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Sample records for 3-d imaging methods

  1. A 3D Level Set Method for Microwave Breast Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, Timothy J.; Hagness, Susan C.; Van Veen, Barry D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Conventional inverse-scattering algorithms for microwave breast imaging result in moderate resolution images with blurred boundaries between tissues. Recent 2D numerical microwave imaging studies demonstrate that the use of a level set method preserves dielectric boundaries, resulting in a more accurate, higher resolution reconstruction of the dielectric properties distribution. Previously proposed level set algorithms are computationally expensive and thus impractical in 3D. In this paper we present a computationally tractable 3D microwave imaging algorithm based on level sets. Methods We reduce the computational cost of the level set method using a Jacobian matrix, rather than an adjoint method, to calculate Frechet derivatives. We demonstrate the feasibility of 3D imaging using simulated array measurements from 3D numerical breast phantoms. We evaluate performance by comparing full 3D reconstructions to those from a conventional microwave imaging technique. We also quantitatively assess the efficacy of our algorithm in evaluating breast density. Results Our reconstructions of 3D numerical breast phantoms improve upon those of a conventional microwave imaging technique. The density estimates from our level set algorithm are more accurate than those of conventional microwave imaging, and the accuracy is greater than that reported for mammographic density estimation. Conclusion Our level set method leads to a feasible level of computational complexity for full 3D imaging, and reconstructs the heterogeneous dielectric properties distribution of the breast more accurately than conventional microwave imaging methods. Significance 3D microwave breast imaging using a level set method is a promising low-cost, non-ionizing alternative to current breast imaging techniques. PMID:26011863

  2. Episcopic 3D Imaging Methods: Tools for Researching Gene Function

    PubMed Central

    Weninger, Wolfgang J; Geyer, Stefan H

    2008-01-01

    This work aims at describing episcopic 3D imaging methods and at discussing how these methods can contribute to researching the genetic mechanisms driving embryogenesis and tissue remodelling, and the genesis of pathologies. Several episcopic 3D imaging methods exist. The most advanced are capable of generating high-resolution volume data (voxel sizes from 0.5x0.5x1 µm upwards) of small to large embryos of model organisms and tissue samples. Beside anatomy and tissue architecture, gene expression and gene product patterns can be three dimensionally analyzed in their precise anatomical and histological context with the aid of whole mount in situ hybridization or whole mount immunohistochemical staining techniques. Episcopic 3D imaging techniques were and are employed for analyzing the precise morphological phenotype of experimentally malformed, randomly produced, or genetically engineered embryos of biomedical model organisms. It has been shown that episcopic 3D imaging also fits for describing the spatial distribution of genes and gene products during embryogenesis, and that it can be used for analyzing tissue samples of adult model animals and humans. The latter offers the possibility to use episcopic 3D imaging techniques for researching the causality and treatment of pathologies or for staging cancer. Such applications, however, are not yet routine and currently only preliminary results are available. We conclude that, although episcopic 3D imaging is in its very beginnings, it represents an upcoming methodology, which in short terms will become an indispensable tool for researching the genetic regulation of embryo development as well as the genesis of malformations and diseases. PMID:19452045

  3. Discrete Method of Images for 3D Radio Propagation Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Discretization by rasterization is introduced into the method of images (MI) in the context of 3D deterministic radio propagation modeling as a way to exploit spatial coherence of electromagnetic propagation for fine-grained parallelism. Traditional algebraic treatment of bounding regions and surfaces is replaced by computer graphics rendering of 3D reflections and double refractions while building the image tree. The visibility of reception points and surfaces is also resolved by shader programs. The proposed rasterization is shown to be of comparable run time to that of the fundamentally parallel shooting and bouncing rays. The rasterization does not affect the signal evaluation backtracking step, thus preserving its advantage over the brute force ray-tracing methods in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the rendering resolution may be scaled back for a given level of scenario detail with only marginal impact on the image tree size. This allows selection of scene optimized execution parameters for faster execution, giving the method a competitive edge. The proposed variant of MI can be run on any GPU that supports real-time 3D graphics.

  4. Effective classification of 3D image data using partitioning methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megalooikonomou, Vasileios; Pokrajac, Dragoljub; Lazarevic, Aleksandar; Obradovic, Zoran

    2002-03-01

    We propose partitioning-based methods to facilitate the classification of 3-D binary image data sets of regions of interest (ROIs) with highly non-uniform distributions. The first method is based on recursive dynamic partitioning of a 3-D volume into a number of 3-D hyper-rectangles. For each hyper-rectangle, we consider, as a potential attribute, the number of voxels (volume elements) that belong to ROIs. A hyper-rectangle is partitioned only if the corresponding attribute does not have high discriminative power, determined by statistical tests, but it is still sufficiently large for further splitting. The final discriminative hyper-rectangles form new attributes that are further employed in neural network classification models. The second method is based on maximum likelihood employing non-spatial (k-means) and spatial DBSCAN clustering algorithms to estimate the parameters of the underlying distributions. The proposed methods were experimentally evaluated on mixtures of Gaussian distributions, on realistic lesion-deficit data generated by a simulator conforming to a clinical study, and on synthetic fractal data. Both proposed methods have provided good classification on Gaussian mixtures and on realistic data. However, the experimental results on fractal data indicated that the clustering-based methods were only slightly better than random guess, while the recursive partitioning provided significantly better classification accuracy.

  5. Comparison of bootstrap resampling methods for 3-D PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Lartizien, C; Aubin, J-B; Buvat, I

    2010-07-01

    Two groups of bootstrap methods have been proposed to estimate the statistical properties of positron emission tomography (PET) images by generating multiple statistically equivalent data sets from few data samples. The first group generates resampled data based on a parametric approach assuming that data from which resampling is performed follows a Poisson distribution while the second group consists of nonparametric approaches. These methods either require a unique original sample or a series of statistically equivalent data that can be list-mode files or sinograms. Previous reports regarding these bootstrap approaches suggest different results. This work compares the accuracy of three of these bootstrap methods for 3-D PET imaging based on simulated data. Two methods are based on a unique file, namely a list-mode based nonparametric (LMNP) method and a sinogram based parametric (SP) method. The third method is a sinogram-based nonparametric (SNP) method. Another original method (extended LMNP) was also investigated, which is an extension of the LMNP methods based on deriving a resampled list-mode file by drawings events from multiple original list-mode files. Our comparison is based on the analysis of the statistical moments estimated on the repeated and resampled data. This includes the probability density function and the moments of order 1 and 2. Results show that the two methods based on multiple original data (SNP and extended LMNP) are the only methods that correctly estimate the statistical parameters. Performances of the LMNP and SP methods are variable. Simulated data used in this study were characterized by a high noise level. Differences among the tested strategies might be reduced with clinical data sets with lower noise.

  6. An automated 3D reconstruction method of UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, He; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Feng; Sun, Guangtong; Song, Ping

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a novel fully automated 3D reconstruction approach based on low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle system (UAVs) images will be presented, which does not require previous camera calibration or any other external prior knowledge. Dense 3D point clouds are generated by integrating orderly feature extraction, image matching, structure from motion (SfM) and multi-view stereo (MVS) algorithms, overcoming many of the cost, time limitations of rigorous photogrammetry techniques. An image topology analysis strategy is introduced to speed up large scene reconstruction by taking advantage of the flight-control data acquired by UAV. Image topology map can significantly reduce the running time of feature matching by limiting the combination of images. A high-resolution digital surface model of the study area is produced base on UAV point clouds by constructing the triangular irregular network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust and feasible for automatic 3D reconstruction of low-altitude UAV images, and has great potential for the acquisition of spatial information at large scales mapping, especially suitable for rapid response and precise modelling in disaster emergency.

  7. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  8. A review of 3D/2D registration methods for image-guided interventions.

    PubMed

    Markelj, P; Tomaževič, D; Likar, B; Pernuš, F

    2012-04-01

    Registration of pre- and intra-interventional data is one of the key technologies for image-guided radiation therapy, radiosurgery, minimally invasive surgery, endoscopy, and interventional radiology. In this paper, we survey those 3D/2D data registration methods that utilize 3D computer tomography or magnetic resonance images as the pre-interventional data and 2D X-ray projection images as the intra-interventional data. The 3D/2D registration methods are reviewed with respect to image modality, image dimensionality, registration basis, geometric transformation, user interaction, optimization procedure, subject, and object of registration.

  9. 3D-2D registration of cerebral angiograms: a method and evaluation on clinical images.

    PubMed

    Mitrovic, Uroš; Špiclin, Žiga; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo

    2013-08-01

    Endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGI) involve navigation of a catheter through the vasculature followed by application of treatment at the site of anomaly using live 2D projection images for guidance. 3D images acquired prior to EIGI are used to quantify the vascular anomaly and plan the intervention. If fused with the information of live 2D images they can also facilitate navigation and treatment. For this purpose 3D-2D image registration is required. Although several 3D-2D registration methods for EIGI achieve registration accuracy below 1 mm, their clinical application is still limited by insufficient robustness or reliability. In this paper, we propose a 3D-2D registration method based on matching a 3D vasculature model to intensity gradients of live 2D images. To objectively validate 3D-2D registration methods, we acquired a clinical image database of 10 patients undergoing cerebral EIGI and established "gold standard" registrations by aligning fiducial markers in 3D and 2D images. The proposed method had mean registration accuracy below 0.65 mm, which was comparable to tested state-of-the-art methods, and execution time below 1 s. With the highest rate of successful registrations and the highest capture range the proposed method was the most robust and thus a good candidate for application in EIGI.

  10. FGG-NUFFT-Based Method for Near-Field 3-D Imaging Using Millimeter Waves

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Yingzhi; Zhu, Yongfeng; Tang, Liang; Fu, Qiang; Pei, Hucheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, to deal with the concealed target detection problem, an accurate and efficient algorithm for near-field millimeter wave three-dimensional (3-D) imaging is proposed that uses a two-dimensional (2-D) plane antenna array. First, a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT) is performed on the scattered data along the antenna array plane. Then, a phase shift is performed to compensate for the spherical wave effect. Finally, fast Gaussian gridding based nonuniform FFT (FGG-NUFFT) combined with 2-D inverse FFT (IFFT) is performed on the nonuniform 3-D spatial spectrum in the frequency wavenumber domain to achieve 3-D imaging. The conventional method for near-field 3-D imaging uses Stolt interpolation to obtain uniform spatial spectrum samples and performs 3-D IFFT to reconstruct a 3-D image. Compared with the conventional method, our FGG-NUFFT based method is comparable in both efficiency and accuracy in the full sampled case and can obtain more accurate images with less clutter and fewer noisy artifacts in the down-sampled case, which are good properties for practical applications. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the FGG-NUFFT-based near-field 3-D imaging algorithm can have better imaging performance than the conventional method for down-sampled measurements. PMID:27657066

  11. FGG-NUFFT-Based Method for Near-Field 3-D Imaging Using Millimeter Waves.

    PubMed

    Kan, Yingzhi; Zhu, Yongfeng; Tang, Liang; Fu, Qiang; Pei, Hucheng

    2016-09-19

    In this paper, to deal with the concealed target detection problem, an accurate and efficient algorithm for near-field millimeter wave three-dimensional (3-D) imaging is proposed that uses a two-dimensional (2-D) plane antenna array. First, a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT) is performed on the scattered data along the antenna array plane. Then, a phase shift is performed to compensate for the spherical wave effect. Finally, fast Gaussian gridding based nonuniform FFT (FGG-NUFFT) combined with 2-D inverse FFT (IFFT) is performed on the nonuniform 3-D spatial spectrum in the frequency wavenumber domain to achieve 3-D imaging. The conventional method for near-field 3-D imaging uses Stolt interpolation to obtain uniform spatial spectrum samples and performs 3-D IFFT to reconstruct a 3-D image. Compared with the conventional method, our FGG-NUFFT based method is comparable in both efficiency and accuracy in the full sampled case and can obtain more accurate images with less clutter and fewer noisy artifacts in the down-sampled case, which are good properties for practical applications. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the FGG-NUFFT-based near-field 3-D imaging algorithm can have better imaging performance than the conventional method for down-sampled measurements.

  12. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  13. Multi-crosswell profile 3D imaging and method

    DOEpatents

    Washbourne, John K.; Rector, III, James W.; Bube, Kenneth P.

    2002-01-01

    Characterizing the value of a particular property, for example, seismic velocity, of a subsurface region of ground is described. In one aspect, the value of the particular property is represented using at least one continuous analytic function such as a Chebychev polynomial. The seismic data may include data derived from at least one crosswell dataset for the subsurface region of interest and may also include other data. In either instance, data may simultaneously be used from a first crosswell dataset in conjunction with one or more other crosswell datasets and/or with the other data. In another aspect, the value of the property is characterized in three dimensions throughout the region of interest using crosswell and/or other data. In still another aspect, crosswell datasets for highly deviated or horizontal boreholes are inherently useful. The method is performed, in part, by fitting a set of vertically spaced layer boundaries, represented by an analytic function such as a Chebychev polynomial, within and across the region encompassing the boreholes such that a series of layers is defined between the layer boundaries. Initial values of the particular property are then established between the layer boundaries and across the subterranean region using a series of continuous analytic functions. The continuous analytic functions are then adjusted to more closely match the value of the particular property across the subterranean region of ground to determine the value of the particular property for any selected point within the region.

  14. An efficient calibration method for freehand 3-D ultrasound imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Leotta, Daniel F

    2004-07-01

    A phantom has been developed to quickly calibrate a freehand 3-D ultrasound (US) imaging system. Calibration defines the spatial relationship between the US image plane and an external tracking device attached to the scanhead. The phantom consists of a planar array of strings and beads, and a set of out-of-plane strings that guide the user to proper scanhead orientation for imaging. When an US image plane is coincident with the plane defined by the strings, the calibration parameters are calculated by matching of homologous points in the image and phantom. The resulting precision and accuracy of the 3-D imaging system are similar to those achieved with a more complex calibration procedure. The 3-D reconstruction performance of the calibrated system is demonstrated with a magnetic tracking system, but the method could be applied to other tracking devices.

  15. 3D X-ray imaging methods in support catheter ablations of cardiac arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Stárek, Zdeněk; Lehar, František; Jež, Jiří; Wolf, Jiří; Novák, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are a very frequent illness. Pharmacotherapy is not very effective in persistent arrhythmias and brings along a number of risks. Catheter ablation has became an effective and curative treatment method over the past 20 years. To support complex arrhythmia ablations, the 3D X-ray cardiac cavities imaging is used, most frequently the 3D reconstruction of CT images. The 3D cardiac rotational angiography (3DRA) represents a modern method enabling to create CT like 3D images on a standard X-ray machine equipped with special software. Its advantage lies in the possibility to obtain images during the procedure, decreased radiation dose and reduction of amount of the contrast agent. The left atrium model is the one most frequently used for complex atrial arrhythmia ablations, particularly for atrial fibrillation. CT data allow for creation and segmentation of 3D models of all cardiac cavities. Recently, a research has been made proving the use of 3DRA to create 3D models of other cardiac (right ventricle, left ventricle, aorta) and non-cardiac structures (oesophagus). They can be used during catheter ablation of complex arrhythmias to improve orientation during the construction of 3D electroanatomic maps, directly fused with 3D electroanatomic systems and/or fused with fluoroscopy. An intensive development in the 3D model creation and use has taken place over the past years and they became routinely used during catheter ablations of arrhythmias, mainly atrial fibrillation ablation procedures. Further development may be anticipated in the future in both the creation and use of these models.

  16. Voxel-coding method for quantification of vascular structure from 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Shahrokni, Ali; Zoroofi, Reza A.

    2001-05-01

    This paper presents an image processing method for information extraction from 3D images of vasculature. It automates the study of vascular structures by extracting quantitative information such as skeleton, length, diameter, and vessel-to- tissue ratio for different vessels as well as their branches. Furthermore, it generates 3D visualization of vessels based on desired anatomical characteristics such as vessel diameter or 3D connectivity. Steps of the proposed approach are as follows. (1) Preprocessing, in which intensity adjustment, optimal thresholding, and median filtering are done. (2) 3D thinning, in which medial axis and skeleton of the vessels are found. (3) Branch labeling, in which different branches are identified and each voxel is assigned to the corresponding branch. (4) Quantitation, in which length of each branch is estimated, based on the number of voxels assigned to it, and its diameter is calculated using the medial axis direction. (5) Visualization, in which vascular structure is shown in 3D, using color coding and surface rendering methods. We have tested and evaluated the proposed algorithms using simulated images of multi-branch vessels and real confocal microscopic images of the vessels in rat brains. Experimental results illustrate performance of the methods and usefulness of the results for medical image analysis applications.

  17. Development of a piecewise linear omnidirectional 3D image registration method.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyunsoo; Kang, Wonjin; Lee, SukGyu; Kim, Youngwoo

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a new piecewise linear omnidirectional image registration method. The proposed method segments an image captured by multiple cameras into 2D segments defined by feature points of the image and then stitches each segment geometrically by considering the inclination of the segment in the 3D space. Depending on the intended use of image registration, the proposed method can be used to improve image registration accuracy or reduce the computation time in image registration because the trade-off between the computation time and image registration accuracy can be controlled for. In general, nonlinear image registration methods have been used in 3D omnidirectional image registration processes to reduce image distortion by camera lenses. The proposed method depends on a linear transformation process for omnidirectional image registration, and therefore it can enhance the effectiveness of the geometry recognition process, increase image registration accuracy by increasing the number of cameras or feature points of each image, increase the image registration speed by reducing the number of cameras or feature points of each image, and provide simultaneous information on shapes and colors of captured objects.

  18. Development of a piecewise linear omnidirectional 3D image registration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Hyunsoo; Kang, Wonjin; Lee, SukGyu; Kim, Youngwoo

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a new piecewise linear omnidirectional image registration method. The proposed method segments an image captured by multiple cameras into 2D segments defined by feature points of the image and then stitches each segment geometrically by considering the inclination of the segment in the 3D space. Depending on the intended use of image registration, the proposed method can be used to improve image registration accuracy or reduce the computation time in image registration because the trade-off between the computation time and image registration accuracy can be controlled for. In general, nonlinear image registration methods have been used in 3D omnidirectional image registration processes to reduce image distortion by camera lenses. The proposed method depends on a linear transformation process for omnidirectional image registration, and therefore it can enhance the effectiveness of the geometry recognition process, increase image registration accuracy by increasing the number of cameras or feature points of each image, increase the image registration speed by reducing the number of cameras or feature points of each image, and provide simultaneous information on shapes and colors of captured objects.

  19. Methods for 2-D and 3-D Endobronchial Ultrasound Image Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Zang, Xiaonan; Bascom, Rebecca; Gilbert, Christopher; Toth, Jennifer; Higgins, William

    2016-07-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is now commonly used for cancer-staging bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, EBUS is challenging to use and interpreting EBUS video sequences is difficult. Other ultrasound imaging domains, hampered by related difficulties, have benefited from computer-based image-segmentation methods. Yet, so far, no such methods have been proposed for EBUS. We propose image-segmentation methods for 2-D EBUS frames and 3-D EBUS sequences. Our 2-D method adapts the fast-marching level-set process, anisotropic diffusion, and region growing to the problem of segmenting 2-D EBUS frames. Our 3-D method builds upon the 2-D method while also incorporating the geodesic level-set process for segmenting EBUS sequences. Tests with lung-cancer patient data showed that the methods ran fully automatically for nearly 80% of test cases. For the remaining cases, the only user-interaction required was the selection of a seed point. When compared to ground-truth segmentations, the 2-D method achieved an overall Dice index = 90.0% ±4.9%, while the 3-D method achieved an overall Dice index = 83.9 ± 6.0%. In addition, the computation time (2-D, 0.070 s/frame; 3-D, 0.088 s/frame) was two orders of magnitude faster than interactive contour definition. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of the methods for EBUS localization in a multimodal image-guided bronchoscopy system.

  20. A new method of 3D scene recognition from still images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Li-ming; Wang, Xing-song

    2014-04-01

    Most methods of monocular visual three dimensional (3D) scene recognition involve supervised machine learning. However, these methods often rely on prior knowledge. Specifically, they learn the image scene as part of a training dataset. For this reason, when the sampling equipment or scene is changed, monocular visual 3D scene recognition may fail. To cope with this problem, a new method of unsupervised learning for monocular visual 3D scene recognition is here proposed. First, the image is made using superpixel segmentation based on the CIELAB color space values L, a, and b and on the coordinate values x and y of pixels, forming a superpixel image with a specific density. Second, a spectral clustering algorithm based on the superpixels' color characteristics and neighboring relationships was used to reduce the dimensions of the superpixel image. Third, the fuzzy distribution density functions representing sky, ground, and façade are multiplied with the segment pixels, where the expectations of these segments are obtained. A preliminary classification of sky, ground, and façade is generated in this way. Fourth, the most accurate classification images of sky, ground, and façade were extracted through the tier-1 wavelet sampling and Manhattan direction feature. Finally, a depth perception map is generated based on the pinhole imaging model and the linear perspective information of ground surface. Here, 400 images of Make3D Image data from the Cornell University website were used to test the algorithm. The experimental results showed that this unsupervised learning method provides a more effective monocular visual 3D scene recognition model than other methods.

  1. 2D and 3D visualization methods of endoscopic panoramic bladder images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Alexander; Heisterklaus, Iris; Müller, Yannick; Stehle, Thomas; Gross, Sebastian; Aach, Til

    2011-03-01

    While several mosaicking algorithms have been developed to compose endoscopic images of the internal urinary bladder wall into panoramic images, the quantitative evaluation of these output images in terms of geometrical distortions have often not been discussed. However, the visualization of the distortion level is highly desired for an objective image-based medical diagnosis. Thus, we present in this paper a method to create quality maps from the characteristics of transformation parameters, which were applied to the endoscopic images during the registration process of the mosaicking algorithm. For a global first view impression, the quality maps are laid over the panoramic image and highlight image regions in pseudo-colors according to their local distortions. This illustration supports then surgeons to identify geometrically distorted structures easily in the panoramic image, which allow more objective medical interpretations of tumor tissue in shape and size. Aside from introducing quality maps in 2-D, we also discuss a visualization method to map panoramic images onto a 3-D spherical bladder model. Reference points are manually selected by the surgeon in the panoramic image and the 3-D model. Then the panoramic image is mapped by the Hammer-Aitoff equal-area projection onto the 3-D surface using texture mapping. Finally the textured bladder model can be freely moved in a virtual environment for inspection. Using a two-hemisphere bladder representation, references between panoramic image regions and their corresponding space coordinates within the bladder model are reconstructed. This additional spatial 3-D information thus assists the surgeon in navigation, documentation, as well as surgical planning.

  2. A novel adaptive 3D medical image interpolation method based on shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiaxin; Ma, Wei

    2013-03-01

    Image interpolation of cross-sections is one of the key steps of medical visualization. Aiming at the problem of fuzzy boundaries and large amount of calculation, which are brought by the traditional interpolation, a novel adaptive 3-D medical image interpolation method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the contour is obtained by the edge interpolation, and the corresponding points are found according to the relation of the contour and points on the original images. Secondly, this algorithm utilizes volume relativity to get the best point-pair with the adaptive methods. Finally, the grey value of interpolation pixel is got by the matching point interpolation. The experimental results show that the method presented in the paper not only can meet the requirements of interpolation accuracy, but also can be used effectively in medical image 3D reconstruction.

  3. A new combined prior based reconstruction method for compressed sensing in 3D ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Muhammad S.; Islam, Rafiqul; Tahtali, Murat; Lambert, Andrew J.; Pickering, Mark R.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging is one of the most popular medical imaging modalities, with 3D US imaging gaining popularity recently due to its considerable advantages over 2D US imaging. However, as it is limited by long acquisition times and the huge amount of data processing it requires, methods for reducing these factors have attracted considerable research interest. Compressed sensing (CS) is one of the best candidates for accelerating the acquisition rate and reducing the data processing time without degrading image quality. However, CS is prone to introduce noise-like artefacts due to random under-sampling. To address this issue, we propose a combined prior-based reconstruction method for 3D US imaging. A Laplacian mixture model (LMM) constraint in the wavelet domain is combined with a total variation (TV) constraint to create a new regularization regularization prior. An experimental evaluation conducted to validate our method using synthetic 3D US images shows that it performs better than other approaches in terms of both qualitative and quantitative measures.

  4. An improved 3-D Look--Locker imaging method for T(1) parameter estimation.

    PubMed

    Nkongchu, Ken; Santyr, Giles

    2005-09-01

    The 3-D Look-Locker (LL) imaging method has been shown to be a highly efficient and accurate method for the volumetric mapping of the spin lattice relaxation time T(1). However, conventional 3-D LL imaging schemes are typically limited to small tip angle RF pulses (3-D LL imaging method that incorporates an additional and variable delay time between recovery samples is described, which permits the use of larger tip angles (>5 degrees ), thereby improving the SNR and the accuracy of the method. In phantom studies, a mean T(1) measurement accuracy of less than 2% (0.2-3.1%) using a tip angle of 10 degrees was obtained for a range of T(1) from approximately 300 to 1,700 ms with a measurement time increase of only 15%. This accuracy compares favorably with the conventional 3-D LL method that provided an accuracy between 2.2% and 7.3% using a 5 degrees flip angle.

  5. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF 3-D IMAGE-GUIDED NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY USING BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Subhadra; Carpenter, Colin; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    Multimodality imaging systems combining optical techniques with MRI/CT provide high-resolution functional characterization of tissue by imaging molecular and vascular biomarkers. To optimize these hybrid systems for clinical use, faster and automatable algorithms are required for 3-D imaging. Towards this end, a boundary element model was used to incorporate tissue boundaries from MRI/CT into image formation process. This method uses surface rendering to describe light propagation in 3-D using diffusion equation. Parallel computing provided speedup of up to 54% in time of computation. Simulations showed that location of NIRS probe was crucial for quantitatively accurate estimation of tumor response. A change of up to 61% was seen between cycles 1 and 3 in monitoring tissue response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:20523751

  7. Robust method for extracting the pulmonary vascular trees from 3D MDCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taeprasartsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

    2011-03-01

    Segmentation of pulmonary blood vessels from three-dimensional (3D) multi-detector CT (MDCT) images is important for pulmonary applications. This work presents a method for extracting the vascular trees of the pulmonary arteries and veins, applicable to both contrast-enhanced and unenhanced 3D MDCT image data. The method finds 2D elliptical cross-sections and evaluates agreement of these cross-sections in consecutive slices to find likely cross-sections. It next employs morphological multiscale analysis to separate vessels from adjoining airway walls. The method then tracks the center of the likely cross-sections to connect them to the pulmonary vessels in the mediastinum and forms connected vascular trees spanning both lungs. A ground-truth study indicates that the method was able to detect on the order of 98% of the vessel branches having diameter >= 3.0 mm. The extracted vascular trees can be utilized for the guidance of safe bronchoscopic biopsy.

  8. TU-CD-BRA-01: A Novel 3D Registration Method for Multiparametric Radiological Images

    SciTech Connect

    Akhbardeh, A; Parekth, VS; Jacobs, MA

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Multiparametric and multimodality radiological imaging methods, such as, magnetic resonance imaging(MRI), computed tomography(CT), and positron emission tomography(PET), provide multiple types of tissue contrast and anatomical information for clinical diagnosis. However, these radiological modalities are acquired using very different technical parameters, e.g.,field of view(FOV), matrix size, and scan planes, which, can lead to challenges in registering the different data sets. Therefore, we developed a hybrid registration method based on 3D wavelet transformation and 3D interpolations that performs 3D resampling and rotation of the target radiological images without loss of information Methods: T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted-imaging(DWI), dynamic-contrast-enhanced(DCE) MRI and PET/CT were used in the registration algorithm from breast and prostate data at 3T MRI and multimodality(PET/CT) cases. The hybrid registration scheme consists of several steps to reslice and match each modality using a combination of 3D wavelets, interpolations, and affine registration steps. First, orthogonal reslicing is performed to equalize FOV, matrix sizes and the number of slices using wavelet transformation. Second, angular resampling of the target data is performed to match the reference data. Finally, using optimized angles from resampling, 3D registration is performed using similarity transformation(scaling and translation) between the reference and resliced target volume is performed. After registration, the mean-square-error(MSE) and Dice Similarity(DS) between the reference and registered target volumes were calculated. Results: The 3D registration method registered synthetic and clinical data with significant improvement(p<0.05) of overlap between anatomical structures. After transforming and deforming the synthetic data, the MSE and Dice similarity were 0.12 and 0.99. The average improvement of the MSE in breast was 62%(0.27 to 0.10) and prostate was

  9. Comparison of parabolic filtration methods for 3D filtered back projection in pulsed EPR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Zhiwei; Redler, Gage; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J.

    2014-11-01

    Pulse electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (Pulse EPRI) is a robust method for noninvasively measuring local oxygen concentrations in vivo. For 3D tomographic EPRI, the most commonly used reconstruction algorithm is filtered back projection (FBP), in which the parabolic filtration process strongly influences image quality. In this work, we designed and compared 7 parabolic filtration methods to reconstruct both simulated and real phantoms. To evaluate these methods, we designed 3 error criteria and 1 spatial resolution criterion. It was determined that the 2 point derivative filtration method and the two-ramp-filter method have unavoidable negative effects resulting in diminished spatial resolution and increased artifacts respectively. For the noiseless phantom the rectangular-window parabolic filtration method and sinc-window parabolic filtration method were found to be optimal, providing high spatial resolution and small errors. In the presence of noise, the 3 point derivative method and Hamming-window parabolic filtration method resulted in the best compromise between low image noise and high spatial resolution. The 3 point derivative method is faster than Hamming-window parabolic filtration method, so we conclude that the 3 point derivative method is optimal for 3D FBP.

  10. 3D Imaging of Rapidly Spinning Space Targets Based on a Factorization Method

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Yanxian; Wei, Shaoming; Wang, Jun; Mao, Shiyi

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging of space targets can provide crucial information about the target shape and size, which are significant supports for the application of automatic target classification and recognition. In this paper, a new 3D imaging of space spinning targets via a factorization method is proposed. Firstly, after the translational compensation, the scattering centers two-dimensional (2D) range and range-rate sequence induced by the target spinning is extracted using a high resolution spectral estimation technique. Secondly, measurement data association is implemented to obtain the scattering center trajectory matrix by using a range-Doppler tracker. Then, we use an initial coarse angular velocity to generate the projection matrix, which consists of the scattering centers range and cross-range, and a factorization method is applied iteratively to the projection matrix to estimate the accurate angular velocity. Finally, we use the accurate estimate spinning angular velocity to rescale the projection matrix and the well-scaled target 3D geometry is reconstructed. Compared to the previous literature methods, ambiguity in the spatial axes can be removed by this method. Simulation results have demonstrated the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:28216588

  11. A flexible new method for 3D measurement based on multi-view image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Haihua; Zhao, Zhimin; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Guo, Changye; Jia, Huayu

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional measurement is the base part for reverse engineering. The paper developed a new flexible and fast optical measurement method based on multi-view geometry theory. At first, feature points are detected and matched with improved SIFT algorithm. The Hellinger Kernel is used to estimate the histogram distance instead of traditional Euclidean distance, which is immunity to the weak texture image; then a new filter three-principle for filtering the calculation of essential matrix is designed, the essential matrix is calculated using the improved a Contrario Ransac filter method. One view point cloud is constructed accurately with two view images; after this, the overlapped features are used to eliminate the accumulated errors caused by added view images, which improved the camera's position precision. At last, the method is verified with the application of dental restoration CAD/CAM, experiment results show that the proposed method is fast, accurate and flexible for tooth 3D measurement.

  12. A faster method for 3D/2D medical image registration—a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Wirth, Joachim; Burgstaller, Wolfgang; Baumann, Bernard; Staedele, Harald; Hammer, Beat; Claudius Gellrich, Niels; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Regazzoni, Pietro; Messmer, Peter

    2003-08-01

    3D/2D patient-to-computed-tomography (CT) registration is a method to determine a transformation that maps two coordinate systems by comparing a projection image rendered from CT to a real projection image. Iterative variation of the CT's position between rendering steps finally leads to exact registration. Applications include exact patient positioning in radiation therapy, calibration of surgical robots, and pose estimation in computer-aided surgery. One of the problems associated with 3D/2D registration is the fact that finding a registration includes solving a minimization problem in six degrees of freedom (dof) in motion. This results in considerable time requirements since for each iteration step at least one volume rendering has to be computed. We show that by choosing an appropriate world coordinate system and by applying a 2D/2D registration method in each iteration step, the number of iterations can be grossly reduced from n6 to n5. Here, n is the number of discrete variations around a given coordinate. Depending on the configuration of the optimization algorithm, this reduces the total number of iterations necessary to at least 1/3 of it's original value. The method was implemented and extensively tested on simulated x-ray images of a tibia, a pelvis and a skull base. When using one projective image and a discrete full parameter space search for solving the optimization problem, average accuracy was found to be 1.0 +/- 0.6(°) and 4.1 +/- 1.9 (mm) for a registration in six parameters, and 1.0 +/- 0.7(°) and 4.2 +/- 1.6 (mm) when using the 5 + 1 dof method described in this paper. Time requirements were reduced by a factor 3.1. We conclude that this hardware-independent optimization of 3D/2D registration is a step towards increasing the acceptance of this promising method for a wide number of clinical applications.

  13. A faster method for 3D/2D medical image registration--a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Wirth, Joachim; Burgstaller, Wolfgang; Baumann, Bernard; Staedele, Harald; Hammer, Beat; Gellrich, Niels Claudius; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Regazzoni, Pietro; Messmer, Peter

    2003-08-21

    3D/2D patient-to-computed-tomography (CT) registration is a method to determine a transformation that maps two coordinate systems by comparing a projection image rendered from CT to a real projection image. Iterative variation of the CT's position between rendering steps finally leads to exact registration. Applications include exact patient positioning in radiation therapy, calibration of surgical robots, and pose estimation in computer-aided surgery. One of the problems associated with 3D/2D registration is the fact that finding a registration includes solving a minimization problem in six degrees of freedom (dof) in motion. This results in considerable time requirements since for each iteration step at least one volume rendering has to be computed. We show that by choosing an appropriate world coordinate system and by applying a 2D/2D registration method in each iteration step, the number of iterations can be grossly reduced from n6 to n5. Here, n is the number of discrete variations around a given coordinate. Depending on the configuration of the optimization algorithm, this reduces the total number of iterations necessary to at least 1/3 of it's original value. The method was implemented and extensively tested on simulated x-ray images of a tibia, a pelvis and a skull base. When using one projective image and a discrete full parameter space search for solving the optimization problem, average accuracy was found to be 1.0 +/- 0.6(degrees) and 4.1 +/- 1.9 (mm) for a registration in six parameters, and 1.0 +/- 0.7(degrees) and 4.2 +/- 1.6 (mm) when using the 5 + 1 dof method described in this paper. Time requirements were reduced by a factor 3.1. We conclude that this hardware-independent optimization of 3D/2D registration is a step towards increasing the acceptance of this promising method for a wide number of clinical applications.

  14. 3D registration method based on scattered point cloud from B-model ultrasound image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lei; Xu, Xiaojun; Wang, Lifeng; Guo, Na; Xie, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes a registration method on 3D point cloud of the bone tissue surface extracted by B-mode ultrasound image and the CT model . The B-mode ultrasound is used to get two-dimensional images of the femur tissue . The binocular stereo vision tracker is used to obtain spatial position and orientation of the optical positioning device fixed on the ultrasound probe. The combining of the two kind of data generates 3D point cloud of the bone tissue surface. The pixel coordinates of the bone surface are automatically obtained from ultrasound image using an improved local phase symmetry (phase symmetry, PS) . The mapping of the pixel coordinates on the ultrasound image and 3D space is obtained through a series of calibration methods. In order to detect the effect of registration, six markers are implanted on a complete fresh pig femoral .The actual coordinates of the marks are measured with two methods. The first method is to get the coordinates with measuring tools under a coordinate system. The second is to measure the coordinates of the markers in the CT model registered with 3D point cloud using the ICP registration algorithm under the same coordinate system. Ten registration experiments are carried out in the same way. Error results are obtained by comparing the two sets of mark point coordinates obtained by two different methods. The results is that a minimum error is 1.34mm, the maximum error is 3.22mm,and the average error of 2.52mm; ICP registration algorithm calculates the average error of 0.89mm and a standard deviation of 0.62mm.This evaluation standards of registration accuracy is different from the average error obtained by the ICP registration algorithm. It can be intuitive to show the error caused by the operation of clinical doctors. Reference to the accuracy requirements of different operation in the Department of orthopedics, the method can be apply to the bone reduction and the anterior cruciate ligament surgery.

  15. Wound Measurement Techniques: Comparing the Use of Ruler Method, 2D Imaging and 3D Scanner.

    PubMed

    Shah, Aj; Wollak, C; Shah, J B

    2013-12-01

    The statistics on the growing number of non-healing wounds is alarming. In the United States, chronic wounds affect 6.5 million patients. An estimated US $25 billion is spent annually on treatment of chronic wounds and the burden is rapidly growing due to increasing health care costs, an aging population and a sharp rise in the incidence of diabetes and obesity worldwide.(1) Accurate wound measurement techniques will help health care personnel to monitor the wounds which will indirectly help improving care.(7,9) The clinical practice of measuring wounds has not improved even today.(2,3) A common method like the ruler method to measure wounds has poor interrater and intrarater reliability.(2,3) Measuring the greatest length by the greatest width perpendicular to the greatest length, the perpendicular method, is more valid and reliable than other ruler based methods.(2) Another common method like acetate tracing is more accurate than the ruler method but still has its disadvantages. These common measurement techniques are time consuming with variable inaccuracies. In this study, volumetric measurements taken with a non-contact 3-D scanner are benchmarked against the common ruler method, acetate grid tracing, and 2-D image planimetry volumetric measurement technique. A liquid volumetric fill method is used as the control volume. Results support the hypothesis that the 3-D scanner consistently shows accurate volumetric measurements in comparison to standard volumetric measurements obtained by the waterfill technique (average difference of 11%). The 3-D scanner measurement technique was found more reliable and valid compared to other three techniques, the ruler method (average difference of 75%), acetate grid tracing (average difference of 41%), and 2D planimetric measurements (average difference of 52%). Acetate tracing showed more accurate measurements compared to the ruler method (average difference of 41% (acetate tracing) compared to 75% (ruler method)). Improving

  16. Wound Measurement Techniques: Comparing the Use of Ruler Method, 2D Imaging and 3D Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Aj; Wollak, C.; Shah, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    The statistics on the growing number of non-healing wounds is alarming. In the United States, chronic wounds affect 6.5 million patients. An estimated US $25 billion is spent annually on treatment of chronic wounds and the burden is rapidly growing due to increasing health care costs, an aging population and a sharp rise in the incidence of diabetes and obesity worldwide.1 Accurate wound measurement techniques will help health care personnel to monitor the wounds which will indirectly help improving care.7,9 The clinical practice of measuring wounds has not improved even today.2,3 A common method like the ruler method to measure wounds has poor interrater and intrarater reliability.2,3 Measuring the greatest length by the greatest width perpendicular to the greatest length, the perpendicular method, is more valid and reliable than other ruler based methods.2 Another common method like acetate tracing is more accurate than the ruler method but still has its disadvantages. These common measurement techniques are time consuming with variable inaccuracies. In this study, volumetric measurements taken with a non-contact 3-D scanner are benchmarked against the common ruler method, acetate grid tracing, and 2-D image planimetry volumetric measurement technique. A liquid volumetric fill method is used as the control volume. Results support the hypothesis that the 3-D scanner consistently shows accurate volumetric measurements in comparison to standard volumetric measurements obtained by the waterfill technique (average difference of 11%). The 3-D scanner measurement technique was found more reliable and valid compared to other three techniques, the ruler method (average difference of 75%), acetate grid tracing (average difference of 41%), and 2D planimetric measurements (average difference of 52%). Acetate tracing showed more accurate measurements compared to the ruler method (average difference of 41% (acetate tracing) compared to 75% (ruler method)). Improving the

  17. Superresolution of 3-D computational integral imaging based on moving least square method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyein; Lee, Sukho; Ryu, Taekyung; Yoon, Jungho

    2014-11-17

    In this paper, we propose an edge directive moving least square (ED-MLS) based superresolution method for computational integral imaging reconstruction(CIIR). Due to the low resolution of the elemental images and the alignment error of the microlenses, it is not easy to obtain an accurate registration result in integral imaging, which makes it difficult to apply superresolution to the CIIR application. To overcome this problem, we propose the edge directive moving least square (ED-MLS) based superresolution method which utilizes the properties of the moving least square. The proposed ED-MLS based superresolution takes the direction of the edge into account in the moving least square reconstruction to deal with the abrupt brightness changes in the edge regions, and is less sensitive to the registration error. Furthermore, we propose a framework which shows how the data have to be collected for the superresolution problem in the CIIR application. Experimental results verify that the resolution of the elemental images is enhanced, and that a high resolution reconstructed 3-D image can be obtained with the proposed method.

  18. Clinical Evaluation of a 3-D Automatic Annotation Method for Breast Ultrasound Imaging.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Wei; Li, Cheng; Li, An-Hua; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2016-04-01

    The routine clinical breast ultrasound annotation method is limited by the time it consumes, inconsistency, inaccuracy and incomplete notation. A novel 3-D automatic annotation method for breast ultrasound imaging has been developed that uses a spatial sensor to track and record conventional B-mode scanning so as to provide more objective annotation. The aim of the study described here was to test the feasibility of the automatic annotation method in clinical breast ultrasound scanning. An ultrasound scanning procedure using the new method was established. The new method and the conventional manual annotation method were compared in 46 breast cancer patients (49 ± 12 y). The time used for scanning a patient was recorded and compared for the two methods. Intra-observer and inter-observer experiments were performed, and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to analyze system reproducibility. The results revealed that the new annotation method had an average scanning time 36 s (42.9%) less than that of the conventional method. There were high correlations between the results of the two annotation methods (r = 0.933, p < 0.0001 for distance; r = 0.995, p < 0.0001 for radial angle). Intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility was excellent, with all ICCs > 0.92. The results indicated that the 3-D automatic annotation method is reliable for clinical breast ultrasound scanning and can greatly reduce scanning time. Although large-scale clinical studies are still needed, this work verified that the new annotation method has potential to be a valuable tool in breast ultrasound examination.

  19. Evaluation of Methods for Coregistration and Fusion of Rpas-Based 3d Point Clouds and Thermal Infrared Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoegner, L.; Tuttas, S.; Xu, Y.; Eder, K.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses the automatic coregistration and fusion of 3d point clouds generated from aerial image sequences and corresponding thermal infrared (TIR) images. Both RGB and TIR images have been taken from a RPAS platform with a predefined flight path where every RGB image has a corresponding TIR image taken from the same position and with the same orientation with respect to the accuracy of the RPAS system and the inertial measurement unit. To remove remaining differences in the exterior orientation, different strategies for coregistering RGB and TIR images are discussed: (i) coregistration based on 2D line segments for every single TIR image and the corresponding RGB image. This method implies a mainly planar scene to avoid mismatches; (ii) coregistration of both the dense 3D point clouds from RGB images and from TIR images by coregistering 2D image projections of both point clouds; (iii) coregistration based on 2D line segments in every single TIR image and 3D line segments extracted from intersections of planes fitted in the segmented dense 3D point cloud; (iv) coregistration of both the dense 3D point clouds from RGB images and from TIR images using both ICP and an adapted version based on corresponding segmented planes; (v) coregistration of both image sets based on point features. The quality is measured by comparing the differences of the back projection of homologous points in both corrected RGB and TIR images.

  20. Method for accurate sizing of pulmonary vessels from 3D medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Walter G.

    2015-03-01

    Detailed characterization of vascular anatomy, in particular the quantification of changes in the distribution of vessel sizes and of vascular pruning, is essential for the diagnosis and management of a variety of pulmonary vascular diseases and for the care of cancer survivors who have received radiation to the thorax. Clinical estimates of vessel radii are typically based on setting a pixel intensity threshold and counting how many "On" pixels are present across the vessel cross-section. A more objective approach introduced recently involves fitting the image with a library of spherical Gaussian filters and utilizing the size of the best matching filter as the estimate of vessel diameter. However, both these approaches have significant accuracy limitations including mis-match between a Gaussian intensity distribution and that of real vessels. Here we introduce and demonstrate a novel approach for accurate vessel sizing using 3D appearance models of a tubular structure along a curvilinear trajectory in 3D space. The vessel branch trajectories are represented with cubic Hermite splines and the tubular branch surfaces represented as a finite element surface mesh. An iterative parameter adjustment scheme is employed to optimally match the appearance models to a patient's chest X-ray computed tomography (CT) scan to generate estimates for branch radii and trajectories with subpixel resolution. The method is demonstrated on pulmonary vasculature in an adult human CT scan, and on 2D simulated test cases.

  1. Feature extraction from 3D lidar point clouds using image processing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ling; Shortridge, Ashton; Lusch, David; Shi, Ruoming

    2011-10-01

    Airborne LiDAR data have become cost-effective to produce at local and regional scales across the United States and internationally. These data are typically collected and processed into surface data products by contractors for state and local communities. Current algorithms for advanced processing of LiDAR point cloud data are normally implemented in specialized, expensive software that is not available for many users, and these users are therefore unable to experiment with the LiDAR point cloud data directly for extracting desired feature classes. The objective of this research is to identify and assess automated, readily implementable GIS procedures to extract features like buildings, vegetated areas, parking lots and roads from LiDAR data using standard image processing tools, as such tools are relatively mature with many effective classification methods. The final procedure adopted employs four distinct stages. First, interpolation is used to transfer the 3D points to a high-resolution raster. Raster grids of both height and intensity are generated. Second, multiple raster maps - a normalized surface model (nDSM), difference of returns, slope, and the LiDAR intensity map - are conflated to generate a multi-channel image. Third, a feature space of this image is created. Finally, supervised classification on the feature space is implemented. The approach is demonstrated in both a conceptual model and on a complex real-world case study, and its strengths and limitations are addressed.

  2. Segmentation of 3D cell membrane images by PDE methods and its applications.

    PubMed

    Mikula, K; Peyriéras, N; Remešíková, M; Stašová, O

    2011-06-01

    We present a set of techniques that enable us to segment objects from 3D cell membrane images. Particularly, we propose methods for detection of approximate cell nuclei centers, extraction of the inner cell boundaries, the surface of the organism and the intercellular borders--the so called intercellular skeleton. All methods are based on numerical solution of partial differential equations. The center detection problem is represented by a level set equation for advective motion in normal direction with curvature term. In case of the inner cell boundaries and the global surface, we use the generalized subjective surface model. The intercellular borders are segmented by the advective level set equation where the velocity field is given by the gradient of the signed distance function to the segmented inner cell boundaries. The distance function is computed by solving the time relaxed eikonal equation. We describe the mathematical models, explain their numerical approximation and finally we present various possible practical applications on the images of zebrafish embryogenesis--computation of important quantitative characteristics, evaluation of the cell shape, detection of cell divisions and others.

  3. Image reconstruction for 3D light microscopy with a regularized linear method incorporating a smoothness prior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preza, Chrysanthe; Miller, Michael I.; Conchello, Jose-Angel

    1993-07-01

    We have shown that the linear least-squares (LLS) estimate of the intensities of a 3-D object obtained from a set of optical sections is unstable due to the inversion of small and zero-valued eigenvalues of the point-spread function (PSF) operator. The LLS solution was regularized by constraining it to lie in a subspace spanned by the eigenvectors corresponding to a selected number of the largest eigenvalues. In this paper we extend the regularized LLS solution to a maximum a posteriori (MAP) solution induced by a prior formed from a 'Good's like' smoothness penalty. This approach also yields a regularized linear estimator which reduces noise as well as edge artifacts in the reconstruction. The advantage of the linear MAP (LMAP) estimate over the current regularized LLS (RLLS) is its ability to regularize the inverse problem by smoothly penalizing components in the image associated with small eigenvalues. Computer simulations were performed using a theoretical PSF and a simple phantom to compare the two regularization techniques. It is shown that the reconstructions using the smoothness prior, give superior variance and bias results compared to the RLLS reconstructions. Encouraging reconstructions obtained with the LMAP method from real microscopical images of a 10 micrometers fluorescent bead, and a four-cell Volvox embryo are shown.

  4. 3D MR image denoising using rough set and kernel PCA method.

    PubMed

    Phophalia, Ashish; Mitra, Suman K

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we have presented a two stage method, using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) and rough set theory (RST), for denoising volumetric MRI data. A rough set theory (RST) based clustering technique has been used for voxel based processing. The method groups similar voxels (3D cubes) using class and edge information derived from noisy input. Each clusters thus formed now represented via basis vector. These vectors now projected into kernel space and PCA is performed in the feature space. This work is motivated by idea that under Rician noise MRI data may be non-linear and kernel mapping will help to define linear separator between these clusters/basis vectors thus used for image denoising. We have further investigated various kernels for Rician noise for different noise levels. The best kernel is then selected on the performance basis over PSNR and structure similarity (SSIM) measures. The work has been compared with state-of-the-art methods under various measures for synthetic and real databases.

  5. Moving-Article X-Ray Imaging System and Method for 3-D Image Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Kenneth R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An x-ray imaging system and method for a moving article are provided for an article moved along a linear direction of travel while the article is exposed to non-overlapping x-ray beams. A plurality of parallel linear sensor arrays are disposed in the x-ray beams after they pass through the article. More specifically, a first half of the plurality are disposed in a first of the x-ray beams while a second half of the plurality are disposed in a second of the x-ray beams. Each of the parallel linear sensor arrays is oriented perpendicular to the linear direction of travel. Each of the parallel linear sensor arrays in the first half is matched to a corresponding one of the parallel linear sensor arrays in the second half in terms of an angular position in the first of the x-ray beams and the second of the x-ray beams, respectively.

  6. Novel and powerful 3D adaptive crisp active contour method applied in the segmentation of CT lung images.

    PubMed

    Rebouças Filho, Pedro Pedrosa; Cortez, Paulo César; da Silva Barros, Antônio C; C Albuquerque, Victor Hugo; R S Tavares, João Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that 300 million people have asthma, 210 million people have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and, according to WHO, COPD will become the third major cause of death worldwide in 2030. Computational Vision systems are commonly used in pulmonology to address the task of image segmentation, which is essential for accurate medical diagnoses. Segmentation defines the regions of the lungs in CT images of the thorax that must be further analyzed by the system or by a specialist physician. This work proposes a novel and powerful technique named 3D Adaptive Crisp Active Contour Method (3D ACACM) for the segmentation of CT lung images. The method starts with a sphere within the lung to be segmented that is deformed by forces acting on it towards the lung borders. This process is performed iteratively in order to minimize an energy function associated with the 3D deformable model used. In the experimental assessment, the 3D ACACM is compared against three approaches commonly used in this field: the automatic 3D Region Growing, the level-set algorithm based on coherent propagation and the semi-automatic segmentation by an expert using the 3D OsiriX toolbox. When applied to 40 CT scans of the chest the 3D ACACM had an average F-measure of 99.22%, revealing its superiority and competency to segment lungs in CT images.

  7. Post-processing methods of rendering and visualizing 3-D reconstructed tomographic images

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.T.C.

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the computer processing techniques of tomographic images, after they have been generated by imaging scanners, for volume visualization. Volume visualization is concerned with the representation, manipulation, and rendering of volumetric data. Since the first digital images were produced from computed tomography (CT) scanners in the mid 1970s, applications of visualization in medicine have expanded dramatically. Today, three-dimensional (3D) medical visualization has expanded from using CT data, the first inherently digital source of 3D medical data, to using data from various medical imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance scanners, positron emission scanners, digital ultrasound, electronic and confocal microscopy, and other medical imaging modalities. We have advanced from rendering anatomy to aid diagnosis and visualize complex anatomic structures to planning and assisting surgery and radiation treatment. New, more accurate and cost-effective procedures for clinical services and biomedical research have become possible by integrating computer graphics technology with medical images. This trend is particularly noticeable in current market-driven health care environment. For example, interventional imaging, image-guided surgery, and stereotactic and visualization techniques are now stemming into surgical practice. In this presentation, we discuss only computer-display-based approaches of volumetric medical visualization. That is, we assume that the display device available is two-dimensional (2D) in nature and all analysis of multidimensional image data is to be carried out via the 2D screen of the device. There are technologies such as holography and virtual reality that do provide a {open_quotes}true 3D screen{close_quotes}. To confine the scope, this presentation will not discuss such approaches.

  8. Ultrasound and 3D Skin Imaging: Methods to Evaluate Efficacy of Striae Distensae Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bleve, Mariella; Capra, Priscilla; Pavanetto, Franca; Perugini, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Background. Over time, the striae rubra develop into striae alba that appear white, flat, and depressed. It is very important to determine the optimum striae management. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these therapies, objective measurement tools are necessary. Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate if ultrasonography and PRIMOS can be used to obtain an objective assessment of stretch marks type and stage; furthermore, we aim to apply these techniques to evaluate the efficacy of a topical treatment. Methods. 20 volunteers were enrolled with a two-month study. A marketed cosmetic product was used as the active over one body area. The controlateral area with stretch marks was treated with a "placebo" formulation without active, as a control. The instrumental evaluation was carried out at the beginning of the trial (baseline values or t(0)), after 1 month (t(1)), and at the end of the study (t(2)). Results. PRIMOS was able to measure and document striae distensae maturation; furthermore, ultrasound imaging permitted to visualize and diagnose the striae. Statistical analysis of skin roughness demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of Rp value only in a treated group. In fact, the Rp value represented a maximum peak height in the area selected. These results demonstrated that after two months of treatment only the striae rubra can be treated successfully. Conclusions. This work demonstrated that the 22MHz ultrasound can diagnose stretch marks; PRIMOS device can detect and measure striae distensae type and maturation. Furthermore, the high-frequency ultrasound and the 3D image device, described in this work, can be successfully employed in order to evaluate the efficacy of a topical treatment.

  9. Ultrasound and 3D Skin Imaging: Methods to Evaluate Efficacy of Striae Distensae Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bleve, Mariella; Capra, Priscilla; Pavanetto, Franca; Perugini, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Background. Over time, the striae rubra develop into striae alba that appear white, flat, and depressed. It is very important to determine the optimum striae management. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these therapies, objective measurement tools are necessary. Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate if ultrasonography and PRIMOS can be used to obtain an objective assessment of stretch marks type and stage; furthermore, we aim to apply these techniques to evaluate the efficacy of a topical treatment. Methods. 20 volunteers were enrolled with a two-month study. A marketed cosmetic product was used as the active over one body area. The controlateral area with stretch marks was treated with a “placebo” formulation without active, as a control. The instrumental evaluation was carried out at the beginning of the trial (baseline values or t0), after 1 month (t1), and at the end of the study (t2). Results. PRIMOS was able to measure and document striae distensae maturation; furthermore, ultrasound imaging permitted to visualize and diagnose the striae. Statistical analysis of skin roughness demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of Rp value only in a treated group. In fact, the Rp value represented a maximum peak height in the area selected. These results demonstrated that after two months of treatment only the striae rubra can be treated successfully. Conclusions. This work demonstrated that the 22MHz ultrasound can diagnose stretch marks; PRIMOS device can detect and measure striae distensae type and maturation. Furthermore, the high-frequency ultrasound and the 3D image device, described in this work, can be successfully employed in order to evaluate the efficacy of a topical treatment. PMID:22203840

  10. Novel, fast and efficient image-based 3D modeling method and its application in fracture risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Xiao, Zhitao; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Guoqing

    2014-06-01

    Constructing models based on computed tomography images for finite element analysis (FEA) is challenging under pathological conditions. In the present study, an innovative method was introduced that uses Siemens syngo(®) 3D software for processing models and Mimics software for further modeling. Compared with the slice-by-slice traditional manual margin discrimination, the new 3D modeling method utilizes automatic tissue margin determination and 3D cutting using syngo software. The modeling morphologies of the two methods were similar; however, the 3D modeling method was 8-10 times faster than the traditional method, particularly in cases with osteoporosis and osteophytes. A comparative FEA study of the lumbar spines of young and elderly patients, on the basis of the models constructed by the 3D modeling method, showed peak stress elevation in the vertebrae of elderly patients. Stress distribution was homogeneous in the entire vertebrae of young individuals. By contrast, stress redistribution in the vertebrae of the elderly was concentrated in the anterior cortex of the vertebrae, which explains the high fracture risk mechanism in elderly individuals. In summary, the new 3D modeling method is highly efficient, accurate and faster than traditional methods. The method also allows reliable FEA in pathological cases with osteoporosis and osteophytes.

