach for a prediction of thermal and hydrodynamics in a boundary layer at small Prandtl that is characteristic of the liquid metal reactors. Project Name: ThermHydraX. Project Title: U.S.-Russia Collaboration on Cross-Verification and Validation in Thermal Hydraulics.

  9. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc.

  10. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  11. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  12. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  13. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  14. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.

  15. 3D MODEL ATMOSPHERES FOR EXTREMELY LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Gianninas, A.; Kilic, M.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Freytag, B.; Hermes, J. J.

    2015-08-20

    We present an extended grid of mean three-dimensional (3D) spectra for low-mass, pure-hydrogen atmosphere DA white dwarfs (WDs). We use CO5BOLD radiation-hydrodynamics 3D simulations covering T{sub eff} = 6000–11,500 K and log g = 5–6.5 (g in cm s{sup −2}) to derive analytical functions to convert spectroscopically determined 1D temperatures and surface gravities to 3D atmospheric parameters. Along with the previously published 3D models, the 1D to 3D corrections are now available for essentially all known convective DA WDs (i.e., log g = 5–9). For low-mass WDs, the correction in temperature is relatively small (a few percent at the most), but the surface gravities measured from the 3D models are lower by as much as 0.35 dex. We revisit the spectroscopic analysis of the extremely low-mass (ELM) WDs, and demonstrate that the 3D models largely resolve the discrepancies seen in the radius and mass measurements for relatively cool ELM WDs in eclipsing double WD and WD + millisecond pulsar binary systems. We also use the 3D corrections to revise the boundaries of the ZZ Ceti instability strip, including the recently found ELM pulsators.

  16. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  17. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  18. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  19. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  20. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  1. FUN3D Manual: 13.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.1, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  2. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  3. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  4. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  5. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  6. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  7. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  8. 3D Immersive Visualization with Astrophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    We present the refinement of a new 3D immersion technique for astrophysical data visualization.Methodology to create 360 degree spherical panoramas is reviewed. The 3D software package Blender coupled with Python and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to create the final data products. Data can be viewed interactively with a mobile phone or tablet or in a web browser. The technique can apply to different kinds of astronomical data including 3D stellar and galaxy catalogs, images, and planetary maps.

  9. 3D Characterization of Recrystallization Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, Andrew; MacDonald, Nicole; Jensen, Dorte Juul

    A three-dimensional (3D) volume containing a recrystallizing grain and a deformed matrix in a partially recrystallized pure aluminum was characterized using the 3D electron backscattering diffraction technique. The 3D shape of a recrystallizing boundary, separating the recrystallizing grain and deformed matrix, was reconstructed. The result shows a very complex structure containing several large protrusions and retrusions. A correlation between the protrusions/retrusions and the deformed matrix in front of the boundary shows that the deformed microstructure has a very strong influence on the formation of protrusions/retrusions.

  10. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  11. RHOCUBE: 3D density distributions modeling code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikutta, Robert; Agliozzo, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    RHOCUBE models 3D density distributions on a discrete Cartesian grid and their integrated 2D maps. It can be used for a range of applications, including modeling the electron number density in LBV shells and computing the emission measure. The RHOCUBE Python package provides several 3D density distributions, including a powerlaw shell, truncated Gaussian shell, constant-density torus, dual cones, and spiralling helical tubes, and can accept additional distributions. RHOCUBE provides convenient methods for shifts and rotations in 3D, and if necessary, an arbitrary number of density distributions can be combined into the same model cube and the integration ∫ dz performed through the joint density field.

  12. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  13. 3D hierarchical interface-enriched finite element method: Implementation and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soghrati, Soheil; Ahmadian, Hossein

    2015-10-01

    A hierarchical interface-enriched finite element method (HIFEM) is proposed for the mesh-independent treatment of 3D problems with intricate morphologies. The HIFEM implements a recursive algorithm for creating enrichment functions that capture gradient discontinuities in nonconforming finite elements cut by arbitrary number and configuration of materials interfaces. The method enables the mesh-independent simulation of multiphase problems with materials interfaces that are in close proximity or contact while providing a straightforward general approach for evaluating the enrichments. In this manuscript, we present a detailed discussion on the implementation issues and required computational geometry considerations associated with the HIFEM approximation of thermal and mechanical responses of 3D problems. A convergence study is provided to investigate the accuracy and convergence rate of the HIFEM and compare them with standard FEM benchmark solutions. We will also demonstrate the application of this mesh-independent method for simulating the thermal and mechanical responses of two composite materials systems with complex microstructures.

  14. 3D-HIM: A 3D High-density Interleaved Memory for Bipolar RRAM Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    JOURNAL ARTICLE (Post Print ) 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) DEC 2010 – NOV 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D -HIM: A 3D HIGH-DENSITY INTERLEAVED MEMORY...emerged as one of the promising candidates for large data storage in computing systems. Moreover, building up RRAM in a three dimensional ( 3D ) stacking...brings in the potential reliability issue. To alleviate the situation, we introduce two novel 3D stacking structures built upon bipolar RRAM

  15. Understanding differences between DELFT3D and empirical predictions of alongshore sediment transport gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    List, Jeffrey; Benedet, Lindino; Hanes, Daniel M.; Ruggiero, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Predictions of alongshore transport gradients are critical for forecasting shoreline change. At the previous ICCE conference, it was demonstrated that alongshore transport gradients predicted by the empirical CERC equation can differ substantially from predictions made by the hydrodynamics-based model Delft3D in the case of a simulated borrow pit on the shoreface. Here we use the Delft3D momentum balance to examine the reason for this difference. Alongshore advective flow accelerations in our Delft3D simulation are mainly driven by pressure gradients resulting from alongshore variations in wave height and setup, and Delft3D transport gradients are controlled by these flow accelerations. The CERC equation does not take this process into account, and for this reason a second empirical transport term is sometimes added when alongshore gradients in wave height are thought to be significant. However, our test case indicates that this second term does not properly predict alongshore transport gradients.

