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Sample records for 3-d image cytometer

  1. A Novel Multiparametric Drug-Scoring Method for High-Throughput Screening of 3D Multicellular Tumor Spheroids Using the Celigo Image Cytometer.

    PubMed

    Cribbes, Scott; Kessel, Sarah; McMenemy, Scott; Qiu, Jean; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tumor models have been increasingly used to investigate and characterize cancer drug compounds. The ability to perform high-throughput screening of 3D multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) can highly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of discovering potential cancer drug candidates. Previously, the Celigo Image Cytometer has demonstrated a novel method for high-throughput screening of 3D multicellular tumor spheroids. In this work, we employed the Celigo Image Cytometer to examine the effects of 14 cancer drug compounds on 3D MCTS of the glioblastoma cell line U87MG in 384-well plates. Using parameters such as MCTS diameter and invasion area, growth and invasion were monitored for 9 and 3 d, respectively. Furthermore, fluorescent staining with calcein AM, propidium iodide, Hoechst 33342, and caspase 3/7 was performed at day 9 posttreatment to measure viability and apoptosis. Using the kinetic and endpoint data generated, we created a novel multiparametric drug-scoring system for 3D MCTS that can be used to identify and classify potential drug candidates earlier in the drug discovery process. Furthermore, the combination of quantitative and qualitative image data can be used to delineate differences between drugs that induce cytotoxic and cytostatic effects. The 3D MCTS-based multiparametric scoring method described here can provide an alternative screening method to better qualify tested drug compounds.

  2. Parallel imaging microfluidic cytometer.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Daniel J; McKenna, Brian K; Evans, James G; Belkina, Anna C; Denis, Gerald V; Sherr, David H; Cheung, Man Ching

    2011-01-01

    By adding an additional degree of freedom from multichannel flow, the parallel microfluidic cytometer (PMC) combines some of the best features of fluorescence-activated flow cytometry (FCM) and microscope-based high-content screening (HCS). The PMC (i) lends itself to fast processing of large numbers of samples, (ii) adds a 1D imaging capability for intracellular localization assays (HCS), (iii) has a high rare-cell sensitivity, and (iv) has an unusual capability for time-synchronized sampling. An inability to practically handle large sample numbers has restricted applications of conventional flow cytometers and microscopes in combinatorial cell assays, network biology, and drug discovery. The PMC promises to relieve a bottleneck in these previously constrained applications. The PMC may also be a powerful tool for finding rare primary cells in the clinic. The multichannel architecture of current PMC prototypes allows 384 unique samples for a cell-based screen to be read out in ∼6-10 min, about 30 times the speed of most current FCM systems. In 1D intracellular imaging, the PMC can obtain protein localization using HCS marker strategies at many times for the sample throughput of charge-coupled device (CCD)-based microscopes or CCD-based single-channel flow cytometers. The PMC also permits the signal integration time to be varied over a larger range than is practical in conventional flow cytometers. The signal-to-noise advantages are useful, for example, in counting rare positive cells in the most difficult early stages of genome-wide screening. We review the status of parallel microfluidic cytometry and discuss some of the directions the new technology may take.

  3. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  4. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  5. Micro flow cytometer with self-aligned 3D hydrodynamic focusing.

    PubMed

    Testa, Genni; Persichetti, Gianluca; Bernini, Romeo

    2015-01-01

    A micro flow cytometer with a single step 3D hydrodynamic flow focusing has been developed. The proposed design is capable to create a single-file particle stream that is self-aligned with an integrated optical fiber-based detection system, regardless of the flow rate ratio between the focusing and core liquids. The design approach provides the ability to adjust the stream size while keeping the position of the focused stream centered with respect to the focusing channel. The device has been fabricated by direct micro milling of PMMA sheets. Experimental validation of the hydrodynamic sheath focusing effect has been presented and sample stream with tuneable size from about 18 to 50 μm was measured. Flow cytometry measurements have been performed by using 10-23 μm fluorescent particles. From the analysis of the signals collected at each transit event we can confirm that the device was capable to align and measure microparticles with a good coefficient of variance.

  6. Micro flow cytometer with self-aligned 3D hydrodynamic focusing

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Genni; Persichetti, Gianluca; Bernini, Romeo

    2014-01-01

    A micro flow cytometer with a single step 3D hydrodynamic flow focusing has been developed. The proposed design is capable to create a single-file particle stream that is self-aligned with an integrated optical fiber-based detection system, regardless of the flow rate ratio between the focusing and core liquids. The design approach provides the ability to adjust the stream size while keeping the position of the focused stream centered with respect to the focusing channel. The device has been fabricated by direct micro milling of PMMA sheets. Experimental validation of the hydrodynamic sheath focusing effect has been presented and sample stream with tuneable size from about 18 to 50 μm was measured. Flow cytometry measurements have been performed by using 10-23 μm fluorescent particles. From the analysis of the signals collected at each transit event we can confirm that the device was capable to align and measure microparticles with a good coefficient of variance. PMID:25657874

  7. Three-dimensional image cytometer based on a high-speed two-photon scanning microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki H.; Stitt, Molly S.; Hendricks, Carrie A.; Almeida, Karen H.; Engelward, Bevin P.; So, Peter T. C.

    2001-04-01

    We developed a 3-D image cytometer based on two-photon scanning microscopy. The system keeps the inherent advantages from two-photon scanning microscopy: (1) The ability of imaging thick tissue samples up to a few hundred micrometers, (2) The ability to study tissue structures with subcellular resolution, (3) The ability to monitor tissue biochemistry and metabolism, and (4) The reduction of specimen photobleaching and photodamage. Therefore, 3-D image cytometer has the ability to characterize multiple cell layer specimens, in contrast with 2-D image cytometer where only single cell layer samples can be imaged. 3-D image cytometry increases its frame rate by adapting a polygonal mirror scanner and high-speed photomultiplier tubes. The current frame rate is 13 frames per second. High throughput rate is achieved by imaging multiple cell layer specimens in 3-D at a high frame rate. The throughput rate of this system is dependent on the choice of objective lenses, specimen properties, and the speed of computer-controlled specimen stage. It can be up to approximately 100 cells per second which is comparable with that of 2-D image cytometers. With the high throughput rate and deep tissue imaging capability, 3-D image cytometer has the potential for the detection of rare cellular events inside living, intact tissues. A promising application of this 3-D image cytometer is the study of mitotic recombination in tissues. Mitotic recombination is a mechanism for genetic change. Therefore it is one of causes for carcinogenesis. However, the study of this process is difficult because recombination event is rare and it occurs at a rate of one cell in 105 cells. The new method for the study is (1) to engineer transgenic mice whose cells will express fluorescence in the presence of mitotic recombination, (2) to detect cells which have undergone mitotic recombination with 3-D image cytometry. The estimated time required to quantify spontaneous recombination rate is approximately

  8. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  9. Experimental and numerical investigation into micro-flow cytometer with 3-D hydrodynamic focusing effect and micro-weir structure.

    PubMed

    Hou, Hui-Hsiung; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Fu, Lung-Ming; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2009-07-01

    This study presents a novel 3-D hydrodynamic focusing technique for micro-flow cytometers. In the proposed approach, the sample stream is compressed initially in the horizontal direction by a set of sheath flows such that it is constrained to the central region of the microchannel and is then focused in the vertical direction by a second pair of sheath flows. Thereafter, the focused sample stream passes over a micro-weir structure positioned directly beneath an optical detection system to capture polystyrene beads fluorescent signal. The microchannel configuration and operational parameters are optimized by performing a series of numerical simulations. An experimental investigation is then performed using a micro-flow cytometer fabricated using conventional micro-electro-mechanical systems techniques and an isotropic wet etching method. The results indicate that the two sets of sheath flows successfully constrain the sample stream within a narrow, well-defined region of the microchannel. Furthermore, the micro-weir structure prompts the separation of a mixed sample of 5 and 10 microm polystyrene beads in the vertical direction and ensures that the beads flow through the detection region of the microchannel in a sequential fashion and can therefore be reliably detected and counted.

  10. True 3d Images and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.

    2012-07-01

    A true 3D image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true 3D image, especially a true 3D oblique image, it has true 3D coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true 3D image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true 3D image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true 3D images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true 3D images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true 3D ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true 3D image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true 3D images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true 3D image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true 3D images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true 3D images and the applications of true 3D images in a couple of 3D city modeling projects.

  11. 3D carotid plaque MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS There has been significant progress made in 3D carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging techniques in recent years. 3D plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, 3D plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multi-vascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656

  12. Detection of Platelet-Monocyte Aggregates by the ADAM® Image Cytometer

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Bo Kyeung; Cho, Chi Hyun; Moon, Kyung Chul; sung Hur, Dae; Yoon, Jeong-Ah; Yoon, Soo-Young

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inappropriate platelet activation is known to be associated with various thrombotic disorders. Platelet-monocyte aggregates (PMAs), whose formation is mediated by platelet surface P-selectin (CD62P), can be used as a reliable marker to detect platelet activation. Previous studies have generally detected PMAs through flow cytometry-based approaches. Recently, the ADAM® image cytometer (Nanoentek Inc., Seoul, Korea) was developed for image-based cellular analysis. In this study, we detected PMAs with the ADAM® cytometer, evaluated the reproducibility of the measurements made by the ADAM® cytometer, and compared the abilities of the ADAM® cytometer and a flow cytometric assay to detect PMAs. Methods: Whole blood samples were collected from patients. Within 5 minutes of collection, anticoagulated whole blood samples were fixed in 10% paraformaldehyde and 5% glyoxal. Nineteen clinical specimens were collected; each was analyzed three times with the ADAM® cytometer in order to assess the reproducibility of its measurements. To compare the ability of the ADAM® cytometer with that of a flow cytometer to detect PMAs, each cytometer was used for 23 clinical samples and the correlation of the measurements was determined. Results: The PMA measurements made by the ADAM® cytometer showed good reproducibility (CV < 10% for all specimens). Moreover, the PMA measurements made by the ADAM® cytometer exhibited a high correlation with those made by a flow cytometric assay (R = 0.944). Conclusions: The ADAM® cytometer is a suitable alternative method to the flow cytometry-based assays. Since the ADAM cytometer does not need specialized instrument knowledge or software proficiency (unlike flow cytometry), the ADAM® cytometer can be used as a rapid and reliable POCT device to measure platelet activation in peripheral blood. This, in turn, will provide valuable information regarding patient propensities to thrombotic diseases. PMID:25317068

  13. Monitoring tumor metastasis by in vivo imaging and flow cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zhenqin; Guo, Jin; Liu, Guangda; Li, Yan; Chen, Yun; Chen, Tong; Wang, Chen; Wei, Xunbin

    2009-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in American men and the second leading cause of deaths from cancer, after lung cancer. The tumor usually grows slowly and remains confined to the gland for many years. During this time, the tumor produces little or no symptoms or outward signs. As the cancer advances, however, it can metastasize throughout other areas of the body, such as the bones, lungs, and liver. Surgical resection, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundation of current prostate cancer therapies. Treatments for prostate cause both short- and long-term side effects that may be difficult to accept. Molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed to selectively target to unique characteristics of cancer cell growth and metastasis. We have developed the "in vivo microscopy" to study the mechanisms that govern prostate cancer cell spread through the microenvironment in vivo in real-time confocal nearinfrared fluorescence imaging. A recently developed "in vivo flow cytometer" and optical imaging are used to assess prostate cancer cell spreading and the circulation kinetics of prostate cancer cells. A real- time quantitative monitoring of circulating prostate cancer cells by the in vivo flow cytometer will be useful to assess the effectiveness of the potential therapeutic interventions.

  14. Digital holography and 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Partha; Barbastathis, George; Kim, Myung; Kukhtarev, Nickolai

    2011-03-01

    This feature issue on Digital Holography and 3-D Imaging comprises 15 papers on digital holographic techniques and applications, computer-generated holography and encryption techniques, and 3-D display. It is hoped that future work in the area leads to innovative applications of digital holography and 3-D imaging to biology and sensing, and to the development of novel nonlinear dynamic digital holographic techniques.

  15. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-07

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  16. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  17. Studying tumor metastasis by in vivo imaging and flow cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xunbin; Guo, Jin; Liu, Guangda; Li, Yan; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Li; Tan, Yuan; Chen, Tong; Gu, Zhenqin; Wang, Chen

    2009-02-01

    Liver cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world, with approximately 1,000,000 cases reported every year. This ranges from 15,000 cases in the United States to more than a 250,000 in China. About 80% of people with primary liver cancer are male. Although two-thirds of people have advanced liver disease when they seek medical help, one third of the patients have cancer that has not progressed beyond the liver. Primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, or HCC) is associated with liver cirrhosis 60-80% of the time. HCC may metastasize to the lung, bones, kidney, and many other organs. Surgical resection, liver transplantation, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundation of current HCC therapies. However the outcomes are poor-the survival rate is almost zero for metastatic HCC patients. Molecular mechanisms of HCC metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed to selectively target to unique characteristics of HCC cell growth and metastasis. We have developed the "in vivo microscopy" to study the mechanisms that govern liver tumor cell spread through the microenvironment in vivo in real-time confocal near-infrared fluorescence imaging. A recently developed "in vivo flow cytometer" and optical imaging are used to assess liver tumor cell spreading and the circulation kinetics of liver tumor cells. A real-time quantitative monitoring of circulating liver tumor cells by the in vivo flow cytometer will be useful to assess the effectiveness of the potential therapeutic interventions.

  18. 3D Backscatter Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, D. Clark (Inventor); Whitaker, Ross (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for imaging an object using backscattered radiation are described. The imaging system comprises both a radiation source for irradiating an object that is rotationally movable about the object, and a detector for detecting backscattered radiation from the object that can be disposed on substantially the same side of the object as the source and which can be rotationally movable about the object. The detector can be separated into multiple detector segments with each segment having a single line of sight projection through the object and so detects radiation along that line of sight. Thus, each detector segment can isolate the desired component of the backscattered radiation. By moving independently of each other about the object, the source and detector can collect multiple images of the object at different angles of rotation and generate a three dimensional reconstruction of the object. Other embodiments are described.

  19. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  20. Three-Dimensional Image Cytometer Based on Widefield Structured Light Microscopy and High-Speed Remote Depth Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Heejin; Wadduwage, Dushan N.; Tu, Ting Yuan; Matsudaira, Paul; So, Peter T. C.

    2014-01-01

    A high throughput 3D image cytometer have been developed that improves imaging speed by an order of magnitude over current technologies. This imaging speed improvement was realized by combining several key components. First, a depth-resolved image can be rapidly generated using a structured light reconstruction algorithm that requires only two wide field images, one with uniform illumination and the other with structured illumination. Second, depth scanning is implemented using the high speed remote depth scanning. Finally, the large field of view, high NA objective lens and the high pixelation, high frame rate sCMOS camera enable high resolution, high sensitivity imaging of a large cell population. This system can image at 800 cell/sec in 3D at submicron resolution corresponding to imaging 1 million cells in 20 min. The statistical accuracy of this instrument is verified by quantitatively measuring rare cell populations with ratio ranging from 1:1 to 1:105. PMID:25352187

  1. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  2. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  3. 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-04-01

    Integral imaging (InI) systems are imaging devices that provide auto-stereoscopic images of 3D intensity objects. Since the birth of this new technology, InI systems have faced satisfactorily many of their initial drawbacks. Basically, two kind of procedures have been used: digital and optical procedures. The "3D Imaging and Display Group" at the University of Valencia, with the essential collaboration of Prof. Javidi, has centered its efforts in the 3D InI with optical processing. Among other achievements, our Group has proposed the annular amplitude modulation for enlargement of the depth of field, dynamic focusing for reduction of the facet-braiding effect, or the TRES and MATRES devices to enlarge the viewing angle.

  4. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  5. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  6. Active segmentation of 3D axonal images.

    PubMed

    Muralidhar, Gautam S; Gopinath, Ajay; Bovik, Alan C; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2012-01-01

    We present an active contour framework for segmenting neuronal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data. Our work is motivated by the need to conduct high throughput experiments involving microfluidic devices and femtosecond lasers to study the genetic mechanisms behind nerve regeneration and repair. While most of the applications for active contours have focused on segmenting closed regions in 2D medical and natural images, there haven't been many applications that have focused on segmenting open-ended curvilinear structures in 2D or higher dimensions. The active contour framework we present here ties together a well known 2D active contour model [5] along with the physics of projection imaging geometry to yield a segmented axon in 3D. Qualitative results illustrate the promise of our approach for segmenting neruonal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data.

  7. Streak Imaging Flow Cytometer for Rare Cell Analysis.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Ossandon, Miguel; Prickril, Ben; Rasooly, Avraham

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for simple and affordable techniques for cytology for clinical applications, especially for point-of-care (POC) medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings. However, this often requires adapting expensive and complex laboratory-based techniques that often require significant power and are too massive to transport easily. One such technique is flow cytometry, which has great potential for modification due to the simplicity of the principle of optical tracking of cells. However, it is limited in that regard due to the flow focusing technique used to isolate cells for optical detection. This technique inherently reduces the flow rate and is therefore unsuitable for rapid detection of rare cells which require large volume for analysis.To address these limitations, we developed a low-cost, mobile flow cytometer based on streak imaging. In our new configuration we utilize a simple webcam for optical detection over a large area associated with a wide-field flow cell. The new flow cell is capable of larger volume and higher throughput fluorescence detection of rare cells than the flow cells with hydrodynamic focusing used in conventional flow cytometry. The webcam is an inexpensive, commercially available system, and for fluorescence analysis we use a 1 W 450 nm blue laser to excite Syto-9 stained cells with emission at 535 nm. We were able to detect low concentrations of stained cells at high flow rates of 10 mL/min, which is suitable for rapidly analyzing larger specimen volumes to detect rare cells at appropriate concentration levels. The new rapid detection capabilities, combined with the simplicity and low cost of this device, suggest a potential for clinical POC flow cytometry in resource-poor settings associated with global health.

  8. 3-D imaging of the CNS.

    PubMed

    Runge, V M; Gelblum, D Y; Wood, M L

    1990-01-01

    3-D gradient echo techniques, and in particular FLASH, represent a significant advance in MR imaging strategy allowing thin section, high resolution imaging through a large region of interest. Anatomical areas of application include the brain, spine, and extremities, although the majority of work to date has been performed in the brain. Superior T1 contrast and thus sensitivity to the presence of GdDTPA is achieved with 3-D FLASH when compared to 2-D spin echo technique. There is marked arterial and venous enhancement following Gd DTPA administration on 3-D FLASH, a less common finding with 2-D spin echo. Enhancement of the falx and tentorium is also more prominent. From a single data acquisition, requiring less than 11 min of scan time, high resolution reformatted sagittal, coronal, and axial images can obtained in addition to sections in any arbitrary plane. Tissue segmentation techniques can be applied and lesions displayed in three dimensions. These results may lead to the replacement of 2-D spin echo with 3-D FLASH for high resolution T1-weighted MR imaging of the CNS, particularly in the study of mass lesions and structural anomalies. The application of similar T2-weighted gradient echo techniques may follow, however the signal-to-noise ratio which can be achieved remains a potential limitation.

  9. Walker Ranch 3D seismic images

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Mellors

    2016-03-01

    Amplitude images (both vertical and depth slices) extracted from 3D seismic reflection survey over area of Walker Ranch area (adjacent to Raft River). Crossline spacing of 660 feet and inline of 165 feet using a Vibroseis source. Processing included depth migration. Micro-earthquake hypocenters on images. Stratigraphic information and nearby well tracks added to images. Images are embedded in a Microsoft Word document with additional information. Exact location and depth restricted for proprietary reasons. Data collection and processing funded by Agua Caliente. Original data remains property of Agua Caliente.

  10. Backhoe 3D "gold standard" image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, LeRoy; Naidu, Kiranmai D.; Majumder, Uttam; Minardi, Michael A.

    2005-05-01

    ViSUAl-D (VIsual Sar Using ALl Dimensions), a 2004 DARPA/IXO seedling effort, is developing a capability for reliable high confidence ID from standoff ranges. Recent conflicts have demonstrated that the warfighter would greatly benefit from the ability to ID targets beyond visual and electro-optical ranges[1]. Forming optical-quality SAR images while exploiting full polarization, wide angles, and large bandwidth would be key evidence such a capability is achievable. Using data generated by the Xpatch EM scattering code, ViSUAl-D investigates all degrees of freedom available to the radar designer, including 6 GHz bandwidth, full polarization and angle sampling over 2π steradians (upper hemisphere), in order to produce a "literal" image or representation of the target. This effort includes the generation of a "Gold Standard" image that can be produced at X-band utilizing all available target data. This "Gold Standard" image of the backhoe will serve as a test bed for future more relevant military targets and their image development. The seedling team produced a public release data which was released at the 2004 SPIE conference, as well as a 3D "Gold Standard" backhoe image using a 3D image formation algorithm. This paper describes the full backhoe data set, the image formation algorithm, the visualization process and the resulting image.

  11. Tilted planes in 3D image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pargas, Roy P.; Staples, Nancy J.; Malloy, Brian F.; Cantrell, Ken; Chhatriwala, Murtuza

    1998-03-01

    Reliable 3D wholebody scanners which output digitized 3D images of a complete human body are now commercially available. This paper describes a software package, called 3DM, being developed by researchers at Clemson University and which manipulates and extracts measurements from such images. The focus of this paper is on tilted planes, a 3DM tool which allows a user to define a plane through a scanned image, tilt it in any direction, and effectively define three disjoint regions on the image: the points on the plane and the points on either side of the plane. With tilted planes, the user can accurately take measurements required in applications such as apparel manufacturing. The user can manually segment the body rather precisely. Tilted planes assist the user in analyzing the form of the body and classifying the body in terms of body shape. Finally, titled planes allow the user to eliminate extraneous and unwanted points often generated by a 3D scanner. This paper describes the user interface for tilted planes, the equations defining the plane as the user moves it through the scanned image, an overview of the algorithms, and the interaction of the tilted plane feature with other tools in 3DM.

  12. A virtually imaged defocused array (VIDA) for high-speed 3D microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    We report a method to capture a multifocus image stack based on recording multiple reflections generated by imaging through a custom etalon. The focus stack is collected in a single camera exposure and consequently the information needed for 3D reconstruction is recorded in the camera integration time, which is only 100 µs. We have used the VIDA microscope to temporally resolve the multi-lobed 3D morphology of neutrophil nuclei as they rotate and deform through a microfluidic constriction. In addition, we have constructed a 3D imaging flow cytometer and quantified the nuclear morphology of nearly a thousand white blood cells flowing at a velocity of 3 mm per second. The VIDA microscope is compact and simple to construct, intrinsically achromatic, and the field-of-view and stack number can be easily reconfigured without redesigning diffraction gratings and prisms.

  13. Feasibility of 3D harmonic contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Voormolen, M M; Bouakaz, A; Krenning, B J; Lancée, C T; ten Cate, F J; de Jong, N

    2004-04-01

    Improved endocardial border delineation with the application of contrast agents should allow for less complex and faster tracing algorithms for left ventricular volume analysis. We developed a fast rotating phased array transducer for 3D imaging of the heart with harmonic capabilities making it suitable for contrast imaging. In this study the feasibility of 3D harmonic contrast imaging is evaluated in vitro. A commercially available tissue mimicking flow phantom was used in combination with Sonovue. Backscatter power spectra from a tissue and contrast region of interest were calculated from recorded radio frequency data. The spectra and the extracted contrast to tissue ratio from these spectra were used to optimize the excitation frequency, the pulse length and the receive filter settings of the transducer. Frequencies ranging from 1.66 to 2.35 MHz and pulse lengths of 1.5, 2 and 2.5 cycles were explored. An increase of more than 15 dB in the contrast to tissue ratio was found around the second harmonic compared with the fundamental level at an optimal excitation frequency of 1.74 MHz and a pulse length of 2.5 cycles. Using the optimal settings for 3D harmonic contrast recordings volume measurements of a left ventricular shaped agar phantom were performed. Without contrast the extracted volume data resulted in a volume error of 1.5%, with contrast an accuracy of 3.8% was achieved. The results show the feasibility of accurate volume measurements from 3D harmonic contrast images. Further investigations will include the clinical evaluation of the presented technique for improved assessment of the heart.

  14. 3D imaging system for biometric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin; Abramovich, Gil; Paruchura, Vijay; Manickam, Swaminathan; Vemury, Arun

    2010-04-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of 3D data for many new applications beyond traditional metrology areas. In particular, using 3D data to obtain shape information of both people and objects for applications ranging from identification to game inputs does not require high degrees of calibration or resolutions in the tens of micron range, but does require a means to quickly and robustly collect data in the millimeter range. Systems using methods such as structured light or stereo have seen wide use in measurements, but due to the use of a triangulation angle, and thus the need for a separated second viewpoint, may not be practical for looking at a subject 10 meters away. Even when working close to a subject, such as capturing hands or fingers, the triangulation angle causes occlusions, shadows, and a physically large system that may get in the way. This paper will describe methods to collect medium resolution 3D data, plus highresolution 2D images, using a line of sight approach. The methods use no moving parts and as such are robust to movement (for portability), reliable, and potentially very fast at capturing 3D data. This paper will describe the optical methods considered, variations on these methods, and present experimental data obtained with the approach.

  15. Pattern based 3D image Steganography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiyagarajan, P.; Natarajan, V.; Aghila, G.; Prasanna Venkatesan, V.; Anitha, R.

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a new high capacity Steganographic scheme using 3D geometric models. The novel algorithm re-triangulates a part of a triangle mesh and embeds the secret information into newly added position of triangle meshes. Up to nine bits of secret data can be embedded into vertices of a triangle without causing any changes in the visual quality and the geometric properties of the cover image. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is secure, with high capacity and low distortion rate. Our algorithm also resists against uniform affine transformations such as cropping, rotation and scaling. Also, the performance of the method is compared with other existing 3D Steganography algorithms. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. 3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerwien, N.

    2014-11-01

    In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

  17. 3D seismic image processing for interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xinming

    Extracting fault, unconformity, and horizon surfaces from a seismic image is useful for interpretation of geologic structures and stratigraphic features. Although interpretation of these surfaces has been automated to some extent by others, significant manual effort is still required for extracting each type of these geologic surfaces. I propose methods to automatically extract all the fault, unconformity, and horizon surfaces from a 3D seismic image. To a large degree, these methods just involve image processing or array processing which is achieved by efficiently solving partial differential equations. For fault interpretation, I propose a linked data structure, which is simpler than triangle or quad meshes, to represent a fault surface. In this simple data structure, each sample of a fault corresponds to exactly one image sample. Using this linked data structure, I extract complete and intersecting fault surfaces without holes from 3D seismic images. I use the same structure in subsequent processing to estimate fault slip vectors. I further propose two methods, using precomputed fault surfaces and slips, to undo faulting in seismic images by simultaneously moving fault blocks and faults themselves. For unconformity interpretation, I first propose a new method to compute a unconformity likelihood image that highlights both the termination areas and the corresponding parallel unconformities and correlative conformities. I then extract unconformity surfaces from the likelihood image and use these surfaces as constraints to more accurately estimate seismic normal vectors that are discontinuous near the unconformities. Finally, I use the estimated normal vectors and use the unconformities as constraints to compute a flattened image, in which seismic reflectors are all flat and vertical gaps correspond to the unconformities. Horizon extraction is straightforward after computing a map of image flattening; we can first extract horizontal slices in the flattened space

  18. High-speed quantitative interferometric microscopy based phase imaging cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Liang; Sun, Nan; Yan, Keding; Liu, Fei; Wang, Shouyu

    2014-11-01

    The paper proposed a simple large scale bio-sample phase detecting equipment called gravity driven phase detecting cytometer, which is based on quantitative interferometric microscopy to realize flowing red blood cells phase distribution detection. The method has advantages on high throughput phase detecting and statistical analysis with high detecting speed and in real-time. The statistical characteristics of red blood cells are useful for biological analysis and disease detection. We believe this method is shedding more light on quantitatively measurement of the phase distribution of bio-samples.

  19. 3D GPR Imaging of Wooden Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Pyakurel, Sandeep

    2007-03-01

    There has been a lack of an effective NDE technique to locate internal defects within wooden logs. The few available elastic wave propagation based techniques are limited to predicting E values. Other techniques such as X-rays have not been very successful in detecting internal defects in logs. If defects such as embedded metals could be identified before the sawing process, the saw mills could significantly increase their production by reducing the probability of damage to the saw blade and the associated downtime and the repair cost. Also, if the internal defects such as knots and decayed areas could be identified in logs, the sawing blade can be oriented to exclude the defective portion and optimize the volume of high valued lumber that can be obtained from the logs. In this research, GPR has been successfully used to locate internal defects (knots, decays and embedded metals) within the logs. This paper discusses GPR imaging and mapping of the internal defects using both 2D and 3D interpretation methodology. Metal pieces were inserted in a log and the reflection patterns from these metals were interpreted from the radargrams acquired using 900 MHz antenna. Also, GPR was able to accurately identify the location of knots and decays. Scans from several orientations of the log were collected to generate 3D cylindrical volume. The actual location of the defects showed good correlation with the interpreted defects in the 3D volume. The time/depth slices from 3D cylindrical volume data were useful in understanding the extent of defects inside the log.

  20. Single-layer planar on-chip flow cytometer using microfluidic drifting based three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiaole; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Dong, Cheng; Huang, Tony Jun

    2009-06-07

    In this work, we demonstrate an on-chip microfluidic flow cytometry system based on a three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing technique, microfluidic drifting. By inducing Dean flow in a curved microfluidic channel, microfluidic drifting can be used to hydrodynamically focus cells or particles in the vertical direction and enables the 3D hydrodynamic focusing in a single-layer planar microfluidic device. Through theoretical calculation, numerical simulation, and experimental characterization, we found that the microfluidic drifting technique can be effectively applied to three-dimensionally focus microparticles with density and size equivalent to those of human CD4+ T lymphocytes. In addition, we developed a flow cytometry platform by integrating the 3D focusing device with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection system. The system was shown to provide effective high-throughput flow cytometry measurements at a rate of greater than 1700 cells s(-1).

  1. Photogrammetric 3D reconstruction using mobile imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Dieter; Syll, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    In our paper we demonstrate the development of an Android Application (AndroidSfM) for photogrammetric 3D reconstruction that works on smartphones and tablets likewise. The photos are taken with mobile devices, and can thereafter directly be calibrated using standard calibration algorithms of photogrammetry and computer vision, on that device. Due to still limited computing resources on mobile devices, a client-server handshake using Dropbox transfers the photos to the sever to run AndroidSfM for the pose estimation of all photos by Structure-from-Motion and, thereafter, uses the oriented bunch of photos for dense point cloud estimation by dense image matching algorithms. The result is transferred back to the mobile device for visualization and ad-hoc on-screen measurements.

  2. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Song

    2010-01-01

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  3. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    ScienceCinema

    Zhang, Song

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  4. Subnuclear foci quantification using high-throughput 3D image cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadduwage, Dushan N.; Parrish, Marcus; Choi, Heejin; Engelward, Bevin P.; Matsudaira, Paul; So, Peter T. C.

    2015-07-01

    Ionising radiation causes various types of DNA damages including double strand breaks (DSBs). DSBs are often recognized by DNA repair protein ATM which forms gamma-H2AX foci at the site of the DSBs that can be visualized using immunohistochemistry. However most of such experiments are of low throughput in terms of imaging and image analysis techniques. Most of the studies still use manual counting or classification. Hence they are limited to counting a low number of foci per cell (5 foci per nucleus) as the quantification process is extremely labour intensive. Therefore we have developed a high throughput instrumentation and computational pipeline specialized for gamma-H2AX foci quantification. A population of cells with highly clustered foci inside nuclei were imaged, in 3D with submicron resolution, using an in-house developed high throughput image cytometer. Imaging speeds as high as 800 cells/second in 3D were achieved by using HiLo wide-field depth resolved imaging and a remote z-scanning technique. Then the number of foci per cell nucleus were quantified using a 3D extended maxima transform based algorithm. Our results suggests that while most of the other 2D imaging and manual quantification studies can count only up to about 5 foci per nucleus our method is capable of counting more than 100. Moreover we show that 3D analysis is significantly superior compared to the 2D techniques.

  5. [3D display of sequential 2D medical images].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yisong; Chen, Yazhu

    2003-12-01

    A detailed review is given in this paper on various current 3D display methods for sequential 2D medical images and the new development in 3D medical image display. True 3D display, surface rendering, volume rendering, 3D texture mapping and distributed collaborative rendering are discussed in depth. For two kinds of medical applications: Real-time navigation system and high-fidelity diagnosis in computer aided surgery, different 3D display methods are presented.

  6. Progress in 3D imaging and display by integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cuenca, R.; Saavedra, G.; Martinez-Corral, M.; Pons, A.; Javidi, B.

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensionality is currently considered an important added value in imaging devices, and therefore the search for an optimum 3D imaging and display technique is a hot topic that is attracting important research efforts. As main value, 3D monitors should provide the observers with different perspectives of a 3D scene by simply varying the head position. Three-dimensional imaging techniques have the potential to establish a future mass-market in the fields of entertainment and communications. Integral imaging (InI), which can capture true 3D color images, has been seen as the right technology to 3D viewing to audiences of more than one person. Due to the advanced degree of development, InI technology could be ready for commercialization in the coming years. This development is the result of a strong research effort performed along the past few years by many groups. Since Integral Imaging is still an emerging technology, the first aim of the "3D Imaging and Display Laboratory" at the University of Valencia, has been the realization of a thorough study of the principles that govern its operation. Is remarkable that some of these principles have been recognized and characterized by our group. Other contributions of our research have been addressed to overcome some of the classical limitations of InI systems, like the limited depth of field (in pickup and in display), the poor axial and lateral resolution, the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion, the production of 3D images with continuous relief, or the limited range of viewing angles of InI monitors.

  7. Infrastructure for 3D Imaging Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-11

    analysis. (c.) Real time detection & analysis of human gait: using a video camera we capture walking human silhouette for pattern modeling and gait ... analysis . Fig. 5 shows the scanning result result that is fed into a Geo-magic software tool for 3D meshing. Fig. 5: 3D scanning result In

  8. Indigenous development of an imaging flow cytometer for clinical and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J, Veerendra Kalyan; Srinivasan, Rajesh; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2014-10-01

    Flow cytometry is a benchmark technique used for basic research and clinical diagnosis of various diseases. Despite being a high-throughput technique, it fails in capturing the morphology of cells being analyzed. Imaging flow cytometry is a combination of flow-cytometry and digital microscopy, which offers advantages of both the techniques. In this paper, we report on the development of an indigenous Imaging Flow Cytometer, realized with the combination of Optics, Microfluidics, and High-speed imaging. A custom-made bright-field transmission microscope is used to capture images of cells flowing across the microfluidic device. High-throughput morphological analysis on suspension of yeast cells is presented.

  9. Study of cell classification with a diffraction imaging flow cytometer method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ke; Jacobs, Kenneth M.; Sa, Yu; Feng, Yuanming; Lu, Jun Q.; Hu, Xin-Hua

    2011-02-01

    With a diffraction imaging flow cytometer, we have acquired and analyzed the diffraction imaging data from 5 types of cultured cells. A gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm was applied to extract the interference fringe related textures from the diffraction image data. Six GLCM parameters were chosen and imported into a support vector machine algorithm for automated classification of about 20 cells for each of the 5 cell types. We found that the GLCM based algorithm has the capacity for rapid processing of diffraction images and yield feature parameters for subsequent cell classification except the T- and B-lymphocytes.

  10. Glasses-free 3D viewing systems for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, Daniel S. F.; Serra, Rolando L.; Vannucci, André L.; Moreno, Alfredo B.; Li, Li M.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we show two different glasses-free 3D viewing systems for medical imaging: a stereoscopic system that employs a vertically dispersive holographic screen (VDHS) and a multi-autostereoscopic system, both used to produce 3D MRI/CT images. We describe how to obtain a VDHS in holographic plates optimized for this application, with field of view of 7 cm to each eye and focal length of 25 cm, showing images done with the system. We also describe a multi-autostereoscopic system, presenting how it can generate 3D medical imaging from viewpoints of a MRI or CT image, showing results of a 3D angioresonance image.

  11. 3D ultrasound imaging for prosthesis fabrication and diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J.; Strong, D.S.

    1995-06-01

    The fabrication of a prosthetic socket for a below-the-knee amputee requires knowledge of the underlying bone structure in order to provide pressure relief for sensitive areas and support for load bearing areas. The goal is to enable the residual limb to bear pressure with greater ease and utility. Conventional methods of prosthesis fabrication are based on limited knowledge about the patient`s underlying bone structure. A 3D ultrasound imaging system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The imaging system provides information about the location of the bones in the residual limb along with the shape of the skin surface. Computer assisted design (CAD) software can use this data to design prosthetic sockets for amputees. Ultrasound was selected as the imaging modality. A computer model was developed to analyze the effect of the various scanning parameters and to assist in the design of the overall system. The 3D ultrasound imaging system combines off-the-shelf technology for image capturing, custom hardware, and control and image processing software to generate two types of image data -- volumetric and planar. Both volumetric and planar images reveal definition of skin and bone geometry with planar images providing details on muscle fascial planes, muscle/fat interfaces, and blood vessel definition. The 3D ultrasound imaging system was tested on 9 unilateral below-the- knee amputees. Image data was acquired from both the sound limb and the residual limb. The imaging system was operated in both volumetric and planar formats. An x-ray CT (Computed Tomography) scan was performed on each amputee for comparison. Results of the test indicate beneficial use of ultrasound to generate databases for fabrication of prostheses at a lower cost and with better initial fit as compared to manually fabricated prostheses.

  12. Research of range-gated 3D imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haitao; Zhao, Hongli; Youchen, Fan

    2016-10-01

    Laser image data-based target recognition technology is one of the key technologies of laser active imaging systems. This paper discussed the status quo of 3-D imaging development at home and abroad, analyzed the current technological bottlenecks, and built a prototype of range-gated systems to obtain a set of range-gated slice images, and then constructed the 3-D images of the target by binary method and centroid method, respectively, and by constructing different numbers of slice images explored the relationship between the number of images and the reconstruction accuracy in the 3-D image reconstruction process. The experiment analyzed the impact of two algorithms, binary method and centroid method, on the results of 3-D image reconstruction. In the binary method, a comparative analysis was made on the impact of different threshold values on the results of reconstruction, where 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and adaptive threshold values were selected for 3-D reconstruction of the slice images. In the centroid method, 15, 10, 6, 3, and 2 images were respectively used to realize 3-D reconstruction. Experimental results showed that with the same number of slice images, the accuracy of centroid method was higher than the binary algorithm, and the binary algorithm had a large dependence on the selection of threshold; with the number of slice images dwindling, the accuracy of images reconstructed by centroid method continued to reduce, and at least three slice images were required in order to obtain one 3-D image.

  13. 3D Imaging by Mass Spectrometry: A New Frontier

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Erin H.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Imaging mass spectrometry can generate three-dimensional volumes showing molecular distributions in an entire organ or animal through registration and stacking of serial tissue sections. Here we review the current state of 3D imaging mass spectrometry as well as provide insights and perspectives on the process of generating 3D mass spectral data along with a discussion of the process necessary to generate a 3D image volume. PMID:22276611

  14. Reconstruction-based 3D/2D image registration.

    PubMed

    Tomazevic, Dejan; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel 3D/2D registration method, where first, a 3D image is reconstructed from a few 2D X-ray images and next, the preoperative 3D image is brought into the best possible spatial correspondence with the reconstructed image by optimizing a similarity measure. Because the quality of the reconstructed image is generally low, we introduce a novel asymmetric mutual information similarity measure, which is able to cope with low image quality as well as with different imaging modalities. The novel 3D/2D registration method has been evaluated using standardized evaluation methodology and publicly available 3D CT, 3DRX, and MR and 2D X-ray images of two spine phantoms, for which gold standard registrations were known. In terms of robustness, reliability and capture range the proposed method outperformed the gradient-based method and the method based on digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs).

  15. 3D Imaging with Holographic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Kou, Shan Shan

    2010-04-01

    There are two main types of tomography that enable the 3D internal structures of objects to be reconstructed from scattered data. The commonly known computerized tomography (CT) give good results in the x-ray wavelength range where the filtered back-projection theorem and Radon transform can be used. These techniques rely on the Fourier projection-slice theorem where rays are considered to propagate straight through the object. Another type of tomography called `diffraction tomography' applies in applications in optics and acoustics where diffraction and scattering effects must be taken into account. The latter proves to be a more difficult problem, as light no longer travels straight through the sample. Holographic tomography is a popular way of performing diffraction tomography and there has been active experimental research on reconstructing complex refractive index data using this approach recently. However, there are two distinct ways of doing tomography: either by rotation of the object or by rotation of the illumination while fixing the detector. The difference between these two setups is intuitive but needs to be quantified. From Fourier optics and information transformation point of view, we use 3D transfer function analysis to quantitatively describe how spatial frequencies of the object are mapped to the Fourier domain. We first employ a paraxial treatment by calculating the Fourier transform of the defocused OTF. The shape of the calculated 3D CTF for tomography, by scanning the illumination in one direction only, takes on a form that we might call a 'peanut,' compared to the case of object rotation, where a diablo is formed, the peanut exhibiting significant differences and non-isotropy. In particular, there is a line singularity along one transverse direction. Under high numerical aperture conditions, the paraxial treatment is not accurate, and so we make use of 3D analytical geometry to calculate the behaviour in the non-paraxial case. This time, we

  16. Optical 3D imaging and visualization of concealed objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berginc, G.; Bellet, J.-B.; Berechet, I.; Berechet, S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper gives new insights on optical 3D imagery. In this paper we explore the advantages of laser imagery to form a three-dimensional image of the scene. 3D laser imaging can be used for three-dimensional medical imaging and surveillance because of ability to identify tumors or concealed objects. We consider the problem of 3D reconstruction based upon 2D angle-dependent laser images. The objective of this new 3D laser imaging is to provide users a complete 3D reconstruction of objects from available 2D data limited in number. The 2D laser data used in this paper come from simulations that are based on the calculation of the laser interactions with the different meshed objects of the scene of interest or from experimental 2D laser images. We show that combining the Radom transform on 2D laser images with the Maximum Intensity Projection can generate 3D views of the considered scene from which we can extract the 3D concealed object in real time. With different original numerical or experimental examples, we investigate the effects of the input contrasts. We show the robustness and the stability of the method. We have developed a new patented method of 3D laser imaging based on three-dimensional reflective tomographic reconstruction algorithms and an associated visualization method. In this paper we present the global 3D reconstruction and visualization procedures.

  17. Light field display and 3D image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwane, Toru

    2016-06-01

    Light field optics and its applications become rather popular in these days. With light field optics or light field thesis, real 3D space can be described in 2D plane as 4D data, which we call as light field data. This process can be divided in two procedures. First, real3D scene is optically reduced with imaging lens. Second, this optically reduced 3D image is encoded into light field data. In later procedure we can say that 3D information is encoded onto a plane as 2D data by lens array plate. This transformation is reversible and acquired light field data can be decoded again into 3D image with the arrayed lens plate. "Refocusing" (focusing image on your favorite point after taking a picture), light-field camera's most popular function, is some kind of sectioning process from encoded 3D data (light field data) to 2D image. In this paper at first I show our actual light field camera and our 3D display using acquired and computer-simulated light field data, on which real 3D image is reconstructed. In second I explain our data processing method whose arithmetic operation is performed not in Fourier domain but in real domain. Then our 3D display system is characterized by a few features; reconstructed image is of finer resolutions than density of arrayed lenses and it is not necessary to adjust lens array plate to flat display on which light field data is displayed.

  18. 3D Imaging with Structured Illumination for Advanced Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Dagel, Amber Lynn; Kast, Brian A.; Smith, Collin S.

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information in a physical security system is a highly useful dis- criminator. The two-dimensional data from an imaging systems fails to provide target dis- tance and three-dimensional motion vector, which can be used to reduce nuisance alarm rates and increase system effectiveness. However, 3D imaging devices designed primarily for use in physical security systems are uncommon. This report discusses an architecture favorable to physical security systems; an inexpensive snapshot 3D imaging system utilizing a simple illumination system. The method of acquiring 3D data, tests to understand illumination de- sign, and software modifications possible to maximize information gathering capability are discussed.

  19. Volumetric image display for complex 3D data visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Che-Chih; Chen, Jyh Shing

    2000-05-01

    A volumetric image display is a new display technology capable of displaying computer generated 3D images in a volumetric space. Many viewers can walk around the display and see the image from omni-directions simultaneously without wearing any glasses. The image is real and possesses all major elements in both physiological and psychological depth cues. Due to the volumetric nature of its image, the VID can provide the most natural human-machine interface in operations involving 3D data manipulation and 3D targets monitoring. The technology creates volumetric 3D images by projecting a series of profiling images distributed in the space form a volumetric image because of the after-image effect of human eyes. Exemplary applications in biomedical image visualization were tested on a prototype display, using different methods to display a data set from Ct-scans. The features of this display technology make it most suitable for applications that require quick understanding of the 3D relations, need frequent spatial interactions with the 3D images, or involve time-varying 3D data. It can also be useful for group discussion and decision making.

  20. 3D augmented reality with integral imaging display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xin; Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging display for augmented reality is presented. By implementing the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion method, elemental image arrays with different capturing parameters can be transferred into the identical format for 3D display. With the proposed merging algorithm, a new set of elemental images for augmented reality display is generated. The newly generated elemental images contain both the virtual objects and real world scene with desired depth information and transparency parameters. The experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed 3D augmented reality with integral imaging.

  1. On Alternative Approaches to 3D Image Perception: Monoscopic 3D Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundell, Barry G.

    2015-06-01

    In the eighteenth century, techniques that enabled a strong sense of 3D perception to be experienced without recourse to binocular disparities (arising from the spatial separation of the eyes) underpinned the first significant commercial sales of 3D viewing devices and associated content. However following the advent of stereoscopic techniques in the nineteenth century, 3D image depiction has become inextricably linked to binocular parallax and outside the vision science and arts communities relatively little attention has been directed towards earlier approaches. Here we introduce relevant concepts and terminology and consider a number of techniques and optical devices that enable 3D perception to be experienced on the basis of planar images rendered from a single vantage point. Subsequently we allude to possible mechanisms for non-binocular parallax based 3D perception. Particular attention is given to reviewing areas likely to be thought-provoking to those involved in 3D display development, spatial visualization, HCI, and other related areas of interdisciplinary research.

  2. A Contact-Imaging Based Microfluidic Cytometer with Machine-Learning for Single-Frame Super-Resolution Processing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiwei; Guo, Jinhong; Wang, Xiaolong; Yan, Mei; Kang, Yuejun; Yu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Lensless microfluidic imaging with super-resolution processing has become a promising solution to miniaturize the conventional flow cytometer for point-of-care applications. The previous multi-frame super-resolution processing system can improve resolution but has limited cell flow rate and hence low throughput when capturing multiple subpixel-shifted cell images. This paper introduces a single-frame super-resolution processing with on-line machine-learning for contact images of cells. A corresponding contact-imaging based microfluidic cytometer prototype is demonstrated for cell recognition and counting. Compared with commercial flow cytometer, less than 8% error is observed for absolute number of microbeads; and 0.10 coefficient of variation is observed for cell-ratio of mixed RBC and HepG2 cells in solution. PMID:25111497

  3. Imaging hypoxia using 3D photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stantz, Keith M.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: The objective is to develop a multivariate in vivo hemodynamic model of tissue oxygenation (MiHMO2) based on 3D photoacoustic spectroscopy. Introduction: Low oxygen levels, or hypoxia, deprives cancer cells of oxygen and confers resistance to irradiation, some chemotherapeutic drugs, and oxygen-dependent therapies (phototherapy) leading to treatment failure and poor disease-free and overall survival. For example, clinical studies of patients with breast carcinomas, cervical cancer, and head and neck carcinomas (HNC) are more likely to suffer local reoccurrence and metastasis if their tumors are hypoxic. A novel method to non invasively measure tumor hypoxia, identify its type, and monitor its heterogeneity is devised by measuring tumor hemodynamics, MiHMO2. Material and Methods: Simulations are performed to compare tumor pO2 levels and hypoxia based on physiology - perfusion, fractional plasma volume, fractional cellular volume - and its hemoglobin status - oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration - based on in vivo measurements of breast, prostate, and ovarian tumors. Simulations of MiHMO2 are performed to assess the influence of scanner resolutions and different mathematic models of oxygen delivery. Results: Sensitivity of pO2 and hypoxic fraction to photoacoustic scanner resolution and dependencies on model complexity will be presented using hemodynamic parameters for different tumors. Conclusions: Photoacoustic CT spectroscopy provides a unique ability to monitor hemodynamic and cellular physiology in tissue, which can be used to longitudinally monitor tumor oxygenation and its response to anti-angiogenic therapies.

  4. Dedicated 3D photoacoustic breast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Robert A.; Kuzmiak, Cherie M.; Lam, Richard B.; Reinecke, Daniel R.; Del Rio, Stephen P.; Steed, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report the design and imaging methodology of a photoacoustic scanner dedicated to imaging hemoglobin distribution throughout a human breast. Methods: The authors developed a dedicated breast photoacoustic mammography (PAM) system using a spherical detector aperture based on our previous photoacoustic tomography scanner. The system uses 512 detectors with rectilinear scanning. The scan shape is a spiral pattern whose radius varies from 24 to 96 mm, thereby allowing a field of view that accommodates a wide range of breast sizes. The authors measured the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) using a target comprised of 1-mm dots printed on clear plastic. Each dot absorption coefficient was approximately the same as a 1-mm thickness of whole blood at 756 nm, the output wavelength of the Alexandrite laser used by this imaging system. The target was immersed in varying depths of an 8% solution of stock Liposyn II-20%, which mimics the attenuation of breast tissue (1.1 cm−1). The spatial resolution was measured using a 6 μm-diameter carbon fiber embedded in agar. The breasts of four healthy female volunteers, spanning a range of breast size from a brassiere C cup to a DD cup, were imaged using a 96-mm spiral protocol. Results: The CNR target was clearly visualized to a depth of 53 mm. Spatial resolution, which was estimated from the full width at half-maximum of a profile across the PAM image of a carbon fiber, was 0.42 mm. In the four human volunteers, the vasculature was well visualized throughout the breast tissue, including to the chest wall. Conclusions: CNR, lateral field-of-view and penetration depth of our dedicated PAM scanning system is sufficient to image breasts as large as 1335 mL, which should accommodate up to 90% of the women in the United States. PMID:24320471

  5. 3-D capacitance density imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, G.E.

    1988-03-18

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved. 7 figs.

  6. 3-D seismic imaging of complex geologies

    SciTech Connect

    Womble, D.E.; Dosanjh, S.S.; VanDyke, J.P.; Oldfield, R.A.; Greenberg, D.S.

    1995-02-01

    We present three codes for the Intel Paragon that address the problem of three-dimensional seismic imaging of complex geologies. The first code models acoustic wave propagation and can be used to generate data sets to calibrate and validate seismic imaging codes. This code reported the fastest timings for acoustic wave propagation codes at a recent SEG (Society of Exploration Geophysicists) meeting. The second code implements a Kirchhoff method for pre-stack depth migration. Development of this code is almost complete, and preliminary results are presented. The third code implements a wave equation approach to seismic migration and is a Paragon implementation of a code from the ARCO Seismic Benchmark Suite.

  7. Polarimetric 3D integral imaging in photon-starved conditions.

    PubMed

    Carnicer, Artur; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-03-09

    We develop a method for obtaining 3D polarimetric integral images from elemental images recorded in low light illumination conditions. Since photon-counting images are very sparse, calculation of the Stokes parameters and the degree of polarization should be handled carefully. In our approach, polarimetric 3D integral images are generated using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation and subsequently reconstructed by means of a Total Variation Denoising filter. In this way, polarimetric results are comparable to those obtained in conventional illumination conditions. We also show that polarimetric information retrieved from photon starved images can be used in 3D object recognition problems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3D polarimetric photon counting integral imaging.

  8. Phase Sensitive Cueing for 3D Objects in Overhead Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D

    2005-02-04

    Locating specific 3D objects in overhead images is an important problem in many remote sensing applications. 3D objects may contain either one connected component or multiple disconnected components. Solutions must accommodate images acquired with diverse sensors at various times of the day, in various seasons of the year, or under various weather conditions. Moreover, the physical manifestation of a 3D object with fixed physical dimensions in an overhead image is highly dependent on object physical dimensions, object position/orientation, image spatial resolution, and imaging geometry (e.g., obliqueness). This paper describes a two-stage computer-assisted approach for locating 3D objects in overhead images. In the matching stage, the computer matches models of 3D objects to overhead images. The strongest degree of match over all object orientations is computed at each pixel. Unambiguous local maxima in the degree of match as a function of pixel location are then found. In the cueing stage, the computer sorts image thumbnails in descending order of figure-of-merit and presents them to human analysts for visual inspection and interpretation. The figure-of-merit associated with an image thumbnail is computed from the degrees of match to a 3D object model associated with unambiguous local maxima that lie within the thumbnail. This form of computer assistance is invaluable when most of the relevant thumbnails are highly ranked, and the amount of inspection time needed is much less for the highly ranked thumbnails than for images as a whole.

  9. 3D laser imaging for concealed object identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berechet, Ion; Berginc, Gérard; Berechet, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    This paper deals with new optical non-conventional 3D laser imaging. Optical non-conventional imaging explores the advantages of laser imaging to form a three-dimensional image of the scene. 3D laser imaging can be used for threedimensional medical imaging, topography, surveillance, robotic vision because of ability to detect and recognize objects. In this paper, we present a 3D laser imaging for concealed object identification. The objective of this new 3D laser imaging is to provide the user a complete 3D reconstruction of the concealed object from available 2D data limited in number and with low representativeness. The 2D laser data used in this paper come from simulations that are based on the calculation of the laser interactions with the different interfaces of the scene of interest and from experimental results. We show the global 3D reconstruction procedures capable to separate objects from foliage and reconstruct a threedimensional image of the considered object. In this paper, we present examples of reconstruction and completion of three-dimensional images and we analyse the different parameters of the identification process such as resolution, the scenario of camouflage, noise impact and lacunarity degree.

  10. Coded illumination for motion-blur free imaging of cells on cell-phone based imaging flow cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Manish; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2014-10-01

    Cell-phone based imaging flow cytometry can be realized by flowing cells through the microfluidic devices, and capturing their images with an optically enhanced camera of the cell-phone. Throughput in flow cytometers is usually enhanced by increasing the flow rate of cells. However, maximum frame rate of camera system limits the achievable flow rate. Beyond this, the images become highly blurred due to motion-smear. We propose to address this issue with coded illumination, which enables recovery of high-fidelity images of cells far beyond their motion-blur limit. This paper presents simulation results of deblurring the synthetically generated cell/bead images under such coded illumination.

  11. Critical comparison of 3D imaging approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C L

    1999-06-03

    Currently three imaging spectrometer architectures, tunable filter, dispersive, and Fourier transform, are viable for imaging the universe in three dimensions. There are domains of greatest utility for each of these architectures. The optimum choice among the various alternative architectures is dependent on the nature of the desired observations, the maturity of the relevant technology, and the character of the backgrounds. The domain appropriate for each of the alternatives is delineated; both for instruments having ideal performance as well as for instrumentation based on currently available technology. The environment and science objectives for the Next Generation Space Telescope will be used as a specific representative case to provide a basis for comparison of the various alternatives.