  11. Novel, fast and efficient image-based 3D modeling method and its application in fracture risk evaluation

    PubMed Central

    LI, DAN; XIAO, ZHITAO; WANG, GANG; ZHAO, GUOQING

    2014-01-01

    Constructing models based on computed tomography images for finite element analysis (FEA) is challenging under pathological conditions. In the present study, an innovative method was introduced that uses Siemens syngo® 3D software for processing models and Mimics software for further modeling. Compared with the slice-by-slice traditional manual margin discrimination, the new 3D modeling method utilizes automatic tissue margin determination and 3D cutting using syngo software. The modeling morphologies of the two methods were similar; however, the 3D modeling method was 8–10 times faster than the traditional method, particularly in cases with osteoporosis and osteophytes. A comparative FEA study of the lumbar spines of young and elderly patients, on the basis of the models constructed by the 3D modeling method, showed peak stress elevation in the vertebrae of elderly patients. Stress distribution was homogeneous in the entire vertebrae of young individuals. By contrast, stress redistribution in the vertebrae of the elderly was concentrated in the anterior cortex of the vertebrae, which explains the high fracture risk mechanism in elderly individuals. In summary, the new 3D modeling method is highly efficient, accurate and faster than traditional methods. The method also allows reliable FEA in pathological cases with osteoporosis and osteophytes. PMID:24926348

  12. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  13. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  14. 3-D Image-guided diffuse optical tomography using boundary element method and MPI implementation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Subhadra; Ghadyani, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Boundary elements provide an attractive method for image-guided multi-modality near infrared spectroscopy in three dimensions using only surface discretization. This method operates under the assumption that the underlying tissue contains piece-wise constant domains whose boundaries are known a priori from an alternative imaging modality such as MRI or microCT. This significantly simplifies the meshing process providing both speed-up and accuracy in the forward solution. Challenges with this method are in solving dense matrices, and working with complex heterogeneous domains. Solutions to these problems are presented here, with applications in breast cancer imaging and small - animal molecular imaging.

  15. Automatic Building Damage Detection Method Using High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images and 3d GIS Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jihui; Sui, Haigang; Feng, Wenqing; Song, Zhina

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a novel approach of building damaged detection is proposed using high resolution remote sensing images and 3D GIS-Model data. Traditional building damage detection method considers to detect damaged building due to earthquake, but little attention has been paid to analyze various building damaged types(e.g., trivial damaged, severely damaged and totally collapsed.) Therefore, we want to detect the different building damaged type using 2D and 3D feature of scenes because the real world we live in is a 3D space. The proposed method generalizes that the image geometric correction method firstly corrects the post-disasters remote sensing image using the 3D GIS model or RPC parameters, then detects the different building damaged types using the change of the height and area between the pre- and post-disasters and the texture feature of post-disasters. The results, evaluated on a selected study site of the Beichuan earthquake ruins, Sichuan, show that this method is feasible and effective in building damage detection. It has also shown that the proposed method is easily applicable and well suited for rapid damage assessment after natural disasters.

  16. Research and Teaching: Methods for Creating and Evaluating 3D Tactile Images to Teach STEM Courses to the Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasper, Eric; Windhorst, Rogier; Hedgpeth, Terri; Van Tuyl, Leanne; Gonzales, Ashleigh; Martinez, Britta; Yu, Hongyu; Farkas, Zolton; Baluch, Debra P.

    2015-01-01

    Project 3D IMAGINE or 3D Image Arrays to Graphically Implement New Education is a pilot study that researches the effectiveness of incorporating 3D tactile images, which are critical for learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, into entry-level lab courses. The focus of this project is to increase the participation and…

  17. A Registration Method Based on Contour Point Cloud for 3D Whole-Body PET and CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiyao; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Guoxu

    2017-01-01

    The PET and CT fusion image, combining the anatomical and functional information, has important clinical meaning. An effective registration of PET and CT images is the basis of image fusion. This paper presents a multithread registration method based on contour point cloud for 3D whole-body PET and CT images. Firstly, a geometric feature-based segmentation (GFS) method and a dynamic threshold denoising (DTD) method are creatively proposed to preprocess CT and PET images, respectively. Next, a new automated trunk slices extraction method is presented for extracting feature point clouds. Finally, the multithread Iterative Closet Point is adopted to drive an affine transform. We compare our method with a multiresolution registration method based on Mattes Mutual Information on 13 pairs (246~286 slices per pair) of 3D whole-body PET and CT data. Experimental results demonstrate the registration effectiveness of our method with lower negative normalization correlation (NC = −0.933) on feature images and less Euclidean distance error (ED = 2.826) on landmark points, outperforming the source data (NC = −0.496, ED = 25.847) and the compared method (NC = −0.614, ED = 16.085). Moreover, our method is about ten times faster than the compared one. PMID:28316979

  18. 3D Segmentation with an application of level set-method using MRI volumes for image guided surgery.

    PubMed

    Bosnjak, A; Montilla, G; Villegas, R; Jara, I

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovation in the application for image guided surgery using a comparative study of three different method of segmentation. This segmentation method is faster than the manual segmentation of images, with the advantage that it allows to use the same patient as anatomical reference, which has more precision than a generic atlas. This new methodology for 3D information extraction is based on a processing chain structured of the following modules: 1) 3D Filtering: the purpose is to preserve the contours of the structures and to smooth the homogeneous areas; several filters were tested and finally an anisotropic diffusion filter was used. 2) 3D Segmentation. This module compares three different methods: Region growing Algorithm, Cubic spline hand assisted, and Level Set Method. It then proposes a Level Set-based on the front propagation method that allows the making of the reconstruction of the internal walls of the anatomical structures of the brain. 3) 3D visualization. The new contribution of this work consists on the visualization of the segmented model and its use in the pre-surgery planning.

  19. A combined method for correlative 3D imaging of biological samples from macro to nano scale.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Manuela; Heidrich, Marko; Lorbeer, Raoul-Amadeus; Antonopoulos, Georgios C; Knudsen, Lars; Wrede, Christoph; Izykowski, Nicole; Grothausmann, Roman; Jonigk, Danny; Ochs, Matthias; Ripken, Tammo; Kühnel, Mark P; Meyer, Heiko

    2016-10-19

    Correlative analysis requires examination of a specimen from macro to nano scale as well as applicability of analytical methods ranging from morphological to molecular. Accomplishing this with one and the same sample is laborious at best, due to deformation and biodegradation during measurements or intermediary preparation steps. Furthermore, data alignment using differing imaging techniques turns out to be a complex task, which considerably complicates the interconnection of results. We present correlative imaging of the accessory rat lung lobe by combining a modified Scanning Laser Optical Tomography (SLOT) setup with a specially developed sample preparation method (CRISTAL). CRISTAL is a resin-based embedding method that optically clears the specimen while allowing sectioning and preventing degradation. We applied and correlated SLOT with Multi Photon Microscopy, histological and immunofluorescence analysis as well as Transmission Electron Microscopy, all in the same sample. Thus, combining CRISTAL with SLOT enables the correlative utilization of a vast variety of imaging techniques.

  20. A combined method for correlative 3D imaging of biological samples from macro to nano scale

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Manuela; Heidrich, Marko; Lorbeer, Raoul-Amadeus; Antonopoulos, Georgios C.; Knudsen, Lars; Wrede, Christoph; Izykowski, Nicole; Grothausmann, Roman; Jonigk, Danny; Ochs, Matthias; Ripken, Tammo; Kühnel, Mark P.; Meyer, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Correlative analysis requires examination of a specimen from macro to nano scale as well as applicability of analytical methods ranging from morphological to molecular. Accomplishing this with one and the same sample is laborious at best, due to deformation and biodegradation during measurements or intermediary preparation steps. Furthermore, data alignment using differing imaging techniques turns out to be a complex task, which considerably complicates the interconnection of results. We present correlative imaging of the accessory rat lung lobe by combining a modified Scanning Laser Optical Tomography (SLOT) setup with a specially developed sample preparation method (CRISTAL). CRISTAL is a resin-based embedding method that optically clears the specimen while allowing sectioning and preventing degradation. We applied and correlated SLOT with Multi Photon Microscopy, histological and immunofluorescence analysis as well as Transmission Electron Microscopy, all in the same sample. Thus, combining CRISTAL with SLOT enables the correlative utilization of a vast variety of imaging techniques. PMID:27759114

  1. A combined method for correlative 3D imaging of biological samples from macro to nano scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellner, Manuela; Heidrich, Marko; Lorbeer, Raoul-Amadeus; Antonopoulos, Georgios C.; Knudsen, Lars; Wrede, Christoph; Izykowski, Nicole; Grothausmann, Roman; Jonigk, Danny; Ochs, Matthias; Ripken, Tammo; Kühnel, Mark P.; Meyer, Heiko

    2016-10-01

    Correlative analysis requires examination of a specimen from macro to nano scale as well as applicability of analytical methods ranging from morphological to molecular. Accomplishing this with one and the same sample is laborious at best, due to deformation and biodegradation during measurements or intermediary preparation steps. Furthermore, data alignment using differing imaging techniques turns out to be a complex task, which considerably complicates the interconnection of results. We present correlative imaging of the accessory rat lung lobe by combining a modified Scanning Laser Optical Tomography (SLOT) setup with a specially developed sample preparation method (CRISTAL). CRISTAL is a resin-based embedding method that optically clears the specimen while allowing sectioning and preventing degradation. We applied and correlated SLOT with Multi Photon Microscopy, histological and immunofluorescence analysis as well as Transmission Electron Microscopy, all in the same sample. Thus, combining CRISTAL with SLOT enables the correlative utilization of a vast variety of imaging techniques.

  2. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  3. Data-adapted moving least squares method for 3-D image interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Sumi; Nam, Haewon; Lee, Yeon Ju; Jeong, Byeongseon; Lee, Rena; Yoon, Jungho

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present a nonlinear three-dimensional interpolation scheme for gray-level medical images. The scheme is based on the moving least squares method but introduces a fundamental modification. For a given evaluation point, the proposed method finds the local best approximation by reproducing polynomials of a certain degree. In particular, in order to obtain a better match to the local structures of the given image, we employ locally data-adapted least squares methods that can improve the classical one. Some numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. Five types of data sets are used: MR brain, MR foot, MR abdomen, CT head, and CT foot. From each of the five types, we choose five volumes. The scheme is compared with some well-known linear methods and other recently developed nonlinear methods. For quantitative comparison, we follow the paradigm proposed by Grevera and Udupa (1998). (Each slice is first assumed to be unknown then interpolated by each method. The performance of each interpolation method is assessed statistically.) The PSNR results for the estimated volumes are also provided. We observe that the new method generates better results in both quantitative and visual quality comparisons.

  4. 3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerwien, N.

    2014-11-01

    In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

  5. Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern Sumatra region using double difference tomographic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, Titik; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-01

    Southern Sumatra region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, Sumatra fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern Sumatra region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA's) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern Sumatra region for time periods of April 2009 - April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.

  6. Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern Sumatra region using double difference tomographic method

    SciTech Connect

    Lestari, Titik; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    Southern Sumatra region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, Sumatra fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern Sumatra region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA’s) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern Sumatra region for time periods of April 2009 – April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.

  7. True 3d Images and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.

    2012-07-01

    A true 3D image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true 3D image, especially a true 3D oblique image, it has true 3D coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true 3D image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true 3D image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true 3D images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true 3D images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true 3D ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true 3D image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true 3D images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true 3D image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true 3D images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true 3D images and the applications of true 3D images in a couple of 3D city modeling projects.

  8. 3D printing in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Imaging: A novel method for fabricating high-density imaging apertures☆

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brian W.; Moore, Jared W.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Fryé, Teresa; Adler, Steven; Sery, Joe; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in 3D rapid-prototyping printers, 3D modeling software, and casting techniques allow for cost-effective fabrication of custom components in gamma-ray and X-ray imaging systems. Applications extend to new fabrication methods for custom collimators, pinholes, calibration and resolution phantoms, mounting and shielding components, and imaging apertures. Details of the fabrication process for these components, specifically the 3D printing process, cold casting with a tungsten epoxy, and lost-wax casting in platinum are presented. PMID:22199414

  9. Methods for comparing 3D surface attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Alex; Freeman, Adam

    1996-03-01

    A common task in data analysis is to compare two or more sets of data, statistics, presentations, etc. A predominant method in use is side-by-side visual comparison of images. While straightforward, it burdens the user with the task of discerning the differences between the two images. The user if further taxed when the images are of 3D scenes. This paper presents several methods for analyzing the extent, magnitude, and manner in which surfaces in 3D differ in their attributes. The surface geometry are assumed to be identical and only the surface attributes (color, texture, etc.) are variable. As a case in point, we examine the differences obtained when a 3D scene is rendered progressively using radiosity with different form factor calculation methods. The comparison methods include extensions of simple methods such as mapping difference information to color or transparency, and more recent methods including the use of surface texture, perturbation, and adaptive placements of error glyphs.

  10. Characterization Method for 3D Substructure of Nuclear Cell Based on Orthogonal Phase Images

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Ying; Liang, Minjie; Hua, Tingting; Xu, Yuanyuan; Xin, Zhiduo; Wang, Yawei

    2015-01-01

    A set of optical models associated with blood cells are introduced in this paper. All of these models are made up of different parts possessing symmetries. The wrapped phase images as well as the unwrapped ones from two orthogonal directions related to some of these models are obtained by simulation technique. Because the phase mutation occurs on the boundary between nucleus and cytoplasm as well as on the boundary between cytoplasm and environment medium, the equation of inflexion curve is introduced to describe the size, morphology, and substructure of the nuclear cell based on the analysis of the phase features of the model. Furthermore, a mononuclear cell model is discussed as an example to verify this method. The simulation result shows that characterization with inflexion curve based on orthogonal phase images could describe the substructure of the cells availably, which may provide a new way to identify the typical biological cells quickly without scanning. PMID:26355740

  11. High-Throughput 3D Tumor Spheroid Screening Method for Cancer Drug Discovery Using Celigo Image Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Kessel, Sarah; Cribbes, Scott; Déry, Olivier; Kuksin, Dmitry; Sincoff, Eric; Qiu, Jean; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2016-06-01

    Oncologists have investigated the effect of protein or chemical-based compounds on cancer cells to identify potential drug candidates. Traditionally, the growth inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of the drugs are first measured in 2D in vitro models, and then further tested in 3D xenograft in vivo models. Although the drug candidates can demonstrate promising inhibitory or cytotoxicity results in a 2D environment, similar effects may not be observed under a 3D environment. In this work, we developed an image-based high-throughput screening method for 3D tumor spheroids using the Celigo image cytometer. First, optimal seeding density for tumor spheroid formation was determined by investigating the cell seeding density of U87MG, a human glioblastoma cell line. Next, the dose-response effects of 17-AAG with respect to spheroid size and viability were measured to determine the IC50 value. Finally, the developed high-throughput method was used to measure the dose response of four drugs (17-AAG, paclitaxel, TMZ, and doxorubicin) with respect to the spheroid size and viability. Each experiment was performed simultaneously in the 2D model for comparison. This detection method allowed for a more efficient process to identify highly qualified drug candidates, which may reduce the overall time required to bring a drug to clinical trial.

  12. [3D display of sequential 2D medical images].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yisong; Chen, Yazhu

    2003-12-01

    A detailed review is given in this paper on various current 3D display methods for sequential 2D medical images and the new development in 3D medical image display. True 3D display, surface rendering, volume rendering, 3D texture mapping and distributed collaborative rendering are discussed in depth. For two kinds of medical applications: Real-time navigation system and high-fidelity diagnosis in computer aided surgery, different 3D display methods are presented.

  13. Evaluation and validation methods for intersubject nonrigid 3D image registration of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ting; Starreveld, Yves P.; Peters, Terry M.

    2005-04-01

    This work presents methodologies for assessing the accuracy of non-rigid intersubject registration algorithms from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives. The first method was based on a set of 43 anatomical landmarks. MRI brain images of 12 subjects were non-rigidly registered to the standard MRI dataset. The "gold-standard" coordinates of the 43 landmarks in the target were estimated by averaging their coordinates after 6 tagging sessions. The Euclidean distance between each landmark of a subject after warping to the reference space and the homologous "gold-standard" landmark on the reference image was considered as the registration error. Another method based on visual inspection software displaying the spatial change of colour-coded spheres, before and after warping, was also developed to evaluate the performance of the non-rigid warping algorithms within the homogeneous regions in the deep-brain. Our methods were exemplified by assessing and comparing the accuracy of two intersubject non-rigid registration approaches, AtamaiWarp and ANIMAL algorithms. From the first method, the average registration error was 1.04mm +/- 0.65mm for AtamaiWarp, and 1.59mm +/- 1.47mm for ANIMAL. With maximum registration errors of 2.78mm and 3.90mm respectively, AtamaiWarp and ANIMAL located 58% and 35% landmarks respectively with registration errors less than 1mm. A paired t-test showed that the differences in registration error between AtamaiWarp and ANIMAL were significant (P < 0.002) demonstrating that AtamaiWarp, in addition to being over 60 times faster than ANIMAL, also provides more accurate results. From the second method, both algorithms treated the interior of homogeneous regions in an appropriate manner.

  14. 3D carotid plaque MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS There has been significant progress made in 3D carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging techniques in recent years. 3D plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, 3D plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multi-vascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656

  15. Efficient and robust 3D CT image reconstruction based on total generalized variation regularization using the alternating direction method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianlin; Wang, Linyuan; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Hanming; Cheng, Genyang

    2015-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction algorithms for computed tomography (CT) through total variation regularization based on piecewise constant assumption can produce accurate, robust, and stable results. Nonetheless, this approach is often subject to staircase artefacts and the loss of fine details. To overcome these shortcomings, we introduce a family of novel image regularization penalties called total generalized variation (TGV) for the effective production of high-quality images from incomplete or noisy projection data for 3D reconstruction. We propose a new, fast alternating direction minimization algorithm to solve CT image reconstruction problems through TGV regularization. Based on the theory of sparse-view image reconstruction and the framework of augmented Lagrange function method, the TGV regularization term has been introduced in the computed tomography and is transformed into three independent variables of the optimization problem by introducing auxiliary variables. This new algorithm applies a local linearization and proximity technique to make the FFT-based calculation of the analytical solutions in the frequency domain feasible, thereby significantly reducing the complexity of the algorithm. Experiments with various 3D datasets corresponding to incomplete projection data demonstrate the advantage of our proposed algorithm in terms of preserving fine details and overcoming the staircase effect. The computation cost also suggests that the proposed algorithm is applicable to and is effective for CBCT imaging. Theoretical and technical optimization should be investigated carefully in terms of both computation efficiency and high resolution of this algorithm in application-oriented research.

  16. A new method to acquire 3-D images of a dental cast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongke; Yi, Yaxing; Zhu, Zhen; Li, Hua; Qin, Yongyuan

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduced our newly developed method to acquire three-dimensional images of a dental cast. A rotatable table, a laser-knife, a mirror, a CCD camera and a personal computer made up of a three-dimensional data acquiring system. A dental cast is placed on the table; the mirror is installed beside the table; a linear laser is projected to the dental cast; the CCD camera is put up above the dental cast, it can take picture of the dental cast and the shadow in the mirror; while the table rotating, the camera records the shape of the laser streak projected on the dental cast, and transmit the data to the computer. After the table rotated one circuit, the computer processes the data, calculates the three-dimensional coordinates of the dental cast's surface. In data processing procedure, artificial neural networks are enrolled to calibrate the lens distortion, map coordinates form screen coordinate system to world coordinate system. According to the three-dimensional coordinates, the computer reconstructs the stereo image of the dental cast. It is essential for computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics. In comparison with other systems in service, for example, laser beam three-dimensional scanning system, the characteristic of this three-dimensional data acquiring system: a. celerity, it casts only 1 minute to scan a dental cast; b. compact, the machinery is simple and compact; c. no blind zone, a mirror is introduced ably to reduce blind zone.

  17. Augmented laminography, a correlative 3D imaging method for revealing the inner structure of compressed fossils

    PubMed Central

    Zuber, Marcus; Laaß, Michael; Hamann, Elias; Kretschmer, Sophie; Hauschke, Norbert; van de Kamp, Thomas; Baumbach, Tilo; Koenig, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Non-destructive imaging techniques can be extremely useful tools for the investigation and the assessment of palaeontological objects, as mechanical preparation of rare and valuable fossils is precluded in most cases. However, palaeontologists are often faced with the problem of choosing a method among a wide range of available techniques. In this case study, we employ x-ray computed tomography (CT) and computed laminography (CL) to study the first fossil xiphosuran from the Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic) of the Netherlands. The fossil is embedded in micritic limestone, with the taxonomically important dorsal shield invisible, and only the outline of its ventral part traceable. We demonstrate the complementarity of CT and CL which offers an excellent option to visualize characteristic diagnostic features. We introduce augmented laminography to correlate complementary information of the two methods in Fourier space, allowing to combine their advantages and finally providing increased anatomical information about the fossil. This method of augmented laminography enabled us to identify the xiphosuran as a representative of the genus Limulitella. PMID:28128302

  18. Augmented laminography, a correlative 3D imaging method for revealing the inner structure of compressed fossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, Marcus; Laaß, Michael; Hamann, Elias; Kretschmer, Sophie; Hauschke, Norbert; van de Kamp, Thomas; Baumbach, Tilo; Koenig, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Non-destructive imaging techniques can be extremely useful tools for the investigation and the assessment of palaeontological objects, as mechanical preparation of rare and valuable fossils is precluded in most cases. However, palaeontologists are often faced with the problem of choosing a method among a wide range of available techniques. In this case study, we employ x-ray computed tomography (CT) and computed laminography (CL) to study the first fossil xiphosuran from the Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic) of the Netherlands. The fossil is embedded in micritic limestone, with the taxonomically important dorsal shield invisible, and only the outline of its ventral part traceable. We demonstrate the complementarity of CT and CL which offers an excellent option to visualize characteristic diagnostic features. We introduce augmented laminography to correlate complementary information of the two methods in Fourier space, allowing to combine their advantages and finally providing increased anatomical information about the fossil. This method of augmented laminography enabled us to identify the xiphosuran as a representative of the genus Limulitella.

  19. A robust automated method to detect stent struts in 3D intravascular optical coherence tomographic image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A.; Eggermont, J.; Dekker, N.; Garcia-Garcia, H. M.; Pawar, R.; Reiber, J. H. C.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-03-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) provides very high resolution cross-sectional image sequences of vessels. It has been rapidly accepted for stent implantation and its follow up evaluation. Given the large amount of stent struts in a single image sequence, only automated detection methods are feasible. In this paper, we present an automated stent strut detection technique which requires neither lumen nor vessel wall segmentation. To detect strut-pixel candidates, both global intensity histograms and local intensity profiles of the raw polar images are used. Gaussian smoothing is applied followed by specified Prewitt compass filters to detect the trailing shadow of each strut. The shadow edge positions assist the strut-pixel candidates clustering. In the end, a 3D guide wire filter is applied to remove the guide wire from the detection results. For validation, two experts marked 6738 struts in 1021 frames in 10 IVOCT image sequences from a one-year follow up study. The struts were labeled as malapposed, apposed or covered together with the image quality (high, medium, low). The inter-observer agreement was 96%. The algorithm was validated for different combinations of strut status and image quality. Compared to the manual results, 93% of the struts were correctly detected by the new method. For each combination, the lowest accuracy was 88%, which shows the robustness towards different situations. The presented method can detect struts automatically regardless of the strut status or the image quality, which can be used for quantitative measurement, 3D reconstruction and visualization of the implanted stents.

  20. 3D Backscatter Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, D. Clark (Inventor); Whitaker, Ross (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for imaging an object using backscattered radiation are described. The imaging system comprises both a radiation source for irradiating an object that is rotationally movable about the object, and a detector for detecting backscattered radiation from the object that can be disposed on substantially the same side of the object as the source and which can be rotationally movable about the object. The detector can be separated into multiple detector segments with each segment having a single line of sight projection through the object and so detects radiation along that line of sight. Thus, each detector segment can isolate the desired component of the backscattered radiation. By moving independently of each other about the object, the source and detector can collect multiple images of the object at different angles of rotation and generate a three dimensional reconstruction of the object. Other embodiments are described.

  1. A semi-automated 3-D annotation method for breast ultrasound imaging: system development and feasibility study on phantoms.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-wei; Li, An-hua; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2014-02-01

    Spatial annotation is an essential step in breast ultrasound imaging, because the follow-up diagnosis and treatment are based on this annotation. However, the current method for annotation is manual and highly dependent on the operator's experience. Moreover, important spatial information, such as the probe tilt angle, cannot be indicated in the clinical 2-D annotations. To solve these problems, we developed a semi-automated 3-D annotation method for breast ultrasound imaging. A spatial sensor was fixed on an ultrasound probe to obtain the image spatial data. Three-dimensional virtual models of breast and probe were used to annotate image locations. After the reference points were recorded, this system displayed the image annotations automatically. Compared with the conventional manual annotation method, this new annotation system has higher accuracy as indicated by the phantom test results. In addition, this new annotation method has good repeatability, with intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.907 (average variation: ≤3.45%) and 0.937 (average variation: ≤2.85%) for the intra-rater and inter-rater tests, respectively. Breast phantom experiments simulating clinical breast scanning further indicated the feasibility of this system for clinical applications. This new annotation method is expected to facilitate more accurate, intuitive and rapid breast ultrasound diagnosis.

  2. 3D imaging system for biometric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin; Abramovich, Gil; Paruchura, Vijay; Manickam, Swaminathan; Vemury, Arun

    2010-04-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of 3D data for many new applications beyond traditional metrology areas. In particular, using 3D data to obtain shape information of both people and objects for applications ranging from identification to game inputs does not require high degrees of calibration or resolutions in the tens of micron range, but does require a means to quickly and robustly collect data in the millimeter range. Systems using methods such as structured light or stereo have seen wide use in measurements, but due to the use of a triangulation angle, and thus the need for a separated second viewpoint, may not be practical for looking at a subject 10 meters away. Even when working close to a subject, such as capturing hands or fingers, the triangulation angle causes occlusions, shadows, and a physically large system that may get in the way. This paper will describe methods to collect medium resolution 3D data, plus highresolution 2D images, using a line of sight approach. The methods use no moving parts and as such are robust to movement (for portability), reliable, and potentially very fast at capturing 3D data. This paper will describe the optical methods considered, variations on these methods, and present experimental data obtained with the approach.

  3. Charged particle imaging methods for CD metrology of sub 22nm 3D device structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepler, Aron

    Critical dimension scanning electron microscopes (CD-SEMs) are used to perform highly accurate dimensional metrology on patterned features. In order to ensure optimal feedback for process control, it is necessary that these tools produce highly reproducible measurements. As the smallest device features continue to shrink, and new challenging high aspect ratio (HAR) structures are being introduced, gaps are appearing between process control measurements that are necessary for high volume manufacturing and the capabilities of the CD-SEM. Two possible routes for solving this problem include improvement of the existing CD-SEM technology or the replacement of the CD-SEM. With improved tool monitoring techniques, the uncertainty in the tool measurements may be reduced, leading to an improvement in the tool performance. By using a carefully designed test structure (such as a pseudorandom dot array), the Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) of a given tool can be decoupled from the specimen information, allowing for characterization of the imaging system itself. Test samples are fabricated using nanoimprint lithography and are imaged in a variety of CD-SEMs in order to measure the performance of the microscopes. This technique is used successfully to identify when the tool is not performing optimally, as well as to monitor the performance of a tool over time and match the performance of different tools. Research is being made into CD-SEM replacement technologies, among them, ion microscopy. The Helium Ion Microscope's (HeIM) higher depth of focus than the CD-SEM could be advantageous for the imaging of HAR structures. Studies were conducted in order to determine what imaging signals will be the most useful for CD-metrology and to evaluate the damage that the beam will do to the sample. A technique was developed to determine the depth which that signals were able to escape from the HAR structures, using a series of images acquired with varied tilts. This allows the abilities of

  4. A fast rigid-registration method of inferior limb X-ray image and 3D CT images for TKA surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Fumihito; O. D. A, Prima; Uwano, Ikuko; Ito, Kenzo

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast rigid-registration method of inferior limb X-ray films (two-dimensional Computed Radiography (CR) images) and three-dimensional Computed Tomography (CT) images for Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) surgery planning. The position of the each bone, such as femur and tibia (shin bone), in X-ray film and 3D CT images is slightly different, and we must pay attention how to use the two different images, since X-ray film image is captured in the standing position, and 3D CT is captured in decubitus (face up) position, respectively. Though the conventional registration mainly uses cross-correlation function between two images,and utilizes optimization techniques, it takes enormous calculation time and it is difficult to use it in interactive operations. In order to solve these problems, we calculate the center line (bone axis) of femur and tibia (shin bone) automatically, and we use them as initial positions for the registration. We evaluate our registration method by using three patient's image data, and we compare our proposed method and a conventional registration, which uses down-hill simplex algorithm. The down-hill simplex method is an optimization algorithm that requires only function evaluations, and doesn't need the calculation of derivatives. Our registration method is more effective than the downhill simplex method in computational time and the stable convergence. We have developed the implant simulation system on a personal computer, in order to support the surgeon in a preoperative planning of TKA. Our registration method is implemented in the simulation system, and user can manipulate 2D/3D translucent templates of implant components on X-ray film and 3D CT images.

  5. Digital holography and 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Partha; Barbastathis, George; Kim, Myung; Kukhtarev, Nickolai

    2011-03-01

    This feature issue on Digital Holography and 3-D Imaging comprises 15 papers on digital holographic techniques and applications, computer-generated holography and encryption techniques, and 3-D display. It is hoped that future work in the area leads to innovative applications of digital holography and 3-D imaging to biology and sensing, and to the development of novel nonlinear dynamic digital holographic techniques.

  6. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-07

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  7. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  8. Research of range-gated 3D imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haitao; Zhao, Hongli; Youchen, Fan

    2016-10-01

    Laser image data-based target recognition technology is one of the key technologies of laser active imaging systems. This paper discussed the status quo of 3-D imaging development at home and abroad, analyzed the current technological bottlenecks, and built a prototype of range-gated systems to obtain a set of range-gated slice images, and then constructed the 3-D images of the target by binary method and centroid method, respectively, and by constructing different numbers of slice images explored the relationship between the number of images and the reconstruction accuracy in the 3-D image reconstruction process. The experiment analyzed the impact of two algorithms, binary method and centroid method, on the results of 3-D image reconstruction. In the binary method, a comparative analysis was made on the impact of different threshold values on the results of reconstruction, where 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and adaptive threshold values were selected for 3-D reconstruction of the slice images. In the centroid method, 15, 10, 6, 3, and 2 images were respectively used to realize 3-D reconstruction. Experimental results showed that with the same number of slice images, the accuracy of centroid method was higher than the binary algorithm, and the binary algorithm had a large dependence on the selection of threshold; with the number of slice images dwindling, the accuracy of images reconstructed by centroid method continued to reduce, and at least three slice images were required in order to obtain one 3-D image.

  9. New methods for the computer-assisted 3-D reconstruction of neurons from confocal image stacks.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Stephan; Evers, Jan Felix; Duch, Carsten; Scholz, Michael; Obermayer, Klaus

    2004-12-01

    Exact geometrical reconstructions of neuronal architecture are indispensable for the investigation of neuronal function. Neuronal shape is important for the wiring of networks, and dendritic architecture strongly affects neuronal integration and firing properties as demonstrated by modeling approaches. Confocal microscopy allows to scan neurons with submicron resolution. However, it is still a tedious task to reconstruct complex dendritic trees with fine structures just above voxel resolution. We present a framework assisting the reconstruction. User time investment is strongly reduced by automatic methods, which fit a skeleton and a surface to the data, while the user can interact and thus keeps full control to ensure a high quality reconstruction. The reconstruction process composes a successive gain of metric parameters. First, a structural description of the neuron is built, including the topology and the exact dendritic lengths and diameters. We use generalized cylinders with circular cross sections. The user provides a rough initialization by marking the branching points. The axes and radii are fitted to the data by minimizing an energy functional, which is regularized by a smoothness constraint. The investigation of proximity to other structures throughout dendritic trees requires a precise surface reconstruction. In order to achieve accuracy of 0.1 microm and below, we additionally implemented a segmentation algorithm based on geodesic active contours that allow for arbitrary cross sections and uses locally adapted thresholds. In summary, this new reconstruction tool saves time and increases quality as compared to other methods, which have previously been applied to real neurons.

  10. 3D seismic image processing for interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xinming

    Extracting fault, unconformity, and horizon surfaces from a seismic image is useful for interpretation of geologic structures and stratigraphic features. Although interpretation of these surfaces has been automated to some extent by others, significant manual effort is still required for extracting each type of these geologic surfaces. I propose methods to automatically extract all the fault, unconformity, and horizon surfaces from a 3D seismic image. To a large degree, these methods just involve image processing or array processing which is achieved by efficiently solving partial differential equations. For fault interpretation, I propose a linked data structure, which is simpler than triangle or quad meshes, to represent a fault surface. In this simple data structure, each sample of a fault corresponds to exactly one image sample. Using this linked data structure, I extract complete and intersecting fault surfaces without holes from 3D seismic images. I use the same structure in subsequent processing to estimate fault slip vectors. I further propose two methods, using precomputed fault surfaces and slips, to undo faulting in seismic images by simultaneously moving fault blocks and faults themselves. For unconformity interpretation, I first propose a new method to compute a unconformity likelihood image that highlights both the termination areas and the corresponding parallel unconformities and correlative conformities. I then extract unconformity surfaces from the likelihood image and use these surfaces as constraints to more accurately estimate seismic normal vectors that are discontinuous near the unconformities. Finally, I use the estimated normal vectors and use the unconformities as constraints to compute a flattened image, in which seismic reflectors are all flat and vertical gaps correspond to the unconformities. Horizon extraction is straightforward after computing a map of image flattening; we can first extract horizontal slices in the flattened space

  11. Efficient computational methods for electromagnetic imaging with applications to 3D magnetotellurics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordy, Michal Adam

    The motivation for this work is the forward and inverse problem for magnetotellurics, a frequency domain electromagnetic remote-sensing geophysical method used in mineral, geothermal, and groundwater exploration. The dissertation consists of four papers. In the first paper, we prove the existence and uniqueness of a representation of any vector field in H(curl) by a vector lying in H(curl) and H(div). It allows us to represent electric or magnetic fields by another vector field, for which nodal finite element approximation may be used in the case of non-constant electromagnetic properties. With this approach, the system matrix does not become ill-posed for low-frequency. In the second paper, we consider hexahedral finite element approximation of an electric field for the magnetotelluric forward problem. The near-null space of the system matrix for low frequencies makes the numerical solution unstable in the air. We show that the proper solution may obtained by applying a correction on the null space of the curl. It is done by solving a Poisson equation using discrete Helmholtz decomposition. We parallelize the forward code on multicore workstation with large RAM. In the next paper, we use the forward code in the inversion. Regularization of the inversion is done by using the second norm of the logarithm of conductivity. The data space Gauss-Newton approach allows for significant savings in memory and computational time. We show the efficiency of the method by considering a number of synthetic inversions and we apply it to real data collected in Cascade Mountains. The last paper considers a cross-frequency interpolation of the forward response as well as the Jacobian. We consider Pade approximation through model order reduction and rational Krylov subspace. The interpolating frequencies are chosen adaptively in order to minimize the maximum error of interpolation. Two error indicator functions are compared. We prove a theorem of almost always lucky failure in the

  12. Reconstruction-based 3D/2D image registration.

    PubMed

    Tomazevic, Dejan; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel 3D/2D registration method, where first, a 3D image is reconstructed from a few 2D X-ray images and next, the preoperative 3D image is brought into the best possible spatial correspondence with the reconstructed image by optimizing a similarity measure. Because the quality of the reconstructed image is generally low, we introduce a novel asymmetric mutual information similarity measure, which is able to cope with low image quality as well as with different imaging modalities. The novel 3D/2D registration method has been evaluated using standardized evaluation methodology and publicly available 3D CT, 3DRX, and MR and 2D X-ray images of two spine phantoms, for which gold standard registrations were known. In terms of robustness, reliability and capture range the proposed method outperformed the gradient-based method and the method based on digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs).

  13. A method for 3D electron density imaging using single scattered x-rays with application to mammographic screening.

    PubMed

    Van Uytven, Eric; Pistorius, Stephen; Gordon, Richard

    2008-10-07

    Screening mammography is the current standard in detecting breast cancer. However, its fundamental disadvantage is that it projects a 3D object into a 2D image. Small lesions are difficult to detect when superimposed over layers of normal, heterogeneous tissue. In this work, we examine the potential of single scattered photon electron density imaging in a mammographic environment. Simulating a low-energy (<20 keV) scanning pencil beam, we have developed an algorithm capable of producing 3D electron density images from a single projection. We have tested the algorithm by imaging parts of a simulated mammographic accreditation phantom containing lesions of various sizes. The results indicate that the group of imaged lesions differ significantly from background breast tissue (p<0.005), confirming that electron density imaging may be a useful diagnostic test for the presence of breast cancer.

  14. Methods to improve the resolution of prestack migrated images, with application to a 3D dataset from a fractured reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Gabriel

    I present three different methods to achieve increased definition in images from conventional seismic data, as illustrated with 3D data from the Fort Worth Basin's Barnett Shale fractured reservoir play, currently one of the hottest exploration and production trends in continental U.S. First, I present a method to correct for wavelet stretch in common-angle prestack migrated data. Wavelet stretch adversely influences contributions to the image from large angle or long offset data. Increasing the fidelity of large angles improves the vertical and lateral resolution in images from seismic data and from derived attributes, and positively impact AVA/AVO analysis. Achieving the greatest potential of this technique demands that I address the increased sensitivity to velocity errors and anisotropy. The other two methods presented here benefit from the balance in spectral content of the imaged data across angles and the increased resolution that are achieved from correcting for wavelet stretch. Then I introduce a new way to define azimuth binning in Kirchhoff prestack migration. This approach avoids mixing the typically weaker side-scattered energy with the stronger reflections from the sagittal plane. With the modified binning, signal and noise events are preferentially imaged in azimuth orientations normal to their apparent strike orientation, in surface- or map-views. This modified azimuthal binning also results in improved detection of out-of-the-plane steeply dipping reflectors, fractures and faults and their orientation, especially when combined with attributes such as curvature and coherence. Finally, I present an approach to measure lateral misalignment in prestack migrated seismic images and then correct for it by applying a warping procedure to these images. Though velocity errors are the most likely source for misalignment between images, it can also result from other imperfections in the imaging procedure. Lateral misalignment is most easily recognized and

  15. A fast experimental beam hardening correction method for accurate bone mineral measurements in 3D μCT imaging system.

    PubMed

    Koubar, Khodor; Bekaert, Virgile; Brasse, David; Laquerriere, Patrice

    2015-06-01

    Bone mineral density plays an important role in the determination of bone strength and fracture risks. Consequently, it is very important to obtain accurate bone mineral density measurements. The microcomputerized tomography system provides 3D information about the architectural properties of bone. Quantitative analysis accuracy is decreased by the presence of artefacts in the reconstructed images, mainly due to beam hardening artefacts (such as cupping artefacts). In this paper, we introduced a new beam hardening correction method based on a postreconstruction technique performed with the use of off-line water and bone linearization curves experimentally calculated aiming to take into account the nonhomogeneity in the scanned animal. In order to evaluate the mass correction rate, calibration line has been carried out to convert the reconstructed linear attenuation coefficient into bone masses. The presented correction method was then applied on a multimaterial cylindrical phantom and on mouse skeleton images. Mass correction rate up to 18% between uncorrected and corrected images were obtained as well as a remarkable improvement of a calculated mouse femur mass has been noticed. Results were also compared to those obtained when using the simple water linearization technique which does not take into account the nonhomogeneity in the object.

  16. Pattern based 3D image Steganography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiyagarajan, P.; Natarajan, V.; Aghila, G.; Prasanna Venkatesan, V.; Anitha, R.

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a new high capacity Steganographic scheme using 3D geometric models. The novel algorithm re-triangulates a part of a triangle mesh and embeds the secret information into newly added position of triangle meshes. Up to nine bits of secret data can be embedded into vertices of a triangle without causing any changes in the visual quality and the geometric properties of the cover image. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is secure, with high capacity and low distortion rate. Our algorithm also resists against uniform affine transformations such as cropping, rotation and scaling. Also, the performance of the method is compared with other existing 3D Steganography algorithms. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  18. A new method for automatic tracking of facial landmarks in 3D motion captured images (4D).

    PubMed

    Al-Anezi, T; Khambay, B; Peng, M J; O'Leary, E; Ju, X; Ayoub, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the automatic tracking of facial landmarks in 3D image sequences. 32 subjects (16 males and 16 females) aged 18-35 years were recruited. 23 anthropometric landmarks were marked on the face of each subject with non-permanent ink using a 0.5mm pen. The subjects were asked to perform three facial animations (maximal smile, lip purse and cheek puff) from rest position. Each animation was captured by the 3D imaging system. A single operator manually digitised the landmarks on the 3D facial models and their locations were compared with those of the automatically tracked ones. To investigate the accuracy of manual digitisation, the operator re-digitised the same set of 3D images of 10 subjects (5 male and 5 female) at 1 month interval. The discrepancies in x, y and z coordinates between the 3D position of the manual digitised landmarks and that of the automatic tracked facial landmarks were within 0.17mm. The mean distance between the manually digitised and the automatically tracked landmarks using the tracking software was within 0.55 mm. The automatic tracking of facial landmarks demonstrated satisfactory accuracy which would facilitate the analysis of the dynamic motion during facial animations.

  19. Imaging 3D geological structure of the Mygdonian basin (Northern Greece) with geological numerical modeling and geophysical methods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cédric, Guyonnet-Benaize; Fabrice, Hollender; Maria, Manakou; Alexandros, Savvaidis; Elena, Zargli; Cécile, Cornou; Nikolaos, Veranis; Dimitrios, Raptakis; Artemios, Atzemoglou; Pierre-Yves, Bard; Nikolaos, Theodulidis; Kyriazis, Pitilakis; Emmanuelle, Chaljub

    2013-04-01

    workflow, adapted to heterogeneous geological, geophysical and geotechnical data in order to integrate this database in 3D. This database is integrated in 3D in a geomodelling software (gocad). We build 3D surfaces with constraining data, using DSI method (Discrete Smooth Interpolation). This 3D geological model led to the 3D geometry of the main geophysical/geological boundaries (bedrock, boundaries in the sedimentary filling) and to a precise quantification of the 3D volume of the sedimentary filling of the basin. The results of this study will be used in the second phase of the E2VP project for numerical simulations at the scale of the entire Mygdonian basin.

  20. Optical 3D imaging and visualization of concealed objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berginc, G.; Bellet, J.-B.; Berechet, I.; Berechet, S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper gives new insights on optical 3D imagery. In this paper we explore the advantages of laser imagery to form a three-dimensional image of the scene. 3D laser imaging can be used for three-dimensional medical imaging and surveillance because of ability to identify tumors or concealed objects. We consider the problem of 3D reconstruction based upon 2D angle-dependent laser images. The objective of this new 3D laser imaging is to provide users a complete 3D reconstruction of objects from available 2D data limited in number. The 2D laser data used in this paper come from simulations that are based on the calculation of the laser interactions with the different meshed objects of the scene of interest or from experimental 2D laser images. We show that combining the Radom transform on 2D laser images with the Maximum Intensity Projection can generate 3D views of the considered scene from which we can extract the 3D concealed object in real time. With different original numerical or experimental examples, we investigate the effects of the input contrasts. We show the robustness and the stability of the method. We have developed a new patented method of 3D laser imaging based on three-dimensional reflective tomographic reconstruction algorithms and an associated visualization method. In this paper we present the global 3D reconstruction and visualization procedures.

  1. A Novel Multiparametric Drug-Scoring Method for High-Throughput Screening of 3D Multicellular Tumor Spheroids Using the Celigo Image Cytometer.

    PubMed

    Cribbes, Scott; Kessel, Sarah; McMenemy, Scott; Qiu, Jean; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tumor models have been increasingly used to investigate and characterize cancer drug compounds. The ability to perform high-throughput screening of 3D multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) can highly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of discovering potential cancer drug candidates. Previously, the Celigo Image Cytometer has demonstrated a novel method for high-throughput screening of 3D multicellular tumor spheroids. In this work, we employed the Celigo Image Cytometer to examine the effects of 14 cancer drug compounds on 3D MCTS of the glioblastoma cell line U87MG in 384-well plates. Using parameters such as MCTS diameter and invasion area, growth and invasion were monitored for 9 and 3 d, respectively. Furthermore, fluorescent staining with calcein AM, propidium iodide, Hoechst 33342, and caspase 3/7 was performed at day 9 posttreatment to measure viability and apoptosis. Using the kinetic and endpoint data generated, we created a novel multiparametric drug-scoring system for 3D MCTS that can be used to identify and classify potential drug candidates earlier in the drug discovery process. Furthermore, the combination of quantitative and qualitative image data can be used to delineate differences between drugs that induce cytotoxic and cytostatic effects. The 3D MCTS-based multiparametric scoring method described here can provide an alternative screening method to better qualify tested drug compounds.

  2. Spectrum simulation of rough and nanostructured targets from their 2D and 3D image by Monte Carlo methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiettekatte, François; Chicoine, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Corteo is a program that implements Monte Carlo (MC) method to simulate ion beam analysis (IBA) spectra of several techniques by following the ions trajectory until a sufficiently large fraction of them reach the detector to generate a spectrum. Hence, it fully accounts for effects such as multiple scattering (MS). Here, a version of Corteo is presented where the target can be a 2D or 3D image. This image can be derived from micrographs where the different compounds are identified, therefore bringing extra information into the solution of an IBA spectrum, and potentially significantly constraining the solution. The image intrinsically includes many details such as the actual surface or interfacial roughness, or actual nanostructures shape and distribution. This can for example lead to the unambiguous identification of structures stoichiometry in a layer, or at least to better constraints on their composition. Because MC computes in details the trajectory of the ions, it simulates accurately many of its aspects such as ions coming back into the target after leaving it (re-entry), as well as going through a variety of nanostructures shapes and orientations. We show how, for example, as the ions angle of incidence becomes shallower than the inclination distribution of a rough surface, this process tends to make the effective roughness smaller in a comparable 1D simulation (i.e. narrower thickness distribution in a comparable slab simulation). Also, in ordered nanostructures, target re-entry can lead to replications of a peak in a spectrum. In addition, bitmap description of the target can be used to simulate depth profiles such as those resulting from ion implantation, diffusion, and intermixing. Other improvements to Corteo include the possibility to interpolate the cross-section in angle-energy tables, and the generation of energy-depth maps.

  3. Analyzing the Evolution of Membrane Fouling via a Novel Method Based on 3D Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyi; Liu, Xin; Wang, Yi-Ning; Chong, Tzyy Haur; Tang, Chuyang Y; Fane, Anthony G

    2016-07-05

    The development of novel tools for studying the fouling behavior during membrane processes is critical. This work explored optical coherence tomography (OCT) to quantitatively interpret the formation of a cake layer during a membrane process; the quantitative analysis was based on a novel image processing method that was able to precisely resolve the 3D structure of the cake layer on a micrometer scale. Fouling experiments were carried out with foulants having different physicochemical characteristics (silica nanoparticles and bentonite particles). The cake layers formed at a series of times were digitalized using the OCT-based characterization. The specific deposit (cake volume/membrane surface area) and surface coverage were evaluated as a function of time, which for the first time provided direct experimental evidence for the transition of various fouling mechanisms. Axial stripes were observed in the grayscale plots showing the deposit distribution in the scanned area; this interesting observation was in agreement with the instability analysis that correlated the polarized particle groups with the small disturbances in the boundary layer. This work confirms that the OCT-based characterization is able to provide deep insights into membrane fouling processes and offers a powerful tool for exploring membrane processes with enhanced performance.

  4. 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-04-01

    Integral imaging (InI) systems are imaging devices that provide auto-stereoscopic images of 3D intensity objects. Since the birth of this new technology, InI systems have faced satisfactorily many of their initial drawbacks. Basically, two kind of procedures have been used: digital and optical procedures. The "3D Imaging and Display Group" at the University of Valencia, with the essential collaboration of Prof. Javidi, has centered its efforts in the 3D InI with optical processing. Among other achievements, our Group has proposed the annular amplitude modulation for enlargement of the depth of field, dynamic focusing for reduction of the facet-braiding effect, or the TRES and MATRES devices to enlarge the viewing angle.

  5. 3D Imaging with Structured Illumination for Advanced Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Dagel, Amber Lynn; Kast, Brian A.; Smith, Collin S.

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information in a physical security system is a highly useful dis- criminator. The two-dimensional data from an imaging systems fails to provide target dis- tance and three-dimensional motion vector, which can be used to reduce nuisance alarm rates and increase system effectiveness. However, 3D imaging devices designed primarily for use in physical security systems are uncommon. This report discusses an architecture favorable to physical security systems; an inexpensive snapshot 3D imaging system utilizing a simple illumination system. The method of acquiring 3D data, tests to understand illumination de- sign, and software modifications possible to maximize information gathering capability are discussed.

  6. 3D augmented reality with integral imaging display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xin; Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging display for augmented reality is presented. By implementing the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion method, elemental image arrays with different capturing parameters can be transferred into the identical format for 3D display. With the proposed merging algorithm, a new set of elemental images for augmented reality display is generated. The newly generated elemental images contain both the virtual objects and real world scene with desired depth information and transparency parameters. The experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed 3D augmented reality with integral imaging.

  7. Light field display and 3D image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwane, Toru

    2016-06-01

    Light field optics and its applications become rather popular in these days. With light field optics or light field thesis, real 3D space can be described in 2D plane as 4D data, which we call as light field data. This process can be divided in two procedures. First, real3D scene is optically reduced with imaging lens. Second, this optically reduced 3D image is encoded into light field data. In later procedure we can say that 3D information is encoded onto a plane as 2D data by lens array plate. This transformation is reversible and acquired light field data can be decoded again into 3D image with the arrayed lens plate. "Refocusing" (focusing image on your favorite point after taking a picture), light-field camera's most popular function, is some kind of sectioning process from encoded 3D data (light field data) to 2D image. In this paper at first I show our actual light field camera and our 3D display using acquired and computer-simulated light field data, on which real 3D image is reconstructed. In second I explain our data processing method whose arithmetic operation is performed not in Fourier domain but in real domain. Then our 3D display system is characterized by a few features; reconstructed image is of finer resolutions than density of arrayed lenses and it is not necessary to adjust lens array plate to flat display on which light field data is displayed.

  8. Interaction and behaviour imaging: a novel method to measure mother-infant interaction using video 3D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Leclère, C; Avril, M; Viaux-Savelon, S; Bodeau, N; Achard, C; Missonnier, S; Keren, M; Feldman, R; Chetouani, M; Cohen, D

    2016-05-24

    Studying early interaction is essential for understanding development and psychopathology. Automatic computational methods offer the possibility to analyse social signals and behaviours of several partners simultaneously and dynamically. Here, 20 dyads of mothers and their 13-36-month-old infants were videotaped during mother-infant interaction including 10 extremely high-risk and 10 low-risk dyads using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) sensors. From 2D+3D data and 3D space reconstruction, we extracted individual parameters (quantity of movement and motion activity ratio for each partner) and dyadic parameters related to the dynamics of partners heads distance (contribution to heads distance), to the focus of mutual engagement (percentage of time spent face to face or oriented to the task) and to the dynamics of motion activity (synchrony ratio, overlap ratio, pause ratio). Features are compared with blind global rating of the interaction using the coding interactive behavior (CIB). We found that individual and dyadic parameters of 2D+3D motion features perfectly correlates with rated CIB maternal and dyadic composite scores. Support Vector Machine classification using all 2D-3D motion features classified 100% of the dyads in their group meaning that motion behaviours are sufficient to distinguish high-risk from low-risk dyads. The proposed method may present a promising, low-cost methodology that can uniquely use artificial technology to detect meaningful features of human interactions and may have several implications for studying dyadic behaviours in psychiatry. Combining both global rating scales and computerized methods may enable a continuum of time scale from a summary of entire interactions to second-by-second dynamics.

  9. Interaction and behaviour imaging: a novel method to measure mother–infant interaction using video 3D reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Leclère, C; Avril, M; Viaux-Savelon, S; Bodeau, N; Achard, C; Missonnier, S; Keren, M; Feldman, R; Chetouani, M; Cohen, D

    2016-01-01

    Studying early interaction is essential for understanding development and psychopathology. Automatic computational methods offer the possibility to analyse social signals and behaviours of several partners simultaneously and dynamically. Here, 20 dyads of mothers and their 13–36-month-old infants were videotaped during mother–infant interaction including 10 extremely high-risk and 10 low-risk dyads using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) sensors. From 2D+3D data and 3D space reconstruction, we extracted individual parameters (quantity of movement and motion activity ratio for each partner) and dyadic parameters related to the dynamics of partners heads distance (contribution to heads distance), to the focus of mutual engagement (percentage of time spent face to face or oriented to the task) and to the dynamics of motion activity (synchrony ratio, overlap ratio, pause ratio). Features are compared with blind global rating of the interaction using the coding interactive behavior (CIB). We found that individual and dyadic parameters of 2D+3D motion features perfectly correlates with rated CIB maternal and dyadic composite scores. Support Vector Machine classification using all 2D–3D motion features classified 100% of the dyads in their group meaning that motion behaviours are sufficient to distinguish high-risk from low-risk dyads. The proposed method may present a promising, low-cost methodology that can uniquely use artificial technology to detect meaningful features of human interactions and may have several implications for studying dyadic behaviours in psychiatry. Combining both global rating scales and computerized methods may enable a continuum of time scale from a summary of entire interactions to second-by-second dynamics. PMID:27219342

  10. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  11. Volumetric image display for complex 3D data visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Che-Chih; Chen, Jyh Shing

    2000-05-01

    A volumetric image display is a new display technology capable of displaying computer generated 3D images in a volumetric space. Many viewers can walk around the display and see the image from omni-directions simultaneously without wearing any glasses. The image is real and possesses all major elements in both physiological and psychological depth cues. Due to the volumetric nature of its image, the VID can provide the most natural human-machine interface in operations involving 3D data manipulation and 3D targets monitoring. The technology creates volumetric 3D images by projecting a series of profiling images distributed in the space form a volumetric image because of the after-image effect of human eyes. Exemplary applications in biomedical image visualization were tested on a prototype display, using different methods to display a data set from Ct-scans. The features of this display technology make it most suitable for applications that require quick understanding of the 3D relations, need frequent spatial interactions with the 3D images, or involve time-varying 3D data. It can also be useful for group discussion and decision making.