  16. Numerical investigation of 3D effects on a 2D-dominated shocked mixing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Daniel; Weber, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    A nominally two-dimensional interface, unstable to the Rayleigh-Taylor or Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, will become three-dimensional at high Reynolds numbers due to the growth of background noise and 3D effects like vortex stretching. This three-dimensionality changes macroscopic features, such as the perturbation growth rate and mixing, as it enhances turbulent dissipation. In this study, a 2D perturbation with small-scale, 3D fluctuations is modeled using the hydrodynamics code Miranda. A Mach 1.95 shockwave accelerates a helium-over-SF6 interface, similar to the experiments of Motl et al. ["Experimental validation of a Richtmyer-Meshkov scaling law over large density ratio and shock strength ranges," Phys. Fluids 21(12), 126102 (2009)], to explore the regime where a 2D dominated flow will experience 3D effects. We report on the structure, growth, and mixing of the post-shocked interface in 2D and 3D.

  17. Optical 3D surface digitizing in forensic medicine: 3D documentation of skin and bone injuries.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2003-11-26

    Photography process reduces a three-dimensional (3D) wound to a two-dimensional level. If there is a need for a high-resolution 3D dataset of an object, it needs to be three-dimensionally scanned. No-contact optical 3D digitizing surface scanners can be used as a powerful tool for wound and injury-causing instrument analysis in trauma cases. The 3D skin wound and a bone injury documentation using the optical scanner Advanced TOpometric Sensor (ATOS II, GOM International, Switzerland) will be demonstrated using two illustrative cases. Using this 3D optical digitizing method the wounds (the virtual 3D computer model of the skin and the bone injuries) and the virtual 3D model of the injury-causing tool are graphically documented in 3D in real-life size and shape and can be rotated in the CAD program on the computer screen. In addition, the virtual 3D models of the bone injuries and tool can now be compared in a 3D CAD program against one another in virtual space, to see if there are matching areas. Further steps in forensic medicine will be a full 3D surface documentation of the human body and all the forensic relevant injuries using optical 3D scanners.

  18. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  19. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing.

  20. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  1. Modeling cellular processes in 3D.

    PubMed

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2D or 1D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantifying Modes of 3D Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-12-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates.

  3. 3D-printed Bioanalytical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-01-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897

  4. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  5. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  6. Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197

  7. Quantum dot based 3D photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakellari, Ioanna; Kabouraki, Elmina; Gray, David; Vamvakaki, Maria; Farsari, Maria

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we present our most recent results on the fabrication of 3D high-resolution woodpile photonic crystals containing an organic-inorganic silicon-zirconium (Si-Zr) composite and cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs). The structures are fabricated by combining 3D Direct Laser Writing by two-photon absorption and in-situ synthesis of CdS nanoparticles inside the 3D photonic matrix. The CdS-Zr-Si composite material exhibits a high nonlinear refractive index value measured by means of Z-scan method. 3D woodpile photonic structures with varying inlayer periodicity from 600nm to 500nm show clear photonic stop bands in the wavelength region between 1000nm to 450nm.

  8. DNA biosensing with 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2017-01-16

    3D printing, an upcoming technology, has vast potential to transform conventional fabrication processes due to the numerous improvements it can offer to the current methods. To date, the employment of 3D printing technology has been examined for applications in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and biological sciences. In this study, we examined the potential of adopting 3D printing technology for a novel application, electrochemical DNA biosensing. Metal 3D printing was utilized to construct helical-shaped stainless steel electrodes which functioned as a transducing platform for the detection of DNA hybridization. The ability of electroactive methylene blue to intercalate into the double helix structure of double-stranded DNA was then exploited to monitor the DNA hybridization process, with its inherent reduction peak serving as an analytical signal. The designed biosensing approach was found to demonstrate superior selectivity against a non-complementary DNA target, with a detection range of 1-1000 nM.

  9. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  10. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  11. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  12. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  13. Landslide in Kashmir 3-D Perspective

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-12

    This 3D image was acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft on October 11, 2005 with digital topography from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. It depicts a large landslide which occurred in Kashmir, Pakistan.

  14. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  15. Sojourner Favorite Rocks - in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-13

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, from NASA Mars Pathfinder. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. 3-D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

  16. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  17. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Richards, Dylan Jack; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication.

  18. Intraoperative 3D Computed Tomography: Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Adamczak, Stephanie E; Bova, Frank J; Hoh, Daniel J

    2017-10-01

    Spinal instrumentation often involves placing implants without direct visualization of their trajectory or proximity to adjacent neurovascular structures. Two-dimensional fluoroscopy is commonly used to navigate implant placement, but with the advent of computed tomography, followed by the invention of a mobile scanner with an open gantry, three-dimensional (3D) navigation is now widely used. This article critically appraises the available literature to assess the influence of 3D navigation on radiation exposure, accuracy of instrumentation, operative time, and patient outcomes. Also explored is the latest technological advance in 3D neuronavigation: the manufacturing of, via 3D printers, patient-specific templates that direct implant placement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  20. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...