  12. 3-D Imaging Based, Radiobiological Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Sgouros, George; Frey, Eric; Wahl, Richard; He, Bin; Prideaux, Andrew; Hobbs, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy holds promise as a new treatment against cancer. Advances in imaging are making it possible to evaluate the spatial distribution of radioactivity in tumors and normal organs over time. Matched anatomical imaging such as combined SPECT/CT and PET/CT have also made it possible to obtain tissue density information in conjunction with the radioactivity distribution. Coupled with sophisticated iterative reconstruction algorithims, these advances have made it possible to perform highly patient-specific dosimetry that also incorporates radiobiological modeling. Such sophisticated dosimetry techniques are still in the research investigation phase. Given the attendant logistical and financial costs, a demonstrated improvement in patient care will be a prerequisite for the adoption of such highly-patient specific internal dosimetry methods. PMID:18662554

  13. A 3D Level Set Method for Microwave Breast Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, Timothy J.; Hagness, Susan C.; Van Veen, Barry D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Conventional inverse-scattering algorithms for microwave breast imaging result in moderate resolution images with blurred boundaries between tissues. Recent 2D numerical microwave imaging studies demonstrate that the use of a level set method preserves dielectric boundaries, resulting in a more accurate, higher resolution reconstruction of the dielectric properties distribution. Previously proposed level set algorithms are computationally expensive and thus impractical in 3D. In this paper we present a computationally tractable 3D microwave imaging algorithm based on level sets. Methods We reduce the computational cost of the level set method using a Jacobian matrix, rather than an adjoint method, to calculate Frechet derivatives. We demonstrate the feasibility of 3D imaging using simulated array measurements from 3D numerical breast phantoms. We evaluate performance by comparing full 3D reconstructions to those from a conventional microwave imaging technique. We also quantitatively assess the efficacy of our algorithm in evaluating breast density. Results Our reconstructions of 3D numerical breast phantoms improve upon those of a conventional microwave imaging technique. The density estimates from our level set algorithm are more accurate than those of conventional microwave imaging, and the accuracy is greater than that reported for mammographic density estimation. Conclusion Our level set method leads to a feasible level of computational complexity for full 3D imaging, and reconstructs the heterogeneous dielectric properties distribution of the breast more accurately than conventional microwave imaging methods. Significance 3D microwave breast imaging using a level set method is a promising low-cost, non-ionizing alternative to current breast imaging techniques. PMID:26011863

  14. Acoustic 3D imaging of dental structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.K.; Hume, W.R.; Douglass, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    Our goals for the first year of this three dimensional electodynamic imaging project was to determine how to combine flexible, individual addressable; preprocessing of array source signals; spectral extrapolation or received signals; acoustic tomography codes; and acoustic propagation modeling code. We investigated flexible, individually addressable acoustic array material to find the best match in power, sensitivity and cost and settled on PVDF sheet arrays and 3-1 composite material.

  15. 3D/3D registration of coronary CTA and biplane XA reconstructions for improved image guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Dibildox, Gerardo Baka, Nora; Walsum, Theo van; Punt, Mark; Aben, Jean-Paul; Schultz, Carl; Niessen, Wiro

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The authors aim to improve image guidance during percutaneous coronary interventions of chronic total occlusions (CTO) by providing information obtained from computed tomography angiography (CTA) to the cardiac interventionist. To this end, the authors investigate a method to register a 3D CTA model to biplane reconstructions. Methods: The authors developed a method for registering preoperative coronary CTA with intraoperative biplane x-ray angiography (XA) images via 3D models of the coronary arteries. The models are extracted from the CTA and biplane XA images, and are temporally aligned based on CTA reconstruction phase and XA ECG signals. Rigid spatial alignment is achieved with a robust probabilistic point set registration approach using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). This approach is extended by including orientation in the Gaussian mixtures and by weighting bifurcation points. The method is evaluated on retrospectively acquired coronary CTA datasets of 23 CTO patients for which biplane XA images are available. Results: The Gaussian mixture model approach achieved a median registration accuracy of 1.7 mm. The extended GMM approach including orientation was not significantly different (P > 0.1) but did improve robustness with regards to the initialization of the 3D models. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the GMM approach can effectively be applied to register CTA to biplane XA images for the purpose of improving image guidance in percutaneous coronary interventions.

  16. Studying leukemia metastasis and therapy monitoring by in vivo imaging and flow cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xunbin; Li, Yan; Tan, Yuan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Yun; Liu, Guangda; Chen, Tong; Gu, Zhenqin; Wang, Guiying; Zhou, Zenghui; Wang, Li; Wang, Chen

    2007-11-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy agents are the foundation of current leukemia therapy. For a large number of adult and elderly patients, however, treatment options are poor. These patients may suffer from disease that is resistant to conventional chemotherapy or may not be candidates for curative therapies because of advanced age or poor medical conditions. To control disease in these patients, new therapies must be developed that are selectively targeted to unique characteristics of leukemic cell growth and metastasis. A large body of elegant work in the field of immunology has demonstrated the mechanisms whereby leukocytes traffic to specific sites within the body. Vascular cell adhesion molecules and chemicalattractants combine to direct white blood cells to appropriate environments. Although it has been hypothesized that leukemic white blood cells home to hematopoietic organs using mechanisms similar to those of their benign leukocyte counterparts, detailed study of leukemic cell transit through bone marrow has yet to be undertaken. We develop the "in vivo microscopy" to study the mechanisms that govern leukemic cell spread through the bone marrow microenvironment in vivo in real-time confocal infrared fluorescence imaging. A recently developed "in vivo flow cytometer" and optical imaging are used to assess leukemic cell spreading and the circulation kinetics of leukemic cells. A real- time quantitative monitoring of circulating leukemic cells by the in vivo flow cytometer will be useful to assess the effectiveness of the potential therapeutic interventions.

  17. Studying liver cancer metastasis by in vivo imaging and flow cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Gu, Zhengqin; Guo, Jin; Li, Yan; Liu, Guangda; Wei, Xunbin

    2009-11-01

    Primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, or HCC) is associated with liver cirrhosis 60-80% of the time. Liver cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world, with approximately 1,000,000 cases reported every year. About 80% of people with primary liver cancer are male. Although two-thirds of people have advanced liver disease when they seek medical help, one third of the patients have cancer that has not progressed beyond the liver. HCC may metastasize to the lung, bones, kidney, and many other organs. Surgical resection, liver transplantation, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundation of current HCC therapies. However the outcomes are poor: the survival rate is almost zero for metastatic HCC patients. Molecular mechanisms of HCC metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed to selectively target to unique characteristics of HCC cell growth and metastasis. We have developed the "in vivo microscopy" to study the mechanisms that govern liver tumor cell spread through the microenvironment in vivo with real-time confocal near-infrared fluorescence imaging. A recently developed "in vivo flow cytometer" and optical imaging are used to assess liver tumor cell spreading and the circulation kinetics of liver tumor cells. A real- time quantitative monitoring of circulating liver tumor cells by the in vivo flow cytometer will be useful to assess the effectiveness of the potential therapeutic interventions.

  18. Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    1 Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization David N. Ford...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization 5a...Manufacturing ( 3D printing ) 2 Research Context Problem: Learning curve savings forecasted in SHIPMAIN maintenance initiative have not materialized

  19. Morphometrics, 3D Imaging, and Craniofacial Development

    PubMed Central

    Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Percival, Christopher J.; Green, Rebecca; Young, Nathan M.; Mio, Washington; Marcucio, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown how volumetric imaging and morphometrics can add significantly to our understanding of morphogenesis, the developmental basis for variation and the etiology of structural birth defects. On the other hand, the complex questions and diverse imaging data in developmental biology present morphometrics with more complex challenges than applications in virtually any other field. Meeting these challenges is necessary in order to understand the mechanistic basis for variation in complex morphologies. This chapter reviews the methods and theory that enable the application of modern landmark-based morphometrics to developmental biology and craniofacial development, in particular. We discuss the theoretical foundations of morphometrics as applied to development and review the basic approaches to the quantification of morphology. Focusing on geometric morphometrics, we discuss the principal statistical methods for quantifying and comparing morphological variation and covariation structure within and among groups. Finally, we discuss the future directions for morphometrics in developmental biology that will be required for approaches that enable quantitative integration across the genotype-phenotype map. PMID:26589938

  20. 3D quantitative phase imaging of neural networks using WDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taewoo; Liu, S. C.; Iyer, Raj; Gillette, Martha U.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    White-light diffraction tomography (WDT) is a recently developed 3D imaging technique based on a quantitative phase imaging system called spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM). The technique has achieved a sub-micron resolution in all three directions with high sensitivity granted by the low-coherence of a white-light source. Demonstrations of the technique on single cell imaging have been presented previously; however, imaging on any larger sample, including a cluster of cells, has not been demonstrated using the technique. Neurons in an animal body form a highly complex and spatially organized 3D structure, which can be characterized by neuronal networks or circuits. Currently, the most common method of studying the 3D structure of neuron networks is by using a confocal fluorescence microscope, which requires fluorescence tagging with either transient membrane dyes or after fixation of the cells. Therefore, studies on neurons are often limited to samples that are chemically treated and/or dead. WDT presents a solution for imaging live neuron networks with a high spatial and temporal resolution, because it is a 3D imaging method that is label-free and non-invasive. Using this method, a mouse or rat hippocampal neuron culture and a mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron culture have been imaged in order to see the extension of processes between the cells in 3D. Furthermore, the tomogram is compared with a confocal fluorescence image in order to investigate the 3D structure at synapses.

  1. Accommodation response measurements for integral 3D image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiura, H.; Mishina, T.; Arai, J.; Iwadate, Y.

    2014-03-01

    We measured accommodation responses under integral photography (IP), binocular stereoscopic, and real object display conditions, and viewing conditions of binocular and monocular viewing conditions. The equipment we used was an optometric device and a 3D display. We developed the 3D display for IP and binocular stereoscopic images that comprises a high-resolution liquid crystal display (LCD) and a high-density lens array. The LCD has a resolution of 468 dpi and a diagonal size of 4.8 inches. The high-density lens array comprises 106 x 69 micro lenses that have a focal length of 3 mm and diameter of 1 mm. The lenses are arranged in a honeycomb pattern. The 3D display was positioned 60 cm from an observer under IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. The target was presented at eight depth positions relative to the 3D display: 15, 10, and 5 cm in front of the 3D display, on the 3D display panel, and 5, 10, 15 and 30 cm behind the 3D display under the IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. Under the real object display condition, the target was displayed on the 3D display panel, and the 3D display was placed at the eight positions. The results suggest that the IP image induced more natural accommodation responses compared to the binocular stereoscopic image. The accommodation responses of the IP image were weaker than those of a real object; however, they showed a similar tendency with those of the real object under the two viewing conditions. Therefore, IP can induce accommodation to the depth positions of 3D images.

  2. 3D Whole Heart Imaging for Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Greil, Gerald; Tandon, Animesh (Aashoo); Silva Vieira, Miguel; Hussain, Tarique

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) whole heart techniques form a cornerstone in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease (CHD). It offers significant advantages over other CHD imaging modalities and techniques: no ionizing radiation; ability to be run free-breathing; ECG-gated dual-phase imaging for accurate measurements and tissue properties estimation; and higher signal-to-noise ratio and isotropic voxel resolution for multiplanar reformatting assessment. However, there are limitations, such as potentially long acquisition times with image quality degradation. Recent advances in and current applications of 3D whole heart imaging in CHD are detailed, as well as future directions. PMID:28289674

  3. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  4. A colour image reproduction framework for 3D colour printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Kaida; Sohiab, Ali; Sun, Pei-li; Yates, Julian M.; Li, Changjun; Wuerger, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the current technologies in full colour 3D printing technology were introduced. A framework of colour image reproduction process for 3D colour printing is proposed. A special focus was put on colour management for 3D printed objects. Two approaches, colorimetric colour reproduction and spectral based colour reproduction are proposed in order to faithfully reproduce colours in 3D objects. Two key studies, colour reproduction for soft tissue prostheses and colour uniformity correction across different orientations are described subsequently. Results are clear shown that applying proposed colour image reproduction framework, performance of colour reproduction can be significantly enhanced. With post colour corrections, a further improvement in colour process are achieved for 3D printed objects.

  5. Imaging fault zones using 3D seismic image processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacopini, David; Butler, Rob; Purves, Steve

    2013-04-01

    Significant advances in structural analysis of deep water structure, salt tectonic and extensional rift basin come from the descriptions of fault system geometries imaged in 3D seismic data. However, even where seismic data are excellent, in most cases the trajectory of thrust faults is highly conjectural and still significant uncertainty exists as to the patterns of deformation that develop between the main faults segments, and even of the fault architectures themselves. Moreover structural interpretations that conventionally define faults by breaks and apparent offsets of seismic reflectors are commonly conditioned by a narrow range of theoretical models of fault behavior. For example, almost all interpretations of thrust geometries on seismic data rely on theoretical "end-member" behaviors where concepts as strain localization or multilayer mechanics are simply avoided. Yet analogue outcrop studies confirm that such descriptions are commonly unsatisfactory and incomplete. In order to fill these gaps and improve the 3D visualization of deformation in the subsurface, seismic attribute methods are developed here in conjunction with conventional mapping of reflector amplitudes (Marfurt & Chopra, 2007)). These signal processing techniques recently developed and applied especially by the oil industry use variations in the amplitude and phase of the seismic wavelet. These seismic attributes improve the signal interpretation and are calculated and applied to the entire 3D seismic dataset. In this contribution we will show 3D seismic examples of fault structures from gravity-driven deep-water thrust structures and extensional basin systems to indicate how 3D seismic image processing methods can not only build better the geometrical interpretations of the faults but also begin to map both strain and damage through amplitude/phase properties of the seismic signal. This is done by quantifying and delineating the short-range anomalies on the intensity of reflector amplitudes

  6. Digital holography and 3D imaging: introduction to feature issue.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung K; Hayasaki, Yoshio; Picart, Pascal; Rosen, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This feature issue of Applied Optics on Digital Holography and 3D Imaging is the sixth of an approximately annual series. Forty-seven papers are presented, covering a wide range of topics in phase-shifting methods, low coherence methods, particle analysis, biomedical imaging, computer-generated holograms, integral imaging, and many others.

  7. Optical 3D watermark based digital image watermarking for telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao Wei; Kim, Seok Tae

    2013-12-01

    Region of interest (ROI) of a medical image is an area including important diagnostic information and must be stored without any distortion. This algorithm for application of watermarking technique for non-ROI of the medical image preserving ROI. The paper presents a 3D watermark based medical image watermarking scheme. In this paper, a 3D watermark object is first decomposed into 2D elemental image array (EIA) by a lenslet array, and then the 2D elemental image array data is embedded into the host image. The watermark extraction process is an inverse process of embedding. The extracted EIA through the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique, the 3D watermark can be reconstructed. Because the EIA is composed of a number of elemental images possesses their own perspectives of a 3D watermark object. Even though the embedded watermark data badly damaged, the 3D virtual watermark can be successfully reconstructed. Furthermore, using CAT with various rule number parameters, it is possible to get many channels for embedding. So our method can recover the weak point having only one transform plane in traditional watermarking methods. The effectiveness of the proposed watermarking scheme is demonstrated with the aid of experimental results.

  8. Progresses in 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Navarro, Héctor; Pons, Amparo; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-11-01

    Integral imaging is a promising technique for the acquisition and auto-stereoscopic display of 3D scenes with full parallax and without the need of any additional devices like special glasses. First suggested by Lippmann in the beginning of the 20th century, integral imaging is based in the intersection of ray cones emitted by a collection of 2D elemental images which store the 3D information of the scene. This paper is devoted to the study, from the ray optics point of view, of the optical effects and interaction with the observer of integral imaging systems.

  9. DCT and DST Based Image Compression for 3D Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddeq, Mohammed M.; Rodrigues, Marcos A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces a new method for 2D image compression whose quality is demonstrated through accurate 3D reconstruction using structured light techniques and 3D reconstruction from multiple viewpoints. The method is based on two discrete transforms: (1) A one-dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is applied to each row of the image. (2) The output from the previous step is transformed again by a one-dimensional Discrete Sine Transform (DST), which is applied to each column of data generating new sets of high-frequency components followed by quantization of the higher frequencies. The output is then divided into two parts where the low-frequency components are compressed by arithmetic coding and the high frequency ones by an efficient minimization encoding algorithm. At decompression stage, a binary search algorithm is used to recover the original high frequency components. The technique is demonstrated by compressing 2D images up to 99% compression ratio. The decompressed images, which include images with structured light patterns for 3D reconstruction and from multiple viewpoints, are of high perceptual quality yielding accurate 3D reconstruction. Perceptual assessment and objective quality of compression are compared with JPEG and JPEG2000 through 2D and 3D RMSE. Results show that the proposed compression method is superior to both JPEG and JPEG2000 concerning 3D reconstruction, and with equivalent perceptual quality to JPEG2000.

  10. 3D Subharmonic Ultrasound Imaging In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbrey, John R.; Sridharan, Anush; Machado, Priscilla; Zhao, Hongjia; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G.; Dave, Jaydev K.; Liu, Ji-Bin; Park, Suhyun; Dianis, Scott; Wallace, Kirk; Thomenius, Kai E.; Forsberg, F.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives While contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging techniques such as harmonic imaging (HI) have evolved to reduce tissue signals using the nonlinear properties of the contrast agent, levels of background suppression have been mixed. Subharmonic imaging (SHI) offers near-complete tissue suppression by centering the receive bandwidth at half the transmitting frequency. In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of 3D SHI and compare it to 3D HI. Materials and Methods 3D HI and SHI were implemented on a Logiq 9 ultrasound scanner (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, Wisconsin) with a 4D10L probe. Four-cycle SHI was implemented to transmit at 5.8 MHz and receive at 2.9 MHz, while 2-cycle HI was implemented to transmit at 5 MHz and receive at 10 MHz. The ultrasound contrast agent Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, North Billerica, MA) was imaged within a flow phantom and the lower pole of two canine kidneys in both HI and SHI modes. Contrast to tissue ratios (CTR) and rendered images were compared offline. Results SHI resulted in significant improvement in CTR levels relative to HI both in vitro (12.11±0.52 vs. 2.67±0.77, p<0.001) and in vivo (5.74±1.92 vs. 2.40±0.48, p=0.04). Rendered 3D SHI images provided better tissue suppression and a greater overall view of vessels in a flow phantom and canine renal vasculature. Conclusions The successful implementation of SHI in 3D allows imaging of vascular networks over a heterogeneous sample volume and should improve future diagnostic accuracy. Additionally, 3D SHI provides improved CTR values relative to 3D HI. PMID:22464198

  11. Low Dose, Low Energy 3d Image Guidance during Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. J.; Marchant, T.; Amer, A.; Sharrock, P.; Price, P.; Burton, D.

    2006-04-01

    Patient kilo-voltage X-ray cone beam volumetric imaging for radiotherapy was first demonstrated on an Elekta Synergy mega-voltage X-ray linear accelerator. Subsequently low dose, reduced profile reconstruction imaging was shown to be practical for 3D geometric setup registration to pre-treatment planning images without compromising registration accuracy. Reconstruction from X-ray profiles gathered between treatment beam deliveries was also introduced. The innovation of zonal cone beam imaging promises significantly reduced doses to patients and improved soft tissue contrast in the tumour target zone. These developments coincided with the first dynamic 3D monitoring of continuous body topology changes in patients, at the moment of irradiation, using a laser interferometer. They signal the arrival of low dose, low energy 3D image guidance during radiotherapy itself.

  12. Accelerated 3D catheter visualization from triplanar MR projection images.

    PubMed

    Schirra, Carsten Oliver; Weiss, Steffen; Krueger, Sascha; Caulfield, Denis; Pedersen, Steen F; Razavi, Reza; Kozerke, Sebastian; Schaeffter, Tobias

    2010-07-01

    One major obstacle for MR-guided catheterizations is long acquisition times associated with visualizing interventional devices. Therefore, most techniques presented hitherto rely on single-plane imaging to visualize the catheter. Recently, accelerated three-dimensional (3D) imaging based on compressed sensing has been proposed to reduce acquisition times. However, frame rates with this technique remain low, and the 3D reconstruction problem yields a considerable computational load. In X-ray angiography, it is well understood that the shape of interventional devices can be derived in 3D space from a limited number of projection images. In this work, this fact is exploited to develop a method for 3D visualization of active catheters from multiplanar two-dimensional (2D) projection MR images. This is favorable to 3D MRI as the overall number of acquired profiles, and consequently the acquisition time, is reduced. To further reduce measurement times, compressed sensing is employed. Furthermore, a novel single-channel catheter design is presented that combines a solenoidal tip coil in series with a single-loop antenna, enabling simultaneous tip tracking and shape visualization. The tracked tip and catheter properties provide constraints for compressed sensing reconstruction and subsequent 2D/3D curve fitting. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated in phantoms and in an in vivo pig experiment.

  13. Prostate Mechanical Imaging: 3-D Image Composition and Feature Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Egorov, Vladimir; Ayrapetyan, Suren; Sarvazyan, Armen P.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a method and a device entitled prostate mechanical imager (PMI) for the real-time imaging of prostate using a transrectal probe equipped with a pressure sensor array and position tracking sensor. PMI operation is based on measurement of the stress pattern on the rectal wall when the probe is pressed against the prostate. Temporal and spatial changes in the stress pattern provide information on the elastic structure of the gland and allow two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of prostate anatomy and assessment of prostate mechanical properties. The data acquired allow the calculation of prostate features such as size, shape, nodularity, consistency/hardness, and mobility. The PMI prototype has been validated in laboratory experiments on prostate phantoms and in a clinical study. The results obtained on model systems and in vivo images from patients prove that PMI has potential to become a diagnostic tool that could largely supplant DRE through its higher sensitivity, quantitative record storage, ease-of-use and inherent low cost. PMID:17024836

  14. Exposing digital image forgeries by 3D reconstruction technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Xu, Xiaojing; Li, Zhihui; Liu, Haizhen; Li, Zhigang; Huang, Wei

    2009-11-01

    Digital images are easy to tamper and edit due to availability of powerful image processing and editing software. Especially, forged images by taking from a picture of scene, because of no manipulation was made after taking, usual methods, such as digital watermarks, statistical correlation technology, can hardly detect the traces of image tampering. According to image forgery characteristics, a method, based on 3D reconstruction technology, which detect the forgeries by discriminating the dimensional relationship of each object appeared on image, is presented in this paper. This detection method includes three steps. In the first step, all the parameters of images were calibrated and each crucial object on image was chosen and matched. In the second step, the 3D coordinates of each object were calculated by bundle adjustment. In final step, the dimensional relationship of each object was analyzed. Experiments were designed to test this detection method; the 3D reconstruction and the forged image 3D reconstruction were computed independently. Test results show that the fabricating character in digital forgeries can be identified intuitively by this method.

  15. Building 3D scenes from 2D image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, Paul D.

    2006-05-01

    Sequences of 2D images, taken by a single moving video receptor, can be fused to generate a 3D representation. This dynamic stereopsis exists in birds and reptiles, whereas the static binocular stereopsis is common in mammals, including humans. Most multimedia computer vision systems for stereo image capture, transmission, processing, storage and retrieval are based on the concept of binocularity. As a consequence, their main goal is to acquire, conserve and enhance pairs of 2D images able to generate a 3D visual perception in a human observer. Stereo vision in birds is based on the fusion of images captured by each eye, with previously acquired and memorized images from the same eye. The process goes on simultaneously and conjointly for both eyes and generates an almost complete all-around visual field. As a consequence, the baseline distance is no longer fixed, as in the case of binocular 3D view, but adjustable in accordance with the distance to the object of main interest, allowing a controllable depth effect. Moreover, the synthesized 3D scene can have a better resolution than each individual 2D image in the sequence. Compression of 3D scenes can be achieved, and stereo transmissions with lower bandwidth requirements can be developed.

  16. 3D thermography imaging standardization technique for inflammation diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Xiangyang; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Siebert, J. Paul

    2005-01-01

    We develop a 3D thermography imaging standardization technique to allow quantitative data analysis. Medical Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging is very sensitive and reliable mean of graphically mapping and display skin surface temperature. It allows doctors to visualise in colour and quantify temperature changes in skin surface. The spectrum of colours indicates both hot and cold responses which may co-exist if the pain associate with an inflammatory focus excites an increase in sympathetic activity. However, due to thermograph provides only qualitative diagnosis information, it has not gained acceptance in the medical and veterinary communities as a necessary or effective tool in inflammation and tumor detection. Here, our technique is based on the combination of visual 3D imaging technique and thermal imaging technique, which maps the 2D thermography images on to 3D anatomical model. Then we rectify the 3D thermogram into a view independent thermogram and conform it a standard shape template. The combination of these imaging facilities allows the generation of combined 3D and thermal data from which thermal signatures can be quantified.

  17. A 3D surface imaging system for assessing human obesity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, B.; Yu, W.; Yao, M.; Yao, X.; Li, Q.; Pepper, M. R.; Freeland-Graves, J. H.

    2009-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity suggests a need to develop a convenient, reliable and economical tool for assessment of this condition. Three-dimensional (3D) body surface imaging has emerged as an exciting technology for estimation of body composition. This paper presents a new 3D body imaging system, which was designed for enhanced portability, affordability, and functionality. In this system, stereo vision technology was used to satisfy the requirements for a simple hardware setup and fast image acquisitions. The portability of the system was created via a two-stand configuration, and the accuracy of body volume measurements was improved by customizing stereo matching and surface reconstruction algorithms that target specific problems in 3D body imaging. Body measurement functions dedicated to body composition assessment also were developed. The overall performance of the system was evaluated in human subjects by comparison to other conventional anthropometric methods, as well as air displacement plethysmography, for body fat assessment.

  18. Visualization and analysis of 3D microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Long, Fuhui; Zhou, Jianlong; Peng, Hanchuan

    2012-01-01

    In a wide range of biological studies, it is highly desirable to visualize and analyze three-dimensional (3D) microscopic images. In this primer, we first introduce several major methods for visualizing typical 3D images and related multi-scale, multi-time-point, multi-color data sets. Then, we discuss three key categories of image analysis tasks, namely segmentation, registration, and annotation. We demonstrate how to pipeline these visualization and analysis modules using examples of profiling the single-cell gene-expression of C. elegans and constructing a map of stereotyped neurite tracts in a fruit fly brain.

  19. Visualization and Analysis of 3D Microscopic Images

    PubMed Central

    Long, Fuhui; Zhou, Jianlong; Peng, Hanchuan

    2012-01-01

    In a wide range of biological studies, it is highly desirable to visualize and analyze three-dimensional (3D) microscopic images. In this primer, we first introduce several major methods for visualizing typical 3D images and related multi-scale, multi-time-point, multi-color data sets. Then, we discuss three key categories of image analysis tasks, namely segmentation, registration, and annotation. We demonstrate how to pipeline these visualization and analysis modules using examples of profiling the single-cell gene-expression of C. elegans and constructing a map of stereotyped neurite tracts in a fruit fly brain. PMID:22719236

  20. 3D Image Reconstruction: Determination of Pattern Orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenbecler, Richard

    2003-03-13

    The problem of determining the euler angles of a randomly oriented 3-D object from its 2-D Fraunhofer diffraction patterns is discussed. This problem arises in the reconstruction of a positive semi-definite 3-D object using oversampling techniques. In such a problem, the data consists of a measured set of magnitudes from 2-D tomographic images of the object at several unknown orientations. After the orientation angles are determined, the object itself can then be reconstructed by a variety of methods using oversampling, the magnitude data from the 2-D images, physical constraints on the image and then iteration to determine the phases.

  1. Accuracy of 3D Imaging Software in Cephalometric Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-21

    Imaging and Communication in Medicine ( DICOM ) files into personal computer-based software to enable 3D reconstruction of the craniofacial skeleton. These...tissue profile. CBCT data can be imported as DICOM files into personal computer–based software to provide 3D reconstruction of the craniofacial...been acquired for the three pig models. The CBCT data were exported into DICOM multi-file format. They will be imported into a proprietary

  2. 3D Image Display Courses for Information Media Students.

    PubMed

    Yanaka, Kazuhisa; Yamanouchi, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional displays are used extensively in movies and games. These displays are also essential in mixed reality, where virtual and real spaces overlap. Therefore, engineers and creators should be trained to master 3D display technologies. For this reason, the Department of Information Media at the Kanagawa Institute of Technology has launched two 3D image display courses specifically designed for students who aim to become information media engineers and creators.

  3. 3D image analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasic, Marko; Loncaric, Sven; Sorantin, Erich

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we propose a technique for 3-D segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) from computed tomography angiography (CTA) images. Output data (3-D model) form the proposed method can be used for measurement of aortic shape and dimensions. Knowledge of aortic shape and size is very important in planning of minimally invasive procedure that is for selection of appropriate stent graft device for treatment of AAA. The technique is based on a 3-D deformable model and utilizes the level-set algorithm for implementation of the method. The method performs 3-D segmentation of CTA images and extracts a 3-D model of aortic wall. Once the 3-D model of aortic wall is available it is easy to perform all required measurements for appropriate stent graft selection. The method proposed in this paper uses the level-set algorithm for deformable models, instead of the classical snake algorithm. The main advantage of the level set algorithm is that it enables easy segmentation of complex structures, surpassing most of the drawbacks of the classical approach. We have extended the deformable model to incorporate the a priori knowledge about the shape of the AAA. This helps direct the evolution of the deformable model to correctly segment the aorta. The algorithm has been implemented in IDL and C languages. Experiments have been performed using real patient CTA images and have shown good results.

  4. Gastric Contraction Imaging System Using a 3-D Endoscope.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Watabe, Kenji; Takeda, Maki; Nishimura, Takahiro; Kido, Michiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Nishida, Tsutomu; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a gastric contraction imaging system for assessment of gastric motility using a 3-D endoscope. Gastrointestinal diseases are mainly based on morphological abnormalities. However, gastrointestinal symptoms are sometimes apparent without visible abnormalities. One of the major factors for these diseases is abnormal gastrointestinal motility. For assessment of gastric motility, a gastric motility imaging system is needed. To assess the dynamic motility of the stomach, the proposed system measures 3-D gastric contractions derived from a 3-D profile of the stomach wall obtained with a developed 3-D endoscope. After obtaining contraction waves, their frequency, amplitude, and speed of propagation can be calculated using a Gaussian function. The proposed system was evaluated for 3-D measurements of several objects with known geometries. The results showed that the surface profiles could be obtained with an error of [Formula: see text] of the distance between two different points on images. Subsequently, we evaluated the validity of a prototype system using a wave simulated model. In the experiment, the amplitude and position of waves could be measured with 1-mm accuracy. The present results suggest that the proposed system can measure the speed and amplitude of contractions. This system has low invasiveness and can assess the motility of the stomach wall directly in a 3-D manner. Our method can be used for examination of gastric morphological and functional abnormalities.

  5. 2D/3D Image Registration using Regression Learning

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chen-Rui; Frederick, Brandon; Mageras, Gig; Chang, Sha; Pizer, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In computer vision and image analysis, image registration between 2D projections and a 3D image that achieves high accuracy and near real-time computation is challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel method that can rapidly detect an object’s 3D rigid motion or deformation from a 2D projection image or a small set thereof. The method is called CLARET (Correction via Limited-Angle Residues in External Beam Therapy) and consists of two stages: registration preceded by shape space and regression learning. In the registration stage, linear operators are used to iteratively estimate the motion/deformation parameters based on the current intensity residue between the target projec-tion(s) and the digitally reconstructed radiograph(s) (DRRs) of the estimated 3D image. The method determines the linear operators via a two-step learning process. First, it builds a low-order parametric model of the image region’s motion/deformation shape space from its prior 3D images. Second, using learning-time samples produced from the 3D images, it formulates the relationships between the model parameters and the co-varying 2D projection intensity residues by multi-scale linear regressions. The calculated multi-scale regression matrices yield the coarse-to-fine linear operators used in estimating the model parameters from the 2D projection intensity residues in the registration. The method’s application to Image-guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) requires only a few seconds and yields good results in localizing a tumor under rigid motion in the head and neck and under respiratory deformation in the lung, using one treatment-time imaging 2D projection or a small set thereof. PMID:24058278

  6. 3D image analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasic, Marko; Loncaric, Sven; Sorantin, Erich

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a method for 3-D segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm from computed tomography angiography images. The proposed method is automatic and requires minimal user assistance. Segmentation is performed in two steps. First inner and then outer aortic border is segmented. Those two steps are different due to different image conditions on two aortic borders. Outputs of these two segmentations give a complete 3-D model of abdominal aorta. Such a 3-D model is used in measurements of aneurysm area. The deformable model is implemented using the level-set algorithm due to its ability to describe complex shapes in natural manner which frequently occur in pathology. In segmentation of outer aortic boundary we introduced some knowledge based preprocessing to enhance and reconstruct low contrast aortic boundary. The method has been implemented in IDL and C languages. Experiments have been performed using real patient CTA images and have shown good results.

  7. 3D quantitative analysis of brain SPECT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loncaric, Sven; Ceskovic, Ivan; Petrovic, Ratimir; Loncaric, Srecko

    2001-07-01

    The main purpose of this work is to develop a computer-based technique for quantitative analysis of 3-D brain images obtained by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In particular, the volume and location of ischemic lesion and penumbra is important for early diagnosis and treatment of infracted regions of the brain. SPECT imaging is typically used as diagnostic tool to assess the size and location of the ischemic lesion. The segmentation method presented in this paper utilizes a 3-D deformable model in order to determine size and location of the regions of interest. The evolution of the model is computed using a level-set implementation of the algorithm. In addition to 3-D deformable model the method utilizes edge detection and region growing for realization of a pre-processing. Initial experimental results have shown that the method is useful for SPECT image analysis.

  8. Computerized analysis of pelvic incidence from 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaž; Janssen, Michiel M. A.; Pernuš, Franjo; Castelein, René M.; Viergever, Max A.

    2012-02-01

    The sagittal alignment of the pelvis can be evaluated by the angle of pelvic incidence (PI), which is constant for an arbitrary subject position and orientation and can be therefore compared among subjects in standing, sitting or supine position. In this study, PI was measured from three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images of normal subjects that were acquired in supine position. A novel computerized method, based on image processing techniques, was developed to automatically determine the anatomical references required to measure PI, i.e. the centers of the femoral heads in 3D, and the center and inclination of the sacral endplate in 3D. Multiplanar image reformation was applied to obtain perfect sagittal views with all anatomical structures completely in line with the hip axis, from which PI was calculated. The resulting PI (mean+/-standard deviation) was equal to 46.6°+/-9.2° for male subjects (N = 189), 47.6°+/-10.7° for female subjects (N = 181), and 47.1°+/-10.0° for all subjects (N = 370). The obtained measurements of PI from 3D images were not biased by acquisition projection or structure orientation, because all anatomical structures were completely in line with the hip axis. The performed measurements in 3D therefore represent PI according to the actual geometrical relationships among anatomical structures of the sacrum, pelvis and hips, as observed from the perfect sagittal views.

  9. Interactive visualization of multiresolution image stacks in 3D.

    PubMed

    Trotts, Issac; Mikula, Shawn; Jones, Edward G

    2007-04-15

    Conventional microscopy, electron microscopy, and imaging techniques such as MRI and PET commonly generate large stacks of images of the sectioned brain. In other domains, such as neurophysiology, variables such as space or time are also varied along a stack axis. Digital image sizes have been progressively increasing and in virtual microscopy, it is now common to work with individual image sizes that are several hundred megapixels and several gigabytes in size. The interactive visualization of these high-resolution, multiresolution images in 2D has been addressed previously [Sullivan, G., and Baker, R., 1994. Efficient quad-tree coding of images and video. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 3 (3), 327-331]. Here, we describe a method for interactive visualization of multiresolution image stacks in 3D. The method, characterized as quad-tree based multiresolution image stack interactive visualization using a texel projection based criterion, relies on accessing and projecting image tiles from multiresolution image stacks in such a way that, from the observer's perspective, image tiles all appear approximately the same size even though they are accessed from different tiers within the images comprising the stack. This method enables efficient navigation of high-resolution image stacks. We implement this method in a program called StackVis, which is a Windows-based, interactive 3D multiresolution image stack visualization system written in C++ and using OpenGL. It is freely available at http://brainmaps.org.

  10. Episcopic 3D Imaging Methods: Tools for Researching Gene Function

    PubMed Central

    Weninger, Wolfgang J; Geyer, Stefan H

    2008-01-01

    This work aims at describing episcopic 3D imaging methods and at discussing how these methods can contribute to researching the genetic mechanisms driving embryogenesis and tissue remodelling, and the genesis of pathologies. Several episcopic 3D imaging methods exist. The most advanced are capable of generating high-resolution volume data (voxel sizes from 0.5x0.5x1 µm upwards) of small to large embryos of model organisms and tissue samples. Beside anatomy and tissue architecture, gene expression and gene product patterns can be three dimensionally analyzed in their precise anatomical and histological context with the aid of whole mount in situ hybridization or whole mount immunohistochemical staining techniques. Episcopic 3D imaging techniques were and are employed for analyzing the precise morphological phenotype of experimentally malformed, randomly produced, or genetically engineered embryos of biomedical model organisms. It has been shown that episcopic 3D imaging also fits for describing the spatial distribution of genes and gene products during embryogenesis, and that it can be used for analyzing tissue samples of adult model animals and humans. The latter offers the possibility to use episcopic 3D imaging techniques for researching the causality and treatment of pathologies or for staging cancer. Such applications, however, are not yet routine and currently only preliminary results are available. We conclude that, although episcopic 3D imaging is in its very beginnings, it represents an upcoming methodology, which in short terms will become an indispensable tool for researching the genetic regulation of embryo development as well as the genesis of malformations and diseases. PMID:19452045

  11. Proposed traceable structural resolution protocols for 3D imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, David; Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Cournoyer, Luc; Carrier, Benjamin; Blais, François

    2009-08-01

    A protocol for determining structural resolution using a potentially-traceable reference material is proposed. Where possible, terminology was selected to conform to those published in ISO JCGM 200:2008 (VIM) and ASTM E 2544-08 documents. The concepts of resolvability and edge width are introduced to more completely describe the ability of an optical non-contact 3D imaging system to resolve small features. A distinction is made between 3D range cameras, that obtain spatial data from the total field of view at once, and 3D range scanners, that accumulate spatial data for the total field of view over time. The protocol is presented through the evaluation of a 3D laser line range scanner.

  12. Image quality enhancement and computation acceleration of 3D holographic display using a symmetrical 3D GS algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Bi, Yong; Sun, Minyuan; Wang, Hao; Li, Fang; Qi, Yan

    2014-09-20

    The 3D Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm can be used to compute a computer-generated hologram (CGH) to produce a 3D holographic display. But, using the 3D GS method, there exists a serious distortion in reconstructions of binary input images. We have eliminated the distortion and improved the image quality of the reconstructions by a maximum of 486%, using a symmetrical 3D GS algorithm that is developed based on a traditional 3D GS algorithm. In addition, the hologram computation speed has been accelerated by 9.28 times, which is significant for real-time holographic displays.

  13. Efficiency analysis for 3D filtering of multichannel images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhemiakin, Ruslan A.; Rubel, Oleksii; Abramov, Sergey K.; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Vozel, Benoit; Chehdi, Kacem

    2016-10-01

    Modern remote sensing systems basically acquire images that are multichannel (dual- or multi-polarization, multi- and hyperspectral) where noise, usually with different characteristics, is present in all components. If noise is intensive, it is desirable to remove (suppress) it before applying methods of image classification, interpreting, and information extraction. This can be done using one of two approaches - by component-wise or by vectorial (3D) filtering. The second approach has shown itself to have higher efficiency if there is essential correlation between multichannel image components as this often happens for multichannel remote sensing data of different origin. Within the class of 3D filtering techniques, there are many possibilities and variations. In this paper, we consider filtering based on discrete cosine transform (DCT) and pay attention to two aspects of processing. First, we study in detail what changes in DCT coefficient statistics take place for 3D denoising compared to component-wise processing. Second, we analyze how selection of component images united into 3D data array influences efficiency of filtering and can the observed tendencies be exploited in processing of images with rather large number of channels.

  14. 3D EFT imaging with planar electrode array: Numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuykin, T.; Korjenevsky, A.

    2010-04-01

    Electric field tomography (EFT) is the new modality of the quasistatic electromagnetic sounding of conductive media recently investigated theoretically and realized experimentally. The demonstrated results pertain to 2D imaging with circular or linear arrays of electrodes (and the linear array provides quite poor quality of imaging). In many applications 3D imaging is essential or can increase value of the investigation significantly. In this report we present the first results of numerical simulation of the EFT imaging system with planar array of electrodes which allows 3D visualization of the subsurface conductivity distribution. The geometry of the system is similar to the geometry of our EIT breast imaging system providing 3D conductivity imaging in form of cross-sections set with different depth from the surface. The EFT principle of operation and reconstruction approach differs from the EIT system significantly. So the results of numerical simulation are important to estimate if comparable quality of imaging is possible with the new contactless method. The EFT forward problem is solved using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for the 8×8 square electrodes array. The calculated results of measurements are used then to reconstruct conductivity distributions by the filtered backprojections along electric field lines. The reconstructed images of the simple test objects are presented.

  15. 3-D Display Of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Of The Spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Alan C.; Kim, Yongmin; Haralick, Robert M.; Anderson, Paul A.; Johnson, Roger H.; DeSoto, Larry A.

    1988-06-01

    The original data is produced through standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures with a surface coil applied to the lower back of a normal human subject. The 3-D spine image data consists of twenty-six contiguous slices with 256 x 256 pixels per slice. Two methods for visualization of the 3-D spine are explored. One method utilizes a verifocal mirror system which creates a true 3-D virtual picture of the object. Another method uses a standard high resolution monitor to simultaneously show the three orthogonal sections which intersect at any user-selected point within the object volume. We discuss the application of these systems in assessment of low back pain.

  16. Automated curved planar reformation of 3D spine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2005-10-01

    Traditional techniques for visualizing anatomical structures are based on planar cross-sections from volume images, such as images obtained by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, planar cross-sections taken in the coordinate system of the 3D image often do not provide sufficient or qualitative enough diagnostic information, because planar cross-sections cannot follow curved anatomical structures (e.g. arteries, colon, spine, etc). Therefore, not all of the important details can be shown simultaneously in any planar cross-section. To overcome this problem, reformatted images in the coordinate system of the inspected structure must be created. This operation is usually referred to as curved planar reformation (CPR). In this paper we propose an automated method for CPR of 3D spine images, which is based on the image transformation from the standard image-based to a novel spine-based coordinate system. The axes of the proposed spine-based coordinate system are determined on the curve that represents the vertebral column, and the rotation of the vertebrae around the spine curve, both of which are described by polynomial models. The optimal polynomial parameters are obtained in an image analysis based optimization framework. The proposed method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on five CT spine images. The method performed well on both normal and pathological cases and was consistent with manually obtained ground truth data. The proposed spine-based CPR benefits from reduced structural complexity in favour of improved feature perception of the spine. The reformatted images are diagnostically valuable and enable easier navigation, manipulation and orientation in 3D space. Moreover, reformatted images may prove useful for segmentation and other image analysis tasks.

  17. 3D imaging lidar for lunar robotic exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Marwan W.; Tripp, Jeffrey W.

    2009-05-01

    Part of the requirements of the future Constellation program is to optimize lunar surface operations and reduce hazards to astronauts. Toward this end, many robotic platforms, rovers in specific, are being sought to carry out a multitude of missions involving potential EVA sites survey, surface reconnaissance, path planning and obstacle detection and classification. 3D imaging lidar technology provides an enabling capability that allows fast, accurate and detailed collection of three-dimensional information about the rover's environment. The lidar images the region of interest by scanning a laser beam and measuring the pulse time-of-flight and the bearing. The accumulated set of laser ranges and bearings constitutes the threedimensional image. As part of the ongoing NASA Ames research center activities in lunar robotics, the utility of 3D imaging lidar was evaluated by testing Optech's ILRIS-3D lidar on board the K-10 Red rover during the recent Human - Robotics Systems (HRS) field trails in Lake Moses, WA. This paper examines the results of the ILRIS-3D trials, presents the data obtained and discusses its application in lunar surface robotic surveying and scouting.

  18. 3D FaceCam: a fast and accurate 3D facial imaging device for biometrics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jason; Zhuang, Ping; May, Patrick; Yi, Steven; Tunnell, David

    2004-08-01

    Human faces are fundamentally three-dimensional (3D) objects, and each face has its unique 3D geometric profile. The 3D geometric features of a human face can be used, together with its 2D texture, for rapid and accurate face recognition purposes. Due to the lack of low-cost and robust 3D sensors and effective 3D facial recognition (FR) algorithms, almost all existing FR systems use 2D face images. Genex has developed 3D solutions that overcome the inherent problems in 2D while also addressing limitations in other 3D alternatives. One important aspect of our solution is a unique 3D camera (the 3D FaceCam) that combines multiple imaging sensors within a single compact device to provide instantaneous, ear-to-ear coverage of a human face. This 3D camera uses three high-resolution CCD sensors and a color encoded pattern projection system. The RGB color information from each pixel is used to compute the range data and generate an accurate 3D surface map. The imaging system uses no moving parts and combines multiple 3D views to provide detailed and complete 3D coverage of the entire face. Images are captured within a fraction of a second and full-frame 3D data is produced within a few seconds. This described method provides much better data coverage and accuracy in feature areas with sharp features or details (such as the nose and eyes). Using this 3D data, we have been able to demonstrate that a 3D approach can significantly improve the performance of facial recognition. We have conducted tests in which we have varied the lighting conditions and angle of image acquisition in the "field." These tests have shown that the matching results are significantly improved when enrolling a 3D image rather than a single 2D image. With its 3D solutions, Genex is working toward unlocking the promise of powerful 3D FR and transferring FR from a lab technology into a real-world biometric solution.

  19. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

    2014-03-01

    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  20. Practical pseudo-3D registration for large tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan; Laperre, Kjell; Sasov, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Image registration is a powerful tool in various tomographic applications. Our main focus is on microCT applications in which samples/animals can be scanned multiple times under different conditions or at different time points. For this purpose, a registration tool capable of handling fairly large volumes has been developed, using a novel pseudo-3D method to achieve fast and interactive registration with simultaneous 3D visualization. To reduce computation complexity in 3D registration, we decompose it into several 2D registrations, which are applied to the orthogonal views (transaxial, sagittal and coronal) sequentially and iteratively. After registration in each view, the next view is retrieved with the new transformation matrix for registration. This reduces the computation complexity significantly. For rigid transform, we only need to search for 3 parameters (2 shifts, 1 rotation) in each of the 3 orthogonal views instead of 6 (3 shifts, 3 rotations) for full 3D volume. In addition, the amount of voxels involved is also significantly reduced. For the proposed pseudo-3D method, image-based registration is employed, with Sum of Square Difference (SSD) as the similarity measure. The searching engine is Powell's conjugate direction method. In this paper, only rigid transform is used. However, it can be extended to affine transform by adding scaling and possibly shearing to the transform model. We have noticed that more information can be used in the 2D registration if Maximum Intensity Projections (MIP) or Parallel Projections (PP) is used instead of the orthogonal views. Also, other similarity measures, such as covariance or mutual information, can be easily incorporated. The initial evaluation on microCT data shows very promising results. Two application examples are shown: dental samples before and after treatment and structural changes in materials before and after compression. Evaluation on registration accuracy between pseudo-3D method and true 3D method has

  1. Optimizing 3D image quality and performance for stereoscopic gaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Julien; Sanderson, Hugh; Pegg, Steven; Kwok, Simon; Paterson, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    The successful introduction of stereoscopic TV systems, such as Samsung's 3D Ready Plasma, requires high quality 3D content to be commercially available to the consumer. Console and PC games provide the most readily accessible source of high quality 3D content. This paper describes innovative developments in a generic, PC-based game driver architecture that addresses the two key issues affecting 3D gaming: quality and speed. At the heart of the quality issue are the same considerations that studios face producing stereoscopic renders from CG movies: how best to perform the mapping from a geometric CG environment into the stereoscopic display volume. The major difference being that for game drivers this mapping cannot be choreographed by hand but must be automatically calculated in real-time without significant impact on performance. Performance is a critical issue when dealing with gaming. Stereoscopic gaming has traditionally meant rendering the scene twice with the associated performance overhead. An alternative approach is to render the scene from one virtual camera position and use information from the z-buffer to generate a stereo pair using Depth-Image-Based Rendering (DIBR). We analyze this trade-off in more detail and provide some results relating to both 3D image quality and render performance.

  2. 3-D object-oriented image analysis of geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadel, I.; Kerle, N.; van der Meijde, M.

    2014-07-01

    Geophysical data are the main source of information about the subsurface. Geophysical techniques are, however, highly non-unique in determining specific physical parameters and boundaries of subsurface objects. To obtain actual physical information, an inversion process is often applied, in which measurements at or above the Earth surface are inverted into a 2- or 3-D subsurface spatial distribution of the physical property. Interpreting these models into structural objects, related to physical processes, requires a priori knowledge and expert analysis which is susceptible to subjective choices and is therefore often non-repeatable. In this research, we implemented a recently introduced object-based approach to interpret the 3-D inversion results of a single geophysical technique using the available a priori information and the physical and geometrical characteristics of the interpreted objects. The introduced methodology is semi-automatic and repeatable, and allows the extraction of subsurface structures using 3-D object-oriented image analysis (3-D OOA) in an objective knowledge-based classification scheme. The approach allows for a semi-objective setting of thresholds that can be tested and, if necessary, changed in a very fast and efficient way. These changes require only changing the thresholds used in a so-called ruleset, which is composed of algorithms that extract objects from a 3-D data cube. The approach is tested on a synthetic model, which is based on a priori knowledge on objects present in the study area (Tanzania). Object characteristics and thresholds were well defined in a 3-D histogram of velocity versus depth, and objects were fully retrieved. The real model results showed how 3-D OOA can deal with realistic 3-D subsurface conditions in which the boundaries become fuzzy, the object extensions become unclear and the model characteristics vary with depth due to the different physical conditions. As expected, the 3-D histogram of the real data was

  3. Noninvasive computational imaging of cardiac electrophysiology for 3-D infarct.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linwei; Wong, Ken C L; Zhang, Heye; Liu, Huafeng; Shi, Pengcheng

    2011-04-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) creates electrophysiologically altered substrates that are responsible for ventricular arrhythmias, such as tachycardia and fibrillation. The presence, size, location, and composition of infarct scar bear significant prognostic and therapeutic implications for individual subjects. We have developed a statistical physiological model-constrained framework that uses noninvasive body-surface-potential data and tomographic images to estimate subject-specific transmembrane-potential (TMP) dynamics inside the 3-D myocardium. In this paper, we adapt this framework for the purpose of noninvasive imaging, detection, and quantification of 3-D scar mass for postMI patients: the framework requires no prior knowledge of MI and converges to final subject-specific TMP estimates after several passes of estimation with intermediate feedback; based on the primary features of the estimated spatiotemporal TMP dynamics, we provide 3-D imaging of scar tissue and quantitative evaluation of scar location and extent. Phantom experiments were performed on a computational model of realistic heart-torso geometry, considering 87 transmural infarct scars of different sizes and locations inside the myocardium, and 12 compact infarct scars (extent between 10% and 30%) at different transmural depths. Real-data experiments were carried out on BSP and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from four postMI patients, validated by gold standards and existing results. This framework shows unique advantage of noninvasive, quantitative, computational imaging of subject-specific TMP dynamics and infarct mass of the 3-D myocardium, with the potential to reflect details in the spatial structure and tissue composition/heterogeneity of 3-D infarct scar.

  4. Refraction Correction in 3D Transcranial Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Brooks D.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first correction of refraction in three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging using an iterative approach that traces propagation paths through a two-layer planar tissue model, applying Snell’s law in 3D. This approach is applied to real-time 3D transcranial ultrasound imaging by precomputing delays offline for several skull thicknesses, allowing the user to switch between three sets of delays for phased array imaging at the push of a button. Simulations indicate that refraction correction may be expected to increase sensitivity, reduce beam steering errors, and partially restore lost spatial resolution, with the greatest improvements occurring at the largest steering angles. Distorted images of cylindrical lesions were created by imaging through an acrylic plate in a tissue-mimicking phantom. As a result of correcting for refraction, lesions were restored to 93.6% of their original diameter in the lateral direction and 98.1% of their original shape along the long axis of the cylinders. In imaging two healthy volunteers, the mean brightness increased by 8.3% and showed no spatial dependency. PMID:24275538

  5. 3D Imaging of Density Gradients Using Plenoptic BOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemkowsky, Jenna; Clifford, Chris; Fahringer, Timothy; Thurow, Brian

    2016-11-01

    The combination of background oriented schlieren (BOS) and a plenoptic camera, termed Plenoptic BOS, is explored through two proof-of-concept experiments. The motivation of this work is to provide a 3D technique capable of observing density disturbances. BOS uses the relationship between density and refractive index gradients to observe an apparent shift in a patterned background through image comparison. Conventional BOS systems acquire a single line-of-sight measurement, and require complex configurations to obtain 3D measurements, which are not always conducive to experimental facilities. Plenoptic BOS exploits the plenoptic camera's ability to generate multiple perspective views and refocused images from a single raw plenoptic image during post processing. Using such capabilities, with regards to BOS, provides multiple line-of-sight measurements of density disturbances, which can be collectively used to generate refocused BOS images. Such refocused images allow the position of density disturbances to be qualitatively and quantitatively determined. The image that provides the sharpest density gradient signature corresponds to a specific depth. These results offer motivation to advance Plenoptic BOS with an ultimate goal of reconstructing a 3D density field.

  6. An automated 3D reconstruction method of UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, He; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Feng; Sun, Guangtong; Song, Ping

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a novel fully automated 3D reconstruction approach based on low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle system (UAVs) images will be presented, which does not require previous camera calibration or any other external prior knowledge. Dense 3D point clouds are generated by integrating orderly feature extraction, image matching, structure from motion (SfM) and multi-view stereo (MVS) algorithms, overcoming many of the cost, time limitations of rigorous photogrammetry techniques. An image topology analysis strategy is introduced to speed up large scene reconstruction by taking advantage of the flight-control data acquired by UAV. Image topology map can significantly reduce the running time of feature matching by limiting the combination of images. A high-resolution digital surface model of the study area is produced base on UAV point clouds by constructing the triangular irregular network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust and feasible for automatic 3D reconstruction of low-altitude UAV images, and has great potential for the acquisition of spatial information at large scales mapping, especially suitable for rapid response and precise modelling in disaster emergency.

  7. 1024 pixels single photon imaging array for 3D ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellisai, S.; Guerrieri, F.; Tisa, S.; Zappa, F.; Tosi, A.; Giudice, A.

    2011-01-01

    Three dimensions (3D) acquisition systems are driving applications in many research field. Nowadays 3D acquiring systems are used in a lot of applications, such as cinema industry or in automotive (for active security systems). Depending on the application, systems present different features, for example color sensitivity, bi-dimensional image resolution, distance measurement accuracy and acquisition frame rate. The system we developed acquires 3D movie using indirect Time of Flight (iTOF), starting from phase delay measurement of a sinusoidally modulated light. The system acquires live movie with a frame rate up to 50frame/s in a range distance between 10 cm up to 7.5 m.

  8. Large distance 3D imaging of hidden objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozban, Daniel; Aharon Akram, Avihai; Kopeika, N. S.; Abramovich, A.; Levanon, Assaf

    2014-06-01

    Imaging systems in millimeter waves are required for applications in medicine, communications, homeland security, and space technology. This is because there is no known ionization hazard for biological tissue, and atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is low compared to that of infrared and optical rays. The lack of an inexpensive room temperature detector makes it difficult to give a suitable real time implement for the above applications. A 3D MMW imaging system based on chirp radar was studied previously using a scanning imaging system of a single detector. The system presented here proposes to employ a chirp radar method with Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) Focal Plane Array (FPA of plasma based detectors) using heterodyne detection. The intensity at each pixel in the GDD FPA yields the usual 2D image. The value of the I-F frequency yields the range information at each pixel. This will enable 3D MMW imaging. In this work we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an imaging system based on radar principles and FPA of inexpensive detectors. This imaging system is shown to be capable of imaging objects from distances of at least 10 meters.