  12. Plant Tissues in 3D via X-Ray Tomography: Simple Contrasting Methods Allow High Resolution Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Staedler, Yannick M.; Masson, David; Schönenberger, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography remains strongly underused in plant sciences despite its high potential in delivering detailed 3D phenotypical information because of the low X-ray absorption of most plant tissues. Existing protocols to study soft tissues display poor performance, especially when compared to those used on animals. More efficient protocols to study plant material are therefore needed. Flowers of Arabidopsis thaliana and Marcgravia caudata were immersed in a selection of contrasting agents used to treat samples for transmission electron microscopy. Grayscale values for floral tissues and background were measured as a function of time. Contrast was quantified via a contrast index. The thick buds of Marcgravia were scanned to determine which contrasting agents best penetrate thick tissues. The highest contrast increase with cytoplasm-rich tissues was obtained with phosphotungstate, whereas osmium tetroxide and bismuth tatrate displayed the highest contrast increase with vacuolated tissues. Phosphotungstate also displayed the best sample penetration. Furthermore, infiltration with phosphotungstate allowed imaging of all plants parts at a high resolution of 3 µm, which approaches the maximum resolution of our equipment: 1.5 µm. The high affinity of phosphotungstate for vasculature, cytoplasm-rich tissue, and pollen causes these tissues to absorb more X-rays than the surrounding tissues, which, in turn, makes these tissues appear brighter on the scan data. Tissues with different brightness can then be virtually dissected from each other by selecting the bracket of grayscale to be visualized. Promising directions for the future include in silico phenotyping and developmental studies of plant inner parts (e.g., ovules, vasculature, pollen, and cell nuclei) via virtual dissection as well as correlations of quantitative phenotypes with omics datasets. Therefore, this work represents a crucial improvement of previous methods, allowing new directions of research to be

  13. Plant tissues in 3D via X-ray tomography: simple contrasting methods allow high resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Staedler, Yannick M; Masson, David; Schönenberger, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography remains strongly underused in plant sciences despite its high potential in delivering detailed 3D phenotypical information because of the low X-ray absorption of most plant tissues. Existing protocols to study soft tissues display poor performance, especially when compared to those used on animals. More efficient protocols to study plant material are therefore needed. Flowers of Arabidopsis thaliana and Marcgravia caudata were immersed in a selection of contrasting agents used to treat samples for transmission electron microscopy. Grayscale values for floral tissues and background were measured as a function of time. Contrast was quantified via a contrast index. The thick buds of Marcgravia were scanned to determine which contrasting agents best penetrate thick tissues. The highest contrast increase with cytoplasm-rich tissues was obtained with phosphotungstate, whereas osmium tetroxide and bismuth tatrate displayed the highest contrast increase with vacuolated tissues. Phosphotungstate also displayed the best sample penetration. Furthermore, infiltration with phosphotungstate allowed imaging of all plants parts at a high resolution of 3 µm, which approaches the maximum resolution of our equipment: 1.5 µm. The high affinity of phosphotungstate for vasculature, cytoplasm-rich tissue, and pollen causes these tissues to absorb more X-rays than the surrounding tissues, which, in turn, makes these tissues appear brighter on the scan data. Tissues with different brightness can then be virtually dissected from each other by selecting the bracket of grayscale to be visualized. Promising directions for the future include in silico phenotyping and developmental studies of plant inner parts (e.g., ovules, vasculature, pollen, and cell nuclei) via virtual dissection as well as correlations of quantitative phenotypes with omics datasets. Therefore, this work represents a crucial improvement of previous methods, allowing new directions of research to be

  14. Active segmentation of 3D axonal images.

    PubMed

    Muralidhar, Gautam S; Gopinath, Ajay; Bovik, Alan C; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2012-01-01

    We present an active contour framework for segmenting neuronal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data. Our work is motivated by the need to conduct high throughput experiments involving microfluidic devices and femtosecond lasers to study the genetic mechanisms behind nerve regeneration and repair. While most of the applications for active contours have focused on segmenting closed regions in 2D medical and natural images, there haven't been many applications that have focused on segmenting open-ended curvilinear structures in 2D or higher dimensions. The active contour framework we present here ties together a well known 2D active contour model [5] along with the physics of projection imaging geometry to yield a segmented axon in 3D. Qualitative results illustrate the promise of our approach for segmenting neruonal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data.

  15. 3-D imaging of the CNS.

    PubMed

    Runge, V M; Gelblum, D Y; Wood, M L

    1990-01-01

    3-D gradient echo techniques, and in particular FLASH, represent a significant advance in MR imaging strategy allowing thin section, high resolution imaging through a large region of interest. Anatomical areas of application include the brain, spine, and extremities, although the majority of work to date has been performed in the brain. Superior T1 contrast and thus sensitivity to the presence of GdDTPA is achieved with 3-D FLASH when compared to 2-D spin echo technique. There is marked arterial and venous enhancement following Gd DTPA administration on 3-D FLASH, a less common finding with 2-D spin echo. Enhancement of the falx and tentorium is also more prominent. From a single data acquisition, requiring less than 11 min of scan time, high resolution reformatted sagittal, coronal, and axial images can obtained in addition to sections in any arbitrary plane. Tissue segmentation techniques can be applied and lesions displayed in three dimensions. These results may lead to the replacement of 2-D spin echo with 3-D FLASH for high resolution T1-weighted MR imaging of the CNS, particularly in the study of mass lesions and structural anomalies. The application of similar T2-weighted gradient echo techniques may follow, however the signal-to-noise ratio which can be achieved remains a potential limitation.

  16. Walker Ranch 3D seismic images

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Mellors

    2016-03-01

    Amplitude images (both vertical and depth slices) extracted from 3D seismic reflection survey over area of Walker Ranch area (adjacent to Raft River). Crossline spacing of 660 feet and inline of 165 feet using a Vibroseis source. Processing included depth migration. Micro-earthquake hypocenters on images. Stratigraphic information and nearby well tracks added to images. Images are embedded in a Microsoft Word document with additional information. Exact location and depth restricted for proprietary reasons. Data collection and processing funded by Agua Caliente. Original data remains property of Agua Caliente.

  17. Backhoe 3D "gold standard" image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, LeRoy; Naidu, Kiranmai D.; Majumder, Uttam; Minardi, Michael A.

    2005-05-01

    ViSUAl-D (VIsual Sar Using ALl Dimensions), a 2004 DARPA/IXO seedling effort, is developing a capability for reliable high confidence ID from standoff ranges. Recent conflicts have demonstrated that the warfighter would greatly benefit from the ability to ID targets beyond visual and electro-optical ranges[1]. Forming optical-quality SAR images while exploiting full polarization, wide angles, and large bandwidth would be key evidence such a capability is achievable. Using data generated by the Xpatch EM scattering code, ViSUAl-D investigates all degrees of freedom available to the radar designer, including 6 GHz bandwidth, full polarization and angle sampling over 2π steradians (upper hemisphere), in order to produce a "literal" image or representation of the target. This effort includes the generation of a "Gold Standard" image that can be produced at X-band utilizing all available target data. This "Gold Standard" image of the backhoe will serve as a test bed for future more relevant military targets and their image development. The seedling team produced a public release data which was released at the 2004 SPIE conference, as well as a 3D "Gold Standard" backhoe image using a 3D image formation algorithm. This paper describes the full backhoe data set, the image formation algorithm, the visualization process and the resulting image.

  18. Polarimetric 3D integral imaging in photon-starved conditions.

    PubMed

    Carnicer, Artur; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-03-09

    We develop a method for obtaining 3D polarimetric integral images from elemental images recorded in low light illumination conditions. Since photon-counting images are very sparse, calculation of the Stokes parameters and the degree of polarization should be handled carefully. In our approach, polarimetric 3D integral images are generated using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation and subsequently reconstructed by means of a Total Variation Denoising filter. In this way, polarimetric results are comparable to those obtained in conventional illumination conditions. We also show that polarimetric information retrieved from photon starved images can be used in 3D object recognition problems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3D polarimetric photon counting integral imaging.

  19. Tilted planes in 3D image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pargas, Roy P.; Staples, Nancy J.; Malloy, Brian F.; Cantrell, Ken; Chhatriwala, Murtuza

    1998-03-01

    Reliable 3D wholebody scanners which output digitized 3D images of a complete human body are now commercially available. This paper describes a software package, called 3DM, being developed by researchers at Clemson University and which manipulates and extracts measurements from such images. The focus of this paper is on tilted planes, a 3DM tool which allows a user to define a plane through a scanned image, tilt it in any direction, and effectively define three disjoint regions on the image: the points on the plane and the points on either side of the plane. With tilted planes, the user can accurately take measurements required in applications such as apparel manufacturing. The user can manually segment the body rather precisely. Tilted planes assist the user in analyzing the form of the body and classifying the body in terms of body shape. Finally, titled planes allow the user to eliminate extraneous and unwanted points often generated by a 3D scanner. This paper describes the user interface for tilted planes, the equations defining the plane as the user moves it through the scanned image, an overview of the algorithms, and the interaction of the tilted plane feature with other tools in 3DM.

  20. Digital holography and 3D imaging: introduction to feature issue.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung K; Hayasaki, Yoshio; Picart, Pascal; Rosen, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This feature issue of Applied Optics on Digital Holography and 3D Imaging is the sixth of an approximately annual series. Forty-seven papers are presented, covering a wide range of topics in phase-shifting methods, low coherence methods, particle analysis, biomedical imaging, computer-generated holograms, integral imaging, and many others.

  1. 3D ultrasound imaging for prosthesis fabrication and diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J.; Strong, D.S.

    1995-06-01

    The fabrication of a prosthetic socket for a below-the-knee amputee requires knowledge of the underlying bone structure in order to provide pressure relief for sensitive areas and support for load bearing areas. The goal is to enable the residual limb to bear pressure with greater ease and utility. Conventional methods of prosthesis fabrication are based on limited knowledge about the patient`s underlying bone structure. A 3D ultrasound imaging system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The imaging system provides information about the location of the bones in the residual limb along with the shape of the skin surface. Computer assisted design (CAD) software can use this data to design prosthetic sockets for amputees. Ultrasound was selected as the imaging modality. A computer model was developed to analyze the effect of the various scanning parameters and to assist in the design of the overall system. The 3D ultrasound imaging system combines off-the-shelf technology for image capturing, custom hardware, and control and image processing software to generate two types of image data -- volumetric and planar. Both volumetric and planar images reveal definition of skin and bone geometry with planar images providing details on muscle fascial planes, muscle/fat interfaces, and blood vessel definition. The 3D ultrasound imaging system was tested on 9 unilateral below-the- knee amputees. Image data was acquired from both the sound limb and the residual limb. The imaging system was operated in both volumetric and planar formats. An x-ray CT (Computed Tomography) scan was performed on each amputee for comparison. Results of the test indicate beneficial use of ultrasound to generate databases for fabrication of prostheses at a lower cost and with better initial fit as compared to manually fabricated prostheses.

  2. A Method for 3D-Reconstruction of a Muscle Thick Filament Using the Tilt Series Images of a Single Filament Electron Tomogram

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, G.; Pinto, A.; Alamo, L.; Baumann, B.; Ye, F.; Winkler, H.; Taylor, K.; Padrón, R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Myosin interacting-heads (MIH) motifs are visualized in 3D-reconstructions of thick filaments from striated muscle. These reconstructions are calculated by averaging methods using images from electron micrographs of grids prepared using numerous filament preparations. Here we propose an alternative method to calculate the 3D-reconstruction of a single thick filament using only a tilt series images recorded by electron tomography. Relaxed thick filaments, prepared from tarantula leg muscle homogenates, were negatively stained. Single-axis tilt series of single isolated thick filaments were obtained with the electron microscope at a low electron dose, and recorded on a CCD camera by electron tomography. An IHRSR 3D-recontruction was calculated from the tilt series images of a single thick filament. The reconstruction was enhanced by including in the search stage dual tilt image segments while only single tilt along the filament axis is usually used, as well as applying a band pass filter just before the back projection. The reconstruction from a single filament has a 40 Å resolution and clearly shows the presence of MIH motifs. In contrast, the electron tomogram 3D-reconstruction of the same thick filament –calculated without any image averaging and/or imposition of helical symmetry- only reveals MIH motifs infrequently. This is –to our knowledge- the first application of the IHRSR method to calculate a 3D reconstruction from tilt series images. This single filament IHRSR reconstruction method (SF-IHRSR) should provide a new tool to assess structural differences between well-ordered thick (or thin) filaments in a grid by recording separately their electron tomograms. PMID:24727133

  3. A method for 3D-reconstruction of a muscle thick filament using the tilt series images of a single filament electron tomogram.

    PubMed

    Márquez, G; Pinto, A; Alamo, L; Baumann, B; Ye, F; Winkler, H; Taylor, K; Padrón, R

    2014-05-01

    Myosin interacting-heads (MIH) motifs are visualized in 3D-reconstructions of thick filaments from striated muscle. These reconstructions are calculated by averaging methods using images from electron micrographs of grids prepared using numerous filament preparations. Here we propose an alternative method to calculate the 3D-reconstruction of a single thick filament using only a tilt series images recorded by electron tomography. Relaxed thick filaments, prepared from tarantula leg muscle homogenates, were negatively stained. Single-axis tilt series of single isolated thick filaments were obtained with the electron microscope at a low electron dose, and recorded on a CCD camera by electron tomography. An IHRSR 3D-recontruction was calculated from the tilt series images of a single thick filament. The reconstruction was enhanced by including in the search stage dual tilt image segments while only single tilt along the filament axis is usually used, as well as applying a band pass filter just before the back projection. The reconstruction from a single filament has a 40 Å resolution and clearly shows the presence of MIH motifs. In contrast, the electron tomogram 3D-reconstruction of the same thick filament - calculated without any image averaging and/or imposition of helical symmetry - only reveals MIH motifs infrequently. This is - to our knowledge - the first application of the IHRSR method to calculate a 3D reconstruction from tilt series images. This single filament IHRSR reconstruction method (SF-IHRSR) should provide a new tool to assess structural differences between well-ordered thick (or thin) filaments in a grid by recording separately their electron tomograms.

  4. 3D quantitative phase imaging of neural networks using WDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taewoo; Liu, S. C.; Iyer, Raj; Gillette, Martha U.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    White-light diffraction tomography (WDT) is a recently developed 3D imaging technique based on a quantitative phase imaging system called spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM). The technique has achieved a sub-micron resolution in all three directions with high sensitivity granted by the low-coherence of a white-light source. Demonstrations of the technique on single cell imaging have been presented previously; however, imaging on any larger sample, including a cluster of cells, has not been demonstrated using the technique. Neurons in an animal body form a highly complex and spatially organized 3D structure, which can be characterized by neuronal networks or circuits. Currently, the most common method of studying the 3D structure of neuron networks is by using a confocal fluorescence microscope, which requires fluorescence tagging with either transient membrane dyes or after fixation of the cells. Therefore, studies on neurons are often limited to samples that are chemically treated and/or dead. WDT presents a solution for imaging live neuron networks with a high spatial and temporal resolution, because it is a 3D imaging method that is label-free and non-invasive. Using this method, a mouse or rat hippocampal neuron culture and a mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron culture have been imaged in order to see the extension of processes between the cells in 3D. Furthermore, the tomogram is compared with a confocal fluorescence image in order to investigate the 3D structure at synapses.

  5. FINAL INTERIM REPORT, CANDIDATE SITES, MACHINES IN USE, DATA STORAGE AND TRANSMISSION METHODS: TESTING FEASIBILITY OF 3D ULTRASOUND DATA ACQUISITION AND RELIABILITY OF DATA RETRIEVAL FROM STORED 3D IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this Work Assignment, 02-03, is to examine the feasibility of collecting transmitting, and analyzing 3-D ultrasound data in the context of a multi-center study of pregnant women. The study will also examine the reliability of measurements obtained from 3-D images< ...

  6. Feasibility of 3D harmonic contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Voormolen, M M; Bouakaz, A; Krenning, B J; Lancée, C T; ten Cate, F J; de Jong, N

    2004-04-01

    Improved endocardial border delineation with the application of contrast agents should allow for less complex and faster tracing algorithms for left ventricular volume analysis. We developed a fast rotating phased array transducer for 3D imaging of the heart with harmonic capabilities making it suitable for contrast imaging. In this study the feasibility of 3D harmonic contrast imaging is evaluated in vitro. A commercially available tissue mimicking flow phantom was used in combination with Sonovue. Backscatter power spectra from a tissue and contrast region of interest were calculated from recorded radio frequency data. The spectra and the extracted contrast to tissue ratio from these spectra were used to optimize the excitation frequency, the pulse length and the receive filter settings of the transducer. Frequencies ranging from 1.66 to 2.35 MHz and pulse lengths of 1.5, 2 and 2.5 cycles were explored. An increase of more than 15 dB in the contrast to tissue ratio was found around the second harmonic compared with the fundamental level at an optimal excitation frequency of 1.74 MHz and a pulse length of 2.5 cycles. Using the optimal settings for 3D harmonic contrast recordings volume measurements of a left ventricular shaped agar phantom were performed. Without contrast the extracted volume data resulted in a volume error of 1.5%, with contrast an accuracy of 3.8% was achieved. The results show the feasibility of accurate volume measurements from 3D harmonic contrast images. Further investigations will include the clinical evaluation of the presented technique for improved assessment of the heart.

  7. A novel automated method for doing registration and 3D reconstruction from multi-modal RGB/IR image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Richard; Whitaker, Ross

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the use of multi-modal camera rigs consisting of an RGB sensor and an infrared (IR) sensor have become increasingly popular for use in surveillance and robotics applications. The advantages of using multi-modal camera rigs include improved foreground/background segmentation, wider range of lighting conditions under which the system works, and richer information (e.g. visible light and heat signature) for target identification. However, the traditional computer vision method of mapping pairs of images using pixel intensities or image features is often not possible with an RGB/IR image pair. We introduce a novel method to overcome the lack of common features in RGB/IR image pairs by using a variational methods optimization algorithm to map the optical flow fields computed from different wavelength images. This results in the alignment of the flow fields, which in turn produce correspondences similar to those found in a stereo RGB/RGB camera rig using pixel intensities or image features. In addition to aligning the different wavelength images, these correspondences are used to generate dense disparity and depth maps. We obtain accuracies similar to other multi-modal image alignment methodologies as long as the scene contains sufficient depth variations, although a direct comparison is not possible because of the lack of standard image sets from moving multi-modal camera rigs. We test our method on synthetic optical flow fields and on real image sequences that we created with a multi-modal binocular stereo RGB/IR camera rig. We determine our method's accuracy by comparing against a ground truth.

  8. 3D/3D registration of coronary CTA and biplane XA reconstructions for improved image guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Dibildox, Gerardo Baka, Nora; Walsum, Theo van; Punt, Mark; Aben, Jean-Paul; Schultz, Carl; Niessen, Wiro

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The authors aim to improve image guidance during percutaneous coronary interventions of chronic total occlusions (CTO) by providing information obtained from computed tomography angiography (CTA) to the cardiac interventionist. To this end, the authors investigate a method to register a 3D CTA model to biplane reconstructions. Methods: The authors developed a method for registering preoperative coronary CTA with intraoperative biplane x-ray angiography (XA) images via 3D models of the coronary arteries. The models are extracted from the CTA and biplane XA images, and are temporally aligned based on CTA reconstruction phase and XA ECG signals. Rigid spatial alignment is achieved with a robust probabilistic point set registration approach using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). This approach is extended by including orientation in the Gaussian mixtures and by weighting bifurcation points. The method is evaluated on retrospectively acquired coronary CTA datasets of 23 CTO patients for which biplane XA images are available. Results: The Gaussian mixture model approach achieved a median registration accuracy of 1.7 mm. The extended GMM approach including orientation was not significantly different (P > 0.1) but did improve robustness with regards to the initialization of the 3D models. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the GMM approach can effectively be applied to register CTA to biplane XA images for the purpose of improving image guidance in percutaneous coronary interventions.

  9. Characterization and monitoring of the Séchilienne rock slope using 3D imaging methods (Isère, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulliez, Cindy; Guerin, Antoine; Abellán, Antonio; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Chanut, Marie-Aurélie; Dubois, Laurent; Duranthon, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    detected, allowing us to estimate the susceptibility of the slope to three main failure mechanisms: planar sliding, wedge sliding and flexural toppling. Moreover, we carried out the 3D tracking of several homogenous rock compartments using the roto-translation matrix technique (Oppikofer et al., 2009) in order to quantify separately the translational and rotational components of displacements. Large-scale movements (from several dm to more than 10 m) were observed in the active area with a coupling between subsidence and toppling oriented towards the valley. Lateral structures that cut the rear active part also seem to be affected by a clockwise rotation around the topple axis. The acquisition of dense and accurate terrain information using LiDAR and SfM for studying the Séchilienne landslide has been useful for quantifying the 3D displacements and clarifying the failure mechanisms involved in the complex dynamic of the active part of the slope. Chanut, M-A., Dubois, L., Duranthon, J.P. (2014) Analyse de l'évolution du mouvement de terrain de Séchilienne à partir de données LiDAR. Journées Nationales de Géotechnique et de Géologie de l'Ingénieur JNGG2014 - Bauvais. Duranthon, J. P., & Effendiantz, L. (2004). Le versant instable des «Ruines» de Séchilienne. Bulletin des laboratoires des Ponts et Chaussées, 252, 253. Jaboyedoff, M., Metzger, R., Oppikofer, T., Couture, R., Derron, M. H., Locat, J., & Turmel, D. (2007). New insight techniques to analyze rock-slope relief using DEM and 3D-imaging cloud points: COLTOP-3D software, in: Rock mechanics: Meeting Society's Challenges and demands (Vol. 1, pp. 61-68). Kasperski, J., Potherat, P., & Duranthon, J. P. (2010). Le mouvement de versant de Séchilienne: point sur l'activité du phénomène, in: Rock Slope Stability (p. 13p). Oppikofer, T., Jaboyedoff, M., Blikra, L., Derron, M. H., & Metzger, R. (2009). Characterization and monitoring of the Åknes rockslide using terrestrial laser scanning, in: Natural Hazards

  10. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  11. DCT and DST Based Image Compression for 3D Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddeq, Mohammed M.; Rodrigues, Marcos A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces a new method for 2D image compression whose quality is demonstrated through accurate 3D reconstruction using structured light techniques and 3D reconstruction from multiple viewpoints. The method is based on two discrete transforms: (1) A one-dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is applied to each row of the image. (2) The output from the previous step is transformed again by a one-dimensional Discrete Sine Transform (DST), which is applied to each column of data generating new sets of high-frequency components followed by quantization of the higher frequencies. The output is then divided into two parts where the low-frequency components are compressed by arithmetic coding and the high frequency ones by an efficient minimization encoding algorithm. At decompression stage, a binary search algorithm is used to recover the original high frequency components. The technique is demonstrated by compressing 2D images up to 99% compression ratio. The decompressed images, which include images with structured light patterns for 3D reconstruction and from multiple viewpoints, are of high perceptual quality yielding accurate 3D reconstruction. Perceptual assessment and objective quality of compression are compared with JPEG and JPEG2000 through 2D and 3D RMSE. Results show that the proposed compression method is superior to both JPEG and JPEG2000 concerning 3D reconstruction, and with equivalent perceptual quality to JPEG2000.

  12. Exposing digital image forgeries by 3D reconstruction technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Xu, Xiaojing; Li, Zhihui; Liu, Haizhen; Li, Zhigang; Huang, Wei

    2009-11-01

    Digital images are easy to tamper and edit due to availability of powerful image processing and editing software. Especially, forged images by taking from a picture of scene, because of no manipulation was made after taking, usual methods, such as digital watermarks, statistical correlation technology, can hardly detect the traces of image tampering. According to image forgery characteristics, a method, based on 3D reconstruction technology, which detect the forgeries by discriminating the dimensional relationship of each object appeared on image, is presented in this paper. This detection method includes three steps. In the first step, all the parameters of images were calibrated and each crucial object on image was chosen and matched. In the second step, the 3D coordinates of each object were calculated by bundle adjustment. In final step, the dimensional relationship of each object was analyzed. Experiments were designed to test this detection method; the 3D reconstruction and the forged image 3D reconstruction were computed independently. Test results show that the fabricating character in digital forgeries can be identified intuitively by this method.

  13. Optical 3D watermark based digital image watermarking for telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao Wei; Kim, Seok Tae

    2013-12-01

    Region of interest (ROI) of a medical image is an area including important diagnostic information and must be stored without any distortion. This algorithm for application of watermarking technique for non-ROI of the medical image preserving ROI. The paper presents a 3D watermark based medical image watermarking scheme. In this paper, a 3D watermark object is first decomposed into 2D elemental image array (EIA) by a lenslet array, and then the 2D elemental image array data is embedded into the host image. The watermark extraction process is an inverse process of embedding. The extracted EIA through the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique, the 3D watermark can be reconstructed. Because the EIA is composed of a number of elemental images possesses their own perspectives of a 3D watermark object. Even though the embedded watermark data badly damaged, the 3D virtual watermark can be successfully reconstructed. Furthermore, using CAT with various rule number parameters, it is possible to get many channels for embedding. So our method can recover the weak point having only one transform plane in traditional watermarking methods. The effectiveness of the proposed watermarking scheme is demonstrated with the aid of experimental results.

  14. Characterizing accuracy of total hemoglobin recovery using contrast-detail analysis in 3D image-guided near infrared spectroscopy with the boundary element method

    PubMed Central

    Ghadyani, Hamid R.; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    The quantification of total hemoglobin concentration (HbT) obtained from multi-modality image-guided near infrared spectroscopy (IG-NIRS) was characterized using the boundary element method (BEM) for 3D image reconstruction. Multi-modality IG-NIRS systems use a priori information to guide the reconstruction process. While this has been shown to improve resolution, the effect on quantitative accuracy is unclear. Here, through systematic contrast-detail analysis, the fidelity of IG-NIRS in quantifying HbT was examined using 3D simulations. These simulations show that HbT could be recovered for medium sized (20mm in 100mm total diameter) spherical inclusions with an average error of 15%, for the physiologically relevant situation of 2:1 or higher contrast between background and inclusion. Using partial 3D volume meshes to reduce the ill-posed nature of the image reconstruction, inclusions as small as 14mm could be accurately quantified with less than 15% error, for contrasts of 1.5 or higher. This suggests that 3D IG-NIRS provides quantitatively accurate results for sizes seen early in treatment cycle of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy when the tumors are larger than 30mm. PMID:20720975

  15. Image quality enhancement and computation acceleration of 3D holographic display using a symmetrical 3D GS algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Bi, Yong; Sun, Minyuan; Wang, Hao; Li, Fang; Qi, Yan

    2014-09-20

    The 3D Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm can be used to compute a computer-generated hologram (CGH) to produce a 3D holographic display. But, using the 3D GS method, there exists a serious distortion in reconstructions of binary input images. We have eliminated the distortion and improved the image quality of the reconstructions by a maximum of 486%, using a symmetrical 3D GS algorithm that is developed based on a traditional 3D GS algorithm. In addition, the hologram computation speed has been accelerated by 9.28 times, which is significant for real-time holographic displays.

  16. A Semi-Automatic Method to Extract Canal Pathways in 3D Micro-CT Images of Octocorals

    PubMed Central

    Morales Pinzón, Alfredo; Orkisz, Maciej; Rodríguez Useche, Catalina María; Torres González, Juan Sebastián; Teillaud, Stanislas; Sánchez, Juan Armando; Hernández Hoyos, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    The long-term goal of our study is to understand the internal organization of the octocoral stem canals, as well as their physiological and functional role in the growth of the colonies, and finally to assess the influence of climatic changes on this species. Here we focus on imaging tools, namely acquisition and processing of three-dimensional high-resolution images, with emphasis on automated extraction of canal pathways. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility of the whole process, to point out and solve – if possible – technical problems related to the specimen conditioning, to determine the best acquisition parameters and to develop necessary image-processing algorithms. The pathways extracted are expected to facilitate the structural analysis of the colonies, namely to help observing the distribution, formation and number of canals along the colony. Five volumetric images of Muricea muricata specimens were successfully acquired by X-ray computed tomography with spatial resolution ranging from 4.5 to 25 micrometers. The success mainly depended on specimen immobilization. More than of the canals were successfully detected and tracked by the image-processing method developed. Thus obtained three-dimensional representation of the canal network was generated for the first time without the need of histological or other destructive methods. Several canal patterns were observed. Although most of them were simple, i.e. only followed the main branch or “turned” into a secondary branch, many others bifurcated or fused. A majority of bifurcations were observed at branching points. However, some canals appeared and/or ended anywhere along a branch. At the tip of a branch, all canals fused into a unique chamber. Three-dimensional high-resolution tomographic imaging gives a non-destructive insight to the coral ultrastructure and helps understanding the organization of the canal network. Advanced image-processing techniques greatly reduce human observer's effort and

  17. 3D GPR Imaging of Wooden Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Pyakurel, Sandeep

    2007-03-01

    There has been a lack of an effective NDE technique to locate internal defects within wooden logs. The few available elastic wave propagation based techniques are limited to predicting E values. Other techniques such as X-rays have not been very successful in detecting internal defects in logs. If defects such as embedded metals could be identified before the sawing process, the saw mills could significantly increase their production by reducing the probability of damage to the saw blade and the associated downtime and the repair cost. Also, if the internal defects such as knots and decayed areas could be identified in logs, the sawing blade can be oriented to exclude the defective portion and optimize the volume of high valued lumber that can be obtained from the logs. In this research, GPR has been successfully used to locate internal defects (knots, decays and embedded metals) within the logs. This paper discusses GPR imaging and mapping of the internal defects using both 2D and 3D interpretation methodology. Metal pieces were inserted in a log and the reflection patterns from these metals were interpreted from the radargrams acquired using 900 MHz antenna. Also, GPR was able to accurately identify the location of knots and decays. Scans from several orientations of the log were collected to generate 3D cylindrical volume. The actual location of the defects showed good correlation with the interpreted defects in the 3D volume. The time/depth slices from 3D cylindrical volume data were useful in understanding the extent of defects inside the log.

  18. Single-plane versus three-plane methods for relative range error evaluation of medium-range 3D imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, David K.; Cournoyer, Luc; Beraldin, J.-Angelo

    2015-05-01

    Within the context of the ASTM E57 working group WK12373, we compare the two methods that had been initially proposed for calculating the relative range error of medium-range (2 m to 150 m) optical non-contact 3D imaging systems: the first is based on a single plane (single-plane assembly) and the second on an assembly of three mutually non-orthogonal planes (three-plane assembly). Both methods are evaluated for their utility in generating a metric to quantify the relative range error of medium-range optical non-contact 3D imaging systems. We conclude that the three-plane assembly is comparable to the single-plane assembly with regard to quantification of relative range error while eliminating the requirement to isolate the edges of the target plate face.

  19. Computer-aided diagnosis: a 3D segmentation method for lung nodules in CT images by use of a spiral-scanning technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiahui; Engelmann, Roger; Li, Qiang

    2008-03-01

    Lung nodule segmentation in computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in computer-aided detection, diagnosis, and quantification systems for lung cancer. In this study, we developed a simple but accurate nodule segmentation method in three-dimensional (3D) CT. First, a volume of interest (VOI) was determined at the location of a nodule. We then transformed the VOI into a two-dimensional (2D) image by use of a "spiral-scanning" technique, in which a radial line originating from the center of the VOI spirally scanned the VOI. The voxels scanned by the radial line were arranged sequentially to form a transformed 2D image. Because the surface of a nodule in 3D image became a curve in the transformed 2D image, the spiral-scanning technique considerably simplified our segmentation method and enabled us to obtain accurate segmentation results. We employed a dynamic programming technique to delineate the "optimal" outline of a nodule in the 2D image, which was transformed back into the 3D image space to provide the interior of the nodule. The proposed segmentation method was trained on the first and was tested on the second Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) datasets. An overlap between nodule regions provided by computer and by the radiologists was employed as a performance metric. The experimental results on the LIDC database demonstrated that our segmentation method provided relatively robust and accurate segmentation results with mean overlap values of 66% and 64% for the nodules in the first and second LIDC datasets, respectively, and would be useful for the quantification, detection, and diagnosis of lung cancer.

  20. A novel method to acquire 3D data from serial 2D images of a dental cast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Chen, Qi; Shao, Jun; Li, Xinshe; Liu, Zhiqin

    2007-05-01

    This paper introduced a newly developed method to acquire three-dimensional data from serial two-dimensional images of a dental cast. The system consists of a computer and a set of data acquiring device. The data acquiring device is used to take serial pictures of the a dental cast; an artificial neural network works to translate two-dimensional pictures to three-dimensional data; then three-dimensional image can reconstruct by the computer. The three-dimensional data acquiring of dental casts is the foundation of computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics.

  1. 3D image analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasic, Marko; Loncaric, Sven; Sorantin, Erich

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we propose a technique for 3-D segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) from computed tomography angiography (CTA) images. Output data (3-D model) form the proposed method can be used for measurement of aortic shape and dimensions. Knowledge of aortic shape and size is very important in planning of minimally invasive procedure that is for selection of appropriate stent graft device for treatment of AAA. The technique is based on a 3-D deformable model and utilizes the level-set algorithm for implementation of the method. The method performs 3-D segmentation of CTA images and extracts a 3-D model of aortic wall. Once the 3-D model of aortic wall is available it is easy to perform all required measurements for appropriate stent graft selection. The method proposed in this paper uses the level-set algorithm for deformable models, instead of the classical snake algorithm. The main advantage of the level set algorithm is that it enables easy segmentation of complex structures, surpassing most of the drawbacks of the classical approach. We have extended the deformable model to incorporate the a priori knowledge about the shape of the AAA. This helps direct the evolution of the deformable model to correctly segment the aorta. The algorithm has been implemented in IDL and C languages. Experiments have been performed using real patient CTA images and have shown good results.

  2. Accelerated 3D catheter visualization from triplanar MR projection images.

    PubMed

    Schirra, Carsten Oliver; Weiss, Steffen; Krueger, Sascha; Caulfield, Denis; Pedersen, Steen F; Razavi, Reza; Kozerke, Sebastian; Schaeffter, Tobias

    2010-07-01

    One major obstacle for MR-guided catheterizations is long acquisition times associated with visualizing interventional devices. Therefore, most techniques presented hitherto rely on single-plane imaging to visualize the catheter. Recently, accelerated three-dimensional (3D) imaging based on compressed sensing has been proposed to reduce acquisition times. However, frame rates with this technique remain low, and the 3D reconstruction problem yields a considerable computational load. In X-ray angiography, it is well understood that the shape of interventional devices can be derived in 3D space from a limited number of projection images. In this work, this fact is exploited to develop a method for 3D visualization of active catheters from multiplanar two-dimensional (2D) projection MR images. This is favorable to 3D MRI as the overall number of acquired profiles, and consequently the acquisition time, is reduced. To further reduce measurement times, compressed sensing is employed. Furthermore, a novel single-channel catheter design is presented that combines a solenoidal tip coil in series with a single-loop antenna, enabling simultaneous tip tracking and shape visualization. The tracked tip and catheter properties provide constraints for compressed sensing reconstruction and subsequent 2D/3D curve fitting. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated in phantoms and in an in vivo pig experiment.

  3. 3D Subharmonic Ultrasound Imaging In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbrey, John R.; Sridharan, Anush; Machado, Priscilla; Zhao, Hongjia; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G.; Dave, Jaydev K.; Liu, Ji-Bin; Park, Suhyun; Dianis, Scott; Wallace, Kirk; Thomenius, Kai E.; Forsberg, F.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives While contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging techniques such as harmonic imaging (HI) have evolved to reduce tissue signals using the nonlinear properties of the contrast agent, levels of background suppression have been mixed. Subharmonic imaging (SHI) offers near-complete tissue suppression by centering the receive bandwidth at half the transmitting frequency. In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of 3D SHI and compare it to 3D HI. Materials and Methods 3D HI and SHI were implemented on a Logiq 9 ultrasound scanner (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, Wisconsin) with a 4D10L probe. Four-cycle SHI was implemented to transmit at 5.8 MHz and receive at 2.9 MHz, while 2-cycle HI was implemented to transmit at 5 MHz and receive at 10 MHz. The ultrasound contrast agent Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, North Billerica, MA) was imaged within a flow phantom and the lower pole of two canine kidneys in both HI and SHI modes. Contrast to tissue ratios (CTR) and rendered images were compared offline. Results SHI resulted in significant improvement in CTR levels relative to HI both in vitro (12.11±0.52 vs. 2.67±0.77, p<0.001) and in vivo (5.74±1.92 vs. 2.40±0.48, p=0.04). Rendered 3D SHI images provided better tissue suppression and a greater overall view of vessels in a flow phantom and canine renal vasculature. Conclusions The successful implementation of SHI in 3D allows imaging of vascular networks over a heterogeneous sample volume and should improve future diagnostic accuracy. Additionally, 3D SHI provides improved CTR values relative to 3D HI. PMID:22464198

  4. Visualization and analysis of 3D microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Long, Fuhui; Zhou, Jianlong; Peng, Hanchuan

    2012-01-01

    In a wide range of biological studies, it is highly desirable to visualize and analyze three-dimensional (3D) microscopic images. In this primer, we first introduce several major methods for visualizing typical 3D images and related multi-scale, multi-time-point, multi-color data sets. Then, we discuss three key categories of image analysis tasks, namely segmentation, registration, and annotation. We demonstrate how to pipeline these visualization and analysis modules using examples of profiling the single-cell gene-expression of C. elegans and constructing a map of stereotyped neurite tracts in a fruit fly brain.

  5. Visualization and Analysis of 3D Microscopic Images

    PubMed Central

    Long, Fuhui; Zhou, Jianlong; Peng, Hanchuan

    2012-01-01

    In a wide range of biological studies, it is highly desirable to visualize and analyze three-dimensional (3D) microscopic images. In this primer, we first introduce several major methods for visualizing typical 3D images and related multi-scale, multi-time-point, multi-color data sets. Then, we discuss three key categories of image analysis tasks, namely segmentation, registration, and annotation. We demonstrate how to pipeline these visualization and analysis modules using examples of profiling the single-cell gene-expression of C. elegans and constructing a map of stereotyped neurite tracts in a fruit fly brain. PMID:22719236

  6. 3D Image Reconstruction: Determination of Pattern Orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenbecler, Richard

    2003-03-13

    The problem of determining the euler angles of a randomly oriented 3-D object from its 2-D Fraunhofer diffraction patterns is discussed. This problem arises in the reconstruction of a positive semi-definite 3-D object using oversampling techniques. In such a problem, the data consists of a measured set of magnitudes from 2-D tomographic images of the object at several unknown orientations. After the orientation angles are determined, the object itself can then be reconstructed by a variety of methods using oversampling, the magnitude data from the 2-D images, physical constraints on the image and then iteration to determine the phases.

  7. 3D image analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasic, Marko; Loncaric, Sven; Sorantin, Erich

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a method for 3-D segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm from computed tomography angiography images. The proposed method is automatic and requires minimal user assistance. Segmentation is performed in two steps. First inner and then outer aortic border is segmented. Those two steps are different due to different image conditions on two aortic borders. Outputs of these two segmentations give a complete 3-D model of abdominal aorta. Such a 3-D model is used in measurements of aneurysm area. The deformable model is implemented using the level-set algorithm due to its ability to describe complex shapes in natural manner which frequently occur in pathology. In segmentation of outer aortic boundary we introduced some knowledge based preprocessing to enhance and reconstruct low contrast aortic boundary. The method has been implemented in IDL and C languages. Experiments have been performed using real patient CTA images and have shown good results.

  8. 3D quantitative analysis of brain SPECT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loncaric, Sven; Ceskovic, Ivan; Petrovic, Ratimir; Loncaric, Srecko

    2001-07-01

    The main purpose of this work is to develop a computer-based technique for quantitative analysis of 3-D brain images obtained by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In particular, the volume and location of ischemic lesion and penumbra is important for early diagnosis and treatment of infracted regions of the brain. SPECT imaging is typically used as diagnostic tool to assess the size and location of the ischemic lesion. The segmentation method presented in this paper utilizes a 3-D deformable model in order to determine size and location of the regions of interest. The evolution of the model is computed using a level-set implementation of the algorithm. In addition to 3-D deformable model the method utilizes edge detection and region growing for realization of a pre-processing. Initial experimental results have shown that the method is useful for SPECT image analysis.

  9. A 3D surface imaging system for assessing human obesity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, B.; Yu, W.; Yao, M.; Yao, X.; Li, Q.; Pepper, M. R.; Freeland-Graves, J. H.

    2009-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity suggests a need to develop a convenient, reliable and economical tool for assessment of this condition. Three-dimensional (3D) body surface imaging has emerged as an exciting technology for estimation of body composition. This paper presents a new 3D body imaging system, which was designed for enhanced portability, affordability, and functionality. In this system, stereo vision technology was used to satisfy the requirements for a simple hardware setup and fast image acquisitions. The portability of the system was created via a two-stand configuration, and the accuracy of body volume measurements was improved by customizing stereo matching and surface reconstruction algorithms that target specific problems in 3D body imaging. Body measurement functions dedicated to body composition assessment also were developed. The overall performance of the system was evaluated in human subjects by comparison to other conventional anthropometric methods, as well as air displacement plethysmography, for body fat assessment.

  10. Interactive visualization of multiresolution image stacks in 3D.

    PubMed

    Trotts, Issac; Mikula, Shawn; Jones, Edward G

    2007-04-15

    Conventional microscopy, electron microscopy, and imaging techniques such as MRI and PET commonly generate large stacks of images of the sectioned brain. In other domains, such as neurophysiology, variables such as space or time are also varied along a stack axis. Digital image sizes have been progressively increasing and in virtual microscopy, it is now common to work with individual image sizes that are several hundred megapixels and several gigabytes in size. The interactive visualization of these high-resolution, multiresolution images in 2D has been addressed previously [Sullivan, G., and Baker, R., 1994. Efficient quad-tree coding of images and video. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 3 (3), 327-331]. Here, we describe a method for interactive visualization of multiresolution image stacks in 3D. The method, characterized as quad-tree based multiresolution image stack interactive visualization using a texel projection based criterion, relies on accessing and projecting image tiles from multiresolution image stacks in such a way that, from the observer's perspective, image tiles all appear approximately the same size even though they are accessed from different tiers within the images comprising the stack. This method enables efficient navigation of high-resolution image stacks. We implement this method in a program called StackVis, which is a Windows-based, interactive 3D multiresolution image stack visualization system written in C++ and using OpenGL. It is freely available at http://brainmaps.org.

  11. Differences in 3D dose distributions due to calculation method of voxel S-values and the influence of image blurring in SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacilio, Massimiliano; Amato, Ernesto; Lanconelli, Nico; Basile, Chiara; Torres, Leonel Alberto; Botta, Francesca; Ferrari, Mahila; Cornejo Diaz, Nestor; Coca Perez, Marco; Fernández, María; Lassmann, Michael; Vergara Gil, Alex; Cremonesi, Marta

    2015-03-01

    This study compares 3D dose distributions obtained with voxel S values (VSVs) for soft tissue, calculated by several methods at their current state-of-the-art, varying the degree of image blurring. The methods were: 1) convolution of Dose Point Kernel (DPK) for water, using a scaling factor method; 2) an analytical model (AM), fitting the deposited energy as a function of the source-target distance; 3) a rescaling method (RSM) based on a set of high-resolution VSVs for each isotope; 4) local energy deposition (LED). VSVs calculated by direct Monte Carlo simulations were assumed as reference. Dose distributions were calculated considering spheroidal clusters with various sizes (251, 1237 and 4139 voxels of 3 mm size), uniformly filled with 131I, 177Lu, 188Re or 90Y. The activity distributions were blurred with Gaussian filters of various widths (6, 8 and 12 mm). Moreover, 3D-dosimetry was performed for 10 treatments with 90Y derivatives. Cumulative Dose Volume Histograms (cDVHs) were compared, studying the differences in D95%, D50% or Dmax (ΔD95%, ΔD50% and ΔDmax) and dose profiles. For unblurred spheroidal clusters, ΔD95%, ΔD50% and ΔDmax were mostly within some percents, slightly higher for 177Lu with DPK (8%) and RSM (12%) and considerably higher for LED (ΔD95% up to 59%). Increasing the blurring, differences decreased and also LED yielded very similar results, but D95% and D50% underestimations between 30-60% and 15-50%, respectively (with respect to 3D-dosimetry with unblurred distributions), were evidenced. Also for clinical images (affected by blurring as well), cDVHs differences for most methods were within few percents, except for slightly higher differences with LED, and almost systematic for dose profiles with DPK (-1.2%), AM (-3.0%) and RSM (4.5%), whereas showed an oscillating trend with LED. The major concern for 3D-dosimetry on clinical SPECT images is more strongly represented by image blurring than by differences among the VSVs

  12. Differences in 3D dose distributions due to calculation method of voxel S-values and the influence of image blurring in SPECT.

    PubMed

    Pacilio, Massimiliano; Amato, Ernesto; Lanconelli, Nico; Basile, Chiara; Torres, Leonel Alberto; Botta, Francesca; Ferrari, Mahila; Diaz, Nestor Cornejo; Perez, Marco Coca; Fernández, María; Lassmann, Michael; Gil, Alex Vergara; Cremonesi, Marta

    2015-03-07

    This study compares 3D dose distributions obtained with voxel S values (VSVs) for soft tissue, calculated by several methods at their current state-of-the-art, varying the degree of image blurring. The methods were: 1) convolution of Dose Point Kernel (DPK) for water, using a scaling factor method; 2) an analytical model (AM), fitting the deposited energy as a function of the source-target distance; 3) a rescaling method (RSM) based on a set of high-resolution VSVs for each isotope; 4) local energy deposition (LED). VSVs calculated by direct Monte Carlo simulations were assumed as reference. Dose distributions were calculated considering spheroidal clusters with various sizes (251, 1237 and 4139 voxels of 3 mm size), uniformly filled with (131)I, (177)Lu, (188)Re or (90)Y. The activity distributions were blurred with Gaussian filters of various widths (6, 8 and 12 mm). Moreover, 3D-dosimetry was performed for 10 treatments with (90)Y derivatives. Cumulative Dose Volume Histograms (cDVHs) were compared, studying the differences in D95%, D50% or Dmax (ΔD95%, ΔD50% and ΔDmax) and dose profiles.For unblurred spheroidal clusters, ΔD95%, ΔD50% and ΔDmax were mostly within some percents, slightly higher for (177)Lu with DPK (8%) and RSM (12%) and considerably higher for LED (ΔD95% up to 59%). Increasing the blurring, differences decreased and also LED yielded very similar results, but D95% and D50% underestimations between 30-60% and 15-50%, respectively (with respect to 3D-dosimetry with unblurred distributions), were evidenced. Also for clinical images (affected by blurring as well), cDVHs differences for most methods were within few percents, except for slightly higher differences with LED, and almost systematic for dose profiles with DPK (-1.2%), AM (-3.0%) and RSM (4.5%), whereas showed an oscillating trend with LED.The major concern for 3D-dosimetry on clinical SPECT images is more strongly represented by image blurring than by differences among the VSVs

  13. Photogrammetric 3D reconstruction using mobile imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Dieter; Syll, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    In our paper we demonstrate the development of an Android Application (AndroidSfM) for photogrammetric 3D reconstruction that works on smartphones and tablets likewise. The photos are taken with mobile devices, and can thereafter directly be calibrated using standard calibration algorithms of photogrammetry and computer vision, on that device. Due to still limited computing resources on mobile devices, a client-server handshake using Dropbox transfers the photos to the sever to run AndroidSfM for the pose estimation of all photos by Structure-from-Motion and, thereafter, uses the oriented bunch of photos for dense point cloud estimation by dense image matching algorithms. The result is transferred back to the mobile device for visualization and ad-hoc on-screen measurements.

  14. 2D/3D Image Registration using Regression Learning

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chen-Rui; Frederick, Brandon; Mageras, Gig; Chang, Sha; Pizer, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In computer vision and image analysis, image registration between 2D projections and a 3D image that achieves high accuracy and near real-time computation is challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel method that can rapidly detect an object’s 3D rigid motion or deformation from a 2D projection image or a small set thereof. The method is called CLARET (Correction via Limited-Angle Residues in External Beam Therapy) and consists of two stages: registration preceded by shape space and regression learning. In the registration stage, linear operators are used to iteratively estimate the motion/deformation parameters based on the current intensity residue between the target projec-tion(s) and the digitally reconstructed radiograph(s) (DRRs) of the estimated 3D image. The method determines the linear operators via a two-step learning process. First, it builds a low-order parametric model of the image region’s motion/deformation shape space from its prior 3D images. Second, using learning-time samples produced from the 3D images, it formulates the relationships between the model parameters and the co-varying 2D projection intensity residues by multi-scale linear regressions. The calculated multi-scale regression matrices yield the coarse-to-fine linear operators used in estimating the model parameters from the 2D projection intensity residues in the registration. The method’s application to Image-guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) requires only a few seconds and yields good results in localizing a tumor under rigid motion in the head and neck and under respiratory deformation in the lung, using one treatment-time imaging 2D projection or a small set thereof. PMID:24058278

  15. 3D FaceCam: a fast and accurate 3D facial imaging device for biometrics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jason; Zhuang, Ping; May, Patrick; Yi, Steven; Tunnell, David

    2004-08-01

    Human faces are fundamentally three-dimensional (3D) objects, and each face has its unique 3D geometric profile. The 3D geometric features of a human face can be used, together with its 2D texture, for rapid and accurate face recognition purposes. Due to the lack of low-cost and robust 3D sensors and effective 3D facial recognition (FR) algorithms, almost all existing FR systems use 2D face images. Genex has developed 3D solutions that overcome the inherent problems in 2D while also addressing limitations in other 3D alternatives. One important aspect of our solution is a unique 3D camera (the 3D FaceCam) that combines multiple imaging sensors within a single compact device to provide instantaneous, ear-to-ear coverage of a human face. This 3D camera uses three high-resolution CCD sensors and a color encoded pattern projection system. The RGB color information from each pixel is used to compute the range data and generate an accurate 3D surface map. The imaging system uses no moving parts and combines multiple 3D views to provide detailed and complete 3D coverage of the entire face. Images are captured within a fraction of a second and full-frame 3D data is produced within a few seconds. This described method provides much better data coverage and accuracy in feature areas with sharp features or details (such as the nose and eyes). Using this 3D data, we have been able to demonstrate that a 3D approach can significantly improve the performance of facial recognition. We have conducted tests in which we have varied the lighting conditions and angle of image acquisition in the "field." These tests have shown that the matching results are significantly improved when enrolling a 3D image rather than a single 2D image. With its 3D solutions, Genex is working toward unlocking the promise of powerful 3D FR and transferring FR from a lab technology into a real-world biometric solution.

  16. An accurate multimodal 3-D vessel segmentation method based on brightness variations on OCT layers and curvelet domain fundus image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kafieh, Raheleh; Rabbani, Hossein; Hajizadeh, Fedra; Ommani, Mohammadreza

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a multimodal approach for vessel segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) slices along with the fundus image. The method is comprised of two separate stages; the first step is 2-D segmentation of blood vessels in curvelet domain, enhanced by taking advantage of vessel information in crossing OCT slices (named feedback procedure), and improved by suppressing the false positives around the optic nerve head. The proposed method for vessel localization of OCT slices is also enhanced utilizing the fact that retinal nerve fiber layer becomes thicker in the presence of the blood vessels. The second stage of this method is axial localization of the vessels in OCT slices and 3-D reconstruction of the blood vessels. Twenty-four macular spectral 3-D OCT scans of 16 normal subjects were acquired using a Heidelberg HRA OCT scanner. Each dataset consisted of a scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) image and limited number of OCT scans with size of 496 × 512 (namely, for a data with 19 selected OCT slices, the whole data size was 496 × 512 × 19). The method is developed with least complicated algorithms and the results show considerable improvement in accuracy of vessel segmentation over similar methods to produce a local accuracy of 0.9632 in area of SLO, covered with OCT slices, and the overall accuracy of 0.9467 in the whole SLO image. The results are also demonstrative of a direct relation between the overall accuracy and percentage of SLO coverage by OCT slices.

  17. Gastric Contraction Imaging System Using a 3-D Endoscope.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Watabe, Kenji; Takeda, Maki; Nishimura, Takahiro; Kido, Michiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Nishida, Tsutomu; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a gastric contraction imaging system for assessment of gastric motility using a 3-D endoscope. Gastrointestinal diseases are mainly based on morphological abnormalities. However, gastrointestinal symptoms are sometimes apparent without visible abnormalities. One of the major factors for these diseases is abnormal gastrointestinal motility. For assessment of gastric motility, a gastric motility imaging system is needed. To assess the dynamic motility of the stomach, the proposed system measures 3-D gastric contractions derived from a 3-D profile of the stomach wall obtained with a developed 3-D endoscope. After obtaining contraction waves, their frequency, amplitude, and speed of propagation can be calculated using a Gaussian function. The proposed system was evaluated for 3-D measurements of several objects with known geometries. The results showed that the surface profiles could be obtained with an error of [Formula: see text] of the distance between two different points on images. Subsequently, we evaluated the validity of a prototype system using a wave simulated model. In the experiment, the amplitude and position of waves could be measured with 1-mm accuracy. The present results suggest that the proposed system can measure the speed and amplitude of contractions. This system has low invasiveness and can assess the motility of the stomach wall directly in a 3-D manner. Our method can be used for examination of gastric morphological and functional abnormalities.

  18. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Song

    2010-01-01

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  19. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    ScienceCinema

    Zhang, Song

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  20. 3-D Display Of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Of The Spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Alan C.; Kim, Yongmin; Haralick, Robert M.; Anderson, Paul A.; Johnson, Roger H.; DeSoto, Larry A.

    1988-06-01

    The original data is produced through standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures with a surface coil applied to the lower back of a normal human subject. The 3-D spine image data consists of twenty-six contiguous slices with 256 x 256 pixels per slice. Two methods for visualization of the 3-D spine are explored. One method utilizes a verifocal mirror system which creates a true 3-D virtual picture of the object. Another method uses a standard high resolution monitor to simultaneously show the three orthogonal sections which intersect at any user-selected point within the object volume. We discuss the application of these systems in assessment of low back pain.

  1. ACT-PRESTO: Rapid and consistent tissue clearing and labeling method for 3-dimensional (3D) imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunsoo; Choi, Jungyoon; Jo, Youhwa; Kim, Joo Yeon; Jang, Yu Jin; Lee, Hye Myeong; Kim, So Yeun; Lee, Ho-Jae; Cho, Keunchang; Jung, Neoncheol; Hur, Eun Mi; Jeong, Sung Jin; Moon, Cheil; Choe, Youngshik; Rhyu, Im Joo; Kim, Hyun; Sun, Woong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the structural organization of organs and organisms at the cellular level is a fundamental challenge in biology. This task has been approached by reconstructing three-dimensional structure from images taken from serially sectioned tissues, which is not only labor-intensive and time-consuming but also error-prone. Recent advances in tissue clearing techniques allow visualization of cellular structures and neural networks inside of unsectioned whole tissues or the entire body. However, currently available protocols require long process times. Here, we present the rapid and highly reproducible ACT-PRESTO (active clarity technique-pressure related efficient and stable transfer of macromolecules into organs) method that clears tissues or the whole body within 1 day while preserving tissue architecture and protein-based signals derived from endogenous fluorescent proteins. Moreover, ACT-PRESTO is compatible with conventional immunolabeling methods and expedites antibody penetration into thick specimens by applying pressure. The speed and consistency of this method will allow high-content mapping and analysis of normal and pathological features in intact organs and bodies. PMID:26750588

  2. Computerized analysis of pelvic incidence from 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaž; Janssen, Michiel M. A.; Pernuš, Franjo; Castelein, René M.; Viergever, Max A.

    2012-02-01

    The sagittal alignment of the pelvis can be evaluated by the angle of pelvic incidence (PI), which is constant for an arbitrary subject position and orientation and can be therefore compared among subjects in standing, sitting or supine position. In this study, PI was measured from three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images of normal subjects that were acquired in supine position. A novel computerized method, based on image processing techniques, was developed to automatically determine the anatomical references required to measure PI, i.e. the centers of the femoral heads in 3D, and the center and inclination of the sacral endplate in 3D. Multiplanar image reformation was applied to obtain perfect sagittal views with all anatomical structures completely in line with the hip axis, from which PI was calculated. The resulting PI (mean+/-standard deviation) was equal to 46.6°+/-9.2° for male subjects (N = 189), 47.6°+/-10.7° for female subjects (N = 181), and 47.1°+/-10.0° for all subjects (N = 370). The obtained measurements of PI from 3D images were not biased by acquisition projection or structure orientation, because all anatomical structures were completely in line with the hip axis. The performed measurements in 3D therefore represent PI according to the actual geometrical relationships among anatomical structures of the sacrum, pelvis and hips, as observed from the perfect sagittal views.

  3. Progress in 3D imaging and display by integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cuenca, R.; Saavedra, G.; Martinez-Corral, M.; Pons, A.; Javidi, B.

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensionality is currently considered an important added value in imaging devices, and therefore the search for an optimum 3D imaging and display technique is a hot topic that is attracting important research efforts. As main value, 3D monitors should provide the observers with different perspectives of a 3D scene by simply varying the head position. Three-dimensional imaging techniques have the potential to establish a future mass-market in the fields of entertainment and communications. Integral imaging (InI), which can capture true 3D color images, has been seen as the right technology to 3D viewing to audiences of more than one person. Due to the advanced degree of development, InI technology could be ready for commercialization in the coming years. This development is the result of a strong research effort performed along the past few years by many groups. Since Integral Imaging is still an emerging technology, the first aim of the "3D Imaging and Display Laboratory" at the University of Valencia, has been the realization of a thorough study of the principles that govern its operation. Is remarkable that some of these principles have been recognized and characterized by our group. Other contributions of our research have been addressed to overcome some of the classical limitations of InI systems, like the limited depth of field (in pickup and in display), the poor axial and lateral resolution, the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion, the production of 3D images with continuous relief, or the limited range of viewing angles of InI monitors.

  4. Characterization and comparison of three microfabrication methods to generate out-of-plane microvortices for single cell rotation and 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Rishabh M.; Myers, Jakrey R.; Sreenivasulu, Manoj; Teller, Wacey; Vela, Juan; Houkal, Jeff; Chao, Shih-Hui; Johnson, Roger H.; Kelbauskas, Laimonas; Wang, Hong; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents three different microfabrication technologies for manufacturing out-of-plane, flat-bottomed, undercut trapezoidal structures for generating a fluidic microscale vortex (microvortex). The first method is based on anisotropic silicon etching and a ‘sandwich’ UV polymer casting assembly; the second method uses a backside diffuser photolithography technique; and the third method features a tilted backside photolithography technique. We discuss the advantages, limitations, and utility of each technique. We further demonstrate that the microvortex generated in the resultant undercut trapezoidal structures can be used to rotate biological microparticles, e.g. single, live cells for multiperspective, high resolution 3D imaging using computed tomography, and angularly resolved confocal imaging.