  9. Interactive 2D to 3D stereoscopic image synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Mark H.; Lipton, Lenny

    2005-03-01

    Advances in stereoscopic display technologies, graphic card devices, and digital imaging algorithms have opened up new possibilities in synthesizing stereoscopic images. The power of today"s DirectX/OpenGL optimized graphics cards together with adapting new and creative imaging tools found in software products such as Adobe Photoshop, provide a powerful environment for converting planar drawings and photographs into stereoscopic images. The basis for such a creative process is the focus of this paper. This article presents a novel technique, which uses advanced imaging features and custom Windows-based software that utilizes the Direct X 9 API to provide the user with an interactive stereo image synthesizer. By creating an accurate and interactive world scene with moveable and flexible depth map altered textured surfaces, perspective stereoscopic cameras with both visible frustums and zero parallax planes, a user can precisely model a virtual three-dimensional representation of a real-world scene. Current versions of Adobe Photoshop provide a creative user with a rich assortment of tools needed to highlight elements of a 2D image, simulate hidden areas, and creatively shape them for a 3D scene representation. The technique described has been implemented as a Photoshop plug-in and thus allows for a seamless transition of these 2D image elements into 3D surfaces, which are subsequently rendered to create stereoscopic views.

  10. Automated reconstruction of 3D scenes from sequences of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollefeys, M.; Koch, R.; Vergauwen, M.; Van Gool, L.

    Modelling of 3D objects from image sequences is a challenging problem and has been an important research topic in the areas of photogrammetry and computer vision for many years. In this paper, a system is presented which automatically extracts a textured 3D surface model from a sequence of images of a scene. The system can deal with unknown camera settings. In addition, the parameters of this camera are allowed to change during acquisition (e.g., by zooming or focusing). No prior knowledge about the scene is necessary to build the 3D models. Therefore, this system offers a high degree of flexibility. The system is based on state-of-the-art algorithms recently developed in computer vision. The 3D modelling task is decomposed into a number of successive steps. Gradually, more knowledge of the scene and the camera setup is retrieved. At this point, the obtained accuracy is not yet at the level required for most metrology applications, but the visual quality is very convincing. This system has been applied to a number of applications in archaeology. The Roman site of Sagalassos (southwest Turkey) was used as a test case to illustrate the potential of this new approach.

  11. 3D imaging of the mesospheric emissive layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadjib Kouahla, Mohamed; Faivre, Michael; Moreels, Guy; Clairemidi, Jacques; Mougin-Sisini, Davy; Meriwether, John W.; Lehmacher, Gerald A.; Vidal, Erick; Veliz, Oskar

    A new and original stereo-imaging method is introduced to measure the altitude of the OH airglow layer and provide a 3D map of the altitude of the layer centroid. Near-IR photographs of the layer are taken at two sites distant of 645 km. Each photograph is processed in order to invert the perspective effect and provide a satellite-type view of the layer. When superposed, the two views present a common diamond-shaped area. Pairs of matched points that correspond to a physical emissive point in the common area are identified in calculating a normalized crosscorrelation coefficient. This method is suitable for obtaining 3D representations in the case of low-contrast objects. An observational campaign was conducted in July 2006 in Peru. The images were taken simultaneously at Cerro Cosmos (12° 09' 08.2" S, 75° 33' 49.3" W, altitude 4630 m) close to Huancayo and Cerro Verde Tellolo (16° 33' 17.6" S, 71° 39' 59.4" W, altitude 2330 m) close to Arequipa. 3D maps of the layer surface are retrieved. They are compared with pseudo-relief intensity maps of the same region. The mean altitude of the emission barycenter is located at 87.1 km on July 26 and 89.5 km on July 28. Comparable relief wavy features appear in the 3D and intensity maps.

  12. Combined registration of 3D tibia and femur implant models in 3D magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Siebert, Markus; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger; Graichen, Heiko

    2008-03-01

    The most frequent reasons for revision of total knee arthroplasty are loosening and abnormal axial alignment leading to an unphysiological kinematic of the knee implant. To get an idea about the postoperative kinematic of the implant, it is essential to determine the position and orientation of the tibial and femoral prosthesis. Therefore we developed a registration method for fitting 3D CAD-models of knee joint prostheses into an 3D MR image. This rigid registration is the basis for a quantitative analysis of the kinematics of knee implants. Firstly the surface data of the prostheses models are converted into a voxel representation; a recursive algorithm determines all boundary voxels of the original triangular surface data. Secondly an initial preconfiguration of the implants by the user is still necessary for the following step: The user has to perform a rough preconfiguration of both remaining prostheses models, so that the fine matching process gets a reasonable starting point. After that an automated gradient-based fine matching process determines the best absolute position and orientation: This iterative process changes all 6 parameters (3 rotational- and 3 translational parameters) of a model by a minimal amount until a maximum value of the matching function is reached. To examine the spread of the final solutions of the registration, the interobserver variability was measured in a group of testers. This variability, calculated by the relative standard deviation, improved from about 50% (pure manual registration) to 0.5% (rough manual preconfiguration and subsequent fine registration with the automatic fine matching process).

  13. Linear tracking for 3-D medical ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing-Hua; Yang, Zhao; Hu, Wei; Jin, Lian-Wen; Wei, Gang; Li, Xuelong

    2013-12-01

    As the clinical application grows, there is a rapid technical development of 3-D ultrasound imaging. Compared with 2-D ultrasound imaging, 3-D ultrasound imaging can provide improved qualitative and quantitative information for various clinical applications. In this paper, we proposed a novel tracking method for a freehand 3-D ultrasound imaging system with improved portability, reduced degree of freedom, and cost. We designed a sliding track with a linear position sensor attached, and it transmitted positional data via a wireless communication module based on Bluetooth, resulting in a wireless spatial tracking modality. A traditional 2-D ultrasound probe fixed to the position sensor on the sliding track was used to obtain real-time B-scans, and the positions of the B-scans were simultaneously acquired when moving the probe along the track in a freehand manner. In the experiments, the proposed method was applied to ultrasound phantoms and real human tissues. The results demonstrated that the new system outperformed a previously developed freehand system based on a traditional six-degree-of-freedom spatial sensor in phantom and in vivo studies, indicating its merit in clinical applications for human tissues and organs.

  14. 3D imaging: how to achieve highest accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    The generation of 3D information from images is a key technology in many different areas, e.g. in 3D modeling and representation of architectural or heritage objects, in human body motion tracking and scanning, in 3D scene analysis of traffic scenes, in industrial applications and many more. The basic concepts rely on mathematical representations of central perspective viewing as they are widely known from photogrammetry or computer vision approaches. The objectives of these methods differ, more or less, from high precision and well-structured measurements in (industrial) photogrammetry to fully-automated non-structured applications in computer vision. Accuracy and precision is a critical issue for the 3D measurement of industrial, engineering or medical objects. As state of the art, photogrammetric multi-view measurements achieve relative precisions in the order of 1:100000 to 1:200000, and relative accuracies with respect to retraceable lengths in the order of 1:50000 to 1:100000 of the largest object diameter. In order to obtain these figures a number of influencing parameters have to be optimized. These are, besides others: physical representation of object surface (targets, texture), illumination and light sources, imaging sensors, cameras and lenses, calibration strategies (camera model), orientation strategies (bundle adjustment), image processing of homologue features (target measurement, stereo and multi-image matching), representation of object or workpiece coordinate systems and object scale. The paper discusses the above mentioned parameters and offers strategies for obtaining highest accuracy in object space. Practical examples of high-quality stereo camera measurements and multi-image applications are used to prove the relevance of high accuracy in different applications, ranging from medical navigation to static and dynamic industrial measurements. In addition, standards for accuracy verifications are presented and demonstrated by practical examples

  15. Image Appraisal for 2D and 3D Electromagnetic Inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Alumbaugh, D.L.; Newman, G.A.

    1999-01-28

    Linearized methods are presented for appraising image resolution and parameter accuracy in images generated with two and three dimensional non-linear electromagnetic inversion schemes. When direct matrix inversion is employed, the model resolution and posterior model covariance matrices can be directly calculated. A method to examine how the horizontal and vertical resolution varies spatially within the electromagnetic property image is developed by examining the columns of the model resolution matrix. Plotting the square root of the diagonal of the model covariance matrix yields an estimate of how errors in the inversion process such as data noise and incorrect a priori assumptions about the imaged model map into parameter error. This type of image is shown to be useful in analyzing spatial variations in the image sensitivity to the data. A method is analyzed for statistically estimating the model covariance matrix when the conjugate gradient method is employed rather than a direct inversion technique (for example in 3D inversion). A method for calculating individual columns of the model resolution matrix using the conjugate gradient method is also developed. Examples of the image analysis techniques are provided on 2D and 3D synthetic cross well EM data sets, as well as a field data set collected at the Lost Hills Oil Field in Central California.

  16. Validation of 3D ultrasound: CT registration of prostate images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firle, Evelyn A.; Wesarg, Stefan; Karangelis, Grigoris; Dold, Christian

    2003-05-01

    All over the world 20% of men are expected to develop prostate cancer sometime in his life. In addition to surgery - being the traditional treatment for cancer - the radiation treatment is getting more popular. The most interesting radiation treatment regarding prostate cancer is Brachytherapy radiation procedure. For the safe delivery of that therapy imaging is critically important. In several cases where a CT device is available a combination of the information provided by CT and 3D Ultrasound (U/S) images offers advantages in recognizing the borders of the lesion and delineating the region of treatment. For these applications the CT and U/S scans should be registered and fused in a multi-modal dataset. Purpose of the present development is a registration tool (registration, fusion and validation) for available CT volumes with 3D U/S images of the same anatomical region, i.e. the prostate. The combination of these two imaging modalities interlinks the advantages of the high-resolution CT imaging and low cost real-time U/S imaging and offers a multi-modality imaging environment for further target and anatomy delineation. This tool has been integrated into the visualization software "InViVo" which has been developed over several years in Fraunhofer IGD in Darmstadt.

  17. Getting in touch--3D printing in forensic imaging.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Lars Chr; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen

    2011-09-10

    With the increasing use of medical imaging in forensics, as well as the technological advances in rapid prototyping, we suggest combining these techniques to generate displays of forensic findings. We used computed tomography (CT), CT angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surface scanning with photogrammetry in conjunction with segmentation techniques to generate 3D polygon meshes. Based on these data sets, a 3D printer created colored models of the anatomical structures. Using this technique, we could create models of bone fractures, vessels, cardiac infarctions, ruptured organs as well as bitemark wounds. The final models are anatomically accurate, fully colored representations of bones, vessels and soft tissue, and they demonstrate radiologically visible pathologies. The models are more easily understood by laypersons than volume rendering or 2D reconstructions. Therefore, they are suitable for presentations in courtrooms and for educational purposes.

  18. Automated Recognition of 3D Features in GPIR Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Han; Stough, Timothy; Fijany, Amir

    2007-01-01

    A method of automated recognition of three-dimensional (3D) features in images generated by ground-penetrating imaging radar (GPIR) is undergoing development. GPIR 3D images can be analyzed to detect and identify such subsurface features as pipes and other utility conduits. Until now, much of the analysis of GPIR images has been performed manually by expert operators who must visually identify and track each feature. The present method is intended to satisfy a need for more efficient and accurate analysis by means of algorithms that can automatically identify and track subsurface features, with minimal supervision by human operators. In this method, data from multiple sources (for example, data on different features extracted by different algorithms) are fused together for identifying subsurface objects. The algorithms of this method can be classified in several different ways. In one classification, the algorithms fall into three classes: (1) image-processing algorithms, (2) feature- extraction algorithms, and (3) a multiaxis data-fusion/pattern-recognition algorithm that includes a combination of machine-learning, pattern-recognition, and object-linking algorithms. The image-processing class includes preprocessing algorithms for reducing noise and enhancing target features for pattern recognition. The feature-extraction algorithms operate on preprocessed data to extract such specific features in images as two-dimensional (2D) slices of a pipe. Then the multiaxis data-fusion/ pattern-recognition algorithm identifies, classifies, and reconstructs 3D objects from the extracted features. In this process, multiple 2D features extracted by use of different algorithms and representing views along different directions are used to identify and reconstruct 3D objects. In object linking, which is an essential part of this process, features identified in successive 2D slices and located within a threshold radius of identical features in adjacent slices are linked in a

  19. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  20. Flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, G.

    1995-11-07

    A Faraday cage is described which encloses the flow chamber of a cytometer. Ground planes associated with each field deflection plate inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates. They also increase forces applied to a passing charged event for accurate focus while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard. 4 figs.

  1. Flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    van den Engh, Ger

    1995-01-01

    A Faraday cage enclosing the flow chamber of a cytometer and ground planes associated with each field deflection plate in concert therewith inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates and increases forces applied to a charged event passing therethrough for accurate focus thereof while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard.

  2. Joint calibration of 3D resist image and CDSEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. S.; He, Y. Y.; Tang, Y. P.; Chang, Y. T.; Huang, W. C.; Liu, R. G.; Gau, T. S.

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, an optical proximity correction model is to evaluate the resist image at a specific depth within the photoresist and then extract the resist contours from the image. Calibration is generally implemented by comparing resist contours with the critical dimensions (CD). The wafer CD is usually collected by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), which evaluates the CD based on some criterion that is a function of gray level, differential signal, threshold or other parameters set by the SEM. However, the criterion does not reveal which depth the CD is obtained at. This depth inconsistency between modeling and SEM makes the model calibration difficult for low k1 images. In this paper, the vertical resist profile is obtained by modifying the model from planar (2D) to quasi-3D approach and comparing the CD from this new model with SEM CD. For this quasi-3D model, the photoresist diffusion along the depth of the resist is considered and the 3D photoresist contours are evaluated. The performance of this new model is studied and is better than the 2D model.

  3. Digital acquisition system for high-speed 3-D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yafuso, Eiji

    1997-11-01

    High-speed digital three-dimensional (3-D) imagery is possible using multiple independent charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras with sequentially triggered acquisition and individual field storage capability. The system described here utilizes sixteen independent cameras, providing versatility in configuration and image acquisition. By aligning the cameras in nearly coincident lines-of-sight, a sixteen frame two-dimensional (2-D) sequence can be captured. The delays can be individually adjusted lo yield a greater number of acquired frames during the more rapid segments of the event. Additionally, individual integration periods may be adjusted to ensure adequate radiometric response while minimizing image blur. An alternative alignment and triggering scheme arranges the cameras into two angularly separated banks of eight cameras each. By simultaneously triggering correlated stereo pairs, an eight-frame sequence of stereo images may be captured. In the first alignment scheme the camera lines-of-sight cannot be made precisely coincident. Thus representation of the data as a monocular sequence introduces the issue of independent camera coordinate registration with the real scene. This issue arises more significantly using the stereo pair method to reconstruct quantitative 3-D spatial information of the event as a function of time. The principal development here will be the derivation and evaluation of a solution transform and its inverse for the digital data which will yield a 3-D spatial mapping as a function of time.

  4. 3D tongue motion from tagged and cine MR images.

    PubMed

    Xing, Fangxu; Woo, Jonghye; Murano, Emi Z; Lee, Junghoon; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the deformation of the tongue during human speech is important for head and neck surgeons and speech and language scientists. Tagged magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used to image 2D motion, and data from multiple image planes can be combined via post-processing to yield estimates of 3D motion. However, lacking boundary information, this approach suffers from inaccurate estimates near the tongue surface. This paper describes a method that combines two sources of information to yield improved estimation of 3D tongue motion. The method uses the harmonic phase (HARP) algorithm to extract motion from tags and diffeomorphic demons to provide surface deformation. It then uses an incompressible deformation estimation algorithm to incorporate both sources of displacement information to form an estimate of the 3D whole tongue motion. Experimental results show that use of combined information improves motion estimation near the tongue surface, a problem that has previously been reported as problematic in HARP analysis, while preserving accurate internal motion estimates. Results on both normal and abnormal tongue motions are shown.

  5. Discrete Method of Images for 3D Radio Propagation Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Discretization by rasterization is introduced into the method of images (MI) in the context of 3D deterministic radio propagation modeling as a way to exploit spatial coherence of electromagnetic propagation for fine-grained parallelism. Traditional algebraic treatment of bounding regions and surfaces is replaced by computer graphics rendering of 3D reflections and double refractions while building the image tree. The visibility of reception points and surfaces is also resolved by shader programs. The proposed rasterization is shown to be of comparable run time to that of the fundamentally parallel shooting and bouncing rays. The rasterization does not affect the signal evaluation backtracking step, thus preserving its advantage over the brute force ray-tracing methods in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the rendering resolution may be scaled back for a given level of scenario detail with only marginal impact on the image tree size. This allows selection of scene optimized execution parameters for faster execution, giving the method a competitive edge. The proposed variant of MI can be run on any GPU that supports real-time 3D graphics.

  6. Validation of image processing tools for 3-D fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dieterlen, Alain; Xu, Chengqi; Gramain, Marie-Pierre; Haeberlé, Olivier; Colicchio, Bruno; Cudel, Christophe; Jacquey, Serge; Ginglinger, Emanuelle; Jung, Georges; Jeandidier, Eric

    2002-04-01

    3-D optical fluorescent microscopy becomes nowadays an efficient tool for volumic investigation of living biological samples. Using optical sectioning technique, a stack of 2-D images is obtained. However, due to the nature of the system optical transfer function and non-optimal experimental conditions, acquired raw data usually suffer from some distortions. In order to carry out biological analysis, raw data have to be restored by deconvolution. The system identification by the point-spread function is useful to obtain the knowledge of the actual system and experimental parameters, which is necessary to restore raw data. It is furthermore helpful to precise the experimental protocol. In order to facilitate the use of image processing techniques, a multi-platform-compatible software package called VIEW3D has been developed. It integrates a set of tools for the analysis of fluorescence images from 3-D wide-field or confocal microscopy. A number of regularisation parameters for data restoration are determined automatically. Common geometrical measurements and morphological descriptors of fluorescent sites are also implemented to facilitate the characterisation of biological samples. An example of this method concerning cytogenetics is presented.

  7. Automated spatial alignment of 3D torso images.

    PubMed

    Bose, Arijit; Shah, Shishir K; Reece, Gregory P; Crosby, Melissa A; Beahm, Elisabeth K; Fingeret, Michelle C; Markey, Mia K; Merchant, Fatima A

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for automated spatial alignment of three-dimensional (3D) surface images in order to achieve a pre-defined orientation. Surface images of the torso are acquired from breast cancer patients undergoing reconstructive surgery to facilitate objective evaluation of breast morphology pre-operatively (for treatment planning) and/or post-operatively (for outcome assessment). Based on the viewing angle of the multiple cameras used for stereophotography, the orientation of the acquired torso in the images may vary from the normal upright position. Consequently, when translating this data into a standard 3D framework for visualization and analysis, the co-ordinate geometry differs from the upright position making robust and standardized comparison of images impractical. Moreover, manual manipulation and navigation of images to the desired upright position is subject to user bias. Automating the process of alignment and orientation removes operator bias and permits robust and repeatable adjustment of surface images to a pre-defined or desired spatial geometry.

  8. Fast 3D fluid registration of brain magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leporé, Natasha; Chou, Yi-Yu; Lopez, Oscar L.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Becker, James T.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2008-03-01

    Fluid registration is widely used in medical imaging to track anatomical changes, to correct image distortions, and to integrate multi-modality data. Fluid mappings guarantee that the template image deforms smoothly into the target, without tearing or folding, even when large deformations are required for accurate matching. Here we implemented an intensity-based fluid registration algorithm, accelerated by using a filter designed by Bro-Nielsen and Gramkow. We validated the algorithm on 2D and 3D geometric phantoms using the mean square difference between the final registered image and target as a measure of the accuracy of the registration. In tests on phantom images with different levels of overlap, varying amounts of Gaussian noise, and different intensity gradients, the fluid method outperformed a more commonly used elastic registration method, both in terms of accuracy and in avoiding topological errors during deformation. We also studied the effect of varying the viscosity coefficients in the viscous fluid equation, to optimize registration accuracy. Finally, we applied the fluid registration algorithm to a dataset of 2D binary corpus callosum images and 3D volumetric brain MRIs from 14 healthy individuals to assess its accuracy and robustness.

  9. Integral imaging based 3D display of holographic data.

    PubMed

    Yöntem, Ali Özgür; Onural, Levent

    2012-10-22

    We propose a method and present applications of this method that converts a diffraction pattern into an elemental image set in order to display them on an integral imaging based display setup. We generate elemental images based on diffraction calculations as an alternative to commonly used ray tracing methods. Ray tracing methods do not accommodate the interference and diffraction phenomena. Our proposed method enables us to obtain elemental images from a holographic recording of a 3D object/scene. The diffraction pattern can be either numerically generated data or digitally acquired optical data. The method shows the connection between a hologram (diffraction pattern) and an elemental image set of the same 3D object. We showed three examples, one of which is the digitally captured optical diffraction tomography data of an epithelium cell. We obtained optical reconstructions with our integral imaging display setup where we used a digital lenslet array. We also obtained numerical reconstructions, again by using the diffraction calculations, for comparison. The digital and optical reconstruction results are in good agreement.

  10. A hybrid framework for 3D medical image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we propose a novel hybrid 3D segmentation framework which combines Gibbs models, marching cubes and deformable models. In the framework, first we construct a new Gibbs model whose energy function is defined on a high order clique system. The new model includes both region and boundary information during segmentation. Next we improve the original marching cubes method to construct 3D meshes from Gibbs models' output. The 3D mesh serves as the initial geometry of the deformable model. Then we deform the deformable model using external image forces so that the model converges to the object surface. We run the Gibbs model and the deformable model recursively by updating the Gibbs model's parameters using the region and boundary information in the deformable model segmentation result. In our approach, the hybrid combination of region-based methods and boundary-based methods results in improved segmentations of complex structures. The benefit of the methodology is that it produces high quality segmentations of 3D structures using little prior information and minimal user intervention. The modules in this segmentation methodology are developed within the context of the Insight ToolKit (ITK). We present experimental segmentation results of brain tumors and evaluate our method by comparing experimental results with expert manual segmentations. The evaluation results show that the methodology achieves high quality segmentation results with computational efficiency. We also present segmentation results of other clinical objects to illustrate the strength of the methodology as a generic segmentation framework.

  11. Pavement cracking measurements using 3D laser-scan images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, W.; Xu, B.

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition surveying is vital for pavement maintenance programs that ensure ride quality and traffic safety. This paper first introduces an automated pavement inspection system which uses a three-dimensional (3D) camera and a structured laser light to acquire dense transverse profiles of a pavement lane surface when it carries a moving vehicle. After the calibration, the 3D system can yield a depth resolution of 0.5 mm and a transverse resolution of 1.56 mm pixel-1 at 1.4 m camera height from the ground. The scanning rate of the camera can be set to its maximum at 5000 lines s-1, allowing the density of scanned profiles to vary with the vehicle's speed. The paper then illustrates the algorithms that utilize 3D information to detect pavement distress, such as transverse, longitudinal and alligator cracking, and presents the field tests on the system's repeatability when scanning a sample pavement in multiple runs at the same vehicle speed, at different vehicle speeds and under different weather conditions. The results show that this dedicated 3D system can capture accurate pavement images that detail surface distress, and obtain consistent crack measurements in repeated tests and under different driving and lighting conditions.

  12. Objective breast symmetry evaluation using 3-D surface imaging.

    PubMed

    Eder, Maximilian; Waldenfels, Fee V; Swobodnik, Alexandra; Klöppel, Markus; Pape, Ann-Kathrin; Schuster, Tibor; Raith, Stefan; Kitzler, Elena; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Machens, Hans-Günther; Kovacs, Laszlo

    2012-04-01

    This study develops an objective breast symmetry evaluation using 3-D surface imaging (Konica-Minolta V910(®) scanner) by superimposing the mirrored left breast over the right and objectively determining the mean 3-D contour difference between the 2 breast surfaces. 3 observers analyzed the evaluation protocol precision using 2 dummy models (n = 60), 10 test subjects (n = 300), clinically tested it on 30 patients (n = 900) and compared it to established 2-D measurements on 23 breast reconstructive patients using the BCCT.core software (n = 690). Mean 3-D evaluation precision, expressed as the coefficient of variation (VC), was 3.54 ± 0.18 for all human subjects without significant intra- and inter-observer differences (p > 0.05). The 3-D breast symmetry evaluation is observer independent, significantly more precise (p < 0.001) than the BCCT.core software (VC = 6.92 ± 0.88) and may play a part in an objective surgical outcome analysis after incorporation into clinical practice.

  13. Virtual image display as a backlight for 3D.

    PubMed

    Travis, Adrian; MacCrann, Niall; Emerton, Neil; Kollin, Joel; Georgiou, Andreas; Lanier, Jaron; Bathiche, Stephen

    2013-07-29

    We describe a device which has the potential to be used both as a virtual image display and as a backlight. The pupil of the emitted light fills the device approximately to its periphery and the collimated emission can be scanned both horizontally and vertically in the manner needed to illuminate an eye in any position. The aim is to reduce the power needed to illuminate a liquid crystal panel but also to enable a smooth transition from 3D to a virtual image as the user nears the screen.

  14. Automatic structural matching of 3D image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Svjatoslav; Lutsiv, Vadim; Malyshev, Igor

    2015-10-01

    A new image matching technique is described. It is implemented as an object-independent hierarchical structural juxtaposition algorithm based on an alphabet of simple object-independent contour structural elements. The structural matching applied implements an optimized method of walking through a truncated tree of all possible juxtapositions of two sets of structural elements. The algorithm was initially developed for dealing with 2D images such as the aerospace photographs, and it turned out to be sufficiently robust and reliable for matching successfully the pictures of natural landscapes taken in differing seasons from differing aspect angles by differing sensors (the visible optical, IR, and SAR pictures, as well as the depth maps and geographical vector-type maps). At present (in the reported version), the algorithm is enhanced based on additional use of information on third spatial coordinates of observed points of object surfaces. Thus, it is now capable of matching the images of 3D scenes in the tasks of automatic navigation of extremely low flying unmanned vehicles or autonomous terrestrial robots. The basic principles of 3D structural description and matching of images are described, and the examples of image matching are presented.

  15. Underwater 3d Modeling: Image Enhancement and Point Cloud Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarakinou, I.; Papadimitriou, K.; Georgoula, O.; Patias, P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the results of image enhancement and point cloud filtering on the visual and geometric quality of 3D models for the representation of underwater features. Specifically it evaluates the combination of effects from the manual editing of images' radiometry (captured at shallow depths) and the selection of parameters for point cloud definition and mesh building (processed in 3D modeling software). Such datasets, are usually collected by divers, handled by scientists and used for geovisualization purposes. In the presented study, have been created 3D models from three sets of images (seafloor, part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) captured at three different depths (3.5m, 10m and 14m respectively). Four models have been created from the first dataset (seafloor) in order to evaluate the results from the application of image enhancement techniques and point cloud filtering. The main process for this preliminary study included a) the definition of parameters for the point cloud filtering and the creation of a reference model, b) the radiometric editing of images, followed by the creation of three improved models and c) the assessment of results by comparing the visual and the geometric quality of improved models versus the reference one. Finally, the selected technique is tested on two other data sets in order to examine its appropriateness for different depths (at 10m and 14m) and different objects (part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) in the context of an ongoing research in the Laboratory of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  16. Feature detection on 3D images of dental imprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, Marielle; Laurendeau, Denis

    1994-09-01

    A computer vision approach for the extraction of feature points on 3D images of dental imprints is presented. The position of feature points are needed for the measurement of a set of parameters for automatic diagnosis of malocclusion problems in orthodontics. The system for the acquisition of the 3D profile of the imprint, the procedure for the detection of the interstices between teeth, and the approach for the identification of the type of tooth are described, as well as the algorithm for the reconstruction of the surface of each type of tooth. A new approach for the detection of feature points, called the watershed algorithm, is described in detail. The algorithm is a two-stage procedure which tracks the position of local minima at four different scales and produces a final map of the position of the minima. Experimental results of the application of the watershed algorithm on actual 3D images of dental imprints are presented for molars, premolars and canines. The segmentation approach for the analysis of the shape of incisors is also described in detail.

  17. Quantification of thyroid volume using 3-D ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Kollorz, E K; Hahn, D A; Linke, R; Goecke, T W; Hornegger, J; Kuwert, T

    2008-04-01

    Ultrasound (US) is among the most popular diagnostic techniques today. It is non-invasive, fast, comparably cheap, and does not require ionizing radiation. US is commonly used to examine the size, and structure of the thyroid gland. In clinical routine, thyroid imaging is usually performed by means of 2-D US. Conventional approaches for measuring the volume of the thyroid gland or its nodules may therefore be inaccurate due to the lack of 3-D information. This work reports a semi-automatic segmentation approach for the classification, and analysis of the thyroid gland based on 3-D US data. The images are scanned in 3-D, pre-processed, and segmented. Several pre-processing methods, and an extension of a commonly used geodesic active contour level set formulation are discussed in detail. The results obtained by this approach are compared to manual interactive segmentations by a medical expert in five representative patients. Our work proposes a novel framework for the volumetric quantification of thyroid gland lobes, which may also be expanded to other parenchymatous organs.

  18. 3D imaging of biological specimen using MS.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, John S

    2015-01-01

    Imaging MS can provide unique information about the distribution of native and non-native compounds in biological specimen. MALDI MS and secondary ion MS are the two most commonly applied imaging MS techniques and can provide complementary information about a sample. MALDI offers access to high mass species such as proteins while secondary ion MS can operate at higher spatial resolution and provide information about lower mass species including elemental signals. Imaging MS is not limited to two dimensions and different approaches have been developed that allow 3D molecular images to be generated of chemicals in whole organs down to single cells. Resolution in the z-dimension is often higher than in x and y, so such analysis offers the potential for probing the distribution of drug molecules and studying drug action by MS with a much higher precision - possibly even organelle level.

  19. 3D Gabor wavelet based vessel filtering of photoacoustic images.

    PubMed

    Haq, Israr Ul; Nagoaka, Ryo; Makino, Takahiro; Tabata, Takuya; Saijo, Yoshifumi

    2016-08-01

    Filtering and segmentation of vasculature is an important issue in medical imaging. The visualization of vasculature is crucial for the early diagnosis and therapy in numerous medical applications. This paper investigates the use of Gabor wavelet to enhance the effect of vasculature while eliminating the noise due to size, sensitivity and aperture of the detector in 3D Optical Resolution Photoacoustic Microscopy (OR-PAM). A detailed multi-scale analysis of wavelet filtering and Hessian based method is analyzed for extracting vessels of different sizes since the blood vessels usually vary with in a range of radii. The proposed algorithm first enhances the vasculature in the image and then tubular structures are classified by eigenvalue decomposition of the local Hessian matrix at each voxel in the image. The algorithm is tested on non-invasive experiments, which shows appreciable results to enhance vasculature in photo-acoustic images.

  20. Performance prediction for 3D filtering of multichannel images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, Oleksii; Kozhemiakin, Ruslan A.; Abramov, Sergey K.; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Vozel, Benoit; Chehdi, Kacem

    2015-10-01

    Performance of denoising based on discrete cosine transform applied to multichannel remote sensing images corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise is analyzed. Images obtained by satellite Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) mission using hyperspectral imager instrument (Hyperion) that have high input SNR are taken as test images. Denoising performance is characterized by improvement of PSNR. For hard-thresholding 3D DCT-based denoising, simple statistics (probabilities to be less than a certain threshold) are used to predict denoising efficiency using curves fitted into scatterplots. It is shown that the obtained curves (approximations) provide prediction of denoising efficiency with high accuracy. Analysis is carried out for different numbers of channels processed jointly. Universality of prediction for different number of channels is proven.

  1. 3D Lunar Terrain Reconstruction from Apollo Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broxton, Michael J.; Nefian, Ara V.; Moratto, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Lundy, Michael; Segal, Alkeksandr V.

    2009-01-01

    Generating accurate three dimensional planetary models is becoming increasingly important as NASA plans manned missions to return to the Moon in the next decade. This paper describes a 3D surface reconstruction system called the Ames Stereo Pipeline that is designed to produce such models automatically by processing orbital stereo imagery. We discuss two important core aspects of this system: (1) refinement of satellite station positions and pose estimates through least squares bundle adjustment; and (2) a stochastic plane fitting algorithm that generalizes the Lucas-Kanade method for optimal matching between stereo pair images.. These techniques allow us to automatically produce seamless, highly accurate digital elevation models from multiple stereo image pairs while significantly reducing the influence of image noise. Our technique is demonstrated on a set of 71 high resolution scanned images from the Apollo 15 mission

  2. Phase Sensitive Cueing for 3D Objects in Overhead Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D W; Eppler, W G; Poland, D N

    2005-02-18

    A 3D solid model-aided object cueing method that matches phase angles of directional derivative vectors at image pixels to phase angles of vectors normal to projected model edges is described. It is intended for finding specific types of objects at arbitrary position and orientation in overhead images, independent of spatial resolution, obliqueness, acquisition conditions, and type of imaging sensor. It is shown that the phase similarity measure can be efficiently evaluated over all combinations of model position and orientation using the FFT. The highest degree of similarity over all model orientations is captured in a match surface of similarity values vs. model position. Unambiguous peaks in this surface are sorted in descending order of similarity value, and the small image thumbnails that contain them are presented to human analysts for inspection in sorted order.

  3. Evaluation of Kinect 3D Sensor for Healthcare Imaging.

    PubMed

    Pöhlmann, Stefanie T L; Harkness, Elaine F; Taylor, Christopher J; Astley, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Microsoft Kinect is a three-dimensional (3D) sensor originally designed for gaming that has received growing interest as a cost-effective and safe device for healthcare imaging. Recent applications of Kinect in health monitoring, screening, rehabilitation, assistance systems, and intervention support are reviewed here. The suitability of available technologies for healthcare imaging applications is assessed. The performance of Kinect I, based on structured light technology, is compared with that of the more recent Kinect II, which uses time-of-flight measurement, under conditions relevant to healthcare applications. The accuracy, precision, and resolution of 3D images generated with Kinect I and Kinect II are evaluated using flat cardboard models representing different skin colors (pale, medium, and dark) at distances ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 m and measurement angles of up to 75°. Both sensors demonstrated high accuracy (majority of measurements <2 mm) and precision (mean point to plane error <2 mm) at an average resolution of at least 390 points per cm(2). Kinect I is capable of imaging at shorter measurement distances, but Kinect II enables structures angled at over 60° to be evaluated. Kinect II showed significantly higher precision and Kinect I showed significantly higher resolution (both p < 0.001). The choice of object color can influence measurement range and precision. Although Kinect is not a medical imaging device, both sensor generations show performance adequate for a range of healthcare imaging applications. Kinect I is more appropriate for short-range imaging and Kinect II is more appropriate for imaging highly curved surfaces such as the face or breast.

  4. The 3D model control of image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, An H.; Stark, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    Telerobotics studies remote control of distant robots by a human operator using supervisory or direct control. Even if the robot manipulators has vision or other senses, problems arise involving control, communications, and delay. The communication delays that may be expected with telerobots working in space stations while being controlled from an Earth lab have led to a number of experiments attempting to circumvent the problem. This delay in communication is a main motivating factor in moving from well understood instantaneous hands-on manual control to less well understood supervisory control; the ultimate step would be the realization of a fully autonomous robot. The 3-D model control plays a crucial role in resolving many conflicting image processing problems that are inherent in resolving in the bottom-up approach of most current machine vision processes. The 3-D model control approach is also capable of providing the necessary visual feedback information for both the control algorithms and for the human operator.

  5. 3D Imaging of the OH mesospheric emissive layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouahla, M. N.; Moreels, G.; Faivre, M.; Clairemidi, J.; Meriwether, J. W.; Lehmacher, G. A.; Vidal, E.; Veliz, O.

    2010-01-01

    A new and original stereo imaging method is introduced to measure the altitude of the OH nightglow layer and provide a 3D perspective map of the altitude of the layer centroid. Near-IR photographs of the OH layer are taken at two sites separated by a 645 km distance. Each photograph is processed in order to provide a satellite view of the layer. When superposed, the two views present a common diamond-shaped area. Pairs of matched points that correspond to a physical emissive point in the common area are identified in calculating a normalized cross-correlation coefficient (NCC). This method is suitable for obtaining 3D representations in the case of low-contrast objects. An observational campaign was conducted in July 2006 in Peru. The images were taken simultaneously at Cerro Cosmos (12°09‧08.2″ S, 75°33‧49.3″ W, altitude 4630 m) close to Huancayo and Cerro Verde Tellolo (16°33‧17.6″ S, 71°39‧59.4″ W, altitude 2272 m) close to Arequipa. 3D maps of the layer surface were retrieved and compared with pseudo-relief intensity maps of the same region. The mean altitude of the emission barycenter is located at 86.3 km on July 26. Comparable relief wavy features appear in the 3D and intensity maps. It is shown that the vertical amplitude of the wave system varies as exp (Δz/2H) within the altitude range Δz = 83.5-88.0 km, H being the scale height. The oscillatory kinetic energy at the altitude of the OH layer is comprised between 3 × 10-4 and 5.4 × 10-4 J/m3, which is 2-3 times smaller than the values derived from partial radio wave at 52°N latitude.

  6. 3D seismic imaging on massively parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Womble, D.E.; Ober, C.C.; Oldfield, R.

    1997-02-01

    The ability to image complex geologies such as salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico and thrusts in mountainous regions is a key to reducing the risk and cost associated with oil and gas exploration. Imaging these structures, however, is computationally expensive. Datasets can be terabytes in size, and the processing time required for the multiple iterations needed to produce a velocity model can take months, even with the massively parallel computers available today. Some algorithms, such as 3D, finite-difference, prestack, depth migration remain beyond the capacity of production seismic processing. Massively parallel processors (MPPs) and algorithms research are the tools that will enable this project to provide new seismic processing capabilities to the oil and gas industry. The goals of this work are to (1) develop finite-difference algorithms for 3D, prestack, depth migration; (2) develop efficient computational approaches for seismic imaging and for processing terabyte datasets on massively parallel computers; and (3) develop a modular, portable, seismic imaging code.

  7. Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Hyperspectral Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimesh, Matthew; Kiely, Aaron; Xie, Hua; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2009-01-01

    Two methods of increasing the effectiveness of three-dimensional (3D) wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images have been developed. (As used here, images signifies both images and digital data representing images.) The methods are oriented toward reducing or eliminating detrimental effects of a phenomenon, referred to as spectral ringing, that is described below. In 3D wavelet-based compression, an image is represented by a multiresolution wavelet decomposition consisting of several subbands obtained by applying wavelet transforms in the two spatial dimensions corresponding to the two spatial coordinate axes of the image plane, and by applying wavelet transforms in the spectral dimension. Spectral ringing is named after the more familiar spatial ringing (spurious spatial oscillations) that can be seen parallel to and near edges in ordinary images reconstructed from compressed data. These ringing phenomena are attributable to effects of quantization. In hyperspectral data, the individual spectral bands play the role of edges, causing spurious oscillations to occur in the spectral dimension. In the absence of such corrective measures as the present two methods, spectral ringing can manifest itself as systematic biases in some reconstructed spectral bands and can reduce the effectiveness of compression of spatially-low-pass subbands. One of the two methods is denoted mean subtraction. The basic idea of this method is to subtract mean values from spatial planes of spatially low-pass subbands prior to encoding, because (a) such spatial planes often have mean values that are far from zero and (b) zero-mean data are better suited for compression by methods that are effective for subbands of two-dimensional (2D) images. In this method, after the 3D wavelet decomposition is performed, mean values are computed for and subtracted from each spatial plane of each spatially-low-pass subband. The resulting data are converted to sign-magnitude form and compressed in a

  8. 3D geometry-based quantification of colocalizations in multichannel 3D microscopy images of human soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Wörz, Stefan; Sander, Petra; Pfannmöller, Martin; Rieker, Ralf J; Joos, Stefan; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Boukamp, Petra; Lichter, Peter; Rohr, Karl

    2010-08-01

    We introduce a new model-based approach for automatic quantification of colocalizations in multichannel 3D microscopy images. The approach uses different 3D parametric intensity models in conjunction with a model fitting scheme to localize and quantify subcellular structures with high accuracy. The central idea is to determine colocalizations between different channels based on the estimated geometry of the subcellular structures as well as to differentiate between different types of colocalizations. A statistical analysis was performed to assess the significance of the determined colocalizations. This approach was used to successfully analyze about 500 three-channel 3D microscopy images of human soft tissue tumors and controls.

  9. Image segmentation to inspect 3-D object sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jui-Pin; Fuh, Chiou-Shann

    1996-01-01

    Object size inspection is an important task and has various applications in computer vision. For example, the automatic control of stone-breaking machines, which perform better if the sizes of the stones to be broken can be predicted. An algorithm is proposed for image segmentation in size inspection for almost round stones with high or low texture. Although our experiments are focused on stones, the algorithm can be applied to other 3-D objects. We use one fixed camera and four light sources at four different positions one at a time, to take four images. Then we compute the image differences and binarize them to extract edges. We explain, step by step, the photographing, the edge extraction, the noise removal, and the edge gap filling. Experimental results are presented.

  10. The Diagnostic Radiological Utilization Of 3-D Display Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Larry T.; Dwyer, Samuel J.; Preston, David F.; Batnitzky, Solomon; Lee, Kyo R.

    1984-10-01

    In the practice of radiology, computer graphics systems have become an integral part of the use of computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine (NM), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and ultrasound. Gray scale computerized display systems are used to display, manipulate, and record scans in all of these modalities. As the use of these imaging systems has spread, various applications involving digital image manipulation have also been widely accepted in the radiological community. We discuss one of the more esoteric of such applications, namely, the reconstruction of 3-D structures from plane section data, such as CT scans. Our technique is based on the acquisition of contour data from successive sections, the definition of the implicit surface defined by such contours, and the application of the appropriate computer graphics hardware and software to present reasonably pleasing pictures.

  11. Density-tapered spiral arrays for ultrasound 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Ramalli, Alessandro; Boni, Enrico; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart; Tortoli, Piero

    2015-08-01

    The current high interest in 3-D ultrasound imaging is pushing the development of 2-D probes with a challenging number of active elements. The most popular approach to limit this number is the sparse array technique, which designs the array layout by means of complex optimization algorithms. These algorithms are typically constrained by a few steering conditions, and, as such, cannot guarantee uniform side-lobe performance at all angles. The performance may be improved by the ungridded extensions of the sparse array technique, but this result is achieved at the expense of a further complication of the optimization process. In this paper, a method to design the layout of large circular arrays with a limited number of elements according to Fermat's spiral seeds and spatial density modulation is proposed and shown to be suitable for application to 3-D ultrasound imaging. This deterministic, aperiodic, and balanced positioning procedure attempts to guarantee uniform performance over a wide range of steering angles. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by simulating and comparing the performance of spiral and dense arrays. A good trade-off for small vessel imaging is found, e.g., in the 60λ spiral array with 1.0λ elements and Blackman density tapering window. Here, the grating lobe level is -16 dB, the lateral resolution is lower than 6λ the depth of field is 120λ and, the average contrast is 10.3 dB, while the sensitivity remains in a 5 dB range for a wide selection of steering angles. The simulation results may represent a reference guide to the design of spiral sparse array probes for different application fields.

  12. Low cost 3D scanning process using digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, David; Romero, Carlos; Martínez, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    This paper shows the design and building of a low cost 3D scanner, able to digitize solid objects through contactless data acquisition, using active object reflection. 3D scanners are used in different applications such as: science, engineering, entertainment, etc; these are classified in: contact scanners and contactless ones, where the last ones are often the most used but they are expensive. This low-cost prototype is done through a vertical scanning of the object using a fixed camera and a mobile horizontal laser light, which is deformed depending on the 3-dimensional surface of the solid. Using digital image processing an analysis of the deformation detected by the camera was done; it allows determining the 3D coordinates using triangulation. The obtained information is processed by a Matlab script, which gives to the user a point cloud corresponding to each horizontal scanning done. The obtained results show an acceptable quality and significant details of digitalized objects, making this prototype (built on LEGO Mindstorms NXT kit) a versatile and cheap tool, which can be used for many applications, mainly by engineering students.

  13. 3-D imaging and illustration of mouse intestinal neurovascular complex.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ya-Yuan; Peng, Shih-Jung; Lin, Hsin-Yao; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Tang, Shiue-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Because of the dispersed nature of nerves and blood vessels, standard histology cannot provide a global and associated observation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and vascular network. We prepared transparent mouse intestine and combined vessel painting and three-dimensional (3-D) neurohistology for joint visualization of the ENS and vasculature. Cardiac perfusion of the fluorescent wheat germ agglutinin (vessel painting) was used to label the ileal blood vessels. The pan-neuronal marker PGP9.5, sympathetic neuronal marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), serotonin, and glial markers S100B and GFAP were used as the immunostaining targets of neural tissues. The fluorescently labeled specimens were immersed in the optical clearing solution to improve photon penetration for 3-D confocal microscopy. Notably, we simultaneously revealed the ileal microstructure, vasculature, and innervation with micrometer-level resolution. Four examples are given: 1) the morphology of the TH-labeled sympathetic nerves: sparse in epithelium, perivascular at the submucosa, and intraganglionic at myenteric plexus; 2) distinct patterns of the extrinsic perivascular and intrinsic pericryptic innervation at the submucosal-mucosal interface; 3) different associations of serotonin cells with the mucosal neurovascular elements in the villi and crypts; and 4) the periganglionic capillary network at the myenteric plexus and its contact with glial fibers. Our 3-D imaging approach provides a useful tool to simultaneously reveal the nerves and blood vessels in a space continuum for panoramic illustration and analysis of the neurovascular complex to better understand the intestinal physiology and diseases.

  14. Effective classification of 3D image data using partitioning methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megalooikonomou, Vasileios; Pokrajac, Dragoljub; Lazarevic, Aleksandar; Obradovic, Zoran

    2002-03-01

    We propose partitioning-based methods to facilitate the classification of 3-D binary image data sets of regions of interest (ROIs) with highly non-uniform distributions. The first method is based on recursive dynamic partitioning of a 3-D volume into a number of 3-D hyper-rectangles. For each hyper-rectangle, we consider, as a potential attribute, the number of voxels (volume elements) that belong to ROIs. A hyper-rectangle is partitioned only if the corresponding attribute does not have high discriminative power, determined by statistical tests, but it is still sufficiently large for further splitting. The final discriminative hyper-rectangles form new attributes that are further employed in neural network classification models. The second method is based on maximum likelihood employing non-spatial (k-means) and spatial DBSCAN clustering algorithms to estimate the parameters of the underlying distributions. The proposed methods were experimentally evaluated on mixtures of Gaussian distributions, on realistic lesion-deficit data generated by a simulator conforming to a clinical study, and on synthetic fractal data. Both proposed methods have provided good classification on Gaussian mixtures and on realistic data. However, the experimental results on fractal data indicated that the clustering-based methods were only slightly better than random guess, while the recursive partitioning provided significantly better classification accuracy.

  15. 3D-LZ helicopter ladar imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, James; Harrington, Walter; McKinley, R. Andrew; Burns, H. N.; Braddom, Steven; Szoboszlay, Zoltan

    2010-04-01

    A joint-service team led by the Air Force Research Laboratory's Munitions and Sensors Directorates completed a successful flight test demonstration of the 3D-LZ Helicopter LADAR Imaging System. This was a milestone demonstration in the development of technology solutions for a problem known as "helicopter brownout", the loss of situational awareness caused by swirling sand during approach and landing. The 3D-LZ LADAR was developed by H.N. Burns Engineering and integrated with the US Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate's Brown-Out Symbology System aircraft state symbology aboard a US Army EH-60 Black Hawk helicopter. The combination of these systems provided an integrated degraded visual environment landing solution with landing zone situational awareness as well as aircraft guidance and obstacle avoidance information. Pilots from the U.S. Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps achieved a 77% landing rate in full brownout conditions at a test range at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. This paper will focus on the LADAR technology used in 3D-LZ and the results of this milestone demonstration.

  16. 3D imaging reconstruction and impacted third molars: case reports

    PubMed Central

    Tuzi, Andrea; Di Bari, Roberto; Cicconetti, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Summary There is a debate in the literature about the need for Computed Tomagraphy (CT) before removing third molars, even if positive radiographic signs are present. In few cases, the third molar is so close to the inferior alveolar nerve that its extraction might expose patients to the risk of post-operative neuro-sensitive alterations of the skin and the mucosa of the homolateral lower lip and chin. Thus, the injury of the inferior alveolar nerve may represent a serious, though infrequent, neurologic complication in the surgery of the third molars rendering necessary a careful pre-operative evaluation of their anatomical relationship with the inferior alveolar nerve by means of radiographic imaging techniques. This contribution presents two case reports showing positive radiographic signs, which are the hallmarks of a possible close relationship between the inferior alveolar nerve and the third molars. We aim at better defining the relationship between third molars and the mandibular canal using Dental CT Scan, DICOM image acquisition and 3D reconstruction with a dedicated software. By our study we deduce that 3D images are not indispensable, but they can provide a very agreeable assistance in the most complicated cases. PMID:23386934

  17. Precise 3D image alignment in micro-axial tomography.

    PubMed

    Matula, P; Kozubek, M; Staier, F; Hausmann, M

    2003-02-01

    Micro (micro-) axial tomography is a challenging technique in microscopy which improves quantitative imaging especially in cytogenetic applications by means of defined sample rotation under the microscope objective. The advantage of micro-axial tomography is an effective improvement of the precision of distance measurements between point-like objects. Under certain circumstances, the effective (3D) resolution can be improved by optimized acquisition depending on subsequent, multi-perspective image recording of the same objects followed by reconstruction methods. This requires, however, a very precise alignment of the tilted views. We present a novel feature-based image alignment method with a precision better than the full width at half maximum of the point spread function. The features are the positions (centres of gravity) of all fluorescent objects observed in the images (e.g. cell nuclei, fluorescent signals inside cell nuclei, fluorescent beads, etc.). Thus, real alignment precision depends on the localization precision of these objects. The method automatically determines the corresponding objects in subsequently tilted perspectives using a weighted bipartite graph. The optimum transformation function is computed in a least squares manner based on the coordinates of the centres of gravity of the matched objects. The theoretically feasible precision of the method was calculated using computer-generated data and confirmed by tests on real image series obtained from data sets of 200 nm fluorescent nano-particles. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are its speed and accuracy, which means that if enough objects are included, the real alignment precision is better than the axial localization precision of a single object. The alignment precision can be assessed directly from the algorithm's output. Thus, the method can be applied not only for image alignment and object matching in tilted view series in order to reconstruct (3D) images, but also to validate the

  18. 3D laser optoacoustic ultrasonic imaging system for preclinical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermilov, Sergey A.; Conjusteau, André; Hernandez, Travis; Su, Richard; Nadvoretskiy, Vyacheslav; Tsyboulski, Dmitri; Anis, Fatima; Anastasio, Mark A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we introduce a novel three-dimensional imaging system for in vivo high-resolution anatomical and functional whole-body visualization of small animal models developed for preclinical or other type of biomedical research. The system (LOUIS-3DM) combines a multi-wavelength optoacoustic and ultrawide-band laser ultrasound tomographies to obtain coregistered maps of tissue optical absorption and acoustic properties, displayed within the skin outline of the studied animal. The most promising applications of the LOUIS-3DM include 3D angiography, cancer research, and longitudinal studies of biological distribution of optoacoustic contrast agents (carbon nanotubes, metal plasmonic nanoparticles, etc.).

  19. 3D Multispectral Light Propagation Model For Subcutaneous Veins Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new 3D light propagation model aimed at understanding the effects of various physiological properties on subcutaneous vein imaging. In particular, we build upon the well known MCML (Monte Carlo Multi Layer) code and present a tissue model that improves upon the current state-of-the-art by: incorporating physiological variation, such as melanin concentration, fat content, and layer thickness; including veins of varying depth and diameter; using curved surfaces from real arm shapes; and modeling the vessel wall interface. We describe our model, present results from the Monte Carlo modeling, and compare these results with those obtained with other Monte Carlo methods.

  20. 3D imaging of neutron tracks using confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Wertheim, David; Flowers, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Neutron detection and neutron flux assessment are important aspects in monitoring nuclear energy production. Neutron flux measurements can also provide information on potential biological damage from exposure. In addition to the applications for neutron measurement in nuclear energy, neutron detection has been proposed as a method of enhancing neutrino detectors and cosmic ray flux has also been assessed using ground-level neutron detectors. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (or SSNTDs) have been used extensively to examine cosmic rays, long-lived radioactive elements, radon concentrations in buildings and the age of geological samples. Passive SSNTDs consisting of a CR-39 plastic are commonly used to measure radon because they respond to incident charged particles such as alpha particles from radon gas in air. They have a large dynamic range and a linear flux response. We have previously applied confocal microscopy to obtain 3D images of alpha particle tracks in SSNTDs from radon track monitoring (1). As a charged particle traverses through the polymer it creates an ionisation trail along its path. The trail or track is normally enhanced by chemical etching to better expose radiation damage, as the damaged area is more sensitive to the etchant than the bulk material. Particle tracks in CR-39 are usually assessed using 2D optical microscopy. In this study 6 detectors were examined using an Olympus OLS4100 LEXT 3D laser scanning confocal microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan). The detectors had been etched for 2 hours 50 minutes at 85 °C in 6.25M NaOH. Post etch the plastics had been treated with a 10 minute immersion in a 2% acetic acid stop bath, followed by rinsing in deionised water. The detectors examined had been irradiated with a 2mSv neutron dose from an Am(Be) neutron source (producing roughly 20 tracks per mm2). We were able to successfully acquire 3D images of neutron tracks in the detectors studied. The range of track diameter observed was between 4

  1. 3-D Imaging of Partly Concealed Targets by Laser Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    laser in the green wavelength region was used for illumination. 3-D Imaging of Partly Concealed Targets by Laser Radar 11 - 8 RTO-MP-SET-094...acknowledge Marie Carlsson and Ann Charlotte Gustavsson for their assistance in some of the experiments. 7.0 REFERENCES [1] U. Söderman, S. Ahlberg...SPIE Vol. 3707, pp. 432-448, USA, 1999. [14] D. Letalick, H. Larsson, M. Carlsson, and A.-C. Gustavsson , “Laser sensors for urban warfare,” FOI

  2. High-Throughput 3D Tumor Spheroid Screening Method for Cancer Drug Discovery Using Celigo Image Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Kessel, Sarah; Cribbes, Scott; Déry, Olivier; Kuksin, Dmitry; Sincoff, Eric; Qiu, Jean; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2016-06-01

    Oncologists have investigated the effect of protein or chemical-based compounds on cancer cells to identify potential drug candidates. Traditionally, the growth inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of the drugs are first measured in 2D in vitro models, and then further tested in 3D xenograft in vivo models. Although the drug candidates can demonstrate promising inhibitory or cytotoxicity results in a 2D environment, similar effects may not be observed under a 3D environment. In this work, we developed an image-based high-throughput screening method for 3D tumor spheroids using the Celigo image cytometer. First, optimal seeding density for tumor spheroid formation was determined by investigating the cell seeding density of U87MG, a human glioblastoma cell line. Next, the dose-response effects of 17-AAG with respect to spheroid size and viability were measured to determine the IC50 value. Finally, the developed high-throughput method was used to measure the dose response of four drugs (17-AAG, paclitaxel, TMZ, and doxorubicin) with respect to the spheroid size and viability. Each experiment was performed simultaneously in the 2D model for comparison. This detection method allowed for a more efficient process to identify highly qualified drug candidates, which may reduce the overall time required to bring a drug to clinical trial.

  3. Quantitative 3D Optical Imaging: Applications in Dosimetry and Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Andrew Stephen

    Optical-CT has been shown to be a potentially useful imaging tool for the two very different spheres of biologists and radiation therapy physicists, but it has yet to live up to that potential. In radiation therapy, researchers have used optical-CT for the readout of 3D dosimeters, but it is yet to be a clinically relevant tool as the technology is too slow to be considered practical. Biologists have used the technique for structural imaging, but have struggled with emission tomography as the reality of photon attenuation for both excitation and emission have made the images quantitatively irrelevant. Dosimetry. The DLOS (Duke Large field of view Optical-CT Scanner) was designed and constructed to make 3D dosimetry utilizing optical-CT a fast and practical tool while maintaining the accuracy of readout of the previous, slower readout technologies. Upon construction/optimization/implementation of several components including a diffuser, band pass filter, registration mount & fluid filtration system the dosimetry system provides high quality data comparable to or exceeding that of commercial products. In addition, a stray light correction algorithm was tested and implemented. The DLOS in combination with the 3D dosimeter it was designed for, PREAGETM, then underwent rigorous commissioning and benchmarking tests validating its performance against gold standard data including a set of 6 irradiations. DLOS commissioning tests resulted in sub-mm isotropic spatial resolution (MTF >0.5 for frequencies of 1.5lp/mm) and a dynamic range of ˜60dB. Flood field uniformity was 10% and stable after 45minutes. Stray light proved to be small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution. Benchmarking tests showed the mean 3D passing gamma rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the 6 benchmark data sets was 97.3% +/- 0.6% (range 96%-98%) scans totaling ˜10 minutes, indicating excellent ability to perform 3D dosimetry while improving the speed of

  4. 3D painting documentation: evaluation of conservation conditions with 3D imaging and ranging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Gattari, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    The monitoring of paintings, both on canvas and wooden support, is a crucial issue for the preservation and conservation of this kind of artworks. Many environmental factors (e.g. humidity, temperature, illumination, etc.), as well as bad conservation practices (e.g. wrong restorations, inappropriate locations, etc.), can compromise the material conditions over time and deteriorate an artwork. The article presents an on-going project realized by a multidisciplinary team composed by the ENEA UTICT 3D GraphLab, the 3D Optical Metrology Unit of the Bruno Kessler Foundation and the Soprintendenza per i Beni Storico Artistici ed Etnoantropologici of Bologna (Italy). The goal of the project is the multi-temporal 3D documentation and monitoring of paintings - at the moment in bad conservation's situation - and the provision of some metrics to quantify the deformations and damages.

  5. Recent progress in 3-D imaging of sea freight containers

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Theobald Schön, Tobias Sukowski, Frank; Dittmann, Jonas; Hanke, Randolf

    2015-03-31

    The inspection of very large objects like sea freight containers with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is an emerging technology. A complete 3-D CT scan of a see-freight container takes several hours. Of course, this is too slow to apply it to a large number of containers. However, the benefits of a 3-D CT for sealed freight are obvious: detection of potential threats or illicit cargo without being confronted with legal complications or high time consumption and risks for the security personnel during a manual inspection. Recently distinct progress was made in the field of reconstruction of projections with only a relatively low number of angular positions. Instead of today’s 500 to 1000 rotational steps, as needed for conventional CT reconstruction techniques, this new class of algorithms provides the potential to reduce the number of projection angles approximately by a factor of 10. The main drawback of these advanced iterative methods is the high consumption for numerical processing. But as computational power is getting steadily cheaper, there will be practical applications of these complex algorithms in a foreseeable future. In this paper, we discuss the properties of iterative image reconstruction algorithms and show results of their application to CT of extremely large objects scanning a sea-freight container. A specific test specimen is used to quantitatively evaluate the image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution and depending on different number of projections.

  6. Imaging Shallow Salt With 3D Refraction Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanschuyver, C. J.; Hilterman, F. J.

    2005-05-01

    In offshore West Africa, numerous salt walls are within 200 m of sea level. Because of the shallowness of these salt walls, reflections from the salt top can be difficult to map, making it impossible to build an accurate velocity model for subsequent pre-stack depth migration. An accurate definition of salt boundaries is critical to any depth model where salt is present. Unfortunately, when a salt body is very shallow, the reflection from the upper interface can be obscured due to large offsets between the source and near receivers and also due to the interference from multiples and other near-surface noise events. A new method is described using 3D migration of the refraction waveforms which is simplified because of several constraints in the model definition. The azimuth and dip of the refractor is found by imaging with Kirchhoff theory. A Kirchhoff migration is performed where the traveltime values are adjusted to use the CMP refraction traveltime equation. I assume the sediment and salt velocities to be known such that once the image time is specified, then the dip and azimuth of the refraction path can be found. The resulting 3D refraction migrations are in excellent depth agreement with available well control. In addition, the refraction migration time picks of deeper salt events are in agreement with time picks of the same events on the reflection migration.

  7. 3-D visualization and animation technologies in anatomical imaging.

    PubMed

    McGhee, John

    2010-02-01

    This paper explores a 3-D computer artist's approach to the creation of three-dimensional computer-generated imagery (CGI) derived from clinical scan data. Interpretation of scientific imagery, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is restricted to the eye of the trained medical practitioner in a clinical or scientific context. In the research work described here, MRI data are visualized and interpreted by a 3-D computer artist using the tools of the digital animator to navigate image complexity and widen interaction. In this process, the artefact moves across disciplines; it is no longer tethered to its diagnostic origins. It becomes an object that has visual attributes such as light, texture and composition, and a visual aesthetic of its own. The introduction of these visual attributes provides a platform for improved accessibility by a lay audience. The paper argues that this more artisan approach to clinical data visualization has a potential real-world application as a communicative tool for clinicians and patients during consultation.

  8. 3-D visualization and animation technologies in anatomical imaging

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a 3-D computer artist’s approach to the creation of three-dimensional computer-generated imagery (CGI) derived from clinical scan data. Interpretation of scientific imagery, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is restricted to the eye of the trained medical practitioner in a clinical or scientific context. In the research work described here, MRI data are visualized and interpreted by a 3-D computer artist using the tools of the digital animator to navigate image complexity and widen interaction. In this process, the artefact moves across disciplines; it is no longer tethered to its diagnostic origins. It becomes an object that has visual attributes such as light, texture and composition, and a visual aesthetic of its own. The introduction of these visual attributes provides a platform for improved accessibility by a lay audience. The paper argues that this more artisan approach to clinical data visualization has a potential real-world application as a communicative tool for clinicians and patients during consultation. PMID:20002229

  9. 3-D Imaging and Simulation for Nephron Sparing Surgical Training.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Hamed; Liu, Jen-Jane

    2016-08-01

    Minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (MIPN) is now considered the procedure of choice for small renal masses largely based on functional advantages over traditional open surgery. Lack of haptic feedback, the need for spatial understanding of tumor borders, and advanced operative techniques to minimize ischemia time or achieve zero-ischemia PN are among factors that make MIPN a technically demanding operation with a steep learning curve for inexperienced surgeons. Surgical simulation has emerged as a useful training adjunct in residency programs to facilitate the acquisition of these complex operative skills in the setting of restricted work hours and limited operating room time and autonomy. However, the majority of available surgical simulators focus on basic surgical skills, and procedure-specific simulation is needed for optimal surgical training. Advances in 3-dimensional (3-D) imaging have also enhanced the surgeon's ability to localize tumors intraoperatively. This article focuses on recent procedure-specific simulation models for laparoscopic and robotic-assisted PN and advanced 3-D imaging techniques as part of pre- and some cases, intraoperative surgical planning.

  10. Experiments on terahertz 3D scanning microscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi; Li, Qi

    2016-10-01

    Compared with the visible light and infrared, terahertz (THz) radiation can penetrate nonpolar and nonmetallic materials. There are many studies on the THz coaxial transmission confocal microscopy currently. But few researches on the THz dual-axis reflective confocal microscopy were reported. In this paper, we utilized a dual-axis reflective confocal scanning microscope working at 2.52 THz. In contrast with the THz coaxial transmission confocal microscope, the microscope adopted in this paper can attain higher axial resolution at the expense of reduced lateral resolution, revealing more satisfying 3D imaging capability. Objects such as Chinese characters "Zhong-Hua" written in paper with a pencil and a combined sheet metal which has three layers were scanned. The experimental results indicate that the system can extract two Chinese characters "Zhong," "Hua" or three layers of the combined sheet metal. It can be predicted that the microscope can be applied to biology, medicine and other fields in the future due to its favorable 3D imaging capability.

  11. Abdominal aortic aneurysm imaging with 3-D ultrasound: 3-D-based maximum diameter measurement and volume quantification.

    PubMed

    Long, A; Rouet, L; Debreuve, A; Ardon, R; Barbe, C; Becquemin, J P; Allaire, E

    2013-08-01

    The clinical reliability of 3-D ultrasound imaging (3-DUS) in quantification of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was evaluated. B-mode and 3-DUS images of AAAs were acquired for 42 patients. AAAs were segmented. A 3-D-based maximum diameter (Max3-D) and partial volume (Vol30) were defined and quantified. Comparisons between 2-D (Max2-D) and 3-D diameters and between orthogonal acquisitions were performed. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was evaluated. Intra- and inter-observer coefficients of repeatability (CRs) were less than 5.18 mm for Max3-D. Intra-observer and inter-observer CRs were respectively less than 6.16 and 8.71 mL for Vol30. The mean of normalized errors of Vol30 was around 7%. Correlation between Max2-D and Max3-D was 0.988 (p < 0.0001). Max3-D and Vol30 were not influenced by a probe rotation of 90°. Use of 3-DUS to quantify AAA is a new approach in clinical practice. The present study proposed and evaluated dedicated parameters. Their reproducibility makes the technique clinically reliable.

  12. Object Segmentation and Ground Truth in 3D Embryonic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Bhavna; Uriu, Koichiro; Valentin, Guillaume; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Oates, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Many questions in developmental biology depend on measuring the position and movement of individual cells within developing embryos. Yet, tools that provide this data are often challenged by high cell density and their accuracy is difficult to measure. Here, we present a three-step procedure to address this problem. Step one is a novel segmentation algorithm based on image derivatives that, in combination with selective post-processing, reliably and automatically segments cell nuclei from images of densely packed tissue. Step two is a quantitative validation using synthetic images to ascertain the efficiency of the algorithm with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and object density. Finally, we propose an original method to generate reliable and experimentally faithful ground truth datasets: Sparse-dense dual-labeled embryo chimeras are used to unambiguously measure segmentation errors within experimental data. Together, the three steps outlined here establish a robust, iterative procedure to fine-tune image analysis algorithms and microscopy settings associated with embryonic 3D image data sets. PMID:27332860

  13. Object Segmentation and Ground Truth in 3D Embryonic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Bhavna; Uriu, Koichiro; Valentin, Guillaume; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Oates, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Many questions in developmental biology depend on measuring the position and movement of individual cells within developing embryos. Yet, tools that provide this data are often challenged by high cell density and their accuracy is difficult to measure. Here, we present a three-step procedure to address this problem. Step one is a novel segmentation algorithm based on image derivatives that, in combination with selective post-processing, reliably and automatically segments cell nuclei from images of densely packed tissue. Step two is a quantitative validation using synthetic images to ascertain the efficiency of the algorithm with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and object density. Finally, we propose an original method to generate reliable and experimentally faithful ground truth datasets: Sparse-dense dual-labeled embryo chimeras are used to unambiguously measure segmentation errors within experimental data. Together, the three steps outlined here establish a robust, iterative procedure to fine-tune image analysis algorithms and microscopy settings associated with embryonic 3D image data sets.

  14. High Resolution 3D Radar Imaging of Comet Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, E. I.; Gim, Y.; Belton, M.; Brophy, J.; Weissman, P. R.; Heggy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Knowing the interiors of comets and other primitive bodies is fundamental to our understanding of how planets formed. We have developed a Discovery-class mission formulation, Comet Radar Explorer (CORE), based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, with the goal of obtaining high resolution 3D images of the interior of a small primitive body. We focus on the Jupiter-Family Comets (JFCs) as these are among the most primitive bodies reachable by spacecraft. Scattered in from far beyond Neptune, they are ultimate targets of a cryogenic sample return mission according to the Decadal Survey. Other suitable targets include primitive NEOs, Main Belt Comets, and Jupiter Trojans. The approach is optimal for small icy bodies ~3-20 km diameter with spin periods faster than about 12 hours, since (a) navigation is relatively easy, (b) radar penetration is global for decameter wavelengths, and (c) repeated overlapping ground tracks are obtained. The science mission can be as short as ~1 month for a fast-rotating JFC. Bodies smaller than ~1 km can be globally imaged, but the navigation solutions are less accurate and the relative resolution is coarse. Larger comets are more interesting, but radar signal is unlikely to be reflected from depths greater than ~10 km. So, JFCs are excellent targets for a variety of reasons. We furthermore focus on the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to rendezvous shortly after the comet's perihelion. This approach leaves us with ample power for science operations under dormant conditions beyond ~2-3 AU. This leads to a natural mission approach of distant observation, followed by closer inspection, terminated by a dedicated radar mapping orbit. Radar reflections are obtained from a polar orbit about the icy nucleus, which spins underneath. Echoes are obtained from a sounder operating at dual frequencies 5 and 15 MHz, with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths respectively. The dense network of echoes is used to obtain global 3D

  15. 3D Image Analysis of Geomaterials using Confocal Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulukutla, G.; Proussevitch, A.; Sahagian, D.

    2009-05-01

    Confocal microscopy is one of the most significant advances in optical microscopy of the last century. It is widely used in biological sciences but its application to geomaterials lingers due to a number of technical problems. Potentially the technique can perform non-invasive testing on a laser illuminated sample that fluoresces using a unique optical sectioning capability that rejects out-of-focus light reaching the confocal aperture. Fluorescence in geomaterials is commonly induced using epoxy doped with a fluorochrome that is impregnated into the sample to enable discrimination of various features such as void space or material boundaries. However, for many geomaterials, this method cannot be used because they do not naturally fluoresce and because epoxy cannot be impregnated into inaccessible parts of the sample due to lack of permeability. As a result, the confocal images of most geomaterials that have not been pre-processed with extensive sample preparation techniques are of poor quality and lack the necessary image and edge contrast necessary to apply any commonly used segmentation techniques to conduct any quantitative study of its features such as vesicularity, internal structure, etc. In our present work, we are developing a methodology to conduct a quantitative 3D analysis of images of geomaterials collected using a confocal microscope with minimal amount of prior sample preparation and no addition of fluorescence. Two sample geomaterials, a volcanic melt sample and a crystal chip containing fluid inclusions are used to assess the feasibility of the method. A step-by-step process of image analysis includes application of image filtration to enhance the edges or material interfaces and is based on two segmentation techniques: geodesic active contours and region competition. Both techniques have been applied extensively to the analysis of medical MRI images to segment anatomical structures. Preliminary analysis suggests that there is distortion in the

  16. Complex Resistivity 3D Imaging for Ground Reinforcement Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J.; Kim, J.; Park, S.

    2012-12-01

    Induced polarization (IP) method is used for mineral exploration and generally classified into two categories, time and frequency domain method. IP method in frequency domain measures amplitude and absolute phase to the transmitted currents, and is often called spectral induced polarization (SIP) when measurement is made for the wide-band frequencies. Our research group has been studying the modeling and inversion algorithms of complex resistivity method since several years ago and recently started to apply this method for various field applications. We already completed the development of 2/3D modeling and inversion program and developing another algorithm to use wide-band data altogether. Until now complex resistivity (CR) method was mainly used for the surface or tomographic survey of mineral exploration. Through the experience, we can find that the resistivity section from CR method is very similar with that of conventional resistivity method. Interpretation of the phase section is generally well matched with the geological information of survey area. But because most of survey area has very touch and complex terrain, 2D survey and interpretation are used generally. In this study, the case study of 3D CR survey conducted for the site where ground reinforcement was done to prevent the subsidence will be introduced. Data was acquired with the Zeta system, the complex resistivity measurement system produced by Zonge Co. using 8 frequencies from 0.125 to 16 Hz. 2D survey was conducted for total 6 lines with 5 m dipole spacing and 20 electrodes. Line length is 95 meter for every line. Among these 8 frequency data, data below 1 Hz was used considering its quality. With the 6 line data, 3D inversion was conducted. Firstly 2D interpretation was made with acquired data and its results were compared with those of resistivity survey. Resulting resistivity image sections of CR and resistivity method were very similar. Anomalies in phase image section showed good agreement

  17. High Time Resolution Photon Counting 3D Imaging Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, O.; Ertley, C.; Vallerga, J.

    2016-09-01

    Novel sealed tube microchannel plate (MCP) detectors using next generation cross strip (XS) anode readouts and high performance electronics have been developed to provide photon counting imaging sensors for Astronomy and high time resolution 3D remote sensing. 18 mm aperture sealed tubes with MCPs and high efficiency Super-GenII or GaAs photocathodes have been implemented to access the visible/NIR regimes for ground based research, astronomical and space sensing applications. The cross strip anode readouts in combination with PXS-II high speed event processing electronics can process high single photon counting event rates at >5 MHz ( 80 ns dead-time per event), and time stamp events to better than 25 ps. Furthermore, we are developing a high speed ASIC version of the electronics for low power/low mass spaceflight applications. For a GaAs tube the peak quantum efficiency has degraded from 30% (at 560 - 850 nm) to 25% over 4 years, but for Super-GenII tubes the peak quantum efficiency of 17% (peak at 550 nm) has remained unchanged for over 7 years. The Super-GenII tubes have a uniform spatial resolution of <30 μm FWHM ( 1 x106 gain) and single event timing resolution of 100 ps (FWHM). The relatively low MCP gain photon counting operation also permits longer overall sensor lifetimes and high local counting rates. Using the high timing resolution, we have demonstrated 3D object imaging with laser pulse (630 nm 45 ps jitter Pilas laser) reflections in single photon counting mode with spatial and depth sensitivity of the order of a few millimeters. A 50 mm Planacon sealed tube was also constructed, using atomic layer deposited microchannel plates which potentially offer better overall sealed tube lifetime, quantum efficiency and gain stability. This tube achieves standard bialkali quantum efficiency levels, is stable, and has been coupled to the PXS-II electronics and used to detect and image fast laser pulse signals.

  18. MIMO based 3D imaging system at 360 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herschel, R.; Nowok, S.; Zimmermann, R.; Lang, S. A.; Pohl, N.

    2016-05-01

    A MIMO radar imaging system at 360 GHz is presented as a part of the comprehensive approach of the European FP7 project TeraSCREEN, using multiple frequency bands for active and passive imaging. The MIMO system consists of 16 transmitter and 16 receiver antennas within one single array. Using a bandwidth of 30 GHz, a range resolution up to 5 mm is obtained. With the 16×16 MIMO system 256 different azimuth bins can be distinguished. Mechanical beam steering is used to measure 130 different elevation angles where the angular resolution is obtained by a focusing elliptical mirror. With this system a high resolution 3D image can be generated with 4 frames per second, each containing 16 million points. The principle of the system is presented starting from the functional structure, covering the hardware design and including the digital image generation. This is supported by simulated data and discussed using experimental results from a preliminary 90 GHz system underlining the feasibility of the approach.

  19. Research of Fast 3D Imaging Based on Multiple Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shibing; Yan, Huimin; Ni, Xuxiang; Zhang, Xiuda; Wang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging has received increasingly extensive attention and has been widely used currently. Lots of efforts have been put on three-dimensional imaging method and system study, in order to meet fast and high accurate requirement. In this article, we realize a fast and high quality stereo matching algorithm on field programmable gate array (FPGA) using the combination of time-of-flight (TOF) camera and binocular camera. Images captured from the two cameras own a same spatial resolution, letting us use the depth maps taken by the TOF camera to figure initial disparity. Under the constraint of the depth map as the stereo pairs when comes to stereo matching, expected disparity of each pixel is limited within a narrow search range. In the meanwhile, using field programmable gate array (FPGA, altera cyclone IV series) concurrent computing we can configure multi core image matching system, thus doing stereo matching on embedded system. The simulation results demonstrate that it can speed up the process of stereo matching and increase matching reliability and stability, realize embedded calculation, expand application range.

  20. Fast 3-d tomographic microwave imaging for breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Grzegorczyk, Tomasz M; Meaney, Paul M; Kaufman, Peter A; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta M; Paulsen, Keith D

    2012-08-01

    Microwave breast imaging (using electromagnetic waves of frequencies around 1 GHz) has mostly remained at the research level for the past decade, gaining little clinical acceptance. The major hurdles limiting patient use are both at the hardware level (challenges in collecting accurate and noncorrupted data) and software level (often plagued by unrealistic reconstruction times in the tens of hours). In this paper we report improvements that address both issues. First, the hardware is able to measure signals down to levels compatible with sub-centimeter image resolution while keeping an exam time under 2 min. Second, the software overcomes the enormous time burden and produces similarly accurate images in less than 20 min. The combination of the new hardware and software allows us to produce and report here the first clinical 3-D microwave tomographic images of the breast. Two clinical examples are selected out of 400+ exams conducted at the Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center (Lebanon, NH). The first example demonstrates the potential usefulness of our system for breast cancer screening while the second example focuses on therapy monitoring.

  1. Fast 3D subsurface imaging with stepped-frequency GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masarik, Matthew P.; Burns, Joseph; Thelen, Brian T.; Sutter, Lena

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates an algorithm for forming 3D images of the subsurface using stepped-frequency GPR data. The algorithm is specifically designed for a handheld GPR and therefore accounts for the irregular sampling pattern in the data and the spatially-variant air-ground interface by estimating an effective "ground-plane" and then registering the data to the plane. The algorithm efficiently solves the 4th-order polynomial for the Snell reflection points using a fully vectorized iterative scheme. The forward operator is implemented efficiently using an accelerated nonuniform FFT (Greengard and Lee, 2004); the adjoint operator is implemented efficiently using an interpolation step coupled with an upsampled FFT. The imaging is done as a linearized version of the full inverse problem, which is regularized using a sparsity constraint to reduce sidelobes and therefore improve image localization. Applying an appropriate sparsity constraint, the algorithm is able to eliminate most the surrounding clutter and sidelobes, while still rendering valuable image properties such as shape and size. The algorithm is applied to simulated data, controlled experimental data (made available by Dr. Waymond Scott, Georgia Institute of Technology), and government-provided data with irregular sampling and air-ground interface.

  2. 3D Chemical and Elemental Imaging by STXM Spectrotomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Karunakaran, C.; Lu, Y.; Hormes, J.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Prange, A.; Franz, B.; Harkness, T.; Obst, M.

    2011-09-09

    Spectrotomography based on the scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) at the 10ID-1 spectromicroscopy beamline of the Canadian Light Source was used to study two selected unicellular microorganisms. Spatial distributions of sulphur globules, calcium, protein, and polysaccharide in sulphur-metabolizing bacteria (Allochromatium vinosum) were determined at the S 2p, C 1s, and Ca 2p edges. 3D chemical mapping showed that the sulphur globules are located inside the bacteria with a strong spatial correlation with calcium ions (it is most probably calcium carbonate from the medium; however, with STXM the distribution and localization in the cell can be made visible, which is very interesting for a biologist) and polysaccharide-rich polymers, suggesting an influence of the organic components on the formation of the sulphur and calcium deposits. A second study investigated copper accumulating in yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) treated with copper sulphate. 3D elemental imaging at the Cu 2p edge showed that Cu(II) is reduced to Cu(I) on the yeast cell wall. A novel needle-like wet cell sample holder for STXM spectrotomography studies of fully hydrated samples is discussed.

  3. 3D Chemical and Elemental Imaging by STXM Spectrotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Karunakaran, C.; Prange, A.; Franz, B.; Harkness, T.; Lu, Y.; Obst, M.; Hormes, J.

    2011-09-01

    Spectrotomography based on the scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) at the 10ID-1 spectromicroscopy beamline of the Canadian Light Source was used to study two selected unicellular microorganisms. Spatial distributions of sulphur globules, calcium, protein, and polysaccharide in sulphur-metabolizing bacteria (Allochromatium vinosum) were determined at the S 2p, C 1s, and Ca 2p edges. 3D chemical mapping showed that the sulphur globules are located inside the bacteria with a strong spatial correlation with calcium ions (it is most probably calcium carbonate from the medium; however, with STXM the distribution and localization in the cell can be made visible, which is very interesting for a biologist) and polysaccharide-rich polymers, suggesting an influence of the organic components on the formation of the sulphur and calcium deposits. A second study investigated copper accumulating in yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) treated with copper sulphate. 3D elemental imaging at the Cu 2p edge showed that Cu(II) is reduced to Cu(I) on the yeast cell wall. A novel needle-like wet cell sample holder for STXM spectrotomography studies of fully hydrated samples is discussed.

  4. Image sequence coding using 3D scene models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girod, Bernd

    1994-09-01

    The implicit and explicit use of 3D models for image sequence coding is discussed. For implicit use, a 3D model can be incorporated into motion compensating prediction. A scheme that estimates the displacement vector field with a rigid body motion constraint by recovering epipolar lines from an unconstrained displacement estimate and then repeating block matching along the epipolar line is proposed. Experimental results show that an improved displacement vector field can be obtained with a rigid body motion constraint. As an example for explicit use, various results with a facial animation model for videotelephony are discussed. A 13 X 16 B-spline mask can be adapted automatically to individual faces and is used to generate facial expressions based on FACS. A depth-from-defocus range camera suitable for real-time facial motion tracking is described. Finally, the real-time facial animation system `Traugott' is presented that has been used to generate several hours of broadcast video. Experiments suggest that a videophone system based on facial animation might require a transmission bitrate of 1 kbit/s or below.

  5. An image cytometer based on angular spatial frequency processing and its validation for rapid detection and quantification of waterborne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J M; Jofre, M; Martínez, P; Yáñez, M A; Catalan, V; Pruneri, V

    2015-11-21

    We introduce a new image cytometer design for the detection of very small particulates and demonstrate its capability in water analysis. The device is a compact microscope composed of off-the-shelf components, such as a light emitting diode (LED) source, a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor, and a specific combination of optical lenses that allow, through an appropriate software, Fourier transform processing of the sample volume. Waterborne microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) and phytoplankton, are detected by interrogating the volume sample either in a fluorescent or label-free mode, i.e. with or without fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) molecules attached to the micro-organisms, respectively. We achieve a sensitivity of 50 cells per ml, which can be further increased to 0.2 cells per ml by pre-concentrating an initial sample volume of 500 ml with an ad hoc fluidic system. We also prove the capability of the proposed image cytometer of differentiating microbiological populations by size with a resolution of 3 μm and operating in real contaminated water.

  6. Quantitative Multiscale Cell Imaging in Controlled 3D Microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Welf, Erik S.; Driscoll, Meghan K.; Dean, Kevin M.; Schäfer, Claudia; Chu, Jun; Davidson, Michael W.; Lin, Michael Z.; Danuser, Gaudenz; Fiolka, Reto

    2016-01-01

    The microenvironment determines cell behavior, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood because quantitative studies of cell signaling and behavior have been challenging due to insufficient spatial and/or temporal resolution and limitations on microenvironmental control. Here we introduce microenvironmental selective plane illumination microscopy (meSPIM) for imaging and quantification of intracellular signaling and submicrometer cellular structures as well as large-scale cell morphological and environmental features. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by showing that the mechanical properties of the microenvironment regulate the transition of melanoma cells from actin-driven protrusion to blebbing, and we present tools to quantify how cells manipulate individual collagen fibers. We leverage the nearly isotropic resolution of meSPIM to quantify the local concentration of actin and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling on the surfaces of cells deep within 3D collagen matrices and track the many small membrane protrusions that appear in these more physiologically relevant environments. PMID:26906741

  7. Unsupervised fuzzy segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance brain images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velthuizen, Robert P.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Clarke, Laurence P.; Bensaid, Amine M.; Arrington, J. A.; Silbiger, Martin L.

    1993-07-01

    Unsupervised fuzzy methods are proposed for segmentation of 3D Magnetic Resonance images of the brain. Fuzzy c-means (FCM) has shown promising results for segmentation of single slices. FCM has been investigated for volume segmentations, both by combining results of single slices and by segmenting the full volume. Different strategies and initializations have been tried. In particular, two approaches have been used: (1) a method by which, iteratively, the furthest sample is split off to form a new cluster center, and (2) the traditional FCM in which the membership grade matrix is initialized in some way. Results have been compared with volume segmentations by k-means and with two supervised methods, k-nearest neighbors and region growing. Results of individual segmentations are presented as well as comparisons on the application of the different methods to a number of tumor patient data sets.

  8. 3D x-ray reconstruction using lightfield imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Sajib; Tahtali, Murat; Lambert, Andrew; Pickering, Mark R.

    2014-09-01

    Existing Computed Tomography (CT) systems require full 360° rotation projections. Using the principles of lightfield imaging, only 4 projections under ideal conditions can be sufficient when the object is illuminated with multiple-point Xray sources. The concept was presented in a previous work with synthetically sampled data from a synthetic phantom. Application to real data requires precise calibration of the physical set up. This current work presents the calibration procedures along with experimental findings for the reconstruction of a physical 3D phantom consisting of simple geometric shapes. The crucial part of this process is to determine the effective distances of the X-ray paths, which are not possible or very difficult by direct measurements. Instead, they are calculated by tracking the positions of fiducial markers under prescribed source and object movements. Iterative algorithms are used for the reconstruction. Customized backprojection is used to ensure better initial guess for the iterative algorithms to start with.

  9. 3D imaging of semiconductor components by discrete laminography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenburg, K. J.; Palenstijn, W. J.; Sijbers, J.

    2014-06-01

    X-ray laminography is a powerful technique for quality control of semiconductor components. Despite the advantages of nondestructive 3D imaging over 2D techniques based on sectioning, the acquisition time is still a major obstacle for practical use of the technique. In this paper, we consider the application of Discrete Tomography to laminography data, which can potentially reduce the scanning time while still maintaining a high reconstruction quality. By incorporating prior knowledge in the reconstruction algorithm about the materials present in the scanned object, far more accurate reconstructions can be obtained from the same measured data compared to classical reconstruction methods. We present a series of simulation experiments that illustrate the potential of the approach.

  10. 3D imaging of semiconductor components by discrete laminography

    SciTech Connect

    Batenburg, K. J.; Palenstijn, W. J.; Sijbers, J.

    2014-06-19

    X-ray laminography is a powerful technique for quality control of semiconductor components. Despite the advantages of nondestructive 3D imaging over 2D techniques based on sectioning, the acquisition time is still a major obstacle for practical use of the technique. In this paper, we consider the application of Discrete Tomography to laminography data, which can potentially reduce the scanning time while still maintaining a high reconstruction quality. By incorporating prior knowledge in the reconstruction algorithm about the materials present in the scanned object, far more accurate reconstructions can be obtained from the same measured data compared to classical reconstruction methods. We present a series of simulation experiments that illustrate the potential of the approach.

  11. 3D and multispectral imaging for subcutaneous veins detection.

    PubMed

    Paquit, Vincent C; Tobin, Kenneth W; Price, Jeffery R; Mèriaudeau, Fabrice

    2009-07-06

    The first and perhaps most important phase of a surgical procedure is the insertion of an intravenous (IV) catheter. Currently, this is performed manually by trained personnel. In some visions of future operating rooms, however, this process is to be replaced by an automated system. Experiments to determine the best NIR wavelengths to optimize vein contrast for physiological differences such as skin tone and/or the presence of hair on the arm or wrist surface are presented. For illumination our system is composed of a mercury arc lamp coupled to a 10nm band-pass spectrometer. A structured lighting system is also coupled to our multispectral system in order to provide 3D information of the patient arm orientation. Images of each patient arm are captured under every possible combinations of illuminants and the optimal combination of wavelengths for a given subject to maximize vein contrast using linear discriminant analysis is determined.

  12. Needle placement for piriformis injection using 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Clendenen, Steven R; Candler, Shawn A; Osborne, Michael D; Palmer, Scott C; Duench, Stephanie; Glynn, Laura; Ghazi, Salim M

    2013-01-01

    Piriformis syndrome is a pain syndrome originating in the buttock and is attributed to 6% - 8% of patients referred for the treatment of back and leg pain. The treatment for piriformis syndrome using fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT), electromyography (EMG), and ultrasound (US) has become standard practice. The treatment of Piriformis Syndrome has evolved to include fluoroscopy and EMG with CT guidance. We present a case study of 5 successful piriformis injections using 3-D computer-assisted electromagnet needle tracking coupled with ultrasound. A 6-degree of freedom electromagnetic position tracker was attached to the ultrasound probe that allowed the system to detect the position and orientation of the probe in the magnetic field. The tracked ultrasound probe was used to find the posterior superior iliac spine. Subsequently, 3 points were captured to register the ultrasound image with the CT or magnetic resonance image scan. Moreover, after the registration was obtained, the navigation system visualized the tracked needle relative to the CT scan in real-time using 2 orthogonal multi-planar reconstructions centered at the tracked needle tip. Conversely, a recent study revealed that fluoroscopically guided injections had 30% accuracy compared to ultrasound guided injections, which tripled the accuracy percentage. This novel technique exhibited an accurate needle guidance injection precision of 98% while advancing to the piriformis muscle and avoiding the sciatic nerve. The mean (± SD) procedure time was 19.08 (± 4.9) minutes. This technique allows for electromagnetic instrument tip tracking with real-time 3-D guidance to the selected target. As with any new technique, a learning curve is expected; however, this technique could offer an alternative, minimizing radiation exposure.

  13. GPU-accelerated denoising of 3D magnetic resonance images

    SciTech Connect

    Howison, Mark; Wes Bethel, E.

    2014-05-29

    The raw computational power of GPU accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. In practice, applying these filtering operations requires setting multiple parameters. This study was designed to provide better guidance to practitioners for choosing the most appropriate parameters by answering two questions: what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? And what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? To answer the first question, we use two different metrics, mean squared error (MSE) and mean structural similarity (MSSIM), to compare denoising quality against a reference image. Surprisingly, the best improvement in structural similarity with the bilateral filter is achieved with a small stencil size that lies within the range of real-time execution on an NVIDIA Tesla M2050 GPU. Moreover, inappropriate choices for parameters, especially scaling parameters, can yield very poor denoising performance. To answer the second question, we perform an autotuning study to empirically determine optimal memory tiling on the GPU. The variation in these results suggests that such tuning is an essential step in achieving real-time performance. These results have important implications for the real-time application of denoising to MR images in clinical settings that require fast turn-around times.

  14. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, Frank M.; Cornelius, Iwan; Blencowe, Anton; Franich, Rick D.; Geso, Moshi

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.

  15. Performance assessment of 3D surface imaging technique for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

    2013-03-01

    Recent development in optical 3D surface imaging technologies provide better ways to digitalize the 3D surface and its motion in real-time. The non-invasive 3D surface imaging approach has great potential for many medical imaging applications, such as motion monitoring of radiotherapy, pre/post evaluation of plastic surgery and dermatology, to name a few. Various commercial 3D surface imaging systems have appeared on the market with different dimension, speed and accuracy. For clinical applications, the accuracy, reproducibility and robustness across the widely heterogeneous skin color, tone, texture, shape properties, and ambient lighting is very crucial. Till now, a systematic approach for evaluating the performance of different 3D surface imaging systems still yet exist. In this paper, we present a systematic performance assessment approach to 3D surface imaging system assessment for medical applications. We use this assessment approach to exam a new real-time surface imaging system we developed, dubbed "Neo3D Camera", for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The assessments include accuracy, field of view, coverage, repeatability, speed and sensitivity to environment, texture and color.

  16. A Simple Quality Assessment Index for Stereoscopic Images Based on 3D Gradient Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Shao, Feng; Li, Fucui; Yu, Mei; Jiang, Gangyi

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple quality assessment index for stereoscopic images based on 3D gradient magnitude. To be more specific, we construct 3D volume from the stereoscopic images across different disparity spaces and calculate pointwise 3D gradient magnitude similarity (3D-GMS) along three horizontal, vertical, and viewpoint directions. Then, the quality score is obtained by averaging the 3D-GMS scores of all points in the 3D volume. Experimental results on four publicly available 3D image quality assessment databases demonstrate that, in comparison with the most related existing methods, the devised algorithm achieves high consistency alignment with subjective assessment. PMID:25133265

  17. 3D Slicer as an Image Computing Platform for the Quantitative Imaging Network

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Andriy; Beichel, Reinhard; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Finet, Julien; Fillion-Robin, Jean-Christophe; Pujol, Sonia; Bauer, Christian; Jennings, Dominique; Fennessy, Fiona; Sonka, Milan; Buatti, John; Aylward, Stephen; Miller, James V.; Pieper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analysis has tremendous but mostly unrealized potential in healthcare to support objective and accurate interpretation of the clinical imaging. In 2008, the National Cancer Institute began building the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) initiative with the goal of advancing quantitative imaging in the context of personalized therapy and evaluation of treatment response. Computerized analysis is an important component contributing to reproducibility and efficiency of the quantitative imaging techniques. The success of quantitative imaging is contingent on robust analysis methods and software tools to bring these methods from bench to bedside. 3D Slicer is a free open source software application for medical image computing. As a clinical research tool, 3D Slicer is similar to a radiology workstation that supports versatile visualizations but also provides advanced functionality such as automated segmentation and registration for a variety of application domains. Unlike a typical radiology workstation, 3D Slicer is free and is not tied to specific hardware. As a programming platform, 3D Slicer facilitates translation and evaluation of the new quantitative methods by allowing the biomedical researcher to focus on the implementation of the algorithm, and providing abstractions for the common tasks of data communication, visualization and user interface development. Compared to other tools that provide aspects of this functionality, 3D Slicer is fully open source and can be readily extended and redistributed. In addition, 3D Slicer is designed to facilitate the development of new functionality in the form of 3D Slicer extensions. In this paper, we present an overview of 3D Slicer as a platform for prototyping, development and evaluation of image analysis tools for clinical research applications. To illustrate the utility of the platform in the scope of QIN, we discuss several use cases of 3D Slicer by the existing QIN teams, and we elaborate on the future

  18. 3D Seismic Imaging over a Potential Collapse Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritto, Roland; O'Connell, Daniel; Elobaid Elnaiem, Ali; Mohamed, Fathelrahman; Sadooni, Fadhil

    2016-04-01

    The Middle-East has seen a recent boom in construction including the planning and development of complete new sub-sections of metropolitan areas. Before planning and construction can commence, however, the development areas need to be investigated to determine their suitability for the planned project. Subsurface parameters such as the type of material (soil/rock), thickness of top soil or rock layers, depth and elastic parameters of basement, for example, comprise important information needed before a decision concerning the suitability of the site for construction can be made. A similar problem arises in environmental impact studies, when subsurface parameters are needed to assess the geological heterogeneity of the subsurface. Environmental impact studies are typically required for each construction project, particularly for the scale of the aforementioned building boom in the Middle East. The current study was conducted in Qatar at the location of a future highway interchange to evaluate a suite of 3D seismic techniques in their effectiveness to interrogate the subsurface for the presence of karst-like collapse structures. The survey comprised an area of approximately 10,000 m2 and consisted of 550 source- and 192 receiver locations. The seismic source was an accelerated weight drop while the geophones consisted of 3-component 10 Hz velocity sensors. At present, we analyzed over 100,000 P-wave phase arrivals and performed high-resolution 3-D tomographic imaging of the shallow subsurface. Furthermore, dispersion analysis of recorded surface waves will be performed to obtain S-wave velocity profiles of the subsurface. Both results, in conjunction with density estimates, will be utilized to determine the elastic moduli of the subsurface rock layers.

  19. Venus Topography in 3D: Imaging of Coronae and Chasmata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurdy, D. M.; Stefanick, M.; Stoddard, P. R.

    2006-12-01

    Venus' surface hosts hundreds of circular to elongate features, ranging from 60-2600 km, and averaging somewhat over 200 km, in diameter. These enigmatic structures have been classified as "coronae" and attributed to either tectono-volcanic or impact-related mechanisms. A linear to arcuate system of chasmata - rugged zones with some of Venus' deepest troughs, extend 1000's of kilometers. They have extreme relief, with elevations changing as much as 7 km in just 30 km distance. The 54,464 km-long Venus chasmata system defined in great detail by Magellan can be fit by great circle arcs at the 89.6% level, and when corrected for the smaller size of the planet, the total length of the chasmata system measures within 2.7% of the length of Earth's spreading ridges. The relatively young Beta-Atla-Themis region (BAT), within 30° of the equator from 180-300° longitude has the planet's strongest geoid highs and profuse volcanism. This BAT region, the intersection of three rift zones, also has a high coronal concentration, with individual coronae closely associated with the chasmata system. The chasmata with the greatest relief on Venus show linear rifting that prevailed in the latest stage of tectonic deformation. For a three-dimensional view of Venus' surface, we spread out the Magellan topography on a flat surface using a Mercator projection to preserve shape. Next we illuminate the surface with beams at angle 45° from left (or right) so as to simulate mid afternoon (or mid-morning). Finally, we observe the surface with two eyes looking through orange and azure colored filters respectively. This gives a 3D view of tectonic features in the BAT area. The 3D images clearly show coronae sharing boundaries with the chasmata. This suggests that the processes of rifting and corona-formation occur together. It seems unlikely that impact craters would create this pattern.

  20. Autostereoscopic 3D visualization and image processing system for neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Tobias; Kuß, Julia; Uhlemann, Falk; Wagner, Stefan; Kirsch, Matthias; Sobottka, Stephan B; Steinmeier, Ralf; Schackert, Gabriele; Morgenstern, Ute

    2013-06-01

    A demonstrator system for planning neurosurgical procedures was developed based on commercial hardware and software. The system combines an easy-to-use environment for surgical planning with high-end visualization and the opportunity to analyze data sets for research purposes. The demonstrator system is based on the software AMIRA. Specific algorithms for segmentation, elastic registration, and visualization have been implemented and adapted to the clinical workflow. Modules from AMIRA and the image processing library Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK) can be combined to solve various image processing tasks. Customized modules tailored to specific clinical problems can easily be implemented using the AMIRA application programming interface and a self-developed framework for ITK filters. Visualization is done via autostereoscopic displays, which provide a 3D impression without viewing aids. A Spaceball device allows a comfortable, intuitive way of navigation in the data sets. Via an interface to a neurosurgical navigation system, the demonstrator system can be used intraoperatively. The precision, applicability, and benefit of the demonstrator system for planning of neurosurgical interventions and for neurosurgical research were successfully evaluated by neurosurgeons using phantom and patient data sets.

  1. [3D virtual imaging of the upper airways].

    PubMed

    Ferretti, G; Coulomb, M

    2000-04-01

    The different three dimensional reconstructions of the upper airways that can be obtained with spiral computed tomograpy (CT) are presented here. The parameters indispensable to achieve as real as possible spiral CT images are recalled together with the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniues. Multislice reconstruction (MSR) produces slices in different planes of space with the high contrast of CT slices. They provide information similar to that obtained for the rare indications for thoracic MRI. Thick slice reconstructions with maximum intensity projection (MIP) or minimum intensity projection (minIP) give projection views where the contrast can be modified by selecting the more dense (MIP) or less dense (minIP) voxels. They find their application in the exploration of the upper airways. Surface and volume external 3D reconstructions can be obtained. They give an overall view of the upper airways, similar to a bronchogram. Virtual endoscopy reproduces real endoscopic images but cannot provide information on the aspect of the mucosa or biopsy specimens. It offers possible applications for preparing, guiding and controlling interventional fibroscopy procedures.

  2. Multiframe image point matching and 3-d surface reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tsai, R Y

    1983-02-01

    This paper presents two new methods, the Joint Moment Method (JMM) and the Window Variance Method (WVM), for image matching and 3-D object surface reconstruction using multiple perspective views. The viewing positions and orientations for these perspective views are known a priori, as is usually the case for such applications as robotics and industrial vision as well as close range photogrammetry. Like the conventional two-frame correlation method, the JMM and WVM require finding the extrema of 1-D curves, which are proved to theoretically approach a delta function exponentially as the number of frames increases for the JMM and are much sharper than the two-frame correlation function for both the JMM and the WVM, even when the image point to be matched cannot be easily distinguished from some of the other points. The theoretical findings have been supported by simulations. It is also proved that JMM and WVM are not sensitive to certain radiometric effects. If the same window size is used, the computational complexity for the proposed methods is about n - 1 times that for the two-frame method where n is the number of frames. Simulation results show that the JMM and WVM require smaller windows than the two-frame correlation method with better accuracy, and therefore may even be more computationally feasible than the latter since the computational complexity increases quadratically as a function of the window size.

  3. Enhanced 3D fluorescence live cell imaging on nanoplasmonic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan Gartia, Manas; Hsiao, Austin; Sivaguru, Mayandi; Chen, Yi; Logan Liu, G.

    2011-09-01

    We have created a randomly distributed nanocone substrate on silicon coated with silver for surface-plasmon-enhanced fluorescence detection and 3D cell imaging. Optical characterization of the nanocone substrate showed it can support several plasmonic modes (in the 300-800 nm wavelength range) that can be coupled to a fluorophore on the surface of the substrate, which gives rise to the enhanced fluorescence. Spectral analysis suggests that a nanocone substrate can create more excitons and shorter lifetime in the model fluorophore Rhodamine 6G (R6G) due to plasmon resonance energy transfer from the nanocone substrate to the nearby fluorophore. We observed three-dimensional fluorescence enhancement on our substrate shown from the confocal fluorescence imaging of chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells grown on the substrate. The fluorescence intensity from the fluorophores bound on the cell membrane was amplified more than 100-fold as compared to that on a glass substrate. We believe that strong scattering within the nanostructured area coupled with random scattering inside the cell resulted in the observed three-dimensional enhancement in fluorescence with higher photostability on the substrate surface.

  4. Advanced 3D polarimetric flash ladar imaging through foliage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, James T.; Moran, Steven E.; Roddier, Nicolas; Vercillo, Richard; Bridges, Robert; Austin, William

    2003-08-01

    High-resolution three-dimensional flash ladar system technologies are under development that enables remote identification of vehicles and armament hidden by heavy tree canopies. We have developed a sensor architecture and design that employs a 3D flash ladar receiver to address this mission. The receiver captures 128×128×>30 three-dimensional images for each laser pulse fired. The voxel size of the image is 3"×3"×4" at the target location. A novel signal-processing algorithm has been developed that achieves sub-voxel (sub-inch) range precision estimates of target locations within each pixel. Polarization discrimination is implemented to augment the target-to-foliage contrast. When employed, this method improves the range resolution of the system beyond the classical limit (based on pulsewidth and detection bandwidth). Experiments were performed with a 6 ns long transmitter pulsewidth that demonstrate 1-inch range resolution of a tank-like target that is occluded by foliage and a range precision of 0.3" for unoccluded targets.

  5. Complex adaptation-based LDR image rendering for 3D image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Hak; Kwon, Hyuk-Ju; Sohng, Kyu-Ik

    2014-07-01

    A low-dynamic tone-compression technique is developed for realistic image rendering that can make three-dimensional (3D) images similar to realistic scenes by overcoming brightness dimming in the 3D display mode. The 3D surround provides varying conditions for image quality, illuminant adaptation, contrast, gamma, color, sharpness, and so on. In general, gain/offset adjustment, gamma compensation, and histogram equalization have performed well in contrast compression; however, as a result of signal saturation and clipping effects, image details are removed and information is lost on bright and dark areas. Thus, an enhanced image mapping technique is proposed based on space-varying image compression. The performance of contrast compression is enhanced with complex adaptation in a 3D viewing surround combining global and local adaptation. Evaluating local image rendering in view of tone and color expression, noise reduction, and edge compensation confirms that the proposed 3D image-mapping model can compensate for the loss of image quality in the 3D mode.

  6. 3D-3D registration of partial capitate bones using spin-images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breighner, Ryan; Holmes, David R.; Leng, Shuai; An, Kai-Nan; McCollough, Cynthia; Zhao, Kristin

    2013-03-01

    It is often necessary to register partial objects in medical imaging. Due to limited field of view (FOV), the entirety of an object cannot always be imaged. This study presents a novel application of an existing registration algorithm to this problem. The spin-image algorithm [1] creates pose-invariant representations of global shape with respect to individual mesh vertices. These `spin-images,' are then compared for two different poses of the same object to establish correspondences and subsequently determine relative orientation of the poses. In this study, the spin-image algorithm is applied to 4DCT-derived capitate bone surfaces to assess the relative accuracy of registration with various amounts of geometry excluded. The limited longitudinal coverage under the 4DCT technique (38.4mm, [2]), results in partial views of the capitate when imaging wrist motions. This study assesses the ability of the spin-image algorithm to register partial bone surfaces by artificially restricting the capitate geometry available for registration. Under IRB approval, standard static CT and 4DCT scans were obtained on a patient. The capitate was segmented from the static CT and one phase of 4DCT in which the whole bone was available. Spin-image registration was performed between the static and 4DCT. Distal portions of the 4DCT capitate (10-70%) were then progressively removed and registration was repeated. Registration accuracy was evaluated by angular errors and the percentage of sub-resolution fitting. It was determined that 60% of the distal capitate could be omitted without appreciable effect on registration accuracy using the spin-image algorithm (angular error < 1.5 degree, sub-resolution fitting < 98.4%).

  7. Cytometer on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Salvador M.

    2011-01-01

    A cytometer now under development exploits spatial sorting of sampled cells on a microarray chip followed by use of grating-coupled surface-plasmon-resonance imaging (GCSPRI) to detect the sorted cells. This cytometer on a chip is a prototype of contemplated future miniature cytometers that would be suitable for rapidly identifying pathogens and other cells of interest in both field and laboratory applications and that would be attractive as alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. The basic principle of operation of a conventional flow cytometer requires fluorescent labeling of sampled cells, stringent optical alignment of a laser beam with a narrow orifice, and flow of the cells through the orifice, which is subject to clogging. In contrast, the principle of operation of the present cytometer on a chip does not require fluorescent labeling of cells, stringent optical alignment, or flow through a narrow orifice. The basic principle of operation of the cytometer on a chip also reduces the complexity, mass, and power of the associated laser and detection systems, relative to those needed in conventional flow cytometry. Instead of making cells flow in single file through a narrow flow orifice for sequential interrogation as in conventional flow cytometry, a liquid containing suspended sampled cells is made to flow over the front surface of a microarray chip on which there are many capture spots. Each capture spot is coated with a thin (.50-nm) layer of gold that is, in turn, coated with antibodies that bind to cell-surface molecules characteristic of the cell species of interest. The multiplicity of capture spots makes it possible to perform rapid, massively parallel analysis of a large cell population. The binding of cells to each capture spot gives rise to a minute change in the index of refraction at the surface of the chip. This change in the index of refraction is what is sensed in GCSPRI, as described briefly below. The identities of the various species in

  8. Cytometer on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Salvador M.

    2011-01-01

    A cytometer now under development exploits spatial sorting of sampled cells on a microarray chip followed by use of grating-coupled surface-plasmon-resonance imaging (GCSPRI) to detect the sorted cells. This cytometer on a chip is a prototype of contemplated future miniature cytometers that would be suitable for rapidly identifying pathogens and other cells of interest in both field and laboratory applications and that would be attractive as alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. The basic principle of operation of a conventional flow cytometer requires fluorescent labeling of sampled cells, stringent optical alignment of a laser beam with a narrow orifice, and flow of the cells through the orifice, which is subject to clogging. In contrast, the principle of operation of the present cytometer on a chip does not require fluorescent labeling of cells, stringent optical alignment, or flow through a narrow orifice. The basic principle of operation of the cytometer on a chip also reduces the complexity, mass, and power of the associated laser and detection systems, relative to those needed in conventional flow cytometry. Instead of making cells flow in single file through a narrow flow orifice for sequential interrogation as in conventional flow cytometry, a liquid containing suspended sampled cells is made to flow over the front surface of a microarray chip on which there are many capture spots. Each capture spot is coated with a thin (approximately 50-nm) layer of gold that is, in turn, coated with antibodies that bind to cell-surface molecules characteristic of one the cell species of interest. The multiplicity of capture spots makes it possible to perform rapid, massively parallel analysis of a large cell population. The binding of cells to each capture spot gives rise to a minute change in the index of refraction at the surface of the chip. This change in the index of refraction is what is sensed in GCSPRI, as described briefly below. The identities of the

  9. Frames-Based Denoising in 3D Confocal Microscopy Imaging.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Santamaria-Pang, Alberto; Kakadiaris, Ioannis

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel denoising method for 3D confocal microscopy data based on robust edge detection. Our approach relies on the construction of a non-separable frame system in 3D that incorporates the Sobel operator in dual spatial directions. This multidirectional set of digital filters is capable of robustly detecting edge information by ensemble thresholding of the filtered data. We demonstrate the application of our method to both synthetic and real confocal microscopy data by comparing it to denoising methods based on separable 3D wavelets and 3D median filtering, and report very encouraging results.

  10. Analysis and dynamic 3D visualization of cerebral blood flow combining 3D and 4D MR image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkert, Nils Daniel; Säring, Dennis; Fiehler, Jens; Illies, Till; Möller, Dietmar; Handels, Heinz

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present a method for the dynamic visualization of cerebral blood flow. Spatio-temporal 4D magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) image datasets and 3D MRA datasets with high spatial resolution were acquired for the analysis of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). One of the main tasks is the combination of the information of the 3D and 4D MRA image sequences. Initially, in the 3D MRA dataset the vessel system is segmented and a 3D surface model is generated. Then, temporal intensity curves are analyzed voxelwise in the 4D MRA image sequences. A curve fitting of the temporal intensity curves to a patient individual reference curve is used to extract the bolus arrival times in the 4D MRA sequences. After non-linear registration of both MRA datasets the extracted hemodynamic information is transferred to the surface model where the time points of inflow can be visualized color coded dynamically over time. The dynamic visualizations computed using the curve fitting method for the estimation of the bolus arrival times were rated superior compared to those computed using conventional approaches for bolus arrival time estimation. In summary the procedure suggested allows a dynamic visualization of the individual hemodynamic situation and better understanding during the visual evaluation of cerebral vascular diseases.

  11. 3D Soil Images Structure Quantification using Relative Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarquis, A. M.; Gonzalez-Nieto, P. L.; Bird, N. R. A.

    2012-04-01

    Soil voids manifest the cumulative effect of local pedogenic processes and ultimately influence soil behavior - especially as it pertains to aeration and hydrophysical properties. Because of the relatively weak attenuation of X-rays by air, compared with liquids or solids, non-disruptive CT scanning has become a very attractive tool for generating three-dimensional imagery of soil voids. One of the main steps involved in this analysis is the thresholding required to transform the original (greyscale) images into the type of binary representation (e.g., pores in white, solids in black) needed for fractal analysis or simulation with Lattice-Boltzmann models (Baveye et al., 2010). The objective of the current work is to apply an innovative approach to quantifying soil voids and pore networks in original X-ray CT imagery using Relative Entropy (Bird et al., 2006; Tarquis et al., 2008). These will be illustrated using typical imagery representing contrasting soil structures. Particular attention will be given to the need to consider the full 3D context of the CT imagery, as well as scaling issues, in the application and interpretation of this index.

  12. Automated 3D renal segmentation based on image partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeghiazaryan, Varduhi; Voiculescu, Irina D.

    2016-03-01

    Despite several decades of research into segmentation techniques, automated medical image segmentation is barely usable in a clinical context, and still at vast user time expense. This paper illustrates unsupervised organ segmentation through the use of a novel automated labelling approximation algorithm followed by a hypersurface front propagation method. The approximation stage relies on a pre-computed image partition forest obtained directly from CT scan data. We have implemented all procedures to operate directly on 3D volumes, rather than slice-by-slice, because our algorithms are dimensionality-independent. The results picture segmentations which identify kidneys, but can easily be extrapolated to other body parts. Quantitative analysis of our automated segmentation compared against hand-segmented gold standards indicates an average Dice similarity coefficient of 90%. Results were obtained over volumes of CT data with 9 kidneys, computing both volume-based similarity measures (such as the Dice and Jaccard coefficients, true positive volume fraction) and size-based measures (such as the relative volume difference). The analysis considered both healthy and diseased kidneys, although extreme pathological cases were excluded from the overall count. Such cases are difficult to segment both manually and automatically due to the large amplitude of Hounsfield unit distribution in the scan, and the wide spread of the tumorous tissue inside the abdomen. In the case of kidneys that have maintained their shape, the similarity range lies around the values obtained for inter-operator variability. Whilst the procedure is fully automated, our tools also provide a light level of manual editing.

  13. Comparison of bootstrap resampling methods for 3-D PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Lartizien, C; Aubin, J-B; Buvat, I

    2010-07-01

    Two groups of bootstrap methods have been proposed to estimate the statistical properties of positron emission tomography (PET) images by generating multiple statistically equivalent data sets from few data samples. The first group generates resampled data based on a parametric approach assuming that data from which resampling is performed follows a Poisson distribution while the second group consists of nonparametric approaches. These methods either require a unique original sample or a series of statistically equivalent data that can be list-mode files or sinograms. Previous reports regarding these bootstrap approaches suggest different results. This work compares the accuracy of three of these bootstrap methods for 3-D PET imaging based on simulated data. Two methods are based on a unique file, namely a list-mode based nonparametric (LMNP) method and a sinogram based parametric (SP) method. The third method is a sinogram-based nonparametric (SNP) method. Another original method (extended LMNP) was also investigated, which is an extension of the LMNP methods based on deriving a resampled list-mode file by drawings events from multiple original list-mode files. Our comparison is based on the analysis of the statistical moments estimated on the repeated and resampled data. This includes the probability density function and the moments of order 1 and 2. Results show that the two methods based on multiple original data (SNP and extended LMNP) are the only methods that correctly estimate the statistical parameters. Performances of the LMNP and SP methods are variable. Simulated data used in this study were characterized by a high noise level. Differences among the tested strategies might be reduced with clinical data sets with lower noise.