  5. Practical pseudo-3D registration for large tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan; Laperre, Kjell; Sasov, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Image registration is a powerful tool in various tomographic applications. Our main focus is on microCT applications in which samples/animals can be scanned multiple times under different conditions or at different time points. For this purpose, a registration tool capable of handling fairly large volumes has been developed, using a novel pseudo-3D method to achieve fast and interactive registration with simultaneous 3D visualization. To reduce computation complexity in 3D registration, we decompose it into several 2D registrations, which are applied to the orthogonal views (transaxial, sagittal and coronal) sequentially and iteratively. After registration in each view, the next view is retrieved with the new transformation matrix for registration. This reduces the computation complexity significantly. For rigid transform, we only need to search for 3 parameters (2 shifts, 1 rotation) in each of the 3 orthogonal views instead of 6 (3 shifts, 3 rotations) for full 3D volume. In addition, the amount of voxels involved is also significantly reduced. For the proposed pseudo-3D method, image-based registration is employed, with Sum of Square Difference (SSD) as the similarity measure. The searching engine is Powell's conjugate direction method. In this paper, only rigid transform is used. However, it can be extended to affine transform by adding scaling and possibly shearing to the transform model. We have noticed that more information can be used in the 2D registration if Maximum Intensity Projections (MIP) or Parallel Projections (PP) is used instead of the orthogonal views. Also, other similarity measures, such as covariance or mutual information, can be easily incorporated. The initial evaluation on microCT data shows very promising results. Two application examples are shown: dental samples before and after treatment and structural changes in materials before and after compression. Evaluation on registration accuracy between pseudo-3D method and true 3D method has

  6. 3D EFT imaging with planar electrode array: Numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuykin, T.; Korjenevsky, A.

    2010-04-01

    Electric field tomography (EFT) is the new modality of the quasistatic electromagnetic sounding of conductive media recently investigated theoretically and realized experimentally. The demonstrated results pertain to 2D imaging with circular or linear arrays of electrodes (and the linear array provides quite poor quality of imaging). In many applications 3D imaging is essential or can increase value of the investigation significantly. In this report we present the first results of numerical simulation of the EFT imaging system with planar array of electrodes which allows 3D visualization of the subsurface conductivity distribution. The geometry of the system is similar to the geometry of our EIT breast imaging system providing 3D conductivity imaging in form of cross-sections set with different depth from the surface. The EFT principle of operation and reconstruction approach differs from the EIT system significantly. So the results of numerical simulation are important to estimate if comparable quality of imaging is possible with the new contactless method. The EFT forward problem is solved using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for the 8×8 square electrodes array. The calculated results of measurements are used then to reconstruct conductivity distributions by the filtered backprojections along electric field lines. The reconstructed images of the simple test objects are presented.

  7. Infrastructure for 3D Imaging Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-11

    analysis. (c.) Real time detection & analysis of human gait: using a video camera we capture walking human silhouette for pattern modeling and gait ... analysis . Fig. 5 shows the scanning result result that is fed into a Geo-magic software tool for 3D meshing. Fig. 5: 3D scanning result In

  8. Imaging fault zones using 3D seismic image processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacopini, David; Butler, Rob; Purves, Steve

    2013-04-01

    Significant advances in structural analysis of deep water structure, salt tectonic and extensional rift basin come from the descriptions of fault system geometries imaged in 3D seismic data. However, even where seismic data are excellent, in most cases the trajectory of thrust faults is highly conjectural and still significant uncertainty exists as to the patterns of deformation that develop between the main faults segments, and even of the fault architectures themselves. Moreover structural interpretations that conventionally define faults by breaks and apparent offsets of seismic reflectors are commonly conditioned by a narrow range of theoretical models of fault behavior. For example, almost all interpretations of thrust geometries on seismic data rely on theoretical "end-member" behaviors where concepts as strain localization or multilayer mechanics are simply avoided. Yet analogue outcrop studies confirm that such descriptions are commonly unsatisfactory and incomplete. In order to fill these gaps and improve the 3D visualization of deformation in the subsurface, seismic attribute methods are developed here in conjunction with conventional mapping of reflector amplitudes (Marfurt & Chopra, 2007)). These signal processing techniques recently developed and applied especially by the oil industry use variations in the amplitude and phase of the seismic wavelet. These seismic attributes improve the signal interpretation and are calculated and applied to the entire 3D seismic dataset. In this contribution we will show 3D seismic examples of fault structures from gravity-driven deep-water thrust structures and extensional basin systems to indicate how 3D seismic image processing methods can not only build better the geometrical interpretations of the faults but also begin to map both strain and damage through amplitude/phase properties of the seismic signal. This is done by quantifying and delineating the short-range anomalies on the intensity of reflector amplitudes

  9. Automated curved planar reformation of 3D spine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2005-10-01

    Traditional techniques for visualizing anatomical structures are based on planar cross-sections from volume images, such as images obtained by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, planar cross-sections taken in the coordinate system of the 3D image often do not provide sufficient or qualitative enough diagnostic information, because planar cross-sections cannot follow curved anatomical structures (e.g. arteries, colon, spine, etc). Therefore, not all of the important details can be shown simultaneously in any planar cross-section. To overcome this problem, reformatted images in the coordinate system of the inspected structure must be created. This operation is usually referred to as curved planar reformation (CPR). In this paper we propose an automated method for CPR of 3D spine images, which is based on the image transformation from the standard image-based to a novel spine-based coordinate system. The axes of the proposed spine-based coordinate system are determined on the curve that represents the vertebral column, and the rotation of the vertebrae around the spine curve, both of which are described by polynomial models. The optimal polynomial parameters are obtained in an image analysis based optimization framework. The proposed method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on five CT spine images. The method performed well on both normal and pathological cases and was consistent with manually obtained ground truth data. The proposed spine-based CPR benefits from reduced structural complexity in favour of improved feature perception of the spine. The reformatted images are diagnostically valuable and enable easier navigation, manipulation and orientation in 3D space. Moreover, reformatted images may prove useful for segmentation and other image analysis tasks.

  10. MR diffusion-weighted imaging-based subcutaneous tumour volumetry in a xenografted nude mouse model using 3D Slicer: an accurate and repeatable method

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zelan; Chen, Xin; Huang, Yanqi; He, Lan; Liang, Cuishan; Liang, Changhong; Liu, Zaiyi

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and repeatable measurement of the gross tumour volume(GTV) of subcutaneous xenografts is crucial in the evaluation of anti-tumour therapy. Formula and image-based manual segmentation methods are commonly used for GTV measurement but are hindered by low accuracy and reproducibility. 3D Slicer is open-source software that provides semiautomatic segmentation for GTV measurements. In our study, subcutaneous GTVs from nude mouse xenografts were measured by semiautomatic segmentation with 3D Slicer based on morphological magnetic resonance imaging(mMRI) or diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI)(b = 0,20,800 s/mm2) . These GTVs were then compared with those obtained via the formula and image-based manual segmentation methods with ITK software using the true tumour volume as the standard reference. The effects of tumour size and shape on GTVs measurements were also investigated. Our results showed that, when compared with the true tumour volume, segmentation for DWI(P = 0.060–0.671) resulted in better accuracy than that mMRI(P < 0.001) and the formula method(P < 0.001). Furthermore, semiautomatic segmentation for DWI(intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.9999) resulted in higher reliability than manual segmentation(ICC = 0.9996–0.9998). Tumour size and shape had no effects on GTV measurement across all methods. Therefore, DWI-based semiautomatic segmentation, which is accurate and reproducible and also provides biological information, is the optimal GTV measurement method in the assessment of anti-tumour treatments. PMID:26489359

  11. A new visualization method for 3D head MRA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Satoshi; Hatanaka, Masahiko

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new visualization method for head MRA data which supports the user to easily determine the positioning of MPR images and/or MIP images based on the blood vessel network structure (the anatomic location of blood vessels). This visualization method has following features: (a) the blood vessel (cerebral artery) network structure in 3D head MRA data is portrayed the 3D line structure; (b) the MPR or MIP images are combined with the blood vessel network structure and displayed in a 3D visualization space; (c) the positioning of MPR or MIP is decided based on the anatomic location of blood vessels; (d) The image processing and drawing can be operated at real-time without a special hardware accelerator. As a result, we believe that our method is available to position MPR images or MIP images related to the blood vessel network structure. Moreover, we think that the user using this method can obtain the 3D information (position, angle, direction) of both these images and the blood vessel network structure.

  12. Efficiency analysis for 3D filtering of multichannel images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhemiakin, Ruslan A.; Rubel, Oleksii; Abramov, Sergey K.; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Vozel, Benoit; Chehdi, Kacem

    2016-10-01

    Modern remote sensing systems basically acquire images that are multichannel (dual- or multi-polarization, multi- and hyperspectral) where noise, usually with different characteristics, is present in all components. If noise is intensive, it is desirable to remove (suppress) it before applying methods of image classification, interpreting, and information extraction. This can be done using one of two approaches - by component-wise or by vectorial (3D) filtering. The second approach has shown itself to have higher efficiency if there is essential correlation between multichannel image components as this often happens for multichannel remote sensing data of different origin. Within the class of 3D filtering techniques, there are many possibilities and variations. In this paper, we consider filtering based on discrete cosine transform (DCT) and pay attention to two aspects of processing. First, we study in detail what changes in DCT coefficient statistics take place for 3D denoising compared to component-wise processing. Second, we analyze how selection of component images united into 3D data array influences efficiency of filtering and can the observed tendencies be exploited in processing of images with rather large number of channels.

  13. Imaging hypoxia using 3D photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stantz, Keith M.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: The objective is to develop a multivariate in vivo hemodynamic model of tissue oxygenation (MiHMO2) based on 3D photoacoustic spectroscopy. Introduction: Low oxygen levels, or hypoxia, deprives cancer cells of oxygen and confers resistance to irradiation, some chemotherapeutic drugs, and oxygen-dependent therapies (phototherapy) leading to treatment failure and poor disease-free and overall survival. For example, clinical studies of patients with breast carcinomas, cervical cancer, and head and neck carcinomas (HNC) are more likely to suffer local reoccurrence and metastasis if their tumors are hypoxic. A novel method to non invasively measure tumor hypoxia, identify its type, and monitor its heterogeneity is devised by measuring tumor hemodynamics, MiHMO2. Material and Methods: Simulations are performed to compare tumor pO2 levels and hypoxia based on physiology - perfusion, fractional plasma volume, fractional cellular volume - and its hemoglobin status - oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration - based on in vivo measurements of breast, prostate, and ovarian tumors. Simulations of MiHMO2 are performed to assess the influence of scanner resolutions and different mathematic models of oxygen delivery. Results: Sensitivity of pO2 and hypoxic fraction to photoacoustic scanner resolution and dependencies on model complexity will be presented using hemodynamic parameters for different tumors. Conclusions: Photoacoustic CT spectroscopy provides a unique ability to monitor hemodynamic and cellular physiology in tissue, which can be used to longitudinally monitor tumor oxygenation and its response to anti-angiogenic therapies.

  14. A Simple Quality Assessment Index for Stereoscopic Images Based on 3D Gradient Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Shao, Feng; Li, Fucui; Yu, Mei; Jiang, Gangyi

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple quality assessment index for stereoscopic images based on 3D gradient magnitude. To be more specific, we construct 3D volume from the stereoscopic images across different disparity spaces and calculate pointwise 3D gradient magnitude similarity (3D-GMS) along three horizontal, vertical, and viewpoint directions. Then, the quality score is obtained by averaging the 3D-GMS scores of all points in the 3D volume. Experimental results on four publicly available 3D image quality assessment databases demonstrate that, in comparison with the most related existing methods, the devised algorithm achieves high consistency alignment with subjective assessment. PMID:25133265

  15. From Dynamic Live Cell Imaging to 3D Ultrastructure: Novel Integrated Methods for High Pressure Freezing and Correlative Light-Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Spiegelhalter, Coralie; Tosch, Valérie; Hentsch, Didier; Koch, Marc; Kessler, Pascal; Schwab, Yannick; Laporte, Jocelyn

    2010-01-01

    Background In cell biology, the study of proteins and organelles requires the combination of different imaging approaches, from live recordings with light microscopy (LM) to electron microscopy (EM). Methodology To correlate dynamic events in adherent cells with both ultrastructural and 3D information, we developed a method for cultured cells that combines confocal time-lapse images of GFP-tagged proteins with electron microscopy. With laser micro-patterned culture substrate, we created coordinates that were conserved at every step of the sample preparation and visualization processes. Specifically designed for cryo-fixation, this method allowed a fast freezing of dynamic events within seconds and their ultrastructural characterization. We provide examples of the dynamic oligomerization of GFP-tagged myotubularin (MTM1) phosphoinositides phosphatase induced by osmotic stress, and of the ultrastructure of membrane tubules dependent on amphiphysin 2 (BIN1) expression. Conclusion Accessible and versatile, we show that this approach is efficient to routinely correlate functional and dynamic LM with high resolution morphology by EM, with immuno-EM labeling, with 3D reconstruction using serial immuno-EM or tomography, and with scanning-EM. PMID:20140253

  16. Method and phantom to study combined effects of in-plane (x,y) and z-axis resolution for 3D CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, David; Levy, Josh; Kristinsson, Smari; Fredriksson, Jesper; Olafsdottir, Hildur; Healy, Austin

    2016-09-01

    Increasingly, the advent of multislice CT scanners, volume CT scanners, and total body spiral acquisition modes has led to the use of Multi Planar Reconstruction and 3D datasets. In considering 3D resolution properties of a CT system it is important to note that both the in-plane (x,y) and z-axis (slice thickness) influence the visualization and detection of objects within the scanned volume. This study investigates ways to consider both the in-plane resolution and the z-axis resolution in a single phantom wherein analytic or visualized analysis can yield information on these combined effects. A new phantom called the "Wave Phantom" is developed that can be used to sample the 3D resolution properties of a CT image, including in-plane (x,y) and z-axis information. The key development in this Wave Phantom is the incorporation of a z-axis aspect of a more traditional step (bar) resolution gauge phantom. The phantom can be examined visually wherein a cutoff level may be seen; and/or the analytic analysis of the various characteristics of the waveform profile by including amplitude, frequency, and slope (rate of climb) of the peaks, can be extracted from the Wave Pattern using mathematical analysis such as the Fourier transform. The combined effect of changes in in-plane resolution and z-axis (thickness), are shown, as well as the effect of changes in either in-plane resolution, or z-axis thickness. Examples of visual images of the Wave pattern as well as the analytic characteristics of the various harmonics of a periodic Wave pattern resulting from changes in resolution filter and/or slice thickness, and position in the field of view are shown. The Wave Phantom offers a promising way to investigate 3D resolution results from combined effect of in-plane (x-y) and z-axis resolution as contrasted to the use of simple 2D resolution gauges that need to be used with separate measures of z-axis dependency, such as angled ramps. It offers both a visual pattern as well as a

  17. Method and phantom to study combined effects of in-plane (x,y) and z-axis resolution for 3D CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, David; Levy, Josh; Kristinsson, Smari; Fredriksson, Jesper; Olafsdottir, Hildur; Healy, Austin

    2016-09-08

    Increasingly, the advent of multislice CT scanners, volume CT scanners, and total body spiral acquisition modes has led to the use of Multi Planar Reconstruction and 3D datasets. In considering 3D resolution properties of a CT system it is important to note that both the in-plane (x,y) and z-axis (slice thickness) influence the visual-ization and detection of objects within the scanned volume. This study investigates ways to consider both the in-plane resolution and the z-axis resolution in a single phantom wherein analytic or visualized analysis can yield information on these combined effects. A new phantom called the "Wave Phantom" is developed that can be used to sample the 3D resolution properties of a CT image, including in-plane (x,y) and z-axis information. The key development in this Wave Phantom is the incorporation of a z-axis aspect of a more traditional step (bar) resolution gauge phantom. The phantom can be examined visually wherein a cutoff level may be seen; and/or the analytic analysis of the various characteristics of the waveform profile by including amplitude, frequency, and slope (rate of climb) of the peaks, can be extracted from the Wave Pattern using mathematical analysis such as the Fourier transform. The combined effect of changes in in-plane resolution and z-axis (thickness), are shown, as well as the effect of changes in either in-plane resolu-tion, or z-axis thickness. Examples of visual images of the Wave pattern as well as the analytic characteristics of the various harmonics of a periodic Wave pattern resulting from changes in resolution filter and/or slice thickness, and position in the field of view are shown. The Wave Phantom offers a promising way to investigate 3D resolution results from combined effect of in-plane (x-y) and z-axis resolution as contrasted to the use of simple 2D resolution gauges that need to be used with separate measures of z-axis dependency, such as angled ramps. It offers both a visual pattern as well as a

  18. 3-D seismic imaging of complex geologies

    SciTech Connect

    Womble, D.E.; Dosanjh, S.S.; VanDyke, J.P.; Oldfield, R.A.; Greenberg, D.S.

    1995-02-01

    We present three codes for the Intel Paragon that address the problem of three-dimensional seismic imaging of complex geologies. The first code models acoustic wave propagation and can be used to generate data sets to calibrate and validate seismic imaging codes. This code reported the fastest timings for acoustic wave propagation codes at a recent SEG (Society of Exploration Geophysicists) meeting. The second code implements a Kirchhoff method for pre-stack depth migration. Development of this code is almost complete, and preliminary results are presented. The third code implements a wave equation approach to seismic migration and is a Paragon implementation of a code from the ARCO Seismic Benchmark Suite.

  19. A New Quantitative 3D Imaging Method for Characterizing Spray in the Near-field of Nozzle Exits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-13

    flow system on spray distribution 2. To measure and validate mass distribution of spray ( iodinated contrast) generated by a scaled nozzle...and the present values for the two atomizers. Using the dimensional geometrical parameters, liq- uid properties of the iodine -based solution, and the...commonly used to improve the image quality and dynamic range of X-ray based measurements. In medical diagnostics, iodine is typically used as a

  20. A high performance biometric signal and image processing method to reveal blood perfusion towards 3D oxygen saturation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imms, Ryan; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Trico, Michaël.; Summers, Ron

    2014-03-01

    Non-contact imaging photoplethysmography (PPG) is a recent development in the field of physiological data acquisition, currently undergoing a large amount of research to characterize and define the range of its capabilities. Contact-based PPG techniques have been broadly used in clinical scenarios for a number of years to obtain direct information about the degree of oxygen saturation for patients. With the advent of imaging techniques, there is strong potential to enable access to additional information such as multi-dimensional blood perfusion and saturation mapping. The further development of effective opto-physiological monitoring techniques is dependent upon novel modelling techniques coupled with improved sensor design and effective signal processing methodologies. The biometric signal and imaging processing platform (bSIPP) provides a comprehensive set of features for extraction and analysis of recorded iPPG data, enabling direct comparison with other biomedical diagnostic tools such as ECG and EEG. Additionally, utilizing information about the nature of tissue structure has enabled the generation of an engineering model describing the behaviour of light during its travel through the biological tissue. This enables the estimation of the relative oxygen saturation and blood perfusion in different layers of the tissue to be calculated, which has the potential to be a useful diagnostic tool.

  1. Glasses-free 3D viewing systems for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, Daniel S. F.; Serra, Rolando L.; Vannucci, André L.; Moreno, Alfredo B.; Li, Li M.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we show two different glasses-free 3D viewing systems for medical imaging: a stereoscopic system that employs a vertically dispersive holographic screen (VDHS) and a multi-autostereoscopic system, both used to produce 3D MRI/CT images. We describe how to obtain a VDHS in holographic plates optimized for this application, with field of view of 7 cm to each eye and focal length of 25 cm, showing images done with the system. We also describe a multi-autostereoscopic system, presenting how it can generate 3D medical imaging from viewpoints of a MRI or CT image, showing results of a 3D angioresonance image.

  2. Image Appraisal for 2D and 3D Electromagnetic Inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Alumbaugh, D.L.; Newman, G.A.

    1999-01-28

    Linearized methods are presented for appraising image resolution and parameter accuracy in images generated with two and three dimensional non-linear electromagnetic inversion schemes. When direct matrix inversion is employed, the model resolution and posterior model covariance matrices can be directly calculated. A method to examine how the horizontal and vertical resolution varies spatially within the electromagnetic property image is developed by examining the columns of the model resolution matrix. Plotting the square root of the diagonal of the model covariance matrix yields an estimate of how errors in the inversion process such as data noise and incorrect a priori assumptions about the imaged model map into parameter error. This type of image is shown to be useful in analyzing spatial variations in the image sensitivity to the data. A method is analyzed for statistically estimating the model covariance matrix when the conjugate gradient method is employed rather than a direct inversion technique (for example in 3D inversion). A method for calculating individual columns of the model resolution matrix using the conjugate gradient method is also developed. Examples of the image analysis techniques are provided on 2D and 3D synthetic cross well EM data sets, as well as a field data set collected at the Lost Hills Oil Field in Central California.

  3. Improving automated 3D reconstruction methods via vision metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toschi, Isabella; Nocerino, Erica; Hess, Mona; Menna, Fabio; Sargeant, Ben; MacDonald, Lindsay; Remondino, Fabio; Robson, Stuart

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims to provide a procedure for improving automated 3D reconstruction methods via vision metrology. The 3D reconstruction problem is generally addressed using two different approaches. On the one hand, vision metrology (VM) systems try to accurately derive 3D coordinates of few sparse object points for industrial measurement and inspection applications; on the other, recent dense image matching (DIM) algorithms are designed to produce dense point clouds for surface representations and analyses. This paper strives to demonstrate a step towards narrowing the gap between traditional VM and DIM approaches. Efforts are therefore intended to (i) test the metric performance of the automated photogrammetric 3D reconstruction procedure, (ii) enhance the accuracy of the final results and (iii) obtain statistical indicators of the quality achieved in the orientation step. VM tools are exploited to integrate their main functionalities (centroid measurement, photogrammetric network adjustment, precision assessment, etc.) into the pipeline of 3D dense reconstruction. Finally, geometric analyses and accuracy evaluations are performed on the raw output of the matching (i.e. the point clouds) by adopting a metrological approach. The latter is based on the use of known geometric shapes and quality parameters derived from VDI/VDE guidelines. Tests are carried out by imaging the calibrated Portable Metric Test Object, designed and built at University College London (UCL), UK. It allows assessment of the performance of the image orientation and matching procedures within a typical industrial scenario, characterised by poor texture and known 3D/2D shapes.

  4. Dedicated 3D photoacoustic breast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Robert A.; Kuzmiak, Cherie M.; Lam, Richard B.; Reinecke, Daniel R.; Del Rio, Stephen P.; Steed, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report the design and imaging methodology of a photoacoustic scanner dedicated to imaging hemoglobin distribution throughout a human breast. Methods: The authors developed a dedicated breast photoacoustic mammography (PAM) system using a spherical detector aperture based on our previous photoacoustic tomography scanner. The system uses 512 detectors with rectilinear scanning. The scan shape is a spiral pattern whose radius varies from 24 to 96 mm, thereby allowing a field of view that accommodates a wide range of breast sizes. The authors measured the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) using a target comprised of 1-mm dots printed on clear plastic. Each dot absorption coefficient was approximately the same as a 1-mm thickness of whole blood at 756 nm, the output wavelength of the Alexandrite laser used by this imaging system. The target was immersed in varying depths of an 8% solution of stock Liposyn II-20%, which mimics the attenuation of breast tissue (1.1 cm−1). The spatial resolution was measured using a 6 μm-diameter carbon fiber embedded in agar. The breasts of four healthy female volunteers, spanning a range of breast size from a brassiere C cup to a DD cup, were imaged using a 96-mm spiral protocol. Results: The CNR target was clearly visualized to a depth of 53 mm. Spatial resolution, which was estimated from the full width at half-maximum of a profile across the PAM image of a carbon fiber, was 0.42 mm. In the four human volunteers, the vasculature was well visualized throughout the breast tissue, including to the chest wall. Conclusions: CNR, lateral field-of-view and penetration depth of our dedicated PAM scanning system is sufficient to image breasts as large as 1335 mL, which should accommodate up to 90% of the women in the United States. PMID:24320471

  5. Prostate Mechanical Imaging: 3-D Image Composition and Feature Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Egorov, Vladimir; Ayrapetyan, Suren; Sarvazyan, Armen P.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a method and a device entitled prostate mechanical imager (PMI) for the real-time imaging of prostate using a transrectal probe equipped with a pressure sensor array and position tracking sensor. PMI operation is based on measurement of the stress pattern on the rectal wall when the probe is pressed against the prostate. Temporal and spatial changes in the stress pattern provide information on the elastic structure of the gland and allow two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of prostate anatomy and assessment of prostate mechanical properties. The data acquired allow the calculation of prostate features such as size, shape, nodularity, consistency/hardness, and mobility. The PMI prototype has been validated in laboratory experiments on prostate phantoms and in a clinical study. The results obtained on model systems and in vivo images from patients prove that PMI has potential to become a diagnostic tool that could largely supplant DRE through its higher sensitivity, quantitative record storage, ease-of-use and inherent low cost. PMID:17024836

  6. Integral imaging based 3D display of holographic data.

    PubMed

    Yöntem, Ali Özgür; Onural, Levent

    2012-10-22

    We propose a method and present applications of this method that converts a diffraction pattern into an elemental image set in order to display them on an integral imaging based display setup. We generate elemental images based on diffraction calculations as an alternative to commonly used ray tracing methods. Ray tracing methods do not accommodate the interference and diffraction phenomena. Our proposed method enables us to obtain elemental images from a holographic recording of a 3D object/scene. The diffraction pattern can be either numerically generated data or digitally acquired optical data. The method shows the connection between a hologram (diffraction pattern) and an elemental image set of the same 3D object. We showed three examples, one of which is the digitally captured optical diffraction tomography data of an epithelium cell. We obtained optical reconstructions with our integral imaging display setup where we used a digital lenslet array. We also obtained numerical reconstructions, again by using the diffraction calculations, for comparison. The digital and optical reconstruction results are in good agreement.

  7. Validation of hip joint center localization methods during gait analysis using 3D EOS imaging in typically developing and cerebral palsy children.

    PubMed

    Assi, Ayman; Sauret, Christophe; Massaad, Abir; Bakouny, Ziad; Pillet, Hélène; Skalli, Wafa; Ghanem, Ismat

    2016-07-01

    Localization of the hip joint center (HJC) is essential in computation of gait data. EOS low dose biplanar X-rays have been shown to be a good reference in evaluating various methods of HJC localization in adults. The aim is to evaluate predictive and functional techniques for HJC localization in typically developing (TD) and cerebral palsy (CP) children, using EOS as an image based reference. Eleven TD and 17 CP children underwent 3D gait analysis. Six HJC localization methods were evaluated in each group bilaterally: 3 predictive (Plug in Gait, Bell and Harrington) and 3 functional methods based on the star arc technique (symmetrical center of rotation estimate, center transformation technique and geometrical sphere fitting). All children then underwent EOS low dose biplanar radiographs. Pelvis, lower limbs and their corresponding external markers were reconstructed in 3D. The center of the femoral head was considered as the reference (HJCEOS). Euclidean distances between HJCs estimated by each of the 6 methods and the HJCEOS were calculated; distances were shown to be lower in predictive compared to functional methods (p<0.0001). Contrarily to findings in adults, functional methods were shown to be less accurate than predictive methods in TD and CP children, which could be mainly due to the shorter thigh segment in children. Harrington method was shown to be the most accurate in the prediction of HJC (mean error≈18mm, SD=9mm) and quasi-equivalent to the Bell method. The bias for each method was quantified, allowing its correction for an improved HJC estimation.

  8. 3-D Imaging Based, Radiobiological Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Sgouros, George; Frey, Eric; Wahl, Richard; He, Bin; Prideaux, Andrew; Hobbs, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy holds promise as a new treatment against cancer. Advances in imaging are making it possible to evaluate the spatial distribution of radioactivity in tumors and normal organs over time. Matched anatomical imaging such as combined SPECT/CT and PET/CT have also made it possible to obtain tissue density information in conjunction with the radioactivity distribution. Coupled with sophisticated iterative reconstruction algorithims, these advances have made it possible to perform highly patient-specific dosimetry that also incorporates radiobiological modeling. Such sophisticated dosimetry techniques are still in the research investigation phase. Given the attendant logistical and financial costs, a demonstrated improvement in patient care will be a prerequisite for the adoption of such highly-patient specific internal dosimetry methods. PMID:18662554

  9. Automatic abdominal lymph node detection method based on local intensity structure analysis from 3D x-ray CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mizuno, Shinji; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Hidemi; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Misawa, Kazunari; Ito, Masaaki; Nawano, Shigeru; Mori, Kensaku

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an automated method of abdominal lymph node detection to aid the preoperative diagnosis of abdominal cancer surgery. In abdominal cancer surgery, surgeons must resect not only tumors and metastases but also lymph nodes that might have a metastasis. This procedure is called lymphadenectomy or lymph node dissection. Insufficient lymphadenectomy carries a high risk for relapse. However, excessive resection decreases a patient's quality of life. Therefore, it is important to identify the location and the structure of lymph nodes to make a suitable surgical plan. The proposed method consists of candidate lymph node detection and false positive reduction. Candidate lymph nodes are detected using a multi-scale blob-like enhancement filter based on local intensity structure analysis. To reduce false positives, the proposed method uses a classifier based on support vector machine with the texture and shape information. The experimental results reveal that it detects 70.5% of the lymph nodes with 13.0 false positives per case.

  10. 3D imaging of the mesospheric emissive layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadjib Kouahla, Mohamed; Faivre, Michael; Moreels, Guy; Clairemidi, Jacques; Mougin-Sisini, Davy; Meriwether, John W.; Lehmacher, Gerald A.; Vidal, Erick; Veliz, Oskar

    A new and original stereo-imaging method is introduced to measure the altitude of the OH airglow layer and provide a 3D map of the altitude of the layer centroid. Near-IR photographs of the layer are taken at two sites distant of 645 km. Each photograph is processed in order to invert the perspective effect and provide a satellite-type view of the layer. When superposed, the two views present a common diamond-shaped area. Pairs of matched points that correspond to a physical emissive point in the common area are identified in calculating a normalized crosscorrelation coefficient. This method is suitable for obtaining 3D representations in the case of low-contrast objects. An observational campaign was conducted in July 2006 in Peru. The images were taken simultaneously at Cerro Cosmos (12° 09' 08.2" S, 75° 33' 49.3" W, altitude 4630 m) close to Huancayo and Cerro Verde Tellolo (16° 33' 17.6" S, 71° 39' 59.4" W, altitude 2330 m) close to Arequipa. 3D maps of the layer surface are retrieved. They are compared with pseudo-relief intensity maps of the same region. The mean altitude of the emission barycenter is located at 87.1 km on July 26 and 89.5 km on July 28. Comparable relief wavy features appear in the 3D and intensity maps.

  11. 3D Imaging by Mass Spectrometry: A New Frontier

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Erin H.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Imaging mass spectrometry can generate three-dimensional volumes showing molecular distributions in an entire organ or animal through registration and stacking of serial tissue sections. Here we review the current state of 3D imaging mass spectrometry as well as provide insights and perspectives on the process of generating 3D mass spectral data along with a discussion of the process necessary to generate a 3D image volume. PMID:22276611

  12. Linear tracking for 3-D medical ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing-Hua; Yang, Zhao; Hu, Wei; Jin, Lian-Wen; Wei, Gang; Li, Xuelong

    2013-12-01

    As the clinical application grows, there is a rapid technical development of 3-D ultrasound imaging. Compared with 2-D ultrasound imaging, 3-D ultrasound imaging can provide improved qualitative and quantitative information for various clinical applications. In this paper, we proposed a novel tracking method for a freehand 3-D ultrasound imaging system with improved portability, reduced degree of freedom, and cost. We designed a sliding track with a linear position sensor attached, and it transmitted positional data via a wireless communication module based on Bluetooth, resulting in a wireless spatial tracking modality. A traditional 2-D ultrasound probe fixed to the position sensor on the sliding track was used to obtain real-time B-scans, and the positions of the B-scans were simultaneously acquired when moving the probe along the track in a freehand manner. In the experiments, the proposed method was applied to ultrasound phantoms and real human tissues. The results demonstrated that the new system outperformed a previously developed freehand system based on a traditional six-degree-of-freedom spatial sensor in phantom and in vivo studies, indicating its merit in clinical applications for human tissues and organs.

  13. Morphometrics, 3D Imaging, and Craniofacial Development

    PubMed Central

    Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Percival, Christopher J.; Green, Rebecca; Young, Nathan M.; Mio, Washington; Marcucio, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown how volumetric imaging and morphometrics can add significantly to our understanding of morphogenesis, the developmental basis for variation and the etiology of structural birth defects. On the other hand, the complex questions and diverse imaging data in developmental biology present morphometrics with more complex challenges than applications in virtually any other field. Meeting these challenges is necessary in order to understand the mechanistic basis for variation in complex morphologies. This chapter reviews the methods and theory that enable the application of modern landmark-based morphometrics to developmental biology and craniofacial development, in particular. We discuss the theoretical foundations of morphometrics as applied to development and review the basic approaches to the quantification of morphology. Focusing on geometric morphometrics, we discuss the principal statistical methods for quantifying and comparing morphological variation and covariation structure within and among groups. Finally, we discuss the future directions for morphometrics in developmental biology that will be required for approaches that enable quantitative integration across the genotype-phenotype map. PMID:26589938

  14. 3D Imaging with Holographic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Kou, Shan Shan

    2010-04-01

    There are two main types of tomography that enable the 3D internal structures of objects to be reconstructed from scattered data. The commonly known computerized tomography (CT) give good results in the x-ray wavelength range where the filtered back-projection theorem and Radon transform can be used. These techniques rely on the Fourier projection-slice theorem where rays are considered to propagate straight through the object. Another type of tomography called `diffraction tomography' applies in applications in optics and acoustics where diffraction and scattering effects must be taken into account. The latter proves to be a more difficult problem, as light no longer travels straight through the sample. Holographic tomography is a popular way of performing diffraction tomography and there has been active experimental research on reconstructing complex refractive index data using this approach recently. However, there are two distinct ways of doing tomography: either by rotation of the object or by rotation of the illumination while fixing the detector. The difference between these two setups is intuitive but needs to be quantified. From Fourier optics and information transformation point of view, we use 3D transfer function analysis to quantitatively describe how spatial frequencies of the object are mapped to the Fourier domain. We first employ a paraxial treatment by calculating the Fourier transform of the defocused OTF. The shape of the calculated 3D CTF for tomography, by scanning the illumination in one direction only, takes on a form that we might call a 'peanut,' compared to the case of object rotation, where a diablo is formed, the peanut exhibiting significant differences and non-isotropy. In particular, there is a line singularity along one transverse direction. Under high numerical aperture conditions, the paraxial treatment is not accurate, and so we make use of 3D analytical geometry to calculate the behaviour in the non-paraxial case. This time, we

  15. A 3D Contact Smoothing Method

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M A; Laursen, T A

    2002-05-02

    Smoothing of contact surfaces can be used to eliminate the chatter typically seen with node on facet contact and give a better representation of the actual contact surface. The latter affect is well demonstrated for problems with interference fits. In this work we present two methods for the smoothing of contact surfaces for 3D finite element contact. In the first method, we employ Gregory patches to smooth the faceted surface in a node on facet implementation. In the second method, we employ a Bezier interpolation of the faceted surface in a mortar method implementation of contact. As is well known, node on facet approaches can exhibit locking due to the failure of the Babuska-Brezzi condition and in some instances fail the patch test. The mortar method implementation is stable and provides optimal convergence in the energy of error. In the this work we demonstrate the superiority of the smoothed versus the non-smoothed node on facet implementations. We also show where the node on facet method fails and some results from the smoothed mortar method implementation.

  16. Large distance 3D imaging of hidden objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozban, Daniel; Aharon Akram, Avihai; Kopeika, N. S.; Abramovich, A.; Levanon, Assaf

    2014-06-01

    Imaging systems in millimeter waves are required for applications in medicine, communications, homeland security, and space technology. This is because there is no known ionization hazard for biological tissue, and atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is low compared to that of infrared and optical rays. The lack of an inexpensive room temperature detector makes it difficult to give a suitable real time implement for the above applications. A 3D MMW imaging system based on chirp radar was studied previously using a scanning imaging system of a single detector. The system presented here proposes to employ a chirp radar method with Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) Focal Plane Array (FPA of plasma based detectors) using heterodyne detection. The intensity at each pixel in the GDD FPA yields the usual 2D image. The value of the I-F frequency yields the range information at each pixel. This will enable 3D MMW imaging. In this work we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an imaging system based on radar principles and FPA of inexpensive detectors. This imaging system is shown to be capable of imaging objects from distances of at least 10 meters.

  17. A hybrid framework for 3D medical image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we propose a novel hybrid 3D segmentation framework which combines Gibbs models, marching cubes and deformable models. In the framework, first we construct a new Gibbs model whose energy function is defined on a high order clique system. The new model includes both region and boundary information during segmentation. Next we improve the original marching cubes method to construct 3D meshes from Gibbs models' output. The 3D mesh serves as the initial geometry of the deformable model. Then we deform the deformable model using external image forces so that the model converges to the object surface. We run the Gibbs model and the deformable model recursively by updating the Gibbs model's parameters using the region and boundary information in the deformable model segmentation result. In our approach, the hybrid combination of region-based methods and boundary-based methods results in improved segmentations of complex structures. The benefit of the methodology is that it produces high quality segmentations of 3D structures using little prior information and minimal user intervention. The modules in this segmentation methodology are developed within the context of the Insight ToolKit (ITK). We present experimental segmentation results of brain tumors and evaluate our method by comparing experimental results with expert manual segmentations. The evaluation results show that the methodology achieves high quality segmentation results with computational efficiency. We also present segmentation results of other clinical objects to illustrate the strength of the methodology as a generic segmentation framework.

  18. Automated Recognition of 3D Features in GPIR Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Han; Stough, Timothy; Fijany, Amir

    2007-01-01

    A method of automated recognition of three-dimensional (3D) features in images generated by ground-penetrating imaging radar (GPIR) is undergoing development. GPIR 3D images can be analyzed to detect and identify such subsurface features as pipes and other utility conduits. Until now, much of the analysis of GPIR images has been performed manually by expert operators who must visually identify and track each feature. The present method is intended to satisfy a need for more efficient and accurate analysis by means of algorithms that can automatically identify and track subsurface features, with minimal supervision by human operators. In this method, data from multiple sources (for example, data on different features extracted by different algorithms) are fused together for identifying subsurface objects. The algorithms of this method can be classified in several different ways. In one classification, the algorithms fall into three classes: (1) image-processing algorithms, (2) feature- extraction algorithms, and (3) a multiaxis data-fusion/pattern-recognition algorithm that includes a combination of machine-learning, pattern-recognition, and object-linking algorithms. The image-processing class includes preprocessing algorithms for reducing noise and enhancing target features for pattern recognition. The feature-extraction algorithms operate on preprocessed data to extract such specific features in images as two-dimensional (2D) slices of a pipe. Then the multiaxis data-fusion/ pattern-recognition algorithm identifies, classifies, and reconstructs 3D objects from the extracted features. In this process, multiple 2D features extracted by use of different algorithms and representing views along different directions are used to identify and reconstruct 3D objects. In object linking, which is an essential part of this process, features identified in successive 2D slices and located within a threshold radius of identical features in adjacent slices are linked in a

  19. A rapid and efficient 2D/3D nuclear segmentation method for analysis of early mouse embryo and stem cell image data.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xinghua; Kang, Minjung; Xenopoulos, Panagiotis; Muñoz-Descalzo, Silvia; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2014-03-11

    Segmentation is a fundamental problem that dominates the success of microscopic image analysis. In almost 25 years of cell detection software development, there is still no single piece of commercial software that works well in practice when applied to early mouse embryo or stem cell image data. To address this need, we developed MINS (modular interactive nuclear segmentation) as a MATLAB/C++-based segmentation tool tailored for counting cells and fluorescent intensity measurements of 2D and 3D image data. Our aim was to develop a tool that is accurate and efficient yet straightforward and user friendly. The MINS pipeline comprises three major cascaded modules: detection, segmentation, and cell position classification. An extensive evaluation of MINS on both 2D and 3D images, and comparison to related tools, reveals improvements in segmentation accuracy and usability. Thus, its accuracy and ease of use will allow MINS to be implemented for routine single-cell-level image analyses.

  20. 3D imaging: how to achieve highest accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    The generation of 3D information from images is a key technology in many different areas, e.g. in 3D modeling and representation of architectural or heritage objects, in human body motion tracking and scanning, in 3D scene analysis of traffic scenes, in industrial applications and many more. The basic concepts rely on mathematical representations of central perspective viewing as they are widely known from photogrammetry or computer vision approaches. The objectives of these methods differ, more or less, from high precision and well-structured measurements in (industrial) photogrammetry to fully-automated non-structured applications in computer vision. Accuracy and precision is a critical issue for the 3D measurement of industrial, engineering or medical objects. As state of the art, photogrammetric multi-view measurements achieve relative precisions in the order of 1:100000 to 1:200000, and relative accuracies with respect to retraceable lengths in the order of 1:50000 to 1:100000 of the largest object diameter. In order to obtain these figures a number of influencing parameters have to be optimized. These are, besides others: physical representation of object surface (targets, texture), illumination and light sources, imaging sensors, cameras and lenses, calibration strategies (camera model), orientation strategies (bundle adjustment), image processing of homologue features (target measurement, stereo and multi-image matching), representation of object or workpiece coordinate systems and object scale. The paper discusses the above mentioned parameters and offers strategies for obtaining highest accuracy in object space. Practical examples of high-quality stereo camera measurements and multi-image applications are used to prove the relevance of high accuracy in different applications, ranging from medical navigation to static and dynamic industrial measurements. In addition, standards for accuracy verifications are presented and demonstrated by practical examples

  1. 3D tongue motion from tagged and cine MR images.

    PubMed

    Xing, Fangxu; Woo, Jonghye; Murano, Emi Z; Lee, Junghoon; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the deformation of the tongue during human speech is important for head and neck surgeons and speech and language scientists. Tagged magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used to image 2D motion, and data from multiple image planes can be combined via post-processing to yield estimates of 3D motion. However, lacking boundary information, this approach suffers from inaccurate estimates near the tongue surface. This paper describes a method that combines two sources of information to yield improved estimation of 3D tongue motion. The method uses the harmonic phase (HARP) algorithm to extract motion from tags and diffeomorphic demons to provide surface deformation. It then uses an incompressible deformation estimation algorithm to incorporate both sources of displacement information to form an estimate of the 3D whole tongue motion. Experimental results show that use of combined information improves motion estimation near the tongue surface, a problem that has previously been reported as problematic in HARP analysis, while preserving accurate internal motion estimates. Results on both normal and abnormal tongue motions are shown.

  2. Fast 3D fluid registration of brain magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leporé, Natasha; Chou, Yi-Yu; Lopez, Oscar L.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Becker, James T.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2008-03-01

    Fluid registration is widely used in medical imaging to track anatomical changes, to correct image distortions, and to integrate multi-modality data. Fluid mappings guarantee that the template image deforms smoothly into the target, without tearing or folding, even when large deformations are required for accurate matching. Here we implemented an intensity-based fluid registration algorithm, accelerated by using a filter designed by Bro-Nielsen and Gramkow. We validated the algorithm on 2D and 3D geometric phantoms using the mean square difference between the final registered image and target as a measure of the accuracy of the registration. In tests on phantom images with different levels of overlap, varying amounts of Gaussian noise, and different intensity gradients, the fluid method outperformed a more commonly used elastic registration method, both in terms of accuracy and in avoiding topological errors during deformation. We also studied the effect of varying the viscosity coefficients in the viscous fluid equation, to optimize registration accuracy. Finally, we applied the fluid registration algorithm to a dataset of 2D binary corpus callosum images and 3D volumetric brain MRIs from 14 healthy individuals to assess its accuracy and robustness.

  3. 3-D Adaptive Sparsity Based Image Compression with Applications to Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Leyuan; Li, Shutao; Kang, Xudong; Izatt, Joseph A.; Farsiu, Sina

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel general-purpose compression method for tomographic images, termed 3D adaptive sparse representation based compression (3D-ASRC). In this paper, we focus on applications of 3D-ASRC for the compression of ophthalmic 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The 3D-ASRC algorithm exploits correlations among adjacent OCT images to improve compression performance, yet is sensitive to preserving their differences. Due to the inherent denoising mechanism of the sparsity based 3D-ASRC, the quality of the compressed images are often better than the raw images they are based on. Experiments on clinical-grade retinal OCT images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed 3D-ASRC over other well-known compression methods. PMID:25561591

  4. 3D Slicer as an Image Computing Platform for the Quantitative Imaging Network

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Andriy; Beichel, Reinhard; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Finet, Julien; Fillion-Robin, Jean-Christophe; Pujol, Sonia; Bauer, Christian; Jennings, Dominique; Fennessy, Fiona; Sonka, Milan; Buatti, John; Aylward, Stephen; Miller, James V.; Pieper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analysis has tremendous but mostly unrealized potential in healthcare to support objective and accurate interpretation of the clinical imaging. In 2008, the National Cancer Institute began building the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) initiative with the goal of advancing quantitative imaging in the context of personalized therapy and evaluation of treatment response. Computerized analysis is an important component contributing to reproducibility and efficiency of the quantitative imaging techniques. The success of quantitative imaging is contingent on robust analysis methods and software tools to bring these methods from bench to bedside. 3D Slicer is a free open source software application for medical image computing. As a clinical research tool, 3D Slicer is similar to a radiology workstation that supports versatile visualizations but also provides advanced functionality such as automated segmentation and registration for a variety of application domains. Unlike a typical radiology workstation, 3D Slicer is free and is not tied to specific hardware. As a programming platform, 3D Slicer facilitates translation and evaluation of the new quantitative methods by allowing the biomedical researcher to focus on the implementation of the algorithm, and providing abstractions for the common tasks of data communication, visualization and user interface development. Compared to other tools that provide aspects of this functionality, 3D Slicer is fully open source and can be readily extended and redistributed. In addition, 3D Slicer is designed to facilitate the development of new functionality in the form of 3D Slicer extensions. In this paper, we present an overview of 3D Slicer as a platform for prototyping, development and evaluation of image analysis tools for clinical research applications. To illustrate the utility of the platform in the scope of QIN, we discuss several use cases of 3D Slicer by the existing QIN teams, and we elaborate on the future

  5. On Alternative Approaches to 3D Image Perception: Monoscopic 3D Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundell, Barry G.

    2015-06-01

    In the eighteenth century, techniques that enabled a strong sense of 3D perception to be experienced without recourse to binocular disparities (arising from the spatial separation of the eyes) underpinned the first significant commercial sales of 3D viewing devices and associated content. However following the advent of stereoscopic techniques in the nineteenth century, 3D image depiction has become inextricably linked to binocular parallax and outside the vision science and arts communities relatively little attention has been directed towards earlier approaches. Here we introduce relevant concepts and terminology and consider a number of techniques and optical devices that enable 3D perception to be experienced on the basis of planar images rendered from a single vantage point. Subsequently we allude to possible mechanisms for non-binocular parallax based 3D perception. Particular attention is given to reviewing areas likely to be thought-provoking to those involved in 3D display development, spatial visualization, HCI, and other related areas of interdisciplinary research.

  6. A 3D Monte Carlo Method for Estimation of Patient-specific Internal Organs Absorbed Dose for 99mTc-hynic-Tyr3-octreotide Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Momennezhad, Mehdi; Nasseri, Shahrokh; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Parach, Ali Asghar; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Asl, Ruhollah Ghahraman

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based tracers are easily available and more widely used than positron emission tomography (PET)-based tracers, and SPECT imaging still remains the most prevalent nuclear medicine imaging modality worldwide. The aim of this study is to implement an image-based Monte Carlo method for patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) absorbed dose calculation in patients after injection of 99mTc-hydrazinonicotinamide (hynic)-Tyr3-octreotide as a SPECT radiotracer. 99mTc patient-specific S values and the absorbed doses were calculated with GATE code for each source-target organ pair in four patients who were imaged for suspected neuroendocrine tumors. Each patient underwent multiple whole-body planar scans as well as SPECT imaging over a period of 1-24 h after intravenous injection of 99mhynic-Tyr3-octreotide. The patient-specific S values calculated by GATE Monte Carlo code and the corresponding S values obtained by MIRDOSE program differed within 4.3% on an average for self-irradiation, and differed within 69.6% on an average for cross-irradiation. However, the agreement between total organ doses calculated by GATE code and MIRDOSE program for all patients was reasonably well (percentage difference was about 4.6% on an average). Normal and tumor absorbed doses calculated with GATE were slightly higher than those calculated with MIRDOSE program. The average ratio of GATE absorbed doses to MIRDOSE was 1.07 ± 0.11 (ranging from 0.94 to 1.36). According to the results, it is proposed that when cross-organ irradiation is dominant, a comprehensive approach such as GATE Monte Carlo dosimetry be used since it provides more reliable dosimetric results. PMID:27134562

  7. A 3D Monte Carlo Method for Estimation of Patient-specific Internal Organs Absorbed Dose for (99m)Tc-hynic-Tyr(3)-octreotide Imaging.

    PubMed

    Momennezhad, Mehdi; Nasseri, Shahrokh; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Parach, Ali Asghar; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Asl, Ruhollah Ghahraman

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based tracers are easily available and more widely used than positron emission tomography (PET)-based tracers, and SPECT imaging still remains the most prevalent nuclear medicine imaging modality worldwide. The aim of this study is to implement an image-based Monte Carlo method for patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) absorbed dose calculation in patients after injection of (99m)Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide (hynic)-Tyr(3)-octreotide as a SPECT radiotracer. (99m)Tc patient-specific S values and the absorbed doses were calculated with GATE code for each source-target organ pair in four patients who were imaged for suspected neuroendocrine tumors. Each patient underwent multiple whole-body planar scans as well as SPECT imaging over a period of 1-24 h after intravenous injection of (99m)hynic-Tyr(3)-octreotide. The patient-specific S values calculated by GATE Monte Carlo code and the corresponding S values obtained by MIRDOSE program differed within 4.3% on an average for self-irradiation, and differed within 69.6% on an average for cross-irradiation. However, the agreement between total organ doses calculated by GATE code and MIRDOSE program for all patients was reasonably well (percentage difference was about 4.6% on an average). Normal and tumor absorbed doses calculated with GATE were slightly higher than those calculated with MIRDOSE program. The average ratio of GATE absorbed doses to MIRDOSE was 1.07 ± 0.11 (ranging from 0.94 to 1.36). According to the results, it is proposed that when cross-organ irradiation is dominant, a comprehensive approach such as GATE Monte Carlo dosimetry be used since it provides more reliable dosimetric results.

  8. Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Hyperspectral Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimesh, Matthew; Kiely, Aaron; Xie, Hua; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2009-01-01

    Two methods of increasing the effectiveness of three-dimensional (3D) wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images have been developed. (As used here, images signifies both images and digital data representing images.) The methods are oriented toward reducing or eliminating detrimental effects of a phenomenon, referred to as spectral ringing, that is described below. In 3D wavelet-based compression, an image is represented by a multiresolution wavelet decomposition consisting of several subbands obtained by applying wavelet transforms in the two spatial dimensions corresponding to the two spatial coordinate axes of the image plane, and by applying wavelet transforms in the spectral dimension. Spectral ringing is named after the more familiar spatial ringing (spurious spatial oscillations) that can be seen parallel to and near edges in ordinary images reconstructed from compressed data. These ringing phenomena are attributable to effects of quantization. In hyperspectral data, the individual spectral bands play the role of edges, causing spurious oscillations to occur in the spectral dimension. In the absence of such corrective measures as the present two methods, spectral ringing can manifest itself as systematic biases in some reconstructed spectral bands and can reduce the effectiveness of compression of spatially-low-pass subbands. One of the two methods is denoted mean subtraction. The basic idea of this method is to subtract mean values from spatial planes of spatially low-pass subbands prior to encoding, because (a) such spatial planes often have mean values that are far from zero and (b) zero-mean data are better suited for compression by methods that are effective for subbands of two-dimensional (2D) images. In this method, after the 3D wavelet decomposition is performed, mean values are computed for and subtracted from each spatial plane of each spatially-low-pass subband. The resulting data are converted to sign-magnitude form and compressed in a

  9. Display of travelling 3D scenes from single integral-imaging capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Corral, Manuel; Dorado, Adrian; Hong, Seok-Min; Sola-Pikabea, Jorge; Saavedra, Genaro

    2016-06-01

    Integral imaging (InI) is a 3D auto-stereoscopic technique that captures and displays 3D images. We present a method for easily projecting the information recorded with this technique by transforming the integral image into a plenoptic image, as well as choosing, at will, the field of view (FOV) and the focused plane of the displayed plenoptic image. Furthermore, with this method we can generate a sequence of images that simulates a camera travelling through the scene from a single integral image. The application of this method permits to improve the quality of 3D display images and videos.

  10. Digital acquisition system for high-speed 3-D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yafuso, Eiji

    1997-11-01

    High-speed digital three-dimensional (3-D) imagery is possible using multiple independent charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras with sequentially triggered acquisition and individual field storage capability. The system described here utilizes sixteen independent cameras, providing versatility in configuration and image acquisition. By aligning the cameras in nearly coincident lines-of-sight, a sixteen frame two-dimensional (2-D) sequence can be captured. The delays can be individually adjusted lo yield a greater number of acquired frames during the more rapid segments of the event. Additionally, individual integration periods may be adjusted to ensure adequate radiometric response while minimizing image blur. An alternative alignment and triggering scheme arranges the cameras into two angularly separated banks of eight cameras each. By simultaneously triggering correlated stereo pairs, an eight-frame sequence of stereo images may be captured. In the first alignment scheme the camera lines-of-sight cannot be made precisely coincident. Thus representation of the data as a monocular sequence introduces the issue of independent camera coordinate registration with the real scene. This issue arises more significantly using the stereo pair method to reconstruct quantitative 3-D spatial information of the event as a function of time. The principal development here will be the derivation and evaluation of a solution transform and its inverse for the digital data which will yield a 3-D spatial mapping as a function of time.

  11. Validation of image processing tools for 3-D fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dieterlen, Alain; Xu, Chengqi; Gramain, Marie-Pierre; Haeberlé, Olivier; Colicchio, Bruno; Cudel, Christophe; Jacquey, Serge; Ginglinger, Emanuelle; Jung, Georges; Jeandidier, Eric

    2002-04-01

    3-D optical fluorescent microscopy becomes nowadays an efficient tool for volumic investigation of living biological samples. Using optical sectioning technique, a stack of 2-D images is obtained. However, due to the nature of the system optical transfer function and non-optimal experimental conditions, acquired raw data usually suffer from some distortions. In order to carry out biological analysis, raw data have to be restored by deconvolution. The system identification by the point-spread function is useful to obtain the knowledge of the actual system and experimental parameters, which is necessary to restore raw data. It is furthermore helpful to precise the experimental protocol. In order to facilitate the use of image processing techniques, a multi-platform-compatible software package called VIEW3D has been developed. It integrates a set of tools for the analysis of fluorescence images from 3-D wide-field or confocal microscopy. A number of regularisation parameters for data restoration are determined automatically. Common geometrical measurements and morphological descriptors of fluorescent sites are also implemented to facilitate the characterisation of biological samples. An example of this method concerning cytogenetics is presented.

  12. A fully automatic, threshold-based segmentation method for the estimation of the Metabolic Tumor Volume from PET images: validation on 3D printed anthropomorphic oncological lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallivanone, F.; Interlenghi, M.; Canervari, C.; Castiglioni, I.

    2016-01-01

    18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a standard functional diagnostic technique to in vivo image cancer. Different quantitative paramters can be extracted from PET images and used as in vivo cancer biomarkers. Between PET biomarkers Metabolic Tumor Volume (MTV) has gained an important role in particular considering the development of patient-personalized radiotherapy treatment for non-homogeneous dose delivery. Different imaging processing methods have been developed to define MTV. The different proposed PET segmentation strategies were validated in ideal condition (e.g. in spherical objects with uniform radioactivity concentration), while the majority of cancer lesions doesn't fulfill these requirements. In this context, this work has a twofold objective: 1) to implement and optimize a fully automatic, threshold-based segmentation method for the estimation of MTV, feasible in clinical practice 2) to develop a strategy to obtain anthropomorphic phantoms, including non-spherical and non-uniform objects, miming realistic oncological patient conditions. The developed PET segmentation algorithm combines an automatic threshold-based algorithm for the definition of MTV and a k-means clustering algorithm for the estimation of the background. The method is based on parameters always available in clinical studies and was calibrated using NEMA IQ Phantom. Validation of the method was performed both in ideal (e.g. in spherical objects with uniform radioactivity concentration) and non-ideal (e.g. in non-spherical objects with a non-uniform radioactivity concentration) conditions. The strategy to obtain a phantom with synthetic realistic lesions (e.g. with irregular shape and a non-homogeneous uptake) consisted into the combined use of standard anthropomorphic phantoms commercially and irregular molds generated using 3D printer technology and filled with a radioactive chromatic alginate. The proposed segmentation algorithm was feasible in a

  13. 3D Gabor wavelet based vessel filtering of photoacoustic images.

    PubMed

    Haq, Israr Ul; Nagoaka, Ryo; Makino, Takahiro; Tabata, Takuya; Saijo, Yoshifumi

    2016-08-01

    Filtering and segmentation of vasculature is an important issue in medical imaging. The visualization of vasculature is crucial for the early diagnosis and therapy in numerous medical applications. This paper investigates the use of Gabor wavelet to enhance the effect of vasculature while eliminating the noise due to size, sensitivity and aperture of the detector in 3D Optical Resolution Photoacoustic Microscopy (OR-PAM). A detailed multi-scale analysis of wavelet filtering and Hessian based method is analyzed for extracting vessels of different sizes since the blood vessels usually vary with in a range of radii. The proposed algorithm first enhances the vasculature in the image and then tubular structures are classified by eigenvalue decomposition of the local Hessian matrix at each voxel in the image. The algorithm is tested on non-invasive experiments, which shows appreciable results to enhance vasculature in photo-acoustic images.

  14. 3D Lunar Terrain Reconstruction from Apollo Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broxton, Michael J.; Nefian, Ara V.; Moratto, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Lundy, Michael; Segal, Alkeksandr V.

    2009-01-01

    Generating accurate three dimensional planetary models is becoming increasingly important as NASA plans manned missions to return to the Moon in the next decade. This paper describes a 3D surface reconstruction system called the Ames Stereo Pipeline that is designed to produce such models automatically by processing orbital stereo imagery. We discuss two important core aspects of this system: (1) refinement of satellite station positions and pose estimates through least squares bundle adjustment; and (2) a stochastic plane fitting algorithm that generalizes the Lucas-Kanade method for optimal matching between stereo pair images.. These techniques allow us to automatically produce seamless, highly accurate digital elevation models from multiple stereo image pairs while significantly reducing the influence of image noise. Our technique is demonstrated on a set of 71 high resolution scanned images from the Apollo 15 mission

  15. Phase Sensitive Cueing for 3D Objects in Overhead Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D W; Eppler, W G; Poland, D N

    2005-02-18

    A 3D solid model-aided object cueing method that matches phase angles of directional derivative vectors at image pixels to phase angles of vectors normal to projected model edges is described. It is intended for finding specific types of objects at arbitrary position and orientation in overhead images, independent of spatial resolution, obliqueness, acquisition conditions, and type of imaging sensor. It is shown that the phase similarity measure can be efficiently evaluated over all combinations of model position and orientation using the FFT. The highest degree of similarity over all model orientations is captured in a match surface of similarity values vs. model position. Unambiguous peaks in this surface are sorted in descending order of similarity value, and the small image thumbnails that contain them are presented to human analysts for inspection in sorted order.

  16. Automatic structural matching of 3D image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Svjatoslav; Lutsiv, Vadim; Malyshev, Igor

    2015-10-01

    A new image matching technique is described. It is implemented as an object-independent hierarchical structural juxtaposition algorithm based on an alphabet of simple object-independent contour structural elements. The structural matching applied implements an optimized method of walking through a truncated tree of all possible juxtapositions of two sets of structural elements. The algorithm was initially developed for dealing with 2D images such as the aerospace photographs, and it turned out to be sufficiently robust and reliable for matching successfully the pictures of natural landscapes taken in differing seasons from differing aspect angles by differing sensors (the visible optical, IR, and SAR pictures, as well as the depth maps and geographical vector-type maps). At present (in the reported version), the algorithm is enhanced based on additional use of information on third spatial coordinates of observed points of object surfaces. Thus, it is now capable of matching the images of 3D scenes in the tasks of automatic navigation of extremely low flying unmanned vehicles or autonomous terrestrial robots. The basic principles of 3D structural description and matching of images are described, and the examples of image matching are presented.

  17. 3-D capacitance density imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, G.E.

    1988-03-18

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved. 7 figs.

  18. Quantification of thyroid volume using 3-D ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Kollorz, E K; Hahn, D A; Linke, R; Goecke, T W; Hornegger, J; Kuwert, T

    2008-04-01

    Ultrasound (US) is among the most popular diagnostic techniques today. It is non-invasive, fast, comparably cheap, and does not require ionizing radiation. US is commonly used to examine the size, and structure of the thyroid gland. In clinical routine, thyroid imaging is usually performed by means of 2-D US. Conventional approaches for measuring the volume of the thyroid gland or its nodules may therefore be inaccurate due to the lack of 3-D information. This work reports a semi-automatic segmentation approach for the classification, and analysis of the thyroid gland based on 3-D US data. The images are scanned in 3-D, pre-processed, and segmented. Several pre-processing methods, and an extension of a commonly used geodesic active contour level set formulation are discussed in detail. The results obtained by this approach are compared to manual interactive segmentations by a medical expert in five representative patients. Our work proposes a novel framework for the volumetric quantification of thyroid gland lobes, which may also be expanded to other parenchymatous organs.

  19. Phase Sensitive Cueing for 3D Objects in Overhead Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D

    2005-02-04

    Locating specific 3D objects in overhead images is an important problem in many remote sensing applications. 3D objects may contain either one connected component or multiple disconnected components. Solutions must accommodate images acquired with diverse sensors at various times of the day, in various seasons of the year, or under various weather conditions. Moreover, the physical manifestation of a 3D object with fixed physical dimensions in an overhead image is highly dependent on object physical dimensions, object position/orientation, image spatial resolution, and imaging geometry (e.g., obliqueness). This paper describes a two-stage computer-assisted approach for locating 3D objects in overhead images. In the matching stage, the computer matches models of 3D objects to overhead images. The strongest degree of match over all object orientations is computed at each pixel. Unambiguous local maxima in the degree of match as a function of pixel location are then found. In the cueing stage, the computer sorts image thumbnails in descending order of figure-of-merit and presents them to human analysts for visual inspection and interpretation. The figure-of-merit associated with an image thumbnail is computed from the degrees of match to a 3D object model associated with unambiguous local maxima that lie within the thumbnail. This form of computer assistance is invaluable when most of the relevant thumbnails are highly ranked, and the amount of inspection time needed is much less for the highly ranked thumbnails than for images as a whole.

  20. 3D laser imaging for concealed object identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berechet, Ion; Berginc, Gérard; Berechet, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    This paper deals with new optical non-conventional 3D laser imaging. Optical non-conventional imaging explores the advantages of laser imaging to form a three-dimensional image of the scene. 3D laser imaging can be used for threedimensional medical imaging, topography, surveillance, robotic vision because of ability to detect and recognize objects. In this paper, we present a 3D laser imaging for concealed object identification. The objective of this new 3D laser imaging is to provide the user a complete 3D reconstruction of the concealed object from available 2D data limited in number and with low representativeness. The 2D laser data used in this paper come from simulations that are based on the calculation of the laser interactions with the different interfaces of the scene of interest and from experimental results. We show the global 3D reconstruction procedures capable to separate objects from foliage and reconstruct a threedimensional image of the considered object. In this paper, we present examples of reconstruction and completion of three-dimensional images and we analyse the different parameters of the identification process such as resolution, the scenario of camouflage, noise impact and lacunarity degree.

  1. 3D Imaging of the OH mesospheric emissive layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouahla, M. N.; Moreels, G.; Faivre, M.; Clairemidi, J.; Meriwether, J. W.; Lehmacher, G. A.; Vidal, E.; Veliz, O.

    2010-01-01

    A new and original stereo imaging method is introduced to measure the altitude of the OH nightglow layer and provide a 3D perspective map of the altitude of the layer centroid. Near-IR photographs of the OH layer are taken at two sites separated by a 645 km distance. Each photograph is processed in order to provide a satellite view of the layer. When superposed, the two views present a common diamond-shaped area. Pairs of matched points that correspond to a physical emissive point in the common area are identified in calculating a normalized cross-correlation coefficient (NCC). This method is suitable for obtaining 3D representations in the case of low-contrast objects. An observational campaign was conducted in July 2006 in Peru. The images were taken simultaneously at Cerro Cosmos (12°09‧08.2″ S, 75°33‧49.3″ W, altitude 4630 m) close to Huancayo and Cerro Verde Tellolo (16°33‧17.6″ S, 71°39‧59.4″ W, altitude 2272 m) close to Arequipa. 3D maps of the layer surface were retrieved and compared with pseudo-relief intensity maps of the same region. The mean altitude of the emission barycenter is located at 86.3 km on July 26. Comparable relief wavy features appear in the 3D and intensity maps. It is shown that the vertical amplitude of the wave system varies as exp (Δz/2H) within the altitude range Δz = 83.5-88.0 km, H being the scale height. The oscillatory kinetic energy at the altitude of the OH layer is comprised between 3 × 10-4 and 5.4 × 10-4 J/m3, which is 2-3 times smaller than the values derived from partial radio wave at 52°N latitude.

  2. Precise 3D image alignment in micro-axial tomography.

    PubMed

    Matula, P; Kozubek, M; Staier, F; Hausmann, M

    2003-02-01

    Micro (micro-) axial tomography is a challenging technique in microscopy which improves quantitative imaging especially in cytogenetic applications by means of defined sample rotation under the microscope objective. The advantage of micro-axial tomography is an effective improvement of the precision of distance measurements between point-like objects. Under certain circumstances, the effective (3D) resolution can be improved by optimized acquisition depending on subsequent, multi-perspective image recording of the same objects followed by reconstruction methods. This requires, however, a very precise alignment of the tilted views. We present a novel feature-based image alignment method with a precision better than the full width at half maximum of the point spread function. The features are the positions (centres of gravity) of all fluorescent objects observed in the images (e.g. cell nuclei, fluorescent signals inside cell nuclei, fluorescent beads, etc.). Thus, real alignment precision depends on the localization precision of these objects. The method automatically determines the corresponding objects in subsequently tilted perspectives using a weighted bipartite graph. The optimum transformation function is computed in a least squares manner based on the coordinates of the centres of gravity of the matched objects. The theoretically feasible precision of the method was calculated using computer-generated data and confirmed by tests on real image series obtained from data sets of 200 nm fluorescent nano-particles. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are its speed and accuracy, which means that if enough objects are included, the real alignment precision is better than the axial localization precision of a single object. The alignment precision can be assessed directly from the algorithm's output. Thus, the method can be applied not only for image alignment and object matching in tilted view series in order to reconstruct (3D) images, but also to validate the

  3. Critical comparison of 3D imaging approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C L

    1999-06-03

    Currently three imaging spectrometer architectures, tunable filter, dispersive, and Fourier transform, are viable for imaging the universe in three dimensions. There are domains of greatest utility for each of these architectures. The optimum choice among the various alternative architectures is dependent on the nature of the desired observations, the maturity of the relevant technology, and the character of the backgrounds. The domain appropriate for each of the alternatives is delineated; both for instruments having ideal performance as well as for instrumentation based on currently available technology. The environment and science objectives for the Next Generation Space Telescope will be used as a specific representative case to provide a basis for comparison of the various alternatives.

  4. Acoustic 3D imaging of dental structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.K.; Hume, W.R.; Douglass, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    Our goals for the first year of this three dimensional electodynamic imaging project was to determine how to combine flexible, individual addressable; preprocessing of array source signals; spectral extrapolation or received signals; acoustic tomography codes; and acoustic propagation modeling code. We investigated flexible, individually addressable acoustic array material to find the best match in power, sensitivity and cost and settled on PVDF sheet arrays and 3-1 composite material.

  5. Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    1 Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization David N. Ford...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization 5a...Manufacturing ( 3D printing ) 2 Research Context Problem: Learning curve savings forecasted in SHIPMAIN maintenance initiative have not materialized

  6. 3D Multispectral Light Propagation Model For Subcutaneous Veins Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new 3D light propagation model aimed at understanding the effects of various physiological properties on subcutaneous vein imaging. In particular, we build upon the well known MCML (Monte Carlo Multi Layer) code and present a tissue model that improves upon the current state-of-the-art by: incorporating physiological variation, such as melanin concentration, fat content, and layer thickness; including veins of varying depth and diameter; using curved surfaces from real arm shapes; and modeling the vessel wall interface. We describe our model, present results from the Monte Carlo modeling, and compare these results with those obtained with other Monte Carlo methods.

  7. Combined registration of 3D tibia and femur implant models in 3D magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Siebert, Markus; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger; Graichen, Heiko

    2008-03-01

    The most frequent reasons for revision of total knee arthroplasty are loosening and abnormal axial alignment leading to an unphysiological kinematic of the knee implant. To get an idea about the postoperative kinematic of the implant, it is essential to determine the position and orientation of the tibial and femoral prosthesis. Therefore we developed a registration method for fitting 3D CAD-models of knee joint prostheses into an 3D MR image. This rigid registration is the basis for a quantitative analysis of the kinematics of knee implants. Firstly the surface data of the prostheses models are converted into a voxel representation; a recursive algorithm determines all boundary voxels of the original triangular surface data. Secondly an initial preconfiguration of the implants by the user is still necessary for the following step: The user has to perform a rough preconfiguration of both remaining prostheses models, so that the fine matching process gets a reasonable starting point. After that an automated gradient-based fine matching process determines the best absolute position and orientation: This iterative process changes all 6 parameters (3 rotational- and 3 translational parameters) of a model by a minimal amount until a maximum value of the matching function is reached. To examine the spread of the final solutions of the registration, the interobserver variability was measured in a group of testers. This variability, calculated by the relative standard deviation, improved from about 50% (pure manual registration) to 0.5% (rough manual preconfiguration and subsequent fine registration with the automatic fine matching process).

  8. Fully Automatic Localization and Segmentation of 3D Vertebral Bodies from CT/MR Images via a Learning-Based Method.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chengwen; Belavý, Daniel L; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Bansmann, Martin; Felsenberg, Dieter; Zheng, Guoyan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problems of fully automatic localization and segmentation of 3D vertebral bodies from CT/MR images. We propose a learning-based, unified random forest regression and classification framework to tackle these two problems. More specifically, in the first stage, the localization of 3D vertebral bodies is solved with random forest regression where we aggregate the votes from a set of randomly sampled image patches to get a probability map of the center of a target vertebral body in a given image. The resultant probability map is then further regularized by Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to eliminate potential ambiguity caused by the neighboring vertebral bodies. The output from the first stage allows us to define a region of interest (ROI) for the segmentation step, where we use random forest classification to estimate the likelihood of a voxel in the ROI being foreground or background. The estimated likelihood is combined with the prior probability, which is learned from a set of training data, to get the posterior probability of the voxel. The segmentation of the target vertebral body is then done by a binary thresholding of the estimated probability. We evaluated the present approach on two openly available datasets: 1) 3D T2-weighted spine MR images from 23 patients and 2) 3D spine CT images from 10 patients. Taking manual segmentation as the ground truth (each MR image contains at least 7 vertebral bodies from T11 to L5 and each CT image contains 5 vertebral bodies from L1 to L5), we evaluated the present approach with leave-one-out experiments. Specifically, for the T2-weighted MR images, we achieved for localization a mean error of 1.6 mm, and for segmentation a mean Dice metric of 88.7% and a mean surface distance of 1.5 mm, respectively. For the CT images we achieved for localization a mean error of 1.9 mm, and for segmentation a mean Dice metric of 91.0% and a mean surface distance of 0.9 mm, respectively.

  9. Fully Automatic Localization and Segmentation of 3D Vertebral Bodies from CT/MR Images via a Learning-Based Method

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chengwen; Belavý, Daniel L.; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Bansmann, Martin; Felsenberg, Dieter; Zheng, Guoyan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problems of fully automatic localization and segmentation of 3D vertebral bodies from CT/MR images. We propose a learning-based, unified random forest regression and classification framework to tackle these two problems. More specifically, in the first stage, the localization of 3D vertebral bodies is solved with random forest regression where we aggregate the votes from a set of randomly sampled image patches to get a probability map of the center of a target vertebral body in a given image. The resultant probability map is then further regularized by Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to eliminate potential ambiguity caused by the neighboring vertebral bodies. The output from the first stage allows us to define a region of interest (ROI) for the segmentation step, where we use random forest classification to estimate the likelihood of a voxel in the ROI being foreground or background. The estimated likelihood is combined with the prior probability, which is learned from a set of training data, to get the posterior probability of the voxel. The segmentation of the target vertebral body is then done by a binary thresholding of the estimated probability. We evaluated the present approach on two openly available datasets: 1) 3D T2-weighted spine MR images from 23 patients and 2) 3D spine CT images from 10 patients. Taking manual segmentation as the ground truth (each MR image contains at least 7 vertebral bodies from T11 to L5 and each CT image contains 5 vertebral bodies from L1 to L5), we evaluated the present approach with leave-one-out experiments. Specifically, for the T2-weighted MR images, we achieved for localization a mean error of 1.6 mm, and for segmentation a mean Dice metric of 88.7% and a mean surface distance of 1.5 mm, respectively. For the CT images we achieved for localization a mean error of 1.9 mm, and for segmentation a mean Dice metric of 91.0% and a mean surface distance of 0.9 mm, respectively. PMID:26599505

  10. Density-tapered spiral arrays for ultrasound 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Ramalli, Alessandro; Boni, Enrico; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart; Tortoli, Piero

    2015-08-01

    The current high interest in 3-D ultrasound imaging is pushing the development of 2-D probes with a challenging number of active elements. The most popular approach to limit this number is the sparse array technique, which designs the array layout by means of complex optimization algorithms. These algorithms are typically constrained by a few steering conditions, and, as such, cannot guarantee uniform side-lobe performance at all angles. The performance may be improved by the ungridded extensions of the sparse array technique, but this result is achieved at the expense of a further complication of the optimization process. In this paper, a method to design the layout of large circular arrays with a limited number of elements according to Fermat's spiral seeds and spatial density modulation is proposed and shown to be suitable for application to 3-D ultrasound imaging. This deterministic, aperiodic, and balanced positioning procedure attempts to guarantee uniform performance over a wide range of steering angles. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by simulating and comparing the performance of spiral and dense arrays. A good trade-off for small vessel imaging is found, e.g., in the 60λ spiral array with 1.0λ elements and Blackman density tapering window. Here, the grating lobe level is -16 dB, the lateral resolution is lower than 6λ the depth of field is 120λ and, the average contrast is 10.3 dB, while the sensitivity remains in a 5 dB range for a wide selection of steering angles. The simulation results may represent a reference guide to the design of spiral sparse array probes for different application fields.

  11. Accommodation response measurements for integral 3D image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiura, H.; Mishina, T.; Arai, J.; Iwadate, Y.

    2014-03-01

    We measured accommodation responses under integral photography (IP), binocular stereoscopic, and real object display conditions, and viewing conditions of binocular and monocular viewing conditions. The equipment we used was an optometric device and a 3D display. We developed the 3D display for IP and binocular stereoscopic images that comprises a high-resolution liquid crystal display (LCD) and a high-density lens array. The LCD has a resolution of 468 dpi and a diagonal size of 4.8 inches. The high-density lens array comprises 106 x 69 micro lenses that have a focal length of 3 mm and diameter of 1 mm. The lenses are arranged in a honeycomb pattern. The 3D display was positioned 60 cm from an observer under IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. The target was presented at eight depth positions relative to the 3D display: 15, 10, and 5 cm in front of the 3D display, on the 3D display panel, and 5, 10, 15 and 30 cm behind the 3D display under the IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. Under the real object display condition, the target was displayed on the 3D display panel, and the 3D display was placed at the eight positions. The results suggest that the IP image induced more natural accommodation responses compared to the binocular stereoscopic image. The accommodation responses of the IP image were weaker than those of a real object; however, they showed a similar tendency with those of the real object under the two viewing conditions. Therefore, IP can induce accommodation to the depth positions of 3D images.

  12. 3D Whole Heart Imaging for Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Greil, Gerald; Tandon, Animesh (Aashoo); Silva Vieira, Miguel; Hussain, Tarique

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) whole heart techniques form a cornerstone in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease (CHD). It offers significant advantages over other CHD imaging modalities and techniques: no ionizing radiation; ability to be run free-breathing; ECG-gated dual-phase imaging for accurate measurements and tissue properties estimation; and higher signal-to-noise ratio and isotropic voxel resolution for multiplanar reformatting assessment. However, there are limitations, such as potentially long acquisition times with image quality degradation. Recent advances in and current applications of 3D whole heart imaging in CHD are detailed, as well as future directions. PMID:28289674

  13. A colour image reproduction framework for 3D colour printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Kaida; Sohiab, Ali; Sun, Pei-li; Yates, Julian M.; Li, Changjun; Wuerger, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the current technologies in full colour 3D printing technology were introduced. A framework of colour image reproduction process for 3D colour printing is proposed. A special focus was put on colour management for 3D printed objects. Two approaches, colorimetric colour reproduction and spectral based colour reproduction are proposed in order to faithfully reproduce colours in 3D objects. Two key studies, colour reproduction for soft tissue prostheses and colour uniformity correction across different orientations are described subsequently. Results are clear shown that applying proposed colour image reproduction framework, performance of colour reproduction can be significantly enhanced. With post colour corrections, a further improvement in colour process are achieved for 3D printed objects.

  14. 3D imaging of neutron tracks using confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Wertheim, David; Flowers, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Neutron detection and neutron flux assessment are important aspects in monitoring nuclear energy production. Neutron flux measurements can also provide information on potential biological damage from exposure. In addition to the applications for neutron measurement in nuclear energy, neutron detection has been proposed as a method of enhancing neutrino detectors and cosmic ray flux has also been assessed using ground-level neutron detectors. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (or SSNTDs) have been used extensively to examine cosmic rays, long-lived radioactive elements, radon concentrations in buildings and the age of geological samples. Passive SSNTDs consisting of a CR-39 plastic are commonly used to measure radon because they respond to incident charged particles such as alpha particles from radon gas in air. They have a large dynamic range and a linear flux response. We have previously applied confocal microscopy to obtain 3D images of alpha particle tracks in SSNTDs from radon track monitoring (1). As a charged particle traverses through the polymer it creates an ionisation trail along its path. The trail or track is normally enhanced by chemical etching to better expose radiation damage, as the damaged area is more sensitive to the etchant than the bulk material. Particle tracks in CR-39 are usually assessed using 2D optical microscopy. In this study 6 detectors were examined using an Olympus OLS4100 LEXT 3D laser scanning confocal microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan). The detectors had been etched for 2 hours 50 minutes at 85 °C in 6.25M NaOH. Post etch the plastics had been treated with a 10 minute immersion in a 2% acetic acid stop bath, followed by rinsing in deionised water. The detectors examined had been irradiated with a 2mSv neutron dose from an Am(Be) neutron source (producing roughly 20 tracks per mm2). We were able to successfully acquire 3D images of neutron tracks in the detectors studied. The range of track diameter observed was between 4

  15. 3D fingerprint imaging system based on full-field fringe projection profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua; Zhao, Yan; Dai, Jie; Chen, Chao; Xu, Yongjia; Zhang, E.; Xie, Lili

    2014-01-01

    As an unique, unchangeable and easily acquired biometrics, fingerprint has been widely studied in academics and applied in many fields over the years. The traditional fingerprint recognition methods are based on the obtained 2D feature of fingerprint. However, fingerprint is a 3D biological characteristic. The mapping from 3D to 2D loses 1D information and causes nonlinear distortion of the captured fingerprint. Therefore, it is becoming more and more important to obtain 3D fingerprint information for recognition. In this paper, a novel 3D fingerprint imaging system is presented based on fringe projection technique to obtain 3D features and the corresponding color texture information. A series of color sinusoidal fringe patterns with optimum three-fringe numbers are projected onto a finger surface. From another viewpoint, the fringe patterns are deformed by the finger surface and captured by a CCD camera. 3D shape data of the finger can be obtained from the captured fringe pattern images. This paper studies the prototype of the 3D fingerprint imaging system, including principle of 3D fingerprint acquisition, hardware design of the 3D imaging system, 3D calibration of the system, and software development. Some experiments are carried out by acquiring several 3D fingerprint data. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed 3D fingerprint imaging system.

  16. 3D reconstruction methods of coronal structures by radio observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Bastian, T. S.; White, Stephen M.

    1992-01-01

    The ability to carry out the three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of structures in the solar corona would represent a major advance in the study of the physical properties in active regions and in flares. Methods which allow a geometric reconstruction of quasistationary coronal structures (for example active region loops) or dynamic structures (for example flaring loops) are described: stereoscopy of multi-day imaging observations by the VLA (Very Large Array); tomography of optically thin emission (in radio or soft x-rays); multifrequency band imaging by the VLA; and tracing of magnetic field lines by propagating electron beams.

  17. Frames-Based Denoising in 3D Confocal Microscopy Imaging.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Santamaria-Pang, Alberto; Kakadiaris, Ioannis

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel denoising method for 3D confocal microscopy data based on robust edge detection. Our approach relies on the construction of a non-separable frame system in 3D that incorporates the Sobel operator in dual spatial directions. This multidirectional set of digital filters is capable of robustly detecting edge information by ensemble thresholding of the filtered data. We demonstrate the application of our method to both synthetic and real confocal microscopy data by comparing it to denoising methods based on separable 3D wavelets and 3D median filtering, and report very encouraging results.

  18. Linking snow microstructure to its macroscopic elastic stiffness tensor: A numerical homogenization method and its application to 3-D images from X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wautier, A.; Geindreau, C.; Flin, F.

    2015-10-01

    The full 3-D macroscopic mechanical behavior of snow is investigated by solving kinematically uniform boundary condition problems derived from homogenization theories over 3-D images obtained by X-ray tomography. Snow is modeled as a porous cohesive material, and its mechanical stiffness tensor is computed within the framework of the elastic behavior of ice. The size of the optimal representative elementary volume, expressed in terms of correlation lengths, is determined through a convergence analysis of the computed effective properties. A wide range of snow densities is explored, and power laws with high regression coefficients are proposed to link the Young's and shear moduli of snow to its density. The degree of anisotropy of these properties is quantified, and Poisson's ratios are also provided. Finally, the influence of the main types of metamorphism (isothermal, temperature gradient, and wet snow metamorphism) on the elastic properties of snow and on their anisotropy is reported.

  19. Complex Resistivity 3D Imaging for Ground Reinforcement Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J.; Kim, J.; Park, S.

    2012-12-01

    Induced polarization (IP) method is used for mineral exploration and generally classified into two categories, time and frequency domain method. IP method in frequency domain measures amplitude and absolute phase to the transmitted currents, and is often called spectral induced polarization (SIP) when measurement is made for the wide-band frequencies. Our research group has been studying the modeling and inversion algorithms of complex resistivity method since several years ago and recently started to apply this method for various field applications. We already completed the development of 2/3D modeling and inversion program and developing another algorithm to use wide-band data altogether. Until now complex resistivity (CR) method was mainly used for the surface or tomographic survey of mineral exploration. Through the experience, we can find that the resistivity section from CR method is very similar with that of conventional resistivity method. Interpretation of the phase section is generally well matched with the geological information of survey area. But because most of survey area has very touch and complex terrain, 2D survey and interpretation are used generally. In this study, the case study of 3D CR survey conducted for the site where ground reinforcement was done to prevent the subsidence will be introduced. Data was acquired with the Zeta system, the complex resistivity measurement system produced by Zonge Co. using 8 frequencies from 0.125 to 16 Hz. 2D survey was conducted for total 6 lines with 5 m dipole spacing and 20 electrodes. Line length is 95 meter for every line. Among these 8 frequency data, data below 1 Hz was used considering its quality. With the 6 line data, 3D inversion was conducted. Firstly 2D interpretation was made with acquired data and its results were compared with those of resistivity survey. Resulting resistivity image sections of CR and resistivity method were very similar. Anomalies in phase image section showed good agreement

  20. 3D Wavelet-Based Filter and Method

    DOEpatents

    Moss, William C.; Haase, Sebastian; Sedat, John W.

    2008-08-12

    A 3D wavelet-based filter for visualizing and locating structural features of a user-specified linear size in 2D or 3D image data. The only input parameter is a characteristic linear size of the feature of interest, and the filter output contains only those regions that are correlated with the characteristic size, thus denoising the image.

  1. An Open Source Image Processing Method to Quantitatively Assess Tissue Growth after Non-Invasive Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Seeded 3D Polymeric Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Leferink, Anne M.; Fratila, Raluca M.; Koenrades, Maaike A.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.; Velders, Aldrik; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring extracellular matrix (ECM) components is one of the key methods used to determine tissue quality in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for regenerative medicine and clinical purposes. This is even more important when multipotent human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) are used, as it could offer a method to understand in real time the dynamics of stromal cell differentiation and eventually steer it into the desired lineage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a promising tool to overcome the challenge of a limited transparency in opaque 3D scaffolds. Technical limitations of MRI involve non-uniform background intensity leading to fluctuating background signals and therewith complicating quantifications on the retrieved images. We present a post-imaging processing sequence that is able to correct for this non-uniform background intensity. To test the processing sequence we investigated the use of MRI for in vitro monitoring of tissue growth in three-dimensional poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)–poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) scaffolds. Results showed that MRI, without the need to use contrast agents, is a promising non-invasive tool to quantitatively monitor ECM production and cell distribution during in vitro culture in 3D porous tissue engineered constructs. PMID:25502022

  2. An open source image processing method to quantitatively assess tissue growth after non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging in human bone marrow stromal cell seeded 3D polymeric scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Leferink, Anne M; Fratila, Raluca M; Koenrades, Maaike A; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Velders, Aldrik; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring extracellular matrix (ECM) components is one of the key methods used to determine tissue quality in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for regenerative medicine and clinical purposes. This is even more important when multipotent human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) are used, as it could offer a method to understand in real time the dynamics of stromal cell differentiation and eventually steer it into the desired lineage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a promising tool to overcome the challenge of a limited transparency in opaque 3D scaffolds. Technical limitations of MRI involve non-uniform background intensity leading to fluctuating background signals and therewith complicating quantifications on the retrieved images. We present a post-imaging processing sequence that is able to correct for this non-uniform background intensity. To test the processing sequence we investigated the use of MRI for in vitro monitoring of tissue growth in three-dimensional poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)-poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) scaffolds. Results showed that MRI, without the need to use contrast agents, is a promising non-invasive tool to quantitatively monitor ECM production and cell distribution during in vitro culture in 3D porous tissue engineered constructs.

  3. Unsupervised fuzzy segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance brain images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velthuizen, Robert P.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Clarke, Laurence P.; Bensaid, Amine M.; Arrington, J. A.; Silbiger, Martin L.

    1993-07-01

    Unsupervised fuzzy methods are proposed for segmentation of 3D Magnetic Resonance images of the brain. Fuzzy c-means (FCM) has shown promising results for segmentation of single slices. FCM has been investigated for volume segmentations, both by combining results of single slices and by segmenting the full volume. Different strategies and initializations have been tried. In particular, two approaches have been used: (1) a method by which, iteratively, the furthest sample is split off to form a new cluster center, and (2) the traditional FCM in which the membership grade matrix is initialized in some way. Results have been compared with volume segmentations by k-means and with two supervised methods, k-nearest neighbors and region growing. Results of individual segmentations are presented as well as comparisons on the application of the different methods to a number of tumor patient data sets.

  4. Progresses in 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Navarro, Héctor; Pons, Amparo; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-11-01

    Integral imaging is a promising technique for the acquisition and auto-stereoscopic display of 3D scenes with full parallax and without the need of any additional devices like special glasses. First suggested by Lippmann in the beginning of the 20th century, integral imaging is based in the intersection of ray cones emitted by a collection of 2D elemental images which store the 3D information of the scene. This paper is devoted to the study, from the ray optics point of view, of the optical effects and interaction with the observer of integral imaging systems.

  5. Elastic wave modelling in 3D heterogeneous media: 3D grid method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianfeng, Zhang; Tielin, Liu

    2002-09-01

    We present a new numerical technique for elastic wave modelling in 3D heterogeneous media with surface topography, which is called the 3D grid method in this paper. This work is an extension of the 2D grid method that models P-SV wave propagation in 2D heterogeneous media. Similar to the finite-element method in the discretization of a numerical mesh, the proposed scheme is flexible in incorporating surface topography and curved interfaces; moreover it satisfies the free-surface boundary conditions of 3D topography naturally. The algorithm, developed from a parsimonious staggered-grid scheme, solves the problem using integral equilibrium around each node, instead of satisfying elastodynamic differential equations at each node as in the conventional finite-difference method. The computational cost and memory requirements for the proposed scheme are approximately the same as those used by the same order finite-difference method. In this paper, a mixed tetrahedral and parallelepiped grid method is presented; and the numerical dispersion and stability criteria on the tetrahedral grid method and parallelepiped grid method are discussed in detail. The proposed scheme is successfully tested against an analytical solution for the 3D Lamb problem and a solution of the boundary method for the diffraction of a hemispherical crater. Moreover, examples of surface-wave propagation in an elastic half-space with a semi-cylindrical trench on the surface and 3D plane-layered model are presented.

  6. Low Dose, Low Energy 3d Image Guidance during Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. J.; Marchant, T.; Amer, A.; Sharrock, P.; Price, P.; Burton, D.

    2006-04-01

    Patient kilo-voltage X-ray cone beam volumetric imaging for radiotherapy was first demonstrated on an Elekta Synergy mega-voltage X-ray linear accelerator. Subsequently low dose, reduced profile reconstruction imaging was shown to be practical for 3D geometric setup registration to pre-treatment planning images without compromising registration accuracy. Reconstruction from X-ray profiles gathered between treatment beam deliveries was also introduced. The innovation of zonal cone beam imaging promises significantly reduced doses to patients and improved soft tissue contrast in the tumour target zone. These developments coincided with the first dynamic 3D monitoring of continuous body topology changes in patients, at the moment of irradiation, using a laser interferometer. They signal the arrival of low dose, low energy 3D image guidance during radiotherapy itself.

  7. Free segmentation in rendered 3D images through synthetic impulse response in integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, M.; Llavador, A.; Sánchez-Ortiga, E.; Saavedra, G.; Javidi, B.

    2016-06-01

    Integral Imaging is a technique that has the capability of providing not only the spatial, but also the angular information of three-dimensional (3D) scenes. Some important applications are the 3D display and digital post-processing as for example, depth-reconstruction from integral images. In this contribution we propose a new reconstruction method that takes into account the integral image and a simplified version of the impulse response function (IRF) of the integral imaging (InI) system to perform a two-dimensional (2D) deconvolution. The IRF of an InI system has a periodic structure that depends directly on the axial position of the object. Considering different periods of the IRFs we recover by deconvolution the depth information of the 3D scene. An advantage of our method is that it is possible to obtain nonconventional reconstructions by considering alternative synthetic impulse responses. Our experiments show the feasibility of the proposed method.

  8. Accuracy of volume measurement using 3D ultrasound and development of CT-3D US image fusion algorithm for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Jihye; Huh, Jangyoung; Hyun An, So; Oh, Yoonjin; Kim, Myungsoo; Kim, DongYoung; Chung, Kwangzoo; Cho, Sungho; Lee, Rena

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of measuring volumes using three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US), and to verify the feasibility of the replacement of CT-MR fusion images with CT-3D US in radiotherapy treatment planning. Methods: Phantoms, consisting of water, contrast agent, and agarose, were manufactured. The volume was measured using 3D US, CT, and MR devices. A CT-3D US and MR-3D US image fusion software was developed using the Insight Toolkit library in order to acquire three-dimensional fusion images. The quality of the image fusion was evaluated using metric value and fusion images. Results: Volume measurement, using 3D US, shows a 2.8 {+-} 1.5% error, 4.4 {+-} 3.0% error for CT, and 3.1 {+-} 2.0% error for MR. The results imply that volume measurement using the 3D US devices has a similar accuracy level to that of CT and MR. Three-dimensional image fusion of CT-3D US and MR-3D US was successfully performed using phantom images. Moreover, MR-3D US image fusion was performed using human bladder images. Conclusions: 3D US could be used in the volume measurement of human bladders and prostates. CT-3D US image fusion could be used in monitoring the target position in each fraction of external beam radiation therapy. Moreover, the feasibility of replacing the CT-MR image fusion to the CT-3D US in radiotherapy treatment planning was verified.

  9. Computation of tooth axes of existent and missing teeth from 3D CT images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wu, Lin; Guo, Huayan; Qiu, Tiantian; Huang, Yuanliang; Lin, Bin; Wang, Lisheng

    2015-12-01

    Orientations of tooth axes are important quantitative information used in dental diagnosis and surgery planning. However, their computation is a complex problem, and the existing methods have respective limitations. This paper proposes new methods to compute 3D tooth axes from 3D CT images for existent teeth with single root or multiple roots and to estimate 3D tooth axes from 3D CT images for missing teeth. The tooth axis of a single-root tooth will be determined by segmenting the pulp cavity of the tooth and computing the principal direction of the pulp cavity, and the estimation of tooth axes of the missing teeth is modeled as an interpolation problem of some quaternions along a 3D curve. The proposed methods can either avoid the difficult teeth segmentation problem or improve the limitations of existing methods. Their effectiveness and practicality are demonstrated by experimental results of different 3D CT images from the clinic.

  10. Recent progress in 3-D imaging of sea freight containers

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Theobald Schön, Tobias Sukowski, Frank; Dittmann, Jonas; Hanke, Randolf

    2015-03-31

    The inspection of very large objects like sea freight containers with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is an emerging technology. A complete 3-D CT scan of a see-freight container takes several hours. Of course, this is too slow to apply it to a large number of containers. However, the benefits of a 3-D CT for sealed freight are obvious: detection of potential threats or illicit cargo without being confronted with legal complications or high time consumption and risks for the security personnel during a manual inspection. Recently distinct progress was made in the field of reconstruction of projections with only a relatively low number of angular positions. Instead of today’s 500 to 1000 rotational steps, as needed for conventional CT reconstruction techniques, this new class of algorithms provides the potential to reduce the number of projection angles approximately by a factor of 10. The main drawback of these advanced iterative methods is the high consumption for numerical processing. But as computational power is getting steadily cheaper, there will be practical applications of these complex algorithms in a foreseeable future. In this paper, we discuss the properties of iterative image reconstruction algorithms and show results of their application to CT of extremely large objects scanning a sea-freight container. A specific test specimen is used to quantitatively evaluate the image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution and depending on different number of projections.

  11. Imaging Shallow Salt With 3D Refraction Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanschuyver, C. J.; Hilterman, F. J.

    2005-05-01

    In offshore West Africa, numerous salt walls are within 200 m of sea level. Because of the shallowness of these salt walls, reflections from the salt top can be difficult to map, making it impossible to build an accurate velocity model for subsequent pre-stack depth migration. An accurate definition of salt boundaries is critical to any depth model where salt is present. Unfortunately, when a salt body is very shallow, the reflection from the upper interface can be obscured due to large offsets between the source and near receivers and also due to the interference from multiples and other near-surface noise events. A new method is described using 3D migration of the refraction waveforms which is simplified because of several constraints in the model definition. The azimuth and dip of the refractor is found by imaging with Kirchhoff theory. A Kirchhoff migration is performed where the traveltime values are adjusted to use the CMP refraction traveltime equation. I assume the sediment and salt velocities to be known such that once the image time is specified, then the dip and azimuth of the refraction path can be found. The resulting 3D refraction migrations are in excellent depth agreement with available well control. In addition, the refraction migration time picks of deeper salt events are in agreement with time picks of the same events on the reflection migration.

  12. Quantitative 3D Optical Imaging: Applications in Dosimetry and Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Andrew Stephen

    sample reconstructions showed general agreement between the verification images. Comprehensive modeling in optical-ECT imaging was successfully implemented, creating quantitatively accurate 3D fluorophore distributions. This work represents the 1st successful attempt encompassing such a complete set of corrections. This method provides a means to accurately obtain 3D fluorophore distributions with the potential to better understand tumor biology and treatment responses.

  13. Building 3D scenes from 2D image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, Paul D.

    2006-05-01

    Sequences of 2D images, taken by a single moving video receptor, can be fused to generate a 3D representation. This dynamic stereopsis exists in birds and reptiles, whereas the static binocular stereopsis is common in mammals, including humans. Most multimedia computer vision systems for stereo image capture, transmission, processing, storage and retrieval are based on the concept of binocularity. As a consequence, their main goal is to acquire, conserve and enhance pairs of 2D images able to generate a 3D visual perception in a human observer. Stereo vision in birds is based on the fusion of images captured by each eye, with previously acquired and memorized images from the same eye. The process goes on simultaneously and conjointly for both eyes and generates an almost complete all-around visual field. As a consequence, the baseline distance is no longer fixed, as in the case of binocular 3D view, but adjustable in accordance with the distance to the object of main interest, allowing a controllable depth effect. Moreover, the synthesized 3D scene can have a better resolution than each individual 2D image in the sequence. Compression of 3D scenes can be achieved, and stereo transmissions with lower bandwidth requirements can be developed.

  14. 3D thermography imaging standardization technique for inflammation diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Xiangyang; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Siebert, J. Paul

    2005-01-01

    We develop a 3D thermography imaging standardization technique to allow quantitative data analysis. Medical Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging is very sensitive and reliable mean of graphically mapping and display skin surface temperature. It allows doctors to visualise in colour and quantify temperature changes in skin surface. The spectrum of colours indicates both hot and cold responses which may co-exist if the pain associate with an inflammatory focus excites an increase in sympathetic activity. However, due to thermograph provides only qualitative diagnosis information, it has not gained acceptance in the medical and veterinary communities as a necessary or effective tool in inflammation and tumor detection. Here, our technique is based on the combination of visual 3D imaging technique and thermal imaging technique, which maps the 2D thermography images on to 3D anatomical model. Then we rectify the 3D thermogram into a view independent thermogram and conform it a standard shape template. The combination of these imaging facilities allows the generation of combined 3D and thermal data from which thermal signatures can be quantified.

  15. Analysis and dynamic 3D visualization of cerebral blood flow combining 3D and 4D MR image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkert, Nils Daniel; Säring, Dennis; Fiehler, Jens; Illies, Till; Möller, Dietmar; Handels, Heinz

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present a method for the dynamic visualization of cerebral blood flow. Spatio-temporal 4D magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) image datasets and 3D MRA datasets with high spatial resolution were acquired for the analysis of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). One of the main tasks is the combination of the information of the 3D and 4D MRA image sequences. Initially, in the 3D MRA dataset the vessel system is segmented and a 3D surface model is generated. Then, temporal intensity curves are analyzed voxelwise in the 4D MRA image sequences. A curve fitting of the temporal intensity curves to a patient individual reference curve is used to extract the bolus arrival times in the 4D MRA sequences. After non-linear registration of both MRA datasets the extracted hemodynamic information is transferred to the surface model where the time points of inflow can be visualized color coded dynamically over time. The dynamic visualizations computed using the curve fitting method for the estimation of the bolus arrival times were rated superior compared to those computed using conventional approaches for bolus arrival time estimation. In summary the procedure suggested allows a dynamic visualization of the individual hemodynamic situation and better understanding during the visual evaluation of cerebral vascular diseases.

  16. Method and simulation to study 3D crosstalk perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaustova, Dar'ya; Blondé, Laurent; Huynh-Thu, Quan; Vienne, Cyril; Doyen, Didier

    2012-03-01

    To various degrees, all modern 3DTV displays suffer from crosstalk, which can lead to a decrease of both visual quality and visual comfort, and also affect perception of depth. In the absence of a perfect 3D display technology, crosstalk has to be taken into account when studying perception of 3D stereoscopic content. In order to improve 3D presentation systems and understand how to efficiently eliminate crosstalk, it is necessary to understand its impact on human perception. In this paper, we present a practical method to study the perception of crosstalk. The approach consists of four steps: (1) physical measurements of a 3DTV, (2) building of a crosstalk surface based on those measurements and representing specifically the behavior of that 3TV, (3) manipulation of the crosstalk function and application on reference images to produce test images degraded by crosstalk in various ways, and (4) psychophysical tests. Our approach allows both a realistic representation of the behavior of a 3DTV and the easy manipulation of its resulting crosstalk in order to conduct psycho-visual experiments. Our approach can be used in all studies requiring the understanding of how crosstalk affects perception of stereoscopic content and how it can be corrected efficiently.

  17. Object Segmentation and Ground Truth in 3D Embryonic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Bhavna; Uriu, Koichiro; Valentin, Guillaume; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Oates, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Many questions in developmental biology depend on measuring the position and movement of individual cells within developing embryos. Yet, tools that provide this data are often challenged by high cell density and their accuracy is difficult to measure. Here, we present a three-step procedure to address this problem. Step one is a novel segmentation algorithm based on image derivatives that, in combination with selective post-processing, reliably and automatically segments cell nuclei from images of densely packed tissue. Step two is a quantitative validation using synthetic images to ascertain the efficiency of the algorithm with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and object density. Finally, we propose an original method to generate reliable and experimentally faithful ground truth datasets: Sparse-dense dual-labeled embryo chimeras are used to unambiguously measure segmentation errors within experimental data. Together, the three steps outlined here establish a robust, iterative procedure to fine-tune image analysis algorithms and microscopy settings associated with embryonic 3D image data sets. PMID:27332860

  18. Object Segmentation and Ground Truth in 3D Embryonic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Bhavna; Uriu, Koichiro; Valentin, Guillaume; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Oates, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Many questions in developmental biology depend on measuring the position and movement of individual cells within developing embryos. Yet, tools that provide this data are often challenged by high cell density and their accuracy is difficult to measure. Here, we present a three-step procedure to address this problem. Step one is a novel segmentation algorithm based on image derivatives that, in combination with selective post-processing, reliably and automatically segments cell nuclei from images of densely packed tissue. Step two is a quantitative validation using synthetic images to ascertain the efficiency of the algorithm with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and object density. Finally, we propose an original method to generate reliable and experimentally faithful ground truth datasets: Sparse-dense dual-labeled embryo chimeras are used to unambiguously measure segmentation errors within experimental data. Together, the three steps outlined here establish a robust, iterative procedure to fine-tune image analysis algorithms and microscopy settings associated with embryonic 3D image data sets.

  19. Real-time computer-generated integral imaging and 3D image calibration for augmented reality surgical navigation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junchen; Suenaga, Hideyuki; Liao, Hongen; Hoshi, Kazuto; Yang, Liangjing; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Sakuma, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    Autostereoscopic 3D image overlay for augmented reality (AR) based surgical navigation has been studied and reported many times. For the purpose of surgical overlay, the 3D image is expected to have the same geometric shape as the original organ, and can be transformed to a specified location for image overlay. However, how to generate a 3D image with high geometric fidelity and quantitative evaluation of 3D image's geometric accuracy have not been addressed. This paper proposes a graphics processing unit (GPU) based computer-generated integral imaging pipeline for real-time autostereoscopic 3D display, and an automatic closed-loop 3D image calibration paradigm for displaying undistorted 3D images. Based on the proposed methods, a novel AR device for 3D image surgical overlay is presented, which mainly consists of a 3D display, an AR window, a stereo camera for 3D measurement, and a workstation for information processing. The evaluation on the 3D image rendering performance with 2560×1600 elemental image resolution shows the rendering speeds of 50-60 frames per second (fps) for surface models, and 5-8 fps for large medical volumes. The evaluation of the undistorted 3D image after the calibration yields sub-millimeter geometric accuracy. A phantom experiment simulating oral and maxillofacial surgery was also performed to evaluate the proposed AR overlay device in terms of the image registration accuracy, 3D image overlay accuracy, and the visual effects of the overlay. The experimental results show satisfactory image registration and image overlay accuracy, and confirm the system usability.

  20. Accuracy of 3D Imaging Software in Cephalometric Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-21

    Imaging and Communication in Medicine ( DICOM ) files into personal computer-based software to enable 3D reconstruction of the craniofacial skeleton. These...tissue profile. CBCT data can be imported as DICOM files into personal computer–based software to provide 3D reconstruction of the craniofacial...been acquired for the three pig models. The CBCT data were exported into DICOM multi-file format. They will be imported into a proprietary

  1. 3D Image Display Courses for Information Media Students.

    PubMed

    Yanaka, Kazuhisa; Yamanouchi, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional displays are used extensively in movies and games. These displays are also essential in mixed reality, where virtual and real spaces overlap. Therefore, engineers and creators should be trained to master 3D display technologies. For this reason, the Department of Information Media at the Kanagawa Institute of Technology has launched two 3D image display courses specifically designed for students who aim to become information media engineers and creators.

  2. Multiframe image point matching and 3-d surface reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tsai, R Y

    1983-02-01

    This paper presents two new methods, the Joint Moment Method (JMM) and the Window Variance Method (WVM), for image matching and 3-D object surface reconstruction using multiple perspective views. The viewing positions and orientations for these perspective views are known a priori, as is usually the case for such applications as robotics and industrial vision as well as close range photogrammetry. Like the conventional two-frame correlation method, the JMM and WVM require finding the extrema of 1-D curves, which are proved to theoretically approach a delta function exponentially as the number of frames increases for the JMM and are much sharper than the two-frame correlation function for both the JMM and the WVM, even when the image point to be matched cannot be easily distinguished from some of the other points. The theoretical findings have been supported by simulations. It is also proved that JMM and WVM are not sensitive to certain radiometric effects. If the same window size is used, the computational complexity for the proposed methods is about n - 1 times that for the two-frame method where n is the number of frames. Simulation results show that the JMM and WVM require smaller windows than the two-frame correlation method with better accuracy, and therefore may even be more computationally feasible than the latter since the computational complexity increases quadratically as a function of the window size.

  3. 3D Image Analysis of Geomaterials using Confocal Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulukutla, G.; Proussevitch, A.; Sahagian, D.

    2009-05-01

    Confocal microscopy is one of the most significant advances in optical microscopy of the last century. It is widely used in biological sciences but its application to geomaterials lingers due to a number of technical problems. Potentially the technique can perform non-invasive testing on a laser illuminated sample that fluoresces using a unique optical sectioning capability that rejects out-of-focus light reaching the confocal aperture. Fluorescence in geomaterials is commonly induced using epoxy doped with a fluorochrome that is impregnated into the sample to enable discrimination of various features such as void space or material boundaries. However, for many geomaterials, this method cannot be used because they do not naturally fluoresce and because epoxy cannot be impregnated into inaccessible parts of the sample due to lack of permeability. As a result, the confocal images of most geomaterials that have not been pre-processed with extensive sample preparation techniques are of poor quality and lack the necessary image and edge contrast necessary to apply any commonly used segmentation techniques to conduct any quantitative study of its features such as vesicularity, internal structure, etc. In our present work, we are developing a methodology to conduct a quantitative 3D analysis of images of geomaterials collected using a confocal microscope with minimal amount of prior sample preparation and no addition of fluorescence. Two sample geomaterials, a volcanic melt sample and a crystal chip containing fluid inclusions are used to assess the feasibility of the method. A step-by-step process of image analysis includes application of image filtration to enhance the edges or material interfaces and is based on two segmentation techniques: geodesic active contours and region competition. Both techniques have been applied extensively to the analysis of medical MRI images to segment anatomical structures. Preliminary analysis suggests that there is distortion in the

  4. Segmented images and 3D images for studying the anatomical structures in MRIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Sook; Chung, Min Suk; Cho, Jae Hyun

    2004-05-01

    For identifying the pathological findings in MRIs, the anatomical structures in MRIs should be identified in advance. For studying the anatomical structures in MRIs, an education al tool that includes the horizontal, coronal, sagittal MRIs of entire body, corresponding segmented images, 3D images, and browsing software is necessary. Such an educational tool, however, is hard to obtain. Therefore, in this research, such an educational tool which helps medical students and doctors study the anatomical structures in MRIs was made as follows. A healthy, young Korean male adult with standard body shape was selected. Six hundred thirteen horizontal MRIs of the entire body were scanned and inputted to the personal computer. Sixty anatomical structures in the horizontal MRIs were segmented to make horizontal segmented images. Coronal, sagittal MRIs and coronal, sagittal segmented images were made. 3D images of anatomical structures in the segmented images were reconstructed by surface rendering method. Browsing software of the MRIs, segmented images, and 3D images was composed. This educational tool that includes horizontal, coronal, sagittal MRIs of entire body, corresponding segmented images, 3D images, and browsing software is expected to help medical students and doctors study anatomical structures in MRIs.

  5. D3D augmented reality imaging system: proof of concept in mammography

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, David B; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to present images from simulated breast microcalcifications and assess the pattern of the microcalcifications with a technical development called “depth 3-dimensional (D3D) augmented reality”. Materials and methods A computer, head display unit, joystick, D3D augmented reality software, and an in-house script of simulated data of breast microcalcifications in a ductal distribution were used. No patient data was used and no statistical analysis was performed. Results The D3D augmented reality system demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception by presenting a unique image to each eye, focal point convergence, head position tracking, 3D cursor, and joystick fly-through. Conclusion The D3D augmented reality imaging system offers image viewing with depth perception and focal point convergence. The D3D augmented reality system should be tested to determine its utility in clinical practice. PMID:27563261

  6. Breast tumour visualization using 3D quantitative ultrasound methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Raheem, Abdul; Tadayyon, Hadi; Liu, Simon; Hadizad, Farnoosh; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer types accounting for 29% of all cancer cases. Early detection and treatment has a crucial impact on improving the survival of affected patients. Ultrasound (US) is non-ionizing, portable, inexpensive, and real-time imaging modality for screening and quantifying breast cancer. Due to these attractive attributes, the last decade has witnessed many studies on using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods in tissue characterization. However, these studies have mainly been limited to 2-D QUS methods using hand-held US (HHUS) scanners. With the availability of automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) technology, this study is the first to develop 3-D QUS methods for the ABUS visualization of breast tumours. Using an ABUS system, unlike the manual 2-D HHUS device, the whole patient's breast was scanned in an automated manner. The acquired frames were subsequently examined and a region of interest (ROI) was selected in each frame where tumour was identified. Standard 2-D QUS methods were used to compute spectral and backscatter coefficient (BSC) parametric maps on the selected ROIs. Next, the computed 2-D parameters were mapped to a Cartesian 3-D space, interpolated, and rendered to provide a transparent color-coded visualization of the entire breast tumour. Such 3-D visualization can potentially be used for further analysis of the breast tumours in terms of their size and extension. Moreover, the 3-D volumetric scans can be used for tissue characterization and the categorization of breast tumours as benign or malignant by quantifying the computed parametric maps over the whole tumour volume.

  7. Research of Fast 3D Imaging Based on Multiple Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shibing; Yan, Huimin; Ni, Xuxiang; Zhang, Xiuda; Wang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging has received increasingly extensive attention and has been widely used currently. Lots of efforts have been put on three-dimensional imaging method and system study, in order to meet fast and high accurate requirement. In this article, we realize a fast and high quality stereo matching algorithm on field programmable gate array (FPGA) using the combination of time-of-flight (TOF) camera and binocular camera. Images captured from the two cameras own a same spatial resolution, letting us use the depth maps taken by the TOF camera to figure initial disparity. Under the constraint of the depth map as the stereo pairs when comes to stereo matching, expected disparity of each pixel is limited within a narrow search range. In the meanwhile, using field programmable gate array (FPGA, altera cyclone IV series) concurrent computing we can configure multi core image matching system, thus doing stereo matching on embedded system. The simulation results demonstrate that it can speed up the process of stereo matching and increase matching reliability and stability, realize embedded calculation, expand application range.

  8. 3D Face modeling using the multi-deformable method.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jinkyu; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Joongrock; Lee, Sangyoun

    2012-09-25

    In this paper, we focus on the problem of the accuracy performance of 3D face modeling techniques using corresponding features in multiple views, which is quite sensitive to feature extraction errors. To solve the problem, we adopt a statistical model-based 3D face modeling approach in a mirror system consisting of two mirrors and a camera. The overall procedure of our 3D facial modeling method has two primary steps: 3D facial shape estimation using a multiple 3D face deformable model and texture mapping using seamless cloning that is a type of gradient-domain blending. To evaluate our method's performance, we generate 3D faces of 30 individuals and then carry out two tests: accuracy test and robustness test. Our method shows not only highly accurate 3D face shape results when compared with the ground truth, but also robustness to feature extraction errors. Moreover, 3D face rendering results intuitively show that our method is more robust to feature extraction errors than other 3D face modeling methods. An additional contribution of our method is that a wide range of face textures can be acquired by the mirror system. By using this texture map, we generate realistic 3D face for individuals at the end of the paper.