  14. Assessing 3D tunnel position in ACL reconstruction using a novel single image 3D-2D registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, X.; Yau, W. P.; Otake, Y.; Cheung, P. Y. S.; Hu, Y.; Taylor, R. H.

    2012-02-01

    The routinely used procedure for evaluating tunnel positions following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions based on standard X-ray images is known to pose difficulties in terms of obtaining accurate measures, especially in providing three-dimensional tunnel positions. This is largely due to the variability in individual knee joint pose relative to X-ray plates. Accurate results were reported using postoperative CT. However, its extensive usage in clinical routine is hampered by its major requirement of having CT scans of individual patients, which is not available for most ACL reconstructions. These difficulties are addressed through the proposed method, which aligns a knee model to X-ray images using our novel single-image 3D-2D registration method and then estimates the 3D tunnel position. In the proposed method, the alignment is achieved by using a novel contour-based 3D-2D registration method wherein image contours are treated as a set of oriented points. However, instead of using some form of orientation weighting function and multiplying it with a distance function, we formulate the 3D-2D registration as a probability density estimation using a mixture of von Mises-Fisher-Gaussian (vMFG) distributions and solve it through an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Compared with the ground-truth established from postoperative CT, our registration method in an experiment using a plastic phantom showed accurate results with errors of (-0.43°+/-1.19°, 0.45°+/-2.17°, 0.23°+/-1.05°) and (0.03+/-0.55, -0.03+/-0.54, -2.73+/-1.64) mm. As for the entry point of the ACL tunnel, one of the key measurements, it was obtained with high accuracy of 0.53+/-0.30 mm distance errors.

  15. 3-D Adaptive Sparsity Based Image Compression with Applications to Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Leyuan; Li, Shutao; Kang, Xudong; Izatt, Joseph A.; Farsiu, Sina

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel general-purpose compression method for tomographic images, termed 3D adaptive sparse representation based compression (3D-ASRC). In this paper, we focus on applications of 3D-ASRC for the compression of ophthalmic 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The 3D-ASRC algorithm exploits correlations among adjacent OCT images to improve compression performance, yet is sensitive to preserving their differences. Due to the inherent denoising mechanism of the sparsity based 3D-ASRC, the quality of the compressed images are often better than the raw images they are based on. Experiments on clinical-grade retinal OCT images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed 3D-ASRC over other well-known compression methods. PMID:25561591

  16. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  17. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-04-29

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture.

  18. Segmented images and 3D images for studying the anatomical structures in MRIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Sook; Chung, Min Suk; Cho, Jae Hyun

    2004-05-01

    For identifying the pathological findings in MRIs, the anatomical structures in MRIs should be identified in advance. For studying the anatomical structures in MRIs, an education al tool that includes the horizontal, coronal, sagittal MRIs of entire body, corresponding segmented images, 3D images, and browsing software is necessary. Such an educational tool, however, is hard to obtain. Therefore, in this research, such an educational tool which helps medical students and doctors study the anatomical structures in MRIs was made as follows. A healthy, young Korean male adult with standard body shape was selected. Six hundred thirteen horizontal MRIs of the entire body were scanned and inputted to the personal computer. Sixty anatomical structures in the horizontal MRIs were segmented to make horizontal segmented images. Coronal, sagittal MRIs and coronal, sagittal segmented images were made. 3D images of anatomical structures in the segmented images were reconstructed by surface rendering method. Browsing software of the MRIs, segmented images, and 3D images was composed. This educational tool that includes horizontal, coronal, sagittal MRIs of entire body, corresponding segmented images, 3D images, and browsing software is expected to help medical students and doctors study anatomical structures in MRIs.

  19. 3-D Reconstruction From 2-D Radiographic Images and Its Application to Clinical Veterinary Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Sato, Motoyoshi

    3D imaging technique is very important and indispensable in diagnosis. The main stream of the technique is one in which 3D image is reconstructed from a set of slice images, such as X-ray CT and MRI. However, these systems require large space and high costs. On the other hand, a low cost and small size 3D imaging system is needed in clinical veterinary medicine, for example, in the case of diagnosis in X-ray car or pasture area. We propose a novel 3D imaging technique using 2-D X-ray radiographic images. This system can be realized by cheaper system than X-ray CT and enables to get 3D image in X-ray car or portable X-ray equipment. In this paper, a 3D visualization technique from 2-D radiographic images is proposed and several reconstructions are shown. These reconstructions are evaluated by veterinarians.

  20. Free segmentation in rendered 3D images through synthetic impulse response in integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, M.; Llavador, A.; Sánchez-Ortiga, E.; Saavedra, G.; Javidi, B.

    2016-06-01

    Integral Imaging is a technique that has the capability of providing not only the spatial, but also the angular information of three-dimensional (3D) scenes. Some important applications are the 3D display and digital post-processing as for example, depth-reconstruction from integral images. In this contribution we propose a new reconstruction method that takes into account the integral image and a simplified version of the impulse response function (IRF) of the integral imaging (InI) system to perform a two-dimensional (2D) deconvolution. The IRF of an InI system has a periodic structure that depends directly on the axial position of the object. Considering different periods of the IRFs we recover by deconvolution the depth information of the 3D scene. An advantage of our method is that it is possible to obtain nonconventional reconstructions by considering alternative synthetic impulse responses. Our experiments show the feasibility of the proposed method.

  1. High-Performance 3D Image Processing Architectures for Image-Guided Interventions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Circuits and Systems, vol. 1 (2), 2007, pp. 116-127. iv • O. Dandekar, C. Castro- Pareja , and R. Shekhar, “FPGA-based real-time 3D image...How low can we go?,” presented at IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, 2006, pp. 502-505. • C. R. Castro- Pareja , O. Dandekar, and R...Venugopal, C. R. Castro- Pareja , and O. Dandekar, “An FPGA-based 3D image processor with median and convolution filters for real-time applications,” in

  2. Robust Reconstruction and Generalized Dual Hahn Moments Invariants Extraction for 3D Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbah, Abderrahim; Zouhri, Amal; El Mallahi, Mostafa; Zenkouar, Khalid; Qjidaa, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new set of 3D weighed dual Hahn moments which are orthogonal on a non-uniform lattice and their polynomials are numerically stable to scale, consequent, producing a set of weighted orthonormal polynomials. The dual Hahn is the general case of Tchebichef and Krawtchouk, and the orthogonality of dual Hahn moments eliminates the numerical approximations. The computational aspects and symmetry property of 3D weighed dual Hahn moments are discussed in details. To solve their inability to invariability of large 3D images, which cause to overflow issues, a generalized version of these moments noted 3D generalized weighed dual Hahn moment invariants are presented where whose as linear combination of regular geometric moments. For 3D pattern recognition, a generalized expression of 3D weighted dual Hahn moment invariants, under translation, scaling and rotation transformations, have been proposed where a new set of 3D-GWDHMIs have been provided. In experimental studies, the local and global capability of free and noisy 3D image reconstruction of the 3D-WDHMs has been compared with other orthogonal moments such as 3D Tchebichef and 3D Krawtchouk moments using Princeton Shape Benchmark database. On pattern recognition using the 3D-GWDHMIs like 3D object descriptors, the experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm is more robust than other orthogonal moments for pattern classification of 3D images with and without noise.

  3. Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-04

    pmlkploba=obmloq=pbofbp= = = Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D ...oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=mêçÖê~ã= ëéçåëçêÉÇ=oÉéçêí=pÉêáÉë= Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and

  4. Dual-view integral imaging 3D display using polarizer parallax barriers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fei; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Luo, Cheng-Gao; Li, Da-Hai; Deng, Huan

    2014-04-01

    We propose a dual-view integral imaging (DVII) 3D display using polarizer parallax barriers (PPBs). The DVII 3D display consists of a display panel, a microlens array, and two PPBs. The elemental images (EIs) displayed on the left and right half of the display panel are captured from two different 3D scenes, respectively. The lights emitted from two kinds of EIs are modulated by the left and right half of the microlens array to present two different 3D images, respectively. A prototype of the DVII 3D display is developed, and the experimental results agree well with the theory.

  5. Quantitative 3-D imaging topogrammetry for telemedicine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altschuler, Bruce R.

    1994-01-01

    The technology to reliably transmit high-resolution visual imagery over short to medium distances in real time has led to the serious considerations of the use of telemedicine, telepresence, and telerobotics in the delivery of health care. These concepts may involve, and evolve toward: consultation from remote expert teaching centers; diagnosis; triage; real-time remote advice to the surgeon; and real-time remote surgical instrument manipulation (telerobotics with virtual reality). Further extrapolation leads to teledesign and telereplication of spare surgical parts through quantitative teleimaging of 3-D surfaces tied to CAD/CAM devices and an artificially intelligent archival data base of 'normal' shapes. The ability to generate 'topogrames' or 3-D surface numerical tables of coordinate values capable of creating computer-generated virtual holographic-like displays, machine part replication, and statistical diagnostic shape assessment is critical to the progression of telemedicine. Any virtual reality simulation will remain in 'video-game' realm until realistic dimensional and spatial relational inputs from real measurements in vivo during surgeries are added to an ever-growing statistical data archive. The challenges of managing and interpreting this 3-D data base, which would include radiographic and surface quantitative data, are considerable. As technology drives toward dynamic and continuous 3-D surface measurements, presenting millions of X, Y, Z data points per second of flexing, stretching, moving human organs, the knowledge base and interpretive capabilities of 'brilliant robots' to work as a surgeon's tireless assistants becomes imaginable. The brilliant robot would 'see' what the surgeon sees--and more, for the robot could quantify its 3-D sensing and would 'see' in a wider spectral range than humans, and could zoom its 'eyes' from the macro world to long-distance microscopy. Unerring robot hands could rapidly perform machine-aided suturing with

  6. Imaging 3D strain field monitoring during hydraulic fracturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongzhang; Zaghloul, Mohamed A. S.; Yan, Aidong; Li, Shuo; Lu, Guanyi; Ames, Brandon C.; Zolfaghari, Navid; Bunger, Andrew P.; Li, Ming-Jun; Chen, Kevin P.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed fiber optic sensing scheme to study 3D strain fields inside concrete cubes during hydraulic fracturing process. Optical fibers embedded in concrete were used to monitor 3D strain field build-up with external hydraulic pressures. High spatial resolution strain fields were interrogated by the in-fiber Rayleigh backscattering with 1-cm spatial resolution using optical frequency domain reflectometry. The fiber optics sensor scheme presented in this paper provides scientists and engineers a unique laboratory tool to understand the hydraulic fracturing processes in various rock formations and its impacts to environments.

  7. Evolution of 3D surface imaging systems in facial plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Tzou, Chieh-Han John; Frey, Manfred

    2011-11-01

    Recent advancements in computer technologies have propelled the development of 3D imaging systems. 3D surface-imaging is taking surgeons to a new level of communication with patients; moreover, it provides quick and standardized image documentation. This article recounts the chronologic evolution of 3D surface imaging, and summarizes the current status of today's facial surface capturing technology. This article also discusses current 3D surface imaging hardware and software, and their different techniques, technologies, and scientific validation, which provides surgeons with the background information necessary for evaluating the systems and knowledge about the systems they might incorporate into their own practice.

  8. Display of travelling 3D scenes from single integral-imaging capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Corral, Manuel; Dorado, Adrian; Hong, Seok-Min; Sola-Pikabea, Jorge; Saavedra, Genaro

    2016-06-01

    Integral imaging (InI) is a 3D auto-stereoscopic technique that captures and displays 3D images. We present a method for easily projecting the information recorded with this technique by transforming the integral image into a plenoptic image, as well as choosing, at will, the field of view (FOV) and the focused plane of the displayed plenoptic image. Furthermore, with this method we can generate a sequence of images that simulates a camera travelling through the scene from a single integral image. The application of this method permits to improve the quality of 3D display images and videos.

  9. 3D fingerprint imaging system based on full-field fringe projection profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua; Zhao, Yan; Dai, Jie; Chen, Chao; Xu, Yongjia; Zhang, E.; Xie, Lili

    2014-01-01

    As an unique, unchangeable and easily acquired biometrics, fingerprint has been widely studied in academics and applied in many fields over the years. The traditional fingerprint recognition methods are based on the obtained 2D feature of fingerprint. However, fingerprint is a 3D biological characteristic. The mapping from 3D to 2D loses 1D information and causes nonlinear distortion of the captured fingerprint. Therefore, it is becoming more and more important to obtain 3D fingerprint information for recognition. In this paper, a novel 3D fingerprint imaging system is presented based on fringe projection technique to obtain 3D features and the corresponding color texture information. A series of color sinusoidal fringe patterns with optimum three-fringe numbers are projected onto a finger surface. From another viewpoint, the fringe patterns are deformed by the finger surface and captured by a CCD camera. 3D shape data of the finger can be obtained from the captured fringe pattern images. This paper studies the prototype of the 3D fingerprint imaging system, including principle of 3D fingerprint acquisition, hardware design of the 3D imaging system, 3D calibration of the system, and software development. Some experiments are carried out by acquiring several 3D fingerprint data. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed 3D fingerprint imaging system.

  10. Webcam-based flow cytometer using wide-field imaging for low cell number detection at high throughput.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2014-09-07

    Here we describe a novel low-cost flow cytometer based on a webcam capable of low cell number detection in a large volume which may overcome the limitations of current flow cytometry. Several key elements have been combined to yield both high throughput and high sensitivity. The first element is a commercially available webcam capable of 187 frames per second video capture at a resolution of 320 × 240 pixels. The second element in this design is a 1 W 450 nm laser module for area-excitation, which combined with the webcam allows for rapid interrogation of a flow field. The final element is a 2D flow-cell which overcomes the flow limitation of hydrodynamic focusing and allows for higher sample throughput in a wider flow field. This cell allows for the linear velocity of target cells to be lower than in a conventional "1D" hydrodynamic focusing flow-cells typically used in cytometry at similar volumetric flow rates. It also allows cells to be imaged at the full frame rate of the webcam. Using this webcam-based flow cytometer with wide-field imaging, it was confirmed that the detection of fluorescently tagged 5 μm polystyrene beads in "1D" hydrodynamic focusing flow-cells was not practical for low cell number detection due to streaking from the motion of the beads, which did not occur with the 2D flow-cell design. The sensitivity and throughput of this webcam-based flow cytometer was then investigated using THP-1 human monocytes stained with SYTO-9 florescent dye in the 2D flow-cell. The flow cytometer was found to be capable of detecting fluorescently tagged cells at concentrations as low as 1 cell per mL at flow rates of 500 μL min(-1) in buffer and in blood. The effectiveness of detection was concentration dependent: at 100 cells per mL 84% of the cells were detected compared to microscopy, 10 cells per mL 79% detected and 1 cell per mL 59% of the cells were detected. With the blood samples spiked to 100 cells per mL, the average concentration for all samples

  11. Lensfree diffractive tomography for the imaging of 3D cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Momey, F.; Berdeu, A.; Bordy, T.; Dinten, J.-M.; Marcel, F. Kermarrec; Picollet-D’hahan, N.; Gidrol, X.; Allier, C.

    2016-01-01

    New microscopes are needed to help realize the full potential of 3D organoid culture studies. In order to image large volumes of 3D organoid cultures while preserving the ability to catch every single cell, we propose a new imaging platform based on lensfree microscopy. We have built a lensfree diffractive tomography setup performing multi-angle acquisitions of 3D organoid culture embedded in Matrigel and developed a dedicated 3D holographic reconstruction algorithm based on the Fourier diffraction theorem. With this new imaging platform, we have been able to reconstruct a 3D volume as large as 21.5 mm3 of a 3D organoid culture of prostatic RWPE1 cells showing the ability of these cells to assemble in 3D intricate cellular network at the mesoscopic scale. Importantly, comparisons with 2D images show that it is possible to resolve single cells isolated from the main cellular structure with our lensfree diffractive tomography setup. PMID:27231600

  12. Volumetric medical image compression using 3D listless embedded block partitioning.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Ranjan K; Prasad, P M K; Swain, Gandharba; Shankar, T N

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a listless variant of a modified three-dimensional (3D)-block coding algorithm suitable for medical image compression. A higher degree of correlation is achieved by using a 3D hybrid transform. The 3D hybrid transform is performed by a wavelet transform in the spatial dimension and a Karhunen-Loueve transform in the spectral dimension. The 3D transformed coefficients are arranged in a one-dimensional (1D) fashion, as in the hierarchical nature of the wavelet-coefficient distribution strategy. A novel listless block coding algorithm is applied to the mapped 1D coefficients which encode in an ordered-bit-plane fashion. The algorithm originates from the most significant bit plane and terminates at the least significant bit plane to generate an embedded bit stream, as in 3D-SPIHT. The proposed algorithm is called 3D hierarchical listless block (3D-HLCK), which exhibits better compression performance than that exhibited by 3D-SPIHT. Further, it is highly competitive with some of the state-of-the-art 3D wavelet coders for a wide range of bit rates for magnetic resonance, digital imaging and communication in medicine and angiogram images. 3D-HLCK provides rate and resolution scalability similar to those provided by 3D-SPIHT and 3D-SPECK. In addition, a significant memory reduction is achieved owing to the listless nature of 3D-HLCK.

  13. Image guidance of breast cancer surgery using 3-D ultrasound images and augmented reality visualization.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Nakamoto, M; Tamaki, Y; Sasama, T; Sakita, I; Nakajima, Y; Monden, M; Tamura, S

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes augmented reality visualization for the guidance of breast-conservative cancer surgery using ultrasonic images acquired in the operating room just before surgical resection. By combining an optical three-dimensional (3-D) position sensor, the position and orientation of each ultrasonic cross section are precisely measured to reconstruct geometrically accurate 3-D tumor models from the acquired ultrasonic images. Similarly, the 3-D position and orientation of a video camera are obtained to integrate video and ultrasonic images in a geometrically accurate manner. Superimposing the 3-D tumor models onto live video images of the patient's breast enables the surgeon to perceive the exact 3-D position of the tumor, including irregular cancer invasions which cannot be perceived by touch, as if it were visible through the breast skin. Using the resultant visualization, the surgeon can determine the region for surgical resection in a more objective and accurate manner, thereby minimizing the risk of a relapse and maximizing breast conservation. The system was shown to be effective in experiments using phantom and clinical data.

  14. 360 degree realistic 3D image display and image processing from real objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xin; Chen, Yue; Huang, Yong; Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi

    2016-12-01

    A 360-degree realistic 3D image display system based on direct light scanning method, so-called Holo-Table has been introduced in this paper. High-density directional continuous 3D motion images can be displayed easily with only one spatial light modulator. Using the holographic screen as the beam deflector, 360-degree full horizontal viewing angle was achieved. As an accompany part of the system, CMOS camera based image acquisition platform was built to feed the display engine, which can take a full 360-degree continuous imaging of the sample at the center. Customized image processing techniques such as scaling, rotation, format transformation were also developed and embedded into the system control software platform. In the end several samples were imaged to demonstrate the capability of our system.

  15. Accuracy of volume measurement using 3D ultrasound and development of CT-3D US image fusion algorithm for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Jihye; Huh, Jangyoung; Hyun An, So; Oh, Yoonjin; Kim, Myungsoo; Kim, DongYoung; Chung, Kwangzoo; Cho, Sungho; Lee, Rena

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of measuring volumes using three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US), and to verify the feasibility of the replacement of CT-MR fusion images with CT-3D US in radiotherapy treatment planning. Methods: Phantoms, consisting of water, contrast agent, and agarose, were manufactured. The volume was measured using 3D US, CT, and MR devices. A CT-3D US and MR-3D US image fusion software was developed using the Insight Toolkit library in order to acquire three-dimensional fusion images. The quality of the image fusion was evaluated using metric value and fusion images. Results: Volume measurement, using 3D US, shows a 2.8 {+-} 1.5% error, 4.4 {+-} 3.0% error for CT, and 3.1 {+-} 2.0% error for MR. The results imply that volume measurement using the 3D US devices has a similar accuracy level to that of CT and MR. Three-dimensional image fusion of CT-3D US and MR-3D US was successfully performed using phantom images. Moreover, MR-3D US image fusion was performed using human bladder images. Conclusions: 3D US could be used in the volume measurement of human bladders and prostates. CT-3D US image fusion could be used in monitoring the target position in each fraction of external beam radiation therapy. Moreover, the feasibility of replacing the CT-MR image fusion to the CT-3D US in radiotherapy treatment planning was verified.

  16. 3D imaging of telomeres and nuclear architecture: An emerging tool of 3D nano-morphology-based diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Hans; Mai, Sabine

    2011-04-01

    Patient samples are evaluated by experienced pathologists whose diagnosis guides treating physicians. Pathological diagnoses are complex and often assisted by the application of specific tissue markers. However, cases still exist where pathologists cannot distinguish between closely related entities or determine the aggressiveness of the disease they identify under the microscope. This is due to the absence of reliable markers that define diagnostic subgroups in several cancers. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging of nuclear telomere signatures is emerging as a new tool that may change this situation offering new opportunities to the patients. This article will review current and future avenues in the assessment of diagnostic patient samples.

  17. Seeing More Is Knowing More: V3D Enables Real-Time 3D Visualization and Quantitative Analysis of Large-Scale Biological Image Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hanchuan; Long, Fuhui

    Everyone understands seeing more is knowing more. However, for large-scale 3D microscopic image analysis, it has not been an easy task to efficiently visualize, manipulate and understand high-dimensional data in 3D, 4D or 5D spaces. We developed a new 3D+ image visualization and analysis platform, V3D, to meet this need. The V3D system provides 3D visualization of gigabyte-sized microscopy image stacks in real time on current laptops and desktops. V3D streamlines the online analysis, measurement and proofreading of complicated image patterns by combining ergonomic functions for selecting a location in an image directly in 3D space and for displaying biological measurements, such as from fluorescent probes, using the overlaid surface objects. V3D runs on all major computer platforms and can be enhanced by software plug-ins to address specific biological problems. To demonstrate this extensibility, we built a V3Dbased application, V3D-Neuron, to reconstruct complex 3D neuronal structures from high-resolution brain images. V3D-Neuron can precisely digitize the morphology of a single neuron in a fruitfly brain in minutes, with about a 17-fold improvement in reliability and tenfold savings in time compared with other neuron reconstruction tools. Using V3D-Neuron, we demonstrate the feasibility of building a high-resolution 3D digital atlas of neurite tracts in the fruitfly brain. V3D can be easily extended using a simple-to-use and comprehensive plugin interface.

  18. Increasing the depth of field in Multiview 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Beom-Ryeol; Son, Jung-Young; Yano, Sumio; Jung, Ilkwon

    2016-06-01

    A super-multiview condition simulator which can project up to four different view images to each eye is introduced. This simulator with the image having both disparity and perspective informs that the depth of field (DOF) will be extended to more than the default DOF values as the number of simultaneously but separately projected different view images to each eye increase. The DOF range can be extended to near 2 diopters with the four simultaneous view images. However, the DOF value increments are not prominent as the image with both disparity and perspective with the image with disparity only.

  19. Holographic imaging of 3D objects on dichromated polymer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelin, Guylain; Jourdain, Anne; Manivannan, Gurusamy; Lessard, Roger A.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional volume transmission holograms of a 3D scene were recorded on dichromated poly(acrylic acid) (DCPAA) films under 488 nm light. The holographic characterization and quality of reconstruction have been studied by varying the influencing parameters such as concentration of dichromate and electron donor, and the molecular weight of the polymer matrix. Ammonium and potassium dichromate have been employed to sensitize the poly(acrylic) matrix. the recorded hologram can be efficiently reconstructed either with red light or with low energy in the blue region without any post thermal or chemical processing.

  20. 3-D Velocity Measurement of Natural Convection Using Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoki, Masatoshi; Ozawa, Mamoru; Okada, Toshifumi; Kimura, Ichiro

    This paper describes quantitative three-dimensional measurement method for flow field of a rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection in a cylindrical cell heated below and cooled above. A correlation method for two-dimensional measurement was well advanced to a spatio-temporal correlation method. Erroneous vectors, often appeared in the correlation method, was successfully removed using Hopfield neural network. As a result, calculated 3-D velocity vector distribution well corresponded to the observed temperature distribution. Consequently, the simultaneous three-dimensional measurement system for temperature and flow field was developed.

  1. D3D augmented reality imaging system: proof of concept in mammography

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, David B; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to present images from simulated breast microcalcifications and assess the pattern of the microcalcifications with a technical development called “depth 3-dimensional (D3D) augmented reality”. Materials and methods A computer, head display unit, joystick, D3D augmented reality software, and an in-house script of simulated data of breast microcalcifications in a ductal distribution were used. No patient data was used and no statistical analysis was performed. Results The D3D augmented reality system demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception by presenting a unique image to each eye, focal point convergence, head position tracking, 3D cursor, and joystick fly-through. Conclusion The D3D augmented reality imaging system offers image viewing with depth perception and focal point convergence. The D3D augmented reality system should be tested to determine its utility in clinical practice. PMID:27563261

  2. Dual-Color 3D Superresolution Microscopy by Combined Spectral-Demixing and Biplane Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Winterflood, Christian M.; Platonova, Evgenia; Albrecht, David; Ewers, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Multicolor three-dimensional (3D) superresolution techniques allow important insight into the relative organization of cellular structures. While a number of innovative solutions have emerged, multicolor 3D techniques still face significant technical challenges. In this Letter we provide a straightforward approach to single-molecule localization microscopy imaging in three dimensions and two colors. We combine biplane imaging and spectral-demixing, which eliminates a number of problems, including color cross-talk, chromatic aberration effects, and problems with color registration. We present 3D dual-color images of nanoscopic structures in hippocampal neurons with a 3D compound resolution routinely achieved only in a single color. PMID:26153696

  3. 3D fluorescence anisotropy imaging using selective plane illumination microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hedde, Per Niklas; Ranjit, Suman; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence anisotropy imaging is a popular method to visualize changes in organization and conformation of biomolecules within cells and tissues. In such an experiment, depolarization effects resulting from differences in orientation, proximity and rotational mobility of fluorescently labeled molecules are probed with high spatial resolution. Fluorescence anisotropy is typically imaged using laser scanning and epifluorescence-based approaches. Unfortunately, those techniques are limited in either axial resolution, image acquisition speed, or by photobleaching. In the last decade, however, selective plane illumination microscopy has emerged as the preferred choice for three-dimensional time lapse imaging combining axial sectioning capability with fast, camera-based image acquisition, and minimal light exposure. We demonstrate how selective plane illumination microscopy can be utilized for three-dimensional fluorescence anisotropy imaging of live cells. We further examined the formation of focal adhesions by three-dimensional time lapse anisotropy imaging of CHO-K1 cells expressing an EGFP-paxillin fusion protein. PMID:26368202

  4. Reconstruction of 3d Digital Image of Weepingforsythia Pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongwu; Chen, Zhiwei; Xu, Hongzhi; Liu, Wenqi; Wang, Lina

    Confocal microscopy, which is a major advance upon normal light microscopy, has been used in a number of scientific fields. By confocal microscopy techniques, cells and tissues can be visualized deeply, and three-dimensional images created. Compared with conventional microscopes, confocal microscope improves the resolution of images by eliminating out-of-focus light. Moreover, confocal microscope has a higher level of sensitivity due to highly sensitive light detectors and the ability to accumulate images captured over time. In present studies, a series of Weeping Forsythia pollen digital images (35 images in total) were acquired with confocal microscope, and the three-dimensional digital image of the pollen reconstructed with confocal microscope. Our results indicate that it's a very easy job to analysis threedimensional digital image of the pollen with confocal microscope and the probe Acridine orange (AO).

  5. 3D image display of fetal ultrasonic images by thin shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shyh-Roei; Sun, Yung-Nien; Chang, Fong-Ming; Jiang, Ching-Fen

    1999-05-01

    Due to the properties of convenience and non-invasion, ultrasound has become an essential tool for diagnosis of fetal abnormality during women pregnancy in obstetrics. However, the 'noisy and blurry' nature of ultrasound data makes the rendering of the data a challenge in comparison with MRI and CT images. In spite of the speckle noise, the unwanted objects usually occlude the target to be observed. In this paper, we proposed a new system that can effectively depress the speckle noise, extract the target object, and clearly render the 3D fetal image in almost real-time from 3D ultrasound image data. The system is based on a deformable model that detects contours of the object according to the local image feature of ultrasound. Besides, in order to accelerate rendering speed, a thin shell is defined to separate the observed organ from unrelated structures depending on those detected contours. In this way, we can support quick 3D display of ultrasound, and the efficient visualization of 3D fetal ultrasound thus becomes possible.

  6. 3D image reconstruction algorithms for cryo-electron-microscopy images of virus particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerschuk, Peter C.; Johnson, John E.

    2000-11-01

    A statistical model for the object and the complete image formation process in cryo electron microscopy of viruses is presented. Using this model, maximum likelihood reconstructions of the 3D structure of viruses are computed using the expectation maximization algorithm and an example based on Cowpea mosaic virus is provided.

  7. Infrared imaging of the polymer 3D-printing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lindal, John M.; Post, Brian; Smith, Rachel J.; Love, Lonnie; Duty, Chad E.

    2014-05-01

    Both mid-wave and long-wave IR cameras are used to measure various temperature profiles in thermoplastic parts as they are printed. Two significantly different 3D-printers are used in this study. The first is a small scale commercially available Solidoodle 3 printer, which prints parts with layer thicknesses on the order of 125μm. The second printer used is a "Big Area Additive Manufacturing" (BAAM) 3D-printer developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The BAAM prints parts with a layer thicknesses of 4.06 mm. Of particular interest is the temperature of the previously deposited layer as the new hot layer is about to be extruded onto it. The two layers are expected have a stronger bond if the temperature of the substrate layer is above the glass transition temperature. This paper describes the measurement technique and results for a study of temperature decay and substrate layer temperature for ABS thermoplastic with and without the addition of chopped carbon fibers.

  8. Multi-layer 3D imaging using a few viewpoint images and depth map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suginohara, Hidetsugu; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method that makes multi-layer images from a few viewpoint images to display a 3D image by the autostereoscopic display that has multiple display screens in the depth direction. We iterate simple "Shift and Subtraction" processes to make each layer image alternately. The image made in accordance with depth map like a volume slicing by gradations is used as the initial solution of iteration process. Through the experiments using the prototype stacked two LCDs, we confirmed that it was enough to make multi-layer images from three viewpoint images to display a 3D image. Limiting the number of viewpoint images, the viewing area that allows stereoscopic view becomes narrow. To broaden the viewing area, we track the head motion of the viewer and update screen images in real time so that the viewer can maintain correct stereoscopic view within +/- 20 degrees area. In addition, we render pseudo multiple viewpoint images using depth map, then we can generate motion parallax at the same time.

  9. Research in Image Understanding as Applied to 3-D Microwave Tomographic Imaging with Near Optical Resolution.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-10

    Severe Clutter .... ........ 1I-i III . Optical Implementation of the HopfieldModel .I -? .- . ." Model........................ . . BY...can be employed in future broad-band imaging radar networks capable of providing 3-D projective or . - tomographic images of remote aerospace targets...We expect the results of this effort to tell us how to achieve centimeter resolution on remote aerospace objects cost-effectively using microwave

  10. 3-D Target Location from Stereoscopic SAR Images

    SciTech Connect

    DOERRY,ARMIN W.

    1999-10-01

    SAR range-Doppler images are inherently 2-dimensional. Targets with a height offset lay over onto offset range and azimuth locations. Just which image locations are laid upon depends on the imaging geometry, including depression angle, squint angle, and target bearing. This is the well known layover phenomenon. Images formed with different aperture geometries will exhibit different layover characteristics. These differences can be exploited to ascertain target height information, in a stereoscopic manner. Depending on the imaging geometries, height accuracy can be on the order of horizontal position accuracies, thereby rivaling the best IFSAR capabilities in fine resolution SAR images. All that is required for this to work are two distinct passes with suitably different geometries from any plain old SAR.

  11. Fast non local means denoising for 3D MR images.

    PubMed

    Coupé, Pierrick; Yger, Pierre; Barillot, Christian

    2006-01-01

    One critical issue in the context of image restoration is the problem of noise removal while keeping the integrity of relevant image information. Denoising is a crucial step to increase image conspicuity and to improve the performances of all the processings needed for quantitative imaging analysis. The method proposed in this paper is based on an optimized version of the Non Local (NL) Means algorithm. This approach uses the natural redundancy of information in image to remove the noise. Tests were carried out on synthetic datasets and on real 3T MR images. The results show that the NL-means approach outperforms other classical denoising methods, such as Anisotropic Diffusion Filter and Total Variation.

  12. 3D integral imaging using diffractive Fresnel lens arrays.

    PubMed

    Hain, Mathias; von Spiegel, Wolff; Schmiedchen, Marc; Tschudi, Theo; Javidi, Bahram

    2005-01-10

    We present experimental results with binary amplitude Fresnel lens arrays and binary phase Fresnel lens arrays used to implement integral imaging systems. Their optical performance is compared with high quality refractive microlens arrays and pinhole arrays in terms of image quality, color distortion and contrast. Additionally, we show the first experimental results of lens arrays with different focal lengths in integral imaging, and discuss their ability to simultaneously increase both the depth of focus and the field of view.

  13. Real-time computer-generated integral imaging and 3D image calibration for augmented reality surgical navigation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junchen; Suenaga, Hideyuki; Liao, Hongen; Hoshi, Kazuto; Yang, Liangjing; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Sakuma, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    Autostereoscopic 3D image overlay for augmented reality (AR) based surgical navigation has been studied and reported many times. For the purpose of surgical overlay, the 3D image is expected to have the same geometric shape as the original organ, and can be transformed to a specified location for image overlay. However, how to generate a 3D image with high geometric fidelity and quantitative evaluation of 3D image's geometric accuracy have not been addressed. This paper proposes a graphics processing unit (GPU) based computer-generated integral imaging pipeline for real-time autostereoscopic 3D display, and an automatic closed-loop 3D image calibration paradigm for displaying undistorted 3D images. Based on the proposed methods, a novel AR device for 3D image surgical overlay is presented, which mainly consists of a 3D display, an AR window, a stereo camera for 3D measurement, and a workstation for information processing. The evaluation on the 3D image rendering performance with 2560×1600 elemental image resolution shows the rendering speeds of 50-60 frames per second (fps) for surface models, and 5-8 fps for large medical volumes. The evaluation of the undistorted 3D image after the calibration yields sub-millimeter geometric accuracy. A phantom experiment simulating oral and maxillofacial surgery was also performed to evaluate the proposed AR overlay device in terms of the image registration accuracy, 3D image overlay accuracy, and the visual effects of the overlay. The experimental results show satisfactory image registration and image overlay accuracy, and confirm the system usability.

  14. Realization of real-time interactive 3D image holographic display [Invited].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jhen-Si; Chu, Daping

    2016-01-20

    Realization of a 3D image holographic display supporting real-time interaction requires fast actions in data uploading, hologram calculation, and image projection. These three key elements will be reviewed and discussed, while algorithms of rapid hologram calculation will be presented with the corresponding results. Our vision of interactive holographic 3D displays will be discussed.

  15. A review of 3D/2D registration methods for image-guided interventions.

    PubMed

    Markelj, P; Tomaževič, D; Likar, B; Pernuš, F

    2012-04-01

    Registration of pre- and intra-interventional data is one of the key technologies for image-guided radiation therapy, radiosurgery, minimally invasive surgery, endoscopy, and interventional radiology. In this paper, we survey those 3D/2D data registration methods that utilize 3D computer tomography or magnetic resonance images as the pre-interventional data and 2D X-ray projection images as the intra-interventional data. The 3D/2D registration methods are reviewed with respect to image modality, image dimensionality, registration basis, geometric transformation, user interaction, optimization procedure, subject, and object of registration.

  16. Bi-sided integral imaging with 2D/3D convertibility using scattering polarizer.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Jiwoon; Hong, Keehoon; Park, Soon-gi; Hong, Jisoo; Min, Sung-Wook; Lee, Byoungho

    2013-12-16

    We propose a two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) convertible bi-sided integral imaging. The proposed system uses the polarization state of projected light for switching its operation mode between 2D and 3D modes. By using an optical module composed of two scattering polarizers and one linear polarizer, the proposed integral imaging system simultaneously provides 3D images with 2D background images for observers who are located in the front and the rear sides of the system. The occlusion effect between 2D images and 3D images is realized by using a compensation mask for 2D images and the elemental images. The principle of proposed system is experimentally verified.

  17. Edge structure preserving 3D image denoising by local surface approximation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peihua; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2012-08-01

    In various applications, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI), 3D images are becoming increasingly popular. To improve the reliability of subsequent image analyses, 3D image denoising is often a necessary preprocessing step, which is the focus of the current paper. In the literature, most existing image denoising procedures are for 2D images. Their direct extensions to 3D cases generally cannot handle 3D images efficiently because the structure of a typical 3D image is substantially more complicated than that of a typical 2D image. For instance, edge locations are surfaces in 3D cases which would be much more challenging to handle compared to edge curves in 2D cases. We propose a novel 3D image denoising procedure in this paper, based on local approximation of the edge surfaces using a set of surface templates. An important property of this method is that it can preserve edges and major edge structures (e.g., intersections of two edge surfaces and pointed corners). Numerical studies show that it works well in various applications.

  18. 3-D ultrafast Doppler imaging applied to the noninvasive mapping of blood vessels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Demene, Charlie; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    Ultrafast Doppler imaging was introduced as a technique to quantify blood flow in an entire 2-D field of view, expanding the field of application of ultrasound imaging to the highly sensitive anatomical and functional mapping of blood vessels. We have recently developed 3-D ultrafast ultrasound imaging, a technique that can produce thousands of ultrasound volumes per second, based on a 3-D plane and diverging wave emissions, and demonstrated its clinical feasibility in human subjects in vivo. In this study, we show that noninvasive 3-D ultrafast power Doppler, pulsed Doppler, and color Doppler imaging can be used to perform imaging of blood vessels in humans when using coherent compounding of 3-D tilted plane waves. A customized, programmable, 1024-channel ultrasound system was designed to perform 3-D ultrafast imaging. Using a 32 × 32, 3-MHz matrix phased array (Vermon, Tours, France), volumes were beamformed by coherently compounding successive tilted plane wave emissions. Doppler processing was then applied in a voxel-wise fashion. The proof of principle of 3-D ultrafast power Doppler imaging was first performed by imaging Tygon tubes of various diameters, and in vivo feasibility was demonstrated by imaging small vessels in the human thyroid. Simultaneous 3-D color and pulsed Doppler imaging using compounded emissions were also applied in the carotid artery and the jugular vein in one healthy volunteer.

  19. Computation of tooth axes of existent and missing teeth from 3D CT images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wu, Lin; Guo, Huayan; Qiu, Tiantian; Huang, Yuanliang; Lin, Bin; Wang, Lisheng

    2015-12-01

    Orientations of tooth axes are important quantitative information used in dental diagnosis and surgery planning. However, their computation is a complex problem, and the existing methods have respective limitations. This paper proposes new methods to compute 3D tooth axes from 3D CT images for existent teeth with single root or multiple roots and to estimate 3D tooth axes from 3D CT images for missing teeth. The tooth axis of a single-root tooth will be determined by segmenting the pulp cavity of the tooth and computing the principal direction of the pulp cavity, and the estimation of tooth axes of the missing teeth is modeled as an interpolation problem of some quaternions along a 3D curve. The proposed methods can either avoid the difficult teeth segmentation problem or improve the limitations of existing methods. Their effectiveness and practicality are demonstrated by experimental results of different 3D CT images from the clinic.

  20. Review of three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging for oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Rachel L; Stevens, Roger J G; Harris, Paul A; Rusby, Jennifer E

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional surface imaging (3D-SI) is being marketed as a tool in aesthetic breast surgery. It has recently also been studied in the objective evaluation of cosmetic outcome of oncological procedures. The aim of this review is to summarise the use of 3D-SI in oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery. An extensive literature review was undertaken to identify published studies. Two reviewers independently screened all abstracts and selected relevant articles using specific inclusion criteria. Seventy two articles relating to 3D-SI for breast surgery were identified. These covered endpoints such as image acquisition, calculations and data obtainable, comparison of 3D and 2D imaging and clinical research applications of 3D-SI. The literature provides a favourable view of 3D-SI. However, evidence of its superiority over current methods of clinical decision making, surgical planning, communication and evaluation of outcome is required before it can be accepted into mainstream practice.

  1. Clinical Study of 3D Imaging and 3D Printing Technique for Patient-Specific Instrumentation in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bing; Liu, Fei; Tang, Bensen; Deng, Biyong; Liu, Fang; Zhu, Weimin; Zhen, Dong; Xue, Mingyuan; Zhang, Mingjiao

    2017-01-25

    Patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) was designed to improve the accuracy of preoperative planning and postoperative prosthesis positioning in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, better understanding needs to be achieved due to the subtle nature of the PSI systems. In this study, 3D printing technique based on the image data of computed tomography (CT) has been utilized for optimal controlling of the surgical parameters. Two groups of TKA cases have been randomly selected as PSI group and control group with no significant difference of age and sex (p > 0.05). The PSI group is treated with 3D printed cutting guides whereas the control group is treated with conventional instrumentation (CI). By evaluating the proximal osteotomy amount, distal osteotomy amount, valgus angle, external rotation angle, and tibial posterior slope angle of patients, it can be found that the preoperative quantitative assessment and intraoperative changes can be controlled with PSI whereas CI is relied on experience. In terms of postoperative parameters, such as hip-knee-ankle (HKA), frontal femoral component (FFC), frontal tibial component (FTC), and lateral tibial component (LTC) angles, there is a significant improvement in achieving the desired implant position (p < 0.05). Assigned from the morphology of patients' knees, the PSI represents the convergence of congruent designs with current personalized treatment tools. The PSI can achieve less extremity alignment and greater accuracy of prosthesis implantation compared against control method, which indicates potential for optimal HKA, FFC, and FTC angles.

  2. Evaluation of stereoscopic 3D displays for image analysis tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Rehfeld, N.; Eck, R.

    2009-02-01

    In many application domains the analysis of aerial or satellite images plays an important role. The use of stereoscopic display technologies can enhance the image analyst's ability to detect or to identify certain objects of interest, which results in a higher performance. Changing image acquisition from analog to digital techniques entailed the change of stereoscopic visualisation techniques. Recently different kinds of digital stereoscopic display techniques with affordable prices have appeared on the market. At Fraunhofer IITB usability tests were carried out to find out (1) with which kind of these commercially available stereoscopic display techniques image analysts achieve the best performance and (2) which of these techniques achieve a high acceptance. First, image analysts were interviewed to define typical image analysis tasks which were expected to be solved with a higher performance using stereoscopic display techniques. Next, observer experiments were carried out whereby image analysts had to solve defined tasks with different visualization techniques. Based on the experimental results (performance parameters and qualitative subjective evaluations of the used display techniques) two of the examined stereoscopic display technologies were found to be very good and appropriate.

  3. Advances in automated 3-D image analyses of cell populations imaged by confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ancin, H; Roysam, B; Dufresne, T E; Chestnut, M M; Ridder, G M; Szarowski, D H; Turner, J N

    1996-11-01

    Automated three-dimensional (3-D) image analysis methods are presented for rapid and effective analysis of populations of fluorescently labeled cells or nuclei in thick tissue sections that have been imaged three dimensionally using a confocal microscope. The methods presented here greatly improve upon our earlier work (Roysam et al.:J Microsc 173: 115-126, 1994). The principal advances reported are: algorithms for efficient data pre-processing and adaptive segmentation, effective handling of image anisotrophy, and fast 3-D morphological algorithms for separating overlapping or connected clusters utilizing image gradient information whenever available. A particular feature of this method is its ability to separate densely packed and connected clusters of cell nuclei. Some of the challenges overcome in this work include the efficient and effective handling of imaging noise, anisotrophy, and large variations in image parameters such as intensity, object size, and shape. The method is able to handle significant inter-cell, intra-cell, inter-image, and intra-image variations. Studies indicate that this method is rapid, robust, and adaptable. Examples were presented to illustrate the applicability of this approach to analyzing images of nuclei from densely packed regions in thick sections of rat liver, and brain that were labeled with a fluorescent Schiff reagent.

  4. Registering preprocedure volumetric images with intraprocedure 3-D ultrasound using an ultrasound imaging model.

    PubMed

    King, A P; Rhode, K S; Ma, Y; Yao, C; Jansen, C; Razavi, R; Penney, G P

    2010-03-01

    For many image-guided interventions there exists a need to compute the registration between preprocedure image(s) and the physical space of the intervention. Real-time intraprocedure imaging such as ultrasound (US) can be used to image the region of interest directly and provide valuable anatomical information for computing this registration. Unfortunately, real-time US images often have poor signal-to-noise ratio and suffer from imaging artefacts. Therefore, registration using US images can be challenging and significant preprocessing is often required to make the registrations robust. In this paper we present a novel technique for computing the image-to-physical registration for minimally invasive cardiac interventions using 3-D US. Our technique uses knowledge of the physics of the US imaging process to reduce the amount of preprocessing required on the 3-D US images. To account for the fact that clinical US images normally undergo significant image processing before being exported from the US machine our optimization scheme allows the parameters of the US imaging model to vary. We validated our technique by computing rigid registrations for 12 cardiac US/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets acquired from six volunteers and two patients. The technique had mean registration errors of 2.1-4.4 mm, and 75% capture ranges of 5-30 mm. We also demonstrate how the same approach can be used for respiratory motion correction: on 15 datasets acquired from five volunteers the registration errors due to respiratory motion were reduced by 45%-92%.

  5. Image processing and 3D visualization in forensic pathologic examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, William R.; Altschuler, Bruce R.

    1996-02-01

    The use of image processing is becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of violent crime. While much work has been done in the use of these techniques for forensic purposes outside of forensic pathology, its use in the pathologic examination of wounding has been limited. We are investigating the use of image processing and three-dimensional visualization in the analysis of patterned injuries and tissue damage. While image processing will never replace classical understanding and interpretation of how injuries develop and evolve, it can be a useful tool in helping an observer notice features in an image, may help provide correlation of surface to deep tissue injury, and provide a mechanism for the development of a metric for analyzing how likely it may be that a given object may have caused a given wound. We are also exploring methods of acquiring three-dimensional data for such measurements, which is the subject of a second paper.

  6. Online reconstruction of 3D magnetic particle imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopp, T.; Hofmann, M.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic particle imaging is a quantitative functional imaging technique that allows imaging of the spatial distribution of super-paramagnetic iron oxide particles at high temporal resolution. The raw data acquisition can be performed at frame rates of more than 40 volumes s-1. However, to date image reconstruction is performed in an offline step and thus no direct feedback is available during the experiment. Considering potential interventional applications such direct feedback would be mandatory. In this work, an online reconstruction framework is implemented that allows direct visualization of the particle distribution on the screen of the acquisition computer with a latency of about 2 s. The reconstruction process is adaptive and performs block-averaging in order to optimize the signal quality for a given amount of reconstruction time.

  7. IMPROMPTU: a system for automatic 3D medical image-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sundaramoorthy, G; Hoford, J D; Hoffman, E A; Higgins, W E

    1995-01-01

    The utility of three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is hampered by difficulties in extracting anatomical regions and making measurements in 3D images. Presently, a user is generally forced to use time-consuming, subjective, manual methods, such as slice tracing and region painting, to define regions of interest. Automatic image-analysis methods can ameliorate the difficulties of manual methods. This paper describes a graphical user interface (GUI) system for constructing automatic image-analysis processes for 3D medical-imaging applications. The system, referred to as IMPROMPTU, provides a user-friendly environment for prototyping, testing and executing complex image-analysis processes. IMPROMPTU can stand alone or it can interact with an existing graphics-based 3D medical image-analysis package (VIDA), giving a strong environment for 3D image-analysis, consisting of tools for visualization, manual interaction, and automatic processing. IMPROMPTU links to a large library of 1D, 2D, and 3D image-processing functions, referred to as VIPLIB, but a user can easily link in custom-made functions. 3D applications of the system are given for left-ventricular chamber, myocardial, and upper-airway extractions.

  8. Segmentation and interpretation of 3D protein images

    SciTech Connect

    Leherte, L.; Baxter, K.; Glasgow, J.; Fortier, S.

    1994-12-31

    The segmentation and interpretation of three-dimensional images of proteins is considered. A topological approach is used to represent a protein structure as a spanning tree of critical points, where each critical point corresponds to a residue or the connectivity between residues. The critical points are subsequently analyzed to recognize secondary structure motifs within the protein. Results of applying the approach to ideal and experimental images of proteins at medium resolution are presented.

  9. Cytology 3D structure formation based on optical microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronichev, A. N.; Polyakov, E. V.; Shabalova, I. P.; Djangirova, T. V.; Zaitsev, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    The article the article is devoted to optimization of the parameters of imaging of biological preparations in optical microscopy using a multispectral camera in visible range of electromagnetic radiation. A model for the image forming of virtual preparations was proposed. The optimum number of layers was determined for the object scan in depth and holistic perception of its switching according to the results of the experiment.

  10. 3D ultrasound image segmentation using multiple incomplete feature sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Liexiang; Herrington, David M.; Santago, Peter, II

    1999-05-01

    We use three features, the intensity, texture and motion to obtain robust results for segmentation of intracoronary ultrasound images. Using a parameterized equation to describe the lumen-plaque and media-adventitia boundaries, we formulate the segmentation as a parameter estimation through a cost functional based on the posterior probability, which can handle the incompleteness of the features in ultrasound images by employing outlier detection.

  11. Improved 3D cellular imaging by multispectral focus assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tong; Xiong, Yizhi; Chung, Alice P.; Wachman, Elliot S.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2005-03-01

    Biological specimens are three-dimensional structures. However, when capturing their images through a microscope, there is only one plane in the field of view that is in focus, and out-of-focus portions of the specimen affect image quality in the in-focus plane. It is well-established that the microscope"s point spread function (PSF) can be used for blur quantitation, for the restoration of real images. However, this is an ill-posed problem, with no unique solution and with high computational complexity. In this work, instead of estimating and using the PSF, we studied focus quantitation in multi-spectral image sets. A gradient map we designed was used to evaluate the sharpness degree of each pixel, in order to identify blurred areas not to be considered. Experiments with realistic multi-spectral Pap smear images showed that measurement of their sharp gradients can provide depth information roughly comparable to human perception (through a microscope), while avoiding PSF estimation. Spectrum and morphometrics-based statistical analysis for abnormal cell detection can then be implemented in an image database where the axial structure has been refined.

  12. Estimation of the degree of polarization in low-light 3D integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnicer, Artur; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    The calculation of the Stokes Parameters and the Degree of Polarization in 3D integral images requires a careful manipulation of the polarimetric elemental images. This fact is particularly important if the scenes are taken in low-light conditions. In this paper, we show that the Degree of Polarization can be effectively estimated even when elemental images are recorded with few photons. The original idea was communicated in [A. Carnicer and B. Javidi, "Polarimetric 3D integral imaging in photon-starved conditions," Opt. Express 23, 6408-6417 (2015)]. First, we use the Maximum Likelihood Estimation approach for generating the 3D integral image. Nevertheless, this method produces very noisy images and thus, the degree of polarization cannot be calculated. We suggest using a Total Variation Denoising filter as a way to improve the quality of the generated 3D images. As a result, noise is suppressed but high frequency information is preserved. Finally, the degree of polarization is obtained successfully.

  13. Photon counting passive 3D image sensing for automatic target recognition.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Seokwon; Javidi, Bahram; Watson, Edward

    2005-11-14

    In this paper, we propose photon counting three-dimensional (3D) passive sensing and object recognition using integral imaging. The application of this approach to 3D automatic target recognition (ATR) is investigated using both linear and nonlinear matched filters. We find there is significant potential of the proposed system for 3D sensing and recognition with a low number of photons. The discrimination capability of the proposed system is quantified in terms of discrimination ratio, Fisher ratio, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on photon counting 3D passive sensing and ATR with integral imaging.

  14. ICER-3D: A Progressive Wavelet-Based Compressor for Hyperspectral Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, A.; Klimesh, M.; Xie, H.; Aranki, N.

    2005-01-01

    ICER-3D is a progressive, wavelet-based compressor for hyperspectral images. ICER-3D is derived from the ICER image compressor. ICER-3D can provide lossless and lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The three-dimensional wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of hyperspectral data sets, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts. Correlation is further exploited by a context modeler that effectively exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data. Performance results illustrating the benefits of these features are presented.

  15. Real-time auto-stereoscopic visualization of 3D medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portoni, Luisa; Patak, Alexandre; Noirard, Pierre; Grossetie, Jean-Claude; van Berkel, Cees

    2000-04-01

    The work here described regards multi-viewer auto- stereoscopic visualization of 3D models of anatomical structures and organs of the human body. High-quality 3D models of more than 1600 anatomical structures have been reconstructed using the Visualization Toolkit, a freely available C++ class library for 3D graphics and visualization. 2D images used for 3D reconstruction comes from the Visible Human Data Set. Auto-stereoscopic 3D image visualization is obtained using a prototype monitor developed at Philips Research Labs, UK. This special multiview 3D-LCD screen has been connected directly to a SGI workstation, where 3D reconstruction and medical imaging applications are executed. Dedicated software has been developed to implement multiview capability. A number of static or animated contemporary views of the same object can simultaneously be seen on the 3D-LCD screen by several observers, having a real 3D perception of the visualized scene without the use of extra media as dedicated glasses or head-mounted displays. Developed software applications allow real-time interaction with visualized 3D models, didactical animations and movies have been realized as well.

  16. Contactless operating table control based on 3D image processing.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Stephan; Loftfield, Nina; Langmann, Benjamin; Frank, Klaus; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Interaction with mobile consumer devices leads to a higher acceptance and affinity of persons to natural user interfaces and perceptional interaction possibilities. New interaction modalities become accessible and are capable to improve human machine interaction even in complex and high risk environments, like the operation room. Here, manifold medical disciplines cause a great variety of procedures and thus staff and equipment. One universal challenge is to meet the sterility requirements, for which common contact-afflicted remote interfaces always pose a potential risk causing a hazard for the process. The proposed operating table control system overcomes this process risk and thus improves the system usability significantly. The 3D sensor system, the Microsoft Kinect, captures the motion of the user, allowing a touchless manipulation of an operating table. Three gestures enable the user to select, activate and manipulate all segments of the motorised system in a safe and intuitive way. The gesture dynamics are synchronised with the table movement. In a usability study, 15 participants evaluated the system with a system usability score by Broke of 79. This states a high potential for implementation and acceptance in interventional environments. In the near future, even processes with higher risks could be controlled with the proposed interface, while interfaces become safer and more direct.

  17. Computer acquisition of 3D images utilizing dynamic speckles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamshilin, Alexei A.; Semenov, Dmitry V.; Nippolainen, Ervin; Raita, Erik

    2006-05-01

    We present novel technique for fast non-contact and continuous profile measurements of rough surfaces by use of dynamic speckles. The dynamic speckle pattern is generated when the laser beam scans the surface under study. The most impressive feature of the proposed technique is its ability to work at extremely high scanning speed of hundreds meters per second. The technique is based on the continuous frequency measurements of the light-power modulation after spatial filtering of the scattered light. The complete optical-electronic system was designed and fabricated for fast measurement of the speckles velocity, its recalculation into the distance, and further data acquisition into computer. The measured surface profile is displayed in a PC monitor in real time. The response time of the measuring system is below 1 μs. Important parameters of the system such as accuracy, range of measurements, and spatial resolution are analyzed. Limits of the spatial filtering technique used for continuous tracking of the speckle-pattern velocity are shown. Possible ways of further improvement of the measurements accuracy are demonstrated. Owing to its extremely fast operation, the proposed technique could be applied for online control of the 3D-shape of complex objects (e.g., electronic circuits) during their assembling.

  18. Image quality of a cone beam O-arm 3D imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Weir, Victor; Lin, Jingying; Hsiung, Hsiang; Ritenour, E. Russell

    2009-02-01

    The O-arm is a cone beam imaging system designed primarily to support orthopedic surgery and is also used for image-guided and vascular surgery. Using a gantry that can be opened or closed, the O-arm can function as a 2-dimensional (2D) fluoroscopy device or collect 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric imaging data like a CT system. Clinical applications of the O-arm in spine surgical procedures, assessment of pedicle screw position, and kyphoplasty procedures show that the O-arm 3D mode provides enhanced imaging information compared to radiographs or fluoroscopy alone. In this study, the image quality of an O-arm system was quantitatively evaluated. A 20 cm diameter CATPHAN 424 phantom was scanned using the pre-programmed head protocols: small/medium (120 kVp, 100 mAs), large (120 kVp, 128 mAs), and extra-large (120 kVp, 160 mAs) in 3D mode. High resolution reconstruction mode (512×512×0.83 mm) was used to reconstruct images for the analysis of low and high contrast resolution, and noise power spectrum. MTF was measured using the point spread function. The results show that the O-arm image is uniform but with a noise pattern which cannot be removed by simply increasing the mAs. The high contrast resolution of the O-arm system was approximately 9 lp/cm. The system has a 10% MTF at 0.45 mm. The low-contrast resolution cannot be decided due to the noise pattern. For surgery where locations of a structure are emphasized over a survey of all image details, the image quality of the O-arm is well accepted clinically.

  19. Air-touch interaction system for integral imaging 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Han Yuan; Xiang, Lee Ming; Lee, Byung Gook

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an air-touch interaction system for the tabletop type integral imaging 3D display. This system consists of the real 3D image generation system based on integral imaging technique and the interaction device using a real-time finger detection interface. In this system, we used multi-layer B-spline surface approximation to detect the fingertip and gesture easily in less than 10cm height from the screen via input the hand image. The proposed system can be used in effective human computer interaction method for the tabletop type 3D display.

  20. Space Radar Image Isla Isabela in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional view of Isabela, one of the Galapagos Islands located off the western coast of Ecuador, South America. This view was constructed by overlaying a Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) image on a digital elevation map produced by TOPSAR, a prototype airborne interferometric radar which produces simultaneous image and elevation data. The vertical scale in this image is exaggerated by a factor of 1.87. The SIR-C/X-SAR image was taken on the 40th orbit of space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees. The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles)west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii and reflect the volcanic processes that occur where the ocean floor is created. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been more than 60 recorded eruptions on these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. Vertical exaggeration of relief is a common tool scientists use to detect relationships between structure (for example, faults, and fractures) and topography. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data

  1. Radar Imaging of Spheres in 3D using MUSIC

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D H; Berryman, J G

    2003-01-21

    We have shown that multiple spheres can be imaged by linear and planar EM arrays using only one component of polarization. The imaging approach involves calculating the SVD of the scattering response matrix, selecting a subset of singular values that represents noise, and evaluating the MUSIC functional. The noise threshold applied to the spectrum of singular values for optimal performance is typically around 1%. The resulting signal subspace includes more than one singular value per sphere. The presence of reflections from the ground improves height localization, even for a linear array parallel to the ground. However, the interference between direct and reflected energy modulates the field, creating periodic nulls that can obscure targets in typical images. These nulls are largely eliminated by normalizing the MUSIC functional with the broadside beam pattern of the array. The resulting images show excellent localization for 1 and 2 spheres. The performance for the 3 sphere configurations are complicated by shadowing effects and the greater range of the 3rd sphere in case 2. Two of the three spheres are easily located by MUSIC but the third is difficult to distinguish from other local maxima of the complex imaging functional. Improvement is seen when the linear array is replace with a planar array, which increases the effective aperture height. Further analysis of the singular values and their relationship to modes of scattering from the spheres, as well as better ways to exploit polarization, should improve performance. Work along these lines is currently being pursued by the authors.

  2. 3D-2D registration of cerebral angiograms: a method and evaluation on clinical images.

    PubMed

    Mitrovic, Uroš; Špiclin, Žiga; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo

    2013-08-01

    Endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGI) involve navigation of a catheter through the vasculature followed by application of treatment at the site of anomaly using live 2D projection images for guidance. 3D images acquired prior to EIGI are used to quantify the vascular anomaly and plan the intervention. If fused with the information of live 2D images they can also facilitate navigation and treatment. For this purpose 3D-2D image registration is required. Although several 3D-2D registration methods for EIGI achieve registration accuracy below 1 mm, their clinical application is still limited by insufficient robustness or reliability. In this paper, we propose a 3D-2D registration method based on matching a 3D vasculature model to intensity gradients of live 2D images. To objectively validate 3D-2D registration methods, we acquired a clinical image database of 10 patients undergoing cerebral EIGI and established "gold standard" registrations by aligning fiducial markers in 3D and 2D images. The proposed method had mean registration accuracy below 0.65 mm, which was comparable to tested state-of-the-art methods, and execution time below 1 s. With the highest rate of successful registrations and the highest capture range the proposed method was the most robust and thus a good candidate for application in EIGI.

  3. A monthly quality assurance procedure for 3D surface imaging.

    PubMed

    Wooten, H Omar; Klein, Eric E; Gokhroo, Garima; Santanam, Lakshmi

    2010-12-21

    A procedure for periodic quality assurance of a video surface imaging system is introduced. AlignRT is a video camera-based patient localization system that captures and compares images of a patient's topography to a DICOM-formatted external contour, then calculates shifts required to accurately reposition the patient. This technical note describes the tools and methods implemented in our department to verify correct and accurate operation of the AlignRT hardware and software components. The procedure described is performed monthly and complements a daily calibration of the system.

  4. 3-D capacitance density imaging of fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved.

  5. Realization of an aerial 3D image that occludes the background scenery.

    PubMed

    Kakeya, Hideki; Ishizuka, Shuta; Sato, Yuya

    2014-10-06

    In this paper we describe an aerial 3D image that occludes far background scenery based on coarse integral volumetric imaging (CIVI) technology. There have been many volumetric display devices that present floating 3D images, most of which have not reproduced the visual occlusion. CIVI is a kind of multilayered integral imaging and realizes an aerial volumetric image with visual occlusion by combining multiview and volumetric display technologies. The conventional CIVI, however, cannot show a deep space, for the number of layered panels is limited because of the low transmittance of each panel. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel optical design to attain an aerial 3D image that occludes far background scenery. In the proposed system, a translucent display panel with 120 Hz refresh rate is located between the CIVI system and the aerial 3D image. The system modulates between the aerial image mode and the background image mode. In the aerial image mode, the elemental images are shown on the CIVI display and the inserted translucent display is uniformly translucent. In the background image mode, the black shadows of the elemental images in a white background are shown on the CIVI display and the background scenery is displayed on the inserted translucent panel. By alternation of these two modes at 120 Hz, an aerial 3D image that visually occludes the far background scenery is perceived by the viewer.

  6. 3D spectral imaging system for anterior chamber metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Trevor; Segref, Armin; Frisken, Grant; Frisken, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Accurate metrology of the anterior chamber of the eye is useful for a number of diagnostic and clinical applications. In particular, accurate corneal topography and corneal thickness data is desirable for fitting contact lenses, screening for diseases and monitoring corneal changes. Anterior OCT systems can be used to measure anterior chamber surfaces, however accurate curvature measurements for single point scanning systems are known to be very sensitive to patient movement. To overcome this problem we have developed a parallel 3D spectral metrology system that captures simultaneous A-scans on a 2D lateral grid. This approach enables estimates of the elevation and curvature of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces that are robust to sample movement. Furthermore, multiple simultaneous surface measurements greatly improve the ability to register consecutive frames and enable aggregate measurements over a finer lateral grid. A key element of our approach has been to exploit standard low cost optical components including lenslet arrays and a 2D sensor to provide a path towards low cost implementation. We demonstrate first prototypes based on 6 Mpixel sensor using a 250 μm pitch lenslet array with 300 sample beams to achieve an RMS elevation accuracy of 1μm with 95 dB sensitivity and a 7.0 mm range. Initial tests on Porcine eyes, model eyes and calibration spheres demonstrate the validity of the concept. With the next iteration of designs we expect to be able to achieve over 1000 simultaneous A-scans in excess of 75 frames per second.

  7. Registration and 3D visualization of large microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosaliganti, Kishore; Pan, Tony; Sharp, Richard; Ridgway, Randall; Iyengar, Srivathsan; Gulacy, Alexandra; Wenzel, Pamela; de Bruin, Alain; Machiraju, Raghu; Huang, Kun; Leone, Gustavo; Saltz, Joel

    2006-03-01

    Inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene in mouse embryos causes tissue infiltrations into critical sections of the placenta, which has been shown to affect fetal survivability. Our collaborators in cancer genetics are extremely interested in examining the three dimensional nature of these infiltrations given a stack of two dimensional light microscopy images. Three sets of wildtype and mutant placentas was sectioned serially and digitized using a commercial light microscopy scanner. Each individual placenta dataset consisted of approximately 1000 images totaling 700 GB in size, which were registered into a volumetric dataset using National Library of Medicine's (NIH/NLM) Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK). This paper describes our method for image registration to aid in volume visualization of tissue level intermixing for both wildtype and Rb - specimens. The registration process faces many challenges arising from the large image sizes, damages during sectioning, staining gradients both within and across sections, and background noise. These issues limit the direct application of standard registration techniques due to frequent convergence to local solutions. In this work, we develop a mixture of automated and semi-automated enhancements with ground-truth validation for the mutual information-based registration algorithm. Our final volume renderings clearly show tissue intermixing differences between both wildtype and Rb - specimens which are not obvious prior to registration.

  8. Space Radar Image of Kilauea, Hawaii in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of a false-color image of the eastern part of the Big Island of Hawaii. It was produced using all three radar frequencies -- X-band, C-band and L-band -- from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on the space shuttle Endeavour, overlaid on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map. Visible in the center of the image in blue are the summit crater (Kilauea Caldera) which contains the smaller Halemaumau Crater, and the line of collapse craters below them that form the Chain of Craters Road. The image was acquired on April 12, 1994 during orbit 52 of the space shuttle. The area shown is approximately 34 by 57 kilometers (21 by 35 miles) with the top of the image pointing toward northwest. The image is centered at about 155.25 degrees west longitude and 19.5 degrees north latitude. The false colors are created by displaying three radar channels of different frequency. Red areas correspond to high backscatter at L-HV polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at C-HV polarization. Finally, blue shows high return at X-VV polarization. Using this color scheme, the rain forest appears bright on the image, while the green areas correspond to lower vegetation. The lava flows have different colors depending on their types and are easily recognizable due to their shapes. The flows at the top of the image originated from the Mauna Loa volcano. Kilauea volcano has been almost continuously active for more than the last 11 years. Field teams that were on the ground specifically to support these radar observations report that there was vigorous surface activity about 400 meters (one-quartermile) inland from the coast. A moving lava flow about 200 meters (650 feet) in length was observed at the time of the shuttle overflight, raising the possibility that subsequent images taken during this mission will show changes in the landscape. Currently, most of the lava that is

  9. High definition 3D imaging lidar system using CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Sungeun; Kong, Hong Jin; Bang, Hyochoong

    2016-10-01

    In this study we propose and demonstrate a novel technique for measuring distance with high definition three-dimensional imaging. To meet the stringent requirements of various missions, spatial resolution and range precision are important properties for flash LIDAR systems. The proposed LIDAR system employs a polarization modulator and a CCD. When a laser pulse is emitted from the laser, it triggers the polarization modulator. The laser pulse is scattered by the target and is reflected back to the LIDAR system while the polarization modulator is rotating. Its polarization state is a function of time. The laser-return pulse passes through the polarization modulator in a certain polarization state, and the polarization state is calculated using the intensities of the laser pulses measured by the CCD. Because the function of the time and the polarization state is already known, the polarization state can be converted to time-of-flight. By adopting a polarization modulator and a CCD and only measuring the energy of a laser pulse to obtain range, a high resolution three-dimensional image can be acquired by the proposed three-dimensional imaging LIDAR system. Since this system only measures the energy of the laser pulse, a high bandwidth detector and a high resolution TDC are not required for high range precision. The proposed method is expected to be an alternative method for many three-dimensional imaging LIDAR system applications that require high resolution.

  10. A 3-D fluorescence imaging system incorporating structured illumination technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antos, L.; Emord, P.; Luquette, B.; McGee, B.; Nguyen, D.; Phipps, A.; Phillips, D.; Helguera, M.

    2010-02-01

    A currently available 2-D high-resolution, optical molecular imaging system was modified by the addition of a structured illumination source, OptigridTM, to investigate the feasibility of providing depth resolution along the optical axis. The modification involved the insertion of the OptigridTM and a lens in the path between the light source and the image plane, as well as control and signal processing software. Projection of the OptigridTM onto the imaging surface at an angle, was resolved applying the Scheimpflug principle. The illumination system implements modulation of the light source and provides a framework for capturing depth resolved mages. The system is capable of in-focus projection of the OptigridTM at different spatial frequencies, and supports the use of different lenses. A calibration process was developed for the system to achieve consistent phase shifts of the OptigridTM. Post-processing extracted depth information using depth modulation analysis using a phantom block with fluorescent sheets at different depths. An important aspect of this effort was that it was carried out by a multidisciplinary team of engineering and science students as part of a capstone senior design program. The disciplines represented are mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and imaging science. The project was sponsored by a financial grant from New York State with equipment support from two industrial concerns. The students were provided with a basic imaging concept and charged with developing, implementing, testing and validating a feasible proof-of-concept prototype system that was returned to the originator of the concept for further evaluation and characterization.

  11. 3D Modeling from Multi-views Images for Cultural Heritage in Wat-Pho, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soontranon, N.; Srestasathiern, P.; Lawawirojwong, S.

    2015-08-01

    In Thailand, there are several types of (tangible) cultural heritages. This work focuses on 3D modeling of the heritage objects from multi-views images. The images are acquired by using a DSLR camera which costs around 1,500 (camera and lens). Comparing with a 3D laser scanner, the camera is cheaper and lighter than the 3D scanner. Hence, the camera is available for public users and convenient for accessing narrow areas. The acquired images consist of various sculptures and architectures in Wat-Pho which is a Buddhist temple located behind the Grand Palace (Bangkok, Thailand). Wat-Pho is known as temple of the reclining Buddha and the birthplace of traditional Thai massage. To compute the 3D models, a diagram is separated into following steps; Data acquisition, Image matching, Image calibration and orientation, Dense matching and Point cloud processing. For the initial work, small heritages less than 3 meters height are considered for the experimental results. A set of multi-views images of an interested object is used as input data for 3D modeling. In our experiments, 3D models are obtained from MICMAC (open source) software developed by IGN, France. The output of 3D models will be represented by using standard formats of 3D point clouds and triangulated surfaces such as .ply, .off, .obj, etc. To compute for the efficient 3D models, post-processing techniques are required for the final results e.g. noise reduction, surface simplification and reconstruction. The reconstructed 3D models can be provided for public access such as website, DVD, printed materials. The high accurate 3D models can also be used as reference data of the heritage objects that must be restored due to deterioration of a lifetime, natural disasters, etc.

  12. 3D current source density imaging based on acoustoelectric effect: a simulation study using unipolar pulses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Renhuan; Li, Xu; Liu, Jun; He, Bin

    2011-01-01

    It is of importance to image electrical activity and properties of biological tissues. Recently hybrid imaging modality combing ultrasound scanning and source imaging through the acousto-electric (AE) effect has generated considerable interest. Such modality has the potential to provide high spatial resolution current density imaging by utilizing the pressure induced AE resistivity change confined at the ultrasound focus. In this study, we investigate a novel 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI) approach using unipolar ultrasound pulses. Utilizing specially designed unipolar ultrasound pulses and by combining AE signals associated to the local resistivity changes at the focusing point, we are able to reconstruct the 3D current density distribution with the boundary voltage measurements obtained while performing a 3D ultrasound scan. We have shown in computer simulation that using the present method, it is feasible to image with high spatial resolution an arbitrary 3D current density distribution in an inhomogeneous conductive media. PMID:21628774

  13. A featureless approach to 3D polyhedral building modeling from aerial images.

    PubMed

    Hammoudi, Karim; Dornaika, Fadi

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based approach for reconstructing 3D polyhedral building models from aerial images. The proposed approach exploits some geometric and photometric properties resulting from the perspective projection of planar structures. Data are provided by calibrated aerial images. The novelty of the approach lies in its featurelessness and in its use of direct optimization based on image rawbrightness. The proposed framework avoids feature extraction and matching. The 3D polyhedral model is directly estimated by optimizing an objective function that combines an image-based dissimilarity measure and a gradient score over several aerial images. The optimization process is carried out by the Differential Evolution algorithm. The proposed approach is intended to provide more accurate 3D reconstruction than feature-based approaches. Fast 3D model rectification and updating can take advantage of the proposed method. Several results and evaluations of performance from real and synthetic images show the feasibility and robustness of the proposed approach.

  14. A Featureless Approach to 3D Polyhedral Building Modeling from Aerial Images

    PubMed Central

    Hammoudi, Karim; Dornaika, Fadi

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based approach for reconstructing 3D polyhedral building models from aerial images. The proposed approach exploits some geometric and photometric properties resulting from the perspective projection of planar structures. Data are provided by calibrated aerial images. The novelty of the approach lies in its featurelessness and in its use of direct optimization based on image rawbrightness. The proposed framework avoids feature extraction and matching. The 3D polyhedral model is directly estimated by optimizing an objective function that combines an image-based dissimilarity measure and a gradient score over several aerial images. The optimization process is carried out by the Differential Evolution algorithm. The proposed approach is intended to provide more accurate 3D reconstruction than feature-based approaches. Fast 3D model rectification and updating can take advantage of the proposed method. Several results and evaluations of performance from real and synthetic images show the feasibility and robustness of the proposed approach. PMID:22346575

  15. The agreement between 3D, standard 2D and triplane 2D speckle tracking: effects of image quality and 3D volume rate.

    PubMed

    Trache, Tudor; Stöbe, Stephan; Tarr, Adrienn; Pfeiffer, Dietrich; Hagendorff, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Comparison of 3D and 2D speckle tracking performed on standard 2D and triplane 2D datasets of normal and pathological left ventricular (LV) wall-motion patterns with a focus on the effect that 3D volume rate (3DVR), image quality and tracking artifacts have on the agreement between 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 37 patients with normal LV function and 18 patients with ischaemic wall-motion abnormalities underwent 2D and 3D echocardiography, followed by offline speckle tracking measurements. The values of 3D global, regional and segmental strain were compared with the standard 2D and triplane 2D strain values. Correlation analysis with the LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was also performed. The 3D and 2D global strain values correlated good in both normally and abnormally contracting hearts, though systematic differences between the two methods were observed. Of the 3D strain parameters, the area strain showed the best correlation with the LVEF. The numerical agreement of 3D and 2D analyses varied significantly with the volume rate and image quality of the 3D datasets. The highest correlation between 2D and 3D peak systolic strain values was found between 3D area and standard 2D longitudinal strain. Regional wall-motion abnormalities were similarly detected by 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 2DST of triplane datasets showed similar results to those of conventional 2D datasets. 2D and 3D speckle tracking similarly detect normal and pathological wall-motion patterns. Limited image quality has a significant impact on the agreement between 3D and 2D numerical strain values.

  16. Space Radar Image of Long Valley, California in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-dimensional perspective view of Long Valley, California was created from data taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. This image was constructed by overlaying a color composite SIR-C radar image on a digital elevation map. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process by which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The interferometry data were acquired on April 13,1994 and on October 3, 1994, during the first and second flights of the SIR-C/X-SAR instrument. The color composite radar image was taken in October and was produced by assigning red to the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization; green to the C-band (vertically transmitted and received) polarization; and blue to the ratio of the two data sets. Blue areas in the image are smooth and yellow areas are rock outcrops with varying amounts of snow and vegetation. The view is looking north along the northeastern edge of the Long Valley caldera, a volcanic collapse feature created 750,000 years ago and the site of continued subsurface activity. Crowley Lake is the large dark feature in the foreground. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are

  17. Space Radar Image of Mammoth, California in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective of Mammoth Mountain, California. This view was constructed by overlaying a Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) radar image on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map. Vertical exaggeration is 1.87 times. The image is centered at 37.6 degrees north, 119.0 degrees west. It was acquired from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit on April 13, 1994. In this color representation, red is C-band HV-polarization, green is C-band VV-polarization and blue is the ratio of C-band VV to C-band HV. Blue areas are smooth, and yellow areas are rock out-crops with varying amounts of snow and vegetation. Crowley Lake is in the foreground, and Highway 395 crosses in the middle of the image. Mammoth Mountain is shown in the upper right. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

  18. Space Radar Image of Missoula, Montana in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Missoula, Montana, created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this are useful because they show scientists the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. This technique helps to clarify the relationships of the different types of materials on the surface detected by the radar. The view is looking north-northeast. The blue circular area at the lower left corner is a bend of the Bitterroot River just before it joins the Clark Fork, which runs through the city. Crossing the Bitterroot River is the bridge of U.S. Highway 93. Highest mountains in this image are at elevations of 2,200 meters (7,200 feet). The city is about 975 meters (3,200 feet) above sea level. The bright yellow areas are urban and suburban zones, dark brown and blue-green areas are grasslands, bright green areas are farms, light brown and purple areas are scrub and forest, and bright white and blue areas are steep rocky slopes. The two radar images were taken on successive days by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue are differences seen in the L-band data between the two days. This image is centered near 46.9 degrees north latitude and 114.1 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA

  19. Space Radar Image of Karakax Valley, China 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-dimensional perspective of the remote Karakax Valley in the northern Tibetan Plateau of western China was created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this are helpful to scientists because they reveal where the slopes of the valley are cut by erosion, as well as the accumulations of gravel deposits at the base of the mountains. These gravel deposits, called alluvial fans, are a common landform in desert regions that scientists are mapping in order to learn more about Earth's past climate changes. Higher up the valley side is a clear break in the slope, running straight, just below the ridge line. This is the trace of the Altyn Tagh fault, which is much longer than California's San Andreas fault. Geophysicists are studying this fault for clues it may be able to give them about large faults. Elevations range from 4000 m (13,100 ft) in the valley to over 6000 m (19,700 ft) at the peaks of the glaciated Kun Lun mountains running from the front right towards the back. Scale varies in this perspective view, but the area is about 20 km (12 miles) wide in the middle of the image, and there is no vertical exaggeration. The two radar images were acquired on separate days during the second flight of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The interferometry technique provides elevation measurements of all points in the scene. The resulting digital topographic map was used to create this view, looking northwest from high over the valley. Variations in the colors can be related to gravel, sand and rock outcrops. This image is centered at 36.1 degrees north latitude, 79.2 degrees east longitude. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: Red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is the average of L-band vertically transmitted

  20. 3D lidar imaging for detecting and understanding plant responses and canopy structure.

    PubMed

    Omasa, Kenji; Hosoi, Fumiki; Konishi, Atsumi

    2007-01-01

    Understanding and diagnosing plant responses to stress will benefit greatly from three-dimensional (3D) measurement and analysis of plant properties because plant responses are strongly related to their 3D structures. Light detection and ranging (lidar) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for direct 3D measurement of plant structure. Here the use of 3D lidar imaging to estimate plant properties such as canopy height, canopy structure, carbon stock, and species is demonstrated, and plant growth and shape responses are assessed by reviewing the development of lidar systems and their applications from the leaf level to canopy remote sensing. In addition, the recent creation of accurate 3D lidar images combined with natural colour, chlorophyll fluorescence, photochemical reflectance index, and leaf temperature images is demonstrated, thereby providing information on responses of pigments, photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal opening, and shape to environmental stresses; these data can be integrated with 3D images of the plants using computer graphics techniques. Future lidar applications that provide more accurate dynamic estimation of various plant properties should improve our understanding of plant responses to stress and of interactions between plants and their environment. Moreover, combining 3D lidar with other passive and active imaging techniques will potentially improve the accuracy of airborne and satellite remote sensing, and make it possible to analyse 3D information on ecophysiological responses and levels of various substances in agricultural and ecological applications and in observations of the global biosphere.

  1. Synthesis of image sequences for Korean sign language using 3D shape model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Mun-Ho; Choi, Chang-Seok; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jeon, Joon-Hyeon

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes a method for offering information and realizing communication to the deaf-mute. The deaf-mute communicates with another person by means of sign language, but most people are unfamiliar with it. This method enables to convert text data into the corresponding image sequences for Korean sign language (KSL). Using a general 3D shape model of the upper body leads to generating the 3D motions of KSL. It is necessary to construct the general 3D shape model considering the anatomical structure of the human body. To obtain a personal 3D shape model, this general model is to adjust to the personal base images. Image synthesis for KSL consists of deforming a personal 3D shape model and texture-mapping the personal images onto the deformed model. The 3D motions for KSL have the facial expressions and the 3D movements of the head, trunk, arms and hands and are parameterized for easily deforming the model. These motion parameters of the upper body are extracted from a skilled signer's motion for each KSL and are stored to the database. Editing the parameters according to the inputs of text data yields to generate the image sequences of 3D motions.

  2. Extended gray level co-occurrence matrix computation for 3D image volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Nurulazirah M.; Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti Octorina

    2017-02-01

    Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) is one of the main techniques for texture analysis that has been widely used in many applications. Conventional GLCMs usually focus on two-dimensional (2D) image texture analysis only. However, a three-dimensional (3D) image volume requires specific texture analysis computation. In this paper, an extended 2D to 3D GLCM approach based on the concept of multiple 2D plane positions and pixel orientation directions in the 3D environment is proposed. The algorithm was implemented by breaking down the 3D image volume into 2D slices based on five different plane positions (coordinate axes and oblique axes) resulting in 13 independent directions, then calculating the GLCMs. The resulted GLCMs were averaged to obtain normalized values, then the 3D texture features were calculated. A preliminary examination was performed on a 3D image volume (64 x 64 x 64 voxels). Our analysis confirmed that the proposed technique is capable of extracting the 3D texture features from the extended GLCMs approach. It is a simple and comprehensive technique that can contribute to the 3D image analysis.

  3. FGG-NUFFT-Based Method for Near-Field 3-D Imaging Using Millimeter Waves

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Yingzhi; Zhu, Yongfeng; Tang, Liang; Fu, Qiang; Pei, Hucheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, to deal with the concealed target detection problem, an accurate and efficient algorithm for near-field millimeter wave three-dimensional (3-D) imaging is proposed that uses a two-dimensional (2-D) plane antenna array. First, a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT) is performed on the scattered data along the antenna array plane. Then, a phase shift is performed to compensate for the spherical wave effect. Finally, fast Gaussian gridding based nonuniform FFT (FGG-NUFFT) combined with 2-D inverse FFT (IFFT) is performed on the nonuniform 3-D spatial spectrum in the frequency wavenumber domain to achieve 3-D imaging. The conventional method for near-field 3-D imaging uses Stolt interpolation to obtain uniform spatial spectrum samples and performs 3-D IFFT to reconstruct a 3-D image. Compared with the conventional method, our FGG-NUFFT based method is comparable in both efficiency and accuracy in the full sampled case and can obtain more accurate images with less clutter and fewer noisy artifacts in the down-sampled case, which are good properties for practical applications. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the FGG-NUFFT-based near-field 3-D imaging algorithm can have better imaging performance than the conventional method for down-sampled measurements. PMID:27657066

  4. FGG-NUFFT-Based Method for Near-Field 3-D Imaging Using Millimeter Waves.

    PubMed

    Kan, Yingzhi; Zhu, Yongfeng; Tang, Liang; Fu, Qiang; Pei, Hucheng

    2016-09-19

    In this paper, to deal with the concealed target detection problem, an accurate and efficient algorithm for near-field millimeter wave three-dimensional (3-D) imaging is proposed that uses a two-dimensional (2-D) plane antenna array. First, a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT) is performed on the scattered data along the antenna array plane. Then, a phase shift is performed to compensate for the spherical wave effect. Finally, fast Gaussian gridding based nonuniform FFT (FGG-NUFFT) combined with 2-D inverse FFT (IFFT) is performed on the nonuniform 3-D spatial spectrum in the frequency wavenumber domain to achieve 3-D imaging. The conventional method for near-field 3-D imaging uses Stolt interpolation to obtain uniform spatial spectrum samples and performs 3-D IFFT to reconstruct a 3-D image. Compared with the conventional method, our FGG-NUFFT based method is comparable in both efficiency and accuracy in the full sampled case and can obtain more accurate images with less clutter and fewer noisy artifacts in the down-sampled case, which are good properties for practical applications. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the FGG-NUFFT-based near-field 3-D imaging algorithm can have better imaging performance than the conventional method for down-sampled measurements.

  5. On Limits of Embedding in 3D Images Based on 2D Watson's Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavehvash, Zahra; Ghaemmaghami, Shahrokh

    We extend the Watson image quality metric to 3D images through the concept of integral imaging. In the Watson's model, perceptual thresholds for changes to the DCT coefficients of a 2D image are given for information hiding. These thresholds are estimated in a way that the resulting distortion in the 2D image remains undetectable by the human eyes. In this paper, the same perceptual thresholds are estimated for a 3D scene in the integral imaging method. These thresholds are obtained based on the Watson's model using the relation between 2D elemental images and resulting 3D image. The proposed model is evaluated through subjective tests in a typical image steganography scheme.

  6. The Design and Performance Characteristics of a Cellular Logic 3-D Image Classification Processor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    number) Pattern Recognition Cellular Automata " Cellular Logic Target Classificatio4 1Neighborhood Transformation Image Processing Laser Radar iASSTRACT...AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CELLULAR LOGIC 3-D IMAGE CLASSIFICATION PROCESSOR 1 &/. , DISSERTATION AFIT/DS/EE/81-1 Lawrence A. Ankeney... CELLULAR LOGIC 3-D IMAGE - -- A&I PRCSRDTIC T B CLASSIFICATION PROCESSOR Unannounced 0 Justificatio b yD t i u i n Lawrence A. Ankeney, B.S., M.S

  7. "Phase-Enhanced" 3D Snapshot ISAR Imaging and Interferometric SAR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-28

    ESC-TR-2007-067 Technical Report 1135 <« Phase-Enhanced" 3D Snapshot ISAR Imaging and Interferometric SAR J.T. Mayhan 28 December 2009 Lincoln...document when it is no longer needed. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory ttPhase-Lnhanced,, 3D Snapshot ISAR Imaging and...inverse synthetie aperture radar ( ISAR ) images based on recent developments in high resolution spectral estimation theory. Because this technique requires

  8. 3D Virtual Images and Forensic Identification Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-04

    properly trained for these duties, as a minimum all Air Force Dental Residency programs (13 sites) require a course in forensic dentistry including...Nuinber: FKE20080002E 2. Title: ŗD Virtual Images and Forensic Identification Training" 3. Principal Investigator (PI): Stephanie A. Stouder, Lt Col...47XX identifies the requirement for initial and annual training in forensic identification for all AF Dentists. Currently, to ensure that dentists are

  9. A new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-05-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing day to day for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally three main image based approaches are using for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling and third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete solution available to create complete 3D city model by using images. These image based methods also have limitations This paper gives a new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry. This approach is divided into three sections. First, data acquisition process, second is 3D data processing, and third is data combination process. In data acquisition process, a multi-camera setup developed and used for video recording of an area. Image frames created from video data. Minimum required and suitable video image frame selected for 3D processing. In second section, based on close range photogrammetric principles and computer vision techniques, 3D model of area created. In third section, this 3D model exported to adding and merging of other pieces of large area. Scaling and alignment of 3D model was done. After applying the texturing and rendering on this model, a final photo-realistic textured 3D model created. This 3D model transferred into walk-through model or in movie form. Most of the processing steps are automatic. So this method is cost effective and less laborious. Accuracy of this model is good. For this research work, study area is the campus of department of civil engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. This campus acts as a prototype for city. Aerial photography is restricted in many country

  10. A Workstation for Interactive Display and Quantitative Analysis of 3-D and 4-D Biomedical Images

    PubMed Central

    Robb, R.A.; Heffeman, P.B.; Camp, J.J.; Hanson, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The capability to extract objective and quantitatively accurate information from 3-D radiographic biomedical images has not kept pace with the capabilities to produce the images themselves. This is rather an ironic paradox, since on the one hand the new 3-D and 4-D imaging capabilities promise significant potential for providing greater specificity and sensitivity (i.e., precise objective discrimination and accurate quantitative measurement of body tissue characteristics and function) in clinical diagnostic and basic investigative imaging procedures than ever possible before, but on the other hand, the momentous advances in computer and associated electronic imaging technology which have made these 3-D imaging capabilities possible have not been concomitantly developed for full exploitation of these capabilities. Therefore, we have developed a powerful new microcomputer-based system which permits detailed investigations and evaluation of 3-D and 4-D (dynamic 3-D) biomedical images. The system comprises a special workstation to which all the information in a large 3-D image data base is accessible for rapid display, manipulation, and measurement. The system provides important capabilities for simultaneously representing and analyzing both structural and functional data and their relationships in various organs of the body. This paper provides a detailed description of this system, as well as some of the rationale, background, theoretical concepts, and practical considerations related to system implementation. ImagesFigure 5Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16

  11. Anesthesiology training using 3D imaging and virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blezek, Daniel J.; Robb, Richard A.; Camp, Jon J.; Nauss, Lee A.

    1996-04-01

    Current training for regional nerve block procedures by anesthesiology residents requires expert supervision and the use of cadavers; both of which are relatively expensive commodities in today's cost-conscious medical environment. We are developing methods to augment and eventually replace these training procedures with real-time and realistic computer visualizations and manipulations of the anatomical structures involved in anesthesiology procedures, such as nerve plexus injections (e.g., celiac blocks). The initial work is focused on visualizations: both static images and rotational renderings. From the initial results, a coherent paradigm for virtual patient and scene representation will be developed.

  12. Retrospective sputter depth profiling using 3D mass spectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Leiliang; Wucher, Andreas; Winograd, Nicholas

    2011-02-01

    A molecular multilayer stack composed of alternating Langmuir-Blodgett films was analyzed by ToF-SIMS imaging in combination with intermediate sputter erosion using a focused C60(+) cluster ion beam. From the resulting dataset, depth profiles of any desired lateral portion of the analyzed field-of-view can be extracted in retrospect, allowing the influence of the gating area on the apparent depth resolution to be assessed. In a similar way, the observed degradation of depth resolution with increasing depth of the analyzed interface can be analyzed in order to determine the 'intrinsic' depth resolution of the method.

  13. 3D super-resolution imaging by localization microscopy.

    PubMed

    Magenau, Astrid; Gaus, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is an important tool in all fields of biology to visualize structures and monitor dynamic processes and distributions. Contrary to conventional microscopy techniques such as confocal microscopy, which are limited by their spatial resolution, super-resolution techniques such as photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) have made it possible to observe and quantify structure and processes on the single molecule level. Here, we describe a method to image and quantify the molecular distribution of membrane-associated proteins in two and three dimensions with nanometer resolution.

  14. 3D CARS image reconstruction and pattern recognition on SHG images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medyukhina, Anna; Vogler, Nadine; Latka, Ines; Dietzek, Benjamin; Cicchi, Riccardo; Pavone, Francesco S.; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-06-01

    Nonlinear optical imaging techniques based e.g. on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) or second-harmonic generation (SHG) show great potential for in-vivo investigations of tissue. While the microspectroscopic imaging tools are established, automized data evaluation, i.e. image pattern recognition and automized image classification, of nonlinear optical images still bares great possibilities for future developments towards an objective clinical diagnosis. This contribution details the capability of nonlinear microscopy for both 3D visualization of human tissues and automated discrimination between healthy and diseased patterns using ex-vivo human skin samples. By means of CARS image alignment we show how to obtain a quasi-3D model of a skin biopsy, which allows us to trace the tissue structure in different projections. Furthermore, the potential of automated pattern and organization recognition to distinguish between healthy and keloidal skin tissue is discussed. A first classification algorithm employs the intrinsic geometrical features of collagen, which can be efficiently visualized by SHG microscopy. The shape of the collagen pattern allows conclusions about the physiological state of the skin, as the typical wavy collagen structure of healthy skin is disturbed e.g. in keloid formation. Based on the different collagen patterns a quantitative score characterizing the collagen waviness - and hence reflecting the physiological state of the tissue - is obtained. Further, two additional scoring methods for collagen organization, respectively based on a statistical analysis of the mutual organization of fibers and on FFT, are presented.

  15. Astigmatic multifocus microscopy enables deep 3D super-resolved imaging

    PubMed Central

    Oudjedi, Laura; Fiche, Jean-Bernard; Abrahamsson, Sara; Mazenq, Laurent; Lecestre, Aurélie; Calmon, Pierre-François; Cerf, Aline; Nöllmann, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a 3D super-resolution microscopy method that enables deep imaging in cells. This technique relies on the effective combination of multifocus microscopy and astigmatic 3D single-molecule localization microscopy. We describe the optical system and the fabrication process of its key element, the multifocus grating. Then, two strategies for localizing emitters with our imaging method are presented and compared with a previously described deep 3D localization algorithm. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the method by imaging the nuclear envelope of eukaryotic cells reaching a depth of field of ~4µm. PMID:27375935

  16. Algorithm of pulmonary emphysema extraction using thoracic 3D CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saita, Shinsuke; Kubo, Mitsuru; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Nakano, Yasutaka; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Tominaga, Keigo; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2007-03-01

    Recently, due to aging and smoking, emphysema patients are increasing. The restoration of alveolus which was destroyed by emphysema is not possible, thus early detection of emphysema is desired. We describe a quantitative algorithm for extracting emphysematous lesions and quantitatively evaluate their distribution patterns using low dose thoracic 3-D CT images. The algorithm identified lung anatomies, and extracted low attenuation area (LAA) as emphysematous lesion candidates. Applying the algorithm to thoracic 3-D CT images and then by follow-up 3-D CT images, we demonstrate its potential effectiveness to assist radiologists and physicians to quantitatively evaluate the emphysematous lesions distribution and their evolution in time interval changes.

  17. 3-D Deep Penetration Photoacoustic Imaging with a 2-D CMUT Array.

    PubMed

    Ma, Te-Jen; Kothapalli, Sri Rajasekhar; Vaithilingam, Srikant; Oralkan, Omer; Kamaya, Aya; Wygant, Ira O; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2010-10-11

    In this work, we demonstrate 3-D photoacoustic imaging of optically absorbing targets embedded as deep as 5 cm inside a highly scattering background medium using a 2-D capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array with a center frequency of 5.5 MHz. 3-D volumetric images and 2-D maximum intensity projection images are presented to show the objects imaged at different depths. Due to the close proximity of the CMUT to the integrated frontend circuits, the CMUT array imaging system has a low noise floor. This makes the CMUT a promising technology for deep tissue photoacoustic imaging.

  18. Dual-view integral imaging 3D display by using orthogonal polarizer array and polarization switcher.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong-Hua; Ji, Chao-Chao; Li, Lei; Deng, Huan

    2016-01-11

    In this paper, a dual-view integral imaging three-dimensional (3D) display consisting of a display panel, two orthogonal polarizer arrays, a polarization switcher, and a micro-lens array is proposed. Two elemental image arrays for two different 3D images are presented by the display panel alternately, and the polarization switcher controls the polarization direction of the light rays synchronously. The two elemental image arrays are modulated by their corresponding and neighboring micro-lenses of the micro-lens array, and reconstruct two different 3D images in viewing zones 1 and 2, respectively. A prototype of the dual-view II 3D display is developed, and it has good performances.

  19. 3D-Holoscopic Imaging: A New Dimension to Enhance Imaging in Minimally Invasive Therapy in Urologic Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Aggoun, Amar; Swash, Mohammad; Grange, Philippe C.R.; Challacombe, Benjamin; Dasgupta, Prokar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose Existing imaging modalities of urologic pathology are limited by three-dimensional (3D) representation on a two-dimensional screen. We present 3D-holoscopic imaging as a novel method of representing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data images taken from CT and MRI to produce 3D-holographic representations of anatomy without special eyewear in natural light. 3D-holoscopic technology produces images that are true optical models. This technology is based on physical principles with duplication of light fields. The 3D content is captured in real time with the content viewed by multiple viewers independently of their position, without 3D eyewear. Methods We display 3D-holoscopic anatomy relevant to minimally invasive urologic surgery without the need for 3D eyewear. Results The results have demonstrated that medical 3D-holoscopic content can be displayed on commercially available multiview auto-stereoscopic display. Conclusion The next step is validation studies comparing 3D-Holoscopic imaging with conventional imaging. PMID:23216303

  20. 3D/2D image registration: the impact of X-ray views and their number.

    PubMed

    Tomazevic, Dejan; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2007-01-01

    An important part of image-guided radiation therapy or surgery is registration of a three-dimensional (3D) preoperative image to two-dimensional (2D) images of the patient. It is expected that the accuracy and robustness of a 3D/2D image registration method do not depend solely on the registration method itself but also on the number and projections (views) of intraoperative images. In this study, we systematically investigate these factors by using registered image data, comprising of CT and X-ray images of a cadaveric lumbar spine phantom and the recently proposed 3D/2D registration method. The results indicate that the proportion of successful registrations (robustness) significantly increases when more X-ray images are used for registration.

  1. Terahertz Lasers Reveal Information for 3D Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    After taking off her shoes and jacket, she places them in a bin. She then takes her laptop out of its case and places it in a separate bin. As the items move through the x-ray machine, the woman waits for a sign from security personnel to pass through the metal detector. Today, she was lucky; she did not encounter any delays. The man behind her, however, was asked to step inside a large circular tube, raise his hands above his head, and have his whole body scanned. If you have ever witnessed a full-body scan at the airport, you may have witnessed terahertz imaging. Terahertz wavelengths are located between microwave and infrared on the electromagnetic spectrum. When exposed to these wavelengths, certain materials such as clothing, thin metal, sheet rock, and insulation become transparent. At airports, terahertz radiation can illuminate guns, knives, or explosives hidden underneath a passenger s clothing. At NASA s Kennedy Space Center, terahertz wavelengths have assisted in the inspection of materials like insulating foam on the external tanks of the now-retired space shuttle. "The foam we used on the external tank was a little denser than Styrofoam, but not much," says Robert Youngquist, a physicist at Kennedy. The problem, he explains, was that "we lost a space shuttle by having a chunk of foam fall off from the external fuel tank and hit the orbiter." To uncover any potential defects in the foam covering, such as voids or air pockets, that could keep the material from staying in place, NASA employed terahertz imaging to see through the foam. For many years, the technique ensured the integrity of the material on the external tanks.

  2. 2D and 3D MALDI-imaging: conceptual strategies for visualization and data mining.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Herbert; Heldmann, Stefan; Trede, Dennis; Strehlow, Jan; Wirtz, Stefan; Dreher, Wolfgang; Berger, Judith; Oetjen, Janina; Kobarg, Jan Hendrik; Fischer, Bernd; Maass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    3D imaging has a significant impact on many challenges in life sciences, because biology is a 3-dimensional phenomenon. Current 3D imaging-technologies (various types MRI, PET, SPECT) are labeled, i.e. they trace the localization of a specific compound in the body. In contrast, 3D MALDI mass spectrometry-imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a label-free method imaging the spatial distribution of molecular compounds. It complements 3D imaging labeled methods, immunohistochemistry, and genetics-based methods. However, 3D MALDI-MSI cannot tap its full potential due to the lack of statistical methods for analysis and interpretation of large and complex 3D datasets. To overcome this, we established a complete and robust 3D MALDI-MSI pipeline combined with efficient computational data analysis methods for 3D edge preserving image denoising, 3D spatial segmentation as well as finding colocalized m/z values, which will be reviewed here in detail. Furthermore, we explain, why the integration and correlation of the MALDI imaging data with other imaging modalities allows to enhance the interpretation of the molecular data and provides visualization of molecular patterns that may otherwise not be apparent. Therefore, a 3D data acquisition workflow is described generating a set of 3 different dimensional images representing the same anatomies. First, an in-vitro MRI measurement is performed which results in a three-dimensional image modality representing the 3D structure of the measured object. After sectioning the 3D object into N consecutive slices, all N slices are scanned using an optical digital scanner, enabling for performing the MS measurements. Scanning the individual sections results into low-resolution images, which define the base coordinate system for the whole pipeline. The scanned images conclude the information from the spatial (MRI) and the mass spectrometric (MALDI-MSI) dimension and are used for the spatial three-dimensional reconstruction of the object performed by image

  3. Space Radar Image of Death Valley in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This picture is a three-dimensional perspective view of Death Valley, California. This view was constructed by overlaying a SIR-C radar image on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map. The SIR-C image is centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude and 117.069 degrees west longitude. We are looking at Stove Pipe Wells, which is the bright rectangle located in the center of the picture frame. Our vantage point is located atop a large alluvial fan centered at the mouth of Cottonwood Canyon. In the foreground on the left, we can see the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells. In the background on the left, the Valley floor gradually falls in elevation toward Badwater, the lowest spot in the United States. In the background on the right we can see Tucki Mountain. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is an area of extensive field investigations and has been visited by both Space Radar Lab astronaut crews. Elevations in the Valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data from Death Valley to help the answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology. One question concerns how alluvial fans are formed and change through time under the influence of climatic changes and earthquakes. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. They are visible in the image as circular, fan-shaped bright areas extending into the darker valley floor from the mountains. Information about the alluvial fans helps scientists study Earth's ancient climate. Scientists know the fans are built up through climatic and tectonic processes and they will use the SIR-C/X-SAR data to understand the nature and rates of weathering processes on the fans, soil formation and the transport of sand and dust by the wind. SIR-C/X-SAR's sensitivity to centimeter-scale (inch-scale) roughness provides detailed maps of surface texture. Such information

  4. Vibration Analysis using 3D Image Correlation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, T.; Splitthof, K.

    2010-06-01

    Digital speckle correlation techniques have already been successfully proven to be an accurate displacement analysis tool for a wide range of applications. With the use of two cameras, three dimensional measurements of contours and displacements can be carried out. With a simple setup it opens a wide range of applications. Rapid new developments in the field of digital imaging and computer technology opens further applications for these measurement methods to high speed deformation and strain analysis, e.g. in the fields of material testing, fracture mechanics, advanced materials and component testing. The high resolution of the deformation measurements in space and time opens a wide range of applications for vibration analysis of objects. Since the system determines the absolute position and displacements of the object in space, it is capable of measuring high amplitudes and even objects with rigid body movements. The absolute resolution depends on the field of view and is scalable. Calibration of the optical setup is a crucial point which will be discussed in detail. Examples of the analysis of harmonic vibration and transient events from material research and industrial applications are presented. The results show typical features of the system.

  5. [Depiction of the cranial nerves around the cavernous sinus by 3D reversed FISP with diffusion weighted imaging (3D PSIF-DWI)].

    PubMed

    Ishida, Go; Oishi, Makoto; Jinguji, Shinya; Yoneoka, Yuichiro; Sato, Mitsuya; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the anatomy of cranial nerves running in and around the cavernous sinus, we employed three-dimensional reversed fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP) with diffusion weighted imaging (3D PSIF-DWI) on 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) system. After determining the proper parameters to obtain sufficient resolution of 3D PSIF-DWI, we collected imaging data of 20-side cavernous regions in 10 normal subjects. 3D PSIF-DWI provided high contrast between the cranial nerves and other soft tissues, fluid, and blood in all subjects. We also created volume-rendered images of 3D PSIF-DWI and anatomically evaluated the reliability of visualizing optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, and abducens nerves on 3D PSIF-DWI. All 20 sets of cranial nerves were visualized and 12 trochlear nerves and 6 abducens nerves were partially identified. We also presented preliminary clinical experiences in two cases with pituitary adenomas. The anatomical relationship between the tumor and cranial nerves running in and around the cavernous sinus could be three-dimensionally comprehended by 3D PSIF-DWI and the volume-rendered images. In conclusion, 3D PSIF-DWI has great potential to provide high resolution "cranial nerve imaging", which visualizes the whole length of the cranial nerves including the parts in the blood flow as in the cavernous sinus region.

  6. Imaging topological radar for 3D imaging in cultural heritage reproduction and restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggi, Claudio; Guarneri, Massimiliano; Fornetti, Giorgio; Ferri de Collibus, Mario; De Dominicis, Luigi; Paglia, Emiliano; Ricci, Roberto

    2005-10-01

    We present the last results obtained by using our Imaging Topological Radar (ITR), an high resolution laser scanner aimed at reconstruction 3D digital models of real targets, either single objects or complex scenes. The system, based on amplitude modulation ranging technique, enables to obtain simultaneously a shade-free, high resolution, photographic-like picture and accurate range data in the form of a range image, with resolution depending mainly on the laser modulation frequency (current best performance are ~100μm). The complete target surface is reconstructed from sampled points by using specifically developed software tools. The system has been successfully applied to scan different types of real surfaces (stone, wood, alloy, bones) and is suitable of relevant applications in different fields, ranging from industrial machining to medical diagnostics. We present some relevant examples of 3D reconstruction in the heritage field. Such results were obtained during recent campaigns carried out in situ in various Italian historical and archaeological sites (S. Maria Antiqua in Roman Forum, "Grotta dei cervi" Porto Badisco - Lecce, South Italy). The presented 3D models will be used by cultural heritage conservation authorities for restoration purpose and will available on the Internet for remote inspection.

  7. Hands-on guide for 3D image creation for geological purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frehner, Marcel; Tisato, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    Geological structures in outcrops or hand specimens are inherently three dimensional (3D), and therefore better understandable if viewed in 3D. While 3D models can easily be created, manipulated, and looked at from all sides on the computer screen (e.g., using photogrammetry or laser scanning data), 3D visualizations for publications or conference posters are much more challenging as they have to live in a 2D-world (i.e., on a sheet of paper). Perspective 2D visualizations of 3D models do not fully transmit the "feeling and depth of the third dimension" to the audience; but this feeling is desirable for a better examination and understanding in 3D of the structure under consideration. One of the very few possibilities to generate real 3D images, which work on a 2D display, is by using so-called stereoscopic images. Stereoscopic images are two images of the same object recorded from two slightly offset viewpoints. Special glasses and techniques have to be used to make sure that one image is seen only by one eye, and the other image is seen by the other eye, which together lead to the "3D effect". Geoscientists are often familiar with such 3D images. For example, geomorphologists traditionally view stereographic orthophotos by employing a mirror-steroscope. Nowadays, petroleum-geoscientists examine high-resolution 3D seismic data sets in special 3D visualization rooms. One of the methods for generating and viewing a stereoscopic image, which does not require a high-tech viewing device, is to create a so-called anaglyph. The principle is to overlay two images saturated in red and cyan, respectively. The two images are then viewed through red-cyan-stereoscopic glasses. This method is simple and cost-effective, but has some drawbacks in preserving colors accurately. A similar method is used in 3D movies, where polarized light or shuttering techniques are used to separate the left from the right image, which allows preserving the original colors. The advantage of red

  8. OVERALL PROCEDURES PROTOCOL AND PATIENT ENROLLMENT PROTOCOL: TESTING FEASIBILITY OF 3D ULTRASOUND DATA ACQUISITION AND RELIABILITY OF DATA RETRIEVAL FROM STORED 3D IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility of collecting, transmitting,

    and analyzing 3-D ultrasound data in the context of a multi-center study of pregnant

    women. The study will also examine the reliability of measurements obtained from 3-D

    imag
    ...

  9. A real-time noise filtering strategy for photon counting 3D imaging lidar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zijing; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Long; Su, Jianzhong

    2013-04-22

    For a direct-detection 3D imaging lidar, the use of Geiger mode avalanche photodiode (Gm-APD) could greatly enhance the detection sensitivity of the lidar system since each range measurement requires a single detected photon. Furthermore, Gm-APD offers significant advantages in reducing the size, mass, power and complexity of the system. However the inevitable noise, including the background noise, the dark count noise and so on, remains a significant challenge to obtain a clear 3D image of the target of interest. This paper presents a smart strategy, which can filter out false alarms in the stage of acquisition of raw time of flight (TOF) data and obtain a clear 3D image in real time. As a result, a clear 3D image is taken from the experimental system despite the background noise of the sunny day.

  10. Latest applications of 3D ToF-SIMS bio-imaging.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, John S

    2015-03-10

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a rapidly developing technique for the characterization of a wide range of materials. Recently, advances in instrumentation and sample preparation approaches have provided the ability to perform 3D molecular imaging experiments. Polyatomic ion beams, such as C60, and gas cluster ion beams, often Arn (n = 500-4000), substantially reduce the subsurface damage accumulation associated with continued bombardment of organic samples with atomic beams. In this review, the capabilities of the technique are discussed and examples of the 3D imaging approach for the analysis of model membrane systems, plant single cell, and tissue samples are presented. Ongoing challenges for 3D ToF-SIMS imaging are also discussed along with recent developments that might offer improved 3D imaging prospects in the near future.

  11. Real Time Quantitative 3-D Imaging of Diffusion Flame Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, Daniel J.; Silver, Joel A.

    1997-01-01

    A low-gravity environment, in space or ground-based facilities such as drop towers, provides a unique setting for study of combustion mechanisms. Understanding the physical phenomena controlling the ignition and spread of flames in microgravity has importance for space safety as well as better characterization of dynamical and chemical combustion processes which are normally masked by buoyancy and other gravity-related effects. Even the use of so-called 'limiting cases' or the construction of 1-D or 2-D models and experiments fail to make the analysis of combustion simultaneously simple and accurate. Ideally, to bridge the gap between chemistry and fluid mechanics in microgravity combustion, species concentrations and temperature profiles are needed throughout the flame. However, restrictions associated with performing measurements in reduced gravity, especially size and weight considerations, have generally limited microgravity combustion studies to the capture of flame emissions on film or video laser Schlieren imaging and (intrusive) temperature measurements using thermocouples. Given the development of detailed theoretical models, more sophisticated studies are needed to provide the kind of quantitative data necessary to characterize the properties of microgravity combustion processes as well as provide accurate feedback to improve the predictive capabilities of the computational models. While there have been a myriad of fluid mechanical visualization studies in microgravity combustion, little experimental work has been completed to obtain reactant and product concentrations within a microgravity flame. This is largely due to the fact that traditional sampling methods (quenching microprobes using GC and/or mass spec analysis) are too heavy, slow, and cumbersome for microgravity experiments. Non-intrusive optical spectroscopic techniques have - up until now - also required excessively bulky, power hungry equipment. However, with the advent of near-IR diode

  12. High-throughput imaging: Focusing in on drug discovery in 3D.

    PubMed

    Li, Linfeng; Zhou, Qiong; Voss, Ty C; Quick, Kevin L; LaBarbera, Daniel V

    2016-03-01

    3D organotypic culture models such as organoids and multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) are becoming more widely used for drug discovery and toxicology screening. As a result, 3D culture technologies adapted for high-throughput screening formats are prevalent. While a multitude of assays have been reported and validated for high-throughput imaging (HTI) and high-content screening (HCS) for novel drug discovery and toxicology, limited HTI/HCS with large compound libraries have been reported. Nonetheless, 3D HTI instrumentation technology is advancing and this technology is now on the verge of allowing for 3D HCS of thousands of samples. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art high-throughput imaging systems, including hardware and software, and recent literature examples of 3D organotypic culture models employing this technology for drug discovery and toxicology screening.

  13. Binary 3D image interpolation algorithm based global information and adaptive curves fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tian-yi; Zhang, Jin-hao; Guan, Xiang-chen; Li, Qiu-ping; He, Meng

    2013-08-01

    Interpolation is a necessary processing step in 3-D reconstruction because of the non-uniform resolution. Conventional interpolation methods simply use two slices to obtain the missing slices between the two slices .when the key slice is missing, those methods may fail to recover it only employing the local information .And the surface of 3D object especially for the medical tissues may be highly complicated, so a single interpolation can hardly get high-quality 3D image. We propose a novel binary 3D image interpolation algorithm. The proposed algorithm takes advantages of the global information. It chooses the best curve adaptively from lots of curves based on the complexity of the surface of 3D object. The results of this algorithm are compared with other interpolation methods on artificial objects and real breast cancer tumor to demonstrate the excellent performance.