  9. Assessing 3D tunnel position in ACL reconstruction using a novel single image 3D-2D registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, X.; Yau, W. P.; Otake, Y.; Cheung, P. Y. S.; Hu, Y.; Taylor, R. H.

    2012-02-01

    The routinely used procedure for evaluating tunnel positions following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions based on standard X-ray images is known to pose difficulties in terms of obtaining accurate measures, especially in providing three-dimensional tunnel positions. This is largely due to the variability in individual knee joint pose relative to X-ray plates. Accurate results were reported using postoperative CT. However, its extensive usage in clinical routine is hampered by its major requirement of having CT scans of individual patients, which is not available for most ACL reconstructions. These difficulties are addressed through the proposed method, which aligns a knee model to X-ray images using our novel single-image 3D-2D registration method and then estimates the 3D tunnel position. In the proposed method, the alignment is achieved by using a novel contour-based 3D-2D registration method wherein image contours are treated as a set of oriented points. However, instead of using some form of orientation weighting function and multiplying it with a distance function, we formulate the 3D-2D registration as a probability density estimation using a mixture of von Mises-Fisher-Gaussian (vMFG) distributions and solve it through an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Compared with the ground-truth established from postoperative CT, our registration method in an experiment using a plastic phantom showed accurate results with errors of (-0.43°+/-1.19°, 0.45°+/-2.17°, 0.23°+/-1.05°) and (0.03+/-0.55, -0.03+/-0.54, -2.73+/-1.64) mm. As for the entry point of the ACL tunnel, one of the key measurements, it was obtained with high accuracy of 0.53+/-0.30 mm distance errors.

  10. 3D imaging of semiconductor components by discrete laminography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenburg, K. J.; Palenstijn, W. J.; Sijbers, J.

    2014-06-01

    X-ray laminography is a powerful technique for quality control of semiconductor components. Despite the advantages of nondestructive 3D imaging over 2D techniques based on sectioning, the acquisition time is still a major obstacle for practical use of the technique. In this paper, we consider the application of Discrete Tomography to laminography data, which can potentially reduce the scanning time while still maintaining a high reconstruction quality. By incorporating prior knowledge in the reconstruction algorithm about the materials present in the scanned object, far more accurate reconstructions can be obtained from the same measured data compared to classical reconstruction methods. We present a series of simulation experiments that illustrate the potential of the approach.

  11. 3D imaging of semiconductor components by discrete laminography

    SciTech Connect

    Batenburg, K. J.; Palenstijn, W. J.; Sijbers, J.

    2014-06-19

    X-ray laminography is a powerful technique for quality control of semiconductor components. Despite the advantages of nondestructive 3D imaging over 2D techniques based on sectioning, the acquisition time is still a major obstacle for practical use of the technique. In this paper, we consider the application of Discrete Tomography to laminography data, which can potentially reduce the scanning time while still maintaining a high reconstruction quality. By incorporating prior knowledge in the reconstruction algorithm about the materials present in the scanned object, far more accurate reconstructions can be obtained from the same measured data compared to classical reconstruction methods. We present a series of simulation experiments that illustrate the potential of the approach.

  12. Proposed traceable structural resolution protocols for 3D imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, David; Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Cournoyer, Luc; Carrier, Benjamin; Blais, François

    2009-08-01

    A protocol for determining structural resolution using a potentially-traceable reference material is proposed. Where possible, terminology was selected to conform to those published in ISO JCGM 200:2008 (VIM) and ASTM E 2544-08 documents. The concepts of resolvability and edge width are introduced to more completely describe the ability of an optical non-contact 3D imaging system to resolve small features. A distinction is made between 3D range cameras, that obtain spatial data from the total field of view at once, and 3D range scanners, that accumulate spatial data for the total field of view over time. The protocol is presented through the evaluation of a 3D laser line range scanner.

  13. IMPROMPTU: a system for automatic 3D medical image-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sundaramoorthy, G; Hoford, J D; Hoffman, E A; Higgins, W E

    1995-01-01

    The utility of three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is hampered by difficulties in extracting anatomical regions and making measurements in 3D images. Presently, a user is generally forced to use time-consuming, subjective, manual methods, such as slice tracing and region painting, to define regions of interest. Automatic image-analysis methods can ameliorate the difficulties of manual methods. This paper describes a graphical user interface (GUI) system for constructing automatic image-analysis processes for 3D medical-imaging applications. The system, referred to as IMPROMPTU, provides a user-friendly environment for prototyping, testing and executing complex image-analysis processes. IMPROMPTU can stand alone or it can interact with an existing graphics-based 3D medical image-analysis package (VIDA), giving a strong environment for 3D image-analysis, consisting of tools for visualization, manual interaction, and automatic processing. IMPROMPTU links to a large library of 1D, 2D, and 3D image-processing functions, referred to as VIPLIB, but a user can easily link in custom-made functions. 3D applications of the system are given for left-ventricular chamber, myocardial, and upper-airway extractions.

  14. Review of three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging for oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Rachel L; Stevens, Roger J G; Harris, Paul A; Rusby, Jennifer E

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional surface imaging (3D-SI) is being marketed as a tool in aesthetic breast surgery. It has recently also been studied in the objective evaluation of cosmetic outcome of oncological procedures. The aim of this review is to summarise the use of 3D-SI in oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery. An extensive literature review was undertaken to identify published studies. Two reviewers independently screened all abstracts and selected relevant articles using specific inclusion criteria. Seventy two articles relating to 3D-SI for breast surgery were identified. These covered endpoints such as image acquisition, calculations and data obtainable, comparison of 3D and 2D imaging and clinical research applications of 3D-SI. The literature provides a favourable view of 3D-SI. However, evidence of its superiority over current methods of clinical decision making, surgical planning, communication and evaluation of outcome is required before it can be accepted into mainstream practice.

  15. Astigmatic multifocus microscopy enables deep 3D super-resolved imaging

    PubMed Central

    Oudjedi, Laura; Fiche, Jean-Bernard; Abrahamsson, Sara; Mazenq, Laurent; Lecestre, Aurélie; Calmon, Pierre-François; Cerf, Aline; Nöllmann, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a 3D super-resolution microscopy method that enables deep imaging in cells. This technique relies on the effective combination of multifocus microscopy and astigmatic 3D single-molecule localization microscopy. We describe the optical system and the fabrication process of its key element, the multifocus grating. Then, two strategies for localizing emitters with our imaging method are presented and compared with a previously described deep 3D localization algorithm. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the method by imaging the nuclear envelope of eukaryotic cells reaching a depth of field of ~4µm. PMID:27375935

  16. Edge structure preserving 3D image denoising by local surface approximation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peihua; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2012-08-01

    In various applications, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI), 3D images are becoming increasingly popular. To improve the reliability of subsequent image analyses, 3D image denoising is often a necessary preprocessing step, which is the focus of the current paper. In the literature, most existing image denoising procedures are for 2D images. Their direct extensions to 3D cases generally cannot handle 3D images efficiently because the structure of a typical 3D image is substantially more complicated than that of a typical 2D image. For instance, edge locations are surfaces in 3D cases which would be much more challenging to handle compared to edge curves in 2D cases. We propose a novel 3D image denoising procedure in this paper, based on local approximation of the edge surfaces using a set of surface templates. An important property of this method is that it can preserve edges and major edge structures (e.g., intersections of two edge surfaces and pointed corners). Numerical studies show that it works well in various applications.

  17. Air-touch interaction system for integral imaging 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Han Yuan; Xiang, Lee Ming; Lee, Byung Gook

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an air-touch interaction system for the tabletop type integral imaging 3D display. This system consists of the real 3D image generation system based on integral imaging technique and the interaction device using a real-time finger detection interface. In this system, we used multi-layer B-spline surface approximation to detect the fingertip and gesture easily in less than 10cm height from the screen via input the hand image. The proposed system can be used in effective human computer interaction method for the tabletop type 3D display.

  18. Method for 3D Airway Topology Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Grothausmann, Roman; Kellner, Manuela; Heidrich, Marko; Lorbeer, Raoul-Amadeus; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko; Kuehnel, Mark P.; Ochs, Matthias; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    In lungs the number of conducting airway generations as well as bifurcation patterns varies across species and shows specific characteristics relating to illnesses or gene variations. A method to characterize the topology of the mouse airway tree using scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT) tomograms is presented in this paper. It is used to test discrimination between two types of mice based on detected differences in their conducting airway pattern. Based on segmentations of the airways in these tomograms, the main spanning tree of the volume skeleton is computed. The resulting graph structure is used to distinguish between wild type and surfactant protein (SP-D) deficient knock-out mice. PMID:25767561

  19. 3D-Holoscopic Imaging: A New Dimension to Enhance Imaging in Minimally Invasive Therapy in Urologic Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Aggoun, Amar; Swash, Mohammad; Grange, Philippe C.R.; Challacombe, Benjamin; Dasgupta, Prokar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose Existing imaging modalities of urologic pathology are limited by three-dimensional (3D) representation on a two-dimensional screen. We present 3D-holoscopic imaging as a novel method of representing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data images taken from CT and MRI to produce 3D-holographic representations of anatomy without special eyewear in natural light. 3D-holoscopic technology produces images that are true optical models. This technology is based on physical principles with duplication of light fields. The 3D content is captured in real time with the content viewed by multiple viewers independently of their position, without 3D eyewear. Methods We display 3D-holoscopic anatomy relevant to minimally invasive urologic surgery without the need for 3D eyewear. Results The results have demonstrated that medical 3D-holoscopic content can be displayed on commercially available multiview auto-stereoscopic display. Conclusion The next step is validation studies comparing 3D-Holoscopic imaging with conventional imaging. PMID:23216303

  20. Estimation of the degree of polarization in low-light 3D integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnicer, Artur; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    The calculation of the Stokes Parameters and the Degree of Polarization in 3D integral images requires a careful manipulation of the polarimetric elemental images. This fact is particularly important if the scenes are taken in low-light conditions. In this paper, we show that the Degree of Polarization can be effectively estimated even when elemental images are recorded with few photons. The original idea was communicated in [A. Carnicer and B. Javidi, "Polarimetric 3D integral imaging in photon-starved conditions," Opt. Express 23, 6408-6417 (2015)]. First, we use the Maximum Likelihood Estimation approach for generating the 3D integral image. Nevertheless, this method produces very noisy images and thus, the degree of polarization cannot be calculated. We suggest using a Total Variation Denoising filter as a way to improve the quality of the generated 3D images. As a result, noise is suppressed but high frequency information is preserved. Finally, the degree of polarization is obtained successfully.

  1. 3D imaging lidar for lunar robotic exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Marwan W.; Tripp, Jeffrey W.

    2009-05-01

    Part of the requirements of the future Constellation program is to optimize lunar surface operations and reduce hazards to astronauts. Toward this end, many robotic platforms, rovers in specific, are being sought to carry out a multitude of missions involving potential EVA sites survey, surface reconnaissance, path planning and obstacle detection and classification. 3D imaging lidar technology provides an enabling capability that allows fast, accurate and detailed collection of three-dimensional information about the rover's environment. The lidar images the region of interest by scanning a laser beam and measuring the pulse time-of-flight and the bearing. The accumulated set of laser ranges and bearings constitutes the threedimensional image. As part of the ongoing NASA Ames research center activities in lunar robotics, the utility of 3D imaging lidar was evaluated by testing Optech's ILRIS-3D lidar on board the K-10 Red rover during the recent Human - Robotics Systems (HRS) field trails in Lake Moses, WA. This paper examines the results of the ILRIS-3D trials, presents the data obtained and discusses its application in lunar surface robotic surveying and scouting.

  2. 360 degree realistic 3D image display and image processing from real objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xin; Chen, Yue; Huang, Yong; Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi

    2016-12-01

    A 360-degree realistic 3D image display system based on direct light scanning method, so-called Holo-Table has been introduced in this paper. High-density directional continuous 3D motion images can be displayed easily with only one spatial light modulator. Using the holographic screen as the beam deflector, 360-degree full horizontal viewing angle was achieved. As an accompany part of the system, CMOS camera based image acquisition platform was built to feed the display engine, which can take a full 360-degree continuous imaging of the sample at the center. Customized image processing techniques such as scaling, rotation, format transformation were also developed and embedded into the system control software platform. In the end several samples were imaged to demonstrate the capability of our system.

  3. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

    2014-03-01

    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  4. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, Frank M.; Cornelius, Iwan; Blencowe, Anton; Franich, Rick D.; Geso, Moshi

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.

  5. Optimizing 3D image quality and performance for stereoscopic gaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Julien; Sanderson, Hugh; Pegg, Steven; Kwok, Simon; Paterson, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    The successful introduction of stereoscopic TV systems, such as Samsung's 3D Ready Plasma, requires high quality 3D content to be commercially available to the consumer. Console and PC games provide the most readily accessible source of high quality 3D content. This paper describes innovative developments in a generic, PC-based game driver architecture that addresses the two key issues affecting 3D gaming: quality and speed. At the heart of the quality issue are the same considerations that studios face producing stereoscopic renders from CG movies: how best to perform the mapping from a geometric CG environment into the stereoscopic display volume. The major difference being that for game drivers this mapping cannot be choreographed by hand but must be automatically calculated in real-time without significant impact on performance. Performance is a critical issue when dealing with gaming. Stereoscopic gaming has traditionally meant rendering the scene twice with the associated performance overhead. An alternative approach is to render the scene from one virtual camera position and use information from the z-buffer to generate a stereo pair using Depth-Image-Based Rendering (DIBR). We analyze this trade-off in more detail and provide some results relating to both 3D image quality and render performance.

  6. a Fast Method for Measuring the Similarity Between 3d Model and 3d Point Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zongliang; Li, Jonathan; Li, Xin; Lin, Yangbin; Zhang, Shanxin; Wang, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a fast method for measuring the partial Similarity between 3D Model and 3D point Cloud (SimMC). It is crucial to measure SimMC for many point cloud-related applications such as 3D object retrieval and inverse procedural modelling. In our proposed method, the surface area of model and the Distance from Model to point Cloud (DistMC) are exploited as measurements to calculate SimMC. Here, DistMC is defined as the weighted distance of the distances between points sampled from model and point cloud. Similarly, Distance from point Cloud to Model (DistCM) is defined as the average distance of the distances between points in point cloud and model. In order to reduce huge computational burdens brought by calculation of DistCM in some traditional methods, we define SimMC as the ratio of weighted surface area of model to DistMC. Compared to those traditional SimMC measuring methods that are only able to measure global similarity, our method is capable of measuring partial similarity by employing distance-weighted strategy. Moreover, our method is able to be faster than other partial similarity assessment methods. We demonstrate the superiority of our method both on synthetic data and laser scanning data.

  7. 3-D object-oriented image analysis of geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadel, I.; Kerle, N.; van der Meijde, M.

    2014-07-01

    Geophysical data are the main source of information about the subsurface. Geophysical techniques are, however, highly non-unique in determining specific physical parameters and boundaries of subsurface objects. To obtain actual physical information, an inversion process is often applied, in which measurements at or above the Earth surface are inverted into a 2- or 3-D subsurface spatial distribution of the physical property. Interpreting these models into structural objects, related to physical processes, requires a priori knowledge and expert analysis which is susceptible to subjective choices and is therefore often non-repeatable. In this research, we implemented a recently introduced object-based approach to interpret the 3-D inversion results of a single geophysical technique using the available a priori information and the physical and geometrical characteristics of the interpreted objects. The introduced methodology is semi-automatic and repeatable, and allows the extraction of subsurface structures using 3-D object-oriented image analysis (3-D OOA) in an objective knowledge-based classification scheme. The approach allows for a semi-objective setting of thresholds that can be tested and, if necessary, changed in a very fast and efficient way. These changes require only changing the thresholds used in a so-called ruleset, which is composed of algorithms that extract objects from a 3-D data cube. The approach is tested on a synthetic model, which is based on a priori knowledge on objects present in the study area (Tanzania). Object characteristics and thresholds were well defined in a 3-D histogram of velocity versus depth, and objects were fully retrieved. The real model results showed how 3-D OOA can deal with realistic 3-D subsurface conditions in which the boundaries become fuzzy, the object extensions become unclear and the model characteristics vary with depth due to the different physical conditions. As expected, the 3-D histogram of the real data was

  8. Method for identifying subsurface fluid migration and drainage pathways in and among oil and gas reservoirs using 3-D and 4-D seismic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R.N.; Boulanger, A.; Bagdonas, E.P.; Xu, L.; He, W.

    1996-12-17

    The invention utilizes 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys as a means of deriving information useful in petroleum exploration and reservoir management. The methods use both single seismic surveys (3-D) and multiple seismic surveys separated in time (4-D) of a region of interest to determine large scale migration pathways within sedimentary basins, and fine scale drainage structure and oil-water-gas regions within individual petroleum producing reservoirs. Such structure is identified using pattern recognition tools which define the regions of interest. The 4-D seismic data sets may be used for data completion for large scale structure where time intervals between surveys do not allow for dynamic evolution. The 4-D seismic data sets also may be used to find variations over time of small scale structure within individual reservoirs which may be used to identify petroleum drainage pathways, oil-water-gas regions and, hence, attractive drilling targets. After spatial orientation, and amplitude and frequency matching of the multiple seismic data sets, High Amplitude Event (HAE) regions consistent with the presence of petroleum are identified using seismic attribute analysis. High Amplitude Regions are grown and interconnected to establish plumbing networks on the large scale and reservoir structure on the small scale. Small scale variations over time between seismic surveys within individual reservoirs are identified and used to identify drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum to be recovered. The location of such drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum may be used to site wells. 22 figs.

  9. Method for identifying subsurface fluid migration and drainage pathways in and among oil and gas reservoirs using 3-D and 4-D seismic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Roger N.; Boulanger, Albert; Bagdonas, Edward P.; Xu, Liqing; He, Wei

    1996-01-01

    The invention utilizes 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys as a means of deriving information useful in petroleum exploration and reservoir management. The methods use both single seismic surveys (3-D) and multiple seismic surveys separated in time (4-D) of a region of interest to determine large scale migration pathways within sedimentary basins, and fine scale drainage structure and oil-water-gas regions within individual petroleum producing reservoirs. Such structure is identified using pattern recognition tools which define the regions of interest. The 4-D seismic data sets may be used for data completion for large scale structure where time intervals between surveys do not allow for dynamic evolution. The 4-D seismic data sets also may be used to find variations over time of small scale structure within individual reservoirs which may be used to identify petroleum drainage pathways, oil-water-gas regions and, hence, attractive drilling targets. After spatial orientation, and amplitude and frequency matching of the multiple seismic data sets, High Amplitude Event (HAE) regions consistent with the presence of petroleum are identified using seismic attribute analysis. High Amplitude Regions are grown and interconnected to establish plumbing networks on the large scale and reservoir structure on the small scale. Small scale variations over time between seismic surveys within individual reservoirs are identified and used to identify drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum to be recovered. The location of such drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum may be used to site wells.

  10. Noninvasive computational imaging of cardiac electrophysiology for 3-D infarct.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linwei; Wong, Ken C L; Zhang, Heye; Liu, Huafeng; Shi, Pengcheng

    2011-04-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) creates electrophysiologically altered substrates that are responsible for ventricular arrhythmias, such as tachycardia and fibrillation. The presence, size, location, and composition of infarct scar bear significant prognostic and therapeutic implications for individual subjects. We have developed a statistical physiological model-constrained framework that uses noninvasive body-surface-potential data and tomographic images to estimate subject-specific transmembrane-potential (TMP) dynamics inside the 3-D myocardium. In this paper, we adapt this framework for the purpose of noninvasive imaging, detection, and quantification of 3-D scar mass for postMI patients: the framework requires no prior knowledge of MI and converges to final subject-specific TMP estimates after several passes of estimation with intermediate feedback; based on the primary features of the estimated spatiotemporal TMP dynamics, we provide 3-D imaging of scar tissue and quantitative evaluation of scar location and extent. Phantom experiments were performed on a computational model of realistic heart-torso geometry, considering 87 transmural infarct scars of different sizes and locations inside the myocardium, and 12 compact infarct scars (extent between 10% and 30%) at different transmural depths. Real-data experiments were carried out on BSP and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from four postMI patients, validated by gold standards and existing results. This framework shows unique advantage of noninvasive, quantitative, computational imaging of subject-specific TMP dynamics and infarct mass of the 3-D myocardium, with the potential to reflect details in the spatial structure and tissue composition/heterogeneity of 3-D infarct scar.

  11. 3D/2D image registration: the impact of X-ray views and their number.

    PubMed

    Tomazevic, Dejan; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2007-01-01

    An important part of image-guided radiation therapy or surgery is registration of a three-dimensional (3D) preoperative image to two-dimensional (2D) images of the patient. It is expected that the accuracy and robustness of a 3D/2D image registration method do not depend solely on the registration method itself but also on the number and projections (views) of intraoperative images. In this study, we systematically investigate these factors by using registered image data, comprising of CT and X-ray images of a cadaveric lumbar spine phantom and the recently proposed 3D/2D registration method. The results indicate that the proportion of successful registrations (robustness) significantly increases when more X-ray images are used for registration.

  12. Refraction Correction in 3D Transcranial Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Brooks D.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first correction of refraction in three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging using an iterative approach that traces propagation paths through a two-layer planar tissue model, applying Snell’s law in 3D. This approach is applied to real-time 3D transcranial ultrasound imaging by precomputing delays offline for several skull thicknesses, allowing the user to switch between three sets of delays for phased array imaging at the push of a button. Simulations indicate that refraction correction may be expected to increase sensitivity, reduce beam steering errors, and partially restore lost spatial resolution, with the greatest improvements occurring at the largest steering angles. Distorted images of cylindrical lesions were created by imaging through an acrylic plate in a tissue-mimicking phantom. As a result of correcting for refraction, lesions were restored to 93.6% of their original diameter in the lateral direction and 98.1% of their original shape along the long axis of the cylinders. In imaging two healthy volunteers, the mean brightness increased by 8.3% and showed no spatial dependency. PMID:24275538

  13. 3D Imaging of Density Gradients Using Plenoptic BOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemkowsky, Jenna; Clifford, Chris; Fahringer, Timothy; Thurow, Brian

    2016-11-01

    The combination of background oriented schlieren (BOS) and a plenoptic camera, termed Plenoptic BOS, is explored through two proof-of-concept experiments. The motivation of this work is to provide a 3D technique capable of observing density disturbances. BOS uses the relationship between density and refractive index gradients to observe an apparent shift in a patterned background through image comparison. Conventional BOS systems acquire a single line-of-sight measurement, and require complex configurations to obtain 3D measurements, which are not always conducive to experimental facilities. Plenoptic BOS exploits the plenoptic camera's ability to generate multiple perspective views and refocused images from a single raw plenoptic image during post processing. Using such capabilities, with regards to BOS, provides multiple line-of-sight measurements of density disturbances, which can be collectively used to generate refocused BOS images. Such refocused images allow the position of density disturbances to be qualitatively and quantitatively determined. The image that provides the sharpest density gradient signature corresponds to a specific depth. These results offer motivation to advance Plenoptic BOS with an ultimate goal of reconstructing a 3D density field.

  14. A new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-05-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing day to day for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally three main image based approaches are using for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling and third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete solution available to create complete 3D city model by using images. These image based methods also have limitations This paper gives a new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry. This approach is divided into three sections. First, data acquisition process, second is 3D data processing, and third is data combination process. In data acquisition process, a multi-camera setup developed and used for video recording of an area. Image frames created from video data. Minimum required and suitable video image frame selected for 3D processing. In second section, based on close range photogrammetric principles and computer vision techniques, 3D model of area created. In third section, this 3D model exported to adding and merging of other pieces of large area. Scaling and alignment of 3D model was done. After applying the texturing and rendering on this model, a final photo-realistic textured 3D model created. This 3D model transferred into walk-through model or in movie form. Most of the processing steps are automatic. So this method is cost effective and less laborious. Accuracy of this model is good. For this research work, study area is the campus of department of civil engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. This campus acts as a prototype for city. Aerial photography is restricted in many country

  15. Advanced 3D polarimetric flash ladar imaging through foliage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, James T.; Moran, Steven E.; Roddier, Nicolas; Vercillo, Richard; Bridges, Robert; Austin, William

    2003-08-01

    High-resolution three-dimensional flash ladar system technologies are under development that enables remote identification of vehicles and armament hidden by heavy tree canopies. We have developed a sensor architecture and design that employs a 3D flash ladar receiver to address this mission. The receiver captures 128×128×>30 three-dimensional images for each laser pulse fired. The voxel size of the image is 3"×3"×4" at the target location. A novel signal-processing algorithm has been developed that achieves sub-voxel (sub-inch) range precision estimates of target locations within each pixel. Polarization discrimination is implemented to augment the target-to-foliage contrast. When employed, this method improves the range resolution of the system beyond the classical limit (based on pulsewidth and detection bandwidth). Experiments were performed with a 6 ns long transmitter pulsewidth that demonstrate 1-inch range resolution of a tank-like target that is occluded by foliage and a range precision of 0.3" for unoccluded targets.

  16. Synthesis of image sequences for Korean sign language using 3D shape model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Mun-Ho; Choi, Chang-Seok; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jeon, Joon-Hyeon

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes a method for offering information and realizing communication to the deaf-mute. The deaf-mute communicates with another person by means of sign language, but most people are unfamiliar with it. This method enables to convert text data into the corresponding image sequences for Korean sign language (KSL). Using a general 3D shape model of the upper body leads to generating the 3D motions of KSL. It is necessary to construct the general 3D shape model considering the anatomical structure of the human body. To obtain a personal 3D shape model, this general model is to adjust to the personal base images. Image synthesis for KSL consists of deforming a personal 3D shape model and texture-mapping the personal images onto the deformed model. The 3D motions for KSL have the facial expressions and the 3D movements of the head, trunk, arms and hands and are parameterized for easily deforming the model. These motion parameters of the upper body are extracted from a skilled signer's motion for each KSL and are stored to the database. Editing the parameters according to the inputs of text data yields to generate the image sequences of 3D motions.

  17. 3D current source density imaging based on acoustoelectric effect: a simulation study using unipolar pulses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Renhuan; Li, Xu; Liu, Jun; He, Bin

    2011-01-01

    It is of importance to image electrical activity and properties of biological tissues. Recently hybrid imaging modality combing ultrasound scanning and source imaging through the acousto-electric (AE) effect has generated considerable interest. Such modality has the potential to provide high spatial resolution current density imaging by utilizing the pressure induced AE resistivity change confined at the ultrasound focus. In this study, we investigate a novel 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI) approach using unipolar ultrasound pulses. Utilizing specially designed unipolar ultrasound pulses and by combining AE signals associated to the local resistivity changes at the focusing point, we are able to reconstruct the 3D current density distribution with the boundary voltage measurements obtained while performing a 3D ultrasound scan. We have shown in computer simulation that using the present method, it is feasible to image with high spatial resolution an arbitrary 3D current density distribution in an inhomogeneous conductive media. PMID:21628774

  18. A featureless approach to 3D polyhedral building modeling from aerial images.

    PubMed

    Hammoudi, Karim; Dornaika, Fadi

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based approach for reconstructing 3D polyhedral building models from aerial images. The proposed approach exploits some geometric and photometric properties resulting from the perspective projection of planar structures. Data are provided by calibrated aerial images. The novelty of the approach lies in its featurelessness and in its use of direct optimization based on image rawbrightness. The proposed framework avoids feature extraction and matching. The 3D polyhedral model is directly estimated by optimizing an objective function that combines an image-based dissimilarity measure and a gradient score over several aerial images. The optimization process is carried out by the Differential Evolution algorithm. The proposed approach is intended to provide more accurate 3D reconstruction than feature-based approaches. Fast 3D model rectification and updating can take advantage of the proposed method. Several results and evaluations of performance from real and synthetic images show the feasibility and robustness of the proposed approach.

  19. A Featureless Approach to 3D Polyhedral Building Modeling from Aerial Images

    PubMed Central

    Hammoudi, Karim; Dornaika, Fadi

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based approach for reconstructing 3D polyhedral building models from aerial images. The proposed approach exploits some geometric and photometric properties resulting from the perspective projection of planar structures. Data are provided by calibrated aerial images. The novelty of the approach lies in its featurelessness and in its use of direct optimization based on image rawbrightness. The proposed framework avoids feature extraction and matching. The 3D polyhedral model is directly estimated by optimizing an objective function that combines an image-based dissimilarity measure and a gradient score over several aerial images. The optimization process is carried out by the Differential Evolution algorithm. The proposed approach is intended to provide more accurate 3D reconstruction than feature-based approaches. Fast 3D model rectification and updating can take advantage of the proposed method. Several results and evaluations of performance from real and synthetic images show the feasibility and robustness of the proposed approach. PMID:22346575

  20. 3D face recognition by projection-based methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutagaci, Helin; Sankur, Bülent; Yemez, Yücel

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate recognition performances of various projection-based features applied on registered 3D scans of faces. Some features are data driven, such as ICA-based features or NNMF-based features. Other features are obtained using DFT or DCT-based schemes. We apply the feature extraction techniques to three different representations of registered faces, namely, 3D point clouds, 2D depth images and 3D voxel. We consider both global and local features. Global features are extracted from the whole face data, whereas local features are computed over the blocks partitioned from 2D depth images. The block-based local features are fused both at feature level and at decision level. The resulting feature vectors are matched using Linear Discriminant Analysis. Experiments using different combinations of representation types and feature vectors are conducted on the 3D-RMA dataset.

  1. 1024 pixels single photon imaging array for 3D ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellisai, S.; Guerrieri, F.; Tisa, S.; Zappa, F.; Tosi, A.; Giudice, A.

    2011-01-01

    Three dimensions (3D) acquisition systems are driving applications in many research field. Nowadays 3D acquiring systems are used in a lot of applications, such as cinema industry or in automotive (for active security systems). Depending on the application, systems present different features, for example color sensitivity, bi-dimensional image resolution, distance measurement accuracy and acquisition frame rate. The system we developed acquires 3D movie using indirect Time of Flight (iTOF), starting from phase delay measurement of a sinusoidally modulated light. The system acquires live movie with a frame rate up to 50frame/s in a range distance between 10 cm up to 7.5 m.

  2. On Limits of Embedding in 3D Images Based on 2D Watson's Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavehvash, Zahra; Ghaemmaghami, Shahrokh

    We extend the Watson image quality metric to 3D images through the concept of integral imaging. In the Watson's model, perceptual thresholds for changes to the DCT coefficients of a 2D image are given for information hiding. These thresholds are estimated in a way that the resulting distortion in the 2D image remains undetectable by the human eyes. In this paper, the same perceptual thresholds are estimated for a 3D scene in the integral imaging method. These thresholds are obtained based on the Watson's model using the relation between 2D elemental images and resulting 3D image. The proposed model is evaluated through subjective tests in a typical image steganography scheme.

  3. The agreement between 3D, standard 2D and triplane 2D speckle tracking: effects of image quality and 3D volume rate.

    PubMed

    Trache, Tudor; Stöbe, Stephan; Tarr, Adrienn; Pfeiffer, Dietrich; Hagendorff, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Comparison of 3D and 2D speckle tracking performed on standard 2D and triplane 2D datasets of normal and pathological left ventricular (LV) wall-motion patterns with a focus on the effect that 3D volume rate (3DVR), image quality and tracking artifacts have on the agreement between 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 37 patients with normal LV function and 18 patients with ischaemic wall-motion abnormalities underwent 2D and 3D echocardiography, followed by offline speckle tracking measurements. The values of 3D global, regional and segmental strain were compared with the standard 2D and triplane 2D strain values. Correlation analysis with the LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was also performed. The 3D and 2D global strain values correlated good in both normally and abnormally contracting hearts, though systematic differences between the two methods were observed. Of the 3D strain parameters, the area strain showed the best correlation with the LVEF. The numerical agreement of 3D and 2D analyses varied significantly with the volume rate and image quality of the 3D datasets. The highest correlation between 2D and 3D peak systolic strain values was found between 3D area and standard 2D longitudinal strain. Regional wall-motion abnormalities were similarly detected by 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 2DST of triplane datasets showed similar results to those of conventional 2D datasets. 2D and 3D speckle tracking similarly detect normal and pathological wall-motion patterns. Limited image quality has a significant impact on the agreement between 3D and 2D numerical strain values.

  4. Interactive 2D to 3D stereoscopic image synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Mark H.; Lipton, Lenny

    2005-03-01

    Advances in stereoscopic display technologies, graphic card devices, and digital imaging algorithms have opened up new possibilities in synthesizing stereoscopic images. The power of today"s DirectX/OpenGL optimized graphics cards together with adapting new and creative imaging tools found in software products such as Adobe Photoshop, provide a powerful environment for converting planar drawings and photographs into stereoscopic images. The basis for such a creative process is the focus of this paper. This article presents a novel technique, which uses advanced imaging features and custom Windows-based software that utilizes the Direct X 9 API to provide the user with an interactive stereo image synthesizer. By creating an accurate and interactive world scene with moveable and flexible depth map altered textured surfaces, perspective stereoscopic cameras with both visible frustums and zero parallax planes, a user can precisely model a virtual three-dimensional representation of a real-world scene. Current versions of Adobe Photoshop provide a creative user with a rich assortment of tools needed to highlight elements of a 2D image, simulate hidden areas, and creatively shape them for a 3D scene representation. The technique described has been implemented as a Photoshop plug-in and thus allows for a seamless transition of these 2D image elements into 3D surfaces, which are subsequently rendered to create stereoscopic views.

  5. Automated reconstruction of 3D scenes from sequences of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollefeys, M.; Koch, R.; Vergauwen, M.; Van Gool, L.

    Modelling of 3D objects from image sequences is a challenging problem and has been an important research topic in the areas of photogrammetry and computer vision for many years. In this paper, a system is presented which automatically extracts a textured 3D surface model from a sequence of images of a scene. The system can deal with unknown camera settings. In addition, the parameters of this camera are allowed to change during acquisition (e.g., by zooming or focusing). No prior knowledge about the scene is necessary to build the 3D models. Therefore, this system offers a high degree of flexibility. The system is based on state-of-the-art algorithms recently developed in computer vision. The 3D modelling task is decomposed into a number of successive steps. Gradually, more knowledge of the scene and the camera setup is retrieved. At this point, the obtained accuracy is not yet at the level required for most metrology applications, but the visual quality is very convincing. This system has been applied to a number of applications in archaeology. The Roman site of Sagalassos (southwest Turkey) was used as a test case to illustrate the potential of this new approach.

  6. Advances in automated 3-D image analyses of cell populations imaged by confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ancin, H; Roysam, B; Dufresne, T E; Chestnut, M M; Ridder, G M; Szarowski, D H; Turner, J N

    1996-11-01

    Automated three-dimensional (3-D) image analysis methods are presented for rapid and effective analysis of populations of fluorescently labeled cells or nuclei in thick tissue sections that have been imaged three dimensionally using a confocal microscope. The methods presented here greatly improve upon our earlier work (Roysam et al.:J Microsc 173: 115-126, 1994). The principal advances reported are: algorithms for efficient data pre-processing and adaptive segmentation, effective handling of image anisotrophy, and fast 3-D morphological algorithms for separating overlapping or connected clusters utilizing image gradient information whenever available. A particular feature of this method is its ability to separate densely packed and connected clusters of cell nuclei. Some of the challenges overcome in this work include the efficient and effective handling of imaging noise, anisotrophy, and large variations in image parameters such as intensity, object size, and shape. The method is able to handle significant inter-cell, intra-cell, inter-image, and intra-image variations. Studies indicate that this method is rapid, robust, and adaptable. Examples were presented to illustrate the applicability of this approach to analyzing images of nuclei from densely packed regions in thick sections of rat liver, and brain that were labeled with a fluorescent Schiff reagent.

  7. Binary 3D image interpolation algorithm based global information and adaptive curves fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tian-yi; Zhang, Jin-hao; Guan, Xiang-chen; Li, Qiu-ping; He, Meng

    2013-08-01

    Interpolation is a necessary processing step in 3-D reconstruction because of the non-uniform resolution. Conventional interpolation methods simply use two slices to obtain the missing slices between the two slices .when the key slice is missing, those methods may fail to recover it only employing the local information .And the surface of 3D object especially for the medical tissues may be highly complicated, so a single interpolation can hardly get high-quality 3D image. We propose a novel binary 3D image interpolation algorithm. The proposed algorithm takes advantages of the global information. It chooses the best curve adaptively from lots of curves based on the complexity of the surface of 3D object. The results of this algorithm are compared with other interpolation methods on artificial objects and real breast cancer tumor to demonstrate the excellent performance.

  8. Validation of 3D ultrasound: CT registration of prostate images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firle, Evelyn A.; Wesarg, Stefan; Karangelis, Grigoris; Dold, Christian

    2003-05-01

    All over the world 20% of men are expected to develop prostate cancer sometime in his life. In addition to surgery - being the traditional treatment for cancer - the radiation treatment is getting more popular. The most interesting radiation treatment regarding prostate cancer is Brachytherapy radiation procedure. For the safe delivery of that therapy imaging is critically important. In several cases where a CT device is available a combination of the information provided by CT and 3D Ultrasound (U/S) images offers advantages in recognizing the borders of the lesion and delineating the region of treatment. For these applications the CT and U/S scans should be registered and fused in a multi-modal dataset. Purpose of the present development is a registration tool (registration, fusion and validation) for available CT volumes with 3D U/S images of the same anatomical region, i.e. the prostate. The combination of these two imaging modalities interlinks the advantages of the high-resolution CT imaging and low cost real-time U/S imaging and offers a multi-modality imaging environment for further target and anatomy delineation. This tool has been integrated into the visualization software "InViVo" which has been developed over several years in Fraunhofer IGD in Darmstadt.

  9. Segmentation of 3D microPET images of the rat brain via the hybrid gaussian mixture method with kernel density estimation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tai-Been; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation of positron emission tomography (PET) is typically achieved using the K-Means method or other approaches. In preclinical and clinical applications, the K-Means method needs a prior estimation of parameters such as the number of clusters and appropriate initialized values. This work segments microPET images using a hybrid method combining the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) with kernel density estimation. Segmentation is crucial to registration of disordered 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) accumulation locations with functional diagnosis and to estimate standardized uptake values (SUVs) of region of interests (ROIs) in PET images. Therefore, simulation studies are conducted to apply spherical targets to evaluate segmentation accuracy based on Tanimoto's definition of similarity. The proposed method generates a higher degree of similarity than the K-Means method. The PET images of a rat brain are used to compare the segmented shape and area of the cerebral cortex by the K-Means method and the proposed method by volume rendering. The proposed method provides clearer and more detailed activity structures of an FDG accumulation location in the cerebral cortex than those by the K-Means method.

  10. Getting in touch--3D printing in forensic imaging.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Lars Chr; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen

    2011-09-10

    With the increasing use of medical imaging in forensics, as well as the technological advances in rapid prototyping, we suggest combining these techniques to generate displays of forensic findings. We used computed tomography (CT), CT angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surface scanning with photogrammetry in conjunction with segmentation techniques to generate 3D polygon meshes. Based on these data sets, a 3D printer created colored models of the anatomical structures. Using this technique, we could create models of bone fractures, vessels, cardiac infarctions, ruptured organs as well as bitemark wounds. The final models are anatomically accurate, fully colored representations of bones, vessels and soft tissue, and they demonstrate radiologically visible pathologies. The models are more easily understood by laypersons than volume rendering or 2D reconstructions. Therefore, they are suitable for presentations in courtrooms and for educational purposes.

  11. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  12. Joint source/channel coding for prioritized wireless transmission of multiple 3-D regions of interest in 3-D medical imaging data.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, V

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a 3-D medical image coding method featuring two major improvements to previous work on 3-D region of interest (RoI) coding for telemedicine applications. Namely, 1) a data prioritization scheme that allows coding of multiple 3-D-RoIs; and 2) a joint/source channel coding scheme that allows prioritized transmission of multiple 3-D-RoIs over wireless channels. The method, which is based on the 3-D integer wavelet transform and embedded block coding with optimized truncation with 3-D context modeling, generates scalable and error-resilient bit streams with 3-D-RoI decoding capabilities. Coding of multiple 3-D-RoIs is attained by prioritizing the wavelet-transformed data according to a Gaussian mixed distribution, whereas error resiliency is attained by employing the error correction capabilities of rate-compatible punctured turbo codes. The robustness of the proposed method is evaluated for transmission of real 3-D medical images over Rayleigh-fading channels with a priori knowledge of the channel condition. Evaluation results show that the proposed coding method provides a superior performance compared to equal error protection and unequal error protection techniques.

  13. Joint calibration of 3D resist image and CDSEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. S.; He, Y. Y.; Tang, Y. P.; Chang, Y. T.; Huang, W. C.; Liu, R. G.; Gau, T. S.

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, an optical proximity correction model is to evaluate the resist image at a specific depth within the photoresist and then extract the resist contours from the image. Calibration is generally implemented by comparing resist contours with the critical dimensions (CD). The wafer CD is usually collected by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), which evaluates the CD based on some criterion that is a function of gray level, differential signal, threshold or other parameters set by the SEM. However, the criterion does not reveal which depth the CD is obtained at. This depth inconsistency between modeling and SEM makes the model calibration difficult for low k1 images. In this paper, the vertical resist profile is obtained by modifying the model from planar (2D) to quasi-3D approach and comparing the CD from this new model with SEM CD. For this quasi-3D model, the photoresist diffusion along the depth of the resist is considered and the 3D photoresist contours are evaluated. The performance of this new model is studied and is better than the 2D model.

  14. Automated spatial alignment of 3D torso images.

    PubMed

    Bose, Arijit; Shah, Shishir K; Reece, Gregory P; Crosby, Melissa A; Beahm, Elisabeth K; Fingeret, Michelle C; Markey, Mia K; Merchant, Fatima A

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for automated spatial alignment of three-dimensional (3D) surface images in order to achieve a pre-defined orientation. Surface images of the torso are acquired from breast cancer patients undergoing reconstructive surgery to facilitate objective evaluation of breast morphology pre-operatively (for treatment planning) and/or post-operatively (for outcome assessment). Based on the viewing angle of the multiple cameras used for stereophotography, the orientation of the acquired torso in the images may vary from the normal upright position. Consequently, when translating this data into a standard 3D framework for visualization and analysis, the co-ordinate geometry differs from the upright position making robust and standardized comparison of images impractical. Moreover, manual manipulation and navigation of images to the desired upright position is subject to user bias. Automating the process of alignment and orientation removes operator bias and permits robust and repeatable adjustment of surface images to a pre-defined or desired spatial geometry.

  15. 2D and 3D MALDI-imaging: conceptual strategies for visualization and data mining.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Herbert; Heldmann, Stefan; Trede, Dennis; Strehlow, Jan; Wirtz, Stefan; Dreher, Wolfgang; Berger, Judith; Oetjen, Janina; Kobarg, Jan Hendrik; Fischer, Bernd; Maass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    3D imaging has a significant impact on many challenges in life sciences, because biology is a 3-dimensional phenomenon. Current 3D imaging-technologies (various types MRI, PET, SPECT) are labeled, i.e. they trace the localization of a specific compound in the body. In contrast, 3D MALDI mass spectrometry-imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a label-free method imaging the spatial distribution of molecular compounds. It complements 3D imaging labeled methods, immunohistochemistry, and genetics-based methods. However, 3D MALDI-MSI cannot tap its full potential due to the lack of statistical methods for analysis and interpretation of large and complex 3D datasets. To overcome this, we established a complete and robust 3D MALDI-MSI pipeline combined with efficient computational data analysis methods for 3D edge preserving image denoising, 3D spatial segmentation as well as finding colocalized m/z values, which will be reviewed here in detail. Furthermore, we explain, why the integration and correlation of the MALDI imaging data with other imaging modalities allows to enhance the interpretation of the molecular data and provides visualization of molecular patterns that may otherwise not be apparent. Therefore, a 3D data acquisition workflow is described generating a set of 3 different dimensional images representing the same anatomies. First, an in-vitro MRI measurement is performed which results in a three-dimensional image modality representing the 3D structure of the measured object. After sectioning the 3D object into N consecutive slices, all N slices are scanned using an optical digital scanner, enabling for performing the MS measurements. Scanning the individual sections results into low-resolution images, which define the base coordinate system for the whole pipeline. The scanned images conclude the information from the spatial (MRI) and the mass spectrometric (MALDI-MSI) dimension and are used for the spatial three-dimensional reconstruction of the object performed by image

  16. Integration of virtual and real scenes within an integral 3D imaging environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jinsong; Aggoun, Amar; McCormick, Malcolm

    2002-11-01

    The Imaging Technologies group at De Montfort University has developed an integral 3D imaging system, which is seen as the most likely vehicle for 3D television avoiding psychological effects. To create real fascinating three-dimensional television programs, a virtual studio that performs the task of generating, editing and integrating the 3D contents involving virtual and real scenes is required. The paper presents, for the first time, the procedures, factors and methods of integrating computer-generated virtual scenes with real objects captured using the 3D integral imaging camera system. The method of computer generation of 3D integral images, where the lens array is modelled instead of the physical camera is described. In the model each micro-lens that captures different elemental images of the virtual scene is treated as an extended pinhole camera. An integration process named integrated rendering is illustrated. Detailed discussion and deep investigation are focused on depth extraction from captured integral 3D images. The depth calculation method from the disparity and the multiple baseline method that is used to improve the precision of depth estimation are also presented. The concept of colour SSD and its further improvement in the precision is proposed and verified.

  17. An image encryption algorithm based on 3D cellular automata and chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rey, A. Martín; Sánchez, G. Rodríguez

    2015-05-01

    A novel encryption algorithm to cipher digital images is presented in this work. The digital image is rendering into a three-dimensional (3D) lattice and the protocol consists of two phases: the confusion phase where 24 chaotic Cat maps are applied and the diffusion phase where a 3D cellular automata is evolved. The encryption method is shown to be secure against the most important cryptanalytic attacks.

  18. Pavement cracking measurements using 3D laser-scan images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, W.; Xu, B.

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition surveying is vital for pavement maintenance programs that ensure ride quality and traffic safety. This paper first introduces an automated pavement inspection system which uses a three-dimensional (3D) camera and a structured laser light to acquire dense transverse profiles of a pavement lane surface when it carries a moving vehicle. After the calibration, the 3D system can yield a depth resolution of 0.5 mm and a transverse resolution of 1.56 mm pixel-1 at 1.4 m camera height from the ground. The scanning rate of the camera can be set to its maximum at 5000 lines s-1, allowing the density of scanned profiles to vary with the vehicle's speed. The paper then illustrates the algorithms that utilize 3D information to detect pavement distress, such as transverse, longitudinal and alligator cracking, and presents the field tests on the system's repeatability when scanning a sample pavement in multiple runs at the same vehicle speed, at different vehicle speeds and under different weather conditions. The results show that this dedicated 3D system can capture accurate pavement images that detail surface distress, and obtain consistent crack measurements in repeated tests and under different driving and lighting conditions.

  19. Objective breast symmetry evaluation using 3-D surface imaging.

    PubMed

    Eder, Maximilian; Waldenfels, Fee V; Swobodnik, Alexandra; Klöppel, Markus; Pape, Ann-Kathrin; Schuster, Tibor; Raith, Stefan; Kitzler, Elena; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Machens, Hans-Günther; Kovacs, Laszlo

    2012-04-01

    This study develops an objective breast symmetry evaluation using 3-D surface imaging (Konica-Minolta V910(®) scanner) by superimposing the mirrored left breast over the right and objectively determining the mean 3-D contour difference between the 2 breast surfaces. 3 observers analyzed the evaluation protocol precision using 2 dummy models (n = 60), 10 test subjects (n = 300), clinically tested it on 30 patients (n = 900) and compared it to established 2-D measurements on 23 breast reconstructive patients using the BCCT.core software (n = 690). Mean 3-D evaluation precision, expressed as the coefficient of variation (VC), was 3.54 ± 0.18 for all human subjects without significant intra- and inter-observer differences (p > 0.05). The 3-D breast symmetry evaluation is observer independent, significantly more precise (p < 0.001) than the BCCT.core software (VC = 6.92 ± 0.88) and may play a part in an objective surgical outcome analysis after incorporation into clinical practice.

  20. Methods For Electronic 3-D Moving Pictures Without Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collender, Robert B.

    1987-06-01

    This paper describes implementation approaches in image acquisition and playback for 3-D computer graphics, 3-D television and 3-D theatre movies without special glasses. Projection lamps, spatial light modulators, CRT's and dynamic scanning are all eliminated by the application of an active image array, all static components and a semi-specular screen. The resulting picture shows horizontal parallax with a wide horizontal view field (up to 360 de-grees) giving a holographic appearance in full color with smooth continuous viewing without speckle. Static component systems are compared with dynamic component systems using both linear and circular arrays. Implementation of computer graphic systems are shown that allow complex shaded color images to extend from the viewer's eyes to infinity. Large screen systems visible by hundreds of people are feasible by the use of low f-stops and high gain screens in projection. Screen geometries and special screen properties are shown. Viewing characteristics offer no restrictions in view-position over the entire view-field and have a "look-around" feature for all the categories of computer graphics, television and movies. Standard video cassettes and optical discs can also interface the system to generate a 3-D window viewable without glasses. A prognosis is given for technology application to 3-D pictures without glasses that replicate the daily viewing experience. Super-position of computer graphics on real-world pictures is shown feasible.

  1. Multi-layer 3D imaging using a few viewpoint images and depth map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suginohara, Hidetsugu; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method that makes multi-layer images from a few viewpoint images to display a 3D image by the autostereoscopic display that has multiple display screens in the depth direction. We iterate simple "Shift and Subtraction" processes to make each layer image alternately. The image made in accordance with depth map like a volume slicing by gradations is used as the initial solution of iteration process. Through the experiments using the prototype stacked two LCDs, we confirmed that it was enough to make multi-layer images from three viewpoint images to display a 3D image. Limiting the number of viewpoint images, the viewing area that allows stereoscopic view becomes narrow. To broaden the viewing area, we track the head motion of the viewer and update screen images in real time so that the viewer can maintain correct stereoscopic view within +/- 20 degrees area. In addition, we render pseudo multiple viewpoint images using depth map, then we can generate motion parallax at the same time.

  2. Virtual image display as a backlight for 3D.

    PubMed

    Travis, Adrian; MacCrann, Niall; Emerton, Neil; Kollin, Joel; Georgiou, Andreas; Lanier, Jaron; Bathiche, Stephen

    2013-07-29

    We describe a device which has the potential to be used both as a virtual image display and as a backlight. The pupil of the emitted light fills the device approximately to its periphery and the collimated emission can be scanned both horizontally and vertically in the manner needed to illuminate an eye in any position. The aim is to reduce the power needed to illuminate a liquid crystal panel but also to enable a smooth transition from 3D to a virtual image as the user nears the screen.

  3. Synthesis of 3D Model of a Magnetic Field-Influenced Body from a Single Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Cuilan; Newman, Timothy; Gallagher, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A method for recovery of a 3D model of a cloud-like structure that is in motion and deforming but approximately governed by magnetic field properties is described. The method allows recovery of the model from a single intensity image in which the structure's silhouette can be observed. The method exploits envelope theory and a magnetic field model. Given one intensity image and the segmented silhouette in the image, the method proceeds without human intervention to produce the 3D model. In addition to allowing 3D model synthesis, the method's capability to yield a very compact description offers further utility. Application of the method to several real-world images is demonstrated.

  4. Automated 3D renal segmentation based on image partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeghiazaryan, Varduhi; Voiculescu, Irina D.

    2016-03-01

    Despite several decades of research into segmentation techniques, automated medical image segmentation is barely usable in a clinical context, and still at vast user time expense. This paper illustrates unsupervised organ segmentation through the use of a novel automated labelling approximation algorithm followed by a hypersurface front propagation method. The approximation stage relies on a pre-computed image partition forest obtained directly from CT scan data. We have implemented all procedures to operate directly on 3D volumes, rather than slice-by-slice, because our algorithms are dimensionality-independent. The results picture segmentations which identify kidneys, but can easily be extrapolated to other body parts. Quantitative analysis of our automated segmentation compared against hand-segmented gold standards indicates an average Dice similarity coefficient of 90%. Results were obtained over volumes of CT data with 9 kidneys, computing both volume-based similarity measures (such as the Dice and Jaccard coefficients, true positive volume fraction) and size-based measures (such as the relative volume difference). The analysis considered both healthy and diseased kidneys, although extreme pathological cases were excluded from the overall count. Such cases are difficult to segment both manually and automatically due to the large amplitude of Hounsfield unit distribution in the scan, and the wide spread of the tumorous tissue inside the abdomen. In the case of kidneys that have maintained their shape, the similarity range lies around the values obtained for inter-operator variability. Whilst the procedure is fully automated, our tools also provide a light level of manual editing.

  5. Underwater 3d Modeling: Image Enhancement and Point Cloud Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarakinou, I.; Papadimitriou, K.; Georgoula, O.; Patias, P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the results of image enhancement and point cloud filtering on the visual and geometric quality of 3D models for the representation of underwater features. Specifically it evaluates the combination of effects from the manual editing of images' radiometry (captured at shallow depths) and the selection of parameters for point cloud definition and mesh building (processed in 3D modeling software). Such datasets, are usually collected by divers, handled by scientists and used for geovisualization purposes. In the presented study, have been created 3D models from three sets of images (seafloor, part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) captured at three different depths (3.5m, 10m and 14m respectively). Four models have been created from the first dataset (seafloor) in order to evaluate the results from the application of image enhancement techniques and point cloud filtering. The main process for this preliminary study included a) the definition of parameters for the point cloud filtering and the creation of a reference model, b) the radiometric editing of images, followed by the creation of three improved models and c) the assessment of results by comparing the visual and the geometric quality of improved models versus the reference one. Finally, the selected technique is tested on two other data sets in order to examine its appropriateness for different depths (at 10m and 14m) and different objects (part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) in the context of an ongoing research in the Laboratory of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  6. 3D reconstruction of SEM images by use of optical photogrammetry software.

    PubMed

    Eulitz, Mona; Reiss, Gebhard

    2015-08-01

    Reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) surface of an object to be examined is widely used for structure analysis in science and many biological questions require information about their true 3D structure. For Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) there has been no efficient non-destructive solution for reconstruction of the surface morphology to date. The well-known method of recording stereo pair images generates a 3D stereoscope reconstruction of a section, but not of the complete sample surface. We present a simple and non-destructive method of 3D surface reconstruction from SEM samples based on the principles of optical close range photogrammetry. In optical close range photogrammetry a series of overlapping photos is used to generate a 3D model of the surface of an object. We adapted this method to the special SEM requirements. Instead of moving a detector around the object, the object itself was rotated. A series of overlapping photos was stitched and converted into a 3D model using the software commonly used for optical photogrammetry. A rabbit kidney glomerulus was used to demonstrate the workflow of this adaption. The reconstruction produced a realistic and high-resolution 3D mesh model of the glomerular surface. The study showed that SEM micrographs are suitable for 3D reconstruction by optical photogrammetry. This new approach is a simple and useful method of 3D surface reconstruction and suitable for various applications in research and teaching.

  7. Feature detection on 3D images of dental imprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, Marielle; Laurendeau, Denis

    1994-09-01

    A computer vision approach for the extraction of feature points on 3D images of dental imprints is presented. The position of feature points are needed for the measurement of a set of parameters for automatic diagnosis of malocclusion problems in orthodontics. The system for the acquisition of the 3D profile of the imprint, the procedure for the detection of the interstices between teeth, and the approach for the identification of the type of tooth are described, as well as the algorithm for the reconstruction of the surface of each type of tooth. A new approach for the detection of feature points, called the watershed algorithm, is described in detail. The algorithm is a two-stage procedure which tracks the position of local minima at four different scales and produces a final map of the position of the minima. Experimental results of the application of the watershed algorithm on actual 3D images of dental imprints are presented for molars, premolars and canines. The segmentation approach for the analysis of the shape of incisors is also described in detail.

  8. Polarization imaging of a 3D object by use of on-axis phase-shifting digital holography.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takanori; Javidi, Bahram; Murata, Shinji; Nitanai, Eiji; Numata, Takuhisa

    2007-03-01

    A polarimetric imaging method of a 3D object by use of on-axis phase-shifting digital holography is presented. The polarimetric image results from a combination of two kinds of holographic imaging using orthogonal polarized reference waves. Experimental demonstration of a 3D polarimetric imaging is presented.

  9. 3D imaging of biological specimen using MS.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, John S

    2015-01-01

    Imaging MS can provide unique information about the distribution of native and non-native compounds in biological specimen. MALDI MS and secondary ion MS are the two most commonly applied imaging MS techniques and can provide complementary information about a sample. MALDI offers access to high mass species such as proteins while secondary ion MS can operate at higher spatial resolution and provide information about lower mass species including elemental signals. Imaging MS is not limited to two dimensions and different approaches have been developed that allow 3D molecular images to be generated of chemicals in whole organs down to single cells. Resolution in the z-dimension is often higher than in x and y, so such analysis offers the potential for probing the distribution of drug molecules and studying drug action by MS with a much higher precision - possibly even organelle level.

  10. Performance prediction for 3D filtering of multichannel images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, Oleksii; Kozhemiakin, Ruslan A.; Abramov, Sergey K.; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Vozel, Benoit; Chehdi, Kacem

    2015-10-01

    Performance of denoising based on discrete cosine transform applied to multichannel remote sensing images corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise is analyzed. Images obtained by satellite Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) mission using hyperspectral imager instrument (Hyperion) that have high input SNR are taken as test images. Denoising performance is characterized by improvement of PSNR. For hard-thresholding 3D DCT-based denoising, simple statistics (probabilities to be less than a certain threshold) are used to predict denoising efficiency using curves fitted into scatterplots. It is shown that the obtained curves (approximations) provide prediction of denoising efficiency with high accuracy. Analysis is carried out for different numbers of channels processed jointly. Universality of prediction for different number of channels is proven.

  11. 3D topography of biologic tissue by multiview imaging and structured light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald

    2014-02-01

    Obtaining three-dimensional (3D) information of biologic tissue is important in many medical applications. This paper presents two methods for reconstructing 3D topography of biologic tissue: multiview imaging and structured light illumination. For each method, the working principle is introduced, followed by experimental validation on a diabetic foot model. To compare the performance characteristics of these two imaging methods, a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is used as a standard control. The wound surface topography of the diabetic foot model is measured by multiview imaging and structured light illumination methods respectively and compared with the CMM measurements. The comparison results show that the structured light illumination method is a promising technique for 3D topographic imaging of biologic tissue.

  12. Evaluation of Kinect 3D Sensor for Healthcare Imaging.

    PubMed

    Pöhlmann, Stefanie T L; Harkness, Elaine F; Taylor, Christopher J; Astley, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Microsoft Kinect is a three-dimensional (3D) sensor originally designed for gaming that has received growing interest as a cost-effective and safe device for healthcare imaging. Recent applications of Kinect in health monitoring, screening, rehabilitation, assistance systems, and intervention support are reviewed here. The suitability of available technologies for healthcare imaging applications is assessed. The performance of Kinect I, based on structured light technology, is compared with that of the more recent Kinect II, which uses time-of-flight measurement, under conditions relevant to healthcare applications. The accuracy, precision, and resolution of 3D images generated with Kinect I and Kinect II are evaluated using flat cardboard models representing different skin colors (pale, medium, and dark) at distances ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 m and measurement angles of up to 75°. Both sensors demonstrated high accuracy (majority of measurements <2 mm) and precision (mean point to plane error <2 mm) at an average resolution of at least 390 points per cm(2). Kinect I is capable of imaging at shorter measurement distances, but Kinect II enables structures angled at over 60° to be evaluated. Kinect II showed significantly higher precision and Kinect I showed significantly higher resolution (both p < 0.001). The choice of object color can influence measurement range and precision. Although Kinect is not a medical imaging device, both sensor generations show performance adequate for a range of healthcare imaging applications. Kinect I is more appropriate for short-range imaging and Kinect II is more appropriate for imaging highly curved surfaces such as the face or breast.

  13. The 3D model control of image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, An H.; Stark, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    Telerobotics studies remote control of distant robots by a human operator using supervisory or direct control. Even if the robot manipulators has vision or other senses, problems arise involving control, communications, and delay. The communication delays that may be expected with telerobots working in space stations while being controlled from an Earth lab have led to a number of experiments attempting to circumvent the problem. This delay in communication is a main motivating factor in moving from well understood instantaneous hands-on manual control to less well understood supervisory control; the ultimate step would be the realization of a fully autonomous robot. The 3-D model control plays a crucial role in resolving many conflicting image processing problems that are inherent in resolving in the bottom-up approach of most current machine vision processes. The 3-D model control approach is also capable of providing the necessary visual feedback information for both the control algorithms and for the human operator.

  14. Hands-on guide for 3D image creation for geological purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frehner, Marcel; Tisato, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    Geological structures in outcrops or hand specimens are inherently three dimensional (3D), and therefore better understandable if viewed in 3D. While 3D models can easily be created, manipulated, and looked at from all sides on the computer screen (e.g., using photogrammetry or laser scanning data), 3D visualizations for publications or conference posters are much more challenging as they have to live in a 2D-world (i.e., on a sheet of paper). Perspective 2D visualizations of 3D models do not fully transmit the "feeling and depth of the third dimension" to the audience; but this feeling is desirable for a better examination and understanding in 3D of the structure under consideration. One of the very few possibilities to generate real 3D images, which work on a 2D display, is by using so-called stereoscopic images. Stereoscopic images are two images of the same object recorded from two slightly offset viewpoints. Special glasses and techniques have to be used to make sure that one image is seen only by one eye, and the other image is seen by the other eye, which together lead to the "3D effect". Geoscientists are often familiar with such 3D images. For example, geomorphologists traditionally view stereographic orthophotos by employing a mirror-steroscope. Nowadays, petroleum-geoscientists examine high-resolution 3D seismic data sets in special 3D visualization rooms. One of the methods for generating and viewing a stereoscopic image, which does not require a high-tech viewing device, is to create a so-called anaglyph. The principle is to overlay two images saturated in red and cyan, respectively. The two images are then viewed through red-cyan-stereoscopic glasses. This method is simple and cost-effective, but has some drawbacks in preserving colors accurately. A similar method is used in 3D movies, where polarized light or shuttering techniques are used to separate the left from the right image, which allows preserving the original colors. The advantage of red

  15. An automated image-based method of 3D subject-specific body segment parameter estimation for kinetic analyses of rapid movements.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Alison L; Corazza, Stefano; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    Accurate subject-specific body segment parameters (BSPs) are necessary to perform kinetic analyses of human movements with large accelerations, or no external contact forces or moments. A new automated topographical image-based method of estimating segment mass, center of mass (CM) position, and moments of inertia is presented. Body geometry and volume were measured using a laser scanner, then an automated pose and shape registration algorithm segmented the scanned body surface, and identified joint center (JC) positions. Assuming the constant segment densities of Dempster, thigh and shank masses, CM locations, and moments of inertia were estimated for four male subjects with body mass indexes (BMIs) of 19.7-38.2. The subject-specific BSP were compared with those determined using Dempster and Clauser regression equations. The influence of BSP and BMI differences on knee and hip net forces and moments during a running swing phase were quantified for the subjects with the smallest and largest BMIs. Subject-specific BSP for 15 body segments were quickly calculated using the image-based method, and total subject masses were overestimated by 1.7-2.9%.When compared with the Dempster and Clauser methods, image-based and regression estimated thigh BSP varied more than the shank parameters. Thigh masses and hip JC to thigh CM distances were consistently larger, and each transverse moment of inertia was smaller using the image-based method. Because the shank had larger linear and angular accelerations than the thigh during the running swing phase, shank BSP differences had a larger effect on calculated intersegmental forces and moments at the knee joint than thigh BSP differences did at the hip. It was the net knee kinetic differences caused by the shank BSP differences that were the largest contributors to the hip variations. Finally, BSP differences produced larger kinetic differences for the subject with larger segment masses, suggesting that parameter accuracy is more

  16. 3D seismic imaging on massively parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Womble, D.E.; Ober, C.C.; Oldfield, R.

    1997-02-01

    The ability to image complex geologies such as salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico and thrusts in mountainous regions is a key to reducing the risk and cost associated with oil and gas exploration. Imaging these structures, however, is computationally expensive. Datasets can be terabytes in size, and the processing time required for the multiple iterations needed to produce a velocity model can take months, even with the massively parallel computers available today. Some algorithms, such as 3D, finite-difference, prestack, depth migration remain beyond the capacity of production seismic processing. Massively parallel processors (MPPs) and algorithms research are the tools that will enable this project to provide new seismic processing capabilities to the oil and gas industry. The goals of this work are to (1) develop finite-difference algorithms for 3D, prestack, depth migration; (2) develop efficient computational approaches for seismic imaging and for processing terabyte datasets on massively parallel computers; and (3) develop a modular, portable, seismic imaging code.

  17. 3D surface reconstruction of apples from 2D NIR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bin; Jiang, Lu; Cheng, Xuemei; Tao, Yang

    2005-11-01

    Machine vision methods are widely used in apple defect detection and quality grading applications. Currently, 2D near-infrared (NIR) imaging of apples is often used to detect apple defects because the image intensity of defects is different from normal apple parts. However, a drawback of this method is that the apple calyx also exhibits similar image intensity to the apple defects. Since an apple calyx often appears in the NIR image, the false alarm rate is high with the 2D NIR imaging method. In this paper, a 2D NIR imaging method is extended to a 3D reconstruction so that the apple calyx can be differentiated from apple defects according to their different 3D depth information. The Lambertian model is used to evaluate the reflectance map of the apple surface, and then Pentland's Shape-From-Shading (SFS) method is applied to reconstruct the 3D surface information of the apple based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Pentland's method is directly derived from human perception properties, making it close to the way human eyes recover 3D information from a 2D scene. In addition, the FFT reduces the computation time significantly. The reconstructed 3D apple surface maps are shown in the results, and different depths of apple calyx and defects are obtained correctly.

  18. Quantitative 3-D imaging topogrammetry for telemedicine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altschuler, Bruce R.

    1994-01-01

    precision micro-sewing machines, splice neural connections with laser welds, micro-bore through constricted vessels, and computer combine ultrasound, microradiography, and 3-D mini-borescopes to quickly assess and trace vascular problems in situ. The spatial relationships between organs, robotic arms, and end-effector diagnostic, manipulative, and surgical instruments would be constantly monitored by the robot 'brain' using inputs from its multiple 3-D quantitative 'eyes' remote sensing, as well as by contact and proximity force measuring devices. Methods to create accurate and quantitative 3-D topograms at continuous video data rates are described.

  19. 3D geometry-based quantification of colocalizations in multichannel 3D microscopy images of human soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Wörz, Stefan; Sander, Petra; Pfannmöller, Martin; Rieker, Ralf J; Joos, Stefan; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Boukamp, Petra; Lichter, Peter; Rohr, Karl

    2010-08-01

    We introduce a new model-based approach for automatic quantification of colocalizations in multichannel 3D microscopy images. The approach uses different 3D parametric intensity models in conjunction with a model fitting scheme to localize and quantify subcellular structures with high accuracy. The central idea is to determine colocalizations between different channels based on the estimated geometry of the subcellular structures as well as to differentiate between different types of colocalizations. A statistical analysis was performed to assess the significance of the determined colocalizations. This approach was used to successfully analyze about 500 three-channel 3D microscopy images of human soft tissue tumors and controls.

  20. Nonrigid registration and classification of the kidneys in 3D dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Ghafourian, Pegah; Sharma, Puneet; Salman, Khalil; Martin, Diego; Fei, Baowei

    2012-02-01

    We have applied image analysis methods in the assessment of human kidney perfusion based on 3D dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI data. This approach consists of 3D non-rigid image registration of the kidneys and fuzzy C-mean classification of kidney tissues. The proposed registration method reduced motion artifacts in the dynamic images and improved the analysis of kidney compartments (cortex, medulla, and cavities). The dynamic intensity curves show the successive transition of the contrast agent through kidney compartments. The proposed method for motion correction and kidney compartment classification may be used to improve the validity and usefulness of further model-based pharmacokinetic analysis of kidney function.

  1. Robust extraction of the aorta and pulmonary artery from 3D MDCT image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taeprasartsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

    2010-03-01

    Accurate definition of the aorta and pulmonary artery from three-dimensional (3D) multi-detector CT (MDCT) images is important for pulmonary applications. This work presents robust methods for defining the aorta and pulmonary artery in the central chest. The methods work on both contrast enhanced and no-contrast 3D MDCT image data. The automatic methods use a common approach employing model fitting and selection and adaptive refinement. During the occasional event that more precise vascular extraction is desired or the method fails, we also have an alternate semi-automatic fail-safe method. The semi-automatic method extracts the vasculature by extending the medial axes into a user-guided direction. A ground-truth study over a series of 40 human 3D MDCT images demonstrates the efficacy, accuracy, robustness, and efficiency of the methods.

  2. Midsagittal plane extraction from brain images based on 3D SIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huisi; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Wen, Zhenkun; Ming, Zhong

    2014-03-01

    Midsagittal plane (MSP) extraction from 3D brain images is considered as a promising technique for human brain symmetry analysis. In this paper, we present a fast and robust MSP extraction method based on 3D scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT). Unlike the existing brain MSP extraction methods, which mainly rely on the gray similarity, 3D edge registration or parameterized surface matching to determine the fissure plane, our proposed method is based on distinctive 3D SIFT features, in which the fissure plane is determined by parallel 3D SIFT matching and iterative least-median of squares plane regression. By considering the relative scales, orientations and flipped descriptors between two 3D SIFT features, we propose a novel metric to measure the symmetry magnitude for 3D SIFT features. By clustering and indexing the extracted SIFT features using a k-dimensional tree (KD-tree) implemented on graphics processing units, we can match multiple pairs of 3D SIFT features in parallel and solve the optimal MSP on-the-fly. The proposed method is evaluated by synthetic and in vivo datasets, of normal and pathological cases, and validated by comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods. Experimental results demonstrated that our method has achieved a real-time performance with better accuracy yielding an average yaw angle error below 0.91° and an average roll angle error no more than 0.89°.

  3. Image segmentation to inspect 3-D object sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jui-Pin; Fuh, Chiou-Shann

    1996-01-01

    Object size inspection is an important task and has various applications in computer vision. For example, the automatic control of stone-breaking machines, which perform better if the sizes of the stones to be broken can be predicted. An algorithm is proposed for image segmentation in size inspection for almost round stones with high or low texture. Although our experiments are focused on stones, the algorithm can be applied to other 3-D objects. We use one fixed camera and four light sources at four different positions one at a time, to take four images. Then we compute the image differences and binarize them to extract edges. We explain, step by step, the photographing, the edge extraction, the noise removal, and the edge gap filling. Experimental results are presented.

  4. The Diagnostic Radiological Utilization Of 3-D Display Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Larry T.; Dwyer, Samuel J.; Preston, David F.; Batnitzky, Solomon; Lee, Kyo R.

    1984-10-01

    In the practice of radiology, computer graphics systems have become an integral part of the use of computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine (NM), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and ultrasound. Gray scale computerized display systems are used to display, manipulate, and record scans in all of these modalities. As the use of these imaging systems has spread, various applications involving digital image manipulation have also been widely accepted in the radiological community. We discuss one of the more esoteric of such applications, namely, the reconstruction of 3-D structures from plane section data, such as CT scans. Our technique is based on the acquisition of contour data from successive sections, the definition of the implicit surface defined by such contours, and the application of the appropriate computer graphics hardware and software to present reasonably pleasing pictures.

  5. An object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis imaging system.

    PubMed

    Seyyedi, Saeed; Cengiz, Kubra; Kamasak, Mustafa; Yildirim, Isa

    2013-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast. Several reconstruction algorithms are available for DBT imaging. Filtered back projection algorithm has traditionally been used to reconstruct images from projections. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) were later developed. Recently, compressed sensing based methods have been proposed in tomosynthesis imaging problem. We have developed an object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) imaging system using C++ programming language. The simulator is capable of implementing different iterative and compressed sensing based reconstruction methods on 3D digital tomosynthesis data sets and phantom models. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) helps users to select and run the desired methods on the designed phantom models or real data sets. The simulator has been tested on a phantom study that simulates breast tomosynthesis imaging problem. Results obtained with various methods including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and total variation regularized reconstruction techniques (ART+TV) are presented. Reconstruction results of the methods are compared both visually and quantitatively by evaluating performances of the methods using mean structural similarity (MSSIM) values.

  6. Low cost 3D scanning process using digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, David; Romero, Carlos; Martínez, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    This paper shows the design and building of a low cost 3D scanner, able to digitize solid objects through contactless data acquisition, using active object reflection. 3D scanners are used in different applications such as: science, engineering, entertainment, etc; these are classified in: contact scanners and contactless ones, where the last ones are often the most used but they are expensive. This low-cost prototype is done through a vertical scanning of the object using a fixed camera and a mobile horizontal laser light, which is deformed depending on the 3-dimensional surface of the solid. Using digital image processing an analysis of the deformation detected by the camera was done; it allows determining the 3D coordinates using triangulation. The obtained information is processed by a Matlab script, which gives to the user a point cloud corresponding to each horizontal scanning done. The obtained results show an acceptable quality and significant details of digitalized objects, making this prototype (built on LEGO Mindstorms NXT kit) a versatile and cheap tool, which can be used for many applications, mainly by engineering students.

  7. 3-D imaging and illustration of mouse intestinal neurovascular complex.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ya-Yuan; Peng, Shih-Jung; Lin, Hsin-Yao; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Tang, Shiue-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Because of the dispersed nature of nerves and blood vessels, standard histology cannot provide a global and associated observation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and vascular network. We prepared transparent mouse intestine and combined vessel painting and three-dimensional (3-D) neurohistology for joint visualization of the ENS and vasculature. Cardiac perfusion of the fluorescent wheat germ agglutinin (vessel painting) was used to label the ileal blood vessels. The pan-neuronal marker PGP9.5, sympathetic neuronal marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), serotonin, and glial markers S100B and GFAP were used as the immunostaining targets of neural tissues. The fluorescently labeled specimens were immersed in the optical clearing solution to improve photon penetration for 3-D confocal microscopy. Notably, we simultaneously revealed the ileal microstructure, vasculature, and innervation with micrometer-level resolution. Four examples are given: 1) the morphology of the TH-labeled sympathetic nerves: sparse in epithelium, perivascular at the submucosa, and intraganglionic at myenteric plexus; 2) distinct patterns of the extrinsic perivascular and intrinsic pericryptic innervation at the submucosal-mucosal interface; 3) different associations of serotonin cells with the mucosal neurovascular elements in the villi and crypts; and 4) the periganglionic capillary network at the myenteric plexus and its contact with glial fibers. Our 3-D imaging approach provides a useful tool to simultaneously reveal the nerves and blood vessels in a space continuum for panoramic illustration and analysis of the neurovascular complex to better understand the intestinal physiology and diseases.

  8. 3D-LZ helicopter ladar imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, James; Harrington, Walter; McKinley, R. Andrew; Burns, H. N.; Braddom, Steven; Szoboszlay, Zoltan

    2010-04-01

    A joint-service team led by the Air Force Research Laboratory's Munitions and Sensors Directorates completed a successful flight test demonstration of the 3D-LZ Helicopter LADAR Imaging System. This was a milestone demonstration in the development of technology solutions for a problem known as "helicopter brownout", the loss of situational awareness caused by swirling sand during approach and landing. The 3D-LZ LADAR was developed by H.N. Burns Engineering and integrated with the US Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate's Brown-Out Symbology System aircraft state symbology aboard a US Army EH-60 Black Hawk helicopter. The combination of these systems provided an integrated degraded visual environment landing solution with landing zone situational awareness as well as aircraft guidance and obstacle avoidance information. Pilots from the U.S. Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps achieved a 77% landing rate in full brownout conditions at a test range at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. This paper will focus on the LADAR technology used in 3D-LZ and the results of this milestone demonstration.

  9. 3D imaging reconstruction and impacted third molars: case reports

    PubMed Central

    Tuzi, Andrea; Di Bari, Roberto; Cicconetti, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Summary There is a debate in the literature about the need for Computed Tomagraphy (CT) before removing third molars, even if positive radiographic signs are present. In few cases, the third molar is so close to the inferior alveolar nerve that its extraction might expose patients to the risk of post-operative neuro-sensitive alterations of the skin and the mucosa of the homolateral lower lip and chin. Thus, the injury of the inferior alveolar nerve may represent a serious, though infrequent, neurologic complication in the surgery of the third molars rendering necessary a careful pre-operative evaluation of their anatomical relationship with the inferior alveolar nerve by means of radiographic imaging techniques. This contribution presents two case reports showing positive radiographic signs, which are the hallmarks of a possible close relationship between the inferior alveolar nerve and the third molars. We aim at better defining the relationship between third molars and the mandibular canal using Dental CT Scan, DICOM image acquisition and 3D reconstruction with a dedicated software. By our study we deduce that 3D images are not indispensable, but they can provide a very agreeable assistance in the most complicated cases. PMID:23386934

  10. Reducing Non-Uniqueness in Satellite Gravity Inversion using 3D Object Oriented Image Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.

    2013-12-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has been usually reduced by using a priori information from various sources, e.g. seismic tomography models. The reduction in non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation for 3D subsurface structures (objects) in seismic tomography models. However, these processes introduce additional uncertainty through the conversion relations due to the dependency on the other physical parameters such as temperature and pressure, or through the bias in the interpretation due to user choices and experience. In this research, a new methodology is introduced to extract the 3D subsurface structures from 3D geophysical data using a state-of-art 3D Object Oriented Image Analysis (OOA) technique. 3D OOA is tested using a set of synthetic models that simulate the real situation in the study area of this research. Then, 3D OOA is used to extract 3D subsurface objects from a real 3D seismic tomography model. The extracted 3D objects are used to reconstruct a forward model and its response is compared with the measured satellite gravity. Finally, the result of the forward modelling, based on the extracted 3D objects, is used to constrain the inversion process of satellite gravity data. Through this work, a new object-based approach is introduced to interpret and extract the 3D subsurface objects from 3D geophysical data. This can be used to constrain modelling and inversion of potential field data using the extracted 3D subsurface structures from other methods. In summary, a new approach is introduced to constrain inversion of satellite gravity measurements and enhance interpretation capabilities.

  11. 3D laser optoacoustic ultrasonic imaging system for preclinical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermilov, Sergey A.; Conjusteau, André; Hernandez, Travis; Su, Richard; Nadvoretskiy, Vyacheslav; Tsyboulski, Dmitri; Anis, Fatima; Anastasio, Mark A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we introduce a novel three-dimensional imaging system for in vivo high-resolution anatomical and functional whole-body visualization of small animal models developed for preclinical or other type of biomedical research. The system (LOUIS-3DM) combines a multi-wavelength optoacoustic and ultrawide-band laser ultrasound tomographies to obtain coregistered maps of tissue optical absorption and acoustic properties, displayed within the skin outline of the studied animal. The most promising applications of the LOUIS-3DM include 3D angiography, cancer research, and longitudinal studies of biological distribution of optoacoustic contrast agents (carbon nanotubes, metal plasmonic nanoparticles, etc.).

  12. 3-D Imaging of Partly Concealed Targets by Laser Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    laser in the green wavelength region was used for illumination. 3-D Imaging of Partly Concealed Targets by Laser Radar 11 - 8 RTO-MP-SET-094...acknowledge Marie Carlsson and Ann Charlotte Gustavsson for their assistance in some of the experiments. 7.0 REFERENCES [1] U. Söderman, S. Ahlberg...SPIE Vol. 3707, pp. 432-448, USA, 1999. [14] D. Letalick, H. Larsson, M. Carlsson, and A.-C. Gustavsson , “Laser sensors for urban warfare,” FOI

  13. Medical image retrieval system using multiple features from 3D ROIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hongbing; Wang, Weiwei; Liao, Qimei; Zhang, Guopeng; Zhou, Zhiming

    2012-02-01

    Compared to a retrieval using global image features, features extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) that reflect distribution patterns of abnormalities would benefit more for content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR) systems. Currently, most CBMIR systems have been designed for 2D ROIs, which cannot reflect 3D anatomical features and region distribution of lesions comprehensively. To further improve the accuracy of image retrieval, we proposed a retrieval method with 3D features including both geometric features such as Shape Index (SI) and Curvedness (CV) and texture features derived from 3D Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix, which were extracted from 3D ROIs, based on our previous 2D medical images retrieval system. The system was evaluated with 20 volume CT datasets for colon polyp detection. Preliminary experiments indicated that the integration of morphological features with texture features could improve retrieval performance greatly. The retrieval result using features extracted from 3D ROIs accorded better with the diagnosis from optical colonoscopy than that based on features from 2D ROIs. With the test database of images, the average accuracy rate for 3D retrieval method was 76.6%, indicating its potential value in clinical application.

  14. Denoising for 3-d photon-limited imaging data using nonseparable filterbanks.

    PubMed

    Santamaria-Pang, Alberto; Bildea, Teodor Stefan; Tan, Shan; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we present a novel frame-based denoising algorithm for photon-limited 3-D images. We first construct a new 3-D nonseparable filterbank by adding elements to an existing frame in a structurally stable way. In contrast with the traditional 3-D separable wavelet system, the new filterbank is capable of using edge information in multiple directions. We then propose a data-adaptive hysteresis thresholding algorithm based on this new 3-D nonseparable filterbank. In addition, we develop a new validation strategy for denoising of photon-limited images containing sparse structures, such as neurons (the structure of interest is less than 5% of total volume). The validation method, based on tubular neighborhoods around the structure, is used to determine the optimal threshold of the proposed denoising algorithm. We compare our method with other state-of-the-art methods and report very encouraging results on applications utilizing both synthetic and real data.

  15. Digital holography particle image velocimetry for the measurement of 3D t-3c flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Gongxin; Wei, Runjie

    2005-10-01

    In this paper a digital in-line holographic recording and reconstruction system was set up and used in the particle image velocimetry for the 3D t-3c (the three-component (3c), velocity vector field measurements in a three-dimensional (3D), space field with time history ( t)) flow measurements that made up of the new full-flow field experimental technique—digital holographic particle image velocimetry (DHPIV). The traditional holographic film was replaced by a CCD chip that records instantaneously the interference fringes directly without the darkroom processing, and the virtual image slices in different positions were reconstructed by computation using Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral method from the digital holographic image. Also a complex field signal filter (analyzing image calculated by its intensity and phase from real and image parts in fast fourier transform (FFT)) was applied in image reconstruction to achieve the thin focus depth of image field that has a strong effect with the vertical velocity component resolution. Using the frame-straddle CCD device techniques, the 3c velocity vector was computed by 3D cross-correlation through space interrogation block matching through the reconstructed image slices with the digital complex field signal filter. Then the 3D-3c-velocity field (about 20 000 vectors), 3D-streamline and 3D-vorticiry fields, and the time evolution movies (30 field/s) for the 3D t-3c flows were displayed by the experimental measurement using this DHPIV method and techniques.

  16. Imaging Techniques for Dense 3D reconstruction of Swimming Aquatic Life using Multi-view Stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daily, David; Kiser, Jillian; McQueen, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the movement characteristics of how various species of fish swim is an important step to uncovering how they propel themselves through the water. Previous methods have focused on profile capture methods or sparse 3D manual feature point tracking. This research uses an array of 30 cameras to automatically track hundreds of points on a fish as they swim in 3D using multi-view stereo. Blacktip sharks, sting rays, puffer fish, turtles and more were imaged in collaboration with the National Aquarium in Baltimore, Maryland using the multi-view stereo technique. The processes for data collection, camera synchronization, feature point extraction, 3D reconstruction, 3D alignment, biological considerations, and lessons learned will be presented. Preliminary results of the 3D reconstructions will be shown and future research into mathematically characterizing various bio-locomotive maneuvers will be discussed.

  17. Augmented Reality Imaging System: 3D Viewing of a Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, David B.; Boone, John M.; Petricoin, Emanuel; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective To display images of breast cancer from a dedicated breast CT using Depth 3-Dimensional (D3D) augmented reality. Methods A case of breast cancer imaged using contrast-enhanced breast CT (Computed Tomography) was viewed with the augmented reality imaging, which uses a head display unit (HDU) and joystick control interface. Results The augmented reality system demonstrated 3D viewing of the breast mass with head position tracking, stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence and the use of a 3D cursor and joy-stick enabled fly through with visualization of the spiculations extending from the breast cancer. Conclusion The augmented reality system provided 3D visualization of the breast cancer with depth perception and visualization of the mass's spiculations. The augmented reality system should be further researched to determine the utility in clinical practice. PMID:27774517

  18. 3-D Velocity Measurement of Natural Convection Using Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoki, Masatoshi; Ozawa, Mamoru; Okada, Toshifumi; Kimura, Ichiro

    This paper describes quantitative three-dimensional measurement method for flow field of a rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection in a cylindrical cell heated below and cooled above. A correlation method for two-dimensional measurement was well advanced to a spatio-temporal correlation method. Erroneous vectors, often appeared in the correlation method, was successfully removed using Hopfield neural network. As a result, calculated 3-D velocity vector distribution well corresponded to the observed temperature distribution. Consequently, the simultaneous three-dimensional measurement system for temperature and flow field was developed.

  19. Acquiring 3-D information about thick objects from differential interference contrast images using texture extraction.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Heidy; Brooks, Dana; DiMarzio, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of 3-D morphological information about thick objects is explored in this work. We extract this information from 3-D differential interference contrast (DIC) images by applying a texture detection method. Texture extraction methods have been successfully used in different applications to study biological samples. A 3-D texture image is obtained by applying a local entropy-based texture extraction method. The use of this method to detect regions of blastocyst mouse embryos that are used in assisted reproduction techniques such as in vitro fertilization is presented as an example. Results demonstrate the potential of using texture detection methods to improve morphological analysis of thick samples, which is relevant to many biomedical and biological studies. Fluorescence and optical quadrature microscope phase images are used for validation.

  20. Acquiring 3-D information about thick objects from differential interference contrast images using texture extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Heidy; Brooks, Dana; Dimarzio, Charles

    2010-07-01

    The extraction of 3-D morphological information about thick objects is explored in this work. We extract this information from 3-D differential interference contrast (DIC) images by applying a texture detection method. Texture extraction methods have been successfully used in different applications to study biological samples. A 3-D texture image is obtained by applying a local entropy-based texture extraction method. The use of this method to detect regions of blastocyst mouse embryos that are used in assisted reproduction techniques such as in vitro fertilization is presented as an example. Results demonstrate the potential of using texture detection methods to improve morphological analysis of thick samples, which is relevant to many biomedical and biological studies. Fluorescence and optical quadrature microscope phase images are used for validation.

  1. System and method for generating 3D images of non-linear properties of rock formation using surface seismic or surface to borehole seismic or both

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt Toshimi; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert A.; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2016-06-07

    A system and method of characterizing properties of a medium from a non-linear interaction are include generating, by first and second acoustic sources disposed on a surface of the medium on a first line, first and second acoustic waves. The first and second acoustic sources are controllable such that trajectories of the first and second acoustic waves intersect in a mixing zone within the medium. The method further includes receiving, by a receiver positioned in a plane containing the first and second acoustic sources, a third acoustic wave generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first and second acoustic waves in the mixing zone; and creating a first two-dimensional image of non-linear properties or a first ratio of compressional velocity and shear velocity, or both, of the medium in a first plane generally perpendicular to the surface and containing the first line, based on the received third acoustic wave.

  2. 3D painting documentation: evaluation of conservation conditions with 3D imaging and ranging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Gattari, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    The monitoring of paintings, both on canvas and wooden support, is a crucial issue for the preservation and conservation of this kind of artworks. Many environmental factors (e.g. humidity, temperature, illumination, etc.), as well as bad conservation practices (e.g. wrong restorations, inappropriate locations, etc.), can compromise the material conditions over time and deteriorate an artwork. The article presents an on-going project realized by a multidisciplinary team composed by the ENEA UTICT 3D GraphLab, the 3D Optical Metrology Unit of the Bruno Kessler Foundation and the Soprintendenza per i Beni Storico Artistici ed Etnoantropologici of Bologna (Italy). The goal of the project is the multi-temporal 3D documentation and monitoring of paintings - at the moment in bad conservation's situation - and the provision of some metrics to quantify the deformations and damages.

  3. The application of camera calibration in range-gated 3D imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-quan; Wang, Xian-wei; Zhou, Yan

    2013-09-01

    Range-gated laser imaging technology was proposed in 1966 by LF Gillespiethe in U.S. Army Night Vision Laboratory(NVL). Using pulse laser and intensified charge-coupled device(ICCD) as light source and detector respectively, range-gated laser imaging technology can realize space-slice imaging while restraining the atmospheric backs-catter, and in turn detect the target effectively, by controlling the delay between the laser pulse and strobe. Owing to the constraints of the development of key components such as narrow pulse laser and gated imaging devices, the research has been progressed slowly in the next few decades. Until the beginning of this century, as the hardware technology continues to mature, this technology has developed rapidly in fields such as night vision, underwater imaging, biomedical imaging, three-dimensional imaging, especially range-gated three-dimensional(3-D) laser imaging field purposing of access to target spatial information. 3-D reconstruction is the processing of restoration of 3-D objects visible surface geometric structure from three-dimensional(2-D) image. Range-gated laser imaging technology can achieve gated imaging of slice space to form a slice image, and in turn provide the distance information corresponding to the slice image. But to inverse the information of 3-D space, we need to obtain the imaging visual field of system, that is, the focal length of the system. Then based on the distance information of the space slice, the spatial information of each unit space corresponding to each pixel can be inversed. Camera calibration is an indispensable step in 3-D reconstruction, including analysis of the internal structure of camera parameters and the external parameters . In order to meet the technical requirements of the range-gated 3-D imaging, this paper intends to study the calibration of the zoom lens system. After summarizing the camera calibration technique comprehensively, a classic calibration method based on line is

  4. Radon transform based automatic metal artefacts generation for 3D threat image projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megherbi, Najla; Breckon, Toby P.; Flitton, Greg T.; Mouton, Andre

    2013-10-01

    Threat Image Projection (TIP) plays an important role in aviation security. In order to evaluate human security screeners in determining threats, TIP systems project images of realistic threat items into the images of the passenger baggage being scanned. In this proof of concept paper, we propose a 3D TIP method which can be integrated within new 3D Computed Tomography (CT) screening systems. In order to make the threat items appear as if they were genuinely located in the scanned bag, appropriate CT metal artefacts are generated in the resulting TIP images according to the scan orientation, the passenger bag content and the material of the inserted threat items. This process is performed in the projection domain using a novel methodology based on the Radon Transform. The obtained results using challenging 3D CT baggage images are very promising in terms of plausibility and realism.

  5. Improving Nearest Neighbour Search in 3d Spatial Access Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaibaha, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Uznir, U.; Anton, F.; Mioc, D.

    2016-10-01

    Nearest Neighbour (NN) is one of the important queries and analyses for spatial application. In normal practice, spatial access method structure is used during the Nearest Neighbour query execution to retrieve information from the database. However, most of the spatial access method structures are still facing with unresolved issues such as overlapping among nodes and repetitive data entry. This situation will perform an excessive Input/Output (IO) operation which is inefficient for data retrieval. The situation will become more crucial while dealing with 3D data. The size of 3D data is usually large due to its detail geometry and other attached information. In this research, a clustered 3D hierarchical structure is introduced as a 3D spatial access method structure. The structure is expected to improve the retrieval of Nearest Neighbour information for 3D objects. Several tests are performed in answering Single Nearest Neighbour search and k Nearest Neighbour (kNN) search. The tests indicate that clustered hierarchical structure is efficient in handling Nearest Neighbour query compared to its competitor. From the results, clustered hierarchical structure reduced the repetitive data entry and the accessed page. The proposed structure also produced minimal Input/Output operation. The query response time is also outperformed compared to the other competitor. For future outlook of this research several possible applications are discussed and summarized.

  6. 3-D visualization and animation technologies in anatomical imaging.

    PubMed

    McGhee, John

    2010-02-01

    This paper explores a 3-D computer artist's approach to the creation of three-dimensional computer-generated imagery (CGI) derived from clinical scan data. Interpretation of scientific imagery, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is restricted to the eye of the trained medical practitioner in a clinical or scientific context. In the research work described here, MRI data are visualized and interpreted by a 3-D computer artist using the tools of the digital animator to navigate image complexity and widen interaction. In this process, the artefact moves across disciplines; it is no longer tethered to its diagnostic origins. It becomes an object that has visual attributes such as light, texture and composition, and a visual aesthetic of its own. The introduction of these visual attributes provides a platform for improved accessibility by a lay audience. The paper argues that this more artisan approach to clinical data visualization has a potential real-world application as a communicative tool for clinicians and patients during consultation.

  7. 3-D visualization and animation technologies in anatomical imaging

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a 3-D computer artist’s approach to the creation of three-dimensional computer-generated imagery (CGI) derived from clinical scan data. Interpretation of scientific imagery, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is restricted to the eye of the trained medical practitioner in a clinical or scientific context. In the research work described here, MRI data are visualized and interpreted by a 3-D computer artist using the tools of the digital animator to navigate image complexity and widen interaction. In this process, the artefact moves across disciplines; it is no longer tethered to its diagnostic origins. It becomes an object that has visual attributes such as light, texture and composition, and a visual aesthetic of its own. The introduction of these visual attributes provides a platform for improved accessibility by a lay audience. The paper argues that this more artisan approach to clinical data visualization has a potential real-world application as a communicative tool for clinicians and patients during consultation. PMID:20002229

  8. 3-D Imaging and Simulation for Nephron Sparing Surgical Training.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Hamed; Liu, Jen-Jane

    2016-08-01

    Minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (MIPN) is now considered the procedure of choice for small renal masses largely based on functional advantages over traditional open surgery. Lack of haptic feedback, the need for spatial understanding of tumor borders, and advanced operative techniques to minimize ischemia time or achieve zero-ischemia PN are among factors that make MIPN a technically demanding operation with a steep learning curve for inexperienced surgeons. Surgical simulation has emerged as a useful training adjunct in residency programs to facilitate the acquisition of these complex operative skills in the setting of restricted work hours and limited operating room time and autonomy. However, the majority of available surgical simulators focus on basic surgical skills, and procedure-specific simulation is needed for optimal surgical training. Advances in 3-dimensional (3-D) imaging have also enhanced the surgeon's ability to localize tumors intraoperatively. This article focuses on recent procedure-specific simulation models for laparoscopic and robotic-assisted PN and advanced 3-D imaging techniques as part of pre- and some cases, intraoperative surgical planning.

  9. Experiments on terahertz 3D scanning microscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi; Li, Qi

    2016-10-01

    Compared with the visible light and infrared, terahertz (THz) radiation can penetrate nonpolar and nonmetallic materials. There are many studies on the THz coaxial transmission confocal microscopy currently. But few researches on the THz dual-axis reflective confocal microscopy were reported. In this paper, we utilized a dual-axis reflective confocal scanning microscope working at 2.52 THz. In contrast with the THz coaxial transmission confocal microscope, the microscope adopted in this paper can attain higher axial resolution at the expense of reduced lateral resolution, revealing more satisfying 3D imaging capability. Objects such as Chinese characters "Zhong-Hua" written in paper with a pencil and a combined sheet metal which has three layers were scanned. The experimental results indicate that the system can extract two Chinese characters "Zhong," "Hua" or three layers of the combined sheet metal. It can be predicted that the microscope can be applied to biology, medicine and other fields in the future due to its favorable 3D imaging capability.

  10. Hybrid atlas-based and image-based approach for segmenting 3D brain MRIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Gloria; Musse, Olivier; Heitz, Fabrice; Armspach, Jean-Paul

    2001-07-01

    This work is a contribution to the problem of localizing key cerebral structures in 3D MRIs and its quantitative evaluation. In pursuing it, the cooperation between an image-based segmentation method and a hierarchical deformable registration approach has been considered. The segmentation relies on two main processes: homotopy modification and contour decision. The first one is achieved by a marker extraction stage where homogeneous 3D regions of an image, I(s), from the data set are identified. These regions, M(I), are obtained combining information from deformable atlas, achieved by the warping of eight previous labeled maps on I(s). Then, the goal of the decision stage is to precisely locate the contours of the 3D regions set by the markers. This contour decision is performed by a 3D extension of the watershed transform. The anatomical structures taken into consideration and embedded into the atlas are brain, ventricles, corpus callosum, cerebellum, right and left hippocampus, medulla and midbrain. The hybrid method operates fully automatically and in 3D, successfully providing segmented brain structures. The quality of the segmentation has been studied in terms of the detected volume ratio by using kappa statistic and ROC analysis. Results of the method are shown and validated on a 3D MRI phantom. This study forms part of an on-going long term research aiming at the creation of a 3D probabilistic multi-purpose anatomical brain atlas.

  11. New methods for optical distance indicator and gantry angle quality control tests in medical linear accelerators: image processing by using a 3D phantom

    PubMed Central

    Shandiz, Mahdi Heravian; Anvari, Kazem; Khalilzadeh, Mohammadmahdi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In order to keep the acceptable level of the radiation oncology linear accelerators, it is necessary to apply a reliable quality assurance (QA) program. Materials and Methods The QA protocols, published by authoritative organizations, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), determine the quality control (QC) tests which should be performed on the medical linear accelerators and the threshold levels for each test. The purpose of this study is to increase the accuracy and precision of the selected QC tests in order to increase the quality of treatment and also increase the speed of the tests to convince the crowded centers to start a reliable QA program. A new method has been developed for two of the QC tests; optical distance indicator (ODI) QC test as a daily test and gantry angle QC test as a monthly test. This method uses an image processing approach utilizing the snapshots taken by the CCD camera to measure the source to surface distance (SSD) and gantry angle. Results The new method of ODI QC test has an accuracy of 99.95% with a standard deviation of 0.061 cm and the new method for gantry angle QC has a precision of 0.43°. The automated proposed method which is used for both ODI and gantry angle QC tests, contains highly accurate and precise results which are objective and the human-caused errors have no effect on the results. Conclusion The results show that they are in the acceptable range for both of the QC tests, according to AAPM task group 142. PMID:25874177

  12. Abdominal aortic aneurysm imaging with 3-D ultrasound: 3-D-based maximum diameter measurement and volume quantification.

    PubMed

    Long, A; Rouet, L; Debreuve, A; Ardon, R; Barbe, C; Becquemin, J P; Allaire, E

    2013-08-01

    The clinical reliability of 3-D ultrasound imaging (3-DUS) in quantification of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was evaluated. B-mode and 3-DUS images of AAAs were acquired for 42 patients. AAAs were segmented. A 3-D-based maximum diameter (Max3-D) and partial volume (Vol30) were defined and quantified. Comparisons between 2-D (Max2-D) and 3-D diameters and between orthogonal acquisitions were performed. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was evaluated. Intra- and inter-observer coefficients of repeatability (CRs) were less than 5.18 mm for Max3-D. Intra-observer and inter-observer CRs were respectively less than 6.16 and 8.71 mL for Vol30. The mean of normalized errors of Vol30 was around 7%. Correlation between Max2-D and Max3-D was 0.988 (p < 0.0001). Max3-D and Vol30 were not influenced by a probe rotation of 90°. Use of 3-DUS to quantify AAA is a new approach in clinical practice. The present study proposed and evaluated dedicated parameters. Their reproducibility makes the technique clinically reliable.

  13. 3D and 4D magnetic susceptibility tomography based on complex MR images

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-11-11

    Magnetic susceptibility is the physical property for T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2*MRI). The invention relates to methods for reconstructing an internal distribution (3D map) of magnetic susceptibility values, .chi. (x,y,z), of an object, from 3D T2*MRI phase images, by using Computed Inverse Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CIMRI) tomography. The CIMRI technique solves the inverse problem of the 3D convolution by executing a 3D Total Variation (TV) regularized iterative convolution scheme, using a split Bregman iteration algorithm. The reconstruction of .chi. (x,y,z) can be designed for low-pass, band-pass, and high-pass features by using a convolution kernel that is modified from the standard dipole kernel. Multiple reconstructions can be implemented in parallel, and averaging the reconstructions can suppress noise. 4D dynamic magnetic susceptibility tomography can be implemented by reconstructing a 3D susceptibility volume from a 3D phase volume by performing 3D CIMRI magnetic susceptibility tomography at each snapshot time.

  14. Device and methods for "gold standard" registration of clinical 3D and 2D cerebral angiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madan, Hennadii; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Å piclin, Žiga

    2015-03-01

    Translation of any novel and existing 3D-2D image registration methods into clinical image-guidance systems is limited due to lack of their objective validation on clinical image datasets. The main reason is that, besides the calibration of the 2D imaging system, a reference or "gold standard" registration is very difficult to obtain on clinical image datasets. In the context of cerebral endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGIs), we present a calibration device in the form of a headband with integrated fiducial markers and, secondly, propose an automated pipeline comprising 3D and 2D image processing, analysis and annotation steps, the result of which is a retrospective calibration of the 2D imaging system and an optimal, i.e., "gold standard" registration of 3D and 2D images. The device and methods were used to create the "gold standard" on 15 datasets of 3D and 2D cerebral angiograms, whereas each dataset was acquired on a patient undergoing EIGI for either aneurysm coiling or embolization of arteriovenous malformation. The use of the device integrated seamlessly in the clinical workflow of EIGI. While the automated pipeline eliminated all manual input or interactive image processing, analysis or annotation. In this way, the time to obtain the "gold standard" was reduced from 30 to less than one minute and the "gold standard" of 3D-2D registration on all 15 datasets of cerebral angiograms was obtained with a sub-0.1 mm accuracy.

  15. 3D city models completion by fusing lidar and image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammatikopoulos, L.; Kalisperakis, I.; Petsa, E.; Stentoumis, C.

    2015-05-01

    A fundamental step in the generation of visually detailed 3D city models is the acquisition of high fidelity 3D data. Typical approaches employ DSM representations usually derived from Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) airborne scanning or image based procedures. In this contribution, we focus on the fusion of data from both these methods in order to enhance or complete them. Particularly, we combine an existing Lidar and orthomosaic dataset (used as reference), with a new aerial image acquisition (including both vertical and oblique imagery) of higher resolution, which was carried out in the area of Kallithea, in Athens, Greece. In a preliminary step, a digital orthophoto and a DSM is generated from the aerial images in an arbitrary reference system, by employing a Structure from Motion and dense stereo matching framework. The image-to-Lidar registration is performed by 2D feature (SIFT and SURF) extraction and matching among the two orthophotos. The established point correspondences are assigned with 3D coordinates through interpolation on the reference Lidar surface, are then backprojected onto the aerial images, and finally matched with 2D image features located in the vicinity of the backprojected 3D points. Consequently, these points serve as Ground Control Points with appropriate weights for final orientation and calibration of the images through a bundle adjustment solution. By these means, the aerial imagery which is optimally aligned to the reference dataset can be used for the generation of an enhanced and more accurately textured 3D city model.

  16. High Resolution 3D Radar Imaging of Comet Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, E. I.; Gim, Y.; Belton, M.; Brophy, J.; Weissman, P. R.; Heggy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Knowing the interiors of comets and other primitive bodies is fundamental to our understanding of how planets formed. We have developed a Discovery-class mission formulation, Comet Radar Explorer (CORE), based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, with the goal of obtaining high resolution 3D images of the interior of a small primitive body. We focus on the Jupiter-Family Comets (JFCs) as these are among the most primitive bodies reachable by spacecraft. Scattered in from far beyond Neptune, they are ultimate targets of a cryogenic sample return mission according to the Decadal Survey. Other suitable targets include primitive NEOs, Main Belt Comets, and Jupiter Trojans. The approach is optimal for small icy bodies ~3-20 km diameter with spin periods faster than about 12 hours, since (a) navigation is relatively easy, (b) radar penetration is global for decameter wavelengths, and (c) repeated overlapping ground tracks are obtained. The science mission can be as short as ~1 month for a fast-rotating JFC. Bodies smaller than ~1 km can be globally imaged, but the navigation solutions are less accurate and the relative resolution is coarse. Larger comets are more interesting, but radar signal is unlikely to be reflected from depths greater than ~10 km. So, JFCs are excellent targets for a variety of reasons. We furthermore focus on the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to rendezvous shortly after the comet's perihelion. This approach leaves us with ample power for science operations under dormant conditions beyond ~2-3 AU. This leads to a natural mission approach of distant observation, followed by closer inspection, terminated by a dedicated radar mapping orbit. Radar reflections are obtained from a polar orbit about the icy nucleus, which spins underneath. Echoes are obtained from a sounder operating at dual frequencies 5 and 15 MHz, with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths respectively. The dense network of echoes is used to obtain global 3D

  17. Validation of a method for in vivo 3D dose reconstruction for IMRT and VMAT treatments using on-treatment EPID images and a model-based forward-calculation algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Van Uytven, Eric Van Beek, Timothy; McCowan, Peter M.; Chytyk-Praznik, Krista; Greer, Peter B.; McCurdy, Boyd M. C.

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Radiation treatments are trending toward delivering higher doses per fraction under stereotactic radiosurgery and hypofractionated treatment regimens. There is a need for accurate 3D in vivo patient dose verification using electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. This work presents a model-based technique to compute full three-dimensional patient dose reconstructed from on-treatment EPID portal images (i.e., transmission images). Methods: EPID dose is converted to incident fluence entering the patient using a series of steps which include converting measured EPID dose to fluence at the detector plane and then back-projecting the primary source component of the EPID fluence upstream of the patient. Incident fluence is then recombined with predicted extra-focal fluence and used to calculate 3D patient dose via a collapsed-cone convolution method. This method is implemented in an iterative manner, although in practice it provides accurate results in a single iteration. The robustness of the dose reconstruction technique is demonstrated with several simple slab phantom and nine anthropomorphic phantom cases. Prostate, head and neck, and lung treatments are all included as well as a range of delivery techniques including VMAT and dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Results: Results indicate that the patient dose reconstruction algorithm compares well with treatment planning system computed doses for controlled test situations. For simple phantom and square field tests, agreement was excellent with a 2%/2 mm 3D chi pass rate ≥98.9%. On anthropomorphic phantoms, the 2%/2 mm 3D chi pass rates ranged from 79.9% to 99.9% in the planning target volume (PTV) region and 96.5% to 100% in the low dose region (>20% of prescription, excluding PTV and skin build-up region). Conclusions: An algorithm to reconstruct delivered patient 3D doses from EPID exit dosimetry measurements was presented. The method was applied to phantom and patient

  18. A method to fabricate disconnected silver nanostructures in 3D.

    PubMed

    Vora, Kevin; Kang, SeungYeon; Mazur, Eric

    2012-11-27

    The standard nanofabrication toolkit includes techniques primarily aimed at creating 2D patterns in dielectric media. Creating metal patterns on a submicron scale requires a combination of nanofabrication tools and several material processing steps. For example, steps to create planar metal structures using ultraviolet photolithography and electron-beam lithography can include sample exposure, sample development, metal deposition, and metal liftoff. To create 3D metal structures, the sequence is repeated multiple times. The complexity and difficulty of stacking and aligning multiple layers limits practical implementations of 3D metal structuring using standard nanofabrication tools. Femtosecond-laser direct-writing has emerged as a pre-eminent technique for 3D nanofabrication.(1,2) Femtosecond lasers are frequently used to create 3D patterns in polymers and glasses.(3-7) However, 3D metal direct-writing remains a challenge. Here, we describe a method to fabricate silver nanostructures embedded inside a polymer matrix using a femtosecond laser centered at 800 nm. The method enables the fabrication of patterns not feasible using other techniques, such as 3D arrays of disconnected silver voxels.(8) Disconnected 3D metal patterns are useful for metamaterials where unit cells are not in contact with each other,(9) such as coupled metal dot(10,11)or coupled metal rod(12,13) resonators. Potential applications include negative index metamaterials, invisibility cloaks, and perfect lenses. In femtosecond-laser direct-writing, the laser wavelength is chosen such that photons are not linearly absorbed in the target medium. When the laser pulse duration is compressed to the femtosecond time scale and the radiation is tightly focused inside the target, the extremely high intensity induces nonlinear absorption. Multiple photons are absorbed simultaneously to cause electronic transitions that lead to material modification within the focused region. Using this approach, one can

  19. A Method to Fabricate Disconnected Silver Nanostructures in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Kevin; Kang, SeungYeon; Mazur, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The standard nanofabrication toolkit includes techniques primarily aimed at creating 2D patterns in dielectric media. Creating metal patterns on a submicron scale requires a combination of nanofabrication tools and several material processing steps. For example, steps to create planar metal structures using ultraviolet photolithography and electron-beam lithography can include sample exposure, sample development, metal deposition, and metal liftoff. To create 3D metal structures, the sequence is repeated multiple times. The complexity and difficulty of stacking and aligning multiple layers limits practical implementations of 3D metal structuring using standard nanofabrication tools. Femtosecond-laser direct-writing has emerged as a pre-eminent technique for 3D nanofabrication.1,2 Femtosecond lasers are frequently used to create 3D patterns in polymers and glasses.3-7 However, 3D metal direct-writing remains a challenge. Here, we describe a method to fabricate silver nanostructures embedded inside a polymer matrix using a femtosecond laser centered at 800 nm. The method enables the fabrication of patterns not feasible using other techniques, such as 3D arrays of disconnected silver voxels.8 Disconnected 3D metal patterns are useful for metamaterials where unit cells are not in contact with each other,9 such as coupled metal dot10,11or coupled metal rod12,13 resonators. Potential applications include negative index metamaterials, invisibility cloaks, and perfect lenses. In femtosecond-laser direct-writing, the laser wavelength is chosen such that photons are not linearly absorbed in the target medium. When the laser pulse duration is compressed to the femtosecond time scale and the radiation is tightly focused inside the target, the extremely high intensity induces nonlinear absorption. Multiple photons are absorbed simultaneously to cause electronic transitions that lead to material modification within the focused region. Using this approach, one can form structures

  20. MO-C-18A-01: Advances in Model-Based 3D Image Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G; Pan, X; Stayman, J; Samei, E

    2014-06-15

    Recent years have seen the emergence of CT image reconstruction techniques that exploit physical models of the imaging system, photon statistics, and even the patient to achieve improved 3D image quality and/or reduction of radiation dose. With numerous advantages in comparison to conventional 3D filtered backprojection, such techniques bring a variety of challenges as well, including: a demanding computational load associated with sophisticated forward models and iterative optimization methods; nonlinearity and nonstationarity in image quality characteristics; a complex dependency on multiple free parameters; and the need to understand how best to incorporate prior information (including patient-specific prior images) within the reconstruction process. The advantages, however, are even greater – for example: improved image quality; reduced dose; robustness to noise and artifacts; task-specific reconstruction protocols; suitability to novel CT imaging platforms and noncircular orbits; and incorporation of known characteristics of the imager and patient that are conventionally discarded. This symposium features experts in 3D image reconstruction, image quality assessment, and the translation of such methods to emerging clinical applications. Dr. Chen will address novel methods for the incorporation of prior information in 3D and 4D CT reconstruction techniques. Dr. Pan will show recent advances in optimization-based reconstruction that enable potential reduction of dose and sampling requirements. Dr. Stayman will describe a “task-based imaging” approach that leverages models of the imaging system and patient in combination with a specification of the imaging task to optimize both the acquisition and reconstruction process. Dr. Samei will describe the development of methods for image quality assessment in such nonlinear reconstruction techniques and the use of these methods to characterize and optimize image quality and dose in a spectrum of clinical

  1. Comparing 3D virtual methods for hemimandibular body reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano; Fiorenza, Luca; Kozakowski, Stephanie; Kullmer, Ottmar

    2011-07-01

    Reconstruction of fractured, distorted, or missing parts in human skeleton presents an equal challenge in the fields of paleoanthropology, bioarcheology, forensics, and medicine. This is particularly important within the disciplines such as orthodontics and surgery, when dealing with mandibular defects due to tumors, developmental abnormalities, or trauma. In such cases, proper restorations of both form (for esthetic purposes) and function (restoration of articulation, occlusion, and mastication) are required. Several digital approaches based on three-dimensional (3D) digital modeling, computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing techniques, and more recently geometric morphometric methods have been used to solve this problem. Nevertheless, comparisons among their outcomes are rarely provided. In this contribution, three methods for hemimandibular body reconstruction have been tested. Two bone defects were virtually simulated in a 3D digital model of a human hemimandible. Accordingly, 3D digital scaffolds were obtained using the mirror copy of the unaffected hemimandible (Method 1), the thin plate spline (TPS) interpolation (Method 2), and the combination between TPS and CAD techniques (Method 3). The mirror copy of the unaffected hemimandible does not provide a suitable solution for bone restoration. The combination between TPS interpolation and CAD techniques (Method 3) produces an almost perfect-fitting 3D digital model that can be used for biocompatible custom-made scaffolds generated by rapid prototyping technologies.

  2. 3D Image-Guided Automatic Pipette Positioning for Single Cell Experiments in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Long, Brian; Li, Lu; Knoblich, Ulf; Zeng, Hongkui; Peng, Hanchuan

    2015-01-01

    We report a method to facilitate single cell, image-guided experiments including in vivo electrophysiology and electroporation. Our method combines 3D image data acquisition, visualization and on-line image analysis with precise control of physical probes such as electrophysiology microelectrodes in brain tissue in vivo. Adaptive pipette positioning provides a platform for future advances in automated, single cell in vivo experiments. PMID:26689553

  3. 3D nonrigid medical image registration using a new information theoretic measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bicao; Yang, Guanyu; Coatrieux, Jean Louis; Li, Baosheng; Shu, Huazhong

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a novel method for the nonrigid registration of medical images based on the Arimoto entropy, a generalization of the Shannon entropy. The proposed method employed the Jensen-Arimoto divergence measure as a similarity metric to measure the statistical dependence between medical images. Free-form deformations were adopted as the transformation model and the Parzen window estimation was applied to compute the probability distributions. A penalty term is incorporated into the objective function to smooth the nonrigid transformation. The goal of registration is to optimize an objective function consisting of a dissimilarity term and a penalty term, which would be minimal when two deformed images are perfectly aligned using the limited memory BFGS optimization method, and thus to get the optimal geometric transformation. To validate the performance of the proposed method, experiments on both simulated 3D brain MR images and real 3D thoracic CT data sets were designed and performed on the open source elastix package. For the simulated experiments, the registration errors of 3D brain MR images with various magnitudes of known deformations and different levels of noise were measured. For the real data tests, four data sets of 4D thoracic CT from four patients were selected to assess the registration performance of the method, including ten 3D CT images for each 4D CT data covering an entire respiration cycle. These results were compared with the normalized cross correlation and the mutual information methods and show a slight but true improvement in registration accuracy.

  4. Segmentation and length measurement of the abdominal blood vessels in 3-D MRI images.

    PubMed

    Babin, Danilo; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried

    2009-01-01

    In diagnosing diseases and planning surgeries the structure and length of blood vessels is of great importance. In this research we develop a novel method for the segmentation of 2-D and 3-D images with an application to blood vessel length measurements in 3-D abdominal MRI images. Our approach is robust to noise and does not require contrast-enhanced images for segmentation. We use an effective algorithm for skeletonization, graph construction and shortest path estimation to measure the length of blood vessels of interest.

  5. Brain morphology imaging by 3D microscopy and fluorescent Nissl staining.

    PubMed

    Lazutkin, A A; Komissarova, N V; Toptunov, D M; Anokhin, K V

    2013-07-01

    Modern optical methods (multiphoton and light-sheet fluorescent microscopy) allow 3D imaging of large specimens of the brain with cell resolution. It is therefore essential to refer the resultant 3D pictures of expression of transgene, protein, and other markers in the brain to the corresponding structures in the atlas. This implies counterstaining of specimens with morphological dyes. However, there are no methods for contrasting large samples of the brain without their preliminary slicing. We have developed a method for fluorescent Nissl staining of whole brain samples. 3D reconstructions of specimens of the hippocampus, olfactory bulbs, and cortex were created. The method can be used for morphological control and evaluation of the effects of various factors on the brain using 3D microscopy technique.

  6. High Time Resolution Photon Counting 3D Imaging Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, O.; Ertley, C.; Vallerga, J.

    2016-09-01

    Novel sealed tube microchannel plate (MCP) detectors using next generation cross strip (XS) anode readouts and high performance electronics have been developed to provide photon counting imaging sensors for Astronomy and high time resolution 3D remote sensing. 18 mm aperture sealed tubes with MCPs and high efficiency Super-GenII or GaAs photocathodes have been implemented to access the visible/NIR regimes for ground based research, astronomical and space sensing applications. The cross strip anode readouts in combination with PXS-II high speed event processing electronics can process high single photon counting event rates at >5 MHz ( 80 ns dead-time per event), and time stamp events to better than 25 ps. Furthermore, we are developing a high speed ASIC version of the electronics for low power/low mass spaceflight applications. For a GaAs tube the peak quantum efficiency has degraded from 30% (at 560 - 850 nm) to 25% over 4 years, but for Super-GenII tubes the peak quantum efficiency of 17% (peak at 550 nm) has remained unchanged for over 7 years. The Super-GenII tubes have a uniform spatial resolution of <30 μm FWHM ( 1 x106 gain) and single event timing resolution of 100 ps (FWHM). The relatively low MCP gain photon counting operation also permits longer overall sensor lifetimes and high local counting rates. Using the high timing resolution, we have demonstrated 3D object imaging with laser pulse (630 nm 45 ps jitter Pilas laser) reflections in single photon counting mode with spatial and depth sensitivity of the order of a few millimeters. A 50 mm Planacon sealed tube was also constructed, using atomic layer deposited microchannel plates which potentially offer better overall sealed tube lifetime, quantum efficiency and gain stability. This tube achieves standard bialkali quantum efficiency levels, is stable, and has been coupled to the PXS-II electronics and used to detect and image fast laser pulse signals.

  7. Real-time 3D surface-image-guided beam setup in radiotherapy of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Djajaputra, David; Li Shidong

    2005-01-01

    We describe an approach for external beam radiotherapy of breast cancer that utilizes the three-dimensional (3D) surface information of the breast. The surface data of the breast are obtained from a 3D optical camera that is rigidly mounted on the ceiling of the treatment vault. This 3D camera utilizes light in the visible range therefore it introduces no ionization radiation to the patient. In addition to the surface topographical information of the treated area, the camera also captures gray-scale information that is overlaid on the 3D surface image. This allows us to visualize the skin markers and automatically determine the isocenter position and the beam angles in the breast tangential fields. The field sizes and shapes of the tangential, supraclavicular, and internal mammary gland fields can all be determined according to the 3D surface image of the target. A least-squares method is first introduced for the tangential-field setup that is useful for compensation of the target shape changes. The entire process of capturing the 3D surface data and subsequent calculation of beam parameters typically requires less than 1 min. Our tests on phantom experiments and patient images have achieved the accuracy of 1 mm in shift and 0.5 deg. in rotation. Importantly, the target shape and position changes in each treatment session can both be corrected through this real-time image-guided system.

  8. Nerves of Steel: a Low-Cost Method for 3D Printing the Cranial Nerves.

    PubMed

    Javan, Ramin; Davidson, Duncan; Javan, Afshin

    2017-02-21

    Steady-state free precession (SSFP) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can demonstrate details down to the cranial nerve (CN) level. High-resolution three-dimensional (3D) visualization can now quickly be performed at the workstation. However, we are still limited by visualization on flat screens. The emerging technologies in rapid prototyping or 3D printing overcome this limitation. It comprises a variety of automated manufacturing techniques, which use virtual 3D data sets to fabricate solid forms in a layer-by-layer technique. The complex neuroanatomy of the CNs may be better understood and depicted by the use of highly customizable advanced 3D printed models. In this technical note, after manually perfecting the segmentation of each CN and brain stem on each SSFP-MRI image, initial 3D reconstruction was performed. The bony skull base was also reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) data. Autodesk 3D Studio Max, available through freeware student/educator license, was used to three-dimensionally trace the 3D reconstructed CNs in order to create smooth graphically designed CNs and to assure proper fitting of the CNs into their respective neural foramina and fissures. This model was then 3D printed with polyamide through a commercial online service. Two different methods are discussed for the key segmentation and 3D reconstruction steps, by either using professional commercial software, i.e., Materialise Mimics, or utilizing a combination of the widely available software Adobe Photoshop, as well as a freeware software, OsiriX Lite.

  9. MIMO based 3D imaging system at 360 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herschel, R.; Nowok, S.; Zimmermann, R.; Lang, S. A.; Pohl, N.

    2016-05-01

    A MIMO radar imaging system at 360 GHz is presented as a part of the comprehensive approach of the European FP7 project TeraSCREEN, using multiple frequency bands for active and passive imaging. The MIMO system consists of 16 transmitter and 16 receiver antennas within one single array. Using a bandwidth of 30 GHz, a range resolution up to 5 mm is obtained. With the 16×16 MIMO system 256 different azimuth bins can be distinguished. Mechanical beam steering is used to measure 130 different elevation angles where the angular resolution is obtained by a focusing elliptical mirror. With this system a high resolution 3D image can be generated with 4 frames per second, each containing 16 million points. The principle of the system is presented starting from the functional structure, covering the hardware design and including the digital image generation. This is supported by simulated data and discussed using experimental results from a preliminary 90 GHz system underlining the feasibility of the approach.

  10. Fast 3-d tomographic microwave imaging for breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Grzegorczyk, Tomasz M; Meaney, Paul M; Kaufman, Peter A; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta M; Paulsen, Keith D

    2012-08-01

    Microwave breast imaging (using electromagnetic waves of frequencies around 1 GHz) has mostly remained at the research level for the past decade, gaining little clinical acceptance. The major hurdles limiting patient use are both at the hardware level (challenges in collecting accurate and noncorrupted data) and software level (often plagued by unrealistic reconstruction times in the tens of hours). In this paper we report improvements that address both issues. First, the hardware is able to measure signals down to levels compatible with sub-centimeter image resolution while keeping an exam time under 2 min. Second, the software overcomes the enormous time burden and produces similarly accurate images in less than 20 min. The combination of the new hardware and software allows us to produce and report here the first clinical 3-D microwave tomographic images of the breast. Two clinical examples are selected out of 400+ exams conducted at the Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center (Lebanon, NH). The first example demonstrates the potential usefulness of our system for breast cancer screening while the second example focuses on therapy monitoring.

  11. Fast 3D subsurface imaging with stepped-frequency GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masarik, Matthew P.; Burns, Joseph; Thelen, Brian T.; Sutter, Lena

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates an algorithm for forming 3D images of the subsurface using stepped-frequency GPR data. The algorithm is specifically designed for a handheld GPR and therefore accounts for the irregular sampling pattern in the data and the spatially-variant air-ground interface by estimating an effective "ground-plane" and then registering the data to the plane. The algorithm efficiently solves the 4th-order polynomial for the Snell reflection points using a fully vectorized iterative scheme. The forward operator is implemented efficiently using an accelerated nonuniform FFT (Greengard and Lee, 2004); the adjoint operator is implemented efficiently using an interpolation step coupled with an upsampled FFT. The imaging is done as a linearized version of the full inverse problem, which is regularized using a sparsity constraint to reduce sidelobes and therefore improve image localization. Applying an appropriate sparsity constraint, the algorithm is able to eliminate most the surrounding clutter and sidelobes, while still rendering valuable image properties such as shape and size. The algorithm is applied to simulated data, controlled experimental data (made available by Dr. Waymond Scott, Georgia Institute of Technology), and government-provided data with irregular sampling and air-ground interface.

  12. 3D CARS image reconstruction and pattern recognition on SHG images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medyukhina, Anna; Vogler, Nadine; Latka, Ines; Dietzek, Benjamin; Cicchi, Riccardo; Pavone, Francesco S.; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-06-01

    Nonlinear optical imaging techniques based e.g. on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) or second-harmonic generation (SHG) show great potential for in-vivo investigations of tissue. While the microspectroscopic imaging tools are established, automized data evaluation, i.e. image pattern recognition and automized image classification, of nonlinear optical images still bares great possibilities for future developments towards an objective clinical diagnosis. This contribution details the capability of nonlinear microscopy for both 3D visualization of human tissues and automated discrimination between healthy and diseased patterns using ex-vivo human skin samples. By means of CARS image alignment we show how to obtain a quasi-3D model of a skin biopsy, which allows us to trace the tissue structure in different projections. Furthermore, the potential of automated pattern and organization recognition to distinguish between healthy and keloidal skin tissue is discussed. A first classification algorithm employs the intrinsic geometrical features of collagen, which can be efficiently visualized by SHG microscopy. The shape of the collagen pattern allows conclusions about the physiological state of the skin, as the typical wavy collagen structure of healthy skin is disturbed e.g. in keloid formation. Based on the different collagen patterns a quantitative score characterizing the collagen waviness - and hence reflecting the physiological state of the tissue - is obtained. Further, two additional scoring methods for collagen organization, respectively based on a statistical analysis of the mutual organization of fibers and on FFT, are presented.

  13. Technical Note: Characterization of custom 3D printed multimodality imaging phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Bieniosek, Matthew F.; Lee, Brian J.; Levin, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Imaging phantoms are important tools for researchers and technicians, but they can be costly and difficult to customize. Three dimensional (3D) printing is a widely available rapid prototyping technique that enables the fabrication of objects with 3D computer generated geometries. It is ideal for quickly producing customized, low cost, multimodal, reusable imaging phantoms. This work validates the use of 3D printed phantoms by comparing CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial “Micro Deluxe” phantom. This report also presents results from a customized 3D printed PET/MRI phantom, and a customized high resolution imaging phantom with sub-mm features. Methods: CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial Micro Deluxe (Data Spectrum Corporation, USA) phantom with 1.2, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0, and 4.8 mm diameter hot rods were acquired. The measured PET and CT rod sizes, activities, and attenuation coefficients were compared. A PET/MRI scan of a custom 3D printed phantom with hot and cold rods was performed, with photon attenuation and normalization measurements performed with a separate 3D printed normalization phantom. X-ray transmission scans of a customized two level high resolution 3D printed phantom with sub-mm features were also performed. Results: Results show very good agreement between commercial and 3D printed micro deluxe phantoms with less than 3% difference in CT measured rod diameter, less than 5% difference in PET measured rod diameter, and a maximum of 6.2% difference in average rod activity from a 10 min, 333 kBq/ml (9 μCi/ml) Siemens Inveon (Siemens Healthcare, Germany) PET scan. In all cases, these differences were within the measurement uncertainties of our setups. PET/MRI scans successfully identified 3D printed hot and cold rods on PET and MRI modalities. X-ray projection images of a 3D printed high resolution phantom identified features as small as 350 μm wide. Conclusions: This work shows that 3D printed

  14. Technical Note: Characterization of custom 3D printed multimodality imaging phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, Matthew F.; Lee, Brian J.; Levin, Craig S.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Imaging phantoms are important tools for researchers and technicians, but they can be costly and difficult to customize. Three dimensional (3D) printing is a widely available rapid prototyping technique that enables the fabrication of objects with 3D computer generated geometries. It is ideal for quickly producing customized, low cost, multimodal, reusable imaging phantoms. This work validates the use of 3D printed phantoms by comparing CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial “Micro Deluxe” phantom. This report also presents results from a customized 3D printed PET/MRI phantom, and a customized high resolution imaging phantom with sub-mm features. Methods: CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial Micro Deluxe (Data Spectrum Corporation, USA) phantom with 1.2, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0, and 4.8 mm diameter hot rods were acquired. The measured PET and CT rod sizes, activities, and attenuation coefficients were compared. A PET/MRI scan of a custom 3D printed phantom with hot and cold rods was performed, with photon attenuation and normalization measurements performed with a separate 3D printed normalization phantom. X-ray transmission scans of a customized two level high resolution 3D printed phantom with sub-mm features were also performed. Results: Results show very good agreement between commercial and 3D printed micro deluxe phantoms with less than 3% difference in CT measured rod diameter, less than 5% difference in PET measured rod diameter, and a maximum of 6.2% difference in average rod activity from a 10 min, 333 kBq/ml (9 μCi/ml) Siemens Inveon (Siemens Healthcare, Germany) PET scan. In all cases, these differences were within the measurement uncertainties of our setups. PET/MRI scans successfully identified 3D printed hot and cold rods on PET and MRI modalities. X-ray projection images of a 3D printed high resolution phantom identified features as small as 350 μm wide. Conclusions: This work shows that 3D printed

  15. 3D Chemical and Elemental Imaging by STXM Spectrotomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Karunakaran, C.; Lu, Y.; Hormes, J.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Prange, A.; Franz, B.; Harkness, T.; Obst, M.

    2011-09-09

    Spectrotomography based on the scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) at the 10ID-1 spectromicroscopy beamline of the Canadian Light Source was used to study two selected unicellular microorganisms. Spatial distributions of sulphur globules, calcium, protein, and polysaccharide in sulphur-metabolizing bacteria (Allochromatium vinosum) were determined at the S 2p, C 1s, and Ca 2p edges. 3D chemical mapping showed that the sulphur globules are located inside the bacteria with a strong spatial correlation with calcium ions (it is most probably calcium carbonate from the medium; however, with STXM the distribution and localization in the cell can be made visible, which is very interesting for a biologist) and polysaccharide-rich polymers, suggesting an influence of the organic components on the formation of the sulphur and calcium deposits. A second study investigated copper accumulating in yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) treated with copper sulphate. 3D elemental imaging at the Cu 2p edge showed that Cu(II) is reduced to Cu(I) on the yeast cell wall. A novel needle-like wet cell sample holder for STXM spectrotomography studies of fully hydrated samples is discussed.

  16. 3D Chemical and Elemental Imaging by STXM Spectrotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Karunakaran, C.; Prange, A.; Franz, B.; Harkness, T.; Lu, Y.; Obst, M.; Hormes, J.

    2011-09-01

    Spectrotomography based on the scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) at the 10ID-1 spectromicroscopy beamline of the Canadian Light Source was used to study two selected unicellular microorganisms. Spatial distributions of sulphur globules, calcium, protein, and polysaccharide in sulphur-metabolizing bacteria (Allochromatium vinosum) were determined at the S 2p, C 1s, and Ca 2p edges. 3D chemical mapping showed that the sulphur globules are located inside the bacteria with a strong spatial correlation with calcium ions (it is most probably calcium carbonate from the medium; however, with STXM the distribution and localization in the cell can be made visible, which is very interesting for a biologist) and polysaccharide-rich polymers, suggesting an influence of the organic components on the formation of the sulphur and calcium deposits. A second study investigated copper accumulating in yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) treated with copper sulphate. 3D elemental imaging at the Cu 2p edge showed that Cu(II) is reduced to Cu(I) on the yeast cell wall. A novel needle-like wet cell sample holder for STXM spectrotomography studies of fully hydrated samples is discussed.

  17. Image sequence coding using 3D scene models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girod, Bernd

    1994-09-01

    The implicit and explicit use of 3D models for image sequence coding is discussed. For implicit use, a 3D model can be incorporated into motion compensating prediction. A scheme that estimates the displacement vector field with a rigid body motion constraint by recovering epipolar lines from an unconstrained displacement estimate and then repeating block matching along the epipolar line is proposed. Experimental results show that an improved displacement vector field can be obtained with a rigid body motion constraint. As an example for explicit use, various results with a facial animation model for videotelephony are discussed. A 13 X 16 B-spline mask can be adapted automatically to individual faces and is used to generate facial expressions based on FACS. A depth-from-defocus range camera suitable for real-time facial motion tracking is described. Finally, the real-time facial animation system `Traugott' is presented that has been used to generate several hours of broadcast video. Experiments suggest that a videophone system based on facial animation might require a transmission bitrate of 1 kbit/s or below.

  18. Constraining 3D Process Sedimentological Models to Geophysical Data Using Image Quilting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmasebi, P.; Da Pra, A.; Pontiggia, M.; Caers, J.

    2014-12-01

    3D process geological models, whether for carbonate or sedimentological systems, have been proposed for modeling realistic subsurface heterogeneity. The problem with such forward process models is that they are not constrained to any subsurface data whether to wells or geophysical surveys. We propose a new method for realistic geological modeling of complex heterogeneity by hybridizing 3D process modeling of geological deposition with conditioning by means of a novel multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) technique termed image quilting (IQ). Image quilting is a pattern-based techniques that stiches together patterns extracted from training images to generate stochastic realizations that look like the training image. In this paper, we illustrate how 3D process model realizations can be used as training images in image quilting. To constrain the realization to seismic data we first interpret each facies in the geophysical data. These interpretation, while overly smooth and not reflecting finer scale variation are used as auxiliary variables in the generation of the image quilting realizations. To condition to well data, we first perform a kriging of the well data to generate a kriging map and kriging variance. The kriging map is used as additional auxiliary variable while the kriging variance is used as a weight given to the kriging derived auxiliary variable. We present an application to a giant offshore reservoir. Starting from seismic advanced attribute analysis and sedimentological interpretation, we build the 3D sedimentological process based model and use it as non-stationary training image for conditional image quilting.

  19. New techniques of determining focus position in gamma knife operation using 3D image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yingen; Wang, Dezong; Zhou, Quan

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, new techniques of determining the focus of a disease position in a gamma knife operation are presented. In these techniques, the transparent 3D color image of the human body organ is reconstructed using a new three-dimensional reconstruction method, and then the position, the area, and the volume of focus of a disease such as cancer or a tumor are calculated. They are used in the gamma knife operation. The CT pictures are input into a digital image processing system. The useful information is extracted and the original data are obtained. Then the transparent 3D color image is reconstructed using these original data. By using this transparent 3D color image, the positions of the human body organ and the focus of a disease are determined in a coordinate system. While the 3D image is reconstructed, the area and the volume of human body organ and focus of a disease can be calculated at the same time. It is expressed through actual application that the positions of human body organ and focus of a disease can be determined exactly by using the transparent 3D color image. It is very useful in gamma knife operation or other surgical operation. The techniques presented in this paper have great application value.

  20. A 3D terrain reconstruction method of stereo vision based quadruped robot navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zhuo; Zhu, Ying; Liang, Guanhao

    2017-01-01

    To provide 3D environment information for the quadruped robot autonomous navigation system during walking through rough terrain, based on the stereo vision, a novel 3D terrain reconstruction method is presented. In order to solve the problem that images collected by stereo sensors have large regions with similar grayscale and the problem that image matching is poor at real-time performance, watershed algorithm and fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm are combined for contour extraction. Aiming at the problem of error matching, duel constraint with region matching and pixel matching is established for matching optimization. Using the stereo matching edge pixel pairs, the 3D coordinate algorithm is estimated according to the binocular stereo vision imaging model. Experimental results show that the proposed method can yield high stereo matching ratio and reconstruct 3D scene quickly and efficiently.

  1. 3D texture analysis in renal cell carcinoma tissue image grading.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Yun; Cho, Nam-Hoon; Jeong, Goo-Bo; Bengtsson, Ewert; Choi, Heung-Kook

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant processes in cancer cell and tissue image analysis is the efficient extraction of features for grading purposes. This research applied two types of three-dimensional texture analysis methods to the extraction of feature values from renal cell carcinoma tissue images, and then evaluated the validity of the methods statistically through grade classification. First, we used a confocal laser scanning microscope to obtain image slices of four grades of renal cell carcinoma, which were then reconstructed into 3D volumes. Next, we extracted quantitative values using a 3D gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) and a 3D wavelet based on two types of basis functions. To evaluate their validity, we predefined 6 different statistical classifiers and applied these to the extracted feature sets. In the grade classification results, 3D Haar wavelet texture features combined with principal component analysis showed the best discrimination results. Classification using 3D wavelet texture features was significantly better than 3D GLCM, suggesting that the former has potential for use in a computer-based grading system.

  2. Clinical Study of 3D Imaging and 3D Printing Technique for Patient-Specific Instrumentation in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bing; Liu, Fei; Tang, Bensen; Deng, Biyong; Liu, Fang; Zhu, Weimin; Zhen, Dong; Xue, Mingyuan; Zhang, Mingjiao

    2017-01-25

    Patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) was designed to improve the accuracy of preoperative planning and postoperative prosthesis positioning in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, better understanding needs to be achieved due to the subtle nature of the PSI systems. In this study, 3D printing technique based on the image data of computed tomography (CT) has been utilized for optimal controlling of the surgical parameters. Two groups of TKA cases have been randomly selected as PSI group and control group with no significant difference of age and sex (p > 0.05). The PSI group is treated with 3D printed cutting guides whereas the control group is treated with conventional instrumentation (CI). By evaluating the proximal osteotomy amount, distal osteotomy amount, valgus angle, external rotation angle, and tibial posterior slope angle of patients, it can be found that the preoperative quantitative assessment and intraoperative changes can be controlled with PSI whereas CI is relied on experience. In terms of postoperative parameters, such as hip-knee-ankle (HKA), frontal femoral component (FFC), frontal tibial component (FTC), and lateral tibial component (LTC) angles, there is a significant improvement in achieving the desired implant position (p < 0.05). Assigned from the morphology of patients' knees, the PSI represents the convergence of congruent designs with current personalized treatment tools. The PSI can achieve less extremity alignment and greater accuracy of prosthesis implantation compared against control method, which indicates potential for optimal HKA, FFC, and FTC angles.

  3. Basic Research on Three-Dimensional (3D) Electromagnetic (EM) Methods for Imaging the Flow of Organic Fluids in the Subsurface.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-30

    Currently there are no systems available which allow for economical and accurate subsurface imaging of remediation sites. In some cases, high...system to address this need. This project has been very successful in showing a promising new direction for high resolution subsurface imaging . Our

  4. Novel 3D Compression Methods for Geometry, Connectivity and Texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddeq, M. M.; Rodrigues, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    A large number of applications in medical visualization, games, engineering design, entertainment, heritage, e-commerce and so on require the transmission of 3D models over the Internet or over local networks. 3D data compression is an important requirement for fast data storage, access and transmission within bandwidth limitations. The Wavefront OBJ (object) file format is commonly used to share models due to its clear simple design. Normally each OBJ file contains a large amount of data (e.g. vertices and triangulated faces, normals, texture coordinates and other parameters) describing the mesh surface. In this paper we introduce a new method to compress geometry, connectivity and texture coordinates by a novel Geometry Minimization Algorithm (GM-Algorithm) in connection with arithmetic coding. First, each vertex ( x, y, z) coordinates are encoded to a single value by the GM-Algorithm. Second, triangle faces are encoded by computing the differences between two adjacent vertex locations, which are compressed by arithmetic coding together with texture coordinates. We demonstrate the method on large data sets achieving compression ratios between 87 and 99 % without reduction in the number of reconstructed vertices and triangle faces. The decompression step is based on a Parallel Fast Matching Search Algorithm (Parallel-FMS) to recover the structure of the 3D mesh. A comparative analysis of compression ratios is provided with a number of commonly used 3D file formats such as VRML, OpenCTM and STL highlighting the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Quantitative Multiscale Cell Imaging in Controlled 3D Microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Welf, Erik S.; Driscoll, Meghan K.; Dean, Kevin M.; Schäfer, Claudia; Chu, Jun; Davidson, Michael W.; Lin, Michael Z.; Danuser, Gaudenz; Fiolka, Reto

    2016-01-01

    The microenvironment determines cell behavior, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood because quantitative studies of cell signaling and behavior have been challenging due to insufficient spatial and/or temporal resolution and limitations on microenvironmental control. Here we introduce microenvironmental selective plane illumination microscopy (meSPIM) for imaging and quantification of intracellular signaling and submicrometer cellular structures as well as large-scale cell morphological and environmental features. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by showing that the mechanical properties of the microenvironment regulate the transition of melanoma cells from actin-driven protrusion to blebbing, and we present tools to quantify how cells manipulate individual collagen fibers. We leverage the nearly isotropic resolution of meSPIM to quantify the local concentration of actin and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling on the surfaces of cells deep within 3D collagen matrices and track the many small membrane protrusions that appear in these more physiologically relevant environments. PMID:26906741

  6. 3D x-ray reconstruction using lightfield imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Sajib; Tahtali, Murat; Lambert, Andrew; Pickering, Mark R.

    2014-09-01

    Existing Computed Tomography (CT) systems require full 360° rotation projections. Using the principles of lightfield imaging, only 4 projections under ideal conditions can be sufficient when the object is illuminated with multiple-point Xray sources. The concept was presented in a previous work with synthetically sampled data from a synthetic phantom. Application to real data requires precise calibration of the physical set up. This current work presents the calibration procedures along with experimental findings for the reconstruction of a physical 3D phantom consisting of simple geometric shapes. The crucial part of this process is to determine the effective distances of the X-ray paths, which are not possible or very difficult by direct measurements. Instead, they are calculated by tracking the positions of fiducial markers under prescribed source and object movements. Iterative algorithms are used for the reconstruction. Customized backprojection is used to ensure better initial guess for the iterative algorithms to start with.

  7. 3D and multispectral imaging for subcutaneous veins detection.

    PubMed

    Paquit, Vincent C; Tobin, Kenneth W; Price, Jeffery R; Mèriaudeau, Fabrice

    2009-07-06

    The first and perhaps most important phase of a surgical procedure is the insertion of an intravenous (IV) catheter. Currently, this is performed manually by trained personnel. In some visions of future operating rooms, however, this process is to be replaced by an automated system. Experiments to determine the best NIR wavelengths to optimize vein contrast for physiological differences such as skin tone and/or the presence of hair on the arm or wrist surface are presented. For illumination our system is composed of a mercury arc lamp coupled to a 10nm band-pass spectrometer. A structured lighting system is also coupled to our multispectral system in order to provide 3D information of the patient arm orientation. Images of each patient arm are captured under every possible combinations of illuminants and the optimal combination of wavelengths for a given subject to maximize vein contrast using linear discriminant analysis is determined.

  8. High-speed 3D digital image correlation vibration measurement: Recent advancements and noted limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beberniss, Timothy J.; Ehrhardt, David A.

    2017-03-01

    A review of the extensive studies on the feasibility and practicality of utilizing high-speed 3 dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) for various random vibration measurement applications is presented. Demonstrated capabilities include finite element model updating utilizing full-field 3D-DIC static displacements, modal survey natural frequencies, damping, and mode shape results from 3D-DIC are baselined against laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV), a comparison between foil strain gage and 3D-DIC strain, and finally the unique application to a high-speed wind tunnel fluid-structure interaction study. Results show good agreement between 3D-DIC and more traditional vibration measurement techniques. Unfortunately, 3D-DIC vibration measurement is not without its limitations, which are also identified and explored in this study. The out-of-plane sensitivity required for vibration measurement for 3D-DIC is orders of magnitude less than LDV making higher frequency displacements difficult to sense. Furthermore, the digital cameras used to capture the DIC images have no filter to eliminate temporal aliasing of the digitized signal. Ultimately DIC is demonstrated as a valid alternative means to measure structural vibrations while one unique application achieves success where more traditional methods would fail.

  9. F3D Image Processing and Analysis for Many - and Multi-core Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    F3D is written in OpenCL, so it achieve[sic] platform-portable parallelism on modern mutli-core CPUs and many-core GPUs. The interface and mechanims to access F3D core are written in Java as a plugin for Fiji/ImageJ to deliver several key image-processing algorithms necessary to remove artifacts from micro-tomography data. The algorithms consist of data parallel aware filters that can efficiently utilizes[sic] resources and can work on out of core datasets and scale efficiently across multiple accelerators. Optimizing for data parallel filters, streaming out of core datasets, and efficient resource and memory and data managements over complex execution sequence of filters greatly expedites any scientific workflow with image processing requirements. F3D performs several different types of 3D image processing operations, such as non-linear filtering using bilateral filtering and/or median filtering and/or morphological operators (MM). F3D gray-level MM operators are one-pass constant time methods that can perform morphological transformations with a line-structuring element oriented in discrete directions. Additionally, MM operators can be applied to gray-scale images, and consist of two parts: (a) a reference shape or structuring element, which is translated over the image, and (b) a mechanism, or operation, that defines the comparisons to be performed between the image and the structuring element. This tool provides a critical component within many complex pipelines such as those for performing automated segmentation of image stacks. F3D is also called a "descendent" of Quant-CT, another software we developed in the past. These two modules are to be integrated in a next version. Further details were reported in: D.M. Ushizima, T. Perciano, H. Krishnan, B. Loring, H. Bale, D. Parkinson, and J. Sethian. Structure recognition from high-resolution images of ceramic composites. IEEE International Conference on Big Data, October 2014.

  10. Needle placement for piriformis injection using 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Clendenen, Steven R; Candler, Shawn A; Osborne, Michael D; Palmer, Scott C; Duench, Stephanie; Glynn, Laura; Ghazi, Salim M

    2013-01-01

    Piriformis syndrome is a pain syndrome originating in the buttock and is attributed to 6% - 8% of patients referred for the treatment of back and leg pain. The treatment for piriformis syndrome using fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT), electromyography (EMG), and ultrasound (US) has become standard practice. The treatment of Piriformis Syndrome has evolved to include fluoroscopy and EMG with CT guidance. We present a case study of 5 successful piriformis injections using 3-D computer-assisted electromagnet needle tracking coupled with ultrasound. A 6-degree of freedom electromagnetic position tracker was attached to the ultrasound probe that allowed the system to detect the position and orientation of the probe in the magnetic field. The tracked ultrasound probe was used to find the posterior superior iliac spine. Subsequently, 3 points were captured to register the ultrasound image with the CT or magnetic resonance image scan. Moreover, after the registration was obtained, the navigation system visualized the tracked needle relative to the CT scan in real-time using 2 orthogonal multi-planar reconstructions centered at the tracked needle tip. Conversely, a recent study revealed that fluoroscopically guided injections had 30% accuracy compared to ultrasound guided injections, which tripled the accuracy percentage. This novel technique exhibited an accurate needle guidance injection precision of 98% while advancing to the piriformis muscle and avoiding the sciatic nerve. The mean (± SD) procedure time was 19.08 (± 4.9) minutes. This technique allows for electromagnetic instrument tip tracking with real-time 3-D guidance to the selected target. As with any new technique, a learning curve is expected; however, this technique could offer an alternative, minimizing radiation exposure.

  11. Automated 3D ultrasound image segmentation to aid breast cancer image interpretation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Peng; Lee, Won-Mean; Roubidoux, Marilyn A; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L

    2016-02-01

    Segmentation of an ultrasound image into functional tissues is of great importance to clinical diagnosis of breast cancer. However, many studies are found to segment only the mass of interest and not all major tissues. Differences and inconsistencies in ultrasound interpretation call for an automated segmentation method to make results operator-independent. Furthermore, manual segmentation of entire three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes is time-consuming, resource-intensive, and clinically impractical. Here, we propose an automated algorithm to segment 3D ultrasound volumes into three major tissue types: cyst/mass, fatty tissue, and fibro-glandular tissue. To test its efficacy and consistency, the proposed automated method was employed on a database of 21 cases of whole breast ultrasound. Experimental results show that our proposed method not only distinguishes fat and non-fat tissues correctly, but performs well in classifying cyst/mass. Comparison of density assessment between the automated method and manual segmentation demonstrates good consistency with an accuracy of 85.7%. Quantitative comparison of corresponding tissue volumes, which uses overlap ratio, gives an average similarity of 74.54%, consistent with values seen in MRI brain segmentations. Thus, our proposed method exhibits great potential as an automated approach to segment 3D whole breast ultrasound volumes into functionally distinct tissues that may help to correct ultrasound speed of sound aberrations and assist in density based prognosis of breast cancer.

  12. Automated 3D Ultrasound Image Segmentation to Aid Breast Cancer Image Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Peng; Lee, Won-Mean; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of an ultrasound image into functional tissues is of great importance to clinical diagnosis of breast cancer. However, many studies are found to segment only the mass of interest and not all major tissues. Differences and inconsistencies in ultrasound interpretation call for an automated segmentation method to make results operator-independent. Furthermore, manual segmentation of entire three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes is time-consuming, resource-intensive, and clinically impractical. Here, we propose an automated algorithm to segment 3D ultrasound volumes into three major tissue types: cyst/mass, fatty tissue, and fibro-glandular tissue. To test its efficacy and consistency, the proposed automated method was employed on a database of 21 cases of whole breast ultrasound. Experimental results show that our proposed method not only distinguishes fat and non-fat tissues correctly, but performs well in classifying cyst/mass. Comparison of density assessment between the automated method and manual segmentation demonstrates good consistency with an accuracy of 85.7%. Quantitative comparison of corresponding tissue volumes, which uses overlap ratio, gives an average similarity of 74.54%, consistent with values seen in MRI brain segmentations. Thus, our proposed method exhibits great potential as an automated approach to segment 3D whole breast ultrasound volumes into functionally distinct tissues that may help to correct ultrasound speed of sound aberrations and assist in density based prognosis of breast cancer. PMID:26547117

  13. GPU-accelerated denoising of 3D magnetic resonance images

    SciTech Connect

    Howison, Mark; Wes Bethel, E.

    2014-05-29

    The raw computational power of GPU accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. In practice, applying these filtering operations requires setting multiple parameters. This study was designed to provide better guidance to practitioners for choosing the most appropriate parameters by answering two questions: what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? And what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? To answer the first question, we use two different metrics, mean squared error (MSE) and mean structural similarity (MSSIM), to compare denoising quality against a reference image. Surprisingly, the best improvement in structural similarity with the bilateral filter is achieved with a small stencil size that lies within the range of real-time execution on an NVIDIA Tesla M2050 GPU. Moreover, inappropriate choices for parameters, especially scaling parameters, can yield very poor denoising performance. To answer the second question, we perform an autotuning study to empirically determine optimal memory tiling on the GPU. The variation in these results suggests that such tuning is an essential step in achieving real-time performance. These results have important implications for the real-time application of denoising to MR images in clinical settings that require fast turn-around times.

  14. Using videogrammetry and 3D image reconstruction to identify crime suspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasen, Lena M.; Fahlander, Olov

    1997-02-01

    The anthropometry and movements are unique for every individual human being. We identify persons we know by recognizing the way the look and move. By quantifying these measures and using image processing methods this method can serve as a tool in the work of the police as a complement to the ability of the human eye. The idea is to use virtual 3-D parameterized models of the human body to measure the anthropometry and movements of a crime suspect. The Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science in cooperation with SAAB Military Aircraft have developed methods for measuring the lengths of persons from video sequences. However, there is so much unused information in a digital image sequence from a crime scene. The main approach for this paper is to give an overview of the current research project at Linkoping University, Image Coding Group where methods to measure anthropometrical data and movements by using virtual 3-D parameterized models of the person in the crime scene are being developed. The length of an individual might vary up to plus or minus 10 cm depending on whether the person is in upright position or not. When measuring during the best available conditions, the length still varies within plus or minus 1 cm. Using a full 3-D model provides a rich set of anthropometric measures describing the person in the crime scene. Once having obtained such a model the movements can be quantified as well. The results depend strongly on the accuracy of the 3-D model and the strategy of having such an accurate 3-D model is to make one estimate per image frame by using 3-D scene reconstruction, and an averaged 3-D model as the final result from which the anthropometry and movements are calculated.

  15. Performance assessment of 3D surface imaging technique for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

    2013-03-01

    Recent development in optical 3D surface imaging technologies provide better ways to digitalize the 3D surface and its motion in real-time. The non-invasive 3D surface imaging approach has great potential for many medical imaging applications, such as motion monitoring of radiotherapy, pre/post evaluation of plastic surgery and dermatology, to name a few. Various commercial 3D surface imaging systems have appeared on the market with different dimension, speed and accuracy. For clinical applications, the accuracy, reproducibility and robustness across the widely heterogeneous skin color, tone, texture, shape properties, and ambient lighting is very crucial. Till now, a systematic approach for evaluating the performance of different 3D surface imaging systems still yet exist. In this paper, we present a systematic performance assessment approach to 3D surface imaging system assessment for medical applications. We use this assessment approach to exam a new real-time surface imaging system we developed, dubbed "Neo3D Camera", for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The assessments include accuracy, field of view, coverage, repeatability, speed and sensitivity to environment, texture and color.

  16. 3D reconstruction from images taken with a coaxial camera rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Richard; Whitaker, Ross

    2016-09-01

    A coaxial camera rig consists of a pair of cameras which acquire images along the same optical axis but at different distances from the scene using different focal length optics. The coaxial geometry permits the acquisition of image pairs through a substantially smaller opening than would be required by a traditional binocular stereo camera rig. This is advantageous in applications where physical space is limited, such as in an endoscope. 3D images acquired through an endoscope are desirable, but the lack of physical space for a traditional stereo baseline is problematic. While image acquisition along a common optical axis has been known for many years; 3D reconstruction from such image pairs has not been possible in the center region due to the very small disparity between corresponding points. This characteristic of coaxial image pairs has been called the unrecoverable point problem. We introduce a novel method to overcome the unrecoverable point problem in coaxial camera rigs, using a variational methods optimization algorithm to map pairs of optical flow fields from different focal length cameras in a coaxial camera rig. Our method uses the ratio of the optical flow fields for 3D reconstruction. This results in accurate image pair alignment and produces accurate dense depth maps. We test our method on synthetic optical flow fields and on real images. We demonstrate our method's accuracy by evaluating against a ground-truth. Accuracy is comparable to a traditional binocular stereo camera rig, but without the traditional stereo baseline and with substantially smaller occlusions.

  17. Digital holographic microscopy for imaging growth and treatment response in 3D tumor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuyu; Petrovic, Ljubica; Celli, Jonathan P.; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S.

    2014-03-01

    While three-dimensional tumor models have emerged as valuable tools in cancer research, the ability to longitudinally visualize the 3D tumor architecture restored by these systems is limited with microscopy techniques that provide only qualitative insight into sample depth, or which require terminal fixation for depth-resolved 3D imaging. Here we report the use of digital holographic microscopy (DHM) as a viable microscopy approach for quantitative, non-destructive longitudinal imaging of in vitro 3D tumor models. Following established methods we prepared 3D cultures of pancreatic cancer cells in overlay geometry on extracellular matrix beds and obtained digital holograms at multiple timepoints throughout the duration of growth. The holograms were digitally processed and the unwrapped phase images were obtained to quantify nodule thickness over time under normal growth, and in cultures subject to chemotherapy treatment. In this manner total nodule volumes are rapidly estimated and demonstrated here to show contrasting time dependent changes during growth and in response to treatment. This work suggests the utility of DHM to quantify changes in 3D structure over time and suggests the further development of this approach for time-lapse monitoring of 3D morphological changes during growth and in response to treatment that would otherwise be impractical to visualize.

  18. Automatic Texture Reconstruction of 3d City Model from Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Junhua; Deng, Fei; Li, Xinwei; Wan, Fang

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the photorealistic 3D city models are increasingly important in various geospatial applications related to virtual city tourism, 3D GIS, urban planning, real-estate management. Besides the acquisition of high-precision 3D geometric data, texture reconstruction is also a crucial step for generating high-quality and visually realistic 3D models. However, most of the texture reconstruction approaches are probably leading to texture fragmentation and memory inefficiency. In this paper, we introduce an automatic framework of texture reconstruction to generate textures from oblique images for photorealistic visualization. Our approach include three major steps as follows: mesh parameterization, texture atlas generation and texture blending. Firstly, mesh parameterization procedure referring to mesh segmentation and mesh unfolding is performed to reduce geometric distortion in the process of mapping 2D texture to 3D model. Secondly, in the texture atlas generation step, the texture of each segmented region in texture domain is reconstructed from all visible images with exterior orientation and interior orientation parameters. Thirdly, to avoid color discontinuities at boundaries between texture regions, the final texture map is generated by blending texture maps from several corresponding images. We evaluated our texture reconstruction framework on a dataset of a city. The resulting mesh model can get textured by created texture without resampling. Experiment results show that our method can effectively mitigate the occurrence of texture fragmentation. It is demonstrated that the proposed framework is effective and useful for automatic texture reconstruction of 3D city model.

  19. From pixel to voxel: a deeper view of biological tissue by 3D mass spectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hui; Greer, Tyler; Li, Lingjun

    2011-01-01

    Three dimensional mass spectral imaging (3D MSI) is an exciting field that grants the ability to study a broad mass range of molecular species ranging from small molecules to large proteins by creating lateral and vertical distribution maps of select compounds. Although the general premise behind 3D MSI is simple, factors such as choice of ionization method, sample handling, software considerations and many others must be taken into account for the successful design of a 3D MSI experiment. This review provides a brief overview of ionization methods, sample preparation, software types and technological advancements driving 3D MSI research of a wide range of low- to high-mass analytes. Future perspectives in this field are also provided to conclude that the positive and promises ever-growing applications in the biomedical field with continuous developments of this powerful analytical tool. PMID:21320052

  20. 3D fluorescence anisotropy imaging using selective plane illumination microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hedde, Per Niklas; Ranjit, Suman; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence anisotropy imaging is a popular method to visualize changes in organization and conformation of biomolecules within cells and tissues. In such an experiment, depolarization effects resulting from differences in orientation, proximity and rotational mobility of fluorescently labeled molecules are probed with high spatial resolution. Fluorescence anisotropy is typically imaged using laser scanning and epifluorescence-based approaches. Unfortunately, those techniques are limited in either axial resolution, image acquisition speed, or by photobleaching. In the last decade, however, selective plane illumination microscopy has emerged as the preferred choice for three-dimensional time lapse imaging combining axial sectioning capability with fast, camera-based image acquisition, and minimal light exposure. We demonstrate how selective plane illumination microscopy can be utilized for three-dimensional fluorescence anisotropy imaging of live cells. We further examined the formation of focal adhesions by three-dimensional time lapse anisotropy imaging of CHO-K1 cells expressing an EGFP-paxillin fusion protein. PMID:26368202

  1. Fast non local means denoising for 3D MR images.

    PubMed

    Coupé, Pierrick; Yger, Pierre; Barillot, Christian

    2006-01-01

    One critical issue in the context of image restoration is the problem of noise removal while keeping the integrity of relevant image information. Denoising is a crucial step to increase image conspicuity and to improve the performances of all the processings needed for quantitative imaging analysis. The method proposed in this paper is based on an optimized version of the Non Local (NL) Means algorithm. This approach uses the natural redundancy of information in image to remove the noise. Tests were carried out on synthetic datasets and on real 3T MR images. The results show that the NL-means approach outperforms other classical denoising methods, such as Anisotropic Diffusion Filter and Total Variation.

  2. Imaging the behavior of molecules in biological systems: breaking the 3D speed barrier with 3D multi-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Welsher, Kevin; Yang, Haw

    2015-01-01

    The overwhelming effort in the development of new microscopy methods has been focused on increasing the spatial and temporal resolution in all three dimensions to enable the measurement of the molecular scale phenomena at the heart of biological processes. However, there exists a significant speed barrier to existing 3D imaging methods, which is associated with the overhead required to image large volumes. This overhead can be overcome to provide nearly unlimited temporal precision by simply focusing on a single molecule or particle via real-time 3D single-particle tracking and the newly developed 3D Multi-resolution Microscopy (3D-MM). Here, we investigate the optical and mechanical limits of real-time 3D single-particle tracking in the context of other methods. In particular, we investigate the use of an optical cantilever for position sensitive detection, finding that this method yields system magnifications of over 3000×. We also investigate the ideal PID control parameters and their effect on the power spectrum of simulated trajectories. Taken together, these data suggest that the speed limit in real-time 3D single particle-tracking is a result of slow piezoelectric stage response as opposed to optical sensitivity or PID control.

  3. A new 3D reconstruction method of small solar system bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capanna, C.; Jorda, L.; Lamy, P.; Gesquiere, G.

    2011-10-01

    The 3D reconstruction of small solar system bodies consitutes an essential step toward understanding and interpreting their physical and geological properties. We propose a new reconstruction method by photoclinometry based on the minimization of the chisquare difference between observed and synthetic images by deformation of a 3D triangular mesh. This method has been tested on images of the two asteroids (2867) Steins and (21) Lutetia observed during ESA's ROSETTA mission, and it will be applied to elaborate digital terrain models from images of the asteroid (4) Vesta, the target of NASA's DAWN spacecraft.

  4. Combining volumetric edge display and multiview display for expression of natural 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Ryota; Matsuda, Isamu; Kakeya, Hideki

    2006-02-01

    In the present paper the authors present a novel stereoscopic display method combining volumetric edge display technology and multiview display technology to realize presentation of natural 3D images where the viewers do not suffer from contradiction between binocular convergence and focal accommodation of the eyes, which causes eyestrain and sickness. We adopt volumetric display method only for edge drawing, while we adopt stereoscopic approach for flat areas of the image. Since focal accommodation of our eyes is affected only by the edge part of the image, natural focal accommodation can be induced if the edges of the 3D image are drawn on the proper depth. The conventional stereo-matching technique can give us robust depth values of the pixels which constitute noticeable edges. Also occlusion and gloss of the objects can be roughly expressed with the proposed method since we use stereoscopic approach for the flat area. We can attain a system where many users can view natural 3D objects at the consistent position and posture at the same time in this system. A simple optometric experiment using a refractometer suggests that the proposed method can give us 3-D images without contradiction between binocular convergence and focal accommodation.

  5. A virtually imaged defocused array (VIDA) for high-speed 3D microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    We report a method to capture a multifocus image stack based on recording multiple reflections generated by imaging through a custom etalon. The focus stack is collected in a single camera exposure and consequently the information needed for 3D reconstruction is recorded in the camera integration time, which is only 100 µs. We have used the VIDA microscope to temporally resolve the multi-lobed 3D morphology of neutrophil nuclei as they rotate and deform through a microfluidic constriction. In addition, we have constructed a 3D imaging flow cytometer and quantified the nuclear morphology of nearly a thousand white blood cells flowing at a velocity of 3 mm per second. The VIDA microscope is compact and simple to construct, intrinsically achromatic, and the field-of-view and stack number can be easily reconfigured without redesigning diffraction gratings and prisms.

  6. 3D Seismic Imaging over a Potential Collapse Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritto, Roland; O'Connell, Daniel; Elobaid Elnaiem, Ali; Mohamed, Fathelrahman; Sadooni, Fadhil

    2016-04-01

    The Middle-East has seen a recent boom in construction including the planning and development of complete new sub-sections of metropolitan areas. Before planning and construction can commence, however, the development areas need to be investigated to determine their suitability for the planned project. Subsurface parameters such as the type of material (soil/rock), thickness of top soil or rock layers, depth and elastic parameters of basement, for example, comprise important information needed before a decision concerning the suitability of the site for construction can be made. A similar problem arises in environmental impact studies, when subsurface parameters are needed to assess the geological heterogeneity of the subsurface. Environmental impact studies are typically required for each construction project, particularly for the scale of the aforementioned building boom in the Middle East. The current study was conducted in Qatar at the location of a future highway interchange to evaluate a suite of 3D seismic techniques in their effectiveness to interrogate the subsurface for the presence of karst-like collapse structures. The survey comprised an area of approximately 10,000 m2 and consisted of 550 source- and 192 receiver locations. The seismic source was an accelerated weight drop while the geophones consisted of 3-component 10 Hz velocity sensors. At present, we analyzed over 100,000 P-wave phase arrivals and performed high-resolution 3-D tomographic imaging of the shallow subsurface. Furthermore, dispersion analysis of recorded surface waves will be performed to obtain S-wave velocity profiles of the subsurface. Both results, in conjunction with density estimates, will be utilized to determine the elastic moduli of the subsurface rock layers.

  7. Venus Topography in 3D: Imaging of Coronae and Chasmata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurdy, D. M.; Stefanick, M.; Stoddard, P. R.

    2006-12-01

    Venus' surface hosts hundreds of circular to elongate features, ranging from 60-2600 km, and averaging somewhat over 200 km, in diameter. These enigmatic structures have been classified as "coronae" and attributed to either tectono-volcanic or impact-related mechanisms. A linear to arcuate system of chasmata - rugged zones with some of Venus' deepest troughs, extend 1000's of kilometers. They have extreme relief, with elevations changing as much as 7 km in just 30 km distance. The 54,464 km-long Venus chasmata system defined in great detail by Magellan can be fit by great circle arcs at the 89.6% level, and when corrected for the smaller size of the planet, the total length of the chasmata system measures within 2.7% of the length of Earth's spreading ridges. The relatively young Beta-Atla-Themis region (BAT), within 30° of the equator from 180-300° longitude has the planet's strongest geoid highs and profuse volcanism. This BAT region, the intersection of three rift zones, also has a high coronal concentration, with individual coronae closely associated with the chasmata system. The chasmata with the greatest relief on Venus show linear rifting that prevailed in the latest stage of tectonic deformation. For a three-dimensional view of Venus' surface, we spread out the Magellan topography on a flat surface using a Mercator projection to preserve shape. Next we illuminate the surface with beams at angle 45° from left (or right) so as to simulate mid afternoon (or mid-morning). Finally, we observe the surface with two eyes looking through orange and azure colored filters respectively. This gives a 3D view of tectonic features in the BAT area. The 3D images clearly show coronae sharing boundaries with the chasmata. This suggests that the processes of rifting and corona-formation occur together. It seems unlikely that impact craters would create this pattern.

  8. Subnuclear foci quantification using high-throughput 3D image cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadduwage, Dushan N.; Parrish, Marcus; Choi, Heejin; Engelward, Bevin P.; Matsudaira, Paul; So, Peter T. C.

    2015-07-01

    Ionising radiation causes various types of DNA damages including double strand breaks (DSBs). DSBs are often recognized by DNA repair protein ATM which forms gamma-H2AX foci at the site of the DSBs that can be visualized using immunohistochemistry. However most of such experiments are of low throughput in terms of imaging and image analysis techniques. Most of the studies still use manual counting or classification. Hence they are limited to counting a low number of foci per cell (5 foci per nucleus) as the quantification process is extremely labour intensive. Therefore we have developed a high throughput instrumentation and computational pipeline specialized for gamma-H2AX foci quantification. A population of cells with highly clustered foci inside nuclei were imaged, in 3D with submicron resolution, using an in-house developed high throughput image cytometer. Imaging speeds as high as 800 cells/second in 3D were achieved by using HiLo wide-field depth resolved imaging and a remote z-scanning technique. Then the number of foci per cell nucleus were quantified using a 3D extended maxima transform based algorithm. Our results suggests that while most of the other 2D imaging and manual quantification studies can count only up to about 5 foci per nucleus our method is capable of counting more than 100. Moreover we show that 3D analysis is significantly superior compared to the 2D techniques.

  9. Autostereoscopic 3D visualization and image processing system for neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Tobias; Kuß, Julia; Uhlemann, Falk; Wagner, Stefan; Kirsch, Matthias; Sobottka, Stephan B; Steinmeier, Ralf; Schackert, Gabriele; Morgenstern, Ute

    2013-06-01

    A demonstrator system for planning neurosurgical procedures was developed based on commercial hardware and software. The system combines an easy-to-use environment for surgical planning with high-end visualization and the opportunity to analyze data sets for research purposes. The demonstrator system is based on the software AMIRA. Specific algorithms for segmentation, elastic registration, and visualization have been implemented and adapted to the clinical workflow. Modules from AMIRA and the image processing library Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK) can be combined to solve various image processing tasks. Customized modules tailored to specific clinical problems can easily be implemented using the AMIRA application programming interface and a self-developed framework for ITK filters. Visualization is done via autostereoscopic displays, which provide a 3D impression without viewing aids. A Spaceball device allows a comfortable, intuitive way of navigation in the data sets. Via an interface to a neurosurgical navigation system, the demonstrator system can be used intraoperatively. The precision, applicability, and benefit of the demonstrator system for planning of neurosurgical interventions and for neurosurgical research were successfully evaluated by neurosurgeons using phantom and patient data sets.

  10. [3D virtual imaging of the upper airways].

    PubMed

    Ferretti, G; Coulomb, M

    2000-04-01

    The different three dimensional reconstructions of the upper airways that can be obtained with spiral computed tomograpy (CT) are presented here. The parameters indispensable to achieve as real as possible spiral CT images are recalled together with the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniues. Multislice reconstruction (MSR) produces slices in different planes of space with the high contrast of CT slices. They provide information similar to that obtained for the rare indications for thoracic MRI. Thick slice reconstructions with maximum intensity projection (MIP) or minimum intensity projection (minIP) give projection views where the contrast can be modified by selecting the more dense (MIP) or less dense (minIP) voxels. They find their application in the exploration of the upper airways. Surface and volume external 3D reconstructions can be obtained. They give an overall view of the upper airways, similar to a bronchogram. Virtual endoscopy reproduces real endoscopic images but cannot provide information on the aspect of the mucosa or biopsy specimens. It offers possible applications for preparing, guiding and controlling interventional fibroscopy procedures.

  11. Enhanced 3D fluorescence live cell imaging on nanoplasmonic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan Gartia, Manas; Hsiao, Austin; Sivaguru, Mayandi; Chen, Yi; Logan Liu, G.

    2011-09-01

    We have created a randomly distributed nanocone substrate on silicon coated with silver for surface-plasmon-enhanced fluorescence detection and 3D cell imaging. Optical characterization of the nanocone substrate showed it can support several plasmonic modes (in the 300-800 nm wavelength range) that can be coupled to a fluorophore on the surface of the substrate, which gives rise to the enhanced fluorescence. Spectral analysis suggests that a nanocone substrate can create more excitons and shorter lifetime in the model fluorophore Rho