  14. An image encryption algorithm based on 3D cellular automata and chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rey, A. Martín; Sánchez, G. Rodríguez

    2015-05-01

    A novel encryption algorithm to cipher digital images is presented in this work. The digital image is rendering into a three-dimensional (3D) lattice and the protocol consists of two phases: the confusion phase where 24 chaotic Cat maps are applied and the diffusion phase where a 3D cellular automata is evolved. The encryption method is shown to be secure against the most important cryptanalytic attacks.

  15. Reducing Non-Uniqueness in Satellite Gravity Inversion using 3D Object Oriented Image Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.

    2013-12-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has been usually reduced by using a priori information from various sources, e.g. seismic tomography models. The reduction in non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation for 3D subsurface structures (objects) in seismic tomography models. However, these processes introduce additional uncertainty through the conversion relations due to the dependency on the other physical parameters such as temperature and pressure, or through the bias in the interpretation due to user choices and experience. In this research, a new methodology is introduced to extract the 3D subsurface structures from 3D geophysical data using a state-of-art 3D Object Oriented Image Analysis (OOA) technique. 3D OOA is tested using a set of synthetic models that simulate the real situation in the study area of this research. Then, 3D OOA is used to extract 3D subsurface objects from a real 3D seismic tomography model. The extracted 3D objects are used to reconstruct a forward model and its response is compared with the measured satellite gravity. Finally, the result of the forward modelling, based on the extracted 3D objects, is used to constrain the inversion process of satellite gravity data. Through this work, a new object-based approach is introduced to interpret and extract the 3D subsurface objects from 3D geophysical data. This can be used to constrain modelling and inversion of potential field data using the extracted 3D subsurface structures from other methods. In summary, a new approach is introduced to constrain inversion of satellite gravity measurements and enhance interpretation capabilities.

  16. 3D segmentation and image annotation for quantitative diagnosis in lung CT images with pulmonary lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Suo; Zhu, Yanjie; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2013-03-01

    Pulmonary nodules and ground glass opacities are highly significant findings in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of patients with pulmonary lesion. The appearances of pulmonary nodules and ground glass opacities show a relationship with different lung diseases. According to corresponding characteristic of lesion, pertinent segment methods and quantitative analysis are helpful for control and treat diseases at an earlier and potentially more curable stage. Currently, most of the studies have focused on two-dimensional quantitative analysis of these kinds of deceases. Compared to two-dimensional images, three-dimensional quantitative analysis can take full advantage of isotropic image data acquired by using thin slicing HRCT in space and has better quantitative precision for clinical diagnosis. This presentation designs a computer-aided diagnosis component to segment 3D disease areas of nodules and ground glass opacities in lung CT images, and use AIML (Annotation and image makeup language) to annotate the segmented 3D pulmonary lesions with information of quantitative measurement which may provide more features and information to the radiologists in clinical diagnosis.

  17. 3D-DXA: Assessing the Femoral Shape, the Trabecular Macrostructure and the Cortex in 3D from DXA images.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Ludovic; Martelli, Yves; Fonolla, Roger; Steghofer, Martin; Di Gregorio, Silvana; Malouf, Jorge; Romera, Jordi; Barquero, Luis Miguel Del Rio

    2017-01-01

    The 3D distribution of the cortical and trabecular bone mass in the proximal femur is a critical component in determining fracture resistance that is not taken into account in clinical routine Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) examination. In this paper, a statistical shape and appearance model together with a 3D-2D registration approach are used to model the femoral shape and bone density distribution in 3D from an anteroposterior DXA projection. A model-based algorithm is subsequently used to segment the cortex and build a 3D map of the cortical thickness and density. Measurements characterising the geometry and density distribution were computed for various regions of interest in both cortical and trabecular compartments. Models and measurements provided by the "3D-DXA" software algorithm were evaluated using a database of 157 study subjects, by comparing 3D-DXA analyses (using DXA scanners from three manufacturers) with measurements performed by Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT). The mean point-to-surface distance between 3D-DXA and QCT femoral shapes was 0.93 mm. The mean absolute error between cortical thickness and density estimates measured by 3D-DXA and QCT was 0.33 mm and 72 mg/cm(3). Correlation coefficients (R) between the 3D-DXA and QCT measurements were 0.86, 0.93, and 0.95 for the volumetric bone mineral density at the trabecular, cortical, and integral compartments respectively, and 0.91 for the mean cortical thickness. 3D-DXA provides a detailed analysis of the proximal femur, including a separate assessment of the cortical layer and trabecular macrostructure, which could potentially improve osteoporosis management while maintaining DXA as the standard routine modality.

  18. Fish body surface data measurement based on 3D digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Qian, Chen; Yang, Wenkai

    2016-01-01

    To film the moving fish in the glass tank, light will be bent at the interface of air and glass, glass and water. Based on binocular stereo vision and refraction principle, we establish a mathematical model of 3D image correlation to reconstruct the 3D coordinates of samples in the water. Marking speckle in fish surface, a series of real-time speckle images of swimming fish will be obtained by two high-speed cameras, and instantaneous 3D shape, strain, displacement etc. of fish will be reconstructed.

  19. Integration of virtual and real scenes within an integral 3D imaging environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jinsong; Aggoun, Amar; McCormick, Malcolm

    2002-11-01

    The Imaging Technologies group at De Montfort University has developed an integral 3D imaging system, which is seen as the most likely vehicle for 3D television avoiding psychological effects. To create real fascinating three-dimensional television programs, a virtual studio that performs the task of generating, editing and integrating the 3D contents involving virtual and real scenes is required. The paper presents, for the first time, the procedures, factors and methods of integrating computer-generated virtual scenes with real objects captured using the 3D integral imaging camera system. The method of computer generation of 3D integral images, where the lens array is modelled instead of the physical camera is described. In the model each micro-lens that captures different elemental images of the virtual scene is treated as an extended pinhole camera. An integration process named integrated rendering is illustrated. Detailed discussion and deep investigation are focused on depth extraction from captured integral 3D images. The depth calculation method from the disparity and the multiple baseline method that is used to improve the precision of depth estimation are also presented. The concept of colour SSD and its further improvement in the precision is proposed and verified.

  20. Joint source/channel coding for prioritized wireless transmission of multiple 3-D regions of interest in 3-D medical imaging data.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, V

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a 3-D medical image coding method featuring two major improvements to previous work on 3-D region of interest (RoI) coding for telemedicine applications. Namely, 1) a data prioritization scheme that allows coding of multiple 3-D-RoIs; and 2) a joint/source channel coding scheme that allows prioritized transmission of multiple 3-D-RoIs over wireless channels. The method, which is based on the 3-D integer wavelet transform and embedded block coding with optimized truncation with 3-D context modeling, generates scalable and error-resilient bit streams with 3-D-RoI decoding capabilities. Coding of multiple 3-D-RoIs is attained by prioritizing the wavelet-transformed data according to a Gaussian mixed distribution, whereas error resiliency is attained by employing the error correction capabilities of rate-compatible punctured turbo codes. The robustness of the proposed method is evaluated for transmission of real 3-D medical images over Rayleigh-fading channels with a priori knowledge of the channel condition. Evaluation results show that the proposed coding method provides a superior performance compared to equal error protection and unequal error protection techniques.

  1. The application of camera calibration in range-gated 3D imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-quan; Wang, Xian-wei; Zhou, Yan

    2013-09-01

    Range-gated laser imaging technology was proposed in 1966 by LF Gillespiethe in U.S. Army Night Vision Laboratory(NVL). Using pulse laser and intensified charge-coupled device(ICCD) as light source and detector respectively, range-gated laser imaging technology can realize space-slice imaging while restraining the atmospheric backs-catter, and in turn detect the target effectively, by controlling the delay between the laser pulse and strobe. Owing to the constraints of the development of key components such as narrow pulse laser and gated imaging devices, the research has been progressed slowly in the next few decades. Until the beginning of this century, as the hardware technology continues to mature, this technology has developed rapidly in fields such as night vision, underwater imaging, biomedical imaging, three-dimensional imaging, especially range-gated three-dimensional(3-D) laser imaging field purposing of access to target spatial information. 3-D reconstruction is the processing of restoration of 3-D objects visible surface geometric structure from three-dimensional(2-D) image. Range-gated laser imaging technology can achieve gated imaging of slice space to form a slice image, and in turn provide the distance information corresponding to the slice image. But to inverse the information of 3-D space, we need to obtain the imaging visual field of system, that is, the focal length of the system. Then based on the distance information of the space slice, the spatial information of each unit space corresponding to each pixel can be inversed. Camera calibration is an indispensable step in 3-D reconstruction, including analysis of the internal structure of camera parameters and the external parameters . In order to meet the technical requirements of the range-gated 3-D imaging, this paper intends to study the calibration of the zoom lens system. After summarizing the camera calibration technique comprehensively, a classic calibration method based on line is

  2. Polarization imaging and classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells using a flow cytometer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanming; Zhang, Ning; Jacobs, Kenneth M; Jiang, Wenhuan; Yang, Li V; Li, Zhigang; Zhang, Jun; Lu, Jun Q; Hu, Xin-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Label-free and rapid classification of cells can have awide range of applications in biology. We report a robust method of polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry (p-DIFC) for achieving this goal. Coherently scattered light signals are acquired from single cells excited by a polarized laser beam in the form of two cross-polarized diffraction images. Image texture and intensity parameters are extracted with a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm to obtain an optimized set of feature parameters as the morphological "fingerprints" for automated cell classification. We selected the Jurkat T cells and Ramos B cells to test the p-DIFC method's capacity for cell classification. After detailed statistical analysis, we found that the optimized feature vectors yield accuracies of classification between the Jurkat and Ramos ranging from 97.8% to 100% among different cell data sets. Confocal imaging and three-dimensional reconstruction were applied to gain insights on the ability of p-DIFC method for classifying the two cell lines of highly similar morphology. Based on these results we conclude that the p-DIFC method has the capacity to discriminate cells of high similarity in their morphology with "fingerprints" features extracted from the diffraction images, which may be attributed to subtle but statistically significant differences in the nucleus-to-cell volume ratio in the case of Jurkat and Ramos cells.

  3. 3D reconstructions with pixel-based images are made possible by digitally clearing plant and animal tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reconstruction of 3D images from a series of 2D images has been restricted by the limited capacity to decrease the opacity of surrounding tissue. Commercial software that allows color-keying and manipulation of 2D images in true 3D space allowed us to produce 3D reconstructions from pixel based imag...

  4. Artificial intelligence (AI)-based relational matching and multimodal medical image fusion: generalized 3D approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajdic, Stevan M.; Katz, Henry E.; Downing, Andrew R.; Brooks, Michael J.

    1994-09-01

    A 3D relational image matching/fusion algorithm is introduced. It is implemented in the domain of medical imaging and is based on Artificial Intelligence paradigms--in particular, knowledge base representation and tree search. The 2D reference and target images are selected from 3D sets and segmented into non-touching and non-overlapping regions, using iterative thresholding and/or knowledge about the anatomical shapes of human organs. Selected image region attributes are calculated. Region matches are obtained using a tree search, and the error is minimized by evaluating a `goodness' of matching function based on similarities of region attributes. Once the matched regions are found and the spline geometric transform is applied to regional centers of gravity, images are ready for fusion and visualization into a single 3D image of higher clarity.

  5. An efficient calibration method for freehand 3-D ultrasound imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Leotta, Daniel F

    2004-07-01

    A phantom has been developed to quickly calibrate a freehand 3-D ultrasound (US) imaging system. Calibration defines the spatial relationship between the US image plane and an external tracking device attached to the scanhead. The phantom consists of a planar array of strings and beads, and a set of out-of-plane strings that guide the user to proper scanhead orientation for imaging. When an US image plane is coincident with the plane defined by the strings, the calibration parameters are calculated by matching of homologous points in the image and phantom. The resulting precision and accuracy of the 3-D imaging system are similar to those achieved with a more complex calibration procedure. The 3-D reconstruction performance of the calibrated system is demonstrated with a magnetic tracking system, but the method could be applied to other tracking devices.

  6. FPGA-based real-time anisotropic diffusion filtering of 3D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Pareja, Carlos R.; Dandekar, Omkar S.; Shekhar, Raj

    2005-02-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasonic imaging, especially the emerging real-time version of it, is particularly valuable in medical applications such as echocardiography, obstetrics and surgical navigation. A known problem with ultrasound images is their high level of speckle noise. Anisotropic diffusion filtering has been shown to be effective in enhancing the visual quality of 3D ultrasound images and as preprocessing prior to advanced image processing. However, due to its arithmetic complexity and the sheer size of 3D ultrasound images, it is not possible to perform online, real-time anisotropic diffusion filtering using standard software implementations. We present an FPGA-based architecture that allows performing anisotropic diffusion filtering of 3D images at acquisition rates, thus enabling the use of this filtering technique in real-time applications, such as visualization, registration and volume rendering.

  7. Applications of Panoramic Images: from 720° Panorama to Interior 3d Models of Augmented Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, I.-C.; Tsai, F.

    2015-05-01

    A series of panoramic images are usually used to generate a 720° panorama image. Although panoramic images are typically used for establishing tour guiding systems, in this research, we demonstrate the potential of using panoramic images acquired from multiple sites to create not only 720° panorama, but also three-dimensional (3D) point clouds and 3D indoor models. Since 3D modeling is one of the goals of this research, the location of the panoramic sites needed to be carefully planned in order to maintain a robust result for close-range photogrammetry. After the images are acquired, panoramic images are processed into 720° panoramas, and these panoramas which can be used directly as panorama guiding systems or other applications. In addition to these straightforward applications, interior orientation parameters can also be estimated while generating 720° panorama. These parameters are focal length, principle point, and lens radial distortion. The panoramic images can then be processed with closerange photogrammetry procedures to extract the exterior orientation parameters and generate 3D point clouds. In this research, VisaulSFM, a structure from motion software is used to estimate the exterior orientation, and CMVS toolkit is used to generate 3D point clouds. Next, the 3D point clouds are used as references to create building interior models. In this research, Trimble Sketchup was used to build the model, and the 3D point cloud was added to the determining of locations of building objects using plane finding procedure. In the texturing process, the panorama images are used as the data source for creating model textures. This 3D indoor model was used as an Augmented Reality model replacing a guide map or a floor plan commonly used in an on-line touring guide system. The 3D indoor model generating procedure has been utilized in two research projects: a cultural heritage site at Kinmen, and Taipei Main Station pedestrian zone guidance and navigation system. The

  8. Digital holography particle image velocimetry for the measurement of 3D t-3c flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Gongxin; Wei, Runjie

    2005-10-01

    In this paper a digital in-line holographic recording and reconstruction system was set up and used in the particle image velocimetry for the 3D t-3c (the three-component (3c), velocity vector field measurements in a three-dimensional (3D), space field with time history ( t)) flow measurements that made up of the new full-flow field experimental technique—digital holographic particle image velocimetry (DHPIV). The traditional holographic film was replaced by a CCD chip that records instantaneously the interference fringes directly without the darkroom processing, and the virtual image slices in different positions were reconstructed by computation using Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral method from the digital holographic image. Also a complex field signal filter (analyzing image calculated by its intensity and phase from real and image parts in fast fourier transform (FFT)) was applied in image reconstruction to achieve the thin focus depth of image field that has a strong effect with the vertical velocity component resolution. Using the frame-straddle CCD device techniques, the 3c velocity vector was computed by 3D cross-correlation through space interrogation block matching through the reconstructed image slices with the digital complex field signal filter. Then the 3D-3c-velocity field (about 20 000 vectors), 3D-streamline and 3D-vorticiry fields, and the time evolution movies (30 field/s) for the 3D t-3c flows were displayed by the experimental measurement using this DHPIV method and techniques.

  9. Building 3D aerial image in photoresist with reconstructed mask image acquired with optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. S.; Tang, Y. P.; Chu, F. S.; Huang, W. C.; Liu, R. G.; Gau, T. S.

    2012-03-01

    Calibration of mask images on wafer becomes more important as features shrink. Two major types of metrology have been commonly adopted. One is to measure the mask image with scanning electron microscope (SEM) to obtain the contours on mask and then simulate the wafer image with optical simulator. The other is to use an optical imaging tool Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMSTM) to emulate the image on wafer. However, the SEM method is indirect. It just gathers planar contours on a mask with no consideration of optical characteristics such as 3D topography structures. Hence, the image on wafer is not predicted precisely. Though the AIMSTM method can be used to directly measure the intensity at the near field of a mask but the image measured this way is not quite the same as that on the wafer due to reflections and refractions in the films on wafer. Here, a new approach is proposed to emulate the image on wafer more precisely. The behavior of plane waves with different oblique angles is well known inside and between planar film stacks. In an optical microscope imaging system, plane waves can be extracted from the pupil plane with a coherent point source of illumination. Once plane waves with a specific coherent illumination are analyzed, the partially coherent component of waves could be reconstructed with a proper transfer function, which includes lens aberration, polarization, reflection and refraction in films. It is a new method that we can transfer near light field of a mask into an image on wafer without the disadvantages of indirect SEM measurement such as neglecting effects of mask topography, reflections and refractions in the wafer film stacks. Furthermore, with this precise latent image, a separated resist model also becomes more achievable.

  10. Mixed reality orthognathic surgical simulation by entity model manipulation and 3D-image display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimonagayoshi, Tatsunari; Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Fushima, Kenji; Kobayashi, Masaru

    2005-12-01

    In orthognathic surgery, the framing of 3D-surgical planning that considers the balance between the front and back positions and the symmetry of the jawbone, as well as the dental occlusion of teeth, is essential. In this study, a support system for orthodontic surgery to visualize the changes in the mandible and the occlusal condition and to determine the optimum position in mandibular osteotomy has been developed. By integrating the operating portion of a tooth model that is to determine the optimum occlusal position by manipulating the entity tooth model and the 3D-CT skeletal images (3D image display portion) that are simultaneously displayed in real-time, the determination of the mandibular position and posture in which the improvement of skeletal morphology and occlusal condition is considered, is possible. The realistic operation of the entity model and the virtual 3D image display enabled the construction of a surgical simulation system that involves augmented reality.

  11. Augmented Reality Imaging System: 3D Viewing of a Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, David B.; Boone, John M.; Petricoin, Emanuel; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective To display images of breast cancer from a dedicated breast CT using Depth 3-Dimensional (D3D) augmented reality. Methods A case of breast cancer imaged using contrast-enhanced breast CT (Computed Tomography) was viewed with the augmented reality imaging, which uses a head display unit (HDU) and joystick control interface. Results The augmented reality system demonstrated 3D viewing of the breast mass with head position tracking, stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence and the use of a 3D cursor and joy-stick enabled fly through with visualization of the spiculations extending from the breast cancer. Conclusion The augmented reality system provided 3D visualization of the breast cancer with depth perception and visualization of the mass's spiculations. The augmented reality system should be further researched to determine the utility in clinical practice. PMID:27774517

  12. Incremental value of 3-D transesophageal echocardiographic imaging of the mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sonia; Malouf, Joseph F

    2014-01-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography provides excellent visualization of the posteriorly located mitral valve. Over the last decade, 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE) has emerged as an exciting imaging modality, particularly of the mitral valve. The current generation matrix array technology allows the operator to perform 2D and 3D imaging with a single transducer. 3D TEE affords the unique ability to view the mitral valve and its surrounding structures "en face" in real time (RT), and provide contextual anatomical guidance during surgical and transcatheter interventions. Additionally, offline quantification has made significant contributions to our mechanistic understanding of the normal and diseased mitral valve, and alterations induced by therapeutic intervention such as surgical repair. This review will address recent advances in the incremental role of 3D TEE in mitral valve imaging.

  13. 3D reconstruction of SEM images by use of optical photogrammetry software.

    PubMed

    Eulitz, Mona; Reiss, Gebhard

    2015-08-01

    Reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) surface of an object to be examined is widely used for structure analysis in science and many biological questions require information about their true 3D structure. For Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) there has been no efficient non-destructive solution for reconstruction of the surface morphology to date. The well-known method of recording stereo pair images generates a 3D stereoscope reconstruction of a section, but not of the complete sample surface. We present a simple and non-destructive method of 3D surface reconstruction from SEM samples based on the principles of optical close range photogrammetry. In optical close range photogrammetry a series of overlapping photos is used to generate a 3D model of the surface of an object. We adapted this method to the special SEM requirements. Instead of moving a detector around the object, the object itself was rotated. A series of overlapping photos was stitched and converted into a 3D model using the software commonly used for optical photogrammetry. A rabbit kidney glomerulus was used to demonstrate the workflow of this adaption. The reconstruction produced a realistic and high-resolution 3D mesh model of the glomerular surface. The study showed that SEM micrographs are suitable for 3D reconstruction by optical photogrammetry. This new approach is a simple and useful method of 3D surface reconstruction and suitable for various applications in research and teaching.

  14. Automatic Masking for Robust 3D-2D Image Registration in Image-Guided Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ketcha, M. D.; De Silva, T.; Uneri, A.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    During spinal neurosurgery, patient-specific information, planning, and annotation such as vertebral labels can be mapped from preoperative 3D CT to intraoperative 2D radiographs via image-based 3D-2D registration. Such registration has been shown to provide a potentially valuable means of decision support in target localization as well as quality assurance of the surgical product. However, robust registration can be challenged by mismatch in image content between the preoperative CT and intraoperative radiographs, arising, for example, from anatomical deformation or the presence of surgical tools within the radiograph. In this work, we develop and evaluate methods for automatically mitigating the effect of content mismatch by leveraging the surgical planning data to assign greater weight to anatomical regions known to be reliable for registration and vital to the surgical task while removing problematic regions that are highly deformable or often occluded by surgical tools. We investigated two approaches to assigning variable weight (i.e., "masking") to image content and/or the similarity metric: (1) masking the preoperative 3D CT ("volumetric masking"); and (2) masking within the 2D similarity metric calculation ("projection masking"). The accuracy of registration was evaluated in terms of projection distance error (PDE) in 61 cases selected from an IRB-approved clinical study. The best performing of the masking techniques was found to reduce the rate of gross failure (PDE > 20 mm) from 11.48% to 5.57% in this challenging retrospective data set. These approaches provided robustness to content mismatch and eliminated distinct failure modes of registration. Such improvement was gained without additional workflow and has motivated incorporation of the masking methods within a system under development for prospective clinical studies. PMID:27335531

  15. Automatic Masking for Robust 3D-2D Image Registration in Image-Guided Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ketcha, M D; De Silva, T; Uneri, A; Kleinszig, G; Vogt, S; Wolinsky, J-P; Siewerdsen, J H

    During spinal neurosurgery, patient-specific information, planning, and annotation such as vertebral labels can be mapped from preoperative 3D CT to intraoperative 2D radiographs via image-based 3D-2D registration. Such registration has been shown to provide a potentially valuable means of decision support in target localization as well as quality assurance of the surgical product. However, robust registration can be challenged by mismatch in image content between the preoperative CT and intraoperative radiographs, arising, for example, from anatomical deformation or the presence of surgical tools within the radiograph. In this work, we develop and evaluate methods for automatically mitigating the effect of content mismatch by leveraging the surgical planning data to assign greater weight to anatomical regions known to be reliable for registration and vital to the surgical task while removing problematic regions that are highly deformable or often occluded by surgical tools. We investigated two approaches to assigning variable weight (i.e., "masking") to image content and/or the similarity metric: (1) masking the preoperative 3D CT ("volumetric masking"); and (2) masking within the 2D similarity metric calculation ("projection masking"). The accuracy of registration was evaluated in terms of projection distance error (PDE) in 61 cases selected from an IRB-approved clinical study. The best performing of the masking techniques was found to reduce the rate of gross failure (PDE > 20 mm) from 11.48% to 5.57% in this challenging retrospective data set. These approaches provided robustness to content mismatch and eliminated distinct failure modes of registration. Such improvement was gained without additional workflow and has motivated incorporation of the masking methods within a system under development for prospective clinical studies.

  16. Automatic masking for robust 3D-2D image registration in image-guided spine surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketcha, M. D.; De Silva, T.; Uneri, A.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    During spinal neurosurgery, patient-specific information, planning, and annotation such as vertebral labels can be mapped from preoperative 3D CT to intraoperative 2D radiographs via image-based 3D-2D registration. Such registration has been shown to provide a potentially valuable means of decision support in target localization as well as quality assurance of the surgical product. However, robust registration can be challenged by mismatch in image content between the preoperative CT and intraoperative radiographs, arising, for example, from anatomical deformation or the presence of surgical tools within the radiograph. In this work, we develop and evaluate methods for automatically mitigating the effect of content mismatch by leveraging the surgical planning data to assign greater weight to anatomical regions known to be reliable for registration and vital to the surgical task while removing problematic regions that are highly deformable or often occluded by surgical tools. We investigated two approaches to assigning variable weight (i.e., "masking") to image content and/or the similarity metric: (1) masking the preoperative 3D CT ("volumetric masking"); and (2) masking within the 2D similarity metric calculation ("projection masking"). The accuracy of registration was evaluated in terms of projection distance error (PDE) in 61 cases selected from an IRB-approved clinical study. The best performing of the masking techniques was found to reduce the rate of gross failure (PDE > 20 mm) from 11.48% to 5.57% in this challenging retrospective data set. These approaches provided robustness to content mismatch and eliminated distinct failure modes of registration. Such improvement was gained without additional workflow and has motivated incorporation of the masking methods within a system under development for prospective clinical studies.

  17. Medical image retrieval system using multiple features from 3D ROIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hongbing; Wang, Weiwei; Liao, Qimei; Zhang, Guopeng; Zhou, Zhiming

    2012-02-01

    Compared to a retrieval using global image features, features extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) that reflect distribution patterns of abnormalities would benefit more for content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR) systems. Currently, most CBMIR systems have been designed for 2D ROIs, which cannot reflect 3D anatomical features and region distribution of lesions comprehensively. To further improve the accuracy of image retrieval, we proposed a retrieval method with 3D features including both geometric features such as Shape Index (SI) and Curvedness (CV) and texture features derived from 3D Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix, which were extracted from 3D ROIs, based on our previous 2D medical images retrieval system. The system was evaluated with 20 volume CT datasets for colon polyp detection. Preliminary experiments indicated that the integration of morphological features with texture features could improve retrieval performance greatly. The retrieval result using features extracted from 3D ROIs accorded better with the diagnosis from optical colonoscopy than that based on features from 2D ROIs. With the test database of images, the average accuracy rate for 3D retrieval method was 76.6%, indicating its potential value in clinical application.

  18. Automated 3D ultrasound image segmentation to aid breast cancer image interpretation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Peng; Lee, Won-Mean; Roubidoux, Marilyn A; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L

    2016-02-01

    Segmentation of an ultrasound image into functional tissues is of great importance to clinical diagnosis of breast cancer. However, many studies are found to segment only the mass of interest and not all major tissues. Differences and inconsistencies in ultrasound interpretation call for an automated segmentation method to make results operator-independent. Furthermore, manual segmentation of entire three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes is time-consuming, resource-intensive, and clinically impractical. Here, we propose an automated algorithm to segment 3D ultrasound volumes into three major tissue types: cyst/mass, fatty tissue, and fibro-glandular tissue. To test its efficacy and consistency, the proposed automated method was employed on a database of 21 cases of whole breast ultrasound. Experimental results show that our proposed method not only distinguishes fat and non-fat tissues correctly, but performs well in classifying cyst/mass. Comparison of density assessment between the automated method and manual segmentation demonstrates good consistency with an accuracy of 85.7%. Quantitative comparison of corresponding tissue volumes, which uses overlap ratio, gives an average similarity of 74.54%, consistent with values seen in MRI brain segmentations. Thus, our proposed method exhibits great potential as an automated approach to segment 3D whole breast ultrasound volumes into functionally distinct tissues that may help to correct ultrasound speed of sound aberrations and assist in density based prognosis of breast cancer.

  19. Automated 3D Ultrasound Image Segmentation to Aid Breast Cancer Image Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Peng; Lee, Won-Mean; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of an ultrasound image into functional tissues is of great importance to clinical diagnosis of breast cancer. However, many studies are found to segment only the mass of interest and not all major tissues. Differences and inconsistencies in ultrasound interpretation call for an automated segmentation method to make results operator-independent. Furthermore, manual segmentation of entire three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes is time-consuming, resource-intensive, and clinically impractical. Here, we propose an automated algorithm to segment 3D ultrasound volumes into three major tissue types: cyst/mass, fatty tissue, and fibro-glandular tissue. To test its efficacy and consistency, the proposed automated method was employed on a database of 21 cases of whole breast ultrasound. Experimental results show that our proposed method not only distinguishes fat and non-fat tissues correctly, but performs well in classifying cyst/mass. Comparison of density assessment between the automated method and manual segmentation demonstrates good consistency with an accuracy of 85.7%. Quantitative comparison of corresponding tissue volumes, which uses overlap ratio, gives an average similarity of 74.54%, consistent with values seen in MRI brain segmentations. Thus, our proposed method exhibits great potential as an automated approach to segment 3D whole breast ultrasound volumes into functionally distinct tissues that may help to correct ultrasound speed of sound aberrations and assist in density based prognosis of breast cancer. PMID:26547117

  20. 3D fluoroscopic image estimation using patient-specific 4DCBCT-based motion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhou, S.; Hurwitz, M.; Mishra, P.; Cai, W.; Rottmann, J.; Li, R.; Williams, C.; Wagar, M.; Berbeco, R.; Ionascu, D.; Lewis, J. H.

    2015-05-01

    3D fluoroscopic images represent volumetric patient anatomy during treatment with high spatial and temporal resolution. 3D fluoroscopic images estimated using motion models built using 4DCT images, taken days or weeks prior to treatment, do not reliably represent patient anatomy during treatment. In this study we developed and performed initial evaluation of techniques to develop patient-specific motion models from 4D cone-beam CT (4DCBCT) images, taken immediately before treatment, and used these models to estimate 3D fluoroscopic images based on 2D kV projections captured during treatment. We evaluate the accuracy of 3D fluoroscopic images by comparison to ground truth digital and physical phantom images. The performance of 4DCBCT-based and 4DCT-based motion models are compared in simulated clinical situations representing tumor baseline shift or initial patient positioning errors. The results of this study demonstrate the ability for 4DCBCT imaging to generate motion models that can account for changes that cannot be accounted for with 4DCT-based motion models. When simulating tumor baseline shift and patient positioning errors of up to 5 mm, the average tumor localization error and the 95th percentile error in six datasets were 1.20 and 2.2 mm, respectively, for 4DCBCT-based motion models. 4DCT-based motion models applied to the same six datasets resulted in average tumor localization error and the 95th percentile error of 4.18 and 5.4 mm, respectively. Analysis of voxel-wise intensity differences was also conducted for all experiments. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of 4DCBCT-based 3D fluoroscopic image generation in digital and physical phantoms and shows the potential advantage of 4DCBCT-based 3D fluoroscopic image estimation when there are changes in anatomy between the time of 4DCT imaging and the time of treatment delivery.

  1. 3D fluoroscopic image estimation using patient-specific 4DCBCT-based motion models

    PubMed Central

    Dhou, Salam; Hurwitz, Martina; Mishra, Pankaj; Cai, Weixing; Rottmann, Joerg; Li, Ruijiang; Williams, Christopher; Wagar, Matthew; Berbeco, Ross; Ionascu, Dan; Lewis, John H.

    2015-01-01

    3D fluoroscopic images represent volumetric patient anatomy during treatment with high spatial and temporal resolution. 3D fluoroscopic images estimated using motion models built using 4DCT images, taken days or weeks prior to treatment, do not reliably represent patient anatomy during treatment. In this study we develop and perform initial evaluation of techniques to develop patient-specific motion models from 4D cone-beam CT (4DCBCT) images, taken immediately before treatment, and use these models to estimate 3D fluoroscopic images based on 2D kV projections captured during treatment. We evaluate the accuracy of 3D fluoroscopic images by comparing to ground truth digital and physical phantom images. The performance of 4DCBCT- and 4DCT- based motion models are compared in simulated clinical situations representing tumor baseline shift or initial patient positioning errors. The results of this study demonstrate the ability for 4DCBCT imaging to generate motion models that can account for changes that cannot be accounted for with 4DCT-based motion models. When simulating tumor baseline shift and patient positioning errors of up to 5 mm, the average tumor localization error and the 95th percentile error in six datasets were 1.20 and 2.2 mm, respectively, for 4DCBCT-based motion models. 4DCT-based motion models applied to the same six datasets resulted in average tumor localization error and the 95th percentile error of 4.18 and 5.4 mm, respectively. Analysis of voxel-wise intensity differences was also conducted for all experiments. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of 4DCBCT-based 3D fluoroscopic image generation in digital and physical phantoms, and shows the potential advantage of 4DCBCT-based 3D fluoroscopic image estimation when there are changes in anatomy between the time of 4DCT imaging and the time of treatment delivery. PMID:25905722

  2. High-resolution DTI of a localized volume using 3D single-shot diffusion-weighted STimulated echo-planar imaging (3D ss-DWSTEPI).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eun-Kee; Kim, Seong-Eun; Kholmovski, Eugene G; Parker, Dennis L

    2006-12-01

    Diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) using conventional single-shot (SS) 2D diffusion-weighted (DW)-EPI is subject to severe susceptibility artifacts. Multishot DW imaging (DWI) techniques can reduce these distortions, but they generally suffer from artifacts caused by motion-induced phase errors. Parallel imaging can also reduce the distortions if the sensitivity profiles of the receiver coils allow a sufficiently high reduction factor for the desired field of view (FOV). A novel 3D DTI technique, termed 3D single-shot STimulated EPI (3D ss-STEPI), was developed to acquire high-resolution DW images of a localized region. The new technique completes k-space acquisition of a limited 3D volume after a single diffusion preparation. Because the DW magnetization is stored in the longitudinal direction until readout, it undergoes T(1) rather than T(2) decay. Inner volume imaging (IVI) is used to limit the imaging volume. This reduces the time required for EPI readout of each complete k(x)-k(y) plane, and hence reduces T(2)(*) decay during the readout and T(1) decay between the readout of each k(z). 3D ss-STEPI images appear to be free of severe susceptibility and motion artifacts. 3D ss-STEPI allows high-resolution DTI of limited volumes of interest, such as localized brain regions, cervical spinal cord, optic nerve, and other extracranial organs.

  3. Label free cell tracking in 3D tissue engineering constructs with high resolution imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. A.; Lam, K.-P.; Dempsey, K. P.; Mazzocchi-Jones, D.; Richardson, J. B.; Yang, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Within the field of tissue engineering there is an emphasis on studying 3-D live tissue structures. Consequently, to investigate and identify cellular activities and phenotypes in a 3-D environment for all in vitro experiments, including shape, migration/proliferation and axon projection, it is necessary to adopt an optical imaging system that enables monitoring 3-D cellular activities and morphology through the thickness of the construct for an extended culture period without cell labeling. This paper describes a new 3-D tracking algorithm developed for Cell-IQ®, an automated cell imaging platform, which has been equipped with an environmental chamber optimized to enable capturing time-lapse sequences of live cell images over a long-term period without cell labeling. As an integral part of the algorithm, a novel auto-focusing procedure was developed for phase contrast microscopy equipped with 20x and 40x objectives, to provide a more accurate estimation of cell growth/trajectories by allowing 3-D voxels to be computed at high spatiotemporal resolution and cell density. A pilot study was carried out in a phantom system consisting of horizontally aligned nanofiber layers (with precise spacing between them), to mimic features well exemplified in cellular activities of neuronal growth in a 3-D environment. This was followed by detailed investigations concerning axonal projections and dendritic circuitry formation in a 3-D tissue engineering construct. Preliminary work on primary animal neuronal cells in response to chemoattractant and topographic cue within the scaffolds has produced encouraging results.

  4. 3D and 4D magnetic susceptibility tomography based on complex MR images

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-11-11

    Magnetic susceptibility is the physical property for T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2*MRI). The invention relates to methods for reconstructing an internal distribution (3D map) of magnetic susceptibility values, .chi. (x,y,z), of an object, from 3D T2*MRI phase images, by using Computed Inverse Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CIMRI) tomography. The CIMRI technique solves the inverse problem of the 3D convolution by executing a 3D Total Variation (TV) regularized iterative convolution scheme, using a split Bregman iteration algorithm. The reconstruction of .chi. (x,y,z) can be designed for low-pass, band-pass, and high-pass features by using a convolution kernel that is modified from the standard dipole kernel. Multiple reconstructions can be implemented in parallel, and averaging the reconstructions can suppress noise. 4D dynamic magnetic susceptibility tomography can be implemented by reconstructing a 3D susceptibility volume from a 3D phase volume by performing 3D CIMRI magnetic susceptibility tomography at each snapshot time.

  5. 3D-MSCT imaging of bullet trajectory in 3D crime scene reconstruction: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Colard, T; Delannoy, Y; Bresson, F; Marechal, C; Raul, J S; Hedouin, V

    2013-11-01

    Postmortem investigations are increasingly assisted by three-dimensional multi-slice computed tomography (3D-MSCT) and have become more available to forensic pathologists over the past 20years. In cases of ballistic wounds, 3D-MSCT can provide an accurate description of the bullet location, bone fractures and, more interestingly, a clear visual of the intracorporeal trajectory (bullet track). These forensic medical examinations can be combined with tridimensional bullet trajectory reconstructions created by forensic ballistic experts. These case reports present the implementation of tridimensional methods and the results of 3D crime scene reconstruction in two cases. The authors highlight the value of collaborations between police forensic experts and forensic medicine institutes through the incorporation of 3D-MSCT data in a crime scene reconstruction, which is of great interest in forensic science as a clear visual communication tool between experts and the court.

  6. 3D X-ray imaging methods in support catheter ablations of cardiac arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Stárek, Zdeněk; Lehar, František; Jež, Jiří; Wolf, Jiří; Novák, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are a very frequent illness. Pharmacotherapy is not very effective in persistent arrhythmias and brings along a number of risks. Catheter ablation has became an effective and curative treatment method over the past 20 years. To support complex arrhythmia ablations, the 3D X-ray cardiac cavities imaging is used, most frequently the 3D reconstruction of CT images. The 3D cardiac rotational angiography (3DRA) represents a modern method enabling to create CT like 3D images on a standard X-ray machine equipped with special software. Its advantage lies in the possibility to obtain images during the procedure, decreased radiation dose and reduction of amount of the contrast agent. The left atrium model is the one most frequently used for complex atrial arrhythmia ablations, particularly for atrial fibrillation. CT data allow for creation and segmentation of 3D models of all cardiac cavities. Recently, a research has been made proving the use of 3DRA to create 3D models of other cardiac (right ventricle, left ventricle, aorta) and non-cardiac structures (oesophagus). They can be used during catheter ablation of complex arrhythmias to improve orientation during the construction of 3D electroanatomic maps, directly fused with 3D electroanatomic systems and/or fused with fluoroscopy. An intensive development in the 3D model creation and use has taken place over the past years and they became routinely used during catheter ablations of arrhythmias, mainly atrial fibrillation ablation procedures. Further development may be anticipated in the future in both the creation and use of these models.

  7. Small SWAP 3D imaging flash ladar for small tactical unmanned air systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Alan; Anderson, Scott A.; Wojcik, Michael; Budge, Scott E.

    2015-05-01

    The Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), working with Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and industry leaders Advanced Scientific Concepts (ASC) and Hood Technology Corporation, has developed a small SWAP (size, weight, and power) 3D imaging flash ladar (LAser Detection And Ranging) sensor system concept design for small tactical unmanned air systems (STUAS). The design utilizes an ASC 3D flash ladar camera and laser in a Hood Technology gyro-stabilized gimbal system. The design is an autonomous, intelligent, geo-aware sensor system that supplies real-time 3D terrain and target images. Flash ladar and visible camera data are processed at the sensor using a custom digitizer/frame grabber with compression. Mounted in the aft housing are power, controls, processing computers, and GPS/INS. The onboard processor controls pointing and handles image data, detection algorithms and queuing. The small SWAP 3D imaging flash ladar sensor system generates georeferenced terrain and target images with a low probability of false return and <10 cm range accuracy through foliage in real-time. The 3D imaging flash ladar is designed for a STUAS with a complete system SWAP estimate of <9 kg, <0.2 m3 and <350 W power. The system is modeled using LadarSIM, a MATLAB® and Simulink®- based ladar system simulator designed and developed by the Center for Advanced Imaging Ladar (CAIL) at Utah State University. We will present the concept design and modeled performance predictions.

  8. 3D city models completion by fusing lidar and image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammatikopoulos, L.; Kalisperakis, I.; Petsa, E.; Stentoumis, C.

    2015-05-01

    A fundamental step in the generation of visually detailed 3D city models is the acquisition of high fidelity 3D data. Typical approaches employ DSM representations usually derived from Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) airborne scanning or image based procedures. In this contribution, we focus on the fusion of data from both these methods in order to enhance or complete them. Particularly, we combine an existing Lidar and orthomosaic dataset (used as reference), with a new aerial image acquisition (including both vertical and oblique imagery) of higher resolution, which was carried out in the area of Kallithea, in Athens, Greece. In a preliminary step, a digital orthophoto and a DSM is generated from the aerial images in an arbitrary reference system, by employing a Structure from Motion and dense stereo matching framework. The image-to-Lidar registration is performed by 2D feature (SIFT and SURF) extraction and matching among the two orthophotos. The established point correspondences are assigned with 3D coordinates through interpolation on the reference Lidar surface, are then backprojected onto the aerial images, and finally matched with 2D image features located in the vicinity of the backprojected 3D points. Consequently, these points serve as Ground Control Points with appropriate weights for final orientation and calibration of the images through a bundle adjustment solution. By these means, the aerial imagery which is optimally aligned to the reference dataset can be used for the generation of an enhanced and more accurately textured 3D city model.

  9. In vivo 3D PIXE-micron-CT imaging of Drosophila melanogaster using a contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Shigeo; Hamada, Naoki; Ishii, Keizo; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Ohkura, Satoru; Terakawa, Atsuki; Hatori, Yoshinobu; Fujiki, Kota; Fujiwara, Mitsuhiro; Toyama, Sho

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) in vivo imaging system for imaging small insects with micrometer resolution. The 3D CT imaging system, referred to as 3D PIXE-micron-CT (PIXEμCT), uses characteristic X-rays produced by ion microbeam bombardment of a metal target. PIXEμCT was used to observe the body organs and internal structure of a living Drosophila melanogaster. Although the organs of the thorax were clearly imaged, the digestive organs in the abdominal cavity could not be clearly discerned initially, with the exception of the rectum and the Malpighian tubule. To enhance the abdominal images, a barium sulfate powder radiocontrast agent was added. For the first time, 3D images of the ventriculus of a living D. melanogaster were obtained. Our results showed that PIXEμCT can provide in vivo 3D-CT images that reflect correctly the structure of individual living organs, which is expected to be very useful in biological research.

  10. Radon transform based automatic metal artefacts generation for 3D threat image projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megherbi, Najla; Breckon, Toby P.; Flitton, Greg T.; Mouton, Andre

    2013-10-01

    Threat Image Projection (TIP) plays an important role in aviation security. In order to evaluate human security screeners in determining threats, TIP systems project images of realistic threat items into the images of the passenger baggage being scanned. In this proof of concept paper, we propose a 3D TIP method which can be integrated within new 3D Computed Tomography (CT) screening systems. In order to make the threat items appear as if they were genuinely located in the scanned bag, appropriate CT metal artefacts are generated in the resulting TIP images according to the scan orientation, the passenger bag content and the material of the inserted threat items. This process is performed in the projection domain using a novel methodology based on the Radon Transform. The obtained results using challenging 3D CT baggage images are very promising in terms of plausibility and realism.

  11. Sparse multipass 3D SAR imaging: applications to the GOTCHA data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Christian D.; Ertin, Emre; Moses, Randolph L.

    2009-05-01

    Typically in SAR imaging, there is insufficient data to form well-resolved three-dimensional (3D) images using traditional Fourier image reconstruction; furthermore, scattering centers do not persist over wide-angles. In this work, we examine 3D non-coherent wide-angle imaging on the GOTCHA Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) data set; this data set consists of multipass complete circular aperture radar data from a scene at AFRL, with each pass varying in elevation as a result of aircraft flight dynamics . We compare two algorithms capable of forming well-resolved 3D images over this data set: regularized lp least-squares inversion, and non-uniform multipass interferometric SAR (IFSAR).

  12. Technical Note: Characterization of custom 3D printed multimodality imaging phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Bieniosek, Matthew F.; Lee, Brian J.; Levin, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Imaging phantoms are important tools for researchers and technicians, but they can be costly and difficult to customize. Three dimensional (3D) printing is a widely available rapid prototyping technique that enables the fabrication of objects with 3D computer generated geometries. It is ideal for quickly producing customized, low cost, multimodal, reusable imaging phantoms. This work validates the use of 3D printed phantoms by comparing CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial “Micro Deluxe” phantom. This report also presents results from a customized 3D printed PET/MRI phantom, and a customized high resolution imaging phantom with sub-mm features. Methods: CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial Micro Deluxe (Data Spectrum Corporation, USA) phantom with 1.2, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0, and 4.8 mm diameter hot rods were acquired. The measured PET and CT rod sizes, activities, and attenuation coefficients were compared. A PET/MRI scan of a custom 3D printed phantom with hot and cold rods was performed, with photon attenuation and normalization measurements performed with a separate 3D printed normalization phantom. X-ray transmission scans of a customized two level high resolution 3D printed phantom with sub-mm features were also performed. Results: Results show very good agreement between commercial and 3D printed micro deluxe phantoms with less than 3% difference in CT measured rod diameter, less than 5% difference in PET measured rod diameter, and a maximum of 6.2% difference in average rod activity from a 10 min, 333 kBq/ml (9 μCi/ml) Siemens Inveon (Siemens Healthcare, Germany) PET scan. In all cases, these differences were within the measurement uncertainties of our setups. PET/MRI scans successfully identified 3D printed hot and cold rods on PET and MRI modalities. X-ray projection images of a 3D printed high resolution phantom identified features as small as 350 μm wide. Conclusions: This work shows that 3D printed

  13. Technical Note: Characterization of custom 3D printed multimodality imaging phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, Matthew F.; Lee, Brian J.; Levin, Craig S.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Imaging phantoms are important tools for researchers and technicians, but they can be costly and difficult to customize. Three dimensional (3D) printing is a widely available rapid prototyping technique that enables the fabrication of objects with 3D computer generated geometries. It is ideal for quickly producing customized, low cost, multimodal, reusable imaging phantoms. This work validates the use of 3D printed phantoms by comparing CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial “Micro Deluxe” phantom. This report also presents results from a customized 3D printed PET/MRI phantom, and a customized high resolution imaging phantom with sub-mm features. Methods: CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial Micro Deluxe (Data Spectrum Corporation, USA) phantom with 1.2, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0, and 4.8 mm diameter hot rods were acquired. The measured PET and CT rod sizes, activities, and attenuation coefficients were compared. A PET/MRI scan of a custom 3D printed phantom with hot and cold rods was performed, with photon attenuation and normalization measurements performed with a separate 3D printed normalization phantom. X-ray transmission scans of a customized two level high resolution 3D printed phantom with sub-mm features were also performed. Results: Results show very good agreement between commercial and 3D printed micro deluxe phantoms with less than 3% difference in CT measured rod diameter, less than 5% difference in PET measured rod diameter, and a maximum of 6.2% difference in average rod activity from a 10 min, 333 kBq/ml (9 μCi/ml) Siemens Inveon (Siemens Healthcare, Germany) PET scan. In all cases, these differences were within the measurement uncertainties of our setups. PET/MRI scans successfully identified 3D printed hot and cold rods on PET and MRI modalities. X-ray projection images of a 3D printed high resolution phantom identified features as small as 350 μm wide. Conclusions: This work shows that 3D printed

  14. Effects of point configuration on the accuracy in 3D reconstruction from biplane images

    SciTech Connect

    Dmochowski, Jacek; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Singh, Vikas; Xu Jinhui; Nazareth, Daryl P.

    2005-09-15

    Two or more angiograms are being used frequently in medical imaging to reconstruct locations in three-dimensional (3D) space, e.g., for reconstruction of 3D vascular trees, implanted electrodes, or patient positioning. A number of techniques have been proposed for this task. In this simulation study, we investigate the effect of the shape of the configuration of the points in 3D (the 'cloud' of points) on reconstruction errors for one of these techniques developed in our laboratory. Five types of configurations (a ball, an elongated ellipsoid (cigar), flattened ball (pancake), flattened cigar, and a flattened ball with a single distant point) are used in the evaluations. For each shape, 100 random configurations were generated, with point coordinates chosen from Gaussian distributions having a covariance matrix corresponding to the desired shape. The 3D data were projected into the image planes using a known imaging geometry. Gaussian distributed errors were introduced in the x and y coordinates of these projected points. Gaussian distributed errors were also introduced into the gantry information used to calculate the initial imaging geometry. The imaging geometries and 3D positions were iteratively refined using the enhanced-Metz-Fencil technique. The image data were also used to evaluate the feasible R-t solution volume. The 3D errors between the calculated and true positions were determined. The effects of the shape of the configuration, the number of points, the initial geometry error, and the input image error were evaluated. The results for the number of points, initial geometry error, and image error are in agreement with previously reported results, i.e., increasing the number of points and reducing initial geometry and/or image error, improves the accuracy of the reconstructed data. The shape of the 3D configuration of points also affects the error of reconstructed 3D configuration; specifically, errors decrease as the 'volume' of the 3D configuration

  15. Imaging Techniques for Dense 3D reconstruction of Swimming Aquatic Life using Multi-view Stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daily, David; Kiser, Jillian; McQueen, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the movement characteristics of how various species of fish swim is an important step to uncovering how they propel themselves through the water. Previous methods have focused on profile capture methods or sparse 3D manual feature point tracking. This research uses an array of 30 cameras to automatically track hundreds of points on a fish as they swim in 3D using multi-view stereo. Blacktip sharks, sting rays, puffer fish, turtles and more were imaged in collaboration with the National Aquarium in Baltimore, Maryland using the multi-view stereo technique. The processes for data collection, camera synchronization, feature point extraction, 3D reconstruction, 3D alignment, biological considerations, and lessons learned will be presented. Preliminary results of the 3D reconstructions will be shown and future research into mathematically characterizing various bio-locomotive maneuvers will be discussed.

  16. Wearable 3-D Photoacoustic Tomography for Functional Brain Imaging in Behaving Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jianbo; Coleman, Jason E.; Dai, Xianjin; Jiang, Huabei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between brain function and behavior remains a major challenge in neuroscience. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging technique that allows for noninvasive in vivo brain imaging at micrometer-millisecond spatiotemporal resolution. In this article, a novel, miniaturized 3D wearable PAT (3D-wPAT) technique is described for brain imaging in behaving rats. 3D-wPAT has three layers of fully functional acoustic transducer arrays. Phantom imaging experiments revealed that the in-plane X-Y spatial resolutions were ~200 μm for each acoustic detection layer. The functional imaging capacity of 3D-wPAT was demonstrated by mapping the cerebral oxygen saturation via multi-wavelength irradiation in behaving hyperoxic rats. In addition, we demonstrated that 3D-wPAT could be used for monitoring sensory stimulus-evoked responses in behaving rats by measuring hemodynamic responses in the primary visual cortex during visual stimulation. Together, these results show the potential of 3D-wPAT for brain study in behaving rodents. PMID:27146026

  17. 3D Imaging for hand gesture recognition: Exploring the software-hardware interaction of current technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Periverzov, Frol; Ilieş, Horea T.

    2012-09-01

    Interaction with 3D information is one of the fundamental and most familiar tasks in virtually all areas of engineering and science. Several recent technological advances pave the way for developing hand gesture recognition capabilities available to all, which will lead to more intuitive and efficient 3D user interfaces (3DUI). These developments can unlock new levels of expression and productivity in all activities concerned with the creation and manipulation of virtual 3D shapes and, specifically, in engineering design. Building fully automated systems for tracking and interpreting hand gestures requires robust and efficient 3D imaging techniques as well as potent shape classifiers. We survey and explore current and emerging 3D imaging technologies, and focus, in particular, on those that can be used to build interfaces between the users' hands and the machine. The purpose of this paper is to categorize and highlight the relevant differences between these existing 3D imaging approaches in terms of the nature of the information provided, output data format, as well as the specific conditions under which these approaches yield reliable data. Furthermore we explore the impact of each of these approaches on the computational cost and reliability of the required image processing algorithms. Finally we highlight the main challenges and opportunities in developing natural user interfaces based on hand gestures, and conclude with some promising directions for future research. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Dynamic visual image modeling for 3D synthetic scenes in agricultural engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Yan, Juntao; Li, Xiaobo; Ji, Yatai; Li, Xin

    The dynamic visual image modeling for 3D synthetic scenes by using dynamic multichannel binocular visual image based on the mobile self-organizing network. Technologies of 3D modeling synthetic scenes have been widely used in kinds of industries. The main purpose of this paper is to use multiple networks of dynamic visual monitors and sensors to observe an unattended area, to use the advantages of mobile network in rural areas for improving existing mobile network information service further and providing personalized information services. The goal of displaying is to provide perfect representation of synthetic scenes. Using low-power dynamic visual monitors and temperature/humidity sensor or GPS installed in the node equipment, monitoring data will be sent at scheduled time. Then through the mobile self-organizing network, 3D model is rebuilt by synthesizing the returned images. On this basis, we formalize a novel algorithm for multichannel binocular visual 3D images based on fast 3D modeling. Taking advantage of these low prices mobile, mobile self-organizing networks can get a large number of video from where is not suitable for human observation or unable to reach, and accurately synthetic 3D scene. This application will play a great role in promoting its application in agriculture.

  19. Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huaidong; Song, Changyong; Chen, Chien-Chun; Xu, Rui; Raines, Kevin S; Fahimian, Benjamin P; Lu, Chien-Hung; Lee, Ting-Kuo; Nakashima, Akio; Urano, Jun; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Miao, Jianwei

    2010-06-22

    Microscopy has greatly advanced our understanding of biology. Although significant progress has recently been made in optical microscopy to break the diffraction-limit barrier, reliance of such techniques on fluorescent labeling technologies prohibits quantitative 3D imaging of the entire contents of cells. Cryoelectron microscopy can image pleomorphic structures at a resolution of 3-5 nm, but is only applicable to thin or sectioned specimens. Here, we report quantitative 3D imaging of a whole, unstained cell at a resolution of 50-60 nm by X-ray diffraction microscopy. We identified the 3D morphology and structure of cellular organelles including cell wall, vacuole, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, granules, nucleus, and nucleolus inside a yeast spore cell. Furthermore, we observed a 3D structure protruding from the reconstructed yeast spore, suggesting the spore germination process. Using cryogenic technologies, a 3D resolution of 5-10 nm should be achievable by X-ray diffraction microscopy. This work hence paves a way for quantitative 3D imaging of a wide range of biological specimens at nanometer-scale resolutions that are too thick for electron microscopy.

  20. Real-time 3D surface-image-guided beam setup in radiotherapy of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Djajaputra, David; Li Shidong

    2005-01-01

    We describe an approach for external beam radiotherapy of breast cancer that utilizes the three-dimensional (3D) surface information of the breast. The surface data of the breast are obtained from a 3D optical camera that is rigidly mounted on the ceiling of the treatment vault. This 3D camera utilizes light in the visible range therefore it introduces no ionization radiation to the patient. In addition to the surface topographical information of the treated area, the camera also captures gray-scale information that is overlaid on the 3D surface image. This allows us to visualize the skin markers and automatically determine the isocenter position and the beam angles in the breast tangential fields. The field sizes and shapes of the tangential, supraclavicular, and internal mammary gland fields can all be determined according to the 3D surface image of the target. A least-squares method is first introduced for the tangential-field setup that is useful for compensation of the target shape changes. The entire process of capturing the 3D surface data and subsequent calculation of beam parameters typically requires less than 1 min. Our tests on phantom experiments and patient images have achieved the accuracy of 1 mm in shift and 0.5 deg. in rotation. Importantly, the target shape and position changes in each treatment session can both be corrected through this real-time image-guided system.

  1. Wearable 3-D Photoacoustic Tomography for Functional Brain Imaging in Behaving Rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jianbo; Coleman, Jason E; Dai, Xianjin; Jiang, Huabei

    2016-05-05

    Understanding the relationship between brain function and behavior remains a major challenge in neuroscience. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging technique that allows for noninvasive in vivo brain imaging at micrometer-millisecond spatiotemporal resolution. In this article, a novel, miniaturized 3D wearable PAT (3D-wPAT) technique is described for brain imaging in behaving rats. 3D-wPAT has three layers of fully functional acoustic transducer arrays. Phantom imaging experiments revealed that the in-plane X-Y spatial resolutions were ~200 μm for each acoustic detection layer. The functional imaging capacity of 3D-wPAT was demonstrated by mapping the cerebral oxygen saturation via multi-wavelength irradiation in behaving hyperoxic rats. In addition, we demonstrated that 3D-wPAT could be used for monitoring sensory stimulus-evoked responses in behaving rats by measuring hemodynamic responses in the primary visual cortex during visual stimulation. Together, these results show the potential of 3D-wPAT for brain study in behaving rodents.

  2. Online 3D terrain visualisation using Unity 3D game engine: A comparison of different contour intervals terrain data draped with UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz Mahayudin, Mohd; Che Mat, Ruzinoor

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to discuss on the effectiveness of visualising terrain draped with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images generated from different contour intervals using Unity 3D game engine in online environment. The study area that was tested in this project was oil palm plantation at Sintok, Kedah. The contour data used for this study are divided into three different intervals which are 1m, 3m and 5m. ArcGIS software were used to clip the contour data and also UAV images data to be similar size for the overlaying process. The Unity 3D game engine was used as the main platform for developing the system due to its capabilities which can be launch in different platform. The clipped contour data and UAV images data were process and exported into the web format using Unity 3D. Then process continue by publishing it into the web server for comparing the effectiveness of different 3D terrain data (contour data) draped with UAV images. The effectiveness is compared based on the data size, loading time (office and out-of-office hours), response time, visualisation quality, and frame per second (fps). The results were suggest which contour interval is better for developing an effective online 3D terrain visualisation draped with UAV images using Unity 3D game engine. It therefore benefits decision maker and planner related to this field decide on which contour is applicable for their task.

  3. Constraining 3D Process Sedimentological Models to Geophysical Data Using Image Quilting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmasebi, P.; Da Pra, A.; Pontiggia, M.; Caers, J.

    2014-12-01

    3D process geological models, whether for carbonate or sedimentological systems, have been proposed for modeling realistic subsurface heterogeneity. The problem with such forward process models is that they are not constrained to any subsurface data whether to wells or geophysical surveys. We propose a new method for realistic geological modeling of complex heterogeneity by hybridizing 3D process modeling of geological deposition with conditioning by means of a novel multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) technique termed image quilting (IQ). Image quilting is a pattern-based techniques that stiches together patterns extracted from training images to generate stochastic realizations that look like the training image. In this paper, we illustrate how 3D process model realizations can be used as training images in image quilting. To constrain the realization to seismic data we first interpret each facies in the geophysical data. These interpretation, while overly smooth and not reflecting finer scale variation are used as auxiliary variables in the generation of the image quilting realizations. To condition to well data, we first perform a kriging of the well data to generate a kriging map and kriging variance. The kriging map is used as additional auxiliary variable while the kriging variance is used as a weight given to the kriging derived auxiliary variable. We present an application to a giant offshore reservoir. Starting from seismic advanced attribute analysis and sedimentological interpretation, we build the 3D sedimentological process based model and use it as non-stationary training image for conditional image quilting.

  4. Framework for 2D-3D image fusion of infrared thermography with preoperative MRI.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Nico; Weidner, Florian; Urban, Peter; Meyer, Tobias; Schnabel, Christian; Radev, Yordan; Schackert, Gabriele; Petersohn, Uwe; Koch, Edmund; Gumhold, Stefan; Steiner, Gerald; Kirsch, Matthias

    2017-01-23

    Multimodal medical image fusion combines information of one or more images in order to improve the diagnostic value. While previous applications mainly focus on merging images from computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasonic and single-photon emission computed tomography, we propose a novel approach for the registration and fusion of preoperative 3D MRI with intraoperative 2D infrared thermography. Image-guided neurosurgeries are based on neuronavigation systems, which further allow us track the position and orientation of arbitrary cameras. Hereby, we are able to relate the 2D coordinate system of the infrared camera with the 3D MRI coordinate system. The registered image data are now combined by calibration-based image fusion in order to map our intraoperative 2D thermographic images onto the respective brain surface recovered from preoperative MRI. In extensive accuracy measurements, we found that the proposed framework achieves a mean accuracy of 2.46 mm.

  5. New techniques of determining focus position in gamma knife operation using 3D image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yingen; Wang, Dezong; Zhou, Quan

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, new techniques of determining the focus of a disease position in a gamma knife operation are presented. In these techniques, the transparent 3D color image of the human body organ is reconstructed using a new three-dimensional reconstruction method, and then the position, the area, and the volume of focus of a disease such as cancer or a tumor are calculated. They are used in the gamma knife operation. The CT pictures are input into a digital image processing system. The useful information is extracted and the original data are obtained. Then the transparent 3D color image is reconstructed using these original data. By using this transparent 3D color image, the positions of the human body organ and the focus of a disease are determined in a coordinate system. While the 3D image is reconstructed, the area and the volume of human body organ and focus of a disease can be calculated at the same time. It is expressed through actual application that the positions of human body organ and focus of a disease can be determined exactly by using the transparent 3D color image. It is very useful in gamma knife operation or other surgical operation. The techniques presented in this paper have great application value.

  6. 3D surface reconstruction of apples from 2D NIR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bin; Jiang, Lu; Cheng, Xuemei; Tao, Yang

    2005-11-01

    Machine vision methods are widely used in apple defect detection and quality grading applications. Currently, 2D near-infrared (NIR) imaging of apples is often used to detect apple defects because the image intensity of defects is different from normal apple parts. However, a drawback of this method is that the apple calyx also exhibits similar image intensity to the apple defects. Since an apple calyx often appears in the NIR image, the false alarm rate is high with the 2D NIR imaging method. In this paper, a 2D NIR imaging method is extended to a 3D reconstruction so that the apple calyx can be differentiated from apple defects according to their different 3D depth information. The Lambertian model is used to evaluate the reflectance map of the apple surface, and then Pentland's Shape-From-Shading (SFS) method is applied to reconstruct the 3D surface information of the apple based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Pentland's method is directly derived from human perception properties, making it close to the way human eyes recover 3D information from a 2D scene. In addition, the FFT reduces the computation time significantly. The reconstructed 3D apple surface maps are shown in the results, and different depths of apple calyx and defects are obtained correctly.

  7. F3D Image Processing and Analysis for Many - and Multi-core Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    F3D is written in OpenCL, so it achieve[sic] platform-portable parallelism on modern mutli-core CPUs and many-core GPUs. The interface and mechanims to access F3D core are written in Java as a plugin for Fiji/ImageJ to deliver several key image-processing algorithms necessary to remove artifacts from micro-tomography data. The algorithms consist of data parallel aware filters that can efficiently utilizes[sic] resources and can work on out of core datasets and scale efficiently across multiple accelerators. Optimizing for data parallel filters, streaming out of core datasets, and efficient resource and memory and data managements over complex execution sequence of filters greatly expedites any scientific workflow with image processing requirements. F3D performs several different types of 3D image processing operations, such as non-linear filtering using bilateral filtering and/or median filtering and/or morphological operators (MM). F3D gray-level MM operators are one-pass constant time methods that can perform morphological transformations with a line-structuring element oriented in discrete directions. Additionally, MM operators can be applied to gray-scale images, and consist of two parts: (a) a reference shape or structuring element, which is translated over the image, and (b) a mechanism, or operation, that defines the comparisons to be performed between the image and the structuring element. This tool provides a critical component within many complex pipelines such as those for performing automated segmentation of image stacks. F3D is also called a "descendent" of Quant-CT, another software we developed in the past. These two modules are to be integrated in a next version. Further details were reported in: D.M. Ushizima, T. Perciano, H. Krishnan, B. Loring, H. Bale, D. Parkinson, and J. Sethian. Structure recognition from high-resolution images of ceramic composites. IEEE International Conference on Big Data, October 2014.

  8. 3-D reconstruction of neurons from multichannel confocal laser scanning image series.

    PubMed

    Wouterlood, Floris G

    2005-08-01

    A confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) collects information from a thin, focal plane and ignores out-of-focus information. The operator configures separate channels (laser, filters, detector settings) for each fluorochrome used in a particular experiment. Then, 3-D reconstructions are made from Z-series of confocal images: one series per channel. Channel signal separation is extremely important and measures to avoid bleaching are vital. Post-acquisition deconvolution of the image series is then performed to increase resolution. In the 3-D reconstruction program described in this unit, reconstructions can be inspected in real time from any viewing angle. By altering viewing angles and by switching channels off and on, the spatial relationship of 3-D-reconstructed structures with respect to structures seen in other channels can be studied. Since each brand of CLSM, computer program, and 3-D reconstruction package has its own proprietary set of procedures, a general approach is provided wherever possible.

  9. Denoising for 3-d photon-limited imaging data using nonseparable filterbanks.

    PubMed

    Santamaria-Pang, Alberto; Bildea, Teodor Stefan; Tan, Shan; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we present a novel frame-based denoising algorithm for photon-limited 3-D images. We first construct a new 3-D nonseparable filterbank by adding elements to an existing frame in a structurally stable way. In contrast with the traditional 3-D separable wavelet system, the new filterbank is capable of using edge information in multiple directions. We then propose a data-adaptive hysteresis thresholding algorithm based on this new 3-D nonseparable filterbank. In addition, we develop a new validation strategy for denoising of photon-limited images containing sparse structures, such as neurons (the structure of interest is less than 5% of total volume). The validation method, based on tubular neighborhoods around the structure, is used to determine the optimal threshold of the proposed denoising algorithm. We compare our method with other state-of-the-art methods and report very encouraging results on applications utilizing both synthetic and real data.

  10. Midsagittal plane extraction from brain images based on 3D SIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huisi; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Wen, Zhenkun; Ming, Zhong

    2014-03-01

    Midsagittal plane (MSP) extraction from 3D brain images is considered as a promising technique for human brain symmetry analysis. In this paper, we present a fast and robust MSP extraction method based on 3D scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT). Unlike the existing brain MSP extraction methods, which mainly rely on the gray similarity, 3D edge registration or parameterized surface matching to determine the fissure plane, our proposed method is based on distinctive 3D SIFT features, in which the fissure plane is determined by parallel 3D SIFT matching and iterative least-median of squares plane regression. By considering the relative scales, orientations and flipped descriptors between two 3D SIFT features, we propose a novel metric to measure the symmetry magnitude for 3D SIFT features. By clustering and indexing the extracted SIFT features using a k-dimensional tree (KD-tree) implemented on graphics processing units, we can match multiple pairs of 3D SIFT features in parallel and solve the optimal MSP on-the-fly. The proposed method is evaluated by synthetic and in vivo datasets, of normal and pathological cases, and validated by comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods. Experimental results demonstrated that our method has achieved a real-time performance with better accuracy yielding an average yaw angle error below 0.91° and an average roll angle error no more than 0.89°.

  11. Hybrid atlas-based and image-based approach for segmenting 3D brain MRIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Gloria; Musse, Olivier; Heitz, Fabrice; Armspach, Jean-Paul

    2001-07-01

    This work is a contribution to the problem of localizing key cerebral structures in 3D MRIs and its quantitative evaluation. In pursuing it, the cooperation between an image-based segmentation method and a hierarchical deformable registration approach has been considered. The segmentation relies on two main processes: homotopy modification and contour decision. The first one is achieved by a marker extraction stage where homogeneous 3D regions of an image, I(s), from the data set are identified. These regions, M(I), are obtained combining information from deformable atlas, achieved by the warping of eight previous labeled maps on I(s). Then, the goal of the decision stage is to precisely locate the contours of the 3D regions set by the markers. This contour decision is performed by a 3D extension of the watershed transform. The anatomical structures taken into consideration and embedded into the atlas are brain, ventricles, corpus callosum, cerebellum, right and left hippocampus, medulla and midbrain. The hybrid method operates fully automatically and in 3D, successfully providing segmented brain structures. The quality of the segmentation has been studied in terms of the detected volume ratio by using kappa statistic and ROC analysis. Results of the method are shown and validated on a 3D MRI phantom. This study forms part of an on-going long term research aiming at the creation of a 3D probabilistic multi-purpose anatomical brain atlas.

  12. High-speed 3D digital image correlation vibration measurement: Recent advancements and noted limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beberniss, Timothy J.; Ehrhardt, David A.

    2017-03-01

    A review of the extensive studies on the feasibility and practicality of utilizing high-speed 3 dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) for various random vibration measurement applications is presented. Demonstrated capabilities include finite element model updating utilizing full-field 3D-DIC static displacements, modal survey natural frequencies, damping, and mode shape results from 3D-DIC are baselined against laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV), a comparison between foil strain gage and 3D-DIC strain, and finally the unique application to a high-speed wind tunnel fluid-structure interaction study. Results show good agreement between 3D-DIC and more traditional vibration measurement techniques. Unfortunately, 3D-DIC vibration measurement is not without its limitations, which are also identified and explored in this study. The out-of-plane sensitivity required for vibration measurement for 3D-DIC is orders of magnitude less than LDV making higher frequency displacements difficult to sense. Furthermore, the digital cameras used to capture the DIC images have no filter to eliminate temporal aliasing of the digitized signal. Ultimately DIC is demonstrated as a valid alternative means to measure structural vibrations while one unique application achieves success where more traditional methods would fail.

  13. 3D topography of biologic tissue by multiview imaging and structured light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald

    2014-02-01

    Obtaining three-dimensional (3D) information of biologic tissue is important in many medical applications. This paper presents two methods for reconstructing 3D topography of biologic tissue: multiview imaging and structured light illumination. For each method, the working principle is introduced, followed by experimental validation on a diabetic foot model. To compare the performance characteristics of these two imaging methods, a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is used as a standard control. The wound surface topography of the diabetic foot model is measured by multiview imaging and structured light illumination methods respectively and compared with the CMM measurements. The comparison results show that the structured light illumination method is a promising technique for 3D topographic imaging of biologic tissue.

  14. Imaging Properties of 3D Printed Materials: Multi-Energy CT of Filament Polymers.

    PubMed

    Shin, James; Sandhu, Ranjit S; Shih, George

    2017-02-06

    Clinical applications of 3D printing are increasingly commonplace, likewise the frequency of inclusion of 3D printed objects on imaging studies. Although there is a general familiarity with the imaging appearance of traditional materials comprising common surgical hardware and medical devices, comparatively less is known regarding the appearance of available 3D printing materials in the consumer market. This work detailing the CT appearance of a selected number of common filament polymer classes is an initial effort to catalog these data, to provide for accurate interpretation of imaging studies incidentally or intentionally including fabricated objects. Furthermore, this information can inform the design of image-realistic tissue-mimicking phantoms for a variety of applications, with clear candidate material analogs for bone, soft tissue, water, and fat attenuation.

  15. Synthesis of 3D Model of a Magnetic Field-Influenced Body from a Single Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Cuilan; Newman, Timothy; Gallagher, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A method for recovery of a 3D model of a cloud-like structure that is in motion and deforming but approximately governed by magnetic field properties is described. The method allows recovery of the model from a single intensity image in which the structure's silhouette can be observed. The method exploits envelope theory and a magnetic field model. Given one intensity image and the segmented silhouette in the image, the method proceeds without human intervention to produce the 3D model. In addition to allowing 3D model synthesis, the method's capability to yield a very compact description offers further utility. Application of the method to several real-world images is demonstrated.

  16. 2D imaging and 3D sensing data acquisition and mutual registration for painting conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Raffaella; Gambino, Maria Chiara; Greco, Marinella; Marras, Luciano; Pampaloni, Enrico M.; Pelagotti, Anna; Pezzati, Luca; Poggi, Pasquale

    2004-12-01

    We describe the application of 2D and 3D data acquisition and mutual registration to the conservation of paintings. RGB color image acquisition, IR and UV fluorescence imaging, together with the more recent hyperspectral imaging (32 bands) are among the most useful techniques in this field. They generally are meant to provide information on the painting materials, on the employed techniques and on the object state of conservation. However, only when the various images are perfectly registered on each other and on the 3D model, no ambiguity is possible and safe conclusions may be drawn. We present the integration of 2D and 3D measurements carried out on two different paintings: "Madonna of the Yarnwinder" by Leonardo da Vinci, and "Portrait of Lionello d'Este", by Pisanello, both painted in the XV century.

  17. 2D imaging and 3D sensing data acquisition and mutual registration for painting conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Raffaella; Gambino, Maria Chiara; Greco, Marinella; Marras, Luciano; Pampaloni, Enrico M.; Pelagotti, Anna; Pezzati, Luca; Poggi, Pasquale

    2005-01-01

    We describe the application of 2D and 3D data acquisition and mutual registration to the conservation of paintings. RGB color image acquisition, IR and UV fluorescence imaging, together with the more recent hyperspectral imaging (32 bands) are among the most useful techniques in this field. They generally are meant to provide information on the painting materials, on the employed techniques and on the object state of conservation. However, only when the various images are perfectly registered on each other and on the 3D model, no ambiguity is possible and safe conclusions may be drawn. We present the integration of 2D and 3D measurements carried out on two different paintings: "Madonna of the Yarnwinder" by Leonardo da Vinci, and "Portrait of Lionello d'Este", by Pisanello, both painted in the XV century.

  18. Real-time 3D adaptive filtering for portable imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockenbach, Olivier; Ali, Murtaza; Wainwright, Ian; Nadeski, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Portable imaging devices have proven valuable for emergency medical services both in the field and hospital environments and are becoming more prevalent in clinical settings where the use of larger imaging machines is impractical. 3D adaptive filtering is one of the most advanced techniques aimed at noise reduction and feature enhancement, but is computationally very demanding and hence often not able to run with sufficient performance on a portable platform. In recent years, advanced multicore DSPs have been introduced that attain high processing performance while maintaining low levels of power dissipation. These processors enable the implementation of complex algorithms like 3D adaptive filtering, improving the image quality of portable medical imaging devices. In this study, the performance of a 3D adaptive filtering algorithm on a digital signal processor (DSP) is investigated. The performance is assessed by filtering a volume of size 512x256x128 voxels sampled at a pace of 10 MVoxels/sec.

  19. 3D imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart tissue: going deeper

    PubMed Central

    Nehrhoff, Imke; Bocancea, Diana; Vaquero, Javier; Vaquero, Juan José; Ripoll, Jorge; Desco, Manuel; Gómez-Gaviro, María Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The ability to acquire high resolution 3D images of the heart enables to study heart diseases more in detail. In this work, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was optimized for thick mouse heart sections to enhance the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. In addition, the optimized CUBIC clearing of the heart enhances antibody penetration into the tissue by a factor of five. The present protocol enables deep 3D high-quality image acquisition in the heart allowing a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases. PMID:27699132

  20. 3D imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart tissue: going deeper.

    PubMed

    Nehrhoff, Imke; Bocancea, Diana; Vaquero, Javier; Vaquero, Juan José; Ripoll, Jorge; Desco, Manuel; Gómez-Gaviro, María Victoria

    2016-09-01

    The ability to acquire high resolution 3D images of the heart enables to study heart diseases more in detail. In this work, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was optimized for thick mouse heart sections to enhance the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. In addition, the optimized CUBIC clearing of the heart enhances antibody penetration into the tissue by a factor of five. The present protocol enables deep 3D high-quality image acquisition in the heart allowing a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases.

  1. Segmentation and length measurement of the abdominal blood vessels in 3-D MRI images.

    PubMed

    Babin, Danilo; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried

    2009-01-01

    In diagnosing diseases and planning surgeries the structure and length of blood vessels is of great importance. In this research we develop a novel method for the segmentation of 2-D and 3-D images with an application to blood vessel length measurements in 3-D abdominal MRI images. Our approach is robust to noise and does not require contrast-enhanced images for segmentation. We use an effective algorithm for skeletonization, graph construction and shortest path estimation to measure the length of blood vessels of interest.

  2. Nonrigid registration and classification of the kidneys in 3D dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Ghafourian, Pegah; Sharma, Puneet; Salman, Khalil; Martin, Diego; Fei, Baowei

    2012-02-01

    We have applied image analysis methods in the assessment of human kidney perfusion based on 3D dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI data. This approach consists of 3D non-rigid image registration of the kidneys and fuzzy C-mean classification of kidney tissues. The proposed registration method reduced motion artifacts in the dynamic images and improved the analysis of kidney compartments (cortex, medulla, and cavities). The dynamic intensity curves show the successive transition of the contrast agent through kidney compartments. The proposed method for motion correction and kidney compartment classification may be used to improve the validity and usefulness of further model-based pharmacokinetic analysis of kidney function.

  3. Fusion of laser and image sensory data for 3-D modeling of the free navigation space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mass, M.; Moghaddamzadeh, A.; Bourbakis, N.

    1994-01-01

    A fusion technique which combines two different types of sensory data for 3-D modeling of a navigation space is presented. The sensory data is generated by a vision camera and a laser scanner. The problem of different resolutions for these sensory data was solved by reduced image resolution, fusion of different data, and use of a fuzzy image segmentation technique.

  4. Final report: high resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, Chris

    2011-04-14

    This project helped pioneer the core capabilities of coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) using X rays at synchrotron light source facilities. We developed an apparatus that was used for CDI at the Advanced Light Source, and applied it to 2D and 3D imaging of nanostructures. We also explored a number of conceptual and computational issues on the reconstruction of CDI data.

  5. Structural and functional imaging of 3D microfluidic mixers using optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Xi, Chuanwu; Marks, Daniel L; Parikh, Devang S; Raskin, Lutgarde; Boppart, Stephen A

    2004-05-18

    To achieve high mixing efficiency in microfluidic devices, complex designs are often required. Microfluidic devices have been evaluated with light and confocal microscopy, but fluid-flow characteristics at different depths are difficult to separate from the en face images produced. By using optical coherence tomography (OCT), an imaging modality capable of imaging 3D microstructures at micrometer-scale resolutions over millimeter-size scales, we obtained 3D dynamic functional and structural data for three representative microfluidic mixers: a Y channel mixer, a 3D serpentine mixer, and a vortex mixer. In the serpentine mixer, OCT image analysis revealed that the mixing efficiency was linearly dependent on the Reynolds number, whereas it appeared to have exponential dependence when imaged with light microscopy. The visual overlap of fluid flows in light-microscopy images leads to an overestimation of the mixing efficiency, an effect that was eliminated with OCT imaging. Doppler OCT measurements determined velocity profiles at various points in the serpentine mixer. Mixing patterns in the vortex mixer were compared with light-microscopy and OCT image analysis. These results demonstrate that OCT can significantly improve the characterization of 3D microfluidic device structure and function.

  6. An object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis imaging system.

    PubMed

    Seyyedi, Saeed; Cengiz, Kubra; Kamasak, Mustafa; Yildirim, Isa

    2013-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast. Several reconstruction algorithms are available for DBT imaging. Filtered back projection algorithm has traditionally been used to reconstruct images from projections. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) were later developed. Recently, compressed sensing based methods have been proposed in tomosynthesis imaging problem. We have developed an object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) imaging system using C++ programming language. The simulator is capable of implementing different iterative and compressed sensing based reconstruction methods on 3D digital tomosynthesis data sets and phantom models. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) helps users to select and run the desired methods on the designed phantom models or real data sets. The simulator has been tested on a phantom study that simulates breast tomosynthesis imaging problem. Results obtained with various methods including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and total variation regularized reconstruction techniques (ART+TV) are presented. Reconstruction results of the methods are compared both visually and quantitatively by evaluating performances of the methods using mean structural similarity (MSSIM) values.

  7. Parallax barrier engineering for image quality improvement in an autostereoscopic 3D display.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Kyu; Yoon, Ki-Hyuk; Yoon, Seon Kyu; Ju, Heongkyu

    2015-05-18

    We present a image quality improvement in a parallax barrier (PB)-based multiview autostereoscopic 3D display system under a real-time tracking of positions of a viewer's eyes. The system presented exploits a parallax barrier engineered to offer significantly improved quality of three-dimensional images for a moving viewer without an eyewear under the dynamic eye tracking. The improved image quality includes enhanced uniformity of image brightness, reduced point crosstalk, and no pseudoscopic effects. We control the relative ratio between two parameters i.e., a pixel size and the aperture of a parallax barrier slit to improve uniformity of image brightness at a viewing zone. The eye tracking that monitors positions of a viewer's eyes enables pixel data control software to turn on only pixels for view images near the viewer's eyes (the other pixels turned off), thus reducing point crosstalk. The eye tracking combined software provides right images for the respective eyes, therefore producing no pseudoscopic effects at its zone boundaries. The viewing zone can be spanned over area larger than the central viewing zone offered by a conventional PB-based multiview autostereoscopic 3D display (no eye tracking). Our 3D display system also provides multiviews for motion parallax under eye tracking. More importantly, we demonstrate substantial reduction of point crosstalk of images at the viewing zone, its level being comparable to that of a commercialized eyewear-assisted 3D display system. The multiview autostereoscopic 3D display presented can greatly resolve the point crosstalk problem, which is one of the critical factors that make it difficult for previous technologies for a multiview autostereoscopic 3D display to replace an eyewear-assisted counterpart.

  8. The 3D scanner prototype utilize object profile imaging using line laser and octave software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurdini, Mugi; Manunggal, Trikarsa Tirtadwipa; Samsi, Agus

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional scanner or 3D Scanner is a device to reconstruct the real object into digital form on a computer. 3D Scanner is a technology that is being developed, especially in developed countries, where the current 3D Scanner devices is the advanced version with a very expensive prices. This study is basically a simple prototype of 3D Scanner with a very low investment costs. 3D Scanner prototype device consists of a webcam, a rotating desk system controlled by a stepper motor and Arduino UNO, and a line laser. Objects that limit the research is the object with same radius from its center point (object pivot). Scanning is performed by using object profile imaging by line laser which is then captured by the camera and processed by a computer (image processing) using Octave software. On each image acquisition, the scanned object on a rotating desk rotated by a certain degree, so for one full turn multiple images of a number of existing side are finally obtained. Then, the profile of the entire images is extracted in order to obtain digital object dimension. Digital dimension is calibrated by length standard, called gage block. Overall dimensions are then digitally reconstructed into a three-dimensional object. Validation of the scanned object reconstruction of the original object dimensions expressed as a percentage error. Based on the results of data validation, horizontal dimension error is about 5% to 23% and vertical dimension error is about +/- 3%.

  9. Voxel-coding method for quantification of vascular structure from 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Shahrokni, Ali; Zoroofi, Reza A.

    2001-05-01

    This paper presents an image processing method for information extraction from 3D images of vasculature. It automates the study of vascular structures by extracting quantitative information such as skeleton, length, diameter, and vessel-to- tissue ratio for different vessels as well as their branches. Furthermore, it generates 3D visualization of vessels based on desired anatomical characteristics such as vessel diameter or 3D connectivity. Steps of the proposed approach are as follows. (1) Preprocessing, in which intensity adjustment, optimal thresholding, and median filtering are done. (2) 3D thinning, in which medial axis and skeleton of the vessels are found. (3) Branch labeling, in which different branches are identified and each voxel is assigned to the corresponding branch. (4) Quantitation, in which length of each branch is estimated, based on the number of voxels assigned to it, and its diameter is calculated using the medial axis direction. (5) Visualization, in which vascular structure is shown in 3D, using color coding and surface rendering methods. We have tested and evaluated the proposed algorithms using simulated images of multi-branch vessels and real confocal microscopic images of the vessels in rat brains. Experimental results illustrate performance of the methods and usefulness of the results for medical image analysis applications.

  10. JAtlasView: a Java atlas-viewer for browsing biomedical 3D images and atlases

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guangjie; Burton, Nick; Hill, Bill; Davidson, Duncan; Kerwin, Janet; Scott, Mark; Lindsay, Susan; Baldock, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Background Many three-dimensional (3D) images are routinely collected in biomedical research and a number of digital atlases with associated anatomical and other information have been published. A number of tools are available for viewing this data ranging from commercial visualization packages to freely available, typically system architecture dependent, solutions. Here we discuss an atlas viewer implemented to run on any workstation using the architecture neutral Java programming language. Results We report the development of a freely available Java based viewer for 3D image data, descibe the structure and functionality of the viewer and how automated tools can be developed to manage the Java Native Interface code. The viewer allows arbitrary re-sectioning of the data and interactive browsing through the volume. With appropriately formatted data, for example as provided for the Electronic Atlas of the Developing Human Brain, a 3D surface view and anatomical browsing is available. The interface is developed in Java with Java3D providing the 3D rendering. For efficiency the image data is manipulated using the Woolz image-processing library provided as a dynamically linked module for each machine architecture. Conclusion We conclude that Java provides an appropriate environment for efficient development of these tools and techniques exist to allow computationally efficient image-processing libraries to be integrated relatively easily. PMID:15757508

  11. 3-D residual eddy current field characterisation: applied to diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kieran; Daducci, Alessandro; Kickler, Nils; Lazeyras, Francois; Gruetter, Rolf; Feiweier, Thorsten; Krueger, Gunnar

    2013-08-01

    Clinical use of the Stejskal-Tanner diffusion weighted images is hampered by the geometric distortions that result from the large residual 3-D eddy current field induced. In this work, we aimed to predict, using linear response theory, the residual 3-D eddy current field required for geometric distortion correction based on phantom eddy current field measurements. The predicted 3-D eddy current field induced by the diffusion-weighting gradients was able to reduce the root mean square error of the residual eddy current field to ~1 Hz. The model's performance was tested on diffusion weighted images of four normal volunteers, following distortion correction, the quality of the Stejskal-Tanner diffusion-weighted images was found to have comparable quality to image registration based corrections (FSL) at low b-values. Unlike registration techniques the correction was not hindered by low SNR at high b-values, and results in improved image quality relative to FSL. Characterization of the 3-D eddy current field with linear response theory enables the prediction of the 3-D eddy current field required to correct eddy current induced geometric distortions for a wide range of clinical and high b-value protocols.

  12. Analysis of scalability of high-performance 3D image processing platform for virtual colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Wu, Yin; Cai, Wenli

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is to enable the fast turn-around time, which is often required for interactive or real-time response. This inevitably requires not only high computational power but also high memory bandwidth due to the massive amount of data that need to be processed. For this purpose, we previously developed a software platform for high-performance 3D medical image processing, called HPC 3D-MIP platform, which employs increasingly available and affordable commodity computing systems such as the multicore, cluster, and cloud computing systems. To achieve scalable high-performance computing, the platform employed size-adaptive, distributable block volumes as a core data structure for efficient parallelization of a wide range of 3D-MIP algorithms, supported task scheduling for efficient load distribution and balancing, and consisted of a layered parallel software libraries that allow image processing applications to share the common functionalities. We evaluated the performance of the HPC 3D-MIP platform by applying it to computationally intensive processes in virtual colonoscopy. Experimental results showed a 12-fold performance improvement on a workstation with 12-core CPUs over the original sequential implementation of the processes, indicating the efficiency of the platform. Analysis of performance scalability based on the Amdahl’s law for symmetric multicore chips showed the potential of a high performance scalability of the HPC 3D-MIP platform when a larger number of cores is available. PMID:24910506

  13. Digital holographic microscopy for imaging growth and treatment response in 3D tumor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuyu; Petrovic, Ljubica; Celli, Jonathan P.; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S.

    2014-03-01

    While three-dimensional tumor models have emerged as valuable tools in cancer research, the ability to longitudinally visualize the 3D tumor architecture restored by these systems is limited with microscopy techniques that provide only qualitative insight into sample depth, or which require terminal fixation for depth-resolved 3D imaging. Here we report the use of digital holographic microscopy (DHM) as a viable microscopy approach for quantitative, non-destructive longitudinal imaging of in vitro 3D tumor models. Following established methods we prepared 3D cultures of pancreatic cancer cells in overlay geometry on extracellular matrix beds and obtained digital holograms at multiple timepoints throughout the duration of growth. The holograms were digitally processed and the unwrapped phase images were obtained to quantify nodule thickness over time under normal growth, and in cultures subject to chemotherapy treatment. In this manner total nodule volumes are rapidly estimated and demonstrated here to show contrasting time dependent changes during growth and in response to treatment. This work suggests the utility of DHM to quantify changes in 3D structure over time and suggests the further development of this approach for time-lapse monitoring of 3D morphological changes during growth and in response to treatment that would otherwise be impractical to visualize.

  14. Automatic Texture Reconstruction of 3d City Model from Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Junhua; Deng, Fei; Li, Xinwei; Wan, Fang

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the photorealistic 3D city models are increasingly important in various geospatial applications related to virtual city tourism, 3D GIS, urban planning, real-estate management. Besides the acquisition of high-precision 3D geometric data, texture reconstruction is also a crucial step for generating high-quality and visually realistic 3D models. However, most of the texture reconstruction approaches are probably leading to texture fragmentation and memory inefficiency. In this paper, we introduce an automatic framework of texture reconstruction to generate textures from oblique images for photorealistic visualization. Our approach include three major steps as follows: mesh parameterization, texture atlas generation and texture blending. Firstly, mesh parameterization procedure referring to mesh segmentation and mesh unfolding is performed to reduce geometric distortion in the process of mapping 2D texture to 3D model. Secondly, in the texture atlas generation step, the texture of each segmented region in texture domain is reconstructed from all visible images with exterior orientation and interior orientation parameters. Thirdly, to avoid color discontinuities at boundaries between texture regions, the final texture map is generated by blending texture maps from several corresponding images. We evaluated our texture reconstruction framework on a dataset of a city. The resulting mesh model can get textured by created texture without resampling. Experiment results show that our method can effectively mitigate the occurrence of texture fragmentation. It is demonstrated that the proposed framework is effective and useful for automatic texture reconstruction of 3D city model.

  15. 3D texture analysis in renal cell carcinoma tissue image grading.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Yun; Cho, Nam-Hoon; Jeong, Goo-Bo; Bengtsson, Ewert; Choi, Heung-Kook

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant processes in cancer cell and tissue image analysis is the efficient extraction of features for grading purposes. This research applied two types of three-dimensional texture analysis methods to the extraction of feature values from renal cell carcinoma tissue images, and then evaluated the validity of the methods statistically through grade classification. First, we used a confocal laser scanning microscope to obtain image slices of four grades of renal cell carcinoma, which were then reconstructed into 3D volumes. Next, we extracted quantitative values using a 3D gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) and a 3D wavelet based on two types of basis functions. To evaluate their validity, we predefined 6 different statistical classifiers and applied these to the extracted feature sets. In the grade classification results, 3D Haar wavelet texture features combined with principal component analysis showed the best discrimination results. Classification using 3D wavelet texture features was significantly better than 3D GLCM, suggesting that the former has potential for use in a computer-based grading system.

  16. MO-C-18A-01: Advances in Model-Based 3D Image Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G; Pan, X; Stayman, J; Samei, E

    2014-06-15

    Recent years have seen the emergence of CT image reconstruction techniques that exploit physical models of the imaging system, photon statistics, and even the patient to achieve improved 3D image quality and/or reduction of radiation dose. With numerous advantages in comparison to conventional 3D filtered backprojection, such techniques bring a variety of challenges as well, including: a demanding computational load associated with sophisticated forward models and iterative optimization methods; nonlinearity and nonstationarity in image quality characteristics; a complex dependency on multiple free parameters; and the need to understand how best to incorporate prior information (including patient-specific prior images) within the reconstruction process. The advantages, however, are even greater – for example: improved image quality; reduced dose; robustness to noise and artifacts; task-specific reconstruction protocols; suitability to novel CT imaging platforms and noncircular orbits; and incorporation of known characteristics of the imager and patient that are conventionally discarded. This symposium features experts in 3D image reconstruction, image quality assessment, and the translation of such methods to emerging clinical applications. Dr. Chen will address novel methods for the incorporation of prior information in 3D and 4D CT reconstruction techniques. Dr. Pan will show recent advances in optimization-based reconstruction that enable potential reduction of dose and sampling requirements. Dr. Stayman will describe a “task-based imaging” approach that leverages models of the imaging system and patient in combination with a specification of the imaging task to optimize both the acquisition and reconstruction process. Dr. Samei will describe the development of methods for image quality assessment in such nonlinear reconstruction techniques and the use of these methods to characterize and optimize image quality and dose in a spectrum of clinical

  17. Added Value of 3D Proton-Density Weighted Images in Diagnosis of Intracranial Arterial Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Young Dae; Lee, Seung-Koo; Lim, Soo Mee; Oh, Se Won

    2016-01-01

    Background An early and reliable diagnosis of intracranial arterial dissection is important to reduce the risk of neurological complication. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness of three-dimensional high-resolution MRI (3D-HR-MRI) including pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted volumetric isotropic turbo spin echo acquisition with improved motion-sensitized driven equilibrium preparation (3D-iMSDE-T1) and proton-density weighted image (3D-PD) in detecting dissection and to evaluate the added value of 3D-PD in diagnosing intracranial arterial dissection. Methods We retrospectively recruited patients who underwent 3D-HR-MRI with clinical suspicion of arterial dissection. Among them, we selected patients who were diagnosed with definite dissection according to the Spontaneous Cervicocephalic Arterial Dissections Study criteria. For each patient, the presence of intimal flap, intramural hematoma, and vessel dilatation were evaluated independently by two neuroradiologists on each sequence. Interobserver agreement was assessed. Results Seventeen patients (mean age: 41 ± 10 [SD] years; 13 men) were diagnosed with definite dissection. The intimal flaps were more frequently detected on 3D-PD (88.2%, 15/17) than on 3D-iMSDE-T1 (29.4%, 5/17), and post-contrast 3D-iMSDE-T1 (35.3%, 6/17; P = 0.006 and P = 0.004, respectively). No significant difference was found in the detection rate of intramural hematomas (59–71%) and vascular dilatations (47%) on each sequence. Interobserver agreement for detection of dissection findings showed almost perfect agreement (k = 0.84–1.00), except for detection of intimal flaps on pre-contrast 3D-iMSDE-T1 (k = 0.62). After addition of 3D-PD to pre- and post-contrast 3D-iMSDE-T1, more patients were diagnosed with definite dissection with the initial MRI (88.2% vs. 47.1%; P = 0.039). Conclusions The intimal flap might be better visualized on the 3D-PD sequence than the 3D-iMSDE-T1 sequences, allowing diagnosis of

  18. Optimal Image Stitching for Concrete Bridge Bottom Surfaces Aided by 3d Structure Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yahui; Yao, Jian; Liu, Kang; Lu, Xiaohu; Xia, Menghan

    2016-06-01

    Crack detection for bridge bottom surfaces via remote sensing techniques is undergoing a revolution in the last few years. For such applications, a large amount of images, acquired with high-resolution industrial cameras close to the bottom surfaces with some mobile platform, are required to be stitched into a wide-view single composite image. The conventional idea of stitching a panorama with the affine model or the homographic model always suffers a series of serious problems due to poor texture and out-of-focus blurring introduced by depth of field. In this paper, we present a novel method to seamlessly stitch these images aided by 3D structure lines of bridge bottom surfaces, which are extracted from 3D camera data. First, we propose to initially align each image in geometry based on its rough position and orientation acquired with both a laser range finder (LRF) and a high-precision incremental encoder, and these images are divided into several groups with the rough position and orientation data. Secondly, the 3D structure lines of bridge bottom surfaces are extracted from the 3D cloud points acquired with 3D cameras, which impose additional strong constraints on geometrical alignment of structure lines in adjacent images to perform a position and orientation optimization in each group to increase the local consistency. Thirdly, a homographic refinement between groups is applied to increase the global consistency. Finally, we apply a multi-band blending algorithm to generate a large-view single composite image as seamlessly as possible, which greatly eliminates both the luminance differences and the color deviations between images and further conceals image parallax. Experimental results on a set of representative images acquired from real bridge bottom surfaces illustrate the superiority of our proposed approaches.

  19. 3D reconstruction of a carotid bifurcation from 2D transversal ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Eunseop; Nam, Kweon-Ho; Jin, Changzhu; Paeng, Dong-Guk; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2014-12-01

    Visualizing and analyzing the morphological structure of carotid bifurcations are important for understanding the etiology of carotid atherosclerosis, which is a major cause of stroke and transient ischemic attack. For delineation of vasculatures in the carotid artery, ultrasound examinations have been widely employed because of a noninvasive procedure without ionizing radiation. However, conventional 2D ultrasound imaging has technical limitations in observing the complicated 3D shapes and asymmetric vasodilation of bifurcations. This study aims to propose image-processing techniques for better 3D reconstruction of a carotid bifurcation in a rat by using 2D cross-sectional ultrasound images. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging system with a probe centered at 40MHz was employed to obtain 2D transversal images. The lumen boundaries in each transverse ultrasound image were detected by using three different techniques; an ellipse-fitting, a correlation mapping to visualize the decorrelation of blood flow, and the ellipse-fitting on the correlation map. When the results are compared, the third technique provides relatively good boundary extraction. The incomplete boundaries of arterial lumen caused by acoustic artifacts are somewhat resolved by adopting the correlation mapping and the distortion in the boundary detection near the bifurcation apex was largely reduced by using the ellipse-fitting technique. The 3D lumen geometry of a carotid artery was obtained by volumetric rendering of several 2D slices. For the 3D vasodilatation of the carotid bifurcation, lumen geometries at the contraction and expansion states were simultaneously depicted at various view angles. The present 3D reconstruction methods would be useful for efficient extraction and construction of the 3D lumen geometries of carotid bifurcations from 2D ultrasound images.

  20. Robust extraction of the aorta and pulmonary artery from 3D MDCT image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taeprasartsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

    2010-03-01

    Accurate definition of the aorta and pulmonary artery from three-dimensional (3D) multi-detector CT (MDCT) images is important for pulmonary applications. This work presents robust methods for defining the aorta and pulmonary artery in the central chest. The methods work on both contrast enhanced and no-contrast 3D MDCT image data. The automatic methods use a common approach employing model fitting and selection and adaptive refinement. During the occasional event that more precise vascular extraction is desired or the method fails, we also have an alternate semi-automatic fail-safe method. The semi-automatic method extracts the vasculature by extending the medial axes into a user-guided direction. A ground-truth study over a series of 40 human 3D MDCT images demonstrates the efficacy, accuracy, robustness, and efficiency of the methods.

  1. Modeling Images of Natural 3D Surfaces: Overview and Potential Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalobeanu, Andre; Kuehnel, Frank; Stutz, John

    2004-01-01

    Generative models of natural images have long been used in computer vision. However, since they only describe the of 2D scenes, they fail to capture all the properties of the underlying 3D world. Even though such models are sufficient for many vision tasks a 3D scene model is when it comes to inferring a 3D object or its characteristics. In this paper, we present such a generative model, incorporating both a multiscale surface prior model for surface geometry and reflectance, and an image formation process model based on realistic rendering, the computation of the posterior model parameter densities, and on the critical aspects of the rendering. We also how to efficiently invert the model within a Bayesian framework. We present a few potential applications, such as asteroid modeling and Planetary topography recovery, illustrated by promising results on real images.

  2. From Wheatstone to Cameron and beyond: overview in 3-D and 4-D imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbreath, G. Charmaine

    2012-02-01

    This paper reviews three-dimensional (3-D) and four-dimensional (4-D) imaging technology, from Wheatstone through today, with some prognostications for near future applications. This field is rich in variety, subject specialty, and applications. A major trend, multi-view stereoscopy, is moving the field forward to real-time wide-angle 3-D reconstruction as breakthroughs in parallel processing and multi-processor computers enable very fast processing. Real-time holography meets 4-D imaging reconstruction at the goal of achieving real-time, interactive, 3-D imaging. Applications to telesurgery and telemedicine as well as to the needs of the defense and intelligence communities are also discussed.

  3. Acquiring 3-D information about thick objects from differential interference contrast images using texture extraction.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Heidy; Brooks, Dana; DiMarzio, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of 3-D morphological information about thick objects is explored in this work. We extract this information from 3-D differential interference contrast (DIC) images by applying a texture detection method. Texture extraction methods have been successfully used in different applications to study biological samples. A 3-D texture image is obtained by applying a local entropy-based texture extraction method. The use of this method to detect regions of blastocyst mouse embryos that are used in assisted reproduction techniques such as in vitro fertilization is presented as an example. Results demonstrate the potential of using texture detection methods to improve morphological analysis of thick samples, which is relevant to many biomedical and biological studies. Fluorescence and optical quadrature microscope phase images are used for validation.

  4. Acquiring 3-D information about thick objects from differential interference contrast images using texture extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Heidy; Brooks, Dana; Dimarzio, Charles

    2010-07-01

    The extraction of 3-D morphological information about thick objects is explored in this work. We extract this information from 3-D differential interference contrast (DIC) images by applying a texture detection method. Texture extraction methods have been successfully used in different applications to study biological samples. A 3-D texture image is obtained by applying a local entropy-based texture extraction method. The use of this method to detect regions of blastocyst mouse embryos that are used in assisted reproduction techniques such as in vitro fertilization is presented as an example. Results demonstrate the potential of using texture detection methods to improve morphological analysis of thick samples, which is relevant to many biomedical and biological studies. Fluorescence and optical quadrature microscope phase images are used for validation.

  5. 3D watershed-based segmentation of internal structures within MR brain images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Gloria; Musse, Olivier; Heitz, Fabrice; Armspach, Jean-Paul

    2000-06-01

    In this paper an image-based method founded on mathematical morphology is presented in order to facilitate the segmentation of cerebral structures on 3D magnetic resonance images (MRIs). The segmentation is described as an immersion simulation, applied to the modified gradient image, modeled by a generated 3D region adjacency graph (RAG). The segmentation relies on two main processes: homotopy modification and contour decision. The first one is achieved by a marker extraction stage where homogeneous 3D regions are identified in order to attribute an influence zone only to relevant minima of the image. This stage uses contrasted regions from morphological reconstruction and labeled flat regions constrained by the RAG. The goal of the decision stage is to precisely locate the contours of regions detected by the marker extraction. This decision is performed by a 3D extension of the watershed transform. Upon completion of the segmentation, the outcome of the preceding process is presented to the user for manual selection of the structures of interest (SOI). Results of this approach are described and illustrated with examples of segmented 3D MRIs of the human head.

  6. 3D tensor-based blind multispectral image decomposition for tumor demarcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopriva, Ivica; Peršin, Antun

    2010-03-01

    Blind decomposition of multi-spectral fluorescent image for tumor demarcation is formulated exploiting tensorial structure of the image. First contribution of the paper is identification of the matrix of spectral responses and 3D tensor of spatial distributions of the materials present in the image from Tucker3 or PARAFAC models of 3D image tensor. Second contribution of the paper is clustering based estimation of the number of the materials present in the image as well as matrix of their spectral profiles. 3D tensor of the spatial distributions of the materials is recovered through 3-mode multiplication of the multi-spectral image tensor and inverse of the matrix of spectral profiles. Tensor representation of the multi-spectral image preserves its local spatial structure that is lost, due to vectorization process, when matrix factorization-based decomposition methods (such as non-negative matrix factorization and independent component analysis) are used. Superior performance of the tensor-based image decomposition over matrix factorization-based decompositions is demonstrated on experimental red-green-blue (RGB) image with known ground truth as well as on RGB fluorescent images of the skin tumor (basal cell carcinoma).

  7. Hybrid wide-field and scanning microscopy for high-speed 3D imaging.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yubo; Chen, Nanguang

    2015-11-15

    Wide-field optical microscopy is efficient and robust in biological imaging, but it lacks depth sectioning. In contrast, scanning microscopic techniques, such as confocal microscopy and multiphoton microscopy, have been successfully used for three-dimensional (3D) imaging with optical sectioning capability. However, these microscopic techniques are not very suitable for dynamic real-time imaging because they usually take a long time for temporal and spatial scanning. Here, a hybrid imaging technique combining wide-field microscopy and scanning microscopy is proposed to accelerate the image acquisition process while maintaining the 3D optical sectioning capability. The performance was demonstrated by proof-of-concept imaging experiments with fluorescent beads and zebrafish liver.

  8. Imaging and 3D reconstruction of cerebrovascular structures in embryonic zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ethell, Douglas W; Cameron, D Joshua

    2014-04-22

    Zebrafish are a powerful tool to study developmental biology and pathology in vivo. The small size and relative transparency of zebrafish embryos make them particularly useful for the visual examination of processes such as heart and vascular development. In several recent studies transgenic zebrafish that express EGFP in vascular endothelial cells were used to image and analyze complex vascular networks in the brain and retina, using confocal microscopy. Descriptions are provided to prepare, treat and image zebrafish embryos that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), and then generate comprehensive 3D renderings of the cerebrovascular system. Protocols include the treatment of embryos, confocal imaging, and fixation protocols that preserve EGFP fluorescence. Further, useful tips on obtaining high-quality images of cerebrovascular structures, such as removal the eye without damaging nearby neural tissue are provided. Potential pitfalls with confocal imaging are discussed, along with the steps necessary to generate 3D reconstructions from confocal image stacks using freely available open source software.

  9. Development of a piecewise linear omnidirectional 3D image registration method.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyunsoo; Kang, Wonjin; Lee, SukGyu; Kim, Youngwoo

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a new piecewise linear omnidirectional image registration method. The proposed method segments an image captured by multiple cameras into 2D segments defined by feature points of the image and then stitches each segment geometrically by considering the inclination of the segment in the 3D space. Depending on the intended use of image registration, the proposed method can be used to improve image registration accuracy or reduce the computation time in image registration because the trade-off between the computation time and image registration accuracy can be controlled for. In general, nonlinear image registration methods have been used in 3D omnidirectional image registration processes to reduce image distortion by camera lenses. The proposed method depends on a linear transformation process for omnidirectional image registration, and therefore it can enhance the effectiveness of the geometry recognition process, increase image registration accuracy by increasing the number of cameras or feature points of each image, increase the image registration speed by reducing the number of cameras or feature points of each image, and provide simultaneous information on shapes and colors of captured objects.

  10. Development of a piecewise linear omnidirectional 3D image registration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Hyunsoo; Kang, Wonjin; Lee, SukGyu; Kim, Youngwoo

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a new piecewise linear omnidirectional image registration method. The proposed method segments an image captured by multiple cameras into 2D segments defined by feature points of the image and then stitches each segment geometrically by considering the inclination of the segment in the 3D space. Depending on the intended use of image registration, the proposed method can be used to improve image registration accuracy or reduce the computation time in image registration because the trade-off between the computation time and image registration accuracy can be controlled for. In general, nonlinear image registration methods have been used in 3D omnidirectional image registration processes to reduce image distortion by camera lenses. The proposed method depends on a linear transformation process for omnidirectional image registration, and therefore it can enhance the effectiveness of the geometry recognition process, increase image registration accuracy by increasing the number of cameras or feature points of each image, increase the image registration speed by reducing the number of cameras or feature points of each image, and provide simultaneous information on shapes and colors of captured objects.

  11. Accurate positioning for head and neck cancer patients using 2D and 3D image guidance

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyejoo; Lovelock, Dale M.; Yorke, Ellen D.; Kriminiski, Sergey; Lee, Nancy; Amols, Howard I.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to determine an optimized image-guided setup by comparing setup errors determined by two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) image guidance for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients immobilized by customized thermoplastic masks. Nine patients received weekly imaging sessions, for a total of 54, throughout treatment. Patients were first set up by matching lasers to surface marks (initial) and then translationally corrected using manual registration of orthogonal kilovoltage (kV) radiographs with DRRs (2D-2D) on bony anatomy. A kV cone beam CT (kVCBCT) was acquired and manually registered to the simulation CT using only translations (3D-3D) on the same bony anatomy to determine further translational corrections. After treatment, a second set of kVCBCT was acquired to assess intrafractional motion. Averaged over all sessions, 2D-2D registration led to translational corrections from initial setup of 3.5 ± 2.2 (range 0–8) mm. The addition of 3D-3D registration resulted in only small incremental adjustment (0.8 ± 1.5 mm). We retrospectively calculated patient setup rotation errors using an automatic rigid-body algorithm with 6 degrees of freedom (DoF) on regions of interest (ROI) of in-field bony anatomy (mainly the C2 vertebral body). Small rotations were determined for most of the imaging sessions; however, occasionally rotations > 3° were observed. The calculated intrafractional motion with automatic registration was < 3.5 mm for eight patients, and < 2° for all patients. We conclude that daily manual 2D-2D registration on radiographs reduces positioning errors for mask-immobilized HNC patients in most cases, and is easily implemented. 3D-3D registration adds little improvement over 2D-2D registration without correcting rotational errors. We also conclude that thermoplastic masks are effective for patient immobilization. PMID:21330971

  12. Using videogrammetry and 3D image reconstruction to identify crime suspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasen, Lena M.; Fahlander, Olov

    1997-02-01

    The anthropometry and movements are unique for every individual human being. We identify persons we know by recognizing the way the look and move. By quantifying these measures and using image processing methods this method can serve as a tool in the work of the police as a complement to the ability of the human eye. The idea is to use virtual 3-D parameterized models of the human body to measure the anthropometry and movements of a crime suspect. The Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science in cooperation with SAAB Military Aircraft have developed methods for measuring the lengths of persons from video sequences. However, there is so much unused information in a digital image sequence from a crime scene. The main approach for this paper is to give an overview of the current research project at Linkoping University, Image Coding Group where methods to measure anthropometrical data and movements by using virtual 3-D parameterized models of the person in the crime scene are being developed. The length of an individual might vary up to plus or minus 10 cm depending on whether the person is in upright position or not. When measuring during the best available conditions, the length still varies within plus or minus 1 cm. Using a full 3-D model provides a rich set of anthropometric measures describing the person in the crime scene. Once having obtained such a model the movements can be quantified as well. The results depend strongly on the accuracy of the 3-D model and the strategy of having such an accurate 3-D model is to make one estimate per image frame by using 3-D scene reconstruction, and an averaged 3-D model as the final result from which the anthropometry and movements are calculated.

  13. 2D and 3D visualization methods of endoscopic panoramic bladder images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Alexander; Heisterklaus, Iris; Müller, Yannick; Stehle, Thomas; Gross, Sebastian; Aach, Til

    2011-03-01

    While several mosaicking algorithms have been developed to compose endoscopic images of the internal urinary bladder wall into panoramic images, the quantitative evaluation of these output images in terms of geometrical distortions have often not been discussed. However, the visualization of the distortion level is highly desired for an objective image-based medical diagnosis. Thus, we present in this paper a method to create quality maps from the characteristics of transformation parameters, which were applied to the endoscopic images during the registration process of the mosaicking algorithm. For a global first view impression, the quality maps are laid over the panoramic image and highlight image regions in pseudo-colors according to their local distortions. This illustration supports then surgeons to identify geometrically distorted structures easily in the panoramic image, which allow more objective medical interpretations of tumor tissue in shape and size. Aside from introducing quality maps in 2-D, we also discuss a visualization method to map panoramic images onto a 3-D spherical bladder model. Reference points are manually selected by the surgeon in the panoramic image and the 3-D model. Then the panoramic image is mapped by the Hammer-Aitoff equal-area projection onto the 3-D surface using texture mapping. Finally the textured bladder model can be freely moved in a virtual environment for inspection. Using a two-hemisphere bladder representation, references between panoramic image regions and their corresponding space coordinates within the bladder model are reconstructed. This additional spatial 3-D information thus assists the surgeon in navigation, documentation, as well as surgical planning.

  14. 3D Image-Guided Automatic Pipette Positioning for Single Cell Experiments in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Long, Brian; Li, Lu; Knoblich, Ulf; Zeng, Hongkui; Peng, Hanchuan

    2015-01-01

    We report a method to facilitate single cell, image-guided experiments including in vivo electrophysiology and electroporation. Our method combines 3D image data acquisition, visualization and on-